WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous work implicated

  1. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE: PREVIOUS WORK AND EXAMPLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, Richard; Bevill, Aaron; Charlton, William; Bean, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The future expansion of nuclear power will require not just electricity production but fuel cycle facilities such as fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. As large reprocessing facilities are built in various states, they must be built and operated in a manner to minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation. Process monitoring has returned to the spotlight as an added measure that can increase confidence in the safeguards of special nuclear material (SNM). Process monitoring can be demonstrated to lengthen the allowable inventory period by reducing accountancy requirements, and to reduce the false positive indications. The next logical step is the creation of a Safeguards Envelope, a set of operational parameters and models to maximize anomaly detection and inventory period by process monitoring while minimizing operator impact and false positive rates. A brief example of a rudimentary Safeguards Envelope is presented, and shown to detect synthetic diversions overlaying a measured processing plant data set. This demonstration Safeguards Envelope is shown to increase the confidence that no SNM has been diverted with minimal operator impact, even though it is based on an information sparse environment. While the foundation on which a full Safeguards Envelope can be built has been presented in historical demonstrations of process monitoring, several requirements remain yet unfulfilled. Future work will require reprocessing plant transient models, inclusion of 'non-traditional' operating data, and exploration of new methods of identifying subtle events in transient processes

  2. Investigation of previously implicated genetic variants in chronic tic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulkadir, Mohamed; Londono, Douglas; Gordon, Derek

    2017-01-01

    with those from a large independent case-control cohort. After quality control 71 SNPs were available in 371 trios; 112 SNPs in 179 trios; and 3 SNPs in 192 trios. 17 were candidate SNPs implicated in TS and 2 were implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD); 142 were......Genetic studies in Tourette syndrome (TS) are characterized by scattered and poorly replicated findings. We aimed to replicate findings from candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our cohort included 465 probands with chronic tic disorder (93% TS) and both parents from 412...... families (some probands were siblings). We assessed 75 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 465 parent-child trios; 117 additional SNPs in 211 trios; and 4 additional SNPs in 254 trios. We performed SNP and gene-based transmission disequilibrium tests and compared nominally significant SNP results...

  3. Telehealth: Implications for Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Dawn; Clancy, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    The use of modern information technology to deliver health services to remote locations presents both opportunities and problems for social workers. This article examines how communication technology such as e-mail and video conferencing affect social work practice. Issues are raised about the ethical, legal, and client relationship…

  4. Visual Working Memory Supports the Inhibition of Previously Processed Information: Evidence from Preview Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Emrich, Stephen M.; Ferber, Susanne; Pratt, Jay

    2012-01-01

    In four experiments we assessed whether visual working memory (VWM) maintains a record of previously processed visual information, allowing old information to be inhibited, and new information to be prioritized. Specifically, we evaluated whether VWM contributes to the inhibition (i.e., visual marking) of previewed distractors in a preview search.…

  5. Impact of previous pharmacy work experience on pharmacy school academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Ellena; Barnett, Mitchell J; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R; Knapp, Katherine

    2010-04-12

    To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses.

  6. Impact of Previous Pharmacy Work Experience on Pharmacy School Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Ellena; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R.; Knapp, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). Methods The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. Results No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Conclusions Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses. PMID:20498735

  7. Service for victims of crime VDS info and victims’ support: Analysis of the previous work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The first victim support service in our country VDS info and victims’ support started with its work in April 2003 within the Victimology Society of Serbia. This service is aimed at victims of crime (women and men, primarily at victims of violent crime, but also of some forms of property crime (such as burglary. The aim of the Service is to offer victims of crime information on their rights and the ways of how to realize them, emotional support, as well as to refer them to other institutions/organizations depending on the certain victim’s needs. Coordinators and volunteers, who passed the appropriate training, are responsible for that. Bearing that in mind, this paper will give the brief glens on the Service itself, its organization and the way of work, followed by the analysis of the results of previous work.

  8. Emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis: computed tomography features and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin J

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jianmin Jin,1 Shuling Li,2 Wenling Yu,2 Xiaofang Liu,1 Yongchang Sun1,3 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 2Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB is a risk factor for COPD, but the clinical characteristics and the chest imaging features (emphysema and bronchiectasis of COPD with previous PTB have not been studied well.Methods: The presence, distribution, and severity of emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with and without previous PTB were evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT and compared. Demographic data, respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sputum culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also compared between patients with and without previous PTB.Results: A total of 231 COPD patients (82.2% ex- or current smokers, 67.5% male were consecutively enrolled. Patients with previous PTB (45.0% had more severe (p=0.045 and longer history (p=0.008 of dyspnea, more exacerbations in the previous year (p=0.011, and more positive culture of P. aeruginosa (p=0.001, compared with those without PTB. Patients with previous PTB showed a higher prevalence of bronchiectasis (p<0.001, which was more significant in lungs with tuberculosis (TB lesions, and a higher percentage of more severe bronchiectasis (Bhalla score ≥2, p=0.031, compared with those without previous PTB. The overall prevalence of emphysema was not different between patients with and without previous PTB, but in those with previous PTB, a higher number of subjects with middle (p=0.001 and lower (p=0.019 lobe emphysema, higher severity score (p=0.028, higher prevalence of panlobular emphysema (p=0.013, and more extensive centrilobular emphysema (p=0.039 were observed. Notably, in patients with

  9. Visual working memory supports the inhibition of previously processed information: evidence from preview search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Emrich, Stephen M; Ferber, Susanne; Pratt, Jay

    2012-06-01

    In four experiments we assessed whether visual working memory (VWM) maintains a record of previously processed visual information, allowing old information to be inhibited, and new information to be prioritized. Specifically, we evaluated whether VWM contributes to the inhibition (i.e., visual marking) of previewed distractors in a preview search. We evaluated this proposal by testing three predictions. First, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that preview inhibition is more effective when the number of previewed distractors is below VWM capacity than above; an effect that can only be observed at small preview set sizes (Experiment 2A) and when observers are allowed to move their eyes freely (Experiment 2B). Second, Experiment 3 shows that, when quantified as the number of inhibited distractors, the magnitude of the preview effect is stable across different search difficulties. Third, Experiment 4 demonstrates that individual differences in preview inhibition are correlated with individual differences in VWM capacity. These findings provide converging evidence that VWM supports the inhibition of previewed distractors. More generally, these findings demonstrate how VWM contributes to the efficiency of human visual information processing--VWM prioritizes new information by inhibiting old information from being reselected for attention.

  10. Charged-particle thermonuclear reaction rates: IV. Comparison to previous work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadis, C.; Longland, R.; Champagne, A.E.; Coc, A.

    2010-01-01

    We compare our Monte Carlo reaction rates (see Paper II of this issue) to previous results that were obtained by using the classical method of computing thermonuclear reaction rates. For each reaction, the comparison is presented using two types of graphs: the first shows the change in reaction rate uncertainties, while the second displays our new results normalized to the previously recommended reaction rate. We find that the rates have changed significantly for almost all reactions considered here. The changes are caused by (i) our new Monte Carlo method of computing reaction rates (see Paper I of this issue), and (ii) newly available nuclear physics information (see Paper III of this issue).

  11. Navigation and Comprehension of Digital Expository Texts: Hypertext Structure, Previous Domain Knowledge, and Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, Debora I.; Barreyro, Juan P.; Saux, Gastón; Irrazábal, Natalia C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In contemporary information societies, reading digital text has become pervasive. One of the most distinctive features of digital texts is their internal connections via hyperlinks, resulting in non-linear hypertexts. Hypertext structure and previous knowledge affect navigation and comprehension of digital expository texts. From the…

  12. New Ages for Gorgona Island, Colombia: Implications for Previous Petrogenetic and Tectonic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Duran, L.; Lopez Martinez, M.; Ferrari, L.

    2007-05-01

    reliable plateau and/or isochron ages. Only one basaltic sample, located in the western coast, yielded an age comparable with those previously reported in the literature. For two basalts intercalated with komatiites and a gabbro exposed in the north-eastern coast of the island we obtained younger ages, similar to those reported for some mafic and ultramafic rocks along the Pacific coast of Colombia. The two sets of ages for the ultramafic suite of Gorgona also correspond to different petrologic types. The depleted rocks in the eastern coast are younger than the enriched basalts and picrites located in the southern and western part of the island with ages around 90 Ma, suggesting a more complex tectonic evolution with the accretion of at least two different blocks. This eventually questions the "single plume" model for the formation of the Gorgona Island plateau.

  13. Nuclear thermal rocket clustering: 1, A summary of previous work and relevant issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buksa, J.J.; Houts, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    A general review of the technical merits of nuclear thermal rocket clustering is presented. A summary of previous analyses performed during the Rover program is presented and used to assess clustering in the context of projected Space Exploration Initiative missions. A number of technical issues are discussed including cluster reliability, engine-out operation, neutronic coupling, shutdown core power generation, shutdown reactivity requirements, reactor kinetics, and radiation shielding. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Feature binding and attention in working memory: a resolution of previous contradictory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard J; Hitch, Graham J; Mate, Judit; Baddeley, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to resolve an apparent contradiction between previous experiments from different laboratories, using dual-task methodology to compare effects of a concurrent executive load on immediate recognition memory for colours or shapes of items or their colour-shape combinations. Results of two experiments confirmed previous evidence that an irrelevant attentional load interferes equally with memory for features and memory for feature bindings. Detailed analyses suggested that previous contradictory evidence arose from limitations in the way recognition memory was measured. The present findings are inconsistent with an earlier suggestion that feature binding takes place within a multimodal episodic buffer Baddeley, ( 2000 ) and support a subsequent account in which binding takes place automatically prior to information entering the episodic buffer Baddeley, Allen, & Hitch, ( 2011 ). Methodologically, the results suggest that different measures of recognition memory performance (A', d', corrected recognition) give a converging picture of main effects, but are less consistent in detecting interactions. We suggest that this limitation on the reliability of measuring recognition should be taken into account in future research so as to avoid problems of replication that turn out to be more apparent than real.

  15. Paradoxical implications of personal social media use for work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Rice, R.E.

    2017-01-01

    New information and communication technologies can have paradoxical implications: they may be liberating and constraining at the same time. This field study examines the direct implications of personal social media use for work on employees’ autonomy and work pressure, and the indirect effects on

  16. Decent Work and Its Implications for Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasou, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The principle of decent work was first espoused in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Since 1999 the International Labour Organisation has operated according to a Decent Work Agenda and in recent times the movement towards the provision of decent work as a means of improving the quality of life has gathered momentum. Decent work is…

  17. Implications of Nontraditional Work Schedules for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, Denise F.

    1978-01-01

    Issues, evidence, and arguments relating to the effects of alternative working arrangements on the lives of women are examined. Forms of nontraditional schedules which are analyzed include the shortened work week, flexible working hours, and part-time employment. (Author/GC)

  18. Work Hours Constraints: Impacts and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Constant, Amelie F.; Otterbach, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    If individuals reveal their preference as consumers, then they are taken seriously. What happens if individuals, as employees, reveal their preferences in working hours? And what happens if there is a misalignment between actual hours worked and preferred hours, the so-called work hours constraints? How does this affect the productivity of workers, their health, and overall life satisfaction? Labor supply and corresponding demand are fundamental to production. Labor economists know for long t...

  19. Changes in work affect in response to lunchtime walking in previously physically inactive employees: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C; Loughren, E A; Kinnafick, F-E; Taylor, I M; Duda, J L; Fox, K R

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity may regulate affective experiences at work, but controlled studies are needed and there has been a reliance on retrospective accounts of experience. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of lunchtime walks on momentary work affect at the individual and group levels. Physically inactive employees (N = 56; M age = 47.68; 92.86% female) from a large university in the UK were randomized to immediate treatment or delayed treatment (DT). The DT participants completed both a control and intervention period. During the intervention period, participants partook in three weekly 30-min lunchtime group-led walks for 10 weeks. They completed twice daily affective reports at work (morning and afternoon) using mobile phones on two randomly chosen days per week. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the data. Lunchtime walks improved enthusiasm, relaxation, and nervousness at work, although the pattern of results differed depending on whether between-group or within-person analyses were conducted. The intervention was effective in changing some affective states and may have broader implications for public health and workplace performance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis in a Drosophila model identifies previously implicated and novel pathways in the therapeutic mechanism in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka eSingh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We have taken advantage of a newly described Drosophila model to gain insights into the potential mechanism of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, a group of drugs that are widely used in the treatment of several neurological and psychiatric conditions besides epilepsy. In the recently described Drosophila model that is inspired by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced kindling epileptogenesis in rodents, chronic PTZ treatment for seven days causes a decreased climbing speed and an altered CNS transcriptome, with the latter mimicking gene expression alterations reported in epileptogenesis. In the model, an increased climbing speed is further observed seven days after withdrawal from chronic PTZ. We used this post-PTZ withdrawal regime to identify potential AED mechanism. In this regime, treatment with each of the five AEDs tested, namely, ethosuximide (ETH, gabapentin (GBP, vigabatrin (VGB, sodium valproate (NaVP and levetiracetam (LEV, resulted in rescuing of the altered climbing behavior. The AEDs also normalized PTZ withdrawal induced transcriptomic perturbation in fly heads; whereas AED untreated flies showed a large number of up- and down-regulated genes which were enriched in several processes including gene expression and cell communication, the AED treated flies showed differential expression of only a small number of genes that did not enrich gene expression and cell communication processes. Gene expression and cell communication related upregulated genes in AED untreated flies overrepresented several pathways - spliceosome, RNA degradation, and ribosome in the former category, and inositol phosphate metabolism, phosphatidylinositol signaling, endocytosis and hedgehog signaling in the latter. Transcriptome remodeling effect of AEDs was overall confirmed by microarray clustering that clearly separated the profiles of AED treated and untreated flies. Besides being consistent with previously implicated pathways, our results provide evidence for a role of

  1. The implicit contract: implications for health social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoyd, Judith L M

    2010-05-01

    Identifying common patient dynamics is useful for developing social work practice sensitivity in health social work. This article draws on findings from a study of women who terminated desired pregnancies because of fetal anomalies and identifies dynamics that may be applicable to many health settings. Data suggest that women have expectations that submission to medical care, particularly high-tech medical care, should ensure a positive outcome--in this case a healthy baby. Analysis of data reveals the presence of an implicit contract that the women hold with the medical system,"Mother Nature," or society. The analysis carries an implication that health social work should help patients develop realistic expectations about health care. The presence of implicit contracts may have further implications for liability and litigation. Social work roles and interventions are addressed.

  2. Federalism and social justice: implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhorst, Donald M

    2002-07-01

    Federalism is a system of government that divides power between two or more levels of government. During the current conservative political climate in the United States, power has shifted increasingly from the federal government to states, a move that has implications for the achievement of social justice. Consequently, it is now necessary for social workers to engage in political activity at the state and local levels, in addition to the federal level, to promote social justice. Implications for social work policy practice, research, and education for advancing social justice within the federal system of government are explored.

  3. [Estimating non work-related sickness leave absences related to a previous occupational injury in Catalonia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero-Ruiz, Emilia; Navarro, Albert; Moriña, David; Albertí-Casas, Constança; Jardí-Lliberia, Josefina; de Montserrat-Nonó, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the frequency of non-work sickness absence (ITcc) related to previous occupational injuries with (ATB) or without (ATSB) sick leave. Prospective longitudinal study. Workers with ATB or ATSB notified to the Occupational Accident Registry of Catalonia were selected in the last term of 2009. They were followed-up for six months after returning to work (ATB) or after the accident (ATSB), by sex and occupation. Official labor and health authority registries were used as information sources. An "injury-associated ITcc" was defined when the sick leave occurred in the following six months and within the same diagnosis group. The absolute and relative frequency were calculated according to time elapsed and its duration (cumulated days, measures of central trend and dispersion), by diagnosis group or affected body area, as compared to all of Catalonia. 2,9%of ATB (n=627) had an injury-associated ITcc, with differences by diagnosis, sex and occupation; this was also the case for 2,1% of ATSB (n=496).With the same diagnosis, duration of ITcc was longer among those who had an associated injury, and with respect to all of Catalonia. Some of the under-reporting of occupational pathology corresponds to episodes initially recognized as being work-related. Duration of sickness absence depends not only on diagnosis and clinical course, but also on criteria established by the entities managing the case. This could imply that more complicated injuries are referred to the national health system, resulting in personal, legal, healthcare and economic cost consequences for all involved stakeholders. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  4. Working-week flexibility: Implications for employment and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Osune, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the implications for employment, productivity and wages of allowing for more flexibility in weekly hours worked introduced in the recent Spanish labour market reform (the 2012 reform). A crucial aspect of the model will be the extent to which firms will be able to choose the workweek when subject to demand shocks. The model is calibrated so that it reproduces the cross-sectional distribution of workweeks across plants and households and some features of the Spanish econom...

  5. Analysis of 60 706 Exomes Questions the Role of De Novo Variants Previously Implicated in Cardiac Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christian; Ahlberg, Gustav; Ghouse, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: De novo variants in the exome occur at a rate of 1 per individual per generation, and because of the low reproductive fitness for de novo variants causing severe disease, the likelihood of finding these as standing variations in the general population is low. Therefore, this study...... sought to evaluate the pathogenicity of de novo variants previously associated with cardiac disease based on a large population-representative exome database. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a literature search for previous publications on de novo variants associated with severe arrhythmias...... trio studies (>1000 subjects). Of the monogenic variants, 11% (23/211) were present in ExAC, whereas 26% (802/3050) variants believed to increase susceptibility of disease were identified in ExAC. Monogenic de novo variants in ExAC had a total allele count of 109 and with ≈844 expected cases in Ex...

  6. Air Space Proportion in Pterosaur Limb Bones Using Computed Tomography and Its Implications for Previous Estimates of Pneumaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth G.; Palmer, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Air Space Proportion (ASP) is a measure of how much air is present within a bone, which allows for a quantifiable comparison of pneumaticity between specimens and species. Measured from zero to one, higher ASP means more air and less bone. Conventionally, it is estimated from measurements of the internal and external bone diameter, or by analyzing cross-sections. To date, the only pterosaur ASP study has been carried out by visual inspection of sectioned bones within matrix. Here, computed tomography (CT) scans are used to calculate ASP in a small sample of pterosaur wing bones (mainly phalanges) and to assess how the values change throughout the bone. These results show higher ASPs than previous pterosaur pneumaticity studies, and more significantly, higher ASP values in the heads of wing bones than the shaft. This suggests that pneumaticity has been underestimated previously in pterosaurs, birds, and other archosaurs when shaft cross-sections are used to estimate ASP. Furthermore, ASP in pterosaurs is higher than those found in birds and most sauropod dinosaurs, giving them among the highest ASP values of animals studied so far, supporting the view that pterosaurs were some of the most pneumatized animals to have lived. The high degree of pneumaticity found in pterosaurs is proposed to be a response to the wing bone bending stiffness requirements of flight rather than a means to reduce mass, as is often suggested. Mass reduction may be a secondary result of pneumaticity that subsequently aids flight. PMID:24817312

  7. Youth and adults, citizenship and democracy. Implications for Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Aquín

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The reflections expressed in this article are the product of a study about the Force of the Values of Citizenship in Córdoba Society, conducted between the years 1998 and 2003, by professors-researchers of the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina. The article first looks at the relationship between Social Work and citizenship. It reviews studies about youth, recognizing that the process of the constitution of citizenship essentially develops during adolescence and early adulthood. Given the importance of the events in Argentina in December 2001, it incorporates a comparative analysis between the practices and representations of youth and adults about democracy and the expressions of collective action that characterize this context. Methodological factors are sketched and some results concerning the tensions between citizenship and democracy are discussed, to analyze the implications for Social Work.

  8. Implication of the changing concept of genes on plant breeder’s work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio D. Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent genome sequencing of some species has accumulated evidence that for a large number of traits, thecontrol and action of genes are far more complex than previously thought. This article discusses possible implications of newinsights into the gene concept on the work of plant breeders. Apparently, the successful application of biotechnological techniques is not as simple as once assumed. The evident changes in the available concept of genes confirmed what the past experience had shown,i.e, selection should focus on the phenotype, under the same conditions as the plant is to be cultivated in. Advanced vocationaltraining of plant breeders must be continuously maintained, focusing on phenotype-based selection in as accurate as possibleexperiments.

  9. Expanding the Visibility of Women's Work: Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, DeAnne K. Hilfinger; Regev, Hanna; Im, Eun-Ok; Spiers, Judith A.; Van, Paulina; Meleis, Afaf Ibrahim

    1997-01-01

    Social conceptualization and media images of women's work affect health and social policy formation. Nurses can expand the visibility of women's work and promote gender-sensitive policies within and outside the profession. (SK)

  10. Modelling job crafting behaviours: Implications for work engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Arnold B.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Sanz Vergel, Ana Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In this study among 206 employees (103 dyads), we followed the job demands–resources approach of job crafting to investigate whether proactively changing one’s work environment influences employee’s (actor’s) own and colleague s (partner’s) work engagement. Using social cognitive theory, we hypothesized that employees would imitate each other’s job crafting behaviours, and therefore influence each other’s work engagement. Results showed that the crafting of social and structural job resources...

  11. Brain-computer interface supported collaborative work: Implications for rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, C S; Lee, J; Bahn, S

    2013-01-01

    Working together and collaborating in a group can provide greater benefits for people with severe motor disability. However, it is still not clear how collaboration should be supported by BCI systems. The present study explored BCI-supported collaborative work by investigating differences in performance and brain activity between when a pair of users performs a task jointly with each other and when they do alone only through means of their brain activity. We found differences in performance and brain activity between different work conditions. The results of this research should provide fundamental knowledge of BCI-supported cooperative work.

  12. Working Memory Weaknesses in Students with ADHD: Implications for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Major, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for academic underachievement. Children and youth with ADHD have been found to exhibit impairments on neuropsychological measures of executive functions, including working memory. Working memory is important to attentional control and learning. This article defines working…

  13. A Harsh and Challenging World of Work: Implications for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lawrence K.

    1996-01-01

    Presents some of the health risks and economic and job insecurities involved in working in the United States. Suggests ways for counselors to amend their practices to accommodate the changing work environment and to help clients prepare for and deal with the economic and physical realities of the job market. (Author)

  14. The Implicit Contract: Implications for Health Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoyd, Judith L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying common patient dynamics is useful for developing social work practice sensitivity in health social work. This article draws on findings from a study of women who terminated desired pregnancies because of fetal anomalies and identifies dynamics that may be applicable to many health settings. Data suggest that women have expectations…

  15. The Implications of Congenital Deafness for Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalifoux, Lisa M.

    1991-01-01

    A. Baddeley's model of the working memory of congenitally deaf persons is examined in light of research on encoding by this population. It is concluded that a model of the working memory of the deaf must include subsystems for articulatory, sign, and visual encoding. (Author/DB)

  16. Leadership and productivity in Nigeria: Implications for work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It examines the various theories of leadership as well as other empirical works on the subject matter. Further ... In discussing leadership-productivity nexus, the paper argues that situations usually determine the leadership style that may be applied to motivate higher productivity among employees in work organisations.

  17. Social Work Implication on Care and Vulnerability of Older People in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social Work Implication on Care and Vulnerability of Older People in Tanzania. ... as the national ageing policy, health policy, national social security policy, ... The social workers were found at the district headquarters but also in few numbers.

  18. European Working Time Directive: implications for surgical training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, C L

    2010-02-01

    The forthcoming implementation of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) for non-consultant hospital doctors (NCHDs) poses a number of challenges in the areas of patient care, training, service provision and quality of life for workers. Surgery, as a craft-based speciality, will face a greater impact on training of future surgeons as operating time could be lost to service provision. The EWTD acts a stimulus for reform of current working practices and re-configuration of services. It will necessitate transformation of the way in which surgeons are trained, if current standards are to be maintained.

  19. Guidelines for children's work in agriculture: implications for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlenga, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C; Pickett, William

    2012-01-01

    The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) were developed to assist parents in assigning developmentally appropriate and safe farm work to their children aged 7-16 years. Since their release in 1999, a growing body of evidence has accumulated regarding the content and application of these guidelines to populations of working children on farms. The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific and programmatic evidence about the content, efficacy, application, and uptake of NAGCAT and propose key recommendations for the future. The methods for this review included a synthesis of the peer-reviewed literature and programmatic evidence gathered from safety professionals. From the review, it is clear that the NAGCAT tractor guidelines and the manual material handling guidelines need to be updated based upon the latest empirical evidence. While NAGCAT do have the potential to prevent serious injuries to working children in the correct age range (7-16 years), the highest incidence of farm related injuries and fatalities occur to children aged 1-6 years and NAGCAT are unlikely to have any direct effect on this leading injury problem. It is also clear that NAGCAT, as a voluntary educational strategy, is not sufficient by itself to protect children working on farms. Uptake of NAGCAT has been sporadic, despite being geographically widespread and has depended, almost solely, on a few interested and committed professionals. Key recommendations for the future are provided based upon this review.

  20. Implication of Copyright Provisions for Literary Works in Films and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emphasis of copyright is on original literary works, films, sound recordings and others. The focus of this paper is to discuss the various provisions of the copyright law as they affect films, video and by extension video CD. The study examines the various interpretations of the provisions of the copyright law as they affect ...

  1. Trust, Connectivity, and Thriving: Implications for Innovative Behaviors at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Abraham; Spreitzer, Gretchen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how trust, connectivity and thriving drive employees' innovative behaviors in the workplace. Using a sample of one hundred and seventy two employees across a variety of jobs and industries, we investigated the relationship between trust, connectivity (both measured at Time 1), thriving and innovative work behaviors (both…

  2. The importance, measurement and practical implications of worker's expectations for return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Amanda E; Besen, Elyssa; Choi, YoonSun

    2015-01-01

    Workers' own expectations for return to work consistently predict work status. To advance the understanding of the relationship between RTW expectations and outcomes, we reviewed existing measures to determine those which we felt were the most likely to capture the construct. A comprehensive search of the work-disability rehabilitation literature was undertaken. The review of the measures was conducted in three steps: first, a review of terminology; second, an examination of whether a time reference was included; third, an evaluation of ease of comprehension, and applicability across contexts. A total of 42 different measures were identified. One of the most striking findings was the inconsistency in terminology. Measures were also limited by not including a time reference. Problems were also identified with regards to ease of understanding, utility of response options, and applicability in a wide variety of research and applied settings. Most previously used measures contain elements that potentially limit utility. However, it would seem that further development can overcome these, resulting in a tool that provides risk prediction information, and an opportunity to start a conversation to help identify problems that might negatively impact a worker's movement through the RTW process and the outcomes achieved. Implications for Rehabilitation Return to work is an integral part of workplace injury management. The capture of RTW expectations affords a way to identify the potential for less than optimal RTW processes and outcomes. A mismatch between an injured worker's expectations and what other stakeholders might expect suggests that efforts could be made to determine what is causing the injured worker's concerns. Once underling issues are identified, work can be put into resolving these so that the worker's return to the workplace is not impeded.

  3. The four-day working week, unknown, unloved. Research into the organisational implications of working time reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Sels, Luc; Dejonckheere, Johan

    2000-01-01

    This contribution aims to bring clarity into the 'organisational implications' of one specific form of working time reduction, namely the four-day working week. We start by defining the concept of the four-day working week. In the second part, we look at ways Belgian authorities are trying to encourage the four-day working week, met by little enthusiasm from the business world. This reluctance stems from ignorance about the effects on performance and organisation. For this reason, we have con...

  4. Irrational beliefs at work and their implications for workaholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijhe, Corine; Peeters, Maria; Schaufeli, Wilmar

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the associations between work-related irrational cognitions and workaholism. For this purpose, a 16-item work-related irrational beliefs questionnaire (WIB-Q) was developed. Employees (n = 913) completed an online survey that included, besides the irrational cognitions scale, measures of negative affect and workaholism. The results show that four factors could be distinguished, which represent irrational beliefs concerning (1) performance demands, (2) co-workers' approval (3) failure and (4) control. All scales showed good internal consistency. Furthermore, it was found that, after controlling for negative affect, performance demands were associated with workaholism, whereas the remaining types of irrationality were unrelated to workaholism. In other words, the findings suggest that interventions for workaholism should target irrational self-oriented performance demands and negative emotions. As Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy focuses on identifying and replacing irrational cognitions, it appears a useful intervention technique for the treatment of workaholics.

  5. Same-Gender Marriage: Implications for Social Work Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fasbinder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Notably, in 2013, Maryland, Rhode Island, Delaware, and Minnesota became the 10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th states, respectively, to legalize same-gender marriage. Without legal recognition or social support from the larger society, the majority of same-gender partnerships in the U.S. are denied privileges and rights that are considered basic for heterosexual marriages. This manuscript draws from a national cross section of published survey data from 1996 to 2013 reporting Americans’ attitudes regarding same-gender marriage and civil unions. Social work practitioners have broad opportunity to apply their skills to the critical needs facing same-gender partners. After an overview of the legal status of same-gender marriages and their accompanying social and policy issues, recommendations are provided that include identification of specific needs for premarital counseling of same-gender partners and ensuring sensitivity to the myriad challenges they face.

  6. Positive affect improves working memory: implications for controlled cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwajin; Yang, Sujin; Isen, Alice M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of positive affect on working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM). Given that WM involves both storage and controlled processing and that STM primarily involves storage processing, we hypothesised that if positive affect facilitates controlled processing, it should improve WM more than STM. The results demonstrated that positive affect, compared with neutral affect, significantly enhanced WM, as measured by the operation span task. The influence of positive affect on STM, however, was weaker. These results suggest that positive affect enhances WM, a task that involves controlled processing, not just storage processing. Additional analyses of recall and processing times and accuracy further suggest that improved WM under positive affect is not attributable to motivational differences, but results instead from improved controlled cognitive processing.

  7. Youth Work Transitions: A Review with Implications for Counselling and Career Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Filomena; Young, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    We critically review studies highlighting youth's work transitions and derive some implications for career and counselling theory and practice. We first discuss today's hypermodern world, specifically the meanings being conveyed by today's complex social realities and their impact on individuals' (work) lives. An overview of…

  8. Implications of Shift Work for Parent-Adolescent Relationships in Dual-Earner Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly D.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation examined the implications of shift work for parent-adolescent relationship quality--intimacy, conflict, parental knowledge, and involvement--in a sample of 376 dual-earner families. The findings suggested that mothers' relationships with their adolescents were not negatively impacted by their working nonstandard schedules but…

  9. Career mothers and health implications of work place stress: Role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the health implications of workplace stress on career women with respect to their age and educational qualification. Sixty – nine (69) working women from a Women Fellowship of about 86 located at Agbowo, Ibadan were used for the study. Akinboye's Response to Change Test (RTCT) or Work Stress ...

  10. Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, Aaron H.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of general values from personality and social psychology apply to work values. In this paper, I introduce the concepts of values, value priorities, motivational goals, value types, and personal value systems used to clarify work values. I also introduce the terms basic and broad value and work value types. Second, I…

  11. Abnormal Working Hours: Effect of Rapid Releases and Implications to Work Content

    OpenAIRE

    Claes, Maëlick; Mäntylä, Mika; Kuutila, Miikka; Adams, Bram

    2017-01-01

    During the past years, overload at work leading to psychological diseases, such as burnouts, have drawn more public attention. This paper is a preliminary step toward an analysis of the work patterns and possible indicators of overload and time pressure on software developers with mining software repositories approach. We explore the working pattern of developers in the context of Mozilla Firefox, a large and long-lived open source project. To that end we investigate the impact of the move fr...

  12. Social Work Values in Human Services Administration: Implications for Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Larry D.; Hoefer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The perceived wisdom in the social work education community, based on empirical research from the 1990s and the early part of this century, says that the master of social work (MSW) degree is not competitive with the master of business administration or the master of public administration to obtain top-level administration jobs in nonprofit…

  13. Reversal of Opinion: The Implications of the Work of Acemoglu and Robinson for Marxist Thought

    OpenAIRE

    Petith, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the implications for Marxist thought of the work of Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson. In the first two periods of this they explained how the rise of democracy brought prosperity to Europe  and why the same process had not worked in Latin America because of the possibility of coups. The implication is that mass poverty can better be alleviated by safeguarding democracy rather than moving to socialism. In the last period A and R have formalized doubts about the efficacy o...

  14. A benchmarking project on the quality of previous guidelines about the management of malignant pleural effusion from the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) Pleural Diseases Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolaccini, Luca; Bedetti, Benedetta; Brunelli, Alessandro; Marinova, Katerina; Raveglia, Federico; Rocco, Gaetano; Shargall, Yaron; Solli, Piergiorgio; Varela, Gonzalo; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas; Kuzdzal, Jaroslaw; Massard, Gilbert; Ruffini, Enrico; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Martinez-Barenys, Carlos; Opitz, Isabelle; Batirel, Hasan F; Toker, Alper; Scarci, Marco

    2017-08-01

    In the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) survey about management of malignant pleural effusions (MPE), 56% of respondents are not informed of any relevant clinical guidelines and 52%, who are aware of the existence of guidelines, declared that they are in need of updating or revision. The ESTS Pleural Diseases Working Group developed a benchmarking project on quality of previous guidelines on the management of MPE. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument was used to assess each guideline. Each item was scored on a 7-point scale. Scores for each domain were calculated. Economic data for the nations which have issued the guidelines were collected from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development health statistics database. Six guidelines fitted the inclusion criteria and were assessed. Five out of 6 guidelines were produced by a multinational collaboration. Observers would recommend only 2 guidelines with minimal modification. Two areas that received the best score were clarity of presentation and scope and purpose (objectives and health questions target population). The applicability of guideline domain had the lowest score. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that clarity of presentation, international guidelines and publication through medical journal were related to improved scores. A strong correlation was observed between the measures of economic status. The quality of guidelines assessed by the AGREE II criteria was found to be extremely variable. Guidelines achieving higher AGREE II scores were more likely to come from the European Union with the direct involvement of scientific societies in their development. It was also recognized that some fundamental unanswered questions remain about the management of MPE. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. Shift and night work and long working hours--a systematic review of safety implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Anthony Sverre; Sigstad Lie, Jenny-Anne

    2011-05-01

    In order to devise effective preventive strategies, it is important to study workplace stressors that might increase the risk of workplace accidents - both affecting workers themselves as well as causing harm to third-parties. The aim of this report is to provide a systematic, updated overview and scientific review of empirical research regarding accidents in relation to long work hours and shift work, primarily based on epidemiological studies. The search for articles was part of a large review study on the effects of work hours on various health outcomes, safety, and performance. The search strategy included 5 international scientific databases, and nearly 7000 articles were initially identified using our search string. Following the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 443 publications were found and evaluated using a pre-defined scoring system. Of these, 43 concerned safety and accidents but only 14 were considered to be of high quality (total score 2 or 3 on a scale from 0-3) and therefore used for this study. Both shift work and long working hours present a substantial and well-documented detrimental effect on safety - all the studies that are included in this review have one or more significant findings in this respect. The trends are quite coherent although the increases in accident rates are mostly from 50% to 100%. In epidemiological terms, this may be seen as rather small differences. The use of such data is therefore only of importance if the accident incidence is high or if accidents may have large effects. The findings are most relevant to safety-critical activities such as the transport and health sectors. Work periods >8 hours carry an increased risk of accidents that cumulates, so that the increased risk of accidents at around 12 hours is twice the risk at 8 hours. Shift work including nights carries a substantial increased risk of accidents, whereas "pure" night work may bring some protection against this effect due to

  16. Peer outreach work as economic activity: implications for HIV prevention interventions among female sex workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie George

    Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSWs who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers' economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers' relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers.

  17. High Performance and the Transformation of Work? The Implications of Alternative Work Practices for the Experience and Outcomes of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, John

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 508 Canadian workers showed that moderate levels of high-performance work practices were associated with increased belonging, empowerment, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. At higher levels, the association became negative. Work was more stressful with these practices. Team autonomy, just-in-time practices, and…

  18. Social Work Education and Global Issues: Implications for Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Beverly L.

    2011-01-01

    If social workers are to become more effectively involved in international organizations and global issues, the international dimension of social work education must be strengthened. Educational programs for social workers around the world give only limited attention to social issues that extend beyond national boundaries. Schools of social work…

  19. Organisation of working time: Implications for productivity and working conditions. Overview Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Dhondt, S.; Vergeer, R.; Oeij, P.; Leede, J. de; Adrichem, K. van C; Csizmadia, P.; Makó, C.; Illésy, M.; Tóth, A.

    2012-01-01

    Companies in search of improved productivity use a wide range of approaches, from financial incentives and skills upgrading and training to increased autonomy of individuals and teams. Working time flexibility has the added advantage in that it can benefit both workers and employers: it gives

  20. Asymmetric cross-domain interference between two working memory tasks : Implications for models of working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice C.; Morey, Richard D.; van der Reijden, Madeleine; Holweg, Margot

    2013-01-01

    Observations of higher dual-task costs for within-domain than cross-domain task combinations constitute classic evidence for multi-component models of working memory (e.g., Baddeley, 1986; Logie, 2011). However, we report an asymmetric pattern of interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks,

  1. A cross-sectional study of tuberculosis drug resistance among previously treated patients in a tertiary hospital in Accra, Ghana: public health implications of standardized regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Audrey; Kwara, Awewura; Kudzawu, Samuel; Omari, Michael; Otu, Jacob; Gehre, Florian; de Jong, Bouke; Antonio, Martin

    2018-04-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance is a major challenge to the use of standardized regimens for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, especially among previously treated patients. We aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of drug resistance among previously treated patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. This was a cross-sectional survey of mycobacterial isolates from previously treated patients referred to the Chest Clinic Laboratory between October 2010 and October 2013. The Bactec MGIT 960 system for mycobactrerial culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) was used for sputum culture of AFB smear-positive patients with relapse, treatment failure, failure of smear conversion, or default. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics, and frequency and patterns of drug resistance. A total of 112 isolates were studied out of 155 from previously treated patients. Twenty contaminated (12.9%) and 23 non-viable isolates (14.8%) were excluded. Of the 112 studied isolates, 53 (47.3%) were pan-sensitive to all first-line drugs tested Any resistance (mono and poly resistance) to isoniazid was found in 44 isolates (39.3%) and any resistance to streptomycin in 43 (38.4%). Thirty-one (27.7%) were MDR-TB. Eleven (35.5%) out of 31 MDR-TB isolates were pre-XDR. MDR-TB isolates were more likely than non-MDR isolates to have streptomycin and ethambutol resistance. The main findings of this study were the high prevalence of MDR-TB and streptomycin resistance among previously treated TB patients, as well as a high prevalence of pre-XDR-TB among the MDR-TB patients, which suggest that first-line and second-line DST is essential to aid the design of effective regimens for these groups of patients in Ghana.

  2. Students' Participation in Social Networking Sites: Implications for Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Dhrubodhi; Clark, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Social work students have few guidelines to help them evaluate the implication of their posted information on Internet-based social networking sites (SNSs). There is a national trend among employers of human services to cross-check publicly available online information on applicants. Based on data from a survey of 105 baccalaureate and master's…

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Related to AIDS among Prisoners: Implications for Social Work Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M. Mizanur Rahman; Olivero, J. Michael

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 33 male and 5 female prisoners examined their knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission modes, current sexual behavior and safe sex practices, and sources of AIDS information and degree of trust in these sources. Discusses implications for social work practices and development of AIDS education for prisoners. (SV)

  4. A Study of Search Intermediary Working Notes: Implications for IR System Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Amanda; Goodrum, Abby

    1996-01-01

    Reports findings from an exploratory study investigating working notes created during encoding and external storage (EES) processes by human search intermediaries (librarians at the University of North Texas) using a Boolean information retrieval (IR) system. Implications for the design of IR interfaces and further research is discussed.…

  5. Observations of a Working Class Family: Implications for Self-Regulated Learning Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Guardians have been implicated in the development of children's academic self-regulation. In this case study, which involved naturalistic observations and interviews, the everyday practices of a working class family were considered in the context of self-regulated learning development. The family's practices, beliefs, dispositions and home…

  6. A Review of the Empirical Generations at Work Research: Implications for School Leaders and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Most schools currently employ three generations of teachers and leaders: Baby Boomers (1946-65), Generation X (1966-80) and Generation Y (1981-2003). However, the implications for school leaders of multi-generational schools remain relatively unexplored. This paper examines the empirical multi-disciplinary generations at work evidence to identify…

  7. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the automotive industry due to repetitive work - implications for rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quarcoo David

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs due to repetitive work are common in manufacturing industries, such as the automotive industry. However, it's still unclear which MSDs of the upper limb are to be expected in the automotive industry in a first aid unit as well as in occupational precaution examinations. It is also unclear which examination method could be performed effectively for practical reasons and under rehabilitation aspects. Additionally, it was to discuss whether the conception of unspecific description for MSDs has advantages or disadvantages in contrast to a precise medical diagnosis. Methods We investigated the health status of two study populations working at two automotive plants in Germany. The first part included 67 consecutive patients who were seen for acute or chronic MSDs at the forearm over a 4-month period at the plants' medical services. Information about patients' working conditions and musculoskeletal symptoms was obtained during a standardized interview, which was followed by a standardized orthopedic-chiropractic physical examination. In the second part, 209 workers with daily exposure to video display terminals (VDT completed a standardized questionnaire and were examined with function-oriented muscular tests on the occasion of their routine occupational precaution medical check-up. Results The majority of the 67 patients seen by the company's medical services were blue-collar works from the assembly lines and trainees rather than white-collar workers from offices. Rates of musculoskeletal complaints were disproportionately higher among experienced people performing new tasks and younger trainees. The most common MSD in this group were disorders of flexor tendons of the forearm. By contrast, among the 209 employees working at VDT disorders of the neck and shoulders were more common than discomfort in the forearm. A positive tendency between restricted rotation of the cervical vertebrae and years

  8. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the automotive industry due to repetitive work - implications for rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, Michael; Kuhn, Walter; Uibel, Stefanie; van Mark, Anke; Quarcoo, David

    2010-04-07

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) due to repetitive work are common in manufacturing industries, such as the automotive industry. However, it's still unclear which MSDs of the upper limb are to be expected in the automotive industry in a first aid unit as well as in occupational precaution examinations. It is also unclear which examination method could be performed effectively for practical reasons and under rehabilitation aspects. Additionally, it was to discuss whether the conception of unspecific description for MSDs has advantages or disadvantages in contrast to a precise medical diagnosis. We investigated the health status of two study populations working at two automotive plants in Germany. The first part included 67 consecutive patients who were seen for acute or chronic MSDs at the forearm over a 4-month period at the plants' medical services. Information about patients' working conditions and musculoskeletal symptoms was obtained during a standardized interview, which was followed by a standardized orthopedic-chiropractic physical examination. In the second part, 209 workers with daily exposure to video display terminals (VDT) completed a standardized questionnaire and were examined with function-oriented muscular tests on the occasion of their routine occupational precaution medical check-up. The majority of the 67 patients seen by the company's medical services were blue-collar works from the assembly lines and trainees rather than white-collar workers from offices. Rates of musculoskeletal complaints were disproportionately higher among experienced people performing new tasks and younger trainees. The most common MSD in this group were disorders of flexor tendons of the forearm. By contrast, among the 209 employees working at VDT disorders of the neck and shoulders were more common than discomfort in the forearm. A positive tendency between restricted rotation of the cervical vertebrae and years worked at VDT was observed. In addition, only less than 8

  9. Work-Life Balance Practices Among Irish Hotel Employees:Implications for HRM

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine work-life balance in the Irish hotel sector from an employee perspective with implications for HRM. 246 questionnaires from employees were returned which was a 22% response rate. Company benefits were not associated with numerical flexibility, but company benefits were associated with functional flexibility and work-life balance supports. This would suggest an integrated approach to human resource management (HRM), whereby some companies engage in a contemp...

  10. Organisation of working time: Implications for productivity and working conditions. Overview Report

    OpenAIRE

    Goudswaard, A.; Dhondt, S.; Vergeer, R.; Oeij, P.; Leede, J. de; Adrichem, K. van C; Csizmadia, P.; Makó, C.; Illésy, M.; Tóth, A.

    2012-01-01

    Companies in search of improved productivity use a wide range of approaches, from financial incentives and skills upgrading and training to increased autonomy of individuals and teams. Working time flexibility has the added advantage in that it can benefit both workers and employers: it gives workers more control over their work–life balance and allows companies to adjust more easily to changing economic circumstances. Eurofound research studied five companies in manufacturing and retail in B...

  11. The Welfare to Work Transition in the United States: Implications for Work-Related Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James C.; Martin, Larry G.

    2000-11-01

    This paper summarizes the legislation upon which the current welfare-to-work transition in the United States is based and describes characteristics of the former welfare population from which various tiers of employment options have emerged: unsubsidized-employed workers, subsidized-employed workers, subsidized-unemployed recipients, and unsubsidized-unemployed individuals. It also discusses current program emphases, and presents a format for directions for future program development which includes academic programs, situated cognition programs, integrated literacy/occupational skills programs, and integrated literacy/soft skills training.

  12. State Definitions of Social Work Practice: Implications for our Professional Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Katharine; Fogel, Sondra; Plitt Donaldson, Linda; Erickson, Christina

    2017-01-01

    For over a century, the social work profession has been concerned with describing the unique and specific characteristics that define its core functions in society; however, the profession has yet to agree to a single definition of social work. In the absence of a unifying definition, 51 different statutory definitions of social work have been created by each state and the District of Columbia. Using qualitative methods, each statutory definition of social work was analyzed to gain an understanding of how social work is defined and understood across the United States. Findings indicate that 57% of the statutory language blend the full range of micro to macro social work practice skills into their definition. However, even within these and those remaining, there are vast differences in definitions. Implications for state licensing laws, are considered, along with how this impacts education, the work force, and professional identity.

  13. De novo adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma presenting anew in an elderly patient with previous normal CT and MRI studies: A case report and implications on pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Walker, B.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas are histologically benign epithelial tumors which arise from embryonic remnants of the craniopharyngeal duct and Rathke’s pouch. They are thought to have a congenital origin and are histologically unique from papillary craniopharyngioma. We describe the case of an elderly male who presented with symptoms related to a large craniopharyngioma with previously normal brain magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging studies. These findings dispute the embryogenic theory that craniopharyngiomas observed in adults develop from the persistent slow growth of embryonic remnants.

  14. Identification of balanced chromosomal rearrangements previously unknown among participants in the 1000 Genomes Project: implications for interpretation of structural variation in genomes and the future of clinical cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zirui; Wang, Huilin; Chen, Haixiao; Jiang, Hui; Yuan, Jianying; Yang, Zhenjun; Wang, Wen-Jing; Xu, Fengping; Guo, Xiaosen; Cao, Ye; Zhu, Zhenzhen; Geng, Chunyu; Cheung, Wan Chee; Kwok, Yvonne K; Yang, Huanming; Leung, Tak Yeung; Morton, Cynthia C; Cheung, Sau Wai; Choy, Kwong Wai

    2017-11-02

    PurposeRecent studies demonstrate that whole-genome sequencing enables detection of cryptic rearrangements in apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements (also known as balanced chromosomal abnormalities, BCAs) previously identified by conventional cytogenetic methods. We aimed to assess our analytical tool for detecting BCAs in the 1000 Genomes Project without knowing which bands were affected.MethodsThe 1000 Genomes Project provides an unprecedented integrated map of structural variants in phenotypically normal subjects, but there is no information on potential inclusion of subjects with apparent BCAs akin to those traditionally detected in diagnostic cytogenetics laboratories. We applied our analytical tool to 1,166 genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project with sufficient physical coverage (8.25-fold).ResultsWith this approach, we detected four reciprocal balanced translocations and four inversions, ranging in size from 57.9 kb to 13.3 Mb, all of which were confirmed by cytogenetic methods and polymerase chain reaction studies. One of these DNAs has a subtle translocation that is not readily identified by chromosome analysis because of the similarity of the banding patterns and size of exchanged segments, and another results in disruption of all transcripts of an OMIM gene.ConclusionOur study demonstrates the extension of utilizing low-pass whole-genome sequencing for unbiased detection of BCAs including translocations and inversions previously unknown in the 1000 Genomes Project.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 2 November 2017; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.170.

  15. CDC25A Protein Stability Represents a Previously Unrecognized Target of HER2 Signaling in Human Breast Cancer: Implication for a Potential Clinical Relevance in Trastuzumab Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Brunetto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The CDC25A-CDK2 pathway has been proposed as critical for the oncogenic action of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 in mammary epithelial cells. In particular, transgenic expression of CDC25A cooperates with HER2 in promoting mammary tumors, whereas CDC25A hemizygous loss attenuates the HER2-induced tumorigenesis penetrance. On the basis of this evidence of a synergism between HER2 and the cell cycle regulator CDC25A in a mouse model of mammary tumorigenesis, we investigated the role of CDC25A in human HER2-positive breast cancer and its possible implications in therapeutic response. HER2 status and CDC25A expression were assessed in 313 breast cancer patients and we found statistically significant correlation between HER2 and CDC25A (P = .007. Moreover, an HER2-positive breast cancer subgroup with high levels of CDC25A and very aggressive phenotype was identified (P = .005. Importantly, our in vitro studies on breast cancer cell lines showed that the HER2 inhibitor efficacy on cell growth and viability relied also on CDC25A expression and that such inhibition induces CDC25A down-regulation through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway and DNA damage response activation. In line with this observation, we found a statistical significant association between CDC25A overexpression and trastuzumab-combined therapy response rate in two different HER2-positive cohorts of trastuzumab-treated patients in either metastatic or neoadjuvant setting (P = .018 for the metastatic cohort and P = .021 for the neoadjuvant cohort. Our findings highlight a link between HER2 and CDC25A that positively modulates HER2- targeted therapy response, suggesting that, in HER2-positive breast cancer patients, CDC25A overexpression affects trastuzumab sensitivity.

  16. Work-life Balance Practices Among Irish Hotel Employees and Implications for HRM

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine work-life balance in the Irish hotel sector from an employee perspective with implications for HRM. This particular article presents part of a larger study on work flexibility and work-family balance (Farrell, 2012). The study included a survey of managers and employees. Two-hundred and forty-six questionnaires from employees were returned which was a 22% response rate from the original sample group. The research data show that company benefits were not ...

  17. A set of genes previously implicated in the hypoxia response might be an important modulator in the rat ear tissue response to mechanical stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orgill Dennis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wounds are increasingly important in our aging societies. Pathologies such as diabetes predispose patients to chronic wounds that can cause pain, infection, and amputation. The vacuum assisted closure device shows remarkable outcomes in wound healing. Its mechanism of action is unclear despite several hypotheses advanced. We previously hypothesized that micromechanical forces can heal wounds. To understand better the biological response of soft tissue to forces, rat ears in vivo were stretched and their gene expression patterns over time obtained. The absolute enrichment (AE algorithm that obtains a combined up and down regulated picture of the expression analysis was implemented. Results With the use of AE, the hypoxia gene set was the most important at a highly significant level. A co-expression network analysis showed that important co-regulated members of the hypoxia pathway include a glucose transporter (slc2a8, heme oxygenase, and nitric oxide synthase2 among others. Conclusion It appears that the hypoxia pathway may be an important modulator of response of soft tissue to forces. This finding gives us insights not only into the underlying biology, but also into clinical interventions that could be designed to mimic within wounded tissue the effects of forces without all the negative effects that forces themselves create.

  18. Histopathologic Review of Previously Negative Prostatic Core Needle Biopsies following a New Diagnosis of Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate by Core Needle Biopsies: Implications for Quality Assurance Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Patel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Programs for quality assurance are increasingly important in surgical pathology. Many quality assurance (QA techniques for surgical pathology were adopted from procedures introduced in cytopathology. Surgical pathology specimens have diminished in size such that the majority of diagnostic biopsies of prostatic lesions are now core needle biopsies. These specimens raise issues similar to those of cytology specimens, including concerns regarding adequacy and the representative nature of the biopsy. Due to sample size, some neoplasms may not be diagnosed on initial biopsy, raising concerns regarding false negative results. Cytopathologists have instituted QA procedures including review of all previously negative slides received within five years prior to the new diagnosis of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or gynecologic malignancy. No such requirement exists in surgical pathology for review of core biopsies. The Department of Pathology at the University of Utah instituted a QA policy requiring review of prior negative prostatic needle biopsies following a new diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma. We reviewed five years of QA records of prostate needle biopsy review. During this time, nine hundred and fifty-eight core biopsy sets were performed. Two hundred and ninety-five of these contained at least one biopsy with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Two hundred and eight patients had a prior set of prostatic needle biopsies with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. The remaining 87 had prior biopsies with either a diagnosis of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (23, small atypical acinar proliferation (21 or no evidence of malignancy (43. QA review of these 87 cases revealed two biopsies which revealed foci of adenocarcinoma. Both had been initially diagnosed as no evidence of malignancy. The false negative rate for core biopsy was 0.68%. In an additional twenty-one cases, microscopic foci of atypical small acinar proliferations were found in

  19. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN EMPLOYEE WORK VALUES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Matić, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Research has clearly established that culture affects the application of management theories and practices. Work values, in particular, are an important part of cross-cultural understanding in that they are themselves measures of cultural dimensions, and also have strong implications for many areas of management, from employee motivation to organizational communication. In order to successfully implement management practices originating in a different culture, it is necessary to first ide...

  20. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gawlik, Remigiusz; Jacobsen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis , two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a se...

  1. Ethical implications of an accelerated work life in the Danish Public School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rikke; Böwadt, Pia Rose

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the concept of alienation in order to revitalize the concept within a late modern context (Jaeggi 2016). In this paper, we will examine the critical potential of alienation, applying the concept within a Danish public school context in order to raise...... questions on ethical implications of an accelerated work life. The analysis is based on a qualitative survey asking why teachers are leaving the Danish public school....

  2. Understanding Dieting and Previous Weight Loss Attempts among Overweight and Obese Participants: Insights into My Body Is Fit and Fabulous at Work Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku; Jalil, Rohana Abdul; Wan Ishak, Wan Rosli; Hamid, Noor Fadzlina; Wan Nik, Wan Suriati; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan; Mohd, Nor Haslina; Arifin, Wan Nor; Mohamed, Wan Mohd Izani Wan; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Ismail, Rohaida; Hassim, Tengku Fatimatul Tengku; Aris, Tahir; Wan Muda, Wan Manan

    2018-01-01

    A qualitative study providing an in-depth exploration of people's view and the increasing burden of overweight and obesity is required. This study aimed to explore the understanding of dieting and previous experiences on weight loss attempts among overweight and obese government employees in Kelantan, Malaysia, prior to recruitment into the intervention program. Thirteen focus group discussions involving 129 participants from a weight-loss intervention program were conducted within the first 1 month of recruitment. These discussions were moderated by two trained researchers in the Malay language and assisted by an interview guide. They were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis was performed, and codes and themes from each discussion were constructed. The participants understood dieting with various meanings, including skipping meals and removing rice from daily diets. They applied numerous methods to lose weight and achieved various outcomes. Health and appearance, social support, and compliance with current trends were the factors motivating these participants to lose weight. Their determination to lose weight was limited by lack of self-control and motivation, experiences of unpleasant effects, influence on weight, and environmental and health factors. Real-life weight loss experiences and perceptions provided relevant insights into current weight loss management strategies. Some of these issues and misunderstandings should be emphasized in weight loss strategies during health promotion.

  3. A two process model of burnout and work engagement: distinct implications of demands and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, M P

    2008-01-01

    A model of job burnout proposes two distinct processes. The first process concerns balance of demands to resources. A poor balance leads to chronic exhaustion, an integral aspect of the burnout syndrome. The second process concerns the congruence of individual and organizational values. The model proposes that value conflicts have implications for all three aspects of burnout. It also proposes that the impact of value conflicts has only minor implications for the exhaustion aspect of burnout; they are more relevant for the cynicism and inefficacy aspects of the syndrome. The model considers distinct processes at work that concern employees' perception of organizational justice and their trust in leadership. With a sample of 725 nurses, the analysis tested one component of the theory: the extent to which value congruence enhances the prediction of burnout beyond the prediction provided by demands and resources. Future directions are discussed.

  4. Review and interpretation of previous work and new data on the hydrogeology of the Schwartzwalder Uranium Mine and vicinity, Jefferson County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan S.; Johnson, Raymond H.; Wild, Emily C.

    2011-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder deposit is the largest known vein type uranium deposit in the United States. Located about eight miles northwest of Golden, Colorado it occurs in Proterozoic metamorphic rocks and was formed by hydrothermal fluid flow, mineralization, and deformation during the Laramide Orogeny. A complex brittle fault zone hosts the deposit comprising locally brecciated carbonate, oxide, and sulfide minerals. Mining of pitchblende, the primary ore mineral, began in 1953 and an extensive network of underground workings was developed. Mine dewatering, treatment of the effluent and its discharge into the adjacent Ralston Creek was done under State permit from about 1990 through about 2008. Mining and dewatering ceased in 2000 and natural groundwater rebound has filled the mine workings to a current elevation that is above Ralston Creek but that is still below the lowest ground level adit. Water in the 'mine pool' has concentrations of dissolved uranium in excess of 1,000 times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 30 milligrams per liter. Other dissolved constituents such as molybdenum, radium, and sulfate are also present in anomalously high concentrations. Ralston Creek flows in a narrow valley containing Quaternary alluvium predominantly derived from weathering of crystalline bedrock including local mineralized rock. Just upstream of the mine site, two capped and unsaturated waste rock piles with high radioactivity sit on an alluvial terrace. As Ralston Creek flows past the mine site, a host of dissolved metal concentrations increase. Ralston Creek eventually discharges into Ralston Reservoir about 2.5 miles downstream. Because of highly elevated uranium concentrations, the State of Colorado issued an enforcement action against the mine permit holder requiring renewed collection and treatment of alluvial groundwater. As part of planned mine reclamation, abundant data were collected and compiled into a report by Wyman and Effner

  5. Individual, employment and psychosocial factors influencing walking to work: Implications for intervention design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available Promoting walking for the journey to and from work (commuter walking is a potential strategy for increasing physical activity. Understanding the factors influencing commuter walking is important for identifying target groups and designing effective interventions. This study aimed to examine individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors associated with commuter walking and to discuss the implications for targeting and future design of interventions.1,544 employees completed a baseline survey as part of the 'Walking Works' intervention project (33.4% male; 36.3% aged <30 years. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the associations of individual (age, ethnic group, educational qualifications, number of children <16 and car ownership, employment-related (distance lived from work, free car parking at work, working hours, working pattern and occupation and psychosocial factors (perceived behavioural control, intention, social norms and social support from work colleagues with commuter walking.Almost half of respondents (n = 587, 49% were classified as commuter walkers. Those who were aged <30 years, did not have a car, had no free car parking at work, were confident of including some walking or intended to walk to or from work on a regular basis, and had support from colleagues for walking were more likely to be commuter walkers. Those who perceived they lived too far away from work to walk, thought walking was less convenient than using a car for commuting, did not have time to walk, needed a car for work or had always travelled the same way were less likely to be commuter walkers.A number of individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors were associated with commuter walking. Target groups for interventions to promote walking to and from work may include those in older age groups and those who own or have access to a car. Multi-level interventions targeting individual level behaviour change, social support within

  6. Individual, employment and psychosocial factors influencing walking to work: Implications for intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Esliger, Dale W; Taylor, Ian M; Sherar, Lauren B

    2017-01-01

    Promoting walking for the journey to and from work (commuter walking) is a potential strategy for increasing physical activity. Understanding the factors influencing commuter walking is important for identifying target groups and designing effective interventions. This study aimed to examine individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors associated with commuter walking and to discuss the implications for targeting and future design of interventions. 1,544 employees completed a baseline survey as part of the 'Walking Works' intervention project (33.4% male; 36.3% aged employment-related (distance lived from work, free car parking at work, working hours, working pattern and occupation) and psychosocial factors (perceived behavioural control, intention, social norms and social support from work colleagues) with commuter walking. Almost half of respondents (n = 587, 49%) were classified as commuter walkers. Those who were aged work, were confident of including some walking or intended to walk to or from work on a regular basis, and had support from colleagues for walking were more likely to be commuter walkers. Those who perceived they lived too far away from work to walk, thought walking was less convenient than using a car for commuting, did not have time to walk, needed a car for work or had always travelled the same way were less likely to be commuter walkers. A number of individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors were associated with commuter walking. Target groups for interventions to promote walking to and from work may include those in older age groups and those who own or have access to a car. Multi-level interventions targeting individual level behaviour change, social support within the workplace and organisational level travel policies may be required in order to promote commuter walking.

  7. Future trends in health and health care: implications for social work practice in an aging society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, William J; Davidson, Kay W

    2013-01-01

    Major economic, political, demographic, social, and operational system factors are prompting evolutionary changes in health care delivery. Of particular significance, the "graying of America" promises new challenges and opportunities for health care social work. At the same time, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, evolution of Accountable Care Organizations, and an emphasis on integrated, transdisciplinary, person-centered care represent fundamental shifts in service delivery with implications for social work practice and education. This article identifies the aging shift in American demography, its impact on health policy legislation, factors influencing fundamentally new service delivery paradigms, and opportunities of the profession to address the health disparities and care needs of an aging population. It underscores the importance of social work inclusion in integrated health care delivery and offers recommendations for practice education.

  8. Job crafting at the team and individual level: Implications for work engagement and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tims, M.; Bakker, A.B.; Derks, D.; Rhenen, van W.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that employee job crafting is positively related to job performance through employee work engagement. The present study expands this individual-level perspective to the team level by hypothesizing that team job crafting relates positively to team performance through team

  9. When Mothers' Work Matters for Youths' Daily Time Use: Implications of Evening and Weekend Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Kelly, Erin L; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Crouter, Ann C

    2017-08-01

    Drawing upon the work-home resources model, this study examined the implications of mothers' evening and weekend shifts for youths' time with mother, alone, and hanging out with peers unsupervised, with attention to both the amount and day-to-day consistency of time use. Data came from 173 mothers who worked in the long-term care industry and their youths who provided daily diaries. Multilevel modeling revealed that youths whose mothers worked more evening shifts on average spent less time with their mothers compared to youths whose mothers worked fewer evening shifts. Youths whose mothers worked more weekend shifts, however, spent more time with their mothers and exhibited less consistency in their time in all three activity domains compared to youths whose mothers worked fewer weekend shifts. Girls, not boys, spent less time alone on days when mothers worked weekend shifts than on days with standard shifts. Older but not younger adolescents spent more time hanging out with friends on evening and weekend shift days, and their unsupervised peer time was less consistent across days when mothers worked more evening shifts. These effects adjusted for sociodemographic and day characteristics, including school day, number of children in the household, mothers' marital status and work hours, and time with fathers. Our results illuminate the importance of the timing and day of mothers' work for youths' daily activities. Future interventions should consider how to increase mothers' resources to deal with constraints on parenting due to their work during nonstandard hours, with attention to child gender and age.

  10. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Gawlik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis, two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a self-administered, web-based questionnaire with single-answer, limited choice qualitative & quantitative, as well as explanatory research (informal moderated group discussions. Findings: The research on perceptions of determinants of quality of life and attractiveness of life strategies shows that in a country with relatively high socio-economic development level, such as Norway, differences in rankings do exist. They can be observed in relevance to both material and non-material QoL determinants. Implications & Recommendations: The study revealed a need for deeper research on individually driven early decision-making of future employees and entrepreneurs. This will result in closer modelling of socio-economic phenomena, including more accurate adaptation to trends on the labour market and creation of new business models. Contribution & Value Added: Research value added comes from the comparison of perceptions of quality of life determinants between countries at various stages of socio-economic development and its implications for human resource management.

  11. [Culture and cultural gaps in work teams: implications for organisational commitment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Lanero, Ana; Yurrebaso, Amaia; Tejero, Blanca

    2007-05-01

    Some theoreticians of organisational commitment have proposed that culture is an important determinant of organisational commitment. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined the role that work teams culture (subculture) and their cultural gaps play in commitment. This study is an attempt to overcome this lack. Using a sample of 375 work teams from various public and private organisations, it was found that the results confirmed our proposals. Cultural gaps were negatively related to commitment; the teams subculture was positively related to commitment, and more highly to commitment to values than to commitment to continuing. Contrary to the results of other studies, the demographic variables (age, time on the team, time in the company) were not significant, except that educational level was related to the commitment to continue. The implications of these results are analysed.

  12. First year doctors experience of work related wellbeing and implications for educational provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Helen M

    2014-06-01

    To explore factors which affect newly qualified doctors' wellbeing and look at the implications for educational provision. Data were collected by free association narrative interviews of nine Foundation doctors and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Two Foundation programme directors were interviewed to verify data validity. Two main themes emerged: newly qualified doctors' wellbeing is affected by 1) personal experience and 2) work related factors. They start work feeling unprepared by medical school, work experience ("shadowing") or induction programmes at the beginning of the post. Senior colleague support and feedback are much valued but often lacking with little discussion of critical incidents and difficult issues. Challenges include sick patients, prescribing, patient/relative communication and no consistent team structure. Working shift patterns affects personal and social life. Enjoyment and reward come from helping patients, feelings of making a difference or teaching medical students. Whilst becoming familiar with their roles, newly qualified doctors search for identity and build up resilience. The support given during this process affects their wellbeing including coping with day to day challenges, whether posts are experienced as rewarding and how work influences their personal and social lives.

  13. Work-related outcome after acute coronary syndrome: Implications of complex cardiac rehabilitation in occupational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Monica; Ratti, Gennaro; Gerardi, Donato; Capogrosso, Cristina; Ricciardi, Gianfranco; Fulgione, Cosimo; Latte, Salvatore; Tammaro, Paolo; Covino, Gregorio; Nienhaus, Albert; Grazillo, Elpidio Maria; Mallardo, Mario; Capogrosso, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is frequent in the working-age population. Traditional outcomes, such as mortality and hospital readmission, are useful for evaluating prognosis. Fit-for-work is an emerging outcome with clinical as well as socioeconomic significance. We describe the possible benefit of a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program for return to work (RTW) after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We evaluated 204 patients with recent ACS. They were divided into 4 groups on the basis of their occupational work load: very light (VL), light (L), moderate (M), and heavy (H). Work-related outcomes were assessed with the Work Performance Scale (WPS) of the Functional Status Questionnaire and as "days missed from work" (DMW) in the previous 4 weeks. The variables considered for outcomes were percent ejection fraction, functional capacity expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs), and participation or non-participation in the CR program (CR+ and CR-). One hundred thirty (66%) patients took part in the CR program. Total WPS scores for CR+ and CR- subgroups were VL group: 18±4 vs. 14±4 (p workplace, in particular among clerical workers. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. Implications of current resident work-hour guidelines on the future practice of surgery in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruscak, Adam A; VanderBeek, Laura; Ott, Michael C; Kelly, Stephen; Forbes, Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    Work-hour restrictions have had a profound impact on surgical training. However, little is known of how work-hour restrictions may affect the future practice patterns of current surgical residents. The purpose of this study is to compare the anticipated career practice patterns of surgical residents who are training within an environment of work-hour restrictions with the current practice of faculty surgeons. An electronic survey was sent to all surgery residents and faculty at 2 Canadian university-affiliated medical centers. The survey consisted of questions regarding expected (residents) or current (faculty) practice patterns. A total of 149 residents and 125 faculty members completed the survey (50.3% and 52.3% response rates, respectively). A greater proportion of males were in the faculty cohort than in the resident group (77.6% vs 62.4%, p = 0.0003). More faculty than residents believed that work-hour restrictions have a negative impact on both residency education (40.8% vs 20.8%, p = 0.008) and preparation for a surgical career (56.8% vs 19.5%, p implications and might require larger surgical groups and reconsideration of resource allocation. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Impact of Immigration Legislations on Latino Families: Implications for Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Romero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Under the Obama administration, approximately 1.2 million undocumented immigrants have been deported, (around 400,000 in 2011, placing children (who are often American citizens at risk of unnecessary mental anguish as well as financial hardship. With republican and democratic leadership tied up in ideological debates addressing the issue of comprehensive immigration reform, many states are left in a dire position and we as a nation end up with draconian anti-immigrant legislation that places more Latino immigrant families at risk. Enforcement-only initiatives leave children and families of immigrants in our country vulnerable. Comprehensive immigration reform is necessary. This article discusses the prevalence of such policy initiatives and their implications for social work education, practice, research, and policy.

  16. Implications of American Indian gambling for social work research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momper, Sandra L

    2010-04-01

    Since the 1988 passage of the Indian Gaming and Regulatory Act (IGRA), American Indian tribal communities have rapidly opened up casinos. American Indian participation in recreational gambling has increased, resulting in an increase in problem and pathological gambling. However, increased revenues from gaming have significantly benefited tribes. Background information on the Supreme Court case that led to passage of the IGRA and subsequently the opening of casinos on Indian reservations is provided. Data are presented on American Indian gambling studies that explore the impact of gambling on the development of problem or pathological gambling among American Indians. Reports and data are presented on the effects of gambling on the socioeconomic development of tribal communities. The implications of American Indian gaming for social work research and practice are discussed.

  17. NEAMS Software Licensing, Release, and Distribution: Implications for FY2013 Work Package Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernholdt, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The vision of the NEAMS program is to bring truly predictive modeling and simulation (M and S) capabilities to the nuclear engineering community in order to enable a new approach to the analysis of nuclear systems. NEAMS anticipates issuing in FY 2018 a full release of its computational 'Fermi Toolkit' aimed at advanced reactor and fuel cycles. The NEAMS toolkit involves extensive software development activities, some of which have already been underway for several years, however, the Advanced Modeling and Simulation Office (AMSO), which sponsors the NEAMS program, has not yet issued any official guidance regarding software licensing, release, and distribution policies. This motivated an FY12 task in the Capability Transfer work package to develop and recommend an appropriate set of policies. The current preliminary report is intended to provide awareness of issues with implications for work package planning for FY13. We anticipate a small amount of effort associated with putting into place formal licenses and contributor agreements for NEAMS software which doesn't already have them. We do not anticipate any additional effort or costs associated with software release procedures or schedules beyond those dictated by the quality expectations for the software. The largest potential costs we anticipate would be associated with the setup and maintenance of shared code repositories for development and early access to NEAMS software products. We also anticipate an opportunity, with modest associated costs, to work with the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) to clarify export control assessment policies for software under development.

  18. Resident Perspectives on Work-Life Policies and Implications for Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westercamp, Nicole; Wang, Raziya S; Fassiotto, Magali

    2018-02-01

    As resident burnout increases, there is a need for better awareness, resources, and interventions. Challenges in balancing work and life priorities have been implicated in contributing to physician burnout. Institutional work-life policies (WLPs) are critical tools to meet work-life needs. This study investigates the influence of WLPs on residents' experiences. The authors emailed a SurveyMonkey link to the APA chief resident and Minority Fellow listservs and directly to 94 psychiatry program directors and 52 fellowship directors nationwide to distribute a survey to residents regarding WLP use and barriers, as well as burnout. Estimated response rate was 12-23%. The authors assessed the anonymous responses using SPSS to evaluate for relationships between awareness of WLPs, perceptions/barriers surrounding their usage, and burnout. The authors analyzed 255 responses. Awareness and use of policies ranged from 2 to 33%. A prominent barrier to WLPs is that use results in shifting workload to co-residents (48% agree). Respondents who perceived leadership to view use of WLPs as a sign of weakness (16% agree) were less likely to use WLPs (t (89) = -3.52, p burnout (41%) perceived vastly higher barriers to using WLPs as compared to those without burnout. This study supports the need for further investigation of WLPs to mitigate resident burnout and identifies important perceived barriers that affect the use of WLPs including low awareness, potential for shifting workload to co-residents, and negative perceptions of leadership attitudes toward WLPs.

  19. The impact of work environment on mood disorders and suicide: Evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Min; Postolache, Teodor T

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence estimating an impact of occupational factors on mood disorders and suicide, and the efficacy of interventions. This review is based on literature searches using Medline and Psych INFO from 1966 to 2007 (keywords: work stress, job insecurity, job strain, shift work, violence, occupational health, mood disorders, depression, and suicide). To establish the relationship between occupational variables and mood disorders, we focused on clinically significant disorders rather than depressive symptoms. During the last decade, prospective epidemiological studies have suggested a predictive association between the work environment and mood disorders. Recently, increasing numbers of clinical trials have shown favorable effect size of intervention and suggested preferable return-on-investment results. However, low awareness and social stigma still decrease workers access to treatment. Mental health professionals in conjunction with employers have to devise a creative system to make the quality care being offered more accessible to employees. In addition, further outcome data is needed to evaluate the benefit of managing mood disorders in the workplace, and to foster awareness of positive implications for employees, employers, their families, and the society at large. In addition, the work environment, with its chemical (e.g. chemosensory factors, pollutants), physical (e.g. lighting, noise, temperature, outdoor views and activities), biological (e.g., chronobiological factors, allergens, infectious agents), psychological (e.g. demand-control, effort-reward balance), social (e.g. cohesiveness, support), and organizational (e.g. leadership styles) component should meet minimal standards, and may improve with striving towards the optimum.

  20. Effective Coping With Supervisor Conflict Depends on Control: Implications for Work Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough, Erin M; Chang, Chu-Hsiang

    2018-01-11

    This study examined the interactive effects of interpersonal conflict at work, coping strategy, and perceived control specific to the conflict on employee work strain using multisource and time-lagged data across two samples. In Sample 1, multisource data was collected from 438 employees as well as data from participant-identified secondary sources (e.g., significant others, best friends). In Sample 2, time-lagged data from 100 full-time employees was collected in a constructive replication. Overall, findings suggested that the success of coping efforts as indicated by lower strains hinges on the combination of the severity of the stressor, perceived control over the stressor, and coping strategy used (problem-focused vs. emotion-focused coping). Results from the current study provide insights for why previous efforts to document the moderating effects of coping have been inconsistent, especially with regards to emotion-focused coping. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Vehicle emission implications of drivers' smart advisory system for traffic operations in work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Wireless communication systems have been broadly applied in various complicated traffic operations to improve mobility and safety on roads, which may raise a concern about the implication of the new technology on vehicle emissions. This paper explores how the wireless communication systems improve drivers' driving behaviors and its contributions to the emission reduction, in terms of Operating Mode (OpMode) IDs distribution used in emission estimation. A simulated work zone with completed traffic operation was selected as a test bed. Sixty subjects were recruited for the tests, whose demographic distribution was based on the Census data in Houston, Texas. A scene of a pedestrian's crossing in the work zone was designed for the driving test. Meanwhile, a wireless communication system called Drivers Smart Advisory System (DSAS) was proposed and introduced in the driving simulation, which provided drivers with warning messages in the work zone. Two scenarios were designed for a leading vehicle as well as for a following vehicle driving through the work zone, which included a base test without any wireless communication systems, and a driving test with the trigger of the DSAS. Subjects' driving behaviors in the simulation were recorded to evaluate safety and estimate the vehicle emission using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released emission model MOVES. The correlation between drivers' driving behavior and the distribution of the OpMode ID during each scenario was investigated. Results show that the DSAS was able to induce drivers to accelerate smoothly, keep longer headway distance and stop earlier for a hazardous situation in the work zone, which driving behaviors result in statistically significant reduction in vehicle emissions for almost all studied air pollutants (p-values range from 4.10E-51 to 2.18E-03). The emission reduction was achieved by the switching the distribution of the OpMode IDs from higher emission zones to lower emission zones

  2. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  3. Determinants of Work Motivation and Work Ability among Older Workers and Implications for the Desire for Continued Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Büsch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In times of demographic change, with the associated challenges for social security systems and the looming lack of skilled workers, extending working life becomes increasingly significant. According to the continuity theory (Atchley 1989 we can assume that individuals who are satisfied with their structures and performance will stay at work longer. We will therefore examine whether motivation and perceived work ability have an influence on the desire for continued employment. In addition, we will answer the question of whether factors that have a positive influence on motivation and work ability also have a direct influence on continued employment. Besides objective factors such as enterprise size and occupational status, we will examine subjective factors, such as assessment of recognition, the demands, and the meaningfulness of the work for their contributions to the explanation. The following analysis is based on a survey taken in May 2008 together with the Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung (BiB. It enables us to identify the desire for continued employment in old age, the existing work motivation, and the state of health. The core results of the statistical analysis show that in men high motivation is linked to the desire for continued employment in retirement age. This does not apply to women; for them, work ability is the decisive criterion. In general, we observe that a positive assessment of the subjective influencing factors strengthen work motivation. In addition, with regard to objective factors it was ascertained that for men the working hour regime (full-time work and occupation status (salaried “white-collar” employees correlate positively with the desire for continued employment. In particular, meaningful work increases motivation among men and work ability increases motivation among women. It appears important that enterprises convince their employees of the meaningfulness of the work.

  4. Exposure to a predator scent induces chronic behavioral changes in rats previously exposed to low-level blast: Implications for the relationship of blast-related TBI to PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Perez-Garcia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has been unfortunately common in veterans who served in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The postconcussion syndrome associated with these mTBIs has frequently appeared in combination with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The presence of PTSD has complicated diagnosis since clinically PTSD and the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI have many overlapping symptoms. In particular establishing how much of the symptom complex can be attributed to the psychological trauma associated with PTSD in contrast to the physical injury of TBI has proven difficult. Indeed some have suggested that much of what is now being called blast-related postconcussion syndrome is better explained by PTSD. The relationship between the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI and PTSD is complex. Association of the two disorders might be viewed as additive effects of independent psychological and physical traumas suffered in a war zone. However we previously found that rats exposed to repetitive low-level blast exposure in the absence of a psychological stressor developed a variety of anxiety and PTSD-related behavioral traits that were present months following the last blast exposure. Here we show that a single predator scent challenge delivered 8 months after the last blast exposure induces chronic anxiety related changes in blast-exposed rats that are still present 45 days later. These observations suggest that in addition to independently inducing PTSD-related traits, blast exposure sensitizes the brain to react abnormally to a subsequent psychological stressor. These studies have implications for conceptualizing the relationship between blast-related mTBI and PTSD and suggest that blast-related mTBI in humans may predispose to the later development of PTSD in reaction to subsequent psychological stressors.

  5. A pilot study of the safety implications of Australian nurses' sleep and work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrian, Jillian; Lamond, Nicole; van den Heuvel, Cameron; Pincombe, Jan; Rogers, Ann E; Dawson, Drew

    2006-01-01

    The frequency and severity of adverse events in Australian healthcare is under increasing scrutiny. A recent state government report identified 31 events involving "death or serious [patient] harm" and 452 "very high risk" incidents. Australia-wide, a previous study identified 2,324 adverse medical events (AME) in a single year, with more than half considered preventable. Despite the recognized link between fatigue and error in other industries, to date, few studies of medical errors have assessed the fatigue of the healthcare professionals involved. Nurses work extended and unpredictable hours with a lack of regular breaks and are therefore likely to experience elevated fatigue. Currently, there is very little available information on Australian nurses' sleep or fatigue levels, nor is there any information about whether this affects their performance. This study therefore aims to examine work hours, sleep, fatigue and error occurrence in Australian nurses. Using logbooks, 23 full-time nurses in a metropolitan hospital completed daily recordings for one month (644 days, 377 shifts) of their scheduled and actual work hours, sleep length and quality, sleepiness, and fatigue levels. Frequency and type of nursing errors, near errors, and observed errors (made by others) were recorded. Nurses reported struggling to remain awake during 36% of shifts. Moderate to high levels of stress, physical exhaustion, and mental exhaustion were reported on 23%, 40%, and 36% of shifts, respectively. Extreme drowsiness while driving or cycling home was reported on 45 occasions (11.5%), with three reports of near accidents. Overall, 20 errors, 13 near errors, and 22 observed errors were reported. The perceived potential consequences for the majority of errors were minor; however, 11 errors were associated with moderate and four with potentially severe consequences. Nurses reported that they had trouble falling asleep on 26.8% of days, had frequent arousals on 34.0% of days, and that

  6. Implications of Shared Interactive Displays for Work at a Surgery Ward: Coordination, Articulation Work and Context-awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lis Witte Kjær

    2008-01-01

    We report on experiences gained from the use at a surgery ward of shared interactive displays to support coordination and communication.  The displays merge large displays, video feed, RFID tag, chat and mobile phones to facilitate better coordination and articulation of work tasks and enhance...... appropriate meaning to new clues by clinicians and learning new ways of cooperating. Trade-offs had to be made, since work and benefits were differentially redistributed. We propose that computer support for medical work should support flexible appropriation and learning....

  7. Exploring Challenges Faced by Students as they Transition to Social Justice Work in the “Real World”: Implications for Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Richards-Schuster

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For students who are actively engaged in social justice efforts on their college/university campuses, the transition from a relatively easy platform for engagement to the “real world” can pose significant challenges and create new realities for negotiation. Little is known, however, about the nature of these transitions into post-graduate social justice experiences. Drawing on an open-ended survey of recent graduates (92 respondents, 50% response rate from a social justice minor in a school of social work, we explore the ways in which respondents described their transitions into social justice work, focusing on a set of key challenges that emerged from our analysis and reflecting on the implications of these challenges for social work practice and future research. Understanding some of the challenges in making this transition will help social work and non-profit administrators to better support this population’s future volunteer, service, and employment needs.

  8. Walking the Tightrope between Work and Non-Work Life: Strategies Employed by British and Chinese Academics and Their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoni; Caudle, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with 30 academics from various disciplines in both UK and Chinese universities, this comparative study aims to offer new insights into how academics in British and Chinese universities maintained work-life balance and the similarities and differences experienced between academics of both countries. This study finds…

  9. Implications of Shared Interactive Displays for Work at a Surgery Ward: Coordination, Articulation Work and Context-awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lis Witte Kjær

    2008-01-01

    We report on experiences gained from the use at a surgery ward of shared interactive displays to support coordination and communication.  The displays merge large displays, video feed, RFID tag, chat and mobile phones to facilitate better coordination and articulation of work tasks and enhance...

  10. Exploring the implications of the influence of organisational culture on work-life balance practices: evidence from Nigerian medical doctors

    OpenAIRE

    Adisa, Toyin Ajibade; Modi, Chima; Osabutey, Ellis L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - Whilst significant evidence of western work-life balance (WLB) challenges exists, studies that explore Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are scarce. This article explores how organisational culture in Nigerian medical organisations influences doctors’ WLB and examines the implications of supportive and unsupportive cultures on doctors’ WLB. \\ud \\ud Methodology - The paper uses qualitative data gleaned from semi-structured interviews of 60 medical doctors across the six geo-political zones of...

  11. Work and Psychiatric Illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Implications for Career Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Annie; Miller, Judi

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the influence of Maori culture upon psychiatric service provision in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the implications of this for career counselling of people with experience of mental illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The research explored the experiences of a group of women in Aotearoa/New Zealand who have been diagnosed with…

  12. Alternative Work Patterns: Implications for Worklife Education and Training. Worker Education and Training Policies Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Jane

    This monograph explores the major categories of alternative work patterns, e.g., flexitime, permanent part-time employment, job sharing, the compressed work week, and reduced work time. Advantages and disadvantages of each type are discussed, and new insight is offered into an unexplored dimension of the major types of alternative work patterns:…

  13. Work Values and Attitudes: A Review of Recent Research and Its Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Sabir A.

    1980-01-01

    Work values and attitudes are important in understanding an individual's career choice. The historical development of the concept of work, cross-cultural perspectives on work, and development of work values are discussed in light of recent research on sex and socioeconomic class differences. (JN)

  14. Policy Contexts of Social Work in Britain: the wider implications of 'New' Labour and the 'New Legal Regime'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Several commentators have expressed disappointment with New Labour's apparent adherence to the policy frameworks of the previous Conservative administrations. The employment orientation of its welfare programmes, the contradictory nature of the social exclusion initiatives, and the continuing obsession with public sector marketisation, inspections, audits, standards and so on, have all come under critical scrutiny (c.f., Blyth 2001; Jordan 2001; Orme 2001. This paper suggests that in order to understand the socio-economic and political contexts affecting social work we need to examine the relationship between New Labour's modernisation project and its insertion within an architecture of global governance. In particular, membership of the European Union (EU, International Monetary Fund (IMF and World Trade Organisation (WTO set the parameters for domestic policy in important ways. Whilst much has been written about the economic dimensions of 'globalisation' in relation to social work rather less has been noted about the ways in which domestic policy agenda are driven by multilateral governance objectives. This policy dimension is important in trying to respond to various changes affecting social work as a professional activity. What is possible, what is encouraged, how things might be done, is tightly bounded by the policy frameworks governing practice and affected by those governing the lives of service users. It is unhelpful to see policy formulation in purely national terms as the UK is inserted into a network governance structure, a regulatory framework where decisions are made by many countries and organisations and agencies. Together, they are producing a 'new legal regime', characterised by a marked neo-liberal policy agenda. This paper aims to demonstrate the relationship of New Labour's modernisation programme to these new forms of legality by examining two main policy areas and the welfare implications they are enmeshed in. The first is

  15. A concept analysis of 'Meaning in work' and its implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soohee

    2015-10-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of 'meaning in work'. Associated with initiatives to improve the quality of working life and the emerging movement of positive organizations, 'meaning in work' has been studied as a positive individual-level state. 'Meaning in work' has potential benefits that will improve the nursing workforce if this concept is embraced in nursing. However, the concept is not clearly defined because it has been approached from diverse theoretical perspectives and used interchangeably with analogous terms. A concept analysis. Three key terms (using 'work', 'meaning' or 'meaningful', 'meaning of work', 'logotherapy') were searched in the CINAHL, PsycINFO, Business Source Complete and ABI/INFORM Global online databases from January 1940-March 2015. Among 346 articles retrieved, 28 studies were included for this concept analysis. The procedure of concept analysis developed by Walker and Avant (2011) was used. Four critical attributes are identified: (1) experienced positive emotion at work; (2) meaning from work itself; (3) meaningful purpose and goals of work; and (4) work as a part of life that contributes towards meaningful existence. The identified antecedent of 'meaning in work' was a cognitive shift and the identified consequences were positive personal experience and positive impact on peers and organizations. This article provides a clear definition of 'meaning in work'. The resulting coherent definition will facilitate the use of 'meaning in work' in nursing research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Working 9-5: Causal Relationships Between Singers' "Day Jobs" and Their Performance Work, With Implications for Vocal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Irene; Wilson, Pat H

    2017-03-01

    It is acknowledged generally that professional contemporary commercial music (CCM) singers engage in supplementary employment ("the day job") to achieve and maintain a reliable living wage. In this paper, consideration is given to the impact of such nonperformance employment on CCM's sustainable vocal health. Collected data from a survey of 102 professional contemporary gig singers were analysed using descriptive statistical procedures from the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Although these data provided descriptions of the personal characteristics of individuals in the sample, the inclusion of open format questions encouraged participants to report details of their "lived" experience. Additionally, a meta-analysis of a range of associated literature was undertaken. Sixty-five participants (N = 102) reported that in addition to their heavy performance voice use, they were employed in "other" work (the "day job") where their speaking voice loads were high. In responding to open-ended questions, many proffered written comments that were unprompted. The collected data from this element of the research study are reported here. We propose that at least some causal factors of singers' reported voice problems may lie in the misuse or overuse of their everyday speaking voice (as demanded by their "day job") rather than a misuse of their singing voice. These findings have practical application to all whose concern is care for the vocal or emotional health and performance longevity of professional singers. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Medicaid personal care services program: implications for social work practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, J S; Palley, H A

    1991-05-01

    Results of a survey of Medicaid personal care programs in 15 states and the District of Columbia in 1987 show that these programs suffer from many problems. Low wages and slow payment make recruitment and retention of qualified workers difficult. Other problems include lack of coordination among agencies, lack of adequate standards for training or supervision of workers, unequal access to programs, and inequities among states. Implications for social workers are discussed.

  18. Work-Family Attitudes and Beliefs: Implications for Future Air Force Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Stephanie

    2001-01-01

    .... There are many potential consequences of these shifts. These changes impact the very nucleus of work and family, and often result in conflict with the organization's culture as attempts are made to provide balance between work and family...

  19. Men's Provider-Role Attitudes: Implications for Household Work and Marital Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Crouter, Ann C.

    1990-01-01

    Examined spousal division of work inside and outside family home in couples (N=43) and cognitions men attach to their work and family roles. Found men's provider-role attitudes were related to their family work involvement. Found congruence of role beliefs and role behavior within home related to higher levels of marital satisfaction for men.…

  20. The State of Gerontological Social Work Education in California: Implications for Curricula Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Goodman, Catherine; Ranney, Molly; Min, Jong Won; Takahashi, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    California has actively engaged in the Hartford Geriatric Social Work Initiative. Subsequently, the California Social Work Education Center Aging Initiative conducted a university survey of gerontology education in California graduate social work schools ("N"?=?17). In 2005, students taking aging courses were 12% in comparison to a…

  1. Measuring production loss due to health and work environment problems: construct validity and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Malin Lohela; Bergström, Gunnar; Björklund, Christina; Hagberg, Jan; Jensen, Irene

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to validate two measures of production loss, health-related and work environment-related production loss, concerning their associations with health status and work environment factors. Validity was assessed by evaluating the construct validity. Health problems related and work environment-related problems (or factors) were included in separate analyses and evaluated regarding the significant difference in proportion of explained variation (R) of production loss. health problems production loss was not found to fulfill the criteria for convergent validity in this study; however, the measure of work environment-related production loss did fulfill the criteria that were set up. The measure of work environment-related production loss can be used to screen for production loss due to work environment problems as well as an outcome measure when evaluating the effect of organizational interventions.

  2. Daytime Sleepiness in Men During Early Fatherhood: Implications for Work Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Gary; Van Vorst, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    This study measured the daytime sleepiness (DS) and work safety of fathers during the first 12 weeks of their babies' lives (i.e., early fatherhood). A questionnaire was developed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Safety Behaviour at Work Scale, a self-reported sleep history, and a work-related incident history. Of the 221 participants, the vast majority reported they experienced less than 6 hours of interrupted sleep per night during the 12 weeks of the study, and an increasing frequency and severity of DS. The study also revealed an inverse correlation between ESS and Safety Behaviour at Work scores; fathers were 14% more likely to report a near-miss accident at work at 12 weeks. This study posits that antenatal classes and assessment of fathers' sleepiness at work by occupational health practitioners could assist fathers in reducing daytime sleepiness and mitigating the risk of workplace incidents. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Exploring science teachers' perceptions of experimentation: implications for restructuring school practical work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bing; Li, Xiaoxiao

    2017-09-01

    It is commonly recognised that practical work has a distinctive and central role in science teaching and learning. Although a large number of studies have addressed the definitions, typologies, and purposes of practical work, few have consulted practicing science teachers. This study explored science teachers' perceptions of experimentation for the purpose of restructuring school practical work in view of science practice. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 87 science teachers at the secondary school level. In the interviews, science teachers were asked to make a comparison between students' experiments and scientific experiments. Eight dimensions of experimentation were generated from the qualitative data analysis, and the distributions of these eight dimensions between the two types of experiments were compared and analysed. An ideal model of practical work was suggested for restructuring practical work at the secondary school level, and some issues related to the effective enactment of practical work were discussed.

  4. Nonstandard Maternal Work Schedules: Implications for African American Children’s Early Language Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Odom, Erika C.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Crouter, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, observed maternal positive engagement and perception of work-family spillover were examined as mediators of the association between maternal nonstandard work schedules and children’s expressive language outcomes in 231 African American families living in rural households. Mothers reported their work schedules when their child was 24 months of age and children’s expressive language development was assessed during a picture book task at 24 months and with a standardized assessmen...

  5. Working Memory and Reinforcement Schedule Jointly Determine Reinforcement Learning in Children: Potential Implications for Behavioral Parent Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elien Segers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral Parent Training (BPT is often provided for childhood psychiatric disorders. These disorders have been shown to be associated with working memory impairments. BPT is based on operant learning principles, yet how operant principles shape behavior (through the partial reinforcement (PRF extinction effect, i.e., greater resistance to extinction that is created when behavior is reinforced partially rather than continuously and the potential role of working memory therein is scarcely studied in children. This study explored the PRF extinction effect and the role of working memory therein using experimental tasks in typically developing children.Methods: Ninety-seven children (age 6–10 completed a working memory task and an operant learning task, in which children acquired a response-sequence rule under either continuous or PRF (120 trials, followed by an extinction phase (80 trials. Data of 88 children were used for analysis.Results: The PRF extinction effect was confirmed: We observed slower acquisition and extinction in the PRF condition as compared to the continuous reinforcement (CRF condition. Working memory was negatively related to acquisition but not extinction performance.Conclusion: Both reinforcement contingencies and working memory relate to acquisition performance. Potential implications for BPT are that decreasing working memory load may enhance the chance of optimally learning through reinforcement.

  6. The Information and Communication Technology User Role: Implications for the Work Role and Inter-Role Spillover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczek, Matthew M; Pichler, Shaun; Turel, Ofir; Greenhaus, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Management and organization research has traditionally focused on employees' work role and the interface between their work and family roles. We suggest that persons assume a third role in modern society that is relevant to work and organizations, namely the Information and Communication Technology User (ICTU) role. Based on role theory and boundary theory, we develop propositions about the characteristics of this role, as well as how ICTU role characteristics are related to boundary spanning activity, inter-role spillover with the work role, and work role performance. To this end, we first conceptualize the ICTU role and its associations with work and family roles. We then apply identity theory and boundary management theory to advance our understanding of how the ICTU role is related to criteria that are important to individuals and to organizations, namely self-selection into certain types of work roles and positive and negative inter-role spillover. The implications of this role for theory, research, and practice in management and organizations are discussed.

  7. Mexican Americans are Less Likely to Return to Work Following Stroke: Clinical and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Wing, Jeffrey J; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Brown, Devin L; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2016-08-01

    Greater poststroke disability and U.S. employment policies may disadvantage minority stroke survivors from returning to work. We explored ethnic differences in return to work among Mexican Americans (MAs) and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) working at the time of their stroke. Stroke patients were identified from the population-based BASIC (Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi) study from August 2011 to December 2013. Employment status was obtained at baseline and 90-day interviews. Sequential logistic regression models were built to assess ethnic differences in return to work after accounting for the following: (1) age (working at the time of their stroke, of which 125 (63%) completed the 90-day outcome interview. Forty-nine (40%) stroke survivors returned to work by 90 days. MAs were less likely to return to work (OR = .45, 95% CI .22-.94) than NHWs. The ethnic difference became nonsignificant after adjusting for NIHSS (OR = .59, 95% CI .24-1.44) and further attenuated after adjusting for education (OR = .85, 95% CI .32- 2.22). The majority of stroke survivors did not return to work within 90 days of their stroke. MA stroke survivors were less likely to return to work after stroke than NHW stroke survivors which was due to their greater neurological deficits and lower educational attainment compared with that of NHW stroke survivors. Future work should focus on clinical and policy efforts to reduce ethnic disparities in return to work. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Implications of Fraud and Error Risks in the Enterprise Environment and Auditor’s Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Horomnea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify and analyze the main correlations and implications offraud and error in the business environment and in the financial scandals occurred in the last decade. Theapproach envisages a synthesis and antithesis of the ideas found on this subject in the specialty literature, ofthe regulations issued by various international bodies. To achieve the established objectives, we used aconstructive methodology to identify criticism, presentations and developed a speech with view to a moreefficient and effective fraud and error risk management. The results of the study show that the major financialscandals and hence the global economic crisis are based largely on fraudulent maneuvers of significantproportions. By using "creative accounting" in fraud and error, famous companies have managed to distortreality for their performance and market position, misleading the users’ perception. This study is a theoreticalhaving implications for a future empirical study.The study contributes to auditing literature diversification inthe field of risk of fraud and error. An additional perspective is gained by addressing the financial crisis andsome famous bankruptcies by way of the financial auditors activity and the fraud and error risk.

  9. Work Design Theory: A Review and Critique with Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torraco, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Six theoretical perspectives on work design are examined for their contributions to our understanding of how work is organized and designed in organizations: sociotechnical systems theory, process improvement, adaptive structuration theory, the job characteristics model, technostructural change models, and activity theory. A critique of these…

  10. Occupational Work Ethic Differences: Implications for Organizational Diversity Initiatives in Health Care Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegans, Loyd

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the extent of work value differences among ethnic classifications of baccalaureate nursing students. Major findings revealed significant differences between ethnic classifications and work ethic behaviors. Contrasts resulting from post-hoc tests indicated that Asian nursing students reported significantly lower…

  11. New Measures of Teachers' Work Hours and Implications for Wage Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Kristine L.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have good data on teachers' annual salaries but a hazy understanding of teachers' hours of work. This makes it difficult to calculate an accurate hourly wage and leads policy makers to default to anecdote rather than fact when debating teacher pay. Using data from the American Time Use Survey, I find that teachers work an average of…

  12. Working Memory Involvement in Stuttering: Exploring the Evidence and Research Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Several studies of utterance planning and attention processes in stuttering have raised the prospect of working memory involvement in the disorder. In this paper, potential connections between stuttering and two elements of Baddeley's [Baddeley, A. D. (2003). "Working memory: Looking back and looking forward." "Neuroscience," 4, 829-839] working…

  13. Implications of Work Values to Job Satisfaction in the Maryland Cooperative Extension Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, W. James; Whaples, Gene C.

    A study was done to determine if work values of the Maryland Cooperative Extension Service faculty were related to Herzberg's job satisfaction elements. The design was ex post facto, exploratory field research. Subjects included 273 extension faculty members. A mail questionnaire composed of Hughes and Flowers'"Values for Working" and an…

  14. Work/Life Balance Issues for Female Physicians and Implications for Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, Paige Frances

    2016-01-01

    Work/life balance issues exist for all people who navigate both professional and personal responsibilities, regardless of profession, gender, marital status, or number of children. This research sought to better understand the specific work/life balance challenges faced by female physicians and how medical education can better prepare future…

  15. Night Work And Its Implications In The Quality Of Life Of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Carneiro Moreira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to know the consequences that night work can bring to the quality of life of nurses, identifying the strategies adopted by nurses to stay healthy. Method: descriptive, mixed-approach (quanti-qualitative research, carried out with nine Nursing professionals. Data were collected in June 2016. Results: The male gender (77.7% prevailed, the working time in the sector was between 1 and 5 years (55.5%, with the majority still working overtime (66.6%. Most participants report being dissatisfied with the quality of their sleep, although 88.8% of professionals say they are satisfied with their quality of life. From the testimonies, we obtained the meanings that were grouped in the categories: "It is something related to my health", "It interferes with my work, family and leisure ...", Night work and basic necessities. Conclusion: It was found that night work has negative social impacts that affect workers' personal and social lives. These negative aspects are compounded by poor working conditions, double working hours, overtime, among other factors.

  16. Physical work capacity in older adults: implications for the aging worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Glen P; Yardley, Jane E; Martineau, Lucie; Jay, Ollie

    2008-08-01

    In many developed countries, the workforce is rapidly aging. Occupational demands however, have not decreased despite the fact that workers see a decline in physical work capacity with age. The purpose of this review is to examine the physiological adaptations to aging, the impact of aging on performance and the benefits of physical fitness in improving functional work capacity in aging individuals. An extensive search of the scientific literature was performed, acquiring published articles which examined the physiological changes associated with age-related decrements in the physical work capacity of healthy aging adults. The databases accessed included AARP Ageline, AccessScience, Annual Reviews, CISTI, Cochrane Library, Clinical Evidence, Digital Dissertations (Proquest), Embase, HealthSTAR, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, and PASCAL and included relevant information sites obtained on the world wide web. While a great deal of variation exists, an average decline of 20% in physical work capacity has been reported between the ages of 40 and 60 years, due to decreases in aerobic and musculoskeletal capacity. These declines can contribute to decreased work capacity, and consequential increases in work-related injuries and illness. However, differences in habitual physical activity will greatly influence the variability seen in individual physical work capacity and its components. Well-organized, management-supported, work-site health interventions encouraging physical activity during work hours could potentially decrease the incidence of age-related injury and illness. Age-associated functional declines and the accompanying risk of work-related injury can be prevented or at least delayed by the practice of regular physical activity. Older workers could optimally pursue their careers until retirement if they continuously maintain their physical training.

  17. Psychosocial implications of type 1 diabetes mellitus among children in India: an emerging challenge for social work profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kakkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the widespread childhood chronic illnesses, which is seldom talked about is type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. The discussion on T1DM is often missed because the emphasis is majorly on the adult DM or type 2 DM which is a lifestyle disorder. T1DM occurs at an early age and is a lifelong insulin deficiency. The treatment and the strict regime lead to numerous psychological and social repercussions for the child (patient and the caregivers. The implications vary from issues in family, at school, at social gatherings, often creating behavioural disorders. These implications further affect the patient’s health, DM self-care tasks, glycaemic control, and adherence to treatment. It is important to create awareness among people that chronic illness often causes negative psychological and social consequences but one needs to learn to cope with them. T1DM is not just about insulin shots and blood tests; but much beyond it. It requires proper understanding and support which has to be provided by professionals other than doctors. This paper looks at the prevalence of the disease, the implications for the child and the caregivers, and discusses T1DM as an emerging challenge for social work profession.

  18. Fixed or Rotating Night Shift Work Undertaken by Women: Implications for Fertility and Miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Renae C; Marino, Jennifer L; Varcoe, Tamara J; Davis, Scott; Moran, Lisa J; Rumbold, Alice R; Brown, Hannah M; Whitrow, Melissa J; Davies, Michael J; Moore, Vivienne M

    2016-03-01

    This review summarizes the evidence concerning effects of night shift work on women's reproductive health, specifically difficulty in conceiving and miscarriage. We distinguish between fixed night shift and rotating night shift, as the population subgroups exposed, the social and biological mechanisms, and the magnitude of effects are likely to differ; of note, women working fixed night shift are known to have high tolerance for this schedule. We identified two relevant systematic reviews with meta-analyses and five additional studies. Night shift work may give rise to menstrual cycle disturbances, but effect sizes are imprecise. Endometriosis may be elevated in night shift workers, but evidence is only preliminary. Adequate data are lacking to assess associations between night shift work and infertility or time to pregnancy. The weight of evidence begins to point to working at night, whether in fixed or rotating shifts, as a risk factor for miscarriage. There are many methodological problems with this literature, with substantial variation in the definitions of night shift and schedule types making comparisons between studies difficult and pooling across studies questionable. Nevertheless, there appears to be grounds for caution and counselling where women have concerns about night shift work and their reproductive health. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Work-related trauma, PTSD, and workers compensation legislation: Implications for practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Edward A; Beck, J Gayle

    2015-09-01

    The current review examines work-related traumatic events, with particular focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a potential mental health outcome. Despite considerable empirical knowledge about trauma and PTSD, a gap exists with respect to laws undergirding Workers Compensation (WC) insurance coverage for work-related mental health injuries. In this article, state and federal WC statutes are examined with an eye toward coverage of PTSD following work-related trauma. Examples of differences between states, as well as state-specific idiosyncratic facets of WC laws, are discussed. Federal WC programs are also examined. Two policy issues are highlighted: (a) lack of parity between WC coverage for work-related physical versus mental health injuries and (b) lack of reliance on psychological science in scripting legislation and determining WC benefits. The cost of untreated PTSD following work-related trauma is examined, focusing on costs to the individual, the employer, and society at large. The authors provide 3 recommendations designed to address discrepancies related to compensable psychological injuries following work-related trauma exposure. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-04-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to produce the "Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases" to promote the exceptional competence and diligence required when the consequence is life or death. This article summarizes the "Supplementary Guidelines," with implications for social work practice--that is, professional responsibility, competence, interviewing skill, knowledge of behavioral and mental impairment, records review, life history compilation, data interpretation, witness support, law-related knowledge, and testimony. The social work, which is scrutinized in a court of law, requires cultural competence, diverse oral and written communication skills, diligence, and the highest ethical standards.

  1. Rework and workarounds in nurse medication administration process: implications for work processes and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Savage, Grant T; Wakefield, Douglas S; Wakefield, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Health care organizations have redesigned existing and implemented new work processes intended to improve patient safety. As a consequence of these process changes, there are now intentionally designed "blocks" or barriers that limit how specific work actions, such as ordering and administering medication, are to be carried out. Health care professionals encountering these designed barriers can choose to either follow the new process, engage in workarounds to get past the block, or potentially repeat work (rework). Unfortunately, these workarounds and rework may lead to other safety concerns. The aim of this study was to examine rework and workarounds in hospital medication administration processes. Observations and semistructured interviews were conducted with 58 nurses from four hospital intensive care units focusing on the medication administration process. Using the constant comparative method, we analyzed the observation and interview data to develop themes regarding rework and workarounds. From this analysis, we developed an integrated process map of the medication administration process depicting blocks. A total of 12 blocks were reported by the participants. Based on the analysis, we categorized them as related to information exchange, information entry, and internal supply chain issues. Whereas information exchange and entry blocks tended to lead to rework, internal supply chain issues were more likely to lead to workarounds. A decentralized pharmacist on the unit may reduce work flow blocks (and, thus, workarounds and rework). Work process redesign may further address the problems of workarounds and rework.

  2. Undeclared Work in the Czech Republic and its Implications for the Czech Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strielkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing the issue of undeclared work in the Czech Republic and to explain the burdens it represents for the national economy. It also describes what measures can be undertaken in order to tackle undeclared work and uses some real-life examples to illustrate their outcomes. Undeclared work and the so-called “švarc systém” (the employer-employee relations with a person exercising the employer's normal activities not being an employee in legal terms but acting as an independent entrepreneur are among the biggest issues on the Czech labor market nowadays. According to some estimations, the Czech state loses about five billion CZK annually in the form of uncollected taxes, unpaid revenues and health and social insurance payments. New changes to the Czech labor legislation that came into force in 2012 were envisaged to tackle undeclared work, reduce tax evasions, fight shadow practices on the labor market, and to prevent social deprivation and other threats for the society by shifting the competences to conduct random checks, and controls of firms and businesses were transferred to the State Labor Inspection Offices (SLIO. The changes in the legislation facilitated the identification of the undeclared work and penalizing of its bearers, which minimized the losses from the illegal employment.

  3. Eugenics, genetics, and the minority group model of disabilities: implications for social work advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Gerald V

    2011-10-01

    In the United States, genetic research, as well as policy and practice innovations based on this research, has expanded greatly over the past few decades. This expansion is indicated, for example, by the mapping of the human genome, an expansion of genetic counseling, and other biogenetic research. Also, a disability rights movement that in many ways parallels other "minority" rights campaigns has expanded. The coexistence of these developments poses intriguing challenges for social work that the profession has yet to address in a meaningful way. These issues are especially pertinent for social work professionals in the crucial role as advocates for marginalized populations. This article describes some ofthe concerns of disability rights activists relative to genetic innovations and goals as well as the instrumental role of the social work community in this important debate.

  4. Goethe's Conception of "Experiment as Mediator" and Implications for Practical Work in School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wonyong; Song, Jinwoong

    2018-03-01

    There has been growing criticism over the aims, methods, and contents of practical work in school science, particularly concerning their tendency to oversimplify the scientific practice with focus on the hypothesis-testing function of experiments. In this article, we offer a reading of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's scientific writings—particularly his works on color as an exquisite articulation of his ideas about experimentation—through the lens of practical school science. While avoiding the hasty conclusions made from isolated experiments and observations, Goethe sought in his experiments the interconnection among diverse natural phenomena and rejected the dualistic epistemology about the relation of humans and nature. Based on a close examination of his color theory and its underlying epistemology, we suggest three potential contributions that Goethe's conception of scientific experimentation can make to practical work in school science.

  5. The characteristics of oncology social work in Australia: Implications for workforce planning in integrated cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pockett, Rosalie; Peate, Michelle; Hobbs, Kim; Dzidowska, Monika; L Bell, Melanie; Baylock, Brandi; Epstein, Irwin

    2016-12-01

    To describe the demographics, professional characteristics, self-reported professional development needs and research involvement of oncology social workers in Australia and to describe perceived barriers to provision of quality psychosocial care. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to social workers working in the oncology field who were contacted through three professional organizations; the Australian Association of Social Workers, Oncology Social Work Australia and the Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research Group, the University of Sydney. A snowball recruitment method was adopted to maximize the sample size. Two thirds of respondents had over 10 years professional practice experience but with lesser experience in oncology settings. Twenty-eight percent had post-graduate qualifications. Professional development needs were reported as moderate or high by 68% of respondents. No association between professional needs and work setting was found. Years of experience in oncology practice and living in an urban area increased the likelihood of involvement in research. Barriers to psychosocial care included poor understandings of the social work role, time constraints and an inadequate number of social work positions. In this first Australian study of the social work oncology workforce, the results demonstrated active, well-qualified and experienced social workers providing frontline services to people with cancer and their caregivers in geographically diverse locations across Australia. Inadequate resources and a lack of integrated psychosocial care were identified as barriers to comprehensive cancer care. The need for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander social workers was identified as an urgent workforce priority. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. What men and women value at work: implications for workplace health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael

    2004-12-01

    Current research suggests that workplace culture can influence health outcomes. This study was conducted to determine what men and women value at work, how each defines a healthy workplace, and what work factors best predict their health outcomes and stress. A national study was conducted by LLuminari, Inc., a health education company, via a Harris Interactive Inc. online panel that screened for US participants who were employed full-time in organizations with >1000 employees. The online questionnaire used stimulus words/phrases to which respondents verbally free-associated. Each verbatim response was given a weighted score based on the order in which it was written, then thermatically clustered with similar responses to form categories for each stimulus item. A total of 1123 individuals participated in the study (608 males, 515 females). Results indicated that men and women value the same aspects of work but ranked them differently. Men valued pay, money, and benefits, as well as power, authority, and status significantly more than women did (P Women valued the following significantly more than men did: friends and relationships (P women's work-related values (P women overestimate how men value pay, money, and benefits, and power, authority, and status (P women did report being slightly more distressed at work. Findings also suggested that the cultural and environmental aspects of work best predicted women's health outcomes; for men, health outcomes were related to supervision and management factors. The health of both sexes was significantly predicted by their perceived home life (P women also defined a healthy workplace differently, with women more than men emphasizing understanding, support, communication (P increase productivity, foster loyalty, and improve physical and mental well-being.

  7. Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan; Wilson, Barbara A

    2002-01-01

    Two densely amnesic patients are shown to have good immediate but poor delayed prose recall, a result that presents problems for the current multi-component model of working memory. Examination of a wide sample of memory impaired patients suggests that this pattern occurs in densely amnesic patients who have well-preserved intelligence and good executive capacities. Patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease typically show poor immediate and delayed prose recall, reflecting their combined intellectual and memory deficits. The results are interpreted in terms of a proposed new component of working memory, the episodic buffer.

  8. Relational energy at work: Implications for job engagement and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Bradley P; Baker, Wayne E; Sumpter, Dana McDaniel; Cameron, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    Energy is emerging as a topic of importance to organizations, yet we have little understanding of how energy can be useful at an interpersonal level toward achieving workplace goals. We present the results of 4 studies aimed at developing, validating, and testing the relational energy construct. In Study 1, we report qualitative insights from 64 individuals about the experience and functioning of relational energy in the workplace. Study 2 draws from 3 employee samples to conduct exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on a measure of relational energy, differentiating relational energy from related constructs. To test the predictive validity of the new relational energy scale, Study 3 comprises data from employees rating the level of relational energy they experienced during interactions with their leaders in a health services context. Results showed that relational energy employees experienced with their leaders at Time 1 predicted job engagement at Time 2 (1 month later), while controlling for the competing construct of perceived social support. Study 4 shows further differentiation of relational energy from leader-member exchange (LMX), replicates the positive relationship between relational energy (Time 1) and job engagement (Time 2), and shows that relational energy is positively associated with employee job performance (Time 3) through the mechanism of job engagement. We discuss the theoretical implications of our findings and highlight areas for future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Metaphors and the Pejorative Framing of Marginalized Groups: Implications for Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    Although the importance of metaphors is described in the social work literature, few articles or books in the profession have considered the role of metaphors in social policy, especially in providing a negative frame within which marginalized groups can be considered. This negative framing naturally supports aversive social policies designed to…

  10. Coworking as a Career Strategy: Implications for the Work and Family Lives of University Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Stephen; Moen, Phyllis

    2004-01-01

    This study of 276 couples compares coworking couples, which means both partners work for the same university, with noncoworking couples, those couples in which only one partner is employed at a university. Among the employees at the two universities studied, one in seven dual-earner couples cowork. These couples are more educated and are less…

  11. Challenges and Strategies of Working with Learners with Low Vision: Implications for Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalo, J. A.; Indoshi, F. C.; Agak, J. O.

    2012-01-01

    Learners with low vision can be trained to increase their visual functioning through a planned programme of visual experiences. Such a low vision training programme was introduced in Kenya in 1994. However, despite its implementation over the last 15 years, challenges still persist among teachers who work with such learners. The purpose of this…

  12. Work injury management model and implication in Hong Kong: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Cecilia Suk-Mei; Cheng, Andy Shu-Kei

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review is to explore the work injury management models in literatures and the essential components in different models. The resulting information could be used to develop an integrated holistic model that could be applied in the work injury management system in Hong Kong. A keyword search of MEDLINE and CINAHL databases was conducted. A total of 68 studies related to the management of an injury were found within the above mentioned electronic database. Together with the citation tracking, there were 13 studies left for selection after the exclusion screening. Only 7 out of those 13 studies met the inclusion criteria for review. It is noticeable that the most important component in the injury management model in the reviewed literatures is early intervention. Because of limitations in Employees' Compensation Ordinance in Hong Kong, there is an impetus to have a model and practice guideline for work injury management in Hong Kong to ensure the quality of injury management services. At the end of this paper, the authors propose a work injury management model based on the employees' compensation system in Hong Kong. This model can be used as a reference for those countries adopting similar legislation as in Hong Kong.

  13. Item Construction Using Reflective, Formative, or Rasch Measurement Models: Implications for Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christina Hamme; Gischlar, Karen L.; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Measures that accurately capture the phenomenon are critical to research and practice in group work. The vast majority of group-related measures were developed using the reflective measurement model rooted in classical test theory (CTT). Depending on the construct definition and the measure's purpose, the reflective model may not always be the…

  14. An Overview of the Use of Mechanical Turk in Behavioral Sciences: Implications for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chitat; Holosko, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is a process in which a firm parcels out work to a "crowd" and offers payment for anyone within the crowd who completes the task determined by that firm. A growing number of behavioral scientists have begun using the Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to facilitate their research and practice, but there is apparently not one academic…

  15. A Study of Korean Working Mothers with Infants: Implications for Research and Social Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, So-Jung

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a broad range of variables that predict maternal self-efficacy with a sample of 92 Korean working mothers whose infants are cared for at non-maternal child care settings. In addition, differences between mothers of infants on welfare roll and their socioeconomic status (SES) counterparts (not on welfare)…

  16. The Political Economy of Work in the 21st Century: Implications for an Aging American Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicker, Martin

    The prospective place of the aging worker in the employment environment of the 21st century is examined. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) the real world of work and retirement; (2) the changing employment environment; (3) the restructuring of business in the United States; (4) globalization and the economy; (5) downsizing…

  17. Technology Acceptance in Social Work Education: Implications for the Field Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Alex Don; Bullock, Angela N.

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth and sophistication of new information and computer technology (ICT) have greatly influenced human interactions and provided new metaphors for understanding the world. The acceptance and integration of ICT into social work field education are examined here using the technological acceptance model. This article also explores…

  18. Integrating Military and Veteran Culture in Social Work Education: Implications for Curriculum Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Julie; Weiss, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the conceptual question of how to best integrate military culture and issues into social work education. Military service members, veterans, and their families are returning to civilian communities with the ending of conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and seeking community-based providers for health and mental health…

  19. The Explicit/Implicit Knowledge Distinction and Working Memory: Implications for Second-Language Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercetin, Gulcan; Alptekin, Cem

    2013-01-01

    Following an extensive overview of the subject, this study explores the relationships between second-language (L2) explicit/implicit knowledge sources, embedded in the declarative/procedural memory systems, and L2 working memory (WM) capacity. It further examines the relationships between L2 reading comprehension and L2 WM capacity as well as…

  20. The Interaction of Work Adjustment and Attachment Theory: Employment Counseling Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro-Michel, Edina L.; Burlew, Larry D.; Robert, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Career development is a lifelong process beginning with career choice. However, career choice alone does not guarantee career success. Rather than focus on choosing a career, the theory of work adjustment (TWA) focuses on the process of becoming an exemplary employee through each stage of an individual's career. Within TWA, employee relationships…

  1. Dopamine, Working Memory, and Training Induced Plasticity: Implications for Developmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderqvist, Stina; Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Matsson, Hans; Humphreys, Keith; Kere, Juha; Klingberg, Torkel

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits and particularly deficits in working memory (WM) capacity are common features in neuropsychiatric disorders. Understanding the underlying mechanisms through which WM capacity can be improved is therefore of great importance. Several lines of research indicate that dopamine plays an important role not only in WM function but also…

  2. Management-by-Results and Performance Measurement in Universities--Implications for Work Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari; Kallio, Tomi J.

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the effects of management-by-results from the perspective of the work motivation of university employees. The study is based on extensive survey data among employees at Finnish universities. According to the results, performance measurement is based on quantitative rather than qualitative measures, and the current…

  3. Social Workers' Perspectives Regarding the DSM: Implications for Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLendon, Tara

    2014-01-01

    There is a decades-old debate in social work regarding the appropriateness of the use of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) by clinicians in this profession. Despite often contentious perspectives, there has been very little study regarding clinical social workers' experiences, attitudes, and beliefs about…

  4. The invisibility of children's paid and unpaid work: implications for Ethiopia's national poverty reduction policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.; Jones, N.; Tefera, B.

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a

  5. A systematic review of the sleep, sleepiness, and performance implications of limited wake shift work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A; Agostini, Alexandra; Lushington, Kurt; Dorrian, Jillian

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this review was to identify which limited wake shift work schedules (LWSW) best promote sleep, alertness, and performance. LWSW are fixed work/rest cycles where the time-at-work does is ≤8 hours and there is >1 rest period per day, on average, for ≥2 consecutive days. These schedules are commonly used in safety-critical industries such as transport and maritime industries. Literature was sourced using PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. We identified 20 independent studies (plus a further 2 overlapping studies), including 5 laboratory and 17 field-based studies focused on maritime watch keepers, ship bridge officers, and long-haul train drivers. The measurement of outcome measures was varied, incorporating subjective and objective measures of sleep: sleep diaries (N=5), actigraphy (N=4), and polysomnography, (N=3); sleepiness: Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (N=5), visual analog scale (VAS) alertness (N=2) and author-derived measures (N=2); and performance: Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) (N=5), Reaction Time or Vigilance tasks (N=4), Vector and Letter Cancellation Test (N=1), and subjective performance (N=2). Of the three primary rosters examined (6 hours-on/6 hours-off, 8 hours-on/8 hours-off and 4 hours-on/8 hours-off), the 4 hours-on/8 hours-off roster was associated with better sleep and lower levels of sleepiness. Individuals working 4 hours-on/8 hours-off rosters averaged 1 hour more sleep per night than those working 6 hours-on/6 hours-off and 1.3 hours more sleep than those working 8 hours-on/8 hours-off (Pwork, (ii) more frequent rest breaks, (iii) shifts that start and end at the same clock time every 24 hours, and (iv) work shifts commencing in the daytime (as opposed to night). The findings for performance remain incomplete due to the small number of studies containing a performance measure and the heterogeneity of performance measures within those that did. The literature supports the utility of LWSW in

  6. A work observation study of nuclear medicine technologists: interruptions, resilience and implications for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcos, George; Prgomet, Mirela; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna

    2017-06-01

    Errors by nuclear medicine technologists during the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals or at other times can cause patient harm and may reflect the impact of interruptions, busy work environments and deficient systems or processes. We aimed to: (a) characterise the rate and nature of interruptions technologists experience and (b) identify strategies that support safety. We performed 100 hours of observation of 11 technologists at a major public hospital and measured the proportions of time spent in eight categories of work tasks, location of task, interruption rate and type and multitasking (tasks conducted in parallel). We catalogued specific safety-oriented strategies used by technologists. Technologists completed 5227 tasks and experienced 569 interruptions (mean, 4.5 times per hour; 95% CI 4.1 to 4.9). The highest interruption rate occurred when technologists were in transit between rooms (10.3 per hour (95% CI 8.3 to 12.5)). Interruptions during radiopharmaceutical preparation occurred a mean of 4.4 times per hour (95% CI 3.3 to 5.6). Most (n=426) tasks were interrupted once only and all tasks were resumed after interruption. Multitasking occurred 16.6% of the time. At least some interruptions were initiated by other technologists to convey important information and/or to render assistance. Technologists employed a variety of verbal and non-verbal strategies in all work areas (notably in the hot-lab) to minimise the impact of interruptions and optimise the safe conduct of procedures. Although most were due to individual choices, some strategies reflected overt or subliminal departmental policy. Some interruptions appear beneficial. Technologists' self-initiated strategies to support safe work practices appear to be an important element in supporting a resilient work environment in nuclear medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Nurses' work environment and intent to leave in Lebanese hospitals: implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Alameddine, Mohamad; Dumit, Nuhad; Dimassi, Hani; Jamal, Diana; Maalouf, Salwa

    2011-02-01

    The dual burden of nursing shortages and poor work environments threatens quality of patient care and places additional pressures on resource-stretched health care systems, particularly in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). There is a paucity of research in the EMR examining the quality of nurses' work environment and its association to nurses' intent to leave their jobs/countries. Systematically examine the characteristics of nurses' work environment and their relation to nurses' intent to leave their jobs within the context of Lebanon. A secondary objective is to assess the utility and validity of the NWI-R within the context of the EMR. A cross-sectional survey design was utilized to survey a total of 1793 registered nurses in 69 Lebanese hospitals. The survey instrument included questions on nurses' background, hospital characteristics, intent to leave, and the Revised Nurse Working Index (NWI-R). Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic characteristics, t-test and ANOVA to assess differences in agreement scores, and a multinomial logistic regression model to predict intent to leave. Thematic analysis of open-ended questions was utilized to extract themes that fit under issues relating to nurses' work environment in Lebanese hospitals. The NWI-R subscale with the lowest mean score related to control. Younger nurses had lower scores on organizational support and career development. Regression analysis revealed that for every 1 point score decrease on career development there was a 93% increase in likelihood of reporting intent to leave country. Likewise, for every 1 point score decrease on participation there was an observed 51% and 53% increase in likelihood of reporting intent to leave country and hospital, respectively. Findings show that hospital characteristics (size, accreditation status and presence of a recruitment and retention strategy) were significantly associated with NWI-R subscales. Participation, control and career

  8. Correctional officers' perceptions of a solution-focused training program: potential implications for working with offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Peter Jen Der; Deng, Liang-Yu F; Chang, Shona Shih Hua; Jiang, Karen Jye-Ru

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to explore correctional officers' perceptions and experiences during a solution-focused training program and to initiate development of a modified pattern for correctional officers to use in jails. The study uses grounded theory procedures combined with a follow-up survey. The findings identified six emergent themes: obstacles to doing counseling work in prisons, offenders' amenability to change, correctional officers' self-image, advantages of a solution-focused approach (SFA), potential advantages of applying SFA to offenders, and the need for the consolidation of learning and transformation. Participants perceived the use of solution-focused techniques as appropriate, important, functional, and of only moderate difficulty in interacting with offenders. Finally, a modified pattern was developed for officers to use when working with offenders in jails. Suggestions and recommendations are made for correctional interventions and future studies.

  9. Accountability in integrated working: Meaning and implications for cancer care teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colyer, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a critical evaluation of the concepts of accountability and delegated authority and how this impacts on integrated working in cancer care teams. It looks at the difficulties experienced by radiographers in establishing their roles in integrated teams through an analysis of how professional teams have developed from a sociological and historical perspective. The paper highlights the contestability of the terms and contends that many non-medical professional practitioners experience problems with assuming full accountability. The article acknowledges and advocates that the wishes of patients and clients must be prioritised in the decision making process, thus requiring professionals to embrace accountability fully and differentiate and manage risk. The importance of leadership in furthering the achievement of integrated working is recognised. In conclusion, the article proposes that shared accountability among teams is challenging for radiographers and others, and that education providers should take this into account when designing curricula.

  10. A culture of striving augments use of working memory? Implications for attention control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszard, Tim; Masters, Rich S W

    2017-01-01

    A culture of striving was notable in the developmental background of many of the elite and super elite athletes in the Hardy et al. Critically, a culture of striving was credited with a positive influence on a range of issues relevant to elite sports performance, including performance under pressure. Of the six athletes who did not reveal a culture of striving, five reported the greatest difficulty performing in high-pressure situations. We suspect that a culture of striving facilitates the development of attention control ability, which subsequently assists performance under pressure. We discuss attention control from the perspective of working memory and hypothesize that a culture of striving trains individuals to maximize their working memory capacity. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Social work and adverse childhood experiences research: implications for practice and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Heather; Felitti, Vincent J; Anda, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Medical research on "adverse childhood experiences" (ACEs) reveals a compelling relationship between the extent of childhood adversity, adult health risk behaviors, and principal causes of death in the United States. This article provides a selective review of the ACE Study and related social science research to describe how effective social work practice that prevents ACEs and mobilizes resilience and recovery from childhood adversity could support the achievement of national health policy goals. This article applies a biopsychosocial perspective, with an emphasis on mind-body coping processes to demonstrate that social work responses to adverse childhood experiences may contribute to improvement in overall health. Consistent with this framework, the article sets forth prevention and intervention response strategies with individuals, families, communities, and the larger society. Economic research on human capital development is reviewed that suggests significant cost savings may result from effective implementation of these strategies.

  12. Exploring UK medical and social work students' legal literacy: comparisons, contrasts and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston-Shoot, Michael; McKimm, Judy

    2013-05-01

    To ensure acceptable practice standards both doctors and social workers should draw on relevant legal rules when reaching professional judgements concerning, for instance, children requiring protection, people with severe mental distress and adults at risk, information sharing, consent to intervention and service user involvement in their care and treatment. Many practitioners use the law to maintain high standards of professionalism. However, research has uncovered limited awareness of legal rules and poor standards of health and social care. Academic benchmarks and practice requirements for health and social care professions centrally position legal knowledge for secure decision-making. Model curricula exist. However, the outcomes of the taught curriculum on students' confidence in their legal knowledge and skills have been relatively overlooked. This article introduces the concept of legal literacy, a distillation of knowledge, understanding, skills and values that enables practitioners to connect relevant legal rules with their professional practice, to appreciate the roles and duties of other practitioners and to communicate effectively across organisational boundaries. It presents the outcomes for a 2006-2009 study of 1154 UK medical and 638 social work students of their law learning for practice, response rates of 46% and 68%. Significant differences were found between medical and social work students' attitudes towards the law, and in their self-ratings of legal knowledge and skills. Confidence levels were low and anxiety high, especially among medical students, although law teaching had some positive outcomes on knowledge and skill development. Social work and medical students associated different themes with the law, the latter especially foregrounding ethics, negligence and liability, which could affect inter-professional working. Students are not fully prepared for legally literate practice, with a consequent need to review the time allocated for, and

  13. Suspended particle and drug ingredient concentrations in hospital dispensaries and implications for pharmacists' working environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Hioki, Atsushi; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Hiroki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the present status of working environments for pharmacists, including the concentrations of suspended particles and suspended drug ingredients in dispensaries. We conducted a survey on the work processes and working environment in 15 hospital dispensaries, and measured the concentrations of suspended particles and suspended drug ingredients using digital dust counter and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively. Of 25 types of powdered drugs that were frequently handled in the 15 dispensaries surveyed, 11 could be quantitatively determined. The amounts of suspended particles were relatively high, but below the reference value, in three dispensaries without dust collectors. The sedative-hypnotic drug zopiclone was detected in the suspended particles at one dispensary that was not equipped with dust collectors, and the antipyretic and analgesic drug acetaminophen was detected in two dispensaries equipped with dust collectors. There was no correlation between the daily number of prescriptions containing powdered drugs and the concentration of suspended particles in dispensaries. On the basis of the suspended particle concentrations measured, we concluded that dust collectors were effective in these dispensaries. However, suspended drug ingredients were detected also in dispensaries with dust collectors. These results suggest that the drug dust control systems of individual dispensaries should be properly installed and managed.

  14. Junk-food enhances conditioned food cup approach to a previously established food cue, but does not alter cue potentiated feeding; implications for the effects of palatable diets on incentive motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Rifka C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2018-03-16

    Efforts to stem the global rise in obesity have been minimally effective, perhaps in part because our understanding of the psychological and behavioral drivers of obesity is limited. It is well established that stimuli that are paired with palatable foods can powerfully influence food-seeking and feeding behaviors. However, how consumption of sugary, fatty "junk-foods" affects these motivational responses to food cues is poorly understood. Here, we determined the effects of short- and long-term "junk-food" consumption on the expression of cue potentiated feeding and conditioned food cup approach to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CS). Further, to determine the degree to which effects of "junk-food" were selective to Pavlovian motivational processes, we varied the predictive validity of the CS by including training groups conditioned with unique CS-US contingencies ranging from -1.0 to +1.0. "Junk-food" did not enhance cue potentiated feeding in any group, but expression of this potentiation effect varied with the CS-US contingency independent of diet. In contrast, "junk-food" consistently enhanced conditioned approach to the food cup; this effect was dependent on the previously established CS-US contingency. That is, consumption of "junk-food" following training enhanced approach to the food cup only in response to CSs with previously positive CS-US contingencies. This was accompanied by reduced motivation for the US itself. Together these data show that "junk-food" consumption selectively enhances incentive motivational responses to previously established food CSs, without altering cue potentiated feeding induced by these same CSs, and in the absence of enhanced motivation for food itself. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Partnership working in public health: the implications for governance of a systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David; Perkins, Neil

    2012-04-01

    Most of the research on partnerships has centred on health and social care, and while many of the findings remain relevant, public health partnerships concerned with 'wicked issues' give rise to a different and more complex set of issues which merit exploration. The study aimed to identify those factors promoting effective partnership working for health improvement; to assess the extent to which partnership governance and incentive arrangements were commensurate with the complexities of the problem; and to explore how far local partnerships contributed to better outcomes for individuals and populations. A three-year study of public health partnerships (2007-10) in nine localities across England involving semi-structured interviews at strategic and operational levels. Successful partnerships shared a number of characteristics: they were clear about goals and purpose; they were aware of partners' roles and responsibilities; and they had a clear strategic overview of performance through robust monitoring and evaluation. In many cases, partnerships were facades with a 'silo mentality' prevailing - there was an unwillingness to share information or resources, or to accord partnership working sufficient priority or support. Despite enthusiasm for partnerships and an insistence that they were essential, it was impossible to establish evidence of their impact on health outcomes. While the focus on partnerships tends to be on structures, relational factors, including high levels of trust and goodwill, were important ingredients of a well-functioning partnership. Less formal and more organic, operational partnerships were more effective than more formal, strategic level ones which were driven by targets. Finally, partnerships were, in part, shaped by the national policy context, with constant policy and organizational churn making it difficult to sustain long-term relationships. Future partnerships might be undertaken differently, adopting a complex adaptive systems

  16. Globalization processes of value chains in clothing industry in Portugal: implication in the working structures

    OpenAIRE

    Moniz, António Brandão; V. Silva, Ana; Woll, Tobias; J. Sampaio, José

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Some of the phenomena where the “globalization” concept is applied include the internationalization of markets, globalization of culture, polítical hegemony of world by some states, or groups of states, the increasing power of supranational institutions, and the development of a global division of labour. A starting point to understand the global division of work is the study of how companies are re-structuring, once they are the key-actors in the decision on which wor...

  17. The Migration of the Work Force from Romania Abroad: Reasons, Possibilities, Chances, Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Irina-Răbonţu; Amelia Georgiana Boncea

    2009-01-01

    Even though in Romania there are a few social categories with incomes comparable to those of the Occidentals: enterprisers, notaries, the wage earners working in banks and communications, peasants that sold their lands for millions of Euros, but also enough budgetary people and, as well, all kinds of dodgers, corrupt civil servants or combinatory people. All of them have monthly incomes of at least 2.000 Euros, their wage being the only thing they have in common. However their number is not n...

  18. Cancer survivorship care-planning: Practice, research, and policy implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard W; Pritzker, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of cancer survivors are living longer than 5 years from their diagnosis date. This has resulted in a growing population of cancer survivors, expected to reach 19 million by 2024. Survivors frequently experience late effects caused by cancer and its treatment, reducing survivors' quality of life in multiple domains. Survivorship care-plans may aid the many physical, psychosocial, and financial needs that emerge posttreatment. However, the lack of reimbursement mechanisms, the limited amount of effectiveness research, and minimal guidelines for content and delivery are barriers to the widespread provision of survivorship care-plans. Challenges and opportunities for social work practice, research, and policy are identified and discussed.

  19. General beliefs of teachers and students about working and living environment: Implications for mutual cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper empirically tests the assumption that parents' perspective and teachers' perspective in the situation of cooperation are generated from the guiding action of general beliefs of both about their role and the conditions of its fulfillment in the existing everyday working and living conditions. The research sample consists of 270 respondents who were divided into three subsamples (170 teachers, 60 parents/teachers, 40 parents by the research draft. For the purposes of the research, three varieties (with respect to the three aspects of respondent's role of the same questionnaire (isomorphic open-ended questions, narrative answers were created. The questions were thematised around the way teachers and parents observe difficulties in functioning, each from their own role, the way they determine their causes and consequences, and the kinds of support resources they use in the endeavors to cope with difficulties. The results indicate that the difficulty reported by parents to be conditioned by systemic factors (the lack of time for children due to providing work and money gains the status of external/systemic causes of degradation of educational values in teachers' beliefs (delegating responsibility to parents for systemic difficulties, which can pose a significant obstacle to relational understanding. The finding points out to the importance of developing the skill of change of perspective in teachers in order to achieve coordination of differences in beliefs and develop an internal framework of mutual understanding.

  20. Social Work Practice with Arab Families: The Implications of Spirituality vis-à-vis Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E. Hall

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, spiritualism has become apparent as critical to social work practice with Arab families. Regrettably, research on Arab families today is all but non-existent.Their belief in Islam is the fastest growing form of spirituality in Central Asia. Social workers who do not acknowledge this fact will be at a severe disadvantage in their attempts to treat Arab clientele. It is not compulsory that practitioners endorse client belief systems or other aspects of their spirituality, but practitioners should acknowledge said systems as a critical point in the client’s frame of reference. In the interest of social justice, social workers are thus challenged to develop creative treatment strategies less confined to Western bias.

  1. Physicians' ability to influence the life-style behaviors of diabetic patients: implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Revital; Tabenkin, Hava; Heymann, Anthony; Greenstein, Miriam; Matzliach, Ronit; Porath, Avi; Porter, Basil Boaz

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes is aggravated by a sedentary lifestyle, obesity and smoking. Based on a theoretical model relating attitudes and behavior, this study examined the association between physicians' self efficacy in counseling diabetic patients on life style behaviors and their counseling practices. Data were gathered from a representative sample of 743 primary care physicians in Israel's two largest health plans. The main findings were that only a small percentage of physicians felt capable of influencing their patients' life-style behaviors. Self-efficacy had an independent effect on the likelihood of counseling diabetic patients on life style behaviors, controlling for other background variables. We conclude that there is a need for enhancing physicians' life-style counseling skills, and that social workers could expand their role by training physicians to counsel effectively. This could both improve the care of diabetic patients, and strengthen the status of the social work profession in the healthcare system.

  2. Interference in memory for tonal pitch: implications for a working-memory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechmann, T; Mohr, G

    1992-05-01

    The degree of interference caused by different kinds of stimuli on memory for tonal pitch was studied. Musically trained and untrained subjects heard a sequence of two tones separated by an interval of 5 sec. The tones were either identical in pitch or differed by a semitone. Subjects had to decide whether the tones were identical or not. The interval was filled with tonal, verbal, or visual material under attended and unattended conditions. The results revealed clear group differences. Musically trained subjects' retention of the first test tone was only affected by the interposition of other tones. In contrast, the performance of musically untrained subjects was also affected by verbal and visual items. The findings are discussed in the framework of Baddeley's (1986) working-memory model.

  3. Cost implications of reduced work hours and workloads for resident physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuckols, Teryl K; Bhattacharya, Jay; Wolman, Dianne Miller; Ulmer, Cheryl; Escarce, José J

    2009-05-21

    Although the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) limits the work hours of residents, concerns about fatigue persist. A new Institute of Medicine (IOM) report recommends, among other changes, improved adherence to the 2003 ACGME limits, naps during extended shifts, a 16-hour limit for shifts without naps, and reduced workloads. We used published data to estimate labor costs associated with transferring excess work from residents to substitute providers, and we examined the effects of our assumptions in sensitivity analyses. Next, using a probability model to represent labor costs as well as mortality and costs associated with preventable adverse events, we determined the net costs to major teaching hospitals and cost-effectiveness across a range of hypothetical changes in the rate of preventable adverse events. Annual labor costs from implementing the IOM recommendations were estimated to be $1.6 billion (in 2006 U.S. dollars) across all ACGME-accredited programs ($1.1 billion to $2.5 billion in sensitivity analyses). From a 10% decrease to a 10% increase in preventable adverse events, net costs per admission ranged from $99 to $183 for major teaching hospitals and from $17 to $266 for society. With 2.5% to 11.3% decreases in preventable adverse events, costs to society per averted death ranged from $3.4 million to $0. Implementing the four IOM recommendations would be costly, and their effectiveness is unknown. If highly effective, they could prevent patient harm at reduced or no cost from the societal perspective. However, net costs to teaching hospitals would remain high. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

  4. Depth distribution of radiocesium in Fukushima paddy fields and implications for ongoing decontamination works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, H.; Evrard, O.; Onda, Y.; Lefèvre, I.; Laceby, J. P.; Ayrault, S.

    2014-09-01

    Large quantities of radiocesium were deposited across a 3000 km2 area northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant after the March 2011 accident. Although many studies have investigated the fate of radiocesium in soil in the months following the accident, the potential migration of this radioactive contaminant in rice paddy fields requires further examination after the typhoons that occurred in this region. Such investigations will help minimize potential human exposure in rice paddy fields or transfer of radioactive contaminants from soils to rice. Radionuclide activity concentrations and organic content were analysed in 10 soil cores sampled from paddy fields in November 2013, 20 km north of the Fukushima power plant. Our results demonstrate limited depth migration of radiocesium with the majority concentrated in the uppermost layers of soils (accident, 81.5 to 99.7% of the total 137Cs inventories was still found within the works may increase soil erodibility. We therefore recommend the rapid removal of the uppermost - contaminated - layer of the soil after removing the vegetation to avoid erosion of contaminated material during the subsequent rainfall events. Remediation efforts should be concentrated on soils characterised by radiocesium activities > 10 000 Bq kg-1 to prevent the contamination of rice. Further analysis is required to clarify the redistribution of radiocesium eroded on river channels.

  5. Focused attention improves working memory: implications for flexible-resource and discrete-capacity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alessandra S; Rerko, Laura; Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Oberauer, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Performance in working memory (WM) tasks depends on the capacity for storing objects and on the allocation of attention to these objects. Here, we explored how capacity models need to be augmented to account for the benefit of focusing attention on the target of recall. Participants encoded six colored disks (Experiment 1) or a set of one to eight colored disks (Experiment 2) and were cued to recall the color of a target on a color wheel. In the no-delay condition, the recall-cue was presented after a 1,000-ms retention interval, and participants could report the retrieved color immediately. In the delay condition, the recall-cue was presented at the same time as in the no-delay condition, but the opportunity to report the color was delayed. During this delay, participants could focus attention exclusively on the target. Responses deviated less from the target's color in the delay than in the no-delay condition. Mixture modeling assigned this benefit to a reduction in guessing (Experiments 1 and 2) and transposition errors (Experiment 2). We tested several computational models implementing flexible or discrete capacity allocation, aiming to explain both the effect of set size, reflecting the limited capacity of WM, and the effect of delay, reflecting the role of attention to WM representations. Both models fit the data better when a spatially graded source of transposition error is added to its assumptions. The benefits of focusing attention could be explained by allocating to this object a higher proportion of the capacity to represent color.

  6. Lemna minor tolerance to metal-working fluid residues: implications for rhizoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalbo, L; Becerril, J M; Barrutia, O; Gutierrez-Mañero, J; Lucas Garcia, J A

    2016-07-01

    For the first time in the literature, duckweed (Lemna minor) tolerance (alone or in combination with a consortium of bacteria) to spent metal-working fluid (MWF) was assessed, together with its capacity to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of this residue. In a preliminary study, L. minor response to pre-treated MWF residue (ptMWF) and vacuum-distilled MWF water (MWFw) was tested. Plants were able to grow in both residues at different COD levels tested (up to 2300 mg·l(-1) ), showing few toxicity symptoms (mainly growth inhibition). Plant response to MWFw was more regular and dose responsive than when exposed to ptMWF. Moreover, COD reduction was less significant in ptMWF. Thus, based on these preliminary results, a second study was conducted using MWFw to test the effectiveness of inoculation with a bacterial consortium isolated from a membrane bioreactor fed with the same residue. After 5 days of exposure, COD in solutions containing inoculated plants was significantly lower than in non-inoculated ones. Moreover, inoculation reduced β+γ-tocopherol levels in MWFw-exposed plants, suggesting pollutant imposed stress was reduced. We therefore conclude from that L. minor is highly tolerant to spent MWF residues and that this species can be very useful, together with the appropriate bacterial consortium, in reducing COD of this residue under local legislation limits and thus minimise its potential environmental impact. Interestingly, the lipophilic antioxidant tocopherol (especially the sum of β+γ isomers) proved to be an effective plant biomarker of pollution. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Infant and Young Child Feeding Behavior among Working Mothers in India: Implications for Global Health Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar, MD, MPH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding introduced in 2006 recommended the initiation of breastfeeding immediately after birth, preferably within one hour; exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months; appropriate and adequate complementary feeding from six months of age while continuing breastfeeding; and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two years or beyond. Working women in India constitute a dominant and expanding pool of mothers. There is paucity of research focused on feeding behavior within this group. Method: One hundred and fifty working women answered a structured questionnaire about their demographics, birth history, levels of awareness and practice of feeding guidelines, and perceptions about breastfeeding and counseling. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Majority of participants belonged to 21-39 years age group, had nuclear families, received college education, and delivered in institutional setups. Gaps were observed between the mother’s levels of awareness and practice for different tenets of national guidelines. Higher education, longer maternity leave, higher income, and utilization of counseling services facilitated adoption of optimal feeding behavior. Most women perceived breast milk to be superior to any alternative and favored provision of counseling during last trimester. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Counseling women on optimal feeding behavior is a potential intervention to convert its awareness into actual practice. The lessons learned from this study can help refine both national and global Mother and Child Health policies and programs.

  8. Conception of spent fuel and radioactive wastes management in Poland based on the results of the previous work performed in the frames of Governmental Strategic Programme realised under patronate of National Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodarski, J.; Chwaszczewski, S.; Slizowski, K.; Frankowski, Z.

    1999-01-01

    About 300 cubic meters of solid and solidified radioactive wastes of low and medium activity are produced each year in Poland. Such materials, after processing, are stored in the Institute of Atomic Energy at Swierk or in the National Repository for Radioactive Wastes in Rozan. About 6000 spent fuel elements are temporarily stored in water pools at Swierk. Assumptions and strategy of future spent fuel and radioactive wastes management are presented taking into account operation of the first nuclear power plants (after 2010). Then Governmental Strategic Programme (GSP) for the year 1997-1999 concerning such topic is described and some results of the work performed in the frames of the GSP are given

  9. Working with previously anonymous gamete donors and donor-conceived adults: recent practice experiences of running the DNA-based voluntary information exchange and contact register, UK DonorLink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn; Gunter, Christine; Tidy, Christine; Atherton, Freda

    2013-03-01

    This article describes recent practice experiences with donor conceived adults, donors, non-donor-conceived adult children of donors using the voluntary DNA-based register, UK DonorLink. It highlights additional complexities faced when using DNA rather than paper records for searching, in particular from the risk of false positives, low chances of success and potential inclusion of biological parents' DNA. Professionals' experiences in supporting those being "linked" suggest challenges as well as rewards. Registration carries the potential to be therapeutic for donor-conceived adults and donors and to enhance their political awareness regardless of links being made. Registrants value both peer and professional support, providing the latter can respond flexibly and be delivered by staff experienced in intermediary work. Given that the majority of those affected by donor conception internationally come from anonymous donation systems, these findings are highly pertinent and argue the need for political and moral debate about such service provision.

  10. Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Modulations of Visual-Spatial Attention and Working Memory: Insights from Molecular Genetic Research and Implications for Adult Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormer, Viola S.; Passow, Susanne; Biesenack, Julia; Li, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Attention and working memory are fundamental for selecting and maintaining behaviorally relevant information. Not only do both processes closely intertwine at the cognitive level, but they implicate similar functional brain circuitries, namely the frontoparietal and the frontostriatal networks, which are innervated by cholinergic and dopaminergic…

  11. Labour contracts in the European Union, 2000-2005: Differences among demographic groups and implications for the quality of working life and work satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, A.F.; Taris, T.W.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bossche, S. van den; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Current theorizing holds that organizations may be less motivated to offer good work circumstances to temporary workers because the latter do not constitute the core of the organization. This implies that their quality of working life and work satisfaction could be lower than that of permanent

  12. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  13. Gender Equality Manifested in the Selected Works of the Bahá’í Faith Leaders: Implications on Peace Advocacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa A. Valdez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, the discrimination women face is just one of the many signs of a world in a deplorable state. Countless contemporary social institutions, structures and practices have been set up in a manner that stimulates inequalities and people functioning within these practices face systematic restrictions and challenges. In order to overcome these challenges and realize the fundamental truth of gender equality practiced in real life, it is essential for humankind to redefine the roles of women and men as well as the relationships between them in the family, workplace, community, and public institutions’ setting. Thus, this qualitative study aimed to trace the historic beginnings of Bahá'í Faith, to determine the manifestations of gender equality in the works of selected Bahá'í Faith leaders and their implications on peace advocacy. Findings of the analysis revealed thatthe Bahá'í Faith is the youngest of the world's religions which stemmed originally from Shi'ite Islam in Iran in the mid-19th century. It was founded by Bahá'u'lláh who was recognized by the Bahá'í followers as the last prophet sent by God following Muhammad. Three fundamental principles govern the Bahá'í Faith namely: Unity of God, Unity of Religion and Unity of Mankind. These three assertions formed the principal core of the Bahá'í religion and are supplemented by other tenets namely: universal compulsory education, universal auxiliary language to support one’s native language, universal peace, harmony of science and religion and many others. Moreover, the Baha'i Faith followers claim to regard the equality of men and women as one of its fundamental tenets. No other world religion has been quite as explicit as the Bahá'í faith in its support of the principle of the gender equality. The Baha'is respect the distinction of either gender’s capabilities and potentials, enabling them to fulfill different but complementary roles. They likewise recognize the

  14. Work-supportive family, family-supportive supervision, use of organizational benefits, and problem-focused coping: implications for work-family conflict and employee well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Laurent M; Allen, Tammy D

    2006-04-01

    Employees (n = 230) from multiple organizations and industries were involved in a study assessing how work-family conflict avoidance methods stemming from the family domain (emotional sustenance and instrumental assistance from the family), the work domain (family-supportive supervision, use of telework and flextime), and the individual (use of problem-focused coping) independently relate to different dimensions of work-family conflict and to employees' affective and physical well-being. Results suggest that support from one's family and one's supervisor and the use of problem-focused coping seem most promising in terms of avoiding work-family conflict and/or decreased well-being. Benefits associated with the use of flextime, however, are relatively less evident, and using telework may potentially increase the extent to which family time demands interfere with work responsibilities. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Trends in International Trade in Higher Education: Implications and Options for Developing Countries. Education Working Paper Series, Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Sajitha

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trends, underlying factors and implications of the trade in higher education services. The term "trade in higher education" refers to the purchase of higher education services from a foreign country using domestic resources. The objectives of this paper are to provide policy makers in developing countries, World Bank staff,…

  16. The Implications of Growth Policy for Postsecondary Education. A Model and Proposed Course of Action. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Lewis J.; Bergquist, William H.

    A 5-month project was undertaken at the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education to do a preliminary study of the implications of growth policy for postsecondary education. The decision to focus on this level of education was based on the belief that the existing problems of growth and its limits have become too urgent to be left to…

  17. The influence of employees’ parents on work-family balance in Taiwan: implications for organisational behaviour and wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chih-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Work-family research in Chinese societies often directly adopts the Western work-family model and rarely attempts to consider cultural differences in the importance of employees’ parents. Researchers infrequently address the role of parents in the work-family field. The aim of this thesis was to understand the influence of employees’ parents on work-family balance and its related outcomes in a Chinese society, Taiwan. A multi-method approach was employed consisting of three studies. First, th...

  18. Portfolio Careers and Work-Life Balance among Musicians: An Initial Study into Implications for Higher Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Adele; Smith, Gareth Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Musicians are acknowledged to lead complex working lives, often characterised as portfolio careers. The higher music education research literature has tended to focus on preparing students for rich working lives and multiple identity realisations across potential roles. Extant literature does not address the area of work-life balance, which this…

  19. The proportion of work-related emergency department visits not expected to be paid by workers' compensation: implications for occupational health surveillance, research, policy, and health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, Matthew R; Baron, Sherry L

    2013-12-01

    To examine trends in the proportion of work-related emergency department visits not expected to be paid by workers' compensation during 2003-2006, and to identify demographic and clinical correlates of such visits. A total of 3,881 work-related emergency department visit records drawn from the 2003-2006 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys. Secondary, cross-sectional analyses of work-related emergency department visit data were performed. Odds ratios and 95 percent confidence intervals were modeled using logistic regression. A substantial and increasing proportion of work-related emergency department visits in the United States were not expected to be paid by workers' compensation. Private insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, and workers themselves were expected to pay for 40 percent of the work-related emergency department visits with this percentage increasing annually. Work-related visits by blacks, in the South, to for-profit hospitals and for work-related illnesses were all more likely not to be paid by workers' compensation. Emergency department-based surveillance and research that determine work-relatedness on the basis of expected payment by workers' compensation systematically underestimate the occurrence of occupational illness and injury. This has important methodological and policy implications. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. The influence of previous low back trouble, general health, and working conditions on future sick-listing because of low back trouble. A 15-year follow-up study of risk indicators for self-reported sick-listing caused by low back trouble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C F; Monrad, T; Biering-Sørensen, F; Darre, E; Deis, A; Kryger, P

    1999-08-01

    A 15-year follow-up study. To find risk indicators for self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble and to evaluate which variables were the most important indicators of work incapacity resulting from low back trouble during the follow-up period of 15 years. The initial data were obtained from a health survey conducted in a general population from the Municipality of Glostrup, Denmark. The follow-up data included information from the Central Person Register, the Early Retirement Pension Register, and a postal questionnaire regarding self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble. An epidemiologic study, in which logistic regression analyses were used for evaluation of the data. The model used consisted of the variable in question, age, gender, and previous experience of low back trouble, along with interactions. It was found that 22 of 37 variables were risk indicators for later self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble during the preceding year or the 7 years before the date of follow-up evaluation. In analyzing the most significant variables simultaneously, it was found that information from the initial investigation about sick-listing in general during the previous 10 years, sciatic pain, use of analgesics for low back trouble, previous sick-listing because of low back trouble, and occupation were the most important risk indicators for self-reported work incapacity resulting from low back trouble during the follow-up period of 15 years. Findings showed that the strongest prognostic indicators of later sick-listing because of low back trouble involve information from the person about previous sick-listing behavior in general and previous experience of low back trouble episodes, especially if these had been accompanied by sciatic pain, use of analgesics, or previous low back trouble sick-listing.

  1. Differentiated Typology of Sex Work and Implication for HIV Prevention Programs among Female Sex Workers in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Sanjeev Raj

    2015-01-01

    Sex work in exchange for kind and cash has long been practiced in Nepal. The HIV prevention program in Nepal is focused mainly on these two typologies of sex work. There might be more typologies of sex work beyond streets and establishments seeking research and programmatic attention. The objective of the study is to explore the differentiated typologies of sex work. This is a cross-sectional study conducted using a qualitative technique. Researchers carried out eight Focus Group Discussions with female sex workers (FSWs) (n = 50) in different places of Tanahu district. Data were analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis approach. We identified a more differentiated typology of sex work. Private contact-based sex work and the covert sex work on the cruising areas along the major highways were common. Sex work has become easier to operate with the advent of new technologies such as cell phone. With limited role of facilitation by brokers and pimps, now FSWs are better off and have longer duration of relationship with clients. Soft prostitution was common, as FSWs complemented their income through sex work. The conventional mode of peer and outreach educational approach needs to be further strengthened and modified according to the changing typology of sex work. HIV testing sites need to be further expanded to cruising areas along the highways.

  2. Differentiated typology of sex work and implication for HIV prevention programs among female sex workers in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj Mishra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSex work in exchange for kind and cash has long been practiced in Nepal. The HIV prevention program in Nepal is focused mainly on these two typologies of sex work. There might be more typologies of sex work beyond streets and establishments seeking research and programmatic attention. The objective of the study is to explore the differentiated typologies of sex work.MethodsThis is a cross sectional study conducted using a qualitative technique. Researchers carried out eight Focus Group Discussions with Female Sex Workers (FSWs (n=50 in different places of Tanahu district. Data was analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis approach.ResultsWe identified a more differentiated typology of sex work. Private contact-based sex work and the covert sex work on the cruising areas along the major highways were common. Sex work has become easier to operate with the advent of new technologies such as cellphone. With limited role of facilitation by brokers and pimps, now FSWs are better off and have longer duration of relationship with clients. Soft prostitution was common, as FSWs complemented their income through sex work.ConclusionsThe conventional mode of peer and outreach educational approach needs to be further strengthened and modified according to the changing typology of sex work. HIV testing sites need to be further expanded to cruising areas along the highways.

  3. Differentiated Typology of Sex Work and Implication for HIV Prevention Programs among Female Sex Workers in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Sanjeev Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sex work in exchange for kind and cash has long been practiced in Nepal. The HIV prevention program in Nepal is focused mainly on these two typologies of sex work. There might be more typologies of sex work beyond streets and establishments seeking research and programmatic attention. The objective of the study is to explore the differentiated typologies of sex work. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted using a qualitative technique. Researchers carried out eight Focus Group Discussions with female sex workers (FSWs) (n = 50) in different places of Tanahu district. Data were analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis approach. Results: We identified a more differentiated typology of sex work. Private contact-based sex work and the covert sex work on the cruising areas along the major highways were common. Sex work has become easier to operate with the advent of new technologies such as cell phone. With limited role of facilitation by brokers and pimps, now FSWs are better off and have longer duration of relationship with clients. Soft prostitution was common, as FSWs complemented their income through sex work. Conclusion: The conventional mode of peer and outreach educational approach needs to be further strengthened and modified according to the changing typology of sex work. HIV testing sites need to be further expanded to cruising areas along the highways. PMID:25785259

  4. An Examination of Which Implications New Media Platforms Can Have on Study Group Work and Learning Opportunities in the Environment of the Course Information Systems for Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Simone Quach; Trankjær, Mie Bohn; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    2014-01-01

    to facilitate study group work in the course. Most students were positive towards the use of these platforms and found that their group work had become more effective as a direct result. However, some limitations were also found in using New Media platforms in all aspects of the ISB course, as some of the more......The Information Society is characterised by its technological development; the many New Media platforms offered on the World Wide Web have changed the communication culture from a traditional one-way transaction to a co-creation culture (Mangold and Faulds 2009). This paper investigates which...... implications New Media platforms – with special emphasis on Blackboard, Facebook, Google Docs and Dropbox – have on study group work in the environment of the course Information Systems for Business (ISB) at Aarhus University. Additionally, it is investigated which opportunities these platforms potentially...

  5. Environmental policy implications of working from home: Modelling the impacts of land-use, infrastructure and socio-demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Miao; Andrew Kelly, J.; Peter Clinch, J.; King, Fearghal

    2012-01-01

    Working from home is generally perceived as an effective means of reducing energy use and associated pollution from commuter transport. In order to consider the merits of mechanisms and policies to support a change in behaviour that results in greater take-up of home working, this paper applies energy consumption per commute calculations and a logit model using a case study of Ireland. In marked contrast with larger countries, the energy consumption per commute is relatively low in Ireland. Nonetheless, the analysis indicates that, on average, at least an average net saving of 9.33 kW h per day can be achieved where an individual converts to working from home, after deducting the home energy consumption associated with home working. We find that land use patterns, public transport networks, internet infrastructure, commute distances and socio-demographic characteristics can serve to influence rates of home working. Encouraging the higher and lower professional categories and those in the service sectors to work from home should be the highest priority in terms of energy and emissions reductions. Increased coverage of internet services and railway coverage will support higher rates of home working. Increased dispersion of residential, commercial and industrial areas serves to encourage greater home working. - Highlights: ► An average net energy saving of 9.33 kW h per day can be achieved by an individual changing to working from home. ► Land use patterns, public transport and internet infrastructure influence rates of home working. ► Commute distances and socio-demographic characteristics influence the take-up of home working. ► Encouraging home-working by higher and lower professionals and the service sectors is the priority.

  6. Corporate mobility: Impacts on life domains and implications for work-life balance of international business travelers and expatriates

    OpenAIRE

    Tretyakevich, Natalia; Maggi, Rico

    2016-01-01

    In my dissertation I aim to explore the impacts of work-related mobility on job, family life and personal well-being of the travelling employees. To do so, three studies have been conducted with the purpose to investigate business travel behavioral patterns and impacts of work-related mobility on various life domains of the three segments, namely frequent corporate business travelers, expatriates and travelling academics, for whom the issues of travel stress and work-life balance are of ...

  7. Educational experiences in Chemistry with Adult and Youth: incursions at science, work and ideology and its curriculums implications

    OpenAIRE

    Alceu Júnior Paz da Silva; Luiz Carlos Nascimento da Rosa; Gustavo da Silva Flores; Narendranath Martins Costa

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary setting of huge unemployment and precarization of work has brought to Adult and Youth Education courses an imaginary that secondary education is fundamental for professional qualification and achievement of (better) jobs. The objective of this work is to problematize the Chemistry curriculum according to young and adults interests in order to qualify them to the world of work. For that purpose, we adopted some contributions of Gramsci’s Marxist social theory as methodological...

  8. What Are the Perceived Implications, if Any, for Non-IAPT Therapists Working in an IAPT Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altson, Catherine; Loewenthal, Del; Gaitanidis, Anastasios; Thomas, Rhiannon

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the national Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme, from the perspective of "non-IAPT" counsellors and psychotherapists working within IAPT services. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with therapists who were currently working within IAPT services, but had no formal…

  9. Profiles of Attribution of Importance to Life Roles and Their Implications for the Work-Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael

    2002-01-01

    Cluster analysis identified 3 groups of individuals who differed systematically on attributions of relative importance to work and to family roles. Participants were 213 married computer workers and lawyers, 126 men and 87 women. Questionnaires gathered data on attributions of importance to life roles, work-family conflict, spousal and managerial…

  10. THE LIVED EXPERIENCES OF BLACK AFRICAN MOTHERS FOLLOWING THE BIRTH OF A CHILD WITH DOWN SYNDROME: IMPLICATIONS FOR INDIGENISATION OF SOCIAL WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathebane, Mbazima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the lived experiences of black African mothers following the birth of a child with Down syndrome and implications of this for the indigenisation of social work practice in South Africa. A retrospective qualitative study following a phenomenological design was undertaken. Findings indicated that giving birth to a child with Down syndrome evokes intense psychological and social reactions from the mother, family and community. The cultural norms and values of black African people, including principles of ubuntu and their belief in collectivism, provide important opportunities, support systems and resources that could be pooled for efficient and effective helping intervention.

  11. Concoction of harmful substances in homemade alcoholic beverages in rural areas of Mopani district in Limpopo province-RSA: implications for social work practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhubele, J C

    2013-10-01

    The primary aim of this article is to explore and describe the production and consumption of homemade alcohol and its associated challenges in relation to implications for social work practice. Qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual design was ideal and purposive and snowball sampling methods were used in this research. Data was collected through interviews with brewers and consumers of homemade alcoholic beverages. It was found that foreign substances are put into homemade alcoholic beverages for commercial reasons in an attempt to address social exclusion.

  12. Long working hours increase the risk of sharp and needlestick injury in nurses: the need for new policy implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Mustafa N; Durukan, Elif; Aras, Evin; Türkçüoğlu, Sertaç; Aygün, Remzi

    2006-12-01

    This paper reports a study to determine the sharp and needlestick injury incidence in nurses working at a university hospital and the contributing factors. Although it is generally felt that working in the healthcare sector is clean and without risk, healthcare staff and especially physicians and nurses who generally work very long hours are actually exposed to various occupational risks. Sharps and needlestick injuries are important problems for healthcare workers as they increase the risk of spread of infection. A self-administered questionnaire was completed in October 2005 by 449 of the 516 nurses working at a Turkish hospital (response rate 87.0%). The percentage of nurses experiencing a sharp or needlestick injury during their professional life was 79.7%. The incidence of exposure to sharp or needlestick injury in the last year was 68.4%. The factors increasing the rate of sharp and needlestick injury were: age 24 years and less, working in surgical or intensive care units and working for more than 8 hours per day (P working long shifts, where tiredness may contribute to the number of needlestick injuries.

  13. Attribution of importance to life roles and their implications for mental health among Filipino American working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napholz, Linda; Mo, Wenbin

    2010-02-01

    Our purpose was to determine levels of role commitment, role conflict, depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction among a community-based sample of working Filipino women. The convenience sample consisted of 87 Filipino working women, ranging in age from 18 to 59 years. Participants completed instruments assessing self-esteem, depression, life satisfaction, and role conflict. Our analyses revealed that participants who were equally or more committed to work than relationships had significantly higher depression scores, self-esteem scores, and levels of education than participants who were committed primarily to relationships. There were no significant differences among role commitment type on role conflict and life satisfaction. We found significant interactions between experiences of depression, self-esteem, and the perceptions of self. From our study findings our knowledge of working Filipina American's psychological well-being has increased and provided a foundation for future research.

  14. Cognitive Artifacts' Implications for Health Care Information Technology: Revealing How Practitioners Create and Share Their Understanding of Daily Work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemth, Christopher; O'Connor, Michael; Klock, P. A; Cook, Richard

    2005-01-01

    .... The purpose is to improve the capture, use, and sharing of information related to clinical planning and management at the clinical unit level, which shapes the unit's work and leads to success...

  15. Heat exposure, cardiovascular stress and work productivity in rice harvesters in India: implications for a climate change future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Subhashis; Sett, Moumita; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2013-01-01

    Excessive workplace heat exposures create well-known risks of heat stroke, and it limits the workers' capacity to sustain physical activity. There is very limited evidence available on how these effects reduce work productivity, while the quantitative relationship between heat and work productivity is an essential basis for climate change impact assessments. We measured hourly heat exposure in rice fields in West Bengal and recorded perceived health problems via interviews of 124 rice harvesters. In a sub-group (n = 48) heart rate was recorded every minute in a standard work situation. Work productivity was recorded as hourly rice bundle collection output. The hourly heat levels (WBGT = Wet Bulb Globe Temperature) were 26-32°C (at air temperatures of 30-38°C), exceeding international standards. Most workers reported exhaustion and pain during work on hot days. Heart rate recovered quickly at low heat, but more slowly at high heat, indicating cardiovascular strain. The hourly number of rice bundles collected was significantly reduced at WBGT>26°C (approximately 5% per°C of increased WBGT). We conclude that high heat exposure in agriculture caused heat strain and reduced work productivity. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the local economy.

  16. Working with young adults with Type 1 diabetes: views of a multidisciplinary care team and implications for service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, S; Eiser, C; Johnson, B; Young, V; Heller, S

    2012-05-01

    Young adults with Type 1 diabetes experience difficulties achieving glucose targets. Clinic attendance can be poor, although health and self-care tend to be better among those who attend regularly. Our aims were to describe staff views about challenges working with this age-group (16-21 years). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 staff from Sheffield Teaching Hospitals diabetes care team. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Three main themes emerged. Unique challenges working with young adults included staff emotional burden, the low priority given to self-care by young adults and the complexity of the diabetes regimen. Working in a multidisciplinary team was complicated by differences in consultation styles, poor team cohesion and communication. An ideal service should include psychological support for the professional team, identification of key workers, and development of individualized care plans. Staff differed in their views about how to achieve optimal management for young adults, but emphasized the need for greater patient-centred care and a range of interventions appropriate for individual levels of need. They also wanted to increase their own skills and confidence working with this age-group. While these results reflect the views of staff working in only one diabetes centre, they are likely to reflect the views of professionals delivering care to individuals of this age; replication is needed to determine their generalizability. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  17. "Eyes that don't see, heart that doesn't feel": coping with sex work in intimate relationships and its implications for HIV/STI prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Robertson, Angela M; Rolón, María Luisa; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-06-01

    Partner communication about HIV sexual risk behaviors represents a key area of epidemiologic and social importance in terms of infection acquisition and potential for tailored interventions. Nevertheless, disclosing sexual risk behaviors often presents myriad challenges for marginalized couples who engage in stigmatized behaviors. Using qualitative data from a social epidemiology study of risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers and their intimate, non-commercial male partners along the Mexico-U.S. border, we examined both partners' perspectives on sex work and the ways in which couples discussed associated HIV/STI risks in their relationship. Our thematic analysis of individual and joint interviews conducted in 2010 and 2011 with 44 couples suggested that broader contexts of social and economic inequalities profoundly shaped partner perspectives of sex work. Although couples accepted sex work as an economic contribution to the relationship in light of limited alternatives and drug addiction, it exacted an emotional toll on both partners. Couples employed multiple strategies to cope with sex work, including psychologically disconnecting from their situation, telling "little lies," avoiding the topic, and to a lesser extent, superficially discussing their risks. While such strategies served to protect both partners' emotional health by upholding illusions of fidelity and avoiding potential conflict, non-disclosure of risk behaviors may exacerbate the potential for HIV/STI acquisition. Our work has direct implications for designing multi-level, couple-based health interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Occupational Stress Management and Burnout Interventions in Nursing and Their Implications for Healthy Work Environments: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Lightfoot, Nancy; Larivière, Michael; Carter, Lorraine; Rukholm, Ellen; Schinke, Robert; Belanger-Gardner, Diane

    2015-07-01

    This article reports on a literature review of workplace interventions (i.e., creating healthy work environments and improving nurses' quality of work life [QWL]) aimed at managing occupational stress and burnout for nurses. A literature search was conducted using the keywords nursing, nurses, stress, distress, stress management, burnout, and intervention. All the intervention studies included in this review reported on workplace intervention strategies, mainly individual stress management and burnout interventions. Recommendations are provided to improve nurses' QWL in health care organizations through workplace health promotion programs so that nurses can be recruited and retained in rural and northern regions of Ontario. These regions have unique human resources needs due to the shortage of nurses working in primary care. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Breast Cancer Epidemiology of the Working-Age Female Population Reveals Significant Implications for the South Korean Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Seok Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jin-Seok; Park, Won; Yu, Jonghan; Park, Yeon Hee

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the economic loss due to the diagnosis of breast cancer within the female South Korean working-age population. A population-based cost analysis was performed for cancer-related diagnoses between 1999 and 2014, using respective public government funded databases. Among the five most common cancers, breast cancer mortality was strongly associated with the growth in gross domestic product between 1999 and 2014 (R=0.98). In the female population, breast cancer represented the greatest productivity loss among all cancers, which was a consequence of the peak in the incidence of breast cancer during mid-working age in the working-age population, in addition to being the most common and fastest growing cancer among South Korean women. Our study shows that breast cancer not only represents a significant disease burden for individual patients, but also contributes a real, nonnegligible loss in productivity in the South Korean economy.

  20. Educational experiences in Chemistry with Adult and Youth: incursions at science, work and ideology and its curriculums implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Júnior Paz da Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary setting of huge unemployment and precarization of work has brought to Adult and Youth Education courses an imaginary that secondary education is fundamental for professional qualification and achievement of (better jobs. The objective of this work is to problematize the Chemistry curriculum according to young and adults interests in order to qualify them to the world of work. For that purpose, we adopted some contributions of Gramsci’s Marxist social theory as methodological and theoretical tools to investigate hegemonic aspects in which the curriculum is immersed. By analyzing the curriculum as a space of struggle for social hegemony, we conclude that is promising to explore the historical approach of the chemical knowledge as a mediator element of counter-hegemonic educational practices.

  1. Lean approach in knowledge work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kropsu-Vehkapera

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Knowledge work productivity is a key area of improvement for many organisations. Lean approach is a sustainable way to achieve operational excellence and can be applied in many areas. The purpose of this novel study is to examine the potential of using lean approach for improving knowledge work practices. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review has been carried out to study how lean approach is realised in knowledge work. The research is conceptual in nature and draws upon earlier research findings. Findings: This study shows that lean studies’ in knowledge work is an emerging research area. This study documents the methods and practices implemented in knowledge work to date, and presents a knowledge work continuum, which is an essential framework for effective lean approach deployment and to frame future research focus in knowledge work productivity. Research limitations/implications: This study structures the concept of knowledge work and outlines a concrete concept derived from earlier literature. The study summarises the literature on lean in knowledge work and highlights, which methods are used. More research is needed to understand how lean can be implemented in complex knowledge work environment and not only on the repetitive knowledge work. The limitations of this research are due to the limited availability of previous research. Practical implications: To analyse the nature of knowledge work, we implicate the areas where lean methods especially apply to improving knowledge work productivity. When applying lean in knowledge work context the focus should be using the people better and improving information flow. Originality/value: This study focuses on adapting lean methods into a knowledge work context and summarises earlier research done in this field. The study discusses the potential to improve knowledge work productivity by implementing lean methods and presents a unique knowledge work continuum to

  2. Understanding High Incidence of Severe Obesity and Very Low Food Security in Food Pantry Clients: Implications For Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Michelle L; Cafer, Anne

    2018-01-01

    The United States is facing two interconnected social and public health crises of severe obesity and food insecurity within the social-ecological environment. Marginalized groups experience the highest rates and the greatest impacts in terms of morbidity, mortality, and financial burdens. Consequences include experiencing multimorbidities, mental health issues, and decreased quality of life. Food pantries have served as spaces to obtain food to meet household needs, but for some, food pantries have become long-term solutions. We surveyed 2,634 people who accessed pantries in 2005, 2010, and 2013 across 32 counties in a Midwest state. The authors sought to understand to what extent does length of time using a food pantry, food security status, income sources, use of federal food benefits, visiting a doctor, and demographic variables increase odds of severe obesity. More than 14% were severely obese; those who were long-term food pantry users and very low food secure were 1.732 times more likely to be severely obese. Receiving Disability/Supplemental Security Income, seeing a doctor in the last year, being female, and older age reduced the odds of severe obesity. Discussion includes implications for social workers who interact with groups likely to experience very low food security and severe obesity at different systems levels.

  3. The Implications of Flexible Staffing Arrangements for Job Stability. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper No. 99-056. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, Susan N.; Polivka, Anne E.

    A study examined the job stability of workers in the following flexible staffing arrangements: agency temporary, direct-hire temporary, on-call, contract company, independent contractor, and regular part-time work. Two data sources were used in the analysis. The first was a nationwide survey of employers on their use of flexible staffing…

  4. Government crackdown of sex work in China: responses from female sex workers and implications for their health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Pan, Suiming

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese Government periodically enforces anti-prostitution laws through regular police presence in red light districts and through the arrests of brothel managers and sex workers. One of the most intense crackdowns on prostitution occurred throughout China in 2010. Using the 'structure-agency' framework and ethnographic approach, this paper examines the influence of the 2010 government anti-prostitution crackdown on female sex workers (FSWs). We observed 10 red light districts (6 cities and 2 counties) and interviewed 107 FSWs, 26 managers and 37 outreach workers working with FSWs. The findings describe variations in police practices and diverse strategies adopted by FSWs in response to police actions. The strategies include: soliciting sex outside of establishments in less visible channels, increasing the mobility and flexibility of sex work, changing sexual practices, sharing knowledge of how to identify policemen disguised as male clients and building personal relationships with local police. Our study suggests that, rather than disappearing as a result of crackdowns, the terms and content of sex work changed as a result of the FSWs' responses to police practices. Some of these responses potentially increased the health risks associated with sex work, but others laid the foundation for an effective response to police practices.

  5. Psychological Needs, Engagement, and Work Intentions: A Bayesian Multi-Measurement Mediation Approach and Implications for HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuck, Brad; Zigarmi, Drea; Owen, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the utility of self-determination theory (SDT) within the engagement-performance linkage. Design/methodology/approach: Bayesian multi-measurement mediation modeling was used to estimate the relation between SDT, engagement and a proxy measure of performance (e.g. work intentions) (N =…

  6. Pupil diameter, working distance and illumination during habitual tasks. Implications for simultaneous vision contact lenses for presbyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genís Cardona

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Potential multifocal contact lens users may present with different ages, different jobs or hobbies and different preferences regarding lighting conditions and working distances. This results in different pupil size, even within the same task. This information may be critical when selecting a particular lens design and add power. Eye care practitioners are therefore advised to assess pupil diameter in real life conditions.

  7. Social Class, Work, and the Family: Some Implications of the Father's Occupation for Familial Relationships and Sons' Career Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    The effects of both vertical and nonvertical dimensions of fathers' work on family relations and vocational socialization are explored through a multivariate analysis of data collected from several hundred male student participants enrolled in a Michigan College from 1962-1967. Social class and occupationally-related differences in family…

  8. The Long-Term Health Implications of Marital Disruption: Divorce, Work Limits, and Social Security Disability Benefits Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Kenneth A; Tamborini, Christopher R; Reznik, Gayle L

    2015-10-01

    We provide new evidence on the long-term impact of divorce on work disability among U.S. men. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation linked to U.S. Social Security Administration records, we assess the relationship between divorce and subsequent self-reports of work limitations and the receipt of federal disability benefits. The examination of self-reports and administrative records of medically qualified benefits provides dual confirmation of key relationships. We compare men who experienced a marital dissolution between 1975 and 1984 with continuously married men for 20 years following divorce using fixed-effects and propensity score matching models, and choose a sample to help control for selection into divorce. On average, we find that divorce is not associated with an increased probability of self-reported work limitations or receipt of disability benefits over the long run. However, among those who do not remarry, we do find that divorce increases men's long-term probability of both self-reported work limitations and federal disability benefit receipt. Lack of marital resources may drive this relationship. Alternative estimates that do not control for selection into divorce demonstrate that selection bias can substantially alter findings regarding the relationship between marital status changes and subsequent health.

  9. The Role of Personal Resources in Work-Family Conflict: Implications for Young Mothers' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein-Bercovitz, Hedva; Frish-Burstein, Smadar; Benjamin, Benny A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the role that personal resources (person-environment [PE] congruence and personality types associated with resilience) and work-family conflict (WFC) play in the sense of well-being (as reflected by burnout and life-satisfaction) of mothers of young children. A sample of 146 mothers holding demanding…

  10. Spanish Language Self-Efficacy Beliefs among Spanish-Speaking Social Workers: Implications for Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Limited research exists about Spanish-speaking social workers that provide bilingual social work services. To date, studies have not exclusively focused on actual language competence of bilingual social workers or even their self-perceived language beliefs. This study reviews the results of a cross-sectional Internet-based survey exploring…

  11. Duty of Care: Implications for Teachers/Instructors/Leaders and Other Employees Working outside the Main Stream Educational Arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Frank

    2002-01-01

    British outdoor education centers need to know their legal responsibilities concerning duty of care to children. Categories of "Duty of Care" include protection from adults deemed inappropriate to work with children; preventative strategies concerning personnel recruitment and organizational policies; child protection from abuse; health…

  12. Government crackdown of sex work in China: Responses from female sex workers and implications for their health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Pan, Suiming

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese Government periodically enforces anti-prostitution laws through regular police presence in red light districts and through the arrests of brothel managers and sex workers. One of the most intense crackdowns on prostitution occurred throughout China in 2010. Using the ‘structure-agency’ framework and ethnographic approach, this paper examines the influence of the 2010 government anti-prostitution crackdown on female sex workers (FSWs). We observed 10 red light districts (6 cities and 2 counties) and interviewed 107 FSWs, 26 managers and 37 outreach workers working with FSWs. The findings describe variations in police practices and diverse strategies adopted by FSWs in response to police actions. The strategies include: soliciting sex outside of establishments in less visible channels, increasing the mobility and flexibility of sex work, changing sexual practices, sharing knowledge of how to identify policemen disguised as male clients and building personal relationships with local police. Our study suggests that, rather than disappearing as a result of crackdowns, the terms and content of sex work changed as a result of the FSWs’ responses to police practices. Some of these responses potentially increased the health risks associated with sex work, but others laid the foundation for an effective response to police practices. PMID:25226069

  13. The increased use of information and communication technology (ICT among employees: Implications for work-life interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wihan de Wet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology has become one of society’s everyday functional tools, changing rapidly and providing widespread mobility. In South Africa alone, the number of Internet users grew from 8,5 million to 24,9 million in only three years (2011-2014. Currently, 90 per cent of these users access this facility from their mobile devices. Statistics illustrate that South Africans are moving towards a continuously connected lifestyle, a situation in which information and communication technology (ICT seems to have become ubiquitous. Given the rapid growth of ITC technology and its absorption into people’s lives (both personally and professionally, the general aim of the present research was to investigate the use of ICT among employees and how it affects their work-life interaction (WLI. The researcher employed a qualitative research approach in accordance with which a sample of 25 employees was interviewed. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and processed by means of thematic analyses. Three themes with corresponding sub-themes were extracted: use of ICT (i.e. in both work and family domains; challenges that ICT use presents; and the way in which employees manage their WLI by means of ICT. The participants experienced WLI as mostly negative. However, they also mentioned two different approaches that helped them manage interaction between their work and family domains. These approaches entail 1 applying limits to their use of ICT, and 2 using ICT to create flexibility. This article advises that organisations should consider adopting ICT to assist their employees in the management of these two domains. This could be done in two ways. First, organisations could implement a code of conduct or provide guidelines for eliminating the intrusive and excessive use of ICT, especially after working hours. Secondly, organisations could pilot or implement flexible working hours and possible telecommuting initiatives.

  14. Day of the week lost time occupational injury trends in the US by gender and industry and their implications for work scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogmus, G E

    2007-03-01

    While there is a growing body of research on the impact of work schedules on the risk of occupational injuries, there has been little investigation into the impact that the day of the week might have. The present research was completed to explore day of the week trends, reasons for such trends and the corresponding implications for work scheduling. Data for the number of injuries and illnesses involving days away from work (lost time; LT) in 2004 were provided by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics Office of Safety and Health Statistics. Data from the American Time Use Survey database were used to estimate work hours in 2004. From these two data sources, the rate of LT injuries and illnesses (per 200 000 work hours) by day of the week, industry sector and gender were estimated. The analysis revealed clear differences by day of the week, gender and major industry sector. Sundays had the highest rate overall--nearly 37% higher than the average of the remaining days, Monday to Saturday. Mondays had the next highest rate followed closely by Saturdays. This pattern was not the same for males and females. For males, Mondays had the highest LT rate (27% higher than the average of all other days) with all remaining days having essentially the same rate. For females, Sundays and Saturdays had much higher LT rates--122% and 60% higher, respectively, than the average weekday rate. There were also differences by industry and differences between genders by industry. The present analysis suggests that several factors may be contributing to the weekend and Monday trends observed. Lower-tenured (and younger) workers on the weekends, lower female management/supervision and second jobs on the weekend seem to be contributors to the high Saturday and Sunday LT rates. Differences in day of the week employment by industry did not account for the trends observed. Fraud and overtime also could not be confirmed as contributing to these trends. Monday trends were more complex to explain, with

  15. Employer knowledge of federal requirements for recording work-related injuries and illnesses: Implications for occupational injury surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuellner, Sara; Phipps, Polly

    2018-05-01

    Accuracy of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII) data is dependent on employer compliance with workplace injury and illness recordkeeping requirements. Characterization of employer recordkeeping can inform efforts to improve the data. We interviewed representative samples of SOII respondents from four states to identify common recordkeeping errors and to assess employer characteristics associated with limited knowledge of the recordkeeping requirements and non compliant practices. Less than half of the establishments required to maintain OSHA injury and illness records reported doing so. Few establishments knew to omit cases limited to diagnostic services (22%) and to count unscheduled weekend days as missed work (27%). No single state or establishment characteristic was consistently associated with better or worse record-keeping. Many employers possess a limited understanding of workplace injury recordkeeping requirements, potentially leading them to over-report minor incidents, and under-report missed work cases. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Heat index in migrant farmworker housing: implications for rest and recovery from work-related heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A; Wiggins, Melinda F; Chen, Haiying; Bischoff, Werner E; Arcury, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    Although the health risk to farmworkers of working in hot conditions is recognized, potential for excessive heat exposure in housing affecting rest and recovery has been ignored. We assessed heat index in common and sleeping rooms in 170 North Carolina farmworker camps across a summer and examined associations with time of summer and air conditioning use. We recorded dangerous heat indexes in most rooms, regardless of time or air conditioning. Policies to reduce heat indexes in farmworker housing should be developed.

  17. Pupil diameter, working distance and illumination during habitual tasks. Implications for simultaneous vision contact lenses for presbyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Genís; López, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    To determine working distance, pupil diameter and illumination in real life conditions in a sample of presbyopic participants performing habitual tasks. A total of 59 presbyopic subjects (aged between 45 and 63 years) with different occupational backgrounds participated in the study. Participants were first interviewed regarding their habitual tasks with the aid of an ad hoc questionnaire, following which in-office photopic and mesopic pupil diameter was determined. Pupil diameter was also evaluated while participants conducted each of the self-reported habitual tasks by taking a photograph, which was later submitted to image analysis. In addition, working distance was determined with a measuring tape and the illumination that reached the pupil during each of the different tasks was measured, in lux, with a light meter. The four most common habitual tasks were computer use, reading, sewing and sports. A high intersubject variability was found in pupil diameter, working distance and illumination conditions while conducting the same task. Statistically significant differences were found between the in-office measured photopic and mesopic pupil diameters and those obtained while participants were conducting their habitual tasks in real life conditions (all p<0.001). Potential multifocal contact lens users may present with different ages, different jobs or hobbies and different preferences regarding lighting conditions and working distances. This results in different pupil size, even within the same task. This information may be critical when selecting a particular lens design and add power. Eye care practitioners are therefore advised to assess pupil diameter in real life conditions. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. From "does it work?" to "what is 'it'?": implications for voodoo, psychotherapy, pop-psychology, regular, and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Jean-Luc; Devroey, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a "healing method" (HM) is defined as any method intended to improve health through non-somatic means. For many healing methods, especially within the realm of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), there is mounting debate over the question "Does it work?" Indeed, this seems to be the primary question for most stakeholders. Yet in light of the well-documented effects of nonspecific factors, particularly empathy and placebo (EP), we contend that the basic question is: "What is 'it'?" Without answering this question, scientific progress is impossible, and research costs will spiral upwards without producing tangible results. Furthermore, it is impossible to characterize the potential side effects of healing methods without a full understanding of the underlying mechanisms through which they act. It is generally acknowledged that many healing methods are sociohistorical artifacts, based on underlying theoretical models that are divorced from established science. There is a need for healing method research that is accommodating of such methods' fluid nature while being congruent with accepted scientific practices. "It works" is no longer an adequate justification for any healing method, as "it" often turns out to be a combination of nonspecific factors.

  19. Emotions at work: what is the link to patient and staff safety? Implications for nurse managers in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pam; Pearson, Pauline H; Ross, Fiona

    2009-03-01

    This paper sets the discussion of emotions at work within the modern NHS and the current prioritisation of creating a safety culture within the service. The paper focuses on the work of students, frontline nurses and their managers drawing on recent studies of patient safety in the curriculum, and governance and incentives in the care of patients with complex long term conditions. The primary research featured in the paper combined a case study design with focus groups, interviews and observation. In the patient safety research the importance of physical and emotional safety emerged as a key finding both for users and professionals. In the governance and incentives research, risk emerged as a key concern for managers, frontline workers and users. The recognition of emotions and the importance of emotional labour at an individual and organizational level managed by emotionally intelligent leaders played an important role in promoting worker and patient safety and reducing workplace risk. Nurse managers need to be aware of the emotional complexities of their organizations in order to set up systems to support the emotional wellbeing of professionals and users which in turn ensures safety and reduces risk.

  20. Repetitive box lifting performance is impaired in a hot environment: implications for altered work-rest cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresh, Carl M; Sökmen, Bulent; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Dias, Joao C; Pryor, J Luke; Creighton, Brent C; Muñoz, Colleen X; Apicella, Jenna M; Casa, Douglas J; Lee, Elaine C; Anderson, Jeffery M; Kraemer, William J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of environmental temperature on repetitive box lifting (RBL) performance, associated stress hormone and creatine kinase (CK) responses. Ten healthy males performed two experimental trials in a random crossover design. The trials consisted of three 40 min (10 min sitting, 20 min standing, and 10 min RBL) circuits performed in either 23 °C or 38 °C followed by a 180 min seated recovery period in 23 °C. RBL performance (i.e., number of boxes lifted) was reduced (p ≤ 0.05) in 38 °C compared to the 23 °C trial. Physiological Strain Index was significantly different between trials (38 °C: 8.5 ± 1.1 versus 23 °C: 7.2 ± 0.7; p ≤ 0.01). Plasma testosterone was elevated (p ≤ 0.05) across both trials and then decreased at 60 min recovery, compared to pre-exercise (PRE) measures, but was higher (p ≤ 0.05) during the 38 °C trial. Plasma cortisol increased (p ≤ 0.05) at 60 min during both trials and remained elevated until 120 min in 23 °C, and until 60 min recovery in 38 °C. Serum CK was greater through 48 hr post compared to PRE values in both trials. Thus, 10 min RBL performance was reduced in 38 °C despite the 30-min rest periods between RBL intervals. Plasma testosterone and cortisol were generally higher during the 38 °C trial, suggesting a greater stress response. Additional research is needed to determine optimal work:rest cycles for maximizing work performance in thermally oppressive environments.

  1. ["Get it while you can!" attitude: late industrialization and implications for work, environment, and health in Ceará State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria

    2007-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of late industrialization in a city in Ceará State (in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil) and its implications for work, environment, and health in the context of industrial mobility and advanced capitalism. Using direct observation of work processes, interviews (with production managers, company presidents, workers, local authorities, and community leaders), institutional visits and secondary data analysis, eight recently built factories that manufacture chemicals, shoes, electric appliances, clothing, mechanical parts, and packaging were analyzed as to relocation, technology, organization, work relations, worker profile, environmental and occupational risks, and the impact of these factors on health and regulatory mechanisms. The lack of adequate criteria for attracting and accepting new investments, leading to a "get it while you can" attitude, the poor quality of jobs and environmental conditions, and the scale of new changes and risks in the area, like the difficulties of the public sector and society in dealing with these challenges, raise the issue of sustainability in the current development processes.

  2. Left TPJ activity in verbal working memory: implications for storage- and sensory-specific models of short term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravizza, Susan M; Hazeltine, Eliot; Ruiz, Sandra; Zhu, David C

    2011-04-15

    Patients with damage to the left temporoparietal junction (TPJ) have a low verbal span without concomitant deficits in speech perception. This pattern of cognitive impairment is taken as evidence for a dedicated phonological buffer that plays little role in perception (storage-specific account). In contrast, other research suggests that items are maintained and perceived in the same regions (sensory-specific account). In an fMRI study, we demonstrate that the left TPJ does not respond in a way predicted of a phonological buffer; that is, activity in this region is not sustained during encoding or maintenance. Instead, a region in the superior temporal gyrus that has been associated with both speech perception and production demonstrated the expected profile of a store: it was more active in the verbal condition than the object condition and was active during both encoding and maintenance. These results support the sensory-specific account of short term memory rather than the storage-specific account. Based on the pattern of activity in the left TPJ, we suggest that the impairment of verbal working memory observed in patients with TPJ damage may be due to diminished attentional processes rather than reduced storage capacity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential implications of Luria's work for the neuropsychology of epilepsy and epilepsy surgery: A perspective for re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikelis, Panayiotis; Lucci, Giuliana; Siatouni, Anna; Verentzioti, Anastasia; Alexoudi, Athanasia; Gatzonis, Stylianos

    2017-07-01

    The pioneeristic work of Alexander Romanovic Luria into the field of human neuropsychology offered eminent contributions to clinical praxis by providing theory guided methods and instruments for the study of higher cortical functions. However, lots of this knowledge corpus either remains untranslated and thus inaccessible, or in some cases selectively overlooked by academic authorities and consequently not passed to the future generations of experts. Although Luria was not exclusively devoted to the study of epilepsy, his theories and clinical approaches actually penetrate the whole neuropathology spectrum. His holistic and systemic approach to the brain sounds nowadays more than opportune and consistent with the network approach of the modern neuroimaging era. As to epilepsy, the logic underlying the Lurian approach (cognitive functions organized into complex functional systems with intra- and/or inter-hemispheric distribution, as opposed to the modularistic view of the brain) seems consistent with our current knowledge in epileptology with respect to epileptic networks, as well as the modern construct of the functional deficit zone. These contributions seem to be highly promising for the neuropsychology of epilepsy and epilepsy surgery, since they provide clinicians with valuable methods and theories to assist them in the localization -and lateralization- of cognitive deficits. Consequently they are of great applicability in the context of the preoperative neuropsychological monitoring of patients candidates for epilepsy surgery, where neuropsychologist are called upon to provide surgeons with anatomical data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowledge of the facts and mistaken beliefs with regard to the elderly: Implications for education and work with the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the characteristics of psychological functioning in the elderly is a precondition for preservation and improvement of their competences, welfare and inclusion in the society. This article presents the findings of the Slovene research study about the knowledge of the facts concerning aging and the characteristics of the elderly, based on an extensive sample of adults of different ages and of different educational backgrounds. Acquaintance with the facts concerning the elderly grows with the level of education; the young during the period of transition into adulthood on the one hand and older people on the other, however, tend to have a lower awareness of the relevant facts. In general, understanding of the psychological aspects of aging, the characteristics of the elderly and their ability to learn, change and work is relatively low. Most adults are familiar with the facts concerning the physical condition, health and some peculiarities of psychological functioning in the elderly. However, mistaken beliefs reflecting negative attitudes to aging and older people are relatively wide­spread, especially with regard to the cognitive, or rather, a wider range of psycho­social functioning of the elderly. Therefore, we believe that both formal and informal education require provision of appropriate information for adults.

  5. A new working class in the making? The rise of the peasant workers and implications for social policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka Ho; Ngok, Kinglun

    2011-01-01

    The major objective of this article is to critically examine changes in social stratification and social mobility of the peasant workers in the post-Mao period, with particular reference to examine whether and how the selected peasant workers in Dongguan city in South China have asserted themselves in protecting their labour rights. The present studies is based upon intensive policy and documentary analysis, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and survey in getting first-hand data from conducting fieldwork in China. Migrant workers in Dongguan city in South China. Although peasant workers are becoming more concerned with their economic and social rights, they have not attempted to organize themselves as organized social organizations in protecting their own interests. Despite the fact that peasant workers may have a greater awareness of the interests as a social group, such a consciousness has not been developed into a distinct class identity. Without a distinct class identity, coupled with a lack of organized social forces in asserting their class interests, peasant workers have not formed themselves into an organized social class right now, especially as many of them still consider themselves having a peasant status instead of obtaining a new citizenship associated with working in urban China.

  6. Factors Associated With Medical School Graduates' Intention to Work With Underserved Populations: Policy Implications for Advancing Workforce Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Andrea N; Kuo, Tony; Arangua, Lisa; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2018-01-01

    Given projected U.S. physician shortages across all specialties that will likely impact underserved areas disproportionately, the authors sought to explore factors most correlated with medical school graduates' intention to work with underserved populations (IWUP). Data from the 2010-2012 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical School Graduation Questionnaire (n = 40,846) were analyzed. Variables (demographics, career preference, debt burden, intention to enter loan forgiveness programs) were examined using chi-square tests and logistic regression models. Respondents included 49.5% (20,228/40,846) women, 16.6% (6,771/40,837) underrepresented minorities (URMs), and 32.4% (13,034/37,342) with primary care intent. The median educational debt was $160,000. Respondents who were women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49, 1.70), URMs (aOR 2.50, 95% CI 2.30, 2.72), intended to enter loan forgiveness programs (aOR 2.44, 95% CI 2.26, 2.63), intended to practice primary care (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.54, 1.76), and intended to emphasize nonclinical careers (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.11, 1.37) had greater odds of reporting IWUP. Among those who chose specialties and careers with a nonclinical emphasis, and among those with greater burdens of educational and consumer debt, URMs were nearly twice as likely as other minorities and whites to report IWUP. Findings suggest physician characteristics that may be associated with filling workforce gaps in underserved areas. Restructuring financial incentive programs to support physician leaders and specialists with characteristics associated with IWUP may complement similar policies in primary care and could have key impacts on health equity in underserved areas.

  7. An appraisal of female sex work in Nigeria--implications for designing and scaling up HIV prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpeazu, Akudo; Momah-Haruna, Amaka; Madu Mari, Baba; Thompson, Laura H; Ogungbemi, Kayode; Daniel, Uduak; Aboki, Hafsatu; Isac, Shajy; Gorgens, Marelize; Mziray, Elizabeth; Njie, Ndella; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Emmanuel, Faran; Odek, Willis Omondi; Blanchard, James F

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs)--a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients ("hotspots"). In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%), hotels/lodges (29.6%), streets (16.6%), and brothels (14.6%). Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men) across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning process for scaling up focused HIV prevention programmes.

  8. An Appraisal of Female Sex Work in Nigeria - Implications for Designing and Scaling Up HIV Prevention Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpeazu, Akudo; Momah-Haruna, Amaka; Madu Mari, Baba; Thompson, Laura H.; Ogungbemi, Kayode; Daniel, Uduak; Aboki, Hafsatu; Isac, Shajy; Gorgens, Marelize; Mziray, Elizabeth; Njie, Ndella; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Emmanuel, Faran; Odek, Willis Omondi; Blanchard, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs) - a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. Methodology It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients (“hotspots”). In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. Results Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%), hotels/lodges (29.6%), streets (16.6%), and brothels (14.6%). Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men) across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. Conclusion FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning process for

  9. An appraisal of female sex work in Nigeria--implications for designing and scaling up HIV prevention programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akudo Ikpeazu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs--a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. METHODOLOGY: It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients ("hotspots". In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. RESULTS: Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%, hotels/lodges (29.6%, streets (16.6%, and brothels (14.6%. Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. CONCLUSION: FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning

  10. Design overview of the ITER core CXRS fast shutter and manufacturing implications during the detailed design work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaño Bardawil, David Antonio, E-mail: d.castano.bardawil@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany); Mertens, Philippe [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany); Offermanns, Guido; Behr, Wilfried [Central Institute for Engineering, Electronics and Analytics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany); Hawkes, Nick [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (Germany); Krasikov, Yury [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany); Balboa, Itziar [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (Germany); Biel, Wolfgang; Samm, Ulrich [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Keeping key parameters during design has facilitated quick iteration assessment. • Proper pipe bending and welding procedures were established for manufacturing. • Bellows assemblies and manufacturing were adequately defined for the actuator. • Successful cooperation between our in-house workshop and the industry. • Full shutter manufacturing drawings were successfully developed. - Abstract: At first a detailed fast shutter design was finalized for the ITER core charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic. The shutter has approximately 70 kg of mass and a length of 2.1 m. It operates in fractions of a second (0.7 s) protecting critical optical components against degradation and providing means of calibration for the optical system. The shutter structure is driven by a bidirectional frictionless helium actuator, with forces and axial strokes of 3.4 kN and 2 mm respectively. The shutter structure consists of: (a) two blades made of CuCrZr and stainless steel, calibration surfaces (currently Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on the top and on the bottom a protective TZM (Mo–0.5Ti–0.08Zr) screens, (b) two arms interconnected that form one cooling circuit including the blades, (c) a bumper system to limit the arms movement, and (d) a support. A description of these components and their functions are given in this paper, followed by some issues, and their corresponding solutions or ongoing investigations, encountered during the design work. Detailed manufacturing drawings have been developed as the deliverable final product of this design stage, and are used in the prototyping phase which includes testing, numerical benchmarking, and validation of the shutter concept.

  11. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  12. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  13. Challenging previous conceptions of vegetarianism and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisak, B; Peterson, R D; Tantleff-Dunn, S; Molnar, J M

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand upon previous research that has examined the potential association between vegetarianism and disordered eating. Limitations of previous research studies are addressed, including possible low reliability of measures of eating pathology within vegetarian samples, use of only a few dietary restraint measures, and a paucity of research examining potential differences in body image and food choice motives of vegetarians versus nonvegetarians. Two hundred and fifty-six college students completed a number of measures of eating pathology and body image, and a food choice motives questionnaire. Interestingly, no significant differences were found between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in measures of eating pathology or body image. However, significant differences in food choice motives were found. Implications for both researchers and clinicians are discussed.

  14. A comparison of job descriptions for nurse practitioners working in out-of-hours primary care services: implications for workforce planning, patients and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teare, Jean; Horne, Maria; Clements, Gill; Mohammed, Mohammed A

    2017-03-01

    To compare and contrast job descriptions for nursing roles in out-of-hours services to obtain a general understanding of what is required for a nurse working in this job. Out-of-hours services provide nursing services to patients either through telephone or face-to-face contact in care centres. Many of these services are newly created giving job opportunities to nurses working in this area. It is vital that nurses know what their role entails but also that patients and other professionals know how out-of-hours nurses function in terms of competence and clinical role. Content analysis of out-of-hours job descriptions. Content analysis of a convenience sample of 16 job descriptions of out-of-hours nurses from five out-of-hours care providers across England was undertaken. The findings were narratively synthesised, supported by tabulation. Key role descriptors were examined in terms of job titles, managerial skills, clinical skills, professional qualifications and previous experience. Content analysis of each out-of-hours job description revealed a lack of consensus in clinical competence and skills required related to job title although there were many similarities in skills across all the roles. This study highlights key differences and some similarities between roles and job titles in out-of-hours nursing but requires a larger study to inform workforce planning. Out-of-hours nursing is a developing area of practice which requires clarity to ensure patient safety and quality care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Repercussões cardíacas após infarto do miocárdio em ratas submetidas previamente a exercício físico Cardiac implications after myocardial infarction in rats previously undergoing physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carvalho de Arruda Veiga

    2013-01-01

    for eight weeks and were randomized to coronary occlusion or sham surgery, in one of the following four groups: Sedentary (S, exercise (E, Sedentary myocardial infarction (SMI and Exercise myocardial infarction (EMI. After six weeks, their biometrics, Doppler echocardiography, hemodynamics and myocardial mechanics were analyzed. RESULTS: No cardioprotection was observed in EMI animals and there was no difference in infarct size (%LV between EMI (38.50 ± 4.60% and SMI (36.58 ± 4.11%. Water content of the lung (% of SMI (80 ± 0.59 and EMI (80 ± 0.57 was higher than that of S (78 ± 0.15 and E (78 ± 0.57 groups. Left ventricular systolic pressure (mmHg (S: 130 ± 5, E: 118 ± 8; SMI: 91 ± 3; EMI: 98 ± 3 and the first positive time derivative (mmHg positive pressure (S: 8216 ± 385; E: 8437 ± 572; SMI: 4674 ± 455; EMI: 5080 ± 412 of S and E were higher than those of SMI and EMI. The transverse fractional shortening (% of SMI (27 ± 2 and EMI (25 ± 2 were similar and lower than that of E (65 ± 2 and S (69 ± 2. The E/A ratio was higher in SMI (5.14 ± 0.61 and EMI (4.73 ± 0.57 compared to S (2.96 ± 0.24 and E (2.83 ± 0 21. In studies of isolated papillary muscle, depression of the contractile capacity observed was similar to that of SMI and EMI, and there was no change in myocardial stiffness. CONCLUSION: Previous training by swimming did not attenuate cardiac implications due to myocardial infarction.

  16. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  17. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  18. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  19. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  20. Performative Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beunza, Daniel; Ferraro, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    by attending to the normative and regulative associations of the device. We theorize this route to performativity by proposing the concept of performative work, which designates the necessary institutional work to enable translation and the subsequent adoption of the device. We conclude by considering...... the implications of performative work for the performativity and the institutional work literatures.......Callon’s performativity thesis has illuminated how economic theories and calculative devices shape markets, but has been challenged for its neglect of the organizational, institutional and political context. Our seven-year qualitative study of a large financial data company found that the company...

  1. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  2. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  3. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  4. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  5. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  6. Perceived Work Conditions and Turnover Intentions: The Mediating Role of Meaning of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux-Nicolas, Caroline; Sovet, Laurent; Lhotellier, Lin; Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bernaud, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Perceived working conditions lead to various negative outcomes for employee behaviors, including turnover intentions. Although potential mediators for these relationships were previously identified, the importance of meaning of work has not yet been investigated. This study examines the role of this psychological resource as a mediator for the relationships between perceived working conditions and turnover intentions in a sample of 336 French workers from different job contexts. Results show that adverse working conditions were positively and significantly associated with turnover intentions. Meaning of work is negatively related to both perceived working conditions and turnover intentions. Mediation analyses for meaning of work demonstrated indirect effects of several adverse working conditions on turnover intentions. The role of meaning of work as a psychological resource for employees facing adverse working conditions is discussed, especially regarding its implications for research and practice within organizational contexts.

  7. Perceived Work Conditions and Turnover Intentions: The Mediating Role of Meaning of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux-Nicolas, Caroline; Sovet, Laurent; Lhotellier, Lin; Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bernaud, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Perceived working conditions lead to various negative outcomes for employee behaviors, including turnover intentions. Although potential mediators for these relationships were previously identified, the importance of meaning of work has not yet been investigated. This study examines the role of this psychological resource as a mediator for the relationships between perceived working conditions and turnover intentions in a sample of 336 French workers from different job contexts. Results show that adverse working conditions were positively and significantly associated with turnover intentions. Meaning of work is negatively related to both perceived working conditions and turnover intentions. Mediation analyses for meaning of work demonstrated indirect effects of several adverse working conditions on turnover intentions. The role of meaning of work as a psychological resource for employees facing adverse working conditions is discussed, especially regarding its implications for research and practice within organizational contexts. PMID:27242616

  8. A cross-national comparison of Hong Kong and U.S. student beliefs and preferences in end-of-life care: implications for social work education and hospice practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Dona J; Chan, Cecilia L W; Chan, Wallace C H; Wiersgalla, Diane

    2010-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, the authors explored differences and similarities in beliefs about death and dying as well as end-of-life care preferences among social work students in Hong Kong and the United States. A convenience sample of 176 social work students from Hong Kong and 58 from the United States was recruited to complete a quantitative questionnaire with three open-ended questions. Findings revealed differences as well as similarities in beliefs about death and dying and that a larger proportion of Hong Kong students as compared to U.S. students preferred curative rather than palliative care. Implications for social work education and hospice practice in both countries include the need for social work student and practitioner self-awareness in order to prepare for culturally competent practice and policies that are relevant across cultures.

  9. Work in America: Implications for Families. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This hearing explored the value of work, and how changes in the economy and the composition of the work force have affected families. Witnesses (1) reported data on such topics as the kinds of jobs currently available, women's participation in the work force, unemployment, and labor force growth over the next decade; (2) argued that the economy is…

  10. Beyond symptom management: Family relations, unmet needs of persons living with severe mental illnesses, and potential implications for social work in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Andrew; Burns, Jonathan K; King, Howard; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Davis, Glen P; Mtshemla, Sisanda; Nene, Siphumelele; Susser, Ezra

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the quality of family relationships and its associations with the severity of unmet needs of individuals admitted to a tertiary psychiatric hospital in South Africa. The quality of family relations and perceived unmet needs were assessed using the Lehman Quality of Life Interview and Camberwell Assessment of Needs, respectively. The results show that higher total unmet needs were associated with lower quality of family relations. The main areas of serious unmet needs included accessing government benefits and information, and establishing social relations. The results have implications for hospital-based social workers beyond managing psychiatric symptoms in South Africa.

  11. A Comparison between Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary in Bilingual and Monolingual South African School Beginners: Implications for Bilingual Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bilingual and monolingual school beginners on measures of simple and complex verbal working memory and receptive and expressive vocabulary. The aim was to determine whether the tests of working memory are fairer measures of language ability than the vocabulary tests for bilingual children when tested in their second language.…

  12. Hiring Social Work Faculty: An Analysis of Employment Announcements with Special Focus on Rural and Urban Differences and 2008 EPAS Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Paul Force-Emery

    2013-01-01

    An 11-month long analysis of social work faculty position advertisements examined differences in job descriptions between past and present findings, rural- and urban-located social work programs, doctorate and nondoctorate conferring institutions, and public and private institutions. Additionally, this investigation addressed 2008 Educational…

  13. Organization of work in the agricultural, forestry, and fishing sector in the US southeast: implications for immigrant workers' occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Lipscomb, Hester J; Casanova, Vanessa; Neis, Barbara; Fraser, Clermont; Monaghan, Paul; Vallejos, Quirina M

    2013-08-01

    There is widespread agreement that work organization is an important element of occupational safety and health, but the health effects of many aspects of work organization are likely to vary considerably across different sectors of work and geographies. We examined existing employment policies and work organization-related research relevant specifically to immigrant workers in the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing (AgFF) Sector of the US workforce focusing, when possible, on the southeastern US. A number of specific aspects of work organization within AgFF subsectors have been described, but most of this literature exists outside the purview of occupational health. There are few studies that directly examine how attributes of work organization relevant to the AgFF Sector affect workers', much less immigrant workers', occupational health exposures and outcomes. In contrast to the broader literature, research linking occupational health outcomes to work organization in the AgFF Sector is limited and weak. A systematic program of research and intervention is needed to develop strategies that eliminate or substantially mitigate the deleterious health effects of occupational exposures whose origins likely lie in the organization of AgFF work. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Implicative Algebras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra of Xu (1993) and further we prove that it is a regular Autometrized. Algebra. Further we remark that the binary operation → on lattice implicative algebra can never be associative. Key words: Implicative ...

  16. Global functional atlas of Escherichia coli encompassing previously uncharacterized proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingzhao Hu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One-third of the 4,225 protein-coding genes of Escherichia coli K-12 remain functionally unannotated (orphans. Many map to distant clades such as Archaea, suggesting involvement in basic prokaryotic traits, whereas others appear restricted to E. coli, including pathogenic strains. To elucidate the orphans' biological roles, we performed an extensive proteomic survey using affinity-tagged E. coli strains and generated comprehensive genomic context inferences to derive a high-confidence compendium for virtually the entire proteome consisting of 5,993 putative physical interactions and 74,776 putative functional associations, most of which are novel. Clustering of the respective probabilistic networks revealed putative orphan membership in discrete multiprotein complexes and functional modules together with annotated gene products, whereas a machine-learning strategy based on network integration implicated the orphans in specific biological processes. We provide additional experimental evidence supporting orphan participation in protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, biofilm formation, motility, and assembly of the bacterial cell envelope. This resource provides a "systems-wide" functional blueprint of a model microbe, with insights into the biological and evolutionary significance of previously uncharacterized proteins.

  17. Global functional atlas of Escherichia coli encompassing previously uncharacterized proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pingzhao; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Babu, Mohan; Díaz-Mejía, J Javier; Butland, Gareth; Yang, Wenhong; Pogoutse, Oxana; Guo, Xinghua; Phanse, Sadhna; Wong, Peter; Chandran, Shamanta; Christopoulos, Constantine; Nazarians-Armavil, Anaies; Nasseri, Negin Karimi; Musso, Gabriel; Ali, Mehrab; Nazemof, Nazila; Eroukova, Veronika; Golshani, Ashkan; Paccanaro, Alberto; Greenblatt, Jack F; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Emili, Andrew

    2009-04-28

    One-third of the 4,225 protein-coding genes of Escherichia coli K-12 remain functionally unannotated (orphans). Many map to distant clades such as Archaea, suggesting involvement in basic prokaryotic traits, whereas others appear restricted to E. coli, including pathogenic strains. To elucidate the orphans' biological roles, we performed an extensive proteomic survey using affinity-tagged E. coli strains and generated comprehensive genomic context inferences to derive a high-confidence compendium for virtually the entire proteome consisting of 5,993 putative physical interactions and 74,776 putative functional associations, most of which are novel. Clustering of the respective probabilistic networks revealed putative orphan membership in discrete multiprotein complexes and functional modules together with annotated gene products, whereas a machine-learning strategy based on network integration implicated the orphans in specific biological processes. We provide additional experimental evidence supporting orphan participation in protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, biofilm formation, motility, and assembly of the bacterial cell envelope. This resource provides a "systems-wide" functional blueprint of a model microbe, with insights into the biological and evolutionary significance of previously uncharacterized proteins.

  18. Striving to achieve it all: men and work-family-life balance in Sweden and the UK - implications for well-being and HRM

    OpenAIRE

    Raidén, A; Räisänen, C

    2014-01-01

    Our research paper investigates how men voice their experiences of the three dimensions of well-being: happiness, health and relationships (after Van de Voorde et al., 2012) in balancing their work and non-work lives. We discuss how their perceptions and practice relate to human resource management (HRM) in the workplace, and identify the key tensions in managing their engagement and well-being. This paper builds on research published in Construction Management and Economics in August 2013 (V...

  19. Association of neighbourhood residence and preferences with the built environment, work-related travel behaviours, and health implications for employed adults: findings from the URBAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah M; Oliver, Melody; Kearns, Robin A; Mavoa, Suzanne; Witten, Karen; Duncan, Mitch J; Batty, G David

    2012-10-01

    Although the neighbourhoods and health field is well established, the relationships between neighbourhood selection, neighbourhood preference, work-related travel behaviours, and transport infrastructure have not been fully explored. It is likely that understanding these complex relationships more fully will inform urban policy development, and planning for neighbourhoods that support health behaviours. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to identify associations between these variables in a sample of employed adults. Self-reported demographic, work-related transport behaviours, and neighbourhood preference data were collected from 1616 employed adults recruited from 48 neighbourhoods located across four New Zealand cities. Data were collected between April 2008 and September 2010. Neighbourhood built environment measures were generated using geographical information systems. Findings demonstrated that more people preferred to live in urban (more walkable), rather than suburban (less walkable) settings. Those living in more suburban neighbourhoods had significantly longer work commute distances and lower density of public transport stops available within the neighbourhood when compared with those who lived in more urban neighbourhoods. Those preferring a suburban style neighbourhood commuted approximately 1.5 km further to work when compared with participants preferring urban settings. Respondents who preferred a suburban style neighbourhood were less likely to take public or active transport to/from work when compared with those who preferred an urban style setting, regardless of the neighbourhood type in which they resided. Although it is unlikely that constructing more walkable environments will result in work-related travel behaviour change for all, providing additional highly walkable environments will help satisfy the demand for these settings, reinforce positive health behaviours, and support those amenable to change to engage in higher levels of

  20. Age-related patterns in work-related injury claims from older New Zealanders, 2009-2013: Implications of injury for an aging workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Rebbecca; Jaye, Chrystal; Davie, Gabrielle; Keeling, Sally; Waters, Debra; Egan, Richard

    2018-01-01

    This study describes the incidence, nature and cause of work-related injuries in older New Zealand workers to understand the risks of work-related injury in this rapidly aging population. Data for the period 2009-2013 from 25,455 injured workers aged 55-79 years, extracted from national work-related injury entitlement claims, were stratified by age group and analysed by sex, industry, injury type and cause. Age-specific claims rates were calculated by year, sex and ethnicity. Patterns of injury differed by age: 70-79 year olds had the highest injury rates and proportion of claims due to falls (45%), for the self-employed (32%), for the agriculture sector (24%), and for fatal injuries (5%). The burden of work-related injuries in older workers, particularly in those aged over 70, will increase with their increasing participation in work. Workplace injury prevention strategies and interventions need to consider the specific characteristics and vulnerabilities of older workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spaces for the Social Shaping of Information Technology and Work. A reassessment of Scandinavian action research and its implications for action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This contribution explores a range of social spaces where unions and workers have played or potential can play a role in the local social shaping of IT and work. It will mainly be based on the authors own research and experiences within Scandinavian research on technology and working from the past...... 30 years. The paper provides an overview of Scandinavian research within technology and working life form a Danish perspective. A major contribution is con-cerned with a variety of strategies employed by social actors involved in action research pro-jects and their role in the social shaping...... of technology. The point is made that no single strat-egy have proved to provide an uncontested route for union or workers influence. Instead the Scandinavian experiences indicate, that a range of spaces, players and positions have been developed, providing opportunities for addressing questions related...

  2. Adenomyoepithelioma of the breast with associated atypical lobular hyperplasia: a previously unrecognized association with management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Huo, Lei; Arribas, Elsa; Middleton, Lavinia P

    2015-02-01

    Adenomyoepitheliomas of breast are rare tumors. We report for the first time a case of an adenomyoepithelioma of the breast with associated lobular neoplasia. A 53-year-old woman had an annual screening mammogram, which identified areas of asymmetry in her left breast at 4-5-o'clock position. Resection of the masses revealed a well-circumscribed, gray-white, firm discrete nodule (0.8 × 0.4 × 0.3 cm). The tumor was composed of both adenomyoepithelial cell hyperplasia and focal atypical lobular hyperplasia. The 2 cell populations had some overlapping histologic features. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a biphasic proliferation with approximately equal parts of luminal epithelial cells with clear and rounded appearance and myoepithelial cells. The myoepithelial component of the proliferation expressed myosin, p63, CK5/6, S-100, and dimly expressed E-cadherin. The epithelial component of the proliferation strongly expressed E-cadherin. In the areas of atypical lobular hyperplasia, there was distinct loss E-cadherin expression. Awareness of this association is highly important to provide these patients adequate follow-up and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ionospheric measurements during the CRISTA/MAHRSI campaign: their implications and comparison with previous campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laštovicka

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The CRISTA/MAHRSI experiment on board a space shuttle was accompanied by a broad campaign of rocket, balloon and ground-based measurements. Supporting lower ionospheric ground-based measurements were run in Europe and Eastern Asia between 1 October-30 November, 1994. Results of comparisons with long ionospheric data series together with short-term comparisons inside the interval October-November, 1994, showed that the upper middle atmosphere  (h = 80-100 km at middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the interval of the CRISTA/MAHRSI experiment (4-12 November, 1994 was very close to its expected climatological state. In other words, the average results of the experiment can be used as climatological data, at least for the given area/altitudes. The role of solar/geomagnetic and "meteorological" control of the lower ionosphere is investigated and compared with the results of MAP/WINE, MAC/SINE and DYANA campaigns. The effects of both solar/geomagnetic and global meteorological factors on the lower ionosphere are found to be weak during autumn 1994 compared to those in MAP/WINE and DYANA winters, and they are even slightly weaker than those in MAP/SINE summer. The comparison of the four campaigns suggests the following overall pattern: in winter the lower ionosphere at northern middle latitudes appears to be fairly well "meteorologically" controlled with a very weak solar influence. In summer, solar influence is somewhat stronger and dominates the weak "meteorological" influence, but the overall solar/meteorological control is weaker than in winter. In autumn we find the weakest overall solar/meteorological control, local effects evidently dominate.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere · atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere

  4. Ionospheric measurements during the CRISTA/MAHRSI campaign: their implications and comparison with previous campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laštovicka

    Full Text Available The CRISTA/MAHRSI experiment on board a space shuttle was accompanied by a broad campaign of rocket, balloon and ground-based measurements. Supporting lower ionospheric ground-based measurements were run in Europe and Eastern Asia between 1 October-30 November, 1994. Results of comparisons with long ionospheric data series together with short-term comparisons inside the interval October-November, 1994, showed that the upper middle atmosphere 
    (h = 80-100 km at middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the interval of the CRISTA/MAHRSI experiment (4-12 November, 1994 was very close to its expected climatological state. In other words, the average results of the experiment can be used as climatological data, at least for the given area/altitudes. The role of solar/geomagnetic and "meteorological" control of the lower ionosphere is investigated and compared with the results of MAP/WINE, MAC/SINE and DYANA campaigns. The effects of both solar/geomagnetic and global meteorological factors on the lower ionosphere are found to be weak during autumn 1994 compared to those in MAP/WINE and DYANA winters, and they are even slightly weaker than those in MAP/SINE summer. The comparison of the four campaigns suggests the following overall pattern: in winter the lower ionosphere at northern middle latitudes appears to be fairly well "meteorologically" controlled with a very weak solar influence. In summer, solar influence is somewhat stronger and dominates the weak "meteorological" influence, but the overall solar/meteorological control is weaker than in winter. In autumn we find the weakest overall solar/meteorological control, local effects evidently dominate.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere · atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere

  5. Translational Science Project Team Managers: Qualitative Insights and Implications from Current and Previous Postdoctoral Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kevin C; Dann, Sara M; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    The development of leadership and project management skills is increasingly important to the evolution of translational science and team-based endeavors. Team science is dependent upon individuals at various stages in their careers, inclusive of postdocs. Data from case histories, as well as from interviews with current and former postdocs, and those supervising postdocs, indicate six essential tasks required of project managers in multidisciplinary translational teams, along with eight skill-related themes critical to their success. To optimize the opportunities available and to ensure sequential development of team project management skills, a life cycle model for the development of translational team skills is proposed, ranging from graduate trainees, postdocs, assistant professors, and finally to mature scientists. Specific goals, challenges and project management roles and tasks are recommended for each stage for the life cycle.

  6. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  7. The importance of leadership style and psychosocial work environment to staff-assessed quality of care: implications for home help services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Kristina; Tafvelin, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    Work in home help services is typically conducted by an assistant nurse or nursing aide in the home of an elderly person, and working conditions have been described as solitary with a high workload, little influence and lack of peer and leader support. Relations between leadership styles, psychosocial work environment and a number of positive and negative employee outcomes have been established in research, but the outcome in terms of quality of care has been addressed to a lesser extent. In the present study, we aimed to focus on working conditions in terms of leadership and the employee psychosocial work environment, and how these conditions are related to the quality of care. The hypothesis was that the relation between a transformational leadership style and quality of care is mediated through organisational and peer support, job control and workload. A cross-sectional survey design was used and a total of 469 questionnaires were distributed (March-April 2012) to assistant nurses in nine Swedish home help organisations, including six municipalities and one private organisation, representing both rural and urban areas (302 questionnaires were returned, yielding a 65% response rate). The results showed that our hypothesis was supported and, when indirect effects were also taken into consideration, there was no direct effect of leadership style on quality of care. The mediated model explained 51% of the variance in quality of care. These results indicate that leadership style is important not only to employee outcomes in home help services but is also indirectly related to quality of care as assessed by staff members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Challenges of a negative work load and implications on morale, productivity and quality of service delivered in NHS laboratories in England

    OpenAIRE

    Osaro, Erhabor; Chima, Njemanze

    2014-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is a term used to describe the publicly funded healthcare delivery system providing quality healthcare services in the United Kingdom. There are several challenges militating against the effective laboratory service delivery in the NHS in England. Biomedical scientists work in healthcare to diagnose disease and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment through the analysis of body fluids and tissue samples from patients. They provide the “engine room” of modern...

  9. Implications of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race/ethnicity for psychological distress among working-class sexual minorities: the United for Health Study, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Krieger, Nancy; Bennett, Gary G; Lindsey, Jane C; Stoddard, Anne M; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of demographic characteristics, the prevalence of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race, and relationships with psychological distress among 178 working-class sexual minorities (i.e., who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or had ever engaged in same-sex sexual behaviors) recruited to the United for Health Study (2003-2004). The results indicated considerable heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior, with a majority of sexual minority participants not identifying as LGB (74.2%). The authors found significant demographic differences in LGB identification by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, LGB participants had higher levels of psychological distress than non-LGB-identified sexual minorities. Linear regression analyses revealed that reports of racial/ethnic discrimination and sexuality discrimination were associated with higher levels of psychological distress among sexual minority participants. The results underscore the need to collect multiple measures of sexuality in conducting research on racially diverse working-class communities; to consider demographic factors in collecting sexuality data; and to disaggregate information on sexuality by LGB identification. Findings also highlight the importance of addressing discrimination in ameliorating problematic mental health outcomes among working-class sexual minorities.

  10. Construction of a new model of job engagement, psychological empowerment and perceived work environment among Chinese registered nurses at four large university hospitals: implications for nurse managers seeking to enhance nursing retention and quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuying; Zheng, Qiulan; Liu, Shiqing; Li, Qiujie

    2016-07-01

    To explore the relationships among perceived work environment, psychological empowerment and job engagement of clinical nurses in Harbin, China. Previous studies have focused on organisational factors or nurses' personal characteristics contributing to job engagement. Limited studies have examined the effects of perceived work environment and psychological empowerment on job engagement among Chinese nurses. A cross-sectional quantitative survey with 923 registered nurses at four large university hospitals in China was carried out. Research instruments included the Chinese versions of the perceived nurse work environment scale, the psychological empowerment scale and the job engagement scale. The relationships of the variables were tested using structural equation modelling. Structural equation modelling revealed a good fit of the model, χ(2) /df = 4.46, GFI = 0.936, CFI = 0.957. Perceived work environment was a significant positive direct predictor of psychological empowerment and job engagement. Psychological empowerment was a significant positive direct contributor to job engagement and had a mediating effect on the relationship between perceived work environment and job engagement. Perceived work environment may result in increased job engagement by facilitating the development of psychological empowerment. For nurse managers wishing to increase nurse engagement and to achieve effective management, both perceived work environment and psychological empowerment are factors that need to be well controlled in the process of nurse administration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. An analysis of the implementation of PEPFAR's anti-prostitution pledge and its implications for successful HIV prevention among organizations working with sex workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmore, Melissa Hope; Allman, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Since 2003, US government funding to address the HIV and AIDS pandemic has been subject to an anti-prostitution clause. Simultaneously, the efficacy of some HIV prevention efforts for sex work in areas receiving US government funding has diminished. This article seeks to explain why. Methods This analysis utilizes a case story approach to build a narrative of defining features of organizations in receipt of funding from the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and other US funding sources. For this analysis, multiple cases were compiled within a single narrative. This helps show restrictions imposed by the anti-prostitution clause, any lack of clarity of guidelines for implementation and ways some agencies, decision-making personnel, and staff on the ground contend with these restrictions. Results Responses to PEPFAR's anti-prostitution clause vary widely and have varied over time. Organizational responses have included ending services for sex workers, gradual phase-out of services, cessation of seeking US government HIV funds and increasing isolation of sex workers. Guidance issued in 2010 did not clarify what was permitted. Implementation and enforcement has been dependent in part on the interpretations of this policy by individuals, including US government representatives and organizational staff. Conclusions Different interpretations of the anti-prostitution clause have led to variations in programming, affecting the effectiveness of work with sex workers. The case story approach proved ideal for working with information like this that is highly sensitive and vulnerable to breach of anonymity because the method limits the potential to betray confidences and sources, and limits the potential to jeopardize funding and thereby jeopardize programming. This method enabled us to use specific examples without jeopardizing the organizations and individuals involved while demonstrating unintended consequences of PEPFAR's anti

  12. Food for Work Program and its Implications on Food Security: A Critical Review with a Practical Example from the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashenafi Gedamu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation of food-for-work (FFW programs in Ethiopia is seriously lacking. Most of the few available reports indicate that these programs have reached very few achievements in terms of food security and reduction of poverty at large. As expressed by Holden et al. (2005, FFW programs are commonly aimed to produce or maintain potentially valuable public goods necessary to stimulate productivity and thus income growth. Natural resources management, like rural road construction, erosion control and afforestation of degraded lands can be mentioned as valuable measures which could stimulate productivity and agricultural growth. The poverty reduction and food security impact of food or cash for work activities are larger if they offer not only seasonal job opportunities to the rural community but also long term employment possibilities. This is more likely if the projects are regionally dispersed and combined with basic education. In the Ethiopian context, it was always questionable if the continuous boom in food aid (regardless of cash or food for work purposes was the solution for the long standing food insecurity and poverty crises in the country. The study discusses the efficiency of FFW programs that aimed to reduce rural poverty and ensure food security on the one hand, and the impact of the food aid on resource and time allocation of the participating households for own food production on the other. The study is based on a field research conducted at a FFW program project, in the Amhara region, Ethiopia run by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ with the view of improving food security in the Amhara region, Ethiopia. A household theoretical model is used to analyze the sample data, whether FFW program may indeed reduce household food insecurity and/or has some crowding-out effects on labour allocation of participating households for own field production.

  13. Challenges of a negative work load and implications on morale, productivity and quality of service delivered in NHS laboratories in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaro, Erhabor; Chima, Njemanze

    2014-06-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is a term used to describe the publicly funded healthcare delivery system providing quality healthcare services in the United Kingdom. There are several challenges militating against the effective laboratory service delivery in the NHS in England. Biomedical scientists work in healthcare to diagnose disease and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment through the analysis of body fluids and tissue samples from patients. They provide the "engine room" of modern medicine with 70% of diagnosis based on the laboratory results generated by them. This review involved the search of literature for information on working condition of biomedical scientist in the NHS in England. Laboratory service delivery in the NHS in England faces numerous daunting challenges; staffing levels in the last few years have become dangerously low, less remunerated, relatively less experienced and predominantly band 5's, multidisciplinary rather than specialty based, associated with working more unsocial hours without adequate recovery time, de-banding of staff, high staff turnaround, profit and cost driven rather than quality. These factors has resulted in burn out, low morale, high sickness absences, increased error rate, poor team spirit, diminished productivity and suboptimal laboratory service delivery. There is the urgent need to retract our steps on unpopular policies to ensure that patient care is not compromised by ensuring adequate staffing level and mix, ensuring adequate remuneration of laboratory staff, implementing evidenced-based specialty oriented service, determining the root cause/s for the high staff turnover and implementing corrective action, identifying other potential sources of waste in the system rather than pruning the already dangerously low staffing levels and promoting a quality delivery side by side cost effectiveness.

  14. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting on application of the concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance: Implications for the management of radioactive materials. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The international principles developed to help in the regulation and deregulation of low-activity materials require elaboration, and there is a need for guidance regarding their practical application. The objectives of the meeting, organized by the Agency were: To provide a forum in which concerns and issues concerned with the regulatory management of materials containing very low levels of radioactivity can be discussed; to develop strategies for resolving the issues through international action; to develop advice for Agency work in drafting guidance material for safety standards

  15. P3 amplitude attenuation secondary to increases in target-to-target interval (TTI) during spatial serial order recall: Implications for EEG models of working memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberger, William C; Axelrod, Jenna L; Sarapas, Casey; Shankman, Stewart A; Hill, S Kristian

    2018-06-08

    Research suggests that increasing delays in stimulus read-out can trigger declines in serial order recall accuracy due to increases in cognitive demand imposed by the delay; however, the exact neural mechanisms associated with this decline are unclear. Changes in neural resource allocation present as the ideal target and can easily be monitored by examining changes in the amplitude of an ERP component known as the P3. Changes in P3 amplitude secondary to exogenous pacing of stimulus read-out via increased target-to-target intervals (TTI) during recall could reflect decreased neural resource allocation due to increased cognitive demand. This shift in resource allocation could result in working memory storage decay and the declines in serial order accuracy described by prior research. In order to examine this potential effect, participants were administered a spatial serial order processing task, with the recall series consisting of a series of correct ("match") or incorrect ("non-match" or "oddball") stimuli. Moreover, the recall series included either a brief (500ms) or extended (2000ms) delay between stimuli. Results were significant for the presence of a P3 response to non-match stimuli for both experimental conditions, and attenuation of P3 amplitude secondary to the increase in target-to-target interval (TTI). These findings suggest that extending the delay between target recognition could increase cognitive demand and trigger a decrease in neural resource allocation that results in a decay of working memory stores.

  16. The independence of international civil servants during the neoliberal decades: implications of the work stoppage involving 700 staff of the World Health Organization in November 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The independence of international civil servants is critical to the fulfillment of their organizations' mandates, but it has been seriously undermined during 25 years of neoliberal influence in U.N. agencies, including the World Health Organization. In November 2005, 700 staff at WHO headquarters participated in a one-hour work stoppage--the first industrial action in the organization's history. Hierarchical and arbitrary management, abuse of rules and procedures, nepotism and harassment, and undue influence of international financial institutions, powerful member states, and transnational corporations have exhausted morale and motivation, creating a conformist environment and interfering with technical health work. In the neoliberal era, WHO staff confront conflicting duties of loyalty to a handful of member states and their private interests and loyalty to WHO's constitutional mandate. International civil servants need support from governing bodies and from the world's people in finding the correct balance. A first essential step would be respect for international labor standards within the U.N. family and, in particular, negotiation status and collective bargaining--human rights in the workplace and prerequisites for staff independence, integrity, and competence, qualities required to serve the world's people.

  17. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers: report of previous work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Progress over the course of the Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study is reported. The derivation of the study population, the gathering of health histories, the US Navy radiation protection program, and the determination of radiation exposures is described

  18. Optiwave Refractive Analysis may not work well in patients with previous history of radial keratotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxiang Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of significant hyperopic outcome (both eyes following Optiwave Refractive Analysis (ORA intraocular lens (IOL power recommendation in a cataract patient with history of 8 cut radial keratotomy (RK in each eye. Observations: It is hypothesized that increased intraocular pressure (IOP from phacoemulsification could make the RK cuts swell, and change cornea shape intraoperatively. In this unique scenario, the corneal curvature readings from ORA could be quite different from preoperative readings or from stabilized postoperative corneal measurements. The change in corneal curvature could also affect the anterior chamber depth and axial length readings, skewing multiple parameters on which ORA bases recommendations for IOL power. Conclusions and importance: ORA has been widely used among cataract surgeons on patients with history of RK, but it's validation, unlike for laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK, has yet to be established by peer reviewed studies. Surgeons should be cautious when using ORA on RK patients. Keywords: Intraoperative aberrometry, ORA, RK, IOL power

  19. A Business Sits on Relationship:A Reflective Analysis of Previous Working Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lin

    2015-01-01

    This article is a case of study of the marketing strategy of Hua Sheng Da Zipper Manufacturing Company. This company is an example of small private enterprise trying to survive through the fierce competition all over China. By analyzing its market, this paper tries to demonstrate the mechanism of relationship in Chinese business context.

  20. Structural relationships between work environment and service quality perceptions as a function of customer contact intensity: implications for human service strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Dennis J; Harmon, Joel; Behson, Scott J

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the importance of customer-contact intensity at the service encounter level as a determinant of service quality assessments. Using data from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, it shows that performance-driven human resources practices play an important role as determinants of employee customer orientation and service capability in both high-contact (outpatient healthcare) and low-contact (benefits claim processing) human service contexts. However, there existed significant differences across service delivery settings in the salience of customer orientation and the congruence between employee and customer perceptions of service quality, depending on the intensity of customer contact. In both contexts, managerial attention to high-performance work systems and customer-orientation has the potential to favorably impact perceptions of service quality, amplify consumer satisfaction, and enhance operational efficiency.

  1. Issues of assessment of doses from natural sources in working conditions: implications for the unified state system of individual dose monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kormanovskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the work are: 1 an analysis of information on radiation doses from natural sources of ionizing radiation of employees of enterprises in some industries of the Russian Federation and 2 an assessment of the state of registration of doses from natural sources in working conditions in the Unified System of Individual Dose Control. Materials and methods. The analysis was performed on the results of the operation of the Federal database of radiation doses of the population due to natural and artificial radiation background in 2013–2015 on the basis of the forms of the Federal statistical observation No. 4-DOZ in terms of collecting information on the radiation doses of workers in some non-nuclear industries due to natural sources of ionizing radiation. Results. Analysis of enterprises in 17 industries in 23 regions of Russia connected with the specificity of production processes showed cases of natural exposure of workers at the dose level exceeding 5 mSv/year. We have identified those branches of industry, for which the doses were close to 5 mSv/year.Examples of reducing the radiation doses by reducing the time spent by workers in workplaces with high levels of radiation are given. The problems of insufficient representativeness of the sample data are due to the lack of interaction of the management of industrial enterprises with the bodies of the Rospotrebnadzor. The obtained data allow speaking about the problem of assessing the quality of radiation control in the organizations where additional exposure of workers from natural radiation sources is expected. It is necessary to create a system of regulatory and procedural documents to solve the problem at the national level.

  2. Patterns of Harmful Alcohol Consumption among Truck Drivers: Implications for Occupational Health and Work Safety from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Luigi Bragazzi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is one of the main causes of productivity losses arising from absenteeism, presenteeism, and workplace injuries. Among occupational categories most affected by the use of this substance, truck drivers are subject to risk factors and risky behaviors that can have a serious impact on their health, their work, and the general road safety. The use of alcohol during truck-driving activities is, indeed, an important risk factor for traffic accidents. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aims at synthesizing the literature regarding harmful alcohol consumption patterns among truck drivers in a rigorous way. A ‘binge drinking’ prevalence of 19.0%, 95% confidence interval or CI (13.1, 26.9 was present. An ‘everyday drinking’ pattern rate of 9.4%, 95% CI (7.0, 12.4 was found, while the rate of alcohol misuse according to the “Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test” (AUDIT—“Cut down-Annoyed-Guilty-Eye opener questionnaire” (CAGE instruments was computed to be of 22.7%, 95% CI (14.8, 33.0. No evidence of publication bias could be found. However, there is the need to improve the quality of published research, utilizing standardized reliable instruments. The knowledge of these epidemiological data can be useful for decision makers in order to develop, design, and implement ad hoc adequate policies.

  3. Serial recall of visuospatial and verbal information with and without material-specific interference: implications for contemporary models of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lynne C; Rane, Shruti; Hiscock, Merrill

    2013-01-01

    A longstanding question in working memory (WM) research concerns the fractionation of verbal and nonverbal processing. Although some contemporary models include both domain-specific and general-purpose mechanisms, the necessity to postulate differential processing of verbal and nonverbal material remains unclear. In the present two-experiment series we revisit the order reconstruction paradigm that Jones, Farrand, Stuart, and Morris (1995) used to support a unitary model of WM. Goals were to assess (1) whether serial position curves for dot positions differ from curves for letter names; and (2) whether selective interference can be demonstrated. Although we replicated Jones et al.'s finding of similar serial position curves for the two tasks, this similarity could reflect the demands of the order reconstruction paradigm rather than undifferentiated processing of verbal and nonverbal stimuli. Both generalised and material-specific interference was found, which can be attributed to competition between primary and secondary tasks for attentional resources. As performance levels for the combined primary and secondary tasks exceed active WM capacity limits, primary task items apparently are removed from active memory during processing of the secondary list and held temporarily in maintenance storage. We conclude that active WM is multimodal but maintenance stores may be domain specific.

  4. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  5. 'For a mere cough, men must just chew Conjex, gain strength, and continue working': the provider construction and tuberculosis care-seeking implications in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikovore, Jeremiah; Hart, Graham; Kumwenda, Moses; Chipungu, Geoffrey A; Corbett, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Delay by men in seeking healthcare results in their higher mortality while on HIV or tuberculosis (TB) treatment and contributes to ongoing community-level disease transmission before going on treatment. To understand masculinity's role in delay in healthcare seeking for men, with a focus on TB-suggestive symptoms. Data were collected between March 2011 and March 2012 in low-income suburbs in urban Blantyre using focus group discussions with community members (n=8) and health workers (n=2), in-depth interviews with 20 TB patients (female=14) and 20 uninvestigated chronic coughers (female=8), and a 3-day participatory workshop with 27 health stakeholder representatives. The research process drew to a large extent on grounded theory principles in the manner of Strauss and Corbin (1998) and also Charmaz (1995). Role descriptions by both men and women in the study universally assigned men as primary material providers for their immediate family, that is, the ones earning and bringing livelihood and additional material needs. In a context where collectivism was valued, men were also expected to lead the provision of support to wider kin. Successful role enactment was considered key to achieving recognition as an adequate man; at the same time, job scarcity and insecurity, and low earnings gravely impeded men. Pressures to generate continuing income then meant constantly looking for jobs, or working continuously to retain insecure jobs or to raise money through self-employment. All this led men to relegate their health considerations. Early engagement with formal healthcare is critical to dealing with TB and HIV. However, role constructions as portrayed for men in this study, along with the opportunity costs of acknowledging illness seem, in conditions of vulnerability, important barriers to care-seeking. There is a need to address hidden care-seeking costs and to consider more complex interventions, including reducing precarity, in efforts to improve men's engagement

  6. "Working the system"--British American tobacco's influence on the European union treaty and its implications for policy: an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact assessment (IA of all major European Union (EU policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA.In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost-benefit analysis [CBA] within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and chemical industries have since

  7. Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable agricultural ... about previously disadvantaged land users involved in communal farming systems ... of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on ...

  8. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  9. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  10. Community-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa-pneumonia in a previously healthy man occupationally exposed to metalworking fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is well known and frequently found in hospitals and nursing care facilities, many cases are also reported outside these boundaries. In general, this pathogen infects debilitated patients either by comorbidities or by any form of immunodeficiency. In cases of respiratory infection, tobacco abuse seems to play an important role as a risk factor. In previously healthy patients, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP with P. aeruginosa as the etiological agent is extremely rare, and unlike the cases involving immunocompromised or hospitalized patients, the outcome is severe, and is fatal in up to 61.1% of cases. Aerosolized contaminated water or solutions are closely linked to the development of respiratory tract infection. In this setting, metalworking fluids used in factories may be implicated in CAP involving previously healthy people. The authors report the case of a middle-aged man who worked in a metalworking factory and presented a right upper lobar pneumonia with a rapid fatal outcome. P. aeruginosa was cultured from blood and tracheal aspirates. The autopsy findings confirmed a hemorrhagic necrotizing pneumonia with bacteria-invading vasculitis and thrombosis. A culture of the metalworking fluid of the factory was also positive for P. aeruginosa. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that both strains (blood culture and metalworking fluid were genetically indistinguishable. The authors highlight the occupational risk for the development of this P. aeruginosa-infection in healthy people.

  11. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  12. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior...

  13. Work Practice Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    and work practice. To understand these issues a framework of characteristics is identified and termed work practice characteristics to describe important aspects of the hybrid configuration of groupware and situated work practices. Drawing on concepts and work practice studies in the field of computer...... investigation of how groupware is employed to support new ways of working in a large European financial organisation are analysed to illustrate situations with high and low integration of groupware. The framework of work practice characteristics is discussed in the light of these findings and implications...

  14. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  15. Structuralism and Its Heuristic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ruth M.

    1984-01-01

    The author defines structuralism (a method for modeling and analyzing event systems in a space-time framework), traces its origins to the work of J. Piaget and M. Fourcault, and discusses its implications for learning. (CL)

  16. Investigating the relationship between work values and work ethics: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronella Jonck

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: As a result of the proliferation of unethical behaviour in the workplace, the study of work ethics has received new impetus. Research purpose: The research study sought to determine the relationship between work ethics and work values, with the objective of determining whether work ethics statistically significantly predict work values. Motivation for the study: As work ethics (i.e. behavioural intent are a determinant of work values (i.e. overt behaviour, researchers are investigating their potential in preventing unethical behaviour. Research design, approach and method: A descriptive quantitative research design was employed in the study. A survey was conducted using the Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile and the Values Scale, which in previous studies have produced acceptable Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. Data were collected from 301 respondents in one geographical area in South Africa. Main findings: Work values did not appear to be highly esteemed by respondents, as only 6 of the 22 dimensions had a positive score. However, all seven dimensions of work ethics had positive scores. A negative correlation was found between work ethics and work values. In addition, work ethics predicted 9% of the variance in work values, providing sufficient evidence to accept the postulated research hypothesis. Practical implications: The findings of the study could be used by human resource managers to promote ethical behaviour, by focusing not only on work ethics but also on the relationship between work ethics and work values. Contribution: The study provides evidence of a relationship between work ethics and work behaviours, such as work values, within the South African context, and it thus addresses a research gap in this area.

  17. Exploring Work Values: Helping Students Articulate Their Good (Work) Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Hughey, Kenneth F.

    2014-01-01

    The current article builds on "Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values" (Carlstrom, 2011) by presenting ways to address work values in career advising. The following questions are addressed in the current article: When should students explore work values in career advising? What career development and…

  18. Work organisation, technology and working conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Dhondt, S.; Kraan, K.; Sloten, G. van

    2002-01-01

    The personal computer, computer networks and the Internet have brought the Union into the Information Age. These technological changes have inevitably led to changes in the work environment and the quality of working conditions. For the third time, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions has carried out a questionnaire-based survey on working conditions throughout the European Union, covering all Member States. Previous surveys were carried out in 1991 and...

  19. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  20. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act and...

  1. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  2. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  3. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  4. Long working hours and overweight and obesity in working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Mi; Lee, Bo-Eun; Park, Hye-Sook; Kim, Young-Ju; Suh, Young-Ju; Kim, Jeong-Youn; Shin, Ji-Young; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have identified a link between gender and the various risk factors associated with obesity. We examined obesity risk factors in working adults to identify the effects of differences in body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) between women and men. A total of 1,120 adults agreed to participate in the study. Data from 711 participants, including 411 women and 300 men, were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of risk factors on obesity and being overweight. In addition, the least-squares (LS) means of both BMI and PBF were estimated by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in a generalized linear model. Increases in BMI and PBF were significantly related to an age > 50 years and long working hours in women after compensating for confounding factors. Using the PBF criterion, the odds ratio (OR) of being overweight or obese in women > 50 years of age who worked for > 9 h a day was 3.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-11.00). For BMI, women who were > 50 years of age and worked for > 9 h a day were 3.82 times (95% CI, 1.31-11.14) more likely to be overweight or obese than those who were worked for working adults was associated with > 50 years of age and long working hours in women. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this relationship and its potential implications for the prevention and management of excess weight and obesity.

  5. Knowledge work and work-related stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Work-related stress is an increasing problem in Europe. Earlier studies have stated that knowledge-work comprises working conditions which reflect a good psychosocial environment. Recent Danish studies, however, point at stress being an increasing problem in knowledge-intensive companies...... with informally, individu-ally and incidentally. It is only when problems exist that enhanced support is offered in order to help an employee to cope or recover. As most workplace initiatives work at this tertiary level, the sources of work-related and organiza-tional stress are not reduced or eliminated...... as good and stimulating, but has on the other hand sides to it which can cause frustration and stress. The implication of organisational characteristics of the knowledge-intensive companies studied is a transfer of the responsibility for ones own working-life. Consequently, issues are dealt...

  6. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, A.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van der Molen, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed

  7. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  8. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  9. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study ... Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2010) > ... Results: Past experience on antenatal care service utilization did not come out as a predictor for ...

  10. A previous hamstring injury affects kicking mechanics in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navandar, Archit; Veiga, Santiago; Torres, Gonzalo; Chorro, David; Navarro, Enrique

    2018-01-10

    Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury. 45 professional players (males: n=19, previously injured players=4, age=21.16 ± 2.00 years; females: n=19, previously injured players=10, age=22.15 ± 4.50 years) performed 5 kicks each with their preferred and non-preferred limb at a target 7m away, which were recorded with a three-dimensional motion capture system. Kinematic and kinetic variables were extracted for the backswing, leg cocking, leg acceleration and follow through phases. A shorter backswing (20.20 ± 3.49% vs 25.64 ± 4.57%), and differences in knee flexion angle (58 ± 10o vs 72 ± 14o) and hip flexion velocity (8 ± 0rad/s vs 10 ± 2rad/s) were observed in previously injured, non-preferred limb kicks for females. A lower peak hip linear velocity (3.50 ± 0.84m/s vs 4.10 ± 0.45m/s) was observed in previously injured, preferred limb kicks of females. These differences occurred in the backswing and leg-cocking phases where the hamstring muscles were the most active. A variation in the functioning of the hamstring muscles and that of the gluteus maximus and iliopsoas in the case of a previous injury could account for the differences observed in the kicking pattern. Therefore, the effects of a previous hamstring injury must be considered while designing rehabilitation programs to re-educate kicking movement.

  11. [Renal oncocytoma in the single kidney after previous surgery of renal carcinoma. Apropos of 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneroni, L; Canclini, L; Berti, G L; Giola, V; Leidi, G L; Maccaroni, A; Raimoldi, A; Sironi, M; Assi, A; Bacchioni, A M

    1997-12-01

    Renal oncocytoma is a neoplasm which rarely occurs in patients with solitary kidney, the other being absent because of a previous nephrectomy performed for renal cancer. We present two case reports and a literature review. We have studied some important problems such as the histogenesis, the potential for malignancy, the diagnosis, the treatment and the follow up. The high incidence of coexistence of renal oncocytoma and renal cell carcinoma has important clinical implications. We would like to emphasize the importance of preoperatory FNAB, nephron sparing surgery and very careful follow up.

  12. Cultivation-based multiplex phenotyping of human gut microbiota allows targeted recovery of previously uncultured bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rettedal, Elizabeth; Gumpert, Heidi; Sommer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is linked to a variety of human health issues and implicated in antibiotic resistance gene dissemination. Most of these associations rely on culture-independent methods, since it is commonly believed that gut microbiota cannot be easily or sufficiently cultured. Here, we...... microbiota. Based on the phenotypic mapping, we tailor antibiotic combinations to specifically select for previously uncultivated bacteria. Utilizing this method we cultivate and sequence the genomes of four isolates, one of which apparently belongs to the genus Oscillibacter; uncultivated Oscillibacter...

  13. Anaesthetic management for caesarean section in a case of previously operated with residual pituitary tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerana N Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful anaesthetic management for caesarean section in a case with previous pituitary tumour resection, with residual tumour, is reported. The pituitary gland undergoes global hyperplasia during pregnancy. Functional pituitary tumours may exhibit symptomatic enlargement during pregnancy. Growth hormone secreting tumour is associated with acromegaly which has associated anaesthetic implications of difficult airway, systemic hypertension, and diabetes and electrolyte imbalance. Intracranial space occupying lesions can increase intra cranial pressure and compromise cerebral perfusion or cause herniation. We report management of this case.

  14. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  15. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  16. Ecthyma gangrenosum in the periorbital region in a previously healthy immunocompetent woman without bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG is a cutaneous lesion classically associated with potentially fatal Pseudomonas septicemia in immunocompromised patients. Other bacterial and fungal pathogens have also been implicated. Although EG typically occurs in immunocompromised or neutropenic patients, it may occasionally affect a previously healthy person. The cutaneous findings are characteristic with small indurated papulovesicles progressing rapidly to necrotic ulcers with surrounding erythema and a central black Eschar. While lesions can occur at any site, most are commonly found over the buttocks, perineum, limbs, and axillae. We describe a case of EG in periorbital region in a previously healthy woman who responded to appropriate antibiotic treatment for Pseudomonas. It is very important to establish the diagnosis early so that appropriate systemic antibiotic therapy can be initiated to reduce morbidity and potential mortality.

  17. Creando subjetividades laborales: implicaciones del discurso psicológico en el mundo del trabajo y las organizaciones Criando subjetividades do trabalho: implicações do discurso psicológico no mundo do trabalho e as organizações Creating work subjectivities: implications of the psychological discourse in the world of work and organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Andrade

    2013-01-01

    to clarify the meaning of the subjectivity concept and the implications of the critical psychology. This paper also presents some thoughts that make explicit the ways in which psychological discourse -furthermore, reflected in the practice- is embedded in the world of work and organizations, and greatly contributes for building the subjectivities of the working people, and the relationships established within working organizations.

  18. Erlotinib-induced rash spares previously irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, Irene M.; Vonk, Ernest J.A.; Koster, Mariska E.Y.; Houwing, Ronald H.

    2011-01-01

    Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor prescribed to patients with locally advanced or metastasized non-small cell lung carcinoma after failure of at least one earlier chemotherapy treatment. Approximately 75% of the patients treated with erlotinib develop acneiform skin rashes. A patient treated with erlotinib 3 months after finishing concomitant treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is presented. Unexpectedly, the part of the skin that had been included in his previously radiotherapy field was completely spared from the erlotinib-induced acneiform skin rash. The exact mechanism of erlotinib-induced rash sparing in previously irradiated skin is unclear. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon needs to be explored further, because the number of patients being treated with a combination of both therapeutic modalities is increasing. The therapeutic effect of erlotinib in the area of the previously irradiated lesion should be assessed. (orig.)

  19. Reasoning with Previous Decisions: Beyond the Doctrine of Precedent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    in different jurisdictions use previous judicial decisions in their argument, we need to move beyond the concept of precedent to a wider notion, which would embrace practices and theories in legal systems outside the Common law tradition. This article presents the concept of ‘reasoning with previous decisions...... law method’, but they are no less rational and intellectually sophisticated. The reason for the rather conceited attitude of some comparatists is in the dominance of the common law paradigm of precedent and the accompanying ‘case law method’. If we want to understand how courts and lawyers......’ as such an alternative and develops its basic models. The article first points out several shortcomings inherent in limiting the inquiry into reasoning with previous decisions by the common law paradigm (1). On the basis of numerous examples provided in section (1), I will present two basic models of reasoning...

  20. [Prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Basto-Abreu, Ana; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Zárate-Rojas, Emiliano; Villalpando, Salvador; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh

    2018-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 with previous national surveys and to describe treatment and its complications. Mexico's national surveys Ensa 2000, Ensanut 2006, 2012 and 2016 were used. For 2016, logistic regression models and measures of central tendency and dispersion were obtained. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 was 9.4%. The increase of 2.2% relative to 2012 was not significant and only observed in patients older than 60 years. While preventive measures have increased, the access to medical treatment and lifestyle has not changed. The treatment has been modified, with an increase in insulin and decrease in hypoglycaemic agents. Population aging, lack of screening actions and the increase in diabetes complications will lead to an increase on the burden of disease. Policy measures targeting primary and secondary prevention of diabetes are crucial.

  1. Making 'what works' work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    2017-01-01

    and a mattress. As such, the paper shows how DR, as an evidence-based method, is established through concrete relations, rather than abstracted and universal principals. It argues that these relations stabilising DR are never enacted once and for all, but require continual work to be held together as a method...... that ‘works’....

  2. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile non-invasive imaging modality that serves a broad spectrum of indications in clinical cardiology and has proven evidence. Most of the numerous applications are appropriate in patients with previous cardiovascular surgery in the same manner as in non-surgical subjects. However, some specifics have to be considered. This review article is intended to provide information about the application of CMR in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery. In particular, the two main scenarios, i.e. following coronary artery bypass surgery and following heart valve surgery, are highlighted. Furthermore, several pictorial descriptions of other potential indications for CMR after cardiovascular surgery are given.

  3. Online Literacies at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Uses examples drawn from research across several sites in tourism and hospitality in which employees are required to interact with technology, in order to highlight issues relating to new online literacies that are now required for efficient work practices and to discuss implications for practice. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy…

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation

  5. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  6. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  7. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged ..... I am still riding the cloud … I hope it lasts. .... as a way of creating a climate and culture in schools where individuals are willing to explore.

  8. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...

  9. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  10. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  11. Investigation of previously derived Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    New Hyades polarimetry and field star photometry have been obtained to check the Hyades reddening, which was found to be nonzero in a previous paper. The new Hyades polarimetry implies essentially zero reddening; this is also true of polarimetry published by Behr (which was incorrectly interpreted in the previous paper). Four photometric techniques which are presumed to be insensitive to blanketing are used to compare the Hyades to nearby field stars; these four techniques also yield essentially zero reddening. When all of these results are combined with others which the author has previously published and a simultaneous solution for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings is made, the results are E (B-V) =3 +- 2 (sigma) mmag, -1 +- 3 (sigma) mmag, and 46 +- 6 (sigma) mmag, respectively. No support for a nonzero Hyades reddening is offered by the new results. When the newly obtained reddenings for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 are compared with results from techniques given by Crawford and by users of the David Dunlap Observatory photometric system, no differences between the new and other reddenings are found which are larger than about 2 sigma. The author had previously found that the M67 main-sequence stars have about the same blanketing as that of Coma and less blanketing than the Hyades; this conclusion is essentially unchanged by the revised reddenings

  12. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  13. 18 CFR 154.302 - Previously submitted material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously submitted material. 154.302 Section 154.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... concurrently with the rate change filing. There must be furnished to the Director, Office of Energy Market...

  14. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  15. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  16. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  17. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Charles J.; Smith, Matthew R.; de Bono, Johann S.; Molina, Arturo; Logothetis, Christopher J.; de Souza, Paul; Fizazi, Karim; Mainwaring, Paul; Piulats, Josep M.; Ng, Siobhan; Carles, Joan; Mulders, Peter F. A.; Basch, Ethan; Small, Eric J.; Saad, Fred; Schrijvers, Dirk; van Poppel, Hendrik; Mukherjee, Som D.; Suttmann, Henrik; Gerritsen, Winald R.; Flaig, Thomas W.; George, Daniel J.; Yu, Evan Y.; Efstathiou, Eleni; Pantuck, Allan; Winquist, Eric; Higano, Celestia S.; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Park, Youn; Kheoh, Thian; Griffin, Thomas; Scher, Howard I.; Rathkopf, Dana E.; Boyce, A.; Costello, A.; Davis, I.; Ganju, V.; Horvath, L.; Lynch, R.; Marx, G.; Parnis, F.; Shapiro, J.; Singhal, N.; Slancar, M.; van Hazel, G.; Wong, S.; Yip, D.; Carpentier, P.; Luyten, D.; de Reijke, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned

  18. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  19. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  20. Homicide and domestic violence. Are there different psychological profiles mediated by previous exerted on the victim?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Yepes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 46 men was evaluated with the DAPP (Questionnaire of Domestic Aggressor Psychological Profile. All were inmates convicted for various degrees of violence against their wives in different prisons. The sample was divided into three groups: homicides without previous violence against their wives (H (n=11, homicides with previous violence (VH (n=9 and domestic batterers without previous homicide attempts against their partners (B (n=26. The aim of the study was to analyze the possible existence of three different kinds of profiles and more specifically if it’s possible to obtain an independent profile for domestic homicides with previous episodes of violence against their wives. The results neither confirm the hypothesis as whole nor for the violent homicides. However, differences between groups were obtained in the admission and description of the facts, in the risk of future violence, in some sociodemographical characteristics (i.e., level of education, social status, in the couple relationship, in the dissatisfaction concerning the unachieved ideal woman, in the use of extreme physical force during the aggression, the time of the first aggression, the use of verbal threats during the aggression, explanation of the events to the family and the period of time between the beginning of the romantic relationship and the manifestation of violence. The implications of the results for the theoretical frameworks proposed and future research are discussed.

  1. Effect of previous exhaustive exercise on metabolism and fatigue development during intense exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. M.; Perez-Gomez, J.; Nordsborg, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined how metabolic response and work capacity are affected by previous exhaustive exercise. Seven subjects performed an exhaustive cycle exercise ( approximately 130%-max; EX2) after warm-up (CON) and 2 min after an exhaustive bout at a very high (VH; approximately 30 s), high...

  2. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Uchikawa Graziano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection WITHOUT previous cleaning. The results were compared to disinfection preceded by cleaning. RESULTS: There was a reduction of six logarithms of the initial microbial population, equal in the groups WITH and WITHOUT previous cleaning (p=0.440 and a residual microbial load ≤ 102 CFU. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrated the acceptability of the practice evaluated, bringing an important response to the area of health, in particular to Nursing, which most undertakes procedures of concurrent cleaning /disinfecting of these work surfaces.

  3. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Uchikawa Graziano

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection WITHOUT previous cleaning. The results were compared to disinfection preceded by cleaning. RESULTS: There was a reduction of six logarithms of the initial microbial population, equal in the groups WITH and WITHOUT previous cleaning (p=0.440 and a residual microbial load ≤ 102 CFU. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrated the acceptability of the practice evaluated, bringing an important response to the area of health, in particular to Nursing, which most undertakes procedures of concurrent cleaning /disinfecting of these work surfaces.

  4. Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2014-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships amongst psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment and to test for a possible mediation effect of work engagement on the relationship between psychological meaningfulness and organisational commitment. Motivation for the study: Managers have to rethink ways of improving productivity and performance at work, due to the diverse, and in some instances escalating, needs of employees (e.g. financial support to uphold their interest in and enjoyment of working. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative approach was employed to gather the data for the study, utilising a cross-sectional survey design. The sample (n = 415 consisted of working employees from various companies and positions in Gauteng, South Africa. Main findings: The results confirmed a positive relationship between psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment. Further, psychological meaningfulness predicts work engagement, whilst psychological meaningfulness and work engagement predict organisational commitment. Practical/managerial implications: Employers identifying their employees’ commitment patterns and mapping out strategies for enhancing those that are relevant to organisational goals will yield positive work outcomes (e.g. employees who are creative, seek growth or challenges for themselves. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the literature through highlighting the impact that meaningful work has on sustaining employee commitment to the organisation.

  5. [Fatal amnioinfusion with previous choriocarcinoma in a parturient woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrgović, Z; Bukovic, D; Mrcela, M; Hrgović, I; Siebzehnrübl, E; Karelovic, D

    2004-04-01

    The case of 36-year-old tercipare is described who developed choriocharcinoma in a previous pregnancy. During the first term labour the patient developed cardiac arrest, so reanimation and sectio cesarea was performed. A male new-born was delivered in good condition, but even after intensive therapy and reanimation occurred death of parturient woman with picture of disseminate intravascular coagulopathia (DIK). On autopsy and on histology there was no sign of malignant disease, so it was not possible to connect previous choricarcinoma with amniotic fluid embolism. Maybe was place of choriocarcinoma "locus minoris resistentiae" which later resulted with failure in placentation what was hard to prove. On autopsy we found embolia of lung with a microthrombosis of terminal circulation with punctiformis bleeding in mucous, what stands for DIK.

  6. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  7. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  8. Analysis of previous screening examinations for patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Young Ho; Hwang, Ki Tae; Ryu, Dae Sik; Kwak, Jin Ho; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to improve the quality of subsequent screening by reviewing the previous screening of breast cancer patients. Twenty-four breast cancer patients who underwent previous screening were enrolled. All 24 took mammograms and 15 patients also took sonograms. We reviewed the screening retrospectively according to the BI-RADS criteria and we categorized the results into false negative, true negative, true positive and occult cancers. We also categorized the causes of false negative cancers into misperception, misinterpretation and technical factors and then we analyzed the attributing factors. Review of the previous screening revealed 66.7% (16/24) false negative, 25.0% (6/24) true negative, and 8.3% (2/24) true positive cancers. False negative cancers were caused by the mammogram in 56.3% (9/16) and by the sonogram in 43.7% (7/16). For the false negative cases, all of misperception were related with mammograms and this was attributed to dense breast, a lesion located at the edge of glandular tissue or the image, and findings seen on one view only. Almost all misinterpretations were related with sonograms and attributed to loose application of the final assessment. To improve the quality of breast screening, it is essential to overcome the main causes of false negative examinations, including misperception and misinterpretation. We need systematic education and strict application of final assessment categories of BI-RADS. For effective communication among physicians, it is also necessary to properly educate them about BI-RADS

  9. Milky Way Past Was More Turbulent Than Previously Known

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Results of 1001 observing nights shed new light on our Galaxy [1] Summary A team of astronomers from Denmark, Switzerland and Sweden [2] has achieved a major breakthrough in our understanding of the Milky Way, the galaxy in which we live. After more than 1,000 nights of observations spread over 15 years, they have determined the spatial motions of more than 14,000 solar-like stars residing in the neighbourhood of the Sun. For the first time, the changing dynamics of the Milky Way since its birth can now be studied in detail and with a stellar sample sufficiently large to allow a sound analysis. The astronomers find that our home galaxy has led a much more turbulent and chaotic life than previously assumed. PR Photo 10a/04: Distribution on the sky of the observed stars. PR Photo 10b/04: Stars in the solar neigbourhood and the Milky Way galaxy (artist's view). PR Video Clip 04/04: The motions of the observed stars during the past 250 million years. Unknown history Home is the place we know best. But not so in the Milky Way - the galaxy in which we live. Our knowledge of our nearest stellar neighbours has long been seriously incomplete and - worse - skewed by prejudice concerning their behaviour. Stars were generally selected for observation because they were thought to be "interesting" in some sense, not because they were typical. This has resulted in a biased view of the evolution of our Galaxy. The Milky Way started out just after the Big Bang as one or more diffuse blobs of gas of almost pure hydrogen and helium. With time, it assembled into the flattened spiral galaxy which we inhabit today. Meanwhile, generation after generation of stars were formed, including our Sun some 4,700 million years ago. But how did all this really happen? Was it a rapid process? Was it violent or calm? When were all the heavier elements formed? How did the Milky Way change its composition and shape with time? Answers to these and many other questions are 'hot' topics for the

  10. Improving statistical reasoning theoretical models and practical implications

    CERN Document Server

    Sedlmeier, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This book focuses on how statistical reasoning works and on training programs that can exploit people''s natural cognitive capabilities to improve their statistical reasoning. Training programs that take into account findings from evolutionary psychology and instructional theory are shown to have substantially larger effects that are more stable over time than previous training regimens. The theoretical implications are traced in a neural network model of human performance on statistical reasoning problems. This book apppeals to judgment and decision making researchers and other cognitive scientists, as well as to teachers of statistics and probabilistic reasoning.

  11. Expert Performance and Time Pressure: Implications for Automation Failures in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-30

    settled by these two studies. To help resolve the disagreement between the previous research findings, the present work used a computerized chess...communication between the automation and the pilots should also be helpful , but it is doubtful that the system designer or the real-time automation can...Performance and Time Pressure: Implications for Automation Failures in Aviation 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  12. Moyamoya disease in a child with previous acute necrotizing encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taik-Kun; Cha, Sang Hoon; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Kim, Baek Hyun; Chung, Hwan Hoon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, 516 Kojan-Dong, Ansan City, Kyungki-Do 425-020 (Korea); Eun, Baik-Lin [Department of Pediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-09-01

    A previously healthy 24-day-old boy presented with a 2-day history of fever and had a convulsion on the day of admission. MRI showed abnormal signal in the thalami, caudate nuclei and central white matter. Acute necrotising encephalopathy was diagnosed, other causes having been excluded after biochemical and haematological analysis of blood, urine and CSF. He recovered, but with spastic quadriparesis. At the age of 28 months, he suffered sudden deterioration of consciousness and motor weakness of his right limbs. MRI was consistent with an acute cerebrovascular accident. Angiography showed bilateral middle cerebral artery stenosis or frank occlusion with numerous lenticulostriate collateral vessels consistent with moyamoya disease. (orig.)

  13. MCNP HPGe detector benchmark with previously validated Cyltran model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, I D; Russ, W R; Bronson, F

    2009-05-01

    An exact copy of the detector model generated for Cyltran was reproduced as an MCNP input file and the detection efficiency was calculated similarly with the methodology used in previous experimental measurements and simulation of a 280 cm(3) HPGe detector. Below 1000 keV the MCNP data correlated to the Cyltran results within 0.5% while above this energy the difference between MCNP and Cyltran increased to about 6% at 4800 keV, depending on the electron cut-off energy.

  14. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  15. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  16. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  17. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  18. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  19. [ANTITHROMBOTIC MEDICATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neykova, K; Dimitrova, V; Dimitrov, R; Vakrilova, L

    2016-01-01

    To analyze pregnancy outcome in patients who were on antithrombotic medication (AM) because of previous pregnancy with fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The studied group (SG) included 21 pregnancies in 15 women with history of previous IUGR. The patients were on low dose aspirin (LDA) and/or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Pregnancy outcome was compared to the one in two more groups: 1) primary group (PG) including the previous 15 pregnancies with IUGR of the same women; 2) control group (CG) including 45 pregnancies of women matched for parity with the ones in the SG, with no history of IUGR and without medication. The SG, PG and CG were compared for the following: mean gestational age (g.a.) at birth, mean birth weight (BW), proportion of cases with early preeclampsia (PE), IUGR (total, moderate, and severe), intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), neonatal death (NND), admission to NICU, cesarean section (CS) because of chronic or acute fetal distress (FD) related to IUGR, PE or placental abruption. Student's t-test was applied to assess differences between the groups. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The differences between the SG and the PG regarding mean g. a. at delivery (33.7 and 29.8 w.g. respectively) and the proportion of babies admitted to NICU (66.7% vs. 71.4%) were not statistically significant. The mean BW in the SG (2114,7 g.) was significantly higher than in the PG (1090.8 g.). In the SG compared with the PG there were significantly less cases of IUFD (14.3% and 53.3% respectively), early PE (9.5% vs. 46.7%) moderate and severe IUGR (10.5% and 36.8% vs. 41.7% and 58.3%). Neonatal mortality in the SG (5.6%) was significantly lower than in the PG (57.1%), The proportion of CS for FD was not significantly different--53.3% in the SG and 57.1% in the PG. On the other hand, comparison between the SG and the CG demonstrated significantly lower g.a. at delivery in the SG (33.7 vs. 38 w.g.) an lower BW (2114 vs. 3094 g

  20. WWC Review of the Report "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities", examined the impact of the strategies developed by an interagency task force in New York City to combat chronic absenteeism in…

  1. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  2. Corneal perforation after conductive keratoplasty with previous refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymionis, George D; Titze, Patrik; Markomanolakis, Marinos M; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2003-12-01

    A 56-year-old woman had conductive keratoplasty (CK) for residual hyperopia and astigmatism. Three years before the procedure, the patient had arcuate keratotomy, followed by laser in situ keratomileusis 2 years later for high astigmatism correction in both eyes. During CK, a corneal perforation occurred in the right eye; during the postoperative examination, an iris perforation and anterior subcapsule opacification were seen beneath the perforation site. The perforation was managed with a bandage contact lens and an antibiotic-steroid ointment; it had a negative Seidel sign by the third day. The surgery in the left eye was uneventful. Three months after the procedure, the uncorrected visual acuity was 20/32 and the best corrected visual acuity 20/20 in both eyes with a significant improvement in corneal topography. Care must be taken to prevent CK-treated spots from coinciding with areas in the corneal stroma that might have been altered by previous refractive procedures.

  3. Interference from previous distraction disrupts older adults' memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biss, Renée K; Campbell, Karen L; Hasher, Lynn

    2013-07-01

    Previously relevant information can disrupt the ability of older adults to remember new information. Here, the researchers examined whether prior irrelevant information, or distraction, can also interfere with older adults' memory for new information. Younger and older adults first completed a 1-back task on pictures that were superimposed with distracting words. After a delay, participants learned picture-word paired associates and memory was tested using picture-cued recall. In 1 condition (high interference), some pairs included pictures from the 1-back task now paired with new words. In a low-interference condition, the transfer list used all new items. Older adults had substantially lower cued-recall performance in the high- compared with the low-interference condition. In contrast, younger adults' performance did not vary across conditions. These findings suggest that even never-relevant information from the past can disrupt older adults' memory for new associations.

  4. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones affect every cell in the human body, and the cardiovascular changes associated with increased levels of thyroid hormones are especially well described. As an example, short-term hyperthyroidism has positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on the heart, leading to a hyperdynamic...... with CVD, LD and DM both before and after the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Although the design used does not allow a stringent distinction between cause and effect, the findings indicate a possible direct association between hyperthyroidism and these morbidities, or vice versa....... vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions...

  5. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  6. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  7. Urethrotomy has a much lower success rate than previously reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Richard; Eisenberg, Lauren

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the success rate of direct vision internal urethrotomy as a treatment for simple male urethral strictures. A retrospective chart review was performed on 136 patients who underwent urethrotomy from January 1994 through March 2009. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze stricture-free probability after the first, second, third, fourth and fifth urethrotomy. Patients with complex strictures (36) were excluded from the study for reasons including previous urethroplasty, neophallus or previous radiation, and 24 patients were lost to followup. Data were available for 76 patients. The stricture-free rate after the first urethrotomy was 8% with a median time to recurrence of 7 months. For the second urethrotomy stricture-free rate was 6% with a median time to recurrence of 9 months. For the third urethrotomy stricture-free rate was 9% with a median time to recurrence of 3 months. For procedures 4 and 5 stricture-free rate was 0% with a median time to recurrence of 20 and 8 months, respectively. Urethrotomy is a popular treatment for male urethral strictures. However, the performance characteristics are poor. Success rates were no higher than 9% in this series for first or subsequent urethrotomy during the observation period. Most of the patients in this series will be expected to experience failure with longer followup and the expected long-term success rate from any (1 through 5) urethrotomy approach is 0%. Urethrotomy should be considered a temporizing measure until definitive curative reconstruction can be planned. 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A previously unreported association between Nance-Horan syndrome and spontaneous dental abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, Sally

    2005-02-01

    Atypical dentofacial structures may be the first indicator of other anomalies linked to a syndrome. This case describes the management of a 9-year-old girl referred for the routine management of supernumerary teeth. The anomalous form of her teeth, together with multiple supernumerary units and a history of congenital cataracts, were suggestive of a diagnosis of Nance-Horan syndrome. This is an X-linked disorder, in which females usually demonstrate mild expression; this case was unusual in respect to the marked phenotype expressed. Unusually, the girl developed 2 spontaneous abscesses of her noncarious upper incisor teeth; a feature never previously described in this syndrome. This report details the patient's dental management and discusses the possible pathogenesis of the dental abscesses, together with the genetic implications of this syndrome.

  9. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts of coordi....../or resources. To accomplish their work, actors have to make the right configuration of these four aspects emerge.......We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts...... of coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration...

  10. Adverse trajectories of mental health problems predict subsequent burnout and work-family conflict: A longitudinal study of employed women with children followed over 18 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsen, W.; Skipstein, A.; Demerouti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The long-term consequence of experiencing mental health problems may lead to several adverse outcomes. The current study aims to validate previous identified trajectories of mental health problems from 1993 to 2006 in women by examining their implications on subsequent work and

  11. Work Life Balance in the Netherlands: Flexible working hours and a flexible working place (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KENJOH Eiko

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of Dutch approach to achieving Work Life Balance (WLB) and to draw policy implications for Japan. It is argued that flexibility of working hours and flexibility offered at one's working place are essential elements of WLB. In this respect, the Netherlands has attained relatively advanced policies and practices. For instance, workers in the Netherlands enjoy a strong degree of flexibility in terms of working hours, a system that strives to...

  12. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  13. Mediastinal involvement in lymphangiomatosis: a previously unreported MRI sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Vikas; Shah, Sachit; Barnacle, Alex; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Brock, Penelope [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Harper, John I. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Dermatology, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Multifocal lymphangiomatosis is a rare systemic disorder affecting children. Due to its rarity and wide spectrum of clinical, histological and imaging features, establishing the diagnosis of multifocal lymphangiomatosis can be challenging. The purpose of this study was to describe a new imaging sign in this disorder: paraspinal soft tissue and signal abnormality at MRI. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging, clinical and histopathological findings in a cohort of eight children with thoracic involvement from this condition. Evidence of paraspinal chest disease was identified at MRI and CT in all eight of these children. The changes comprise heterogeneous intermediate-to-high signal parallel to the thoracic vertebrae on T2-weighted sequences at MRI, with abnormal paraspinal soft tissue at CT and plain radiography. Multifocal lymphangiomatosis is a rare disorder with a broad range of clinicopathological and imaging features. MRI allows complete evaluation of disease extent without the use of ionising radiation and has allowed us to describe a previously unreported imaging sign in this disorder, namely, heterogeneous hyperintense signal in abnormal paraspinal tissue on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  14. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  15. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  16. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  17. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Richard; Kohles, Joseph D; Babbitt, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT) of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV) ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP) use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p 90% at Month 10). In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.

  18. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  19. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  20. Assessing the Previous Economic Knowledge of Beginning Students in Germany: Implications for Teaching Economics in Basic Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happ, Roland; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Carstensen, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Study-related prior knowledge plays a decisive role in business and economics degree courses. Prior knowledge has a significant influence on knowledge acquisition in higher education, and teachers need information on it to plan their introductory courses accordingly. Very few studies have been conducted of first-year students' prior economic…

  1. Impact of Students’ Class Attendance on Recalling Previously Acquired Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camellia Hemyari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, availability of class material including typed lectures, the professor’s Power Point slides, sound recordings, and even videos made a group of students feel that it is unnecessary to attend the classes. These students usually read and memorize typed lectures within two or three days prior to the exams and usually pass the tests even with low attendance rate. Thus, the question is how effective is this learning system and how long the one-night memorized lessons may last.Methods: A group of medical students (62 out of 106 students, with their class attendance and educational achievements in the Medical Mycology and Parasitology course being recorded since two years ago, was selected and their knowledge about this course was tested by multiple choice questions (MCQ designed based on the previous lectures.Results: Although the mean re-exam score of the students at the end of the externship was lower than the corresponding final score, a significant association was found between the scores of the students in these two exams (r=0.48, P=0.01. Moreover, a significant negative association was predicted between the number of absences and re-exam scores (r=-0.26, P=0.037.Conclusion: As our findings show, the phenomenon of recalling the acquired lessons is preserved for a long period of time and it is associated with the students’ attendance. Many factors including generation effect (by taking notes and cued-recall (via slide picture might play a significant role in the better recalling of the learned information in students with good class attendance.Keywords: STUDENT, MEMORY, LONG-TERM, RECALL, ABSENTEEISM, LEARNING

  2. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  3. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  4. Work family conflict in its relations to perceived working situation and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Bernburg, Monika; Groneberg, David A; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard

    2016-02-15

    These days physicians' work is characterized by an increase in economic demands, pressure and challenges in establishing a balance between work and family life. The current study investigates the relationship between physicians' job demands and resources, perceived job stress, work-family conflict, work engagement and job satisfaction. 564 clinicians specialising in different medical fields participated in the cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires, including the COPSOQ and the UWES- Scale were administered. Our results illustrated significant relationships between physicians' work engagement and their job satisfaction as well as between job stress and work family conflict. Moreover, perceived job stress moderated the effect of high job demands on work family conflict. In addition, significant gender differences have been found in perceived stress levels, work family conflict and work engagement. This study proves and verified associations between work engagement, work-family conflict, job demands and resources that may influence employees' satisfaction. Implications for both working physicians and hospital management are given.

  5. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2011-01-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  6. Cancer survivors' perspectives and experiences regarding behavioral determinants of return to work and continuation of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijts, Saskia F A; van Egmond, Martine P; Gits, Maxime; van der Beek, Allard J; Bleiker, Eveline M

    2017-10-01

    Supportive interventions to enhance return to work (RTW) in cancer survivors hardly showed positive effects so far. Behavioral determinants might have to be considered in the development of interventions to achieve sustained employability. This study aimed to explore cancer survivors' perspectives and experiences regarding behavioral determinants of RTW and continuation of work. In this qualitative study, semi-structured telephone interviews were held with 28 cancer survivors. All participants were at working age, 1-2 years after diagnosis and employed at time of diagnosis. Thematic content analysis was performed. Work turned out to be a meaningful aspect of cancer survivors' life, and most participants reported a positive attitude towards their job. Social support to RTW or to continue working was mainly received from family and friends, but pressure to RTW from the occupational physician was also experienced. Changes in expectations regarding work ability from negative to positive during the treatment process were observed. Those who applied active coping mechanisms felt equipped to deal with difficulties regarding work. Behavioral determinants should be taken into account in the development of future interventions to support cancer survivors' RTW. However, the causal relationship still has to be determined. Implications for rehabilitation Factors influencing occupational motivation among cancer survivors need to be understood in more detail. Previous studies in non-cancer populations have demonstrated that behavioral determinants, such as a positive attitude towards work, high social support and self-efficacy may increase return to work rates or shorten the time to return to work. Addressing behavioral determinants in future development of work-related interventions for cancer survivors is essential in achieving sustained employability.

  7. Determination of the Boltzmann constant with cylindrical acoustic gas thermometry: new and previous results combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X. J.; Zhang, J. T.; Lin, H.; Gillis, K. A.; Mehl, J. B.; Moldover, M. R.; Zhang, K.; Duan, Y. N.

    2017-10-01

    We report a new determination of the Boltzmann constant k B using a cylindrical acoustic gas thermometer. We determined the length of the copper cavity from measurements of its microwave resonance frequencies. This contrasts with our previous work (Zhang et al 2011 Int. J. Thermophys. 32 1297, Lin et al 2013 Metrologia 50 417, Feng et al 2015 Metrologia 52 S343) that determined the length of a different cavity using two-color optical interferometry. In this new study, the half-widths of the acoustic resonances are closer to their theoretical values than in our previous work. Despite significant changes in resonator design and the way in which the cylinder length is determined, the value of k B is substantially unchanged. We combined this result with our four previous results to calculate a global weighted mean of our k B determinations. The calculation follows CODATA’s method (Mohr and Taylor 2000 Rev. Mod. Phys. 72 351) for obtaining the weighted mean value of k B that accounts for the correlations among the measured quantities in this work and in our four previous determinations of k B. The weighted mean {{\\boldsymbol{\\hat{k}}}{B}} is 1.380 6484(28)  ×  10-23 J K-1 with the relative standard uncertainty of 2.0  ×  10-6. The corresponding value of the universal gas constant is 8.314 459(17) J K-1 mol-1 with the relative standard uncertainty of 2.0  ×  10-6.

  8. The authentic worker's well-being and performance: the relationship between authenticity at work, well-being, and work outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Ralph; Taris, Toon W

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on authenticity has mainly focused on trait conceptualizations of authenticity (e.g., Wood et al., 2008), whereas in specific environments (e.g., at work) state conceptualizations of authenticity (cf. Van den Bosch & Taris, 2013) are at least as relevant. For example, working conditions are subject to change, and this could well have consequences for employees' perceived level of authenticity at work. The current study employs a work-specific, state-like conceptualization of authenticity to investigate the relations between authenticity at work, well-being, and work outcomes. A series of ten separate hierarchical regression analyses using data from 685 participants indicated that after controlling for selected work characteristics and demographic variables, authenticity at work accounted for on average 11% of the variance of various wellbeing and work outcomes. Of the three subscales of authenticity at work (i.e., authentic living, self-alienation, and accepting influence), self-alienation was the strongest predictor of outcomes, followed by authentic living and accepting external influence, respectively. These findings are discussed in the light of their practical and theoretical implications.

  9. Postgraduate diploma collaborative assignment: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postgraduate diploma collaborative assignment: Implications for ESL students ... and collaborative teaching/learning model involving the major course convenors. ... The quality of the work and mood of all concerned improved tremendously.

  10. Epistemological and Treatment Implications of Nonlinear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, A. H.

    The treatment implications of understanding mind as solely epiphenomenal to nonlinearly founded neurobiology are discussed. G. Klimovsky's epistemological understanding of psychoanalysis as a science is rejected and treatment approaches integrating W. R. Bion's and D. W. Winnicott's work are supported.

  11. Men's health promotion interventions: what have we learned from previous programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Steve; Witty, Karl; Zwolinsky, Steve; Day, Rhiannon

    2013-11-01

    Concern persists in health-related literature about men's reduced life expectancy and higher premature death rates; this is often linked to difficulties in engaging with men as a client group. However, some innovative projects and programmes, often led by health visitors or other community based nurses, have developed successful health promotion work with men. This article collates existing tacit knowledge (previous learning) about men's health interventions by integrating interview data from nine practitioners who have established such initiatives with data from 35 men's health project reports to consider 'what works'. Five themes stood out as being significant across the data reviewed: using the right setting (often outside statutory services); ensuring the right approach (drawing on male-specific interests and language); actively listening to what local men say; appropriate training (initial and ongoing) for those involved in such work; and partnership working with local community groups, businesses and statutory service providers. While not a panacea for working with any and all men, these themes form a good basis for successful engagement with men and align well with what a recent review of health visitor interventions suggest works in helping bridge service provision-uptake gaps.

  12. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepłońska, Beata; Burdelak, Weronika; Krysicka, Jolanta; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Sobala, Wojciech; Klimecka-Muszyńska, Dorota; Rybacki, Marcin

    2014-10-01

    Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more) - 434 individuals currently working night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity) was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22) among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029). This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  13. Maintenance work management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Nishino, M.; Takeshige, R.

    2000-01-01

    The maintenance work management system supports the efficient drawing up of various documents for the maintenance work at nuclear power stations and the speeding up of the permission procedure. In addition, it improves the quality assurance of the safety and reliability of the maintenance work. Key merits of the system are: 1. Efficiently drawing up various documents for the maintenance work by using the stored data for the previous maintenance work and the pipe and instrument diagram (P and ID) data. 2. Supporting the management work for the completion of maintenance work safety by using the isolation information stored on the computer system. 3. Speeding up the permission procedure by electronic mail and electronic permission. 4. Displaying additional information such as the specifications of equipment, maintenance result, and maintenance plan by linking up with the database of another system. 5. Reducing the cost of hardware devices by using client/server network configurations of personal computers and a personal computer server. (author)

  14. The ACRL framework for information literacy in higher education: implications for health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Maureen; Brower, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    The Association of College and Research Libraries is developing a new framework of information literacy concepts that will revise and replace the previously adopted standards. This framework consists of six threshold concepts that are more flexible than the original standards, and that work to identify both the function and the feelings behind information literacy education practices. This column outlines the new tentative framework with an eye toward its implications for health sciences libraries, and suggests ways the medical library community might work with this new document.

  15. Structural Study and Evaluation of Previous Restoration Work of Mohammad 'Ali Pasha Mosque at the Citadel in Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Yaser Yehya Amin Abdel-Aty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad 'Ali Pasha Mosque at the Citadel in Cairo is considered one of the main landmarks in Egypt. It majestically stands at a northwestern bend of the Citadel and it is visible from numerous locations in Cairo. It has become the symbol of the Citadel, to the point that its name is given to the whole complex in the colloquial Egyptian parlance. This paper studies analytically the static and dynamic structural behavior of this great mosque using computer numerical modeling techniques, to reach the main reasons for past cracking and failures in its domed-roof and other structural elements, which occurred by the end of 19th Century. A number of 3D-models are analyzed to study the mosque, in both original and after restoration conditions, under static (i.e. dead and live loads and dynamic (i.e. Eigenvector modal analysis, response-spectrum and time-history cases of loading. Besides, structural evaluation of major restoration project, in 1930s, is conducted to determine the current structural safety status of the mosque

  16. Current status of biological indicators to detect and quantify previous exposures to radiation. Biological Indicators Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.; Eisele, G.; Burr, W. Jr.; Hubner, K.; Wachholz, B.

    1991-01-01

    Hematologic changes following whole-body exposure to gamma or x-ray radiation have been used to estimate dose. The usefulness of this biological indicator is limited because of the recovery of these cells with time, thus making it unsuitable for estimation of dose years after exposure. The same is true for spermatogenic indicators; recovery and restoration of sperm numbers and fertility makes this biological indicator impractical for assessing radiation dose decades after radiation exposure. As noted in the text of the report, immunological concepts are in a state of rapid development, and it is possible that improved methods for applying immunologic procedures as biological indicators of radiation may be developed in the future. However, at the time, immunological indicators are not useful, even in an early time period, for quantitating radiation dose after total-body irradiation. A semiquantitative effect is observable in the early phase after total-body irradiation over a period of days to weeks, but there is little data available to indicate whether any of the immunological parameters can be indicative of a dose when the test is applied several years after radiation exposure. More detailed information regarding immunological indicators for estimating irradiation dose has been summarized elsewhere (Wasserman 1986). There is good agreement that ionizing radiation causes biochemical changes in the body; however, attempts to apply these changes to provide a reliable biological dosimetry system have not been particularly successful. The status of this research has been summarized by Gerber (1986). One of the difficulties has been the problem of establishing clear dose-effect relationships in humans. The lack of specificity in the response for radiation is another problem

  17. To work or not to work in an extended working life?

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    In most of the industrialised world, the proportion of older and retired people in the population is continuously increasing. This will have budgetary implications for maintaining the welfare state, because the active working section of the population must fund the non-active and old population. Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to obtain knowledge about older workers’ work and life situation in association with their planning and decision to retire from working life. Method: Th...

  18. Identity at work: Exploring strategies for Identity Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron G. Adams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study explored strategies for identity work that are central to the negotiation and regulation of employee work identity.Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to explore employee narratives and identify the strategies available to them in the process of identity work, as they defined themselves at work.Motivation for the study: As there is a scarcity of research on identity work in South Africa, this study wanted to advance knowledge about identity work and the strategies used for regulating and negotiating an identity at work by exploring these constructs in this context.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research process formed the basis for this study. Nineteen employees from a global manufacturing company participated in two semi-structured in-depth interviews. Grounded theory was applied to analyse and interpret the data.Main findings: Nine strategies for identity work were identified and categorised into four broad themes (personal philosophies; relationships; career management and negotiating balance.Practical/managerial implications: Employees followed various strategies for defining themselves at work and this may have some implications for employee work engagement and productivity.Contribution/value-add: This study expands on current theoretical knowledge of identity work, and provides insights into the strategies people use to regulate and negotiate their identities at work

  19. Previous Employment and Job Satisfaction Conditions: The Case of Regional Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, Myronaki; Nikolaos, Antonakas

    2009-08-01

    In the present work we study the different dimensions of satisfaction and the way of constitution of satisfaction of an important sample of the employees in the Regional administration of Crete and in their connection with the variable of the previous employment. We found statistically important differences for the components of satisfaction from the life, collaboration in and outside from the department, in the social satisfaction and the variable of the years in the service (labour group with satisfaction than the other previous employment groups. In the other hand the group with many years in the service presents bigger satisfaction than the other groups. Finally, is important to note that the sample present some interesting characteristics.

  20. Unhappy expatriates at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    While some expatriates could feel deeply unhappy trying to deal with the challenges of living and working abroad, few rigorous academic studies have presented evidence of the association between unhappiness among expatriates and their work outcomes. That is surprising since unhappiness could well...... with work adjustment, work performance, work effectiveness, and job satisfaction as well as a strong positive relationship with time to proficiency. These results are discussed in detail and their implications are drawn....... have a substantial effect on performing certain work tasks which is the reason for the foreign assignment. Based on the survey responses of 428 expatriate academics, results of this exploratory study show that unhappiness conceptualised as Subjective Ill-Being (SIB) had a strong negative association......While some expatriates could feel deeply unhappy trying to deal with the challenges of living and working abroad, few rigorous academic studies have presented evidence of the association between unhappiness among expatriates and their work outcomes. That is surprising since unhappiness could well...

  1. Working alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearle, Paul

    2004-09-01

    Employees may be found working alone in a wide range of occupations. Technological advance, rationalisation and automation mean that more and more frequently. one single person is in charge of several machines, pieces of equipment or different work activities. Employees will be found working alone during work carried out as 'overtime', as part of flexible working hours, on Saturdays, Sundays, Bank Holidays and other statutory leave days, or in situations where their work takes them away from a fixed base (mobile workers). A person may be considered to be 'working alone' whenever it is not possible to offer immediate assistance following an accident or in another critical situation. This article looks at the legal background to lone working and what an employer must do to ensure lone workers are at no greater risk to their health and safety than any other members of the workforce.

  2. Work Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Thomas S.

    1980-01-01

    To investigate managerial use of work (or role) overload to increase productivity, the author studied 77 nonclerical white-collar employees and found that work overload had negative effects on productivity, supervisors' ratings, employee attitudes, job satisfaction, and health. He recommends ways for managers and employees to reduce work overload.…

  3. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  4. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pepłońska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. Material and Methods: The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more - 434 individuals currently wor­king night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Results: Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22 among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029. Conclusions: This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  5. Levels of Phonological Awareness, Working Memory, and Lexical Knowledge in Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Motta Bandini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between oral language, phonological awareness, and working memory have been empirically demonstrated, however, phonological awareness encompasses different abilities, assessed at different levels. The present study investigated the possible associations between specific phonological awareness abilities and phonological working memory in first-grade students. In the initial phase ( n = 254, the study evaluated the abilities of phonological awareness and phonological working memory and found a high positive correlation between these abilities, thus confirming the findings of previous studies. The second phase ( n = 12 evaluated the vocabulary of individuals who, in the initial phase, showed low or high working memory and phonological awareness scores. Students with low working memory and low phonological awareness capacities had low scores in expressive language abilities, suggesting that phonological working memory may have direct effects on lexical knowledge. These results contribute to the understanding of the relationships investigated in this study and have important implications for planning teaching strategies.

  6. The impact of previous leaders on the evaluation of new leaders: an alternative to prototype matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Barbara A; Lord, Robert G

    2007-11-01

    In 2 studies, this research demonstrated the existence of leader transference, a cognitive process whereby mental representations of previous leaders are activated and used for evaluation when new, similar leaders are encountered. The 1st study demonstrated that exposure to a new leader who was similar to a past leader led to erroneous generalization of leader characteristics and associated underlying attributions. The 2nd study showed that expectations of just treatment and abuse were also subject to transfer from old to new, similar leaders, although positive and negative affective responses were not. Results suggested that individuals exposed to a leader who was not reminiscent of an old leader were more likely to use a general leader prototype to form leader expectations, whereas individuals exposed to a leader who was similar to an old leader activated a significant other mental representation for use in making judgments. These results have implications for individual- and relational-level processes as characterized by implicit leadership theory and leader-member exchange theory as well as macro theories of leader succession and organizational culture change. (c) 2007 APA

  7. Is the Universe More Transparent to Gamma Rays than Previously Thought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.; Scully, Sean T.

    2009-01-01

    The MAGIC collaboration has recently reported the detection of the strong gamma-ray blazar 3C279 during a 1-2 day flare. They have used their spectral observations to draw conclusions regarding upper limits on the opacity of the Universe to high energy gamma-rays and, by implication, upper limits on the extragalactic mid-infrared background radiation. In this paper we examine the effect of gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic infrared radiation on intrinsic spectra for this blazar and compare our results with the observational data on 3C279. We find agreement with our previous results, contrary to the recent assertion of the MAGIC group that the Universe is more transparent to gamma-rays than our calculations indicate. Our analysis indicates that in the energy range between approx. 80 and approx. 500 GeV, 3C279 has a best-fit intrinsic spectrum with a spectral index approx. 1.78 using our fast evolution model and approx. 2.19 using our baseline model. However, we also find that spectral indices in the range of 1.0 to 3.0 are almost as equally acceptable as the best fit spectral indices. Assuming the same intrinsic spectral index for this flare as for the 1991 flare from 3C279 observed by EGRET, viz., 2.02, which lies between our best fit indeces, we estimate that the MAGIC flare was approx.3 times brighter than the EGRET flare observed 15 years earlier.

  8. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... (previously Precision Helicopters, LLC); Robinson Air Crane, Inc.; San Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins... (Previously Hawkins & Powers Aviation); S.M. &T. Aircraft (Previously Us Helicopter Inc., UNC Helicopters, Inc...

  9. 75 FR 66009 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The Lancair...-15895. Applicability (c) This AD applies to the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate...

  10. At what price? A cost-effectiveness analysis comparing trial of labour after previous Caesarean versus elective repeat Caesarean delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fawsitt, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    Elective repeat caesarean delivery (ERCD) rates have been increasing worldwide, thus prompting obstetric discourse on the risks and benefits for the mother and infant. Yet, these increasing rates also have major economic implications for the health care system. Given the dearth of information on the cost-effectiveness related to mode of delivery, the aim of this paper was to perform an economic evaluation on the costs and short-term maternal health consequences associated with a trial of labour after one previous caesarean delivery compared with ERCD for low risk women in Ireland.

  11. Identity at work: Exploring strategies for Identity Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron G. Adams

    2012-09-01

    Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to explore employee narratives and identify the strategies available to them in the process of identity work, as they defined themselves at work. Motivation for the study: As there is a scarcity of research on identity work in South Africa, this study wanted to advance knowledge about identity work and the strategies used for regulating and negotiating an identity at work by exploring these constructs in this context. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research process formed the basis for this study. Nineteen employees from a global manufacturing company participated in two semi-structured in-depth interviews. Grounded theory was applied to analyse and interpret the data. Main findings: Nine strategies for identity work were identified and categorised into four broad themes (personal philosophies; relationships; career management and negotiating balance. Practical/managerial implications: Employees followed various strategies for defining themselves at work and this may have some implications for employee work engagement and productivity. Contribution/value-add: This study expands on current theoretical knowledge of identity work, and provides insights into the strategies people use to regulate and negotiate their identities at work.

  12. Executive Functioning and Visuospatial Abilities in Bulimia Nervosa with or without a Previous History of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degortes, Daniela; Tenconi, Elena; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate executive functioning and visuospatial abilities in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), with a particular interest in exploring the impact of a previous diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN). Several neuropsychological tasks were administered to 89 BN patients (52 with a previous history of AN and 37 without previous AN) and 160 healthy women. A poorer performance on set-shifting measures (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) was found only in BN patients with a previous history of AN. Decision-making abilities (Iowa Gambling Task) were significantly impaired in the whole sample of BN patients, but difficulties were more pronounced in the subgroup with previous AN. Finally, we did not find any differences in response inhibition and visuospatial abilities between the two samples of BN patients and healthy women. Our findings support the idea that cognitive abilities in patients with BN are more impaired in the presence of a prior history of AN. The clinical and treatment implications of our findings should be explored in future studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Some Sociological Alternatives to Human Capital Theory and Their Implications for Research on Post-Compulsory Education and Training. Patterns of Participation in Adult Education and Training. Working Paper 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevre, Ralph

    This working paper is a product of a regional study in industrial South Wales of the determinants of participation and non-participation in post-compulsory education and training, with special reference to processes of change in the patterns of these determinants over time and to variations between geographical areas. Based on this data, three…

  14. Evaluation Planning, Evaluation Management, and Utilization of Evaluation Results within Adult Literacy Campaigns, Programs and Projects (with Implications for Adult Basic Education and Nonformal Education Programs in General). A Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, H. S.

    Addressed to professionals involved in program evaluation, this working paper covers various aspects of evaluation planning, including the following: planning as a sociotechnical process, steps in evaluation planning, program planning and implementation versus evaluation planning and implementation, the literacy system and its subsystems, and some…

  15. Proposal for a revised definition of dilated cardiomyopathy, hypokinetic non-dilated cardiomyopathy, and its implications for clinical practice : a position statement of the ESC working group on myocardial and pericardial diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, Yigal M.; Elliott, Perry M.; Arbustini, Eloisa; Adler, Yehuda; Anastasakis, Aris; Boehm, Michael; Duboc, Denis; Gimeno, Juan; de Groote, Pascal; Imazio, Massimo; Heymans, Stephane; Klingel, Karin; Komajda, Michel; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Linhart, Ales; Mogensen, Jens; Moon, James; Pieper, Petronella G.; Seferovic, Petar M.; Schueler, Stephan; Zamorano, Jose L.; Caforio, Alida L. P.; Charron, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Disease proposes a revised definition of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in an attempt to bridge the gap between our recent understanding of the disease spectrum and its clinical presentation in relatives, which is key for early diagnosis

  16. Determining How Magnetic Helicity Injection Really Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul M Bellan

    2001-01-01

    OAK-B135 The goal of the Caltech program is to determine how helicity injection works by investigating the actual dynamics and topological evolution associated with magnetic relaxation. A new coaxial helicity injection source has been constructed and brought into operation. The key feature of this source is that it has maximum geometric simplicity. Besides being important for fusion research, this work also has astrophysical implications. Photos obtained using high-speed cameras show a clear sequence of events in the formation process. In particular, they show initial merging/reconnection processes, jet-like expansion, kinking, and separation of the plasma from the source. Various diagnostics have been developed, including laser induced fluorescence and soft x-ray detection using high speed diodes. Gas valves have been improved and a patent disclosure relating to puffed gas valves has been filed. Presentations on this work have been given in the form of invited talks at several university physics departments that were previously unfamiliar with laboratory plasma experiments

  17. Cosmographical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E. L.

    1992-12-01

    The COBE() DMR observation of large scale anisotropy of the CMBR allows one to compare the gravitational potential measured using Delta T to the gravitational forces required to produce the observed clustering of galaxies. This comparison helps to define the allowed range of cosmological models. As shown by Wright etal 1992, the COBE Delta T agrees quite well with the bulk flow velocity measured by Bertschinger etal 1990 in a window of radius 6000 km/sec. This is the best evidence that the initial perturbation spectrum in fact followed the Harrison-Zeldovich (and inflationary) prediction that P(k) ~ k(n) with n = 1. Assuming that n ~ 1, one can deduce information about the nature of the matter in the Universe: the first conclusion is that a large amount of non-baryonic dark matter is required. The second conclusion is that a linearly evolving model dominated by Cold Dark Matter produces too little structure on 2500 km/sec scales. However, mixed Cold Plus Hot Dark Matter models, vacuum dominated models, or the Couchman & Carlberg (1992) non-linear recipe for making galaxies out of CDM all seem to reproduce the observed structures on scales from 500-6,000 km/sec while connecting to the COBE results with the expected n ~ 1 slope. () COBE is supported by NASA's Astrophysics Division. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), under the scientific guidance of the COBE Science Working Group, is responsible for the development and operation of COBE.

  18. A Longitudinal Investigation of Work-Family Strains and Gains, Work Commitment, and Subsequent Employment Status among Partnered Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Matthew K.; McNall, Laurel A.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the work-family interface on mothers' commitment to work and the implications of that work commitment for subsequent employment. The study included a sample of employed partnered mothers who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child…

  19. Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J.; Brickman, Peggy; Brame, Cynthia J.

    2018-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty are increasingly incorporating both formal and informal group work in their courses. Implementing group work can be improved by an understanding of the extensive body of educational research studies on this topic. This essay describes an online, evidence-based teaching guide published by…

  20. Work cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornby, L.

    1981-01-01

    A simple work cabinet is described for handling materials such as radiopharmaceuticals. The cabinet includes a perforated working surface to which an operator can gain hand and forearm access through an aperture. Clean air is supplied through a high efficiency particulate air filter and withdrawn through the perforated surface. (U.K.)

  1. The Productivity Of Working Hours

    OpenAIRE

    John Pencavel

    2013-01-01

    Observations on munition workers, most of them women, are organized to examine the relationship between their output and their working hours. The relationship is nonlinear: below an hours threshold, output is proportional to hours; above a threshold, output rises at a decreasing rate as hours increase. Implications of these results for the estimation of labor supply functions are taken up. The findings also link up with current research on the effects of long working hours on accidents and in...

  2. Exploring the work/ welfare relationship

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The impact of current transformations in European labor markets social policy and employment patterns on women gender relations motherhood and family: implications for social work and social care (Editorial) We are delighted to introduce this exciting Special Edition for the Swiss Journal of Social Work. This special guest edited issue will interrogate a particular problem of the impact of the shifting axis on family gender relations and gendered impacts of welfare reform and change. In the c...

  3. The relationship among work-family conflict and enhancement, organizational work-family culture, and work outcomes for older working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Judith R; Whelan-Berry, Karen S; Hamilton, Elizabeth A

    2007-10-01

    This article examines the relationship among work-family conflict and enhancement, organizational work-family culture, and four work outcomes for 489 working women over the age of 50. Survey results from two U.S. health care organizations and one U.S. financial services organization indicate that older working women experience differing amounts of work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, work-to-family enhancement, and family-to-work enhancement. Hypotheses relating organizational work-family culture to work-family conflict and enhancement were partially supported, and hypotheses relating conflict and enhancement to four work outcomes were partially supported. Work-to-family conflict and work-to-family enhancement partially mediate the relationship between organizational work-family culture and selected work outcomes. Implications for theory and practice, limitations of this study, and directions for future research are also presented.

  4. [Wet work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Chomiczewska, Dorota; Krecisz, Beata

    2010-01-01

    Wet work is one of the most important risk factors of occupational skin diseases. Exposure of hands to the wet environment for more than 2 hours daily, wearing moisture-proof protective gloves for a corresponding period of time or necessity to wash hands frequently lead to the disruption of epidermal stratum corneum, damage to skin barrier function and induction of irritant contact dermatitis. It may also promote penetration of allergens into the skin and increase the risk of sensitization to occupational allergens. Exposure to wet work plays a significant role in occupations, such as hairdressers and barbers, nurses and other health care workers, cleaning staff, food handlers and metalworkers. It is more common among women because many occupations involving wet work are female-dominated. The incidence of wet-work-induced occupational skin diseases can be reduced by taking appropriate preventive measures. These include identification of high-risk groups, education of workers, organization of work enabling to minimize the exposure to wet work, use of personal protective equipment and skin care after work.

  5. Work Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roeters, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Most of us agree that stress is a growing problem within organizations. We hear about the postal workers who had killed fellow employees and supervisors, and then hear that a major cause of tension is at work. Friends tell us that they are stressed due to increased workload and he has to work overtime because the company is restructured. We read the polls that employees complain about the stress in trying to balance family life with the work. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individu...

  6. Working memory maintenance is sufficient to reduce state anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderston, Nicholas L; Quispe-Escudero, David; Hale, Elizabeth; Davis, Andrew; O'Connell, Katherine; Ernst, Monique; Grillon, Christian

    2016-11-01

    According to the attentional control theory (ACT) proposed by Eysenck and colleagues, anxiety interferes with cognitive processing by prioritizing bottom-up attentional processes over top-down attentional processes, leading to competition for access to limited resources in working memory, particularly the central executive (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, ). However, previous research using the n-back working memory task suggests that working memory load also reduces state anxiety. Assuming that similar mechanisms underlie the effect of anxiety on cognition, and the effect of cognition on anxiety, one possible implication of the ACT would suggest that the reduction of state anxiety with increasing working memory load is driven by activation of central executive attentional control processes. We tested this hypothesis using the Sternberg working memory paradigm, where maintenance processes can be isolated from central executive processes (Altamura et al., ; Sternberg, ). Consistent with the n-back results, subjects showed decreased state anxiety during the maintenance period of high-load trials relative to low-load trials, suggesting that maintenance processes alone are sufficient to achieve this state anxiety reduction. Given that the Sternberg task does not require central executive engagement, these results are not consistent with an implication of the ACT where the cognition/anxiety relationship and anxiety/cognition relationship are mediated by similar central executive mechanisms. Instead, we propose an extension of the ACT such that engaging working memory maintenance suppresses state anxiety in a load-dependent manner. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the efficacy of this effect may moderate the effect of trait anxiety on cognition. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Fire Risk Scoping Study: Investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk, including previously unaddressed issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Nowlen, S.P.; Nicolette, V.F.; Bohn, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk issues raised as a result of the USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories has been performed. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to review and requantify fire risk scenarios from four fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) in light of updated data bases made available as a result of USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program and updated computer fire modeling capabilities, (2) to identify potentially significant fire risk issues that have not been previously addressed in a fire risk context and to quantify the potential impact of those identified fire risk issues where possible, and (3) to review current fire regulations and plant implementation practices for relevance to the identified unaddressed fire risk issues. In performance of the fire risk scenario requantifications several important insights were gained. It was found that utilization of a more extensive operational experience base resulted in both fire occurrence frequencies and fire duration times (i.e., time required for fire suppression) increasing significantly over those assumed in the original works. Additionally, some thermal damage threshold limits assumed in the original works were identified as being nonconservative based on more recent experimental data. Finally, application of the COMPBRN III fire growth model resulted in calculation of considerably longer fire damage times than those calculated in the original works using COMPBRN I. 14 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs

  8. Working Collaboratively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holder, Anna; Lovett, George

    2009-01-01

    identified as a transformative global force of the last decade, most notably in knowledge and information publishing, communication and creation. This paper presents a structured conversation on changing understandings of collaboration, and the realities of collaborative methodology in architectural work...

  9. Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work is unpleasant and damages instead of builds self-esteem. Family relationships may suffer if both parents want ... with your child, especially if he is very young. You may worry that you will miss some ...

  10. Working hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stix, G.

    1988-01-01

    The author says ''barehand'' methods, where specially trained utility workers are called in conductive suits to equalize voltage over their bodies, to maintain high-voltage transmission lines are on the rise. Utilities are building lines at higher voltages and selling more power to other utilities, making it highly inconvenient to take the lines out of service. However, some unions view the barehand work with less than enthusiasm. Touching lines energized at hundreds of thousands of volts demands flawless equipment and rigid work procedures followed to the letter. Some local unions contend that adequate safety procedures and training, and appropriate penalties for workplace negligence, should be in place before utilities may do barehand work. The author discusses some of the methods of barehand work and the equipment used, i.e. steel-mesh lineman's suit, bucket truck's boom, helicopters, and robots

  11. Able or unable to work? Life trajectory after severe occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Jarna; Luoma, Arto; Koskinen, Lasse

    2018-04-24

    To study the probabilities and permanence of return to work, inability to work and rehabilitation, and to explore the connection between these life situations and later working after a severe occupational injury. A historical cohort of Finnish workers with a severe occupational injury during 2008 (N = 11,585) were followed up annually on the outcomes of return to work over a 5-year observation period. We examined transition probabilities from one life situation to another with Markov chain analysis, and applied logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to assess the effect of register-based determinants on return to work. Within the five anniversaries, 85% of the injured were working, 9% were unable to work (fully or partly) and 2% received rehabilitation. Age, gross annual income, type of work, injured body part, injury type and the injured's annual condition subsequent to the work injury were significant determinants of return to work. The probability of return to work decreased with time, but, on average, one-fifth of the injured workers succeeded in return to work after being unable to work on the previous anniversary, which indicates that it is worthwhile to conduct efforts for this target group in order to promote return to work. Implications for Rehabilitation The current life situation of the injured should be taken into account when promoting return to work, as it is a strong predictor of later working after a serious occupational injury. Rehabilitation and return to work programs should start in time due to declining return to work rates as the disability continues. Return to work on a part-time basis could be a good option during the early phases of recovery, since a notable proportion of those partly unable to work on the first anniversary returned later to full-time workers. The probability of recovery is relatively high even for those with long-term disabilities, so the promotion of return to work is highly recommended also for

  12. The relationship between emotional intelligence, previous caring experience and mindfulness in student nurses and midwives: a cross sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Austyn; Stenhouse, Rosie; Young, Jenny; Carver, Hannah; Carver, Fiona; Brown, Norrie

    2015-01-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI), previous caring experience and mindfulness training may have a positive impact on nurse education. More evidence is needed to support the use of these variables in nurse recruitment and retention. To explore the relationship between EI, gender, age, programme of study, previous caring experience and mindfulness training. Cross sectional element of longitudinal study. 938year one nursing, midwifery and computing students at two Scottish Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) who entered their programme in September 2013. Participants completed a measure of 'trait' EI: Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue-SF); and 'ability' EI: Schutte's et al. (1998) Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS). Demographics, previous caring experience and previous training in mindfulness were recorded. Relationships between variables were tested using non-parametric tests. Emotional intelligence increased with age on both measures of EI [TEIQ-SF H(5)=15.157 p=0.001; SEIS H(5)=11.388, p=0.044]. Females (n=786) scored higher than males (n=149) on both measures [TEIQ-SF, U=44,931, z=-4.509, pemotional intelligence. Mindfulness training was associated with higher 'ability' emotional intelligence. Implications for recruitment, retention and further research are explored. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Work and Non-Work Physical Activity Predict Real-Time Smoking Level and Urges in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadell, Melanie J; Mermelstein, Robin J; Hedeker, Donald; Marquez, David X

    2015-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) and smoking are inversely related. However, evidence suggests that some types of PA, namely work-related PA, may show an opposite effect. Despite growing knowledge, there remains a paucity of studies examining the context of these behaviors in naturalistic settings or in young adults, a high-risk group for escalation. Participants were 188 young adults (mean age = 21.32; 53.2% female; 91% current smokers) who participated in an electronic diary week to assess daily smoking and urges and a PA recall to examine daily PA. PA was coded into non-work-related and work-related activity to examine differential effects. We considered both participants' weekly average PA and their daily deviations from their average. Mixed-effects regression models revealed that higher weekly average non-work PA was associated with lower smoking level and urges. Daily deviations in non-work PA did not predict urges; however, increased daily non-work PA relative to participants' weekly average was associated with lower smoking for females but higher levels for males. Regarding work PA, only higher weekly average work PA was associated with higher smoking level for both genders; work PA did not predict urges. Results extend previous literature by documenting differential associations between non-work and work PA and young adult smoking and suggest that young adults engaged in work PA should be considered a high-risk group for escalation. Findings provide theoretical and clinical implications for the use of PA in intervention and highlight the necessity of considering PA as a multidimensional construct when examining its links to health behavior. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Central and Peripheral Components of Working Memory Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; Saults, J. Scott; Blume, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    This study re-examines the issue of how much of working memory storage is central, or shared across sensory modalities and verbal and nonverbal codes, and how much is peripheral, or specific to a modality or code. In addition to the exploration of many parameters in 9 new dual-task experiments and re-analysis of some prior evidence, the innovations of the present work compared to previous studies of memory for two stimulus sets include (1) use of a principled set of formulas to estimate the number of items in working memory, and (2) a model to dissociate central components, which are allocated to very different stimulus sets depending on the instructions, from peripheral components, which are used for only one kind of material. We consistently find that the central contribution is smaller than was suggested by Saults and Cowan (2007), and that the peripheral contribution is often much larger when the task does not require the binding of features within an object. Previous capacity estimates are consistent with the sum of central plus peripheral components observed here. We consider the implications of the data as constraints on theories of working memory storage and maintenance. PMID:24867488

  15. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  16. Is working memory still working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A D

    2001-11-01

    The current state of A. D. Baddeley and G. J. Hitch's (1974) multicomponent working memory model is reviewed. The phonological and visuospatial subsystems have been extensively investigated, leading both to challenges over interpretation of individual phenomena and to more detailed attempts to model the processes underlying the subsystems. Analysis of the controlling central executive has proved more challenging, leading to a proposed clarification in which the executive is assumed to be a limited capacity attentional system, aided by a newly postulated fourth system, the episodic buffer. Current interest focuses most strongly on the link between working memory and long-term memory and on the processes allowing the integration of information from the component subsystems. The model has proved valuable in accounting for data from a wide range of participant groups under a rich array of task conditions. Working memory does still appear to be working.

  17. Paid work and unpaid work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    Time-use information is preferably obtained from diaries, as this method is considered more reliable than information from questionnaires. The diary-technique seems to be unique in catching the rhythm of every day life and thereby the structuring of work and leisure during a well-defined and memo......Time-use information is preferably obtained from diaries, as this method is considered more reliable than information from questionnaires. The diary-technique seems to be unique in catching the rhythm of every day life and thereby the structuring of work and leisure during a well......-questions are asked about the time spent on paid work and unpaid/household work. The advantage of the latter technique is that it can easily be integrated into surveys. Thus the American National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) already contains two waves, and a new wave for 2001-2002, which allows...

  18. Previous bacterial infection affects textural quality parameters of heat-treated fillets from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Hyldig, Grethe; Przybylska, Dominika Alicja

    2012-01-01

    Sensory quality of fish meat is influenced by many parameters prior to slaughter. In the present study, it was examined if previous infections or damages in the muscle tissue influence product quality parameters in fish. Fillets from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in seawater....... This article was the first to describe a correlation between previous infections in fish and changes in sensory-quality parameters. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS. This work contributes with knowledge about sensory-quality parameters of fish meat after recovery from infections and physical-tissue damage. Because...... the results demonstrate an influence on the texture from previous disease, the practical potentials of the results are valuable for the aquaculture industry. In order to minimize the effects of previous diseases on the sensory quality regarding the texture, these fishes should be processed as cold...

  19. 75 FR 20933 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US Helicopters, Inc., UNC Helicopter, Inc... Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US...

  20. Is parental competitive ability in winter negatively affected by previous springs' family size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkema, Rienk W; Ubels, Richard; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2017-03-01

    Reproductive behavior cannot be understood without taking the local level of competition into account. Experimental work in great tits ( Parus major ) showed that (1) a survival cost of reproduction was paid in environments with high levels of competition during the winter period and (2) experimentally manipulated family size negatively affected the ability of parents to compete for preferred breeding boxes in the next spring. The fact that survival was affected in winter suggests that the competitive ability of parents in winter may also be affected by previous reproductive effort. In this study, we aim to investigate whether (1) such carryover effects of family size on the ability of parents to compete for resources in the winter period occurred and (2) this could explain the occurrence of a survival cost of reproduction under increased competition. During two study years, we manipulated the size of in total 168 great tit broods. Next, in winter, we induced competition among the parents by drastically reducing the availability of roosting boxes in their local environment for one week. Contrary to our expectation, we found no negative effect of family size manipulation on the probability of parents to obtain a roosting box. In line with previous work, we did find that a survival cost of reproduction was paid only in plots in which competition for roosting boxes was shortly increased. Our findings thus add to the scarce experimental evidence that survival cost of reproduction are paid under higher levels of local competition but this could not be linked to a reduced competitive ability of parents in winter.

  1. Manufacturing of Nanostructured Rings from Previously ECAE-Processed AA5083 Alloy by Isothermal Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Luis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of a functional hollow mechanical element or ring of the AA5083 alloy previously equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE processed, which presents a submicrometric microstructure, is dealt with. For this purpose, the design of two isothermal forging dies (preform and final shape is carried out using the design of experiments (DOE methodology. Moreover, after manufacturing the dies and carrying out tests so as to achieve real rings, the mechanical properties of these rings are analysed as well as their microstructure. Furthermore, a comparison between the different forged rings is made from ECAE-processed material subjected to different heat treatments, previous to the forging stage. On the other hand, the ring forging process is modelled through the use of finite element simulation in order to improve the die design and to study the force required for the isothermal forging, the damage value, and the strain the material predeformed by ECAE has undergone. With this present research work, it is intended to improve the knowledge about the mechanical properties of nanostructured material and the applicability of this material to industrial processes that allow the manufacturing of functional parts.

  2. Working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Fialová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Working hours The aim of this thesis that I set was a comprehensive analysis of the working hours issue. The main purpose was to summarize this area of labor law while taking into account the Labour Code amendment which came into force on 1st January 2012. The changes in the related legal terms were also included into this thesis because of the mentioned changes. The thesis is composed of three chapters. Chapter One deals briefly with history of Labour Law and regulatory development. Author`s...

  3. BEYOND BIGNESS. SOBRE LAS IMPLICACIONES CRÍTICAS DE UNA LECTURA FORMAL DE LA OBRA DE REM KOOLHAAS (1987-1993 / Beyond bigness. On the critical implications of a formal reading of the work of Rem Koolhaas (1987-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González de Canales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En la historia de la arquitectura más reciente, la noción de bigness (grandeza, que tiene la cualidad de grande, aparece íntimamente ligada al lanzamiento internacional de la carrera de Rem Koolhaas a principios de los 90. En tiempos de la autonomía disciplinar y el regionalismo crítico bigness parecía traer libertad, frescura y desprejuicio, haciendo que una generación más joven de arquitectos y teóricos proclamara la nueva hegemonía de Koolhaas como el triunfo de una nueva posición “post-crítica”, eminentemente pragmática o incluso cínica, y que el propio arquitecto holandés lideraría con un éxito inapelable. Lo que trata de demostrar este texto a través de una lectura formal de la obra de Koolhaas es lo contrario; es decir, que los principios fundamentales que motivan su obra son principalmente críticos respecto a la producción espacial y las condiciones sociales y culturales en las que se generan, y que son estos los que inician una búsqueda formal continua en su obra. Centrándose en un periodo particular de su carrera entre 1987 y 1993, el ensayo propondrá la hipótesis de que el desplazamiento de Koolhaas, desde su interés por revisar retóricamente el lenguaje de las vanguardias a la recuperación del concepto de bigness y otros mecanismos de proyecto complementarios desde finales de los 80, se fundamenta en una búsqueda incesante de la liberación de la acción del habitante respecto a la normatividad social y SUMMARY In the recent history of architecture the notion of bigness has be closely related to the launching of Rem Koolhaas career in the early 1990s. In the times of disciplinary autonomy and critical regionalism Koolhaas’ bigness meant freshness, liberation and a certain sense of freedom from prejudices. As a consequence, a younger generation of architects and theorists has claimed Koolhaas’ work as a model for a new “post-critical” position, mostly pragmatic or even cynical, and

  4. Fluctuations in work motivation: tasks do not matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jose; Curioso, Fernando; Gomes, Duarte; Arrieta, Carlos; Cortes, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that work motivation fluctuates considerably and in a nonlinear way over time. In the present research, we are interested in studying if the task at hand does or does not influence the presence of these fluctuations. We gathered daily registers from 69 workers during 21 consecutive working days (7036 registers) of task developed and levels of motivation, self-efficacy beliefs and instrumentalities perception. These registers were then categorized into a list of labor activities in main tasks and subtasks by means of three judges with a high level of agreement (97.47% for tasks, and 98.64% for subtasks). Taking the MSSD statistic (mean squared successive difference) of the average of motivation, self-efficacy and instrumentality, and using hierarchical regression analysis we have found that tasks (beta = .03; p = .188) and subtasks (beta = .10; p = .268) do not affect the presence of fluctuations in motivation. These results reveal instability in work motivation independently from the tasks and subtasks that the workers do. We proceed to find that fluctuations in work motivation show a fractal structure across the different tasks we do in a working day. Implications of these results to motivational theory will be discussed as well as possible explanations (e.g. the influence of affect in work motivation) and directions for future research are provided.

  5. Implementing New Ways of Working

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granlien, Maren Sander; Hertzum, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Successful deployment of information technology (IT) involves implementation of new ways of working. Under-recognition of this organizational element of implementation entails considerable risk of not attaining the benefits that motivated deployment, yet knowledge of how to work systematically...... were devised and performed as part of the study, significantly lowered the number of records that violated the procedure. This positive effect was, however, not achieved until multiple interventions had been employed, and there is some indication that the effect may be wearing off after...... the interventions have ended. We discuss the implications of these results for efforts to work systematically with the organizational implementation of IT systems....

  6. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  7. Wetlands Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Linda; Blanchard, Pamela Borne

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a biology teacher's search for a cross-curricular project in science, math, history, and environmental science, that would help her students connect what they were learning in the classroom to their everyday life, resulted in an ongoing stewardship project. Working together with the Louisiana Sea Grant College Program…

  8. Work notice

    CERN Multimedia

    TS-FM

    2005-01-01

    Please note that work to repair the water mains on Route Bloch near Gate C will be carried out between 12 and 30 September 2005. The area between Route Bakker and Gate C will be closed to traffic during this period. You are kindly requested to comply with the road signs in place. Thank you for your understanding. TS-FM Group

  9. Road works

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  10. Heart Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Sandra R.; Gonzales, Alicia C.

    2017-01-01

    It is not every day that a former student greets a teacher with, "Your course changed my life." The authors are the professor and student of the transformative course. Alicia Gonzales wanted to understand how to work with students to co-construct an environment where persistent problem solving in a technologically rich classroom was the…

  11. Work Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lynne

    1970-01-01

    Excerpts from a talk by Mrs. Ross at the 23rd annual convention of the American School Food Service Association in Detroit, August 5, 1969. A book on work simplification by Mrs. Ross will be available in June from the Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. (Editor)

  12. Workplace spirituality, work engagement and thriving at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freda van der Walt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In order to create competitive advantage in an increasingly turbulent economic environment, sustainability of high performance is crucial. Only a few individuals have the drive, mindset, discipline and ability to sustain high performance on a daily basis. Thus, it is necessary to consider what can be done so that employees can sustain high performance over the long term. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to establish whether spiritual workplaces will enhance employees’ work engagement and thriving at work. Motivation for the study: Two important mechanisms for understanding the human dimension of sustainability are thriving at work and work engagement. However, because work engagement and thriving are affective-motivational states, it is necessary to consider contextual factors that promote these positive states. As work engagement and thriving at work move beyond mere energy, to a sense of connectedness, it seems important that spiritual workplaces are created. Research approach, design and method: The study was quantitative in nature, and data were collected from employees working at small, medium and macro enterprises (SMMEs in one geographical area in South Africa. The final sample consisted of 259 employees. A survey that was cross-sectional in nature was conducted by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Main findings: The findings of the study show that there is a positive and significant relationship between workplace spirituality, work engagement and thriving at work. Furthermore, workplace spirituality significantly influences the variance in both work engagement and thriving at work. Practical or managerial implications: In order for SMMEs to promote work engagement and thriving at work, spiritual workplaces need to be created. Furthermore, emphasis needs to be placed on the work experience, rather than on work outcomes. It is also important that SMMEs develop employees holistically, that they create

  13. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  14. Abnormal flow behavior and necklace microstructure of powder metallurgy superalloys with previous particle boundaries (PPBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, Yongquan, E-mail: luckyning@nwpu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Zhou, Cong; Liang, Houquan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Fu, M.W., E-mail: mmmwfu@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-01-15

    Powder metallurgy (P/M) has been introduced as an innovative process to manufacture high performance components with fine, homogenous and segregation-free microstructure. Unfortunately, previous particle boundary (PPB) precipitated during the powder metallurgy process. Since undesirable PPB is detrimental to mechanical properties, hot extrusion or/and isothermal forging are needed. In present research, isothermal compression tests were conducted on P/M FGH4096 superalloys with typical PPBs. Abnormal flow behavior during high-speed deformation has been quantitatively investigated. Caused by the competition mechanism between work-hardening and dynamic-softening, abnormal flow behaves typical four stages (viz., work-hardening, stable, softening and steady). Microstructure observation for hardening or/and softening mechanism has been investigated. Meanwhile, necklace microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscope, and the grain fraction analysis was performed by using electron backscatter diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy was used for characterizing the boundary structure. Necklace microstructural mechanism for processing P/M superalloys has been developed, and the dynamic recrystallization model has also been conducted. Bulge–corrugation model is the primary nucleation mechanism for P/M superalloys with PPBs. When PPB is entirely covered with new grains, necklace microstructure has formed. Bulge–corrugation mechanism can repeatedly take place in the following necklace DRX.

  15. Safety implications of control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, O.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Safety Implications of Control Systems Program has three major activities in support of USI-A47. The first task is a failure mode and effects analysis of all plant systems which may potentially induce control system disturbance that have safety implications. This task has made a preliminary study of overfill events and recommended cases for further analysis on the hybrid simulator. Work continues on overcooling and undercooling. A detailed investigation of electric power network is in progress. LERs are providing guidance on important failure modes that will provide initial conditions for further simulator studies. The simulator taks is generating a detailed model of the control system supported by appropriate neutronics, hydraulics, and thermodynamics submodels of all other principal plant components. The simulator is in the last stages of development. Checkout calculations are in progress to establish model stability, robustness, and qualitative credibility. Verification against benchmark codes and plant data will follow

  16. Paid care work and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Aust, Birgit; Burr, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that employees in paid care work (e.g., child, health, and elderly care) have increased rates of hospitalization with depression and treatment with antidepressants. It is unclear, however, whether these findings reflect a causal effect of the work on employee mental...

  17. FY 1994 Annual Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This is the third Office of Inspector General (OIG)Annual Work Plan. Its purpose is to summarize work completed in Fiscal Year (FY) 1993, identify ongoing projects from previous fiscal years which the OIG intends to continue into FY 1994, and announce planned projects which the OIG intends to begin in FY 19994.

  18. Sedentary work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dorte; Rosthøj, Susanne; Burr, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between five-year changes in occupational sitting and body mass index (BMI) in working adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from The Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (2005 and 2010, n=3.482). Data on occupational sitting, weight......, height and several potential confounders were self-reported. The association between change in occupational sitting (hours) (categorized as large decrease 2.5 to 7.5 and large increase >7.5) and change in BMI was explored...... by multiple linear regression analyses. RESULTS: 43.0% men and 36.1% women had high occupational sitting time (≥25h per week) at baseline. 31.8% men and 27.2% women decreased while 30.0% men and 33.0% women increased occupational sitting. The proportion of obese (BMI≥30) increased almost 3% for both genders...

  19. Works notice

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    We would like to inform you that renovation work on the road lighting equipment will take place on the Meyrin site between 19 October and 18 December 2009. During this period, traffic will be disrupted on the Schrödinger, Perrin and Siegbahn roads, ie from Building 274 to Building 188. We request that you comply with the road signs and thank you for your understanding. GS-SEM Group

  20. Working hours and Work-Life Balance Satisfaction in Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Georges; Dominique Méda; Danièle Trancart

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years, many studies have highlighted the strategic nature of working hours, the way they are determined, their regularity and their predictability to judge the qualities of a job and how family life and work life are reconciled. Our results confirm those obtained by previous studies and clarify them, while also showing that both the working hours of the persons questioned and those of their spouse constitute a central variable. We will first review the results from the a...

  1. 76 FR 1349 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE Previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE Previously Held by... Company (Type Certificate A00003SE previously held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously The... Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE previously held by Columbia Aircraft...

  2. Organização do trabalho em enfermagem: implicações no fazer e viver dos trabalhadores de nível médio Work organization in nursing: implications for work performance and life of unregistered nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pires

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo reflete acerca da organização do trabalho da enfermagem no contexto do trabalho em saúde. Sustenta-se teoricamente nas formulações do materialismo histórico-dialético sobre o processo de trabalho humano, em uma abordagem crítica do conceito de profissão elaborado pela sociologia das profissões e em algumas teorias do campo da administração que vêm influenciando o trabalho da enfermagem. Teve por base os dados obtidos em 6 (seis pesquisas de campo que resultaram em 3 (três dissertações de mestrado e 3 (três teses de doutorado que trataram do tema, utilizando a abordagem da pesquisa qualitativa e envolvendo a participação de representantes dos diversos grupos que compõe a equipe de enfermagem. Conceitua organização do trabalho incluindo a perspectiva da vivência nos locais de trabalho e das relações macrossociais. Ressalta que as transformações que vêm ocorrendo no mundo do trabalho têm influenciado o trabalho em saúde, mas que o modelo de organização continua influenciado pela lógica taylorista. Conclui que a realidade da organização do trabalho da enfermagem pode ser mudada pela ação coletiva dos profissionais de enfermagem, em aliança com os demais setores organizados da sociedade e atendendo as necessidades dos usuários dos serviços.This article presents a reflection concerning the organization of work in nursing in the context of the organization of work in health care. It is theoretically sustained by the historical-dialectic materialism upon human labor process and it is also based upon a critical vision about the profession concept elaborated by the sociology of professions and upon some theories in the field of administration that have been influenced nursing work. The study is based upon data obtained in six (6 field research, three (3 of which resulted in master's theses and three (3 of which resulted in doctorate dissertations. These six researches dealt with the theme of the

  3. Treatment-seeking veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan: comparison with veterans of previous wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Alan; Rosenheck, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Differences in the characteristics and mental health needs of veterans of the Iraq/Afghanistan war when compared with those of veterans who served in the Persian Gulf war and in the Vietnam war may have important implications for Veterans Affairs (VA) program and treatment planning. Subjects were drawn from administrative data bases of veterans who sought treatment from specialized VA programs for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Current Iraq/Afghanistan veterans were compared with 4 samples of outpatient and inpatient Persian Gulf and Vietnam veterans whose admission to treatment was either contemporaneous or noncontemporaneous with their admission. A series of analyses of covariance was used hierachically to control for program site and age. In analyses of contemporaneous veterans uncontrolled for age, Iraq/Afghanistan veterans differed most notably from Vietnam veterans by being younger, more likely to be female, less likely to be either married or separated/divorced, more often working, less likely to have ever been incarcerated, and less likely to report exposure to atrocities in the military. Regarding clinical status, Iraq/Afghanistan veterans were less often diagnosed with substance abuse disorders, manifested more violent behavior, and had lower rates of VA disability compensation because of PTSD. Differences are more muted in comparisons with Persian Gulf veterans, particularly in those involving noncontemporaneous samples, or those that controlled for age differences. Among recent war veterans with PTSD, social functioning has largely been left intact. There is a window of opportunity, therefore, for developing and focusing on treatment interventions that emphasize the preservation of these social assets.

  4. Working together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    The film summarizes international cooperation in advancing peaceful applications of atomic energy. It describes: U.S. shipments abroad of radioisotopes; formation of the European Council for Nuclear Research; former president Dwight D. Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' announcement to the UN; first International Conference at the University of Michigan; first shipment abroad by AEC Libraries; UN General Assembly debate on the international agency; the Joint Norwegian-Dutch Atomic Energy Laboratory; atomic energy work of India, Brazil and others; U.S. training of foreign scientists; U.S. agreements with other nations; Geneva 1955 International Conference; approval and signing of the Charter of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  5. Working together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1958-12-31

    The film summarizes international cooperation in advancing peaceful applications of atomic energy. It describes: U.S. shipments abroad of radioisotopes; formation of the European Council for Nuclear Research; former president Dwight D. Eisenhower`s `Atoms for Peace` announcement to the UN; first International Conference at the University of Michigan; first shipment abroad by AEC Libraries; UN General Assembly debate on the international agency; the Joint Norwegian-Dutch Atomic Energy Laboratory; atomic energy work of India, Brazil and others; U.S. training of foreign scientists; U.S. agreements with other nations; Geneva 1955 International Conference; approval and signing of the Charter of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  6. Lice work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benali, Amira; Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2018-01-01

    and Nepalese everyday life and show how these are deployed, contested and reconfigured onsite by volunteer tourism actors. By exploring patterns of absences and presences and using the concept of ontological choreography as an analytical resource, we show how the situated lice work of human and non...... at the orphanage. This post-human approach decenters the volunteer and destabilises the host and guest binary, while adding to our understanding of tourism practices as complex and materially distributed endeavours. We first analyse two configurations of head lice enacted through a Western morality of hygiene...

  7. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: • if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer • if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service tel. 73186, without awaiting its summons. The purpose of this exam is not to check on the absenteeism, but to support the professional reinsertion. Medical Service

  8. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: - if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer - if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service Tel. 73186, without awaiting its summons. The purpose of this exam is not to check on the absenteeism, but to support the professional reinsertion. Medical Service

  9. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: - if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer - if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service tel. 73186, without awaiting its summons. The purpose of this exam is not to check on the absenteeism, but to support the professional reinsertion. Medical Service

  10. Exact work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeger, J.

    1993-01-01

    Organized criminals also tried to illegally transfer nuclear material through Austria. Two important questions have to be answered after the material is sized by police authorities: What is the composition of the material and where does it come from? By application of a broad range of analytical techniques, which were developed or refined by our experts, it is possible to measure the exact amount and isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium in any kind of samples. The criminalistic application is only a byproduct of the large scale work on controlling the peaceful application of nuclear energy, which is done in contract with the IAEA in the context of the 'Network of Analytical Laboratories'

  11. Hospital nurses' work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge surrounding nurses' work motivation is currently insufficient, and previous studies have rarely taken into account the role of many influential background factors. This study investigates the motivation of Estonian nurses in hospitals, and how individual and organisational background factors influence their motivation to work. The study is quantitative and cross-sectional. An electronically self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample comprised of 201 Registered Nurses working in various hospital settings in Estonia. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test, Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test and Spearman's correlation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations were noted among hospital nurses. Nurses were moderately externally motivated (M = 3.63, SD = 0.89) and intrinsically strongly motivated (M = 4.98, SD = 1.03). A nurses' age and the duration of service were positively correlated with one particular area of extrinsic work motivation, namely introjected regulation (p extrinsic motivation (p = 0.016) and intrinsic work motivation (p = 0.004). The findings expand current knowledge of nurses' work motivation by describing the amount and orientation of work motivation among hospital nurses and highlighting background factors which should be taken into account in order to sustain and increase their intrinsic work motivation. The instrument used in the study can be an effective tool for nurse managers to determine a nurse's reasons to work and to choose a proper motivational strategy. Further research and testing of the instrument in different countries and in different contexts of nursing is however required. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Epistemological Development in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Meger, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Epistemological development is an important factor in facilitating learner identity and developing critical thinking aptitudes. This qualitative action research study explored undergraduate social work students' epistemological beliefs about knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and implications for social work education. Data collection…

  13. Communication issues and engineering work stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriloff, H.Z.; Ganti, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    Computer systems are evolving into collections of processors that work together to execute specific functions. The advent of the new, more-powerful microprocessors have made it possible for the system designer to utilize modules consisting of hardware, software, firmware, and databases integrated building-blocks, and by connecting them to other building-blocks perform new tasks or sequences of operations. The cement that holds together this collection of separately developed modules is the network, an entity steadily expanding to include functions previously performed by operating systems, database managers, display graphics executives, dispatching and other types of application codes. Several computer and communication vendors (IBM/SNA, DEC/DECNET, WANG/WANGNET, AT and T/ The Network Is the Solution, etc.) have realized that, by controlling the structure of the network, they can influence many of the designer's choices, and thereby restrict their future options to implement systems using different architecture structures. Because of this, the user, manager and/or designer of such systems should understand these trade-offs, the longer-term implications of the choices that they are making, and how their options may be restricted when they select a specific network implementation. Therefore, these new network architectures have both opened new options for systems design while making the choice of specific vendor components and increasingly more complex process. This paper is an attempt to outline some of the trends in the technology, and the implications of some of the user choices, now being made, that will influence the designer's options with respect to future system expansion, control and integration. Of course, each system will have many of it's own peculiar requirements that may determine what trade-offs are most significant for a specific case, but some general principles are possible and are developed

  14. From 'implications' to 'dimensions': science, medicine and ethics in society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickersgill, Martyn D

    2013-03-01

    Much bioethical scholarship is concerned with the social, legal and philosophical implications of new and emerging science and medicine, as well as with the processes of research that under-gird these innovations. Science and technology studies (STS), and the related and interpenetrating disciplines of anthropology and sociology, have also explored what novel technoscience might imply for society, and how the social is constitutive of scientific knowledge and technological artefacts. More recently, social scientists have interrogated the emergence of ethical issues: they have documented how particular matters come to be regarded as in some way to do with 'ethics', and how this in turn enjoins particular types of social action. In this paper, I will discuss some of this and other STS (and STS-inflected) literature and reflect on how it might complement more 'traditional' modes of bioethical enquiry. I argue that STS might (1) cast new light on current bioethical issues, (2) direct the gaze of bioethicists towards matters that may previously have escaped their attention, and (3) indicate the import not only of the ethical implications of biomedical innovation, but also how these innovative and other processes feature ethics as a dimension of everyday laboratory and clinical work. In sum, engagements between STS and bioethics are increasingly important in order to understand and manage the complex dynamics between science, medicine and ethics in society.

  15. Returning to Work after Childbirth in Europe: Well-Being, Work-Life Balance, and the Interplay of Supervisor Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Lucia-Casademunt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Parents returning to work after the arrival of a new son or daughter is an important question for understanding the trajectory of people's lives and professional careers amid current debates about gender equality and work-life balance (WLB. Interestingly, current research concludes that general WLB practices at the workplace may be necessary in the specific case of women returning to work after childbirth because of the particular maternal and infant factors involved. However, WLB practices as a flexible arrangement may work against women because they may be viewed as a lack of organizational commitment. Therefore, research on this topic could benefit from considering supervisor support as a complement of such practices, but previous research has analyzed WLB and supervisor support separately and scarcely. To fill this gap in the literature, we use two sub-samples of 664 female employees and 749 male employees with children under the age of one from 27 European countries participating in the 6th European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS-2015 to study the impact of perceived WLB on European women's perceived well-being after childbirth, in contrast with previous literature. We also analyze the impact of perceived supervisor support (SS and its interaction with perceived WLB on women's well-being after childbirth, and explore differences with men after childbirth, a collective underexplored by the literature. We find significant gender differences on the relative impact of WLB, SS, and their interaction on perceived job well-being. Our results have important implications for human resource practices in organizations. In particular, they suggest that gendered WLB practices should be encouraged, and stress the relevance of the human factor over human resource practices in addressing the difficulties that women returning to work face after childbirth.

  16. Returning to Work after Childbirth in Europe: Well-Being, Work-Life Balance, and the Interplay of Supervisor Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia-Casademunt, Ana M.; García-Cabrera, Antonia M.; Padilla-Angulo, Laura; Cuéllar-Molina, Deybbi

    2018-01-01

    Parents returning to work after the arrival of a new son or daughter is an important question for understanding the trajectory of people's lives and professional careers amid current debates about gender equality and work-life balance (WLB). Interestingly, current research concludes that general WLB practices at the workplace may be necessary in the specific case of women returning to work after childbirth because of the particular maternal and infant factors involved. However, WLB practices as a flexible arrangement may work against women because they may be viewed as a lack of organizational commitment. Therefore, research on this topic could benefit from considering supervisor support as a complement of such practices, but previous research has analyzed WLB and supervisor support separately and scarcely. To fill this gap in the literature, we use two sub-samples of 664 female employees and 749 male employees with children under the age of one from 27 European countries participating in the 6th European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS-2015) to study the impact of perceived WLB on European women's perceived well-being after childbirth, in contrast with previous literature. We also analyze the impact of perceived supervisor support (SS) and its interaction with perceived WLB on women's well-being after childbirth, and explore differences with men after childbirth, a collective underexplored by the literature. We find significant gender differences on the relative impact of WLB, SS, and their interaction on perceived job well-being. Our results have important implications for human resource practices in organizations. In particular, they suggest that gendered WLB practices should be encouraged, and stress the relevance of the human factor over human resource practices in addressing the difficulties that women returning to work face after childbirth. PMID:29467695

  17. Returning to Work after Childbirth in Europe: Well-Being, Work-Life Balance, and the Interplay of Supervisor Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia-Casademunt, Ana M; García-Cabrera, Antonia M; Padilla-Angulo, Laura; Cuéllar-Molina, Deybbi

    2018-01-01

    Parents returning to work after the arrival of a new son or daughter is an important question for understanding the trajectory of people's lives and professional careers amid current debates about gender equality and work-life balance (WLB). Interestingly, current research concludes that general WLB practices at the workplace may be necessary in the specific case of women returning to work after childbirth because of the particular maternal and infant factors involved. However, WLB practices as a flexible arrangement may work against women because they may be viewed as a lack of organizational commitment. Therefore, research on this topic could benefit from considering supervisor support as a complement of such practices, but previous research has analyzed WLB and supervisor support separately and scarcely. To fill this gap in the literature, we use two sub-samples of 664 female employees and 749 male employees with children under the age of one from 27 European countries participating in the 6th European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS-2015) to study the impact of perceived WLB on European women's perceived well-being after childbirth, in contrast with previous literature. We also analyze the impact of perceived supervisor support (SS) and its interaction with perceived WLB on women's well-being after childbirth, and explore differences with men after childbirth, a collective underexplored by the literature. We find significant gender differences on the relative impact of WLB, SS, and their interaction on perceived job well-being. Our results have important implications for human resource practices in organizations. In particular, they suggest that gendered WLB practices should be encouraged, and stress the relevance of the human factor over human resource practices in addressing the difficulties that women returning to work face after childbirth.

  18. Impaired insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose metabolism in glucose-tolerant women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Vestergaard, H; Kühl, Carl Erik

    1996-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in women with previous gestational diabetes.......Our purpose was to investigate insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in women with previous gestational diabetes....

  19. 78 FR 47546 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model... Aviation Authority of Israel (CAAI), which is the aviation authority for Israel, has issued Israeli...

  20. Iridoids as chemical markers of false ipecac (Ronabea emetica), a previously confused medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andreas; Fasshuber, Hannes; Schinnerl, Johann; Robien, Wolfgang; Brecker, Lothar; Valant-Vetschera, Karin

    2011-12-08

    Several roots or rhizomes of rubiaceous species are reportedly used as the emetic and antiamoebic drug ipecac. True ipecac (Carapichea ipecacuanha) is chemically well characterized, in contrast to striated or false ipecac derived from the rhizomes of Ronabea emetica (syn. Psychotria emetica). Besides its previous use as substitute of ipecac, the latter species is applied in traditional medicine of Panama and fruits of its relative Ronabea latifolia are reported as curare additives from Colombia. Compounds of Ronabea emetica were isolated using standard chromatographic techniques, and structurally characterized by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Organ specific distribution in Ronabea emetica as well as in Ronabea latifolia was further assessed by comparative HPLC analysis. Four iridoid-glucosides, asperuloside (1), 6α-hydroxygeniposide (2), deacetylasperulosidic acid (3) and asperulosidic acid (4) were extracted from leaves of Ronabea emetica. Rhizomes, used in traditional medicine, were dominated by 3. HPLC profiles of Ronabea latifolia were largely corresponding. These results contrast to the general tendency of producing emetine-type and indole alkaloids in species of Psychotria and closely related genera and merit chemotaxonomic significance, characterizing the newly delimited genus Ronabea. The aim of the work was to resolve the historic problem of adulteration of ipecac by establishing the chemical profile of Ronabea emetica, the false ipecac, as one of its less known sources. The paper demonstrates that different sources of ipecac can be distinguished by their phytochemistry, thus contributing to identifying adulterations of true ipecac. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.