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Sample records for previous trajectory study

  1. Management by Trajectory: Trajectory Management Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiden, Kenneth; Atkins, Stephen; Fernandes, Alicia D.; Kaler, Curt; Bell, Alan; Kilbourne, Todd; Evans, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In order to realize the full potential of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), improved management along planned trajectories between air navigation service providers (ANSPs) and system users (e.g., pilots and airline dispatchers) is needed. Future automation improvements and increased data communications between aircraft and ground automation would make the concept of Management by Trajectory (MBT) possible.

  2. Study of particle swarm optimization particle trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Bergh, F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available . These theoretical studies concentrate mainly on simplified PSO systems. This paper overviews current theoretical studies, and extend these studies to investigate particle trajectories for general swarms to include the influence of the inertia term. The paper also...

  3. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  4. A STUDY OF SHUTTLECOCK'S TRAJECTORY IN BADMINTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Jen Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to construct and validate a motion equation for the flight of the badminton and to find the relationship between the air resistance force and a shuttlecock's speed. This research method was based on motion laws of aerodynamics. It applied aerodynamic theories to construct motion equation of a shuttlecock's flying trajectory under the effects of gravitational force and air resistance force. The result showed that the motion equation of a shuttlecock's flight trajectory could be constructed by determining the terminal velocity. The predicted shuttlecock trajectory fitted the measured data fairly well. The results also revealed that the drag force was proportional to the square of a shuttlecock velocity. Furthermore, the angle and strength of a stroke could influence trajectory. Finally, this study suggested that we could use a scientific approach to measure a shuttlecock's velocity objectively when testing the quality of shuttlecocks. And could be used to replace the traditional subjective method of the Badminton World Federation based on players' striking shuttlecocks, as well as applying research findings to improve professional knowledge of badminton player training

  5. Trajectory data analyses for pedestrian space-time activity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-02-25

    It is well recognized that human movement in the spatial and temporal dimensions has direct influence on disease transmission(1-3). An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals in their overlapped activity spaces. Therefore, daily mobility-activity information can be used as an indicator to measure exposures to risk factors of infection. However, a major difficulty and thus the reason for paucity of studies of infectious disease transmission at the micro scale arise from the lack of detailed individual mobility data. Previously in transportation and tourism research detailed space-time activity data often relied on the time-space diary technique, which requires subjects to actively record their activities in time and space. This is highly demanding for the participants and collaboration from the participants greatly affects the quality of data(4). Modern technologies such as GPS and mobile communications have made possible the automatic collection of trajectory data. The data collected, however, is not ideal for modeling human space-time activities, limited by the accuracies of existing devices. There is also no readily available tool for efficient processing of the data for human behavior study. We present here a suite of methods and an integrated ArcGIS desktop-based visual interface for the pre-processing and spatiotemporal analyses of trajectory data. We provide examples of how such processing may be used to model human space-time activities, especially with error-rich pedestrian trajectory data, that could be useful in public health studies such as infectious disease transmission modeling. The procedure presented includes pre-processing, trajectory segmentation, activity space characterization, density estimation and visualization, and a few other exploratory analysis methods. Pre-processing is the cleaning of noisy raw trajectory data. We introduce an interactive visual pre-processing interface as well as an

  6. Study of soccer ball flight trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javorova Juliana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the trajectories of a soccer ball for the most important kicks in the football game - a corner kick and a direct free kick are studied. The soccer ball is modelled as an ideal rigid hollow spherical body with six degrees of freedom, which performs a general motion in an immovable air environment with constant parameters. The ball 3D orientation is determined by the three Cardan angles. The aerodynamic forces and moments with which the air environment acts to the ball are taken into account. Two of the most dangerous areas of the football goal are defined. Differential equations which describe the motion of the soccer ball are solved numerically by MatLab-Simulink.

  7. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, A.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van der Molen, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed

  9. Characterizing Resilience and Growth Among Soldiers: A Trajectory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    studies that showed the possible link between positive psychological assets and health outcomes is The Nun Study .38 A group of American nuns who were...38. Danner DD, Snowdon DA, Friesen VW. Positive emotions in early life and longevity: findings from the nun study . J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000; 80...Trajectory Study PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nansook Park CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

  10. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  11. Concurrent trajectories of change in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the TORDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloe, Alexandra; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W; Renshaw, Keith D

    2014-04-01

    Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers.

  12. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology : The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J.; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J.; Spector, Timothy D.; Steves, Claire J.

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal

  13. Direct dynamics trajectory study of the reaction of formaldehyde cation with D2: vibrational and zero-point energy effects on quasiclassical trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Song, Kihyung; Hase, William L; Anderson, Scott L

    2005-12-22

    Quasiclassical, direct dynamics trajectories have been used to study the reaction of formaldehyde cation with molecular hydrogen, simulating the conditions in an experimental study of H2CO+ vibrational effects on this reaction. Effects of five different H2CO+ modes were probed, and we also examined different approaches to treating zero-point energy in quasiclassical trajectories. The calculated absolute cross-sections are in excellent agreement with experiments, and the results provide insight into the reaction mechanism, product scattering behavior, and energy disposal, and how they vary with impact parameter and reactant state. The reaction is sharply orientation-dependent, even at high collision energies, and both trajectories and experiment find that H2CO+ vibration inhibits reaction. On the other hand, the trajectories do not reproduce the anomalously strong effect of nu2(+) (the CO stretch). The origin of the discrepancy and approaches for minimizing such problems in quasiclassical trajectories are discussed.

  14. Parametric Studies of Flat Plate Trajectories Using VIC and Penalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Morency

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flying debris is generated in several situations: when a roof is exposed to a storm, when ice accretes on rotating wind turbines, or during inflight aircraft deicing. Four dimensionless parameters play a role in the motion of flying debris. The goal of the present paper is to investigate the relative importance of four dimensionless parameters: the Reynolds number, the Froude number, the Tachikawa number, and the mass moment of inertia parameters. Flying debris trajectories are computed with a fluid-solid interaction model formulated for an incompressible 2D laminar flow. The rigid moving solid effects are modelled in the Navier-Stokes equations using penalization. A VIC scheme is used to solve the flow equations. The aerodynamic forces and moments are used to compute the acceleration and the velocity of the solid. A database of 64 trajectories is built using a two-level full factorial design for the four factors. The dispersion of the plate position at a given horizontal position decreases with the Froude number. Moreover, the Tachikawa number has a significant effect on the median plate position.

  15. Longitudinal Study of Headache Trajectories in the Year After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Relation to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Kathryn; Bell, Kathleen R; Ehde, Dawn M; Temkin, Nancy; Dikmen, Sureyya; Williams, Rhonda M; Dillworth, Tiara; Hoffman, Jeanne M

    2015-11-01

    To examine headache trajectories among persons with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the year after injury and the relation of headache trajectory to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at 1 year postinjury. Prospective, longitudinal study. Participants were recruited through a university medical center and participated in follow-up assessments by telephone. Prospectively enrolled individuals (N=212) within 1 week of MTBI who were hospitalized for observation or other system injuries. Participants were assessed at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. Not applicable. Participants rated average headache pain intensity using the 0 to 10 numerical rating scale at each assessment period. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version was completed at 12 months postinjury. Latent class growth analysis produced a 4-trajectory group model, with groups labeled resolved, worsening, improving, and chronic. Multivariate regression modeling revealed that younger age and premorbid headache correlated with membership in the worse trajectory groups (worsening and chronic; PHeadache is common in the year after MTBI, with younger people, persons who previously had headaches, and persons with PTSD more likely to report chronic or worsening headache. Further research is needed to examine whether PTSD symptoms exacerbate headaches or whether problematic headache symptoms exacerbate PTSD. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Trajectories of health-related quality of life in children with epilepsy: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Camfield, Carol S; Levin, Simon D; Smith, Mary Lou; Wiebe, Samuel; Zou, Guangyong; Speechley, Kathy N

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about subgroups of children with epilepsy who may experience less favorable outcomes over time. The objectives of this study were to document trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQL) and to identify predictors of the trajectory group in children with new-onset epilepsy. Data were obtained from the Health Related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study, a prospective multisite study of children 4-12 years old with new-onset epilepsy followed for 24 months. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy questionnaire. Trajectories of HRQL were investigated using latent class trajectory modeling. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify child, parent, and family predictors of HRQL trajectories. A total of 374 families responded at baseline and 283 (76%) completed the study. Five HRQL trajectories were observed: low-increasing (4%), moderate-decreasing (12%), moderate-increasing (22%), high-increasing (32%), and high-stable (30%). Many children in the low-increasing, moderate-increasing, high-increasing, and high-stable had clinically meaningful improvements in HRQL: 82%, 47%, 63%, and 44%, respectively. In contrast, the majority of children in the moderate-decreasing group (56%) experienced clinically meaningful declines in their HRQL. Factors predicting trajectories were number of antiepileptic drugs prescribed, presence of comorbid behavior or cognitive problems, parent depression, and family functioning and demands. Results suggested that children with epilepsy are not homogenous but rather consist of groups with different trajectories and unique predictors of HRQL. Problems associated with child behavior and cognition were the strongest predictors identified. Given that several risk factors are modifiable, it is important to examine these as potential targets within a family-centered framework to improve HRQL of children with new-onset epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Career Trajectories of Municipal Servants: Two Types of Professional Mobility (Case Study in Novgorod Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Kurakin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The case study of a district in the Novgorod region shows some scenarios of recruiting new employees in the district and town municipalities, their work motivation and the most plausible career trajectories. The author argues that on the municipal level (district or its administrative center there are parallel career ladders for the top-ranked municipal clerks and for the rest of the municipal staff: the career trajectory of the high-ranked clerks can be described as a step-by-step trajectory, while the one of the lower-ranked employees — as a shuttle trajectory. There is an almost insurmountable border line between these two levels of municipal hierarchy, an obstacle for implementing the classical Weberian characteristics of “proper” bureaucracy: meritocratic recruitment and workers’ promotion and predictable long-term career ladders.

  18. Work functioning trajectories in cancer patients: Results from the longitudinal Work Life after Cancer (WOLICA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorland, Heleen F; Abma, Femke I; Roelen, Corné A M; Stewart, Roy E; Amick, Benjamin C; Ranchor, Adelita V; Bültmann, Ute

    2017-11-01

    More than 60% of cancer patients are able to work after cancer diagnosis. However, little is known about their functioning at work. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) identify work functioning trajectories in the year following return to work (RTW) in cancer patients and (2) examine baseline sociodemographic, health-related and work-related variables associated with work functioning trajectories. This longitudinal cohort study included 384 cancer patients who have returned to work after cancer diagnosis. Work functioning was measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months follow-up. Latent class growth modeling (LCGM) was used to identify work functioning trajectories. Associations of baseline variables with work functioning trajectories were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses. LCGM analyses with cancer patients who completed on at least three time points the Work Role Functioning Questionnaire (n = 324) identified three work functioning trajectories: "persistently high" (16% of the sample), "moderate to high" (54%) and "persistently low" work functioning (32%). Cancer patients with persistently high work functioning had less time between diagnosis and RTW and had less often a changed meaning of work, while cancer patients with persistently low work functioning reported more baseline cognitive symptoms compared to cancer patients in the other trajectories. This knowledge has implications for cancer care and guidance of cancer patients at work. © 2017 UICC.

  19. A study of variable thrust, variable specific impulse trajectories for solar system exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tadashi

    A study has been performed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of variable thrust and variable Isp (specific impulse) trajectories for solar system exploration. There have been several numerical research efforts for variable thrust, variable Isp, power-limited trajectory optimization problems. All of these results conclude that variable thrust, variable Isp (variable specific impulse, or VSI) engines are superior to constant thrust, constant Isp (constant specific impulse; or CSI) engines. However, most of these research efforts assume a mission from Earth to Mars, and some of them further assume that these planets are circular and coplanar. Hence they still lack the generality. This research has been conducted to answer the following questions: (1) Is a VSI engine always better than a CSI engine or a high thrust engine for any mission to any planet with any time of flight considering lower propellant mass as the sole criterion? (2) If a planetary swing-by is used for a VSI trajectory, is the fuel savings of a VSI swing-by trajectory better than that of a CSI swing-by or high thrust swing-by trajectory? To support this research, an unique, new computer-based interplanetary trajectory calculation program has been created. This program utilizes a calculus of variations algorithm to perform overall optimization of thrust, Isp, and thrust vector direction along a trajectory that minimizes fuel consumption for interplanetary travel. It is assumed that the propulsion system is power-limited, and thus the compromise between thrust and Isp is a variable to be optimized along the flight path. This program is capable of optimizing not only variable thrust trajectories but also constant thrust trajectories in 3-D space using a planetary ephemeris database. It is also capable of conducting planetary swing-bys. Using this program, various Earth-originating trajectories have been investigated and the optimized results have been compared to traditional CSI and high

  20. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may demonstrate compliance for a data requirement by citing a valid study previously submitted to the Agency. The... the original data submitter, the applicant may cite the study only in accordance with paragraphs (b...

  1. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology: The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J; Spector, Timothy D; Steves, Claire J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal clinical data were collected on 3,508 female twins in the TwinsUK registry (complete pairs:740 monozygotic (MZ), 986 dizygotic (DZ), mean age at entry 48.9 ± 10.4, range 18-75 years; mean follow-up 10.2 ± 2.8 years, range 4-17.8 years). Panel data on multiple age-related variables were used to estimate biological ages for each individual at each time point, in linear mixed effects models. A weighted average approach was used to combine variables within predefined body system groups. Aging trajectories for each system in each individual were then constructed using linear modeling. Multivariate structural equation modeling of these aging trajectories showed low genetic effects (heritability), ranging from 2% in metabolic aging to 22% in cardiovascular aging. However, we found a significant effect of shared environmental factors on the variations in aging trajectories in cardiovascular (54%), skeletal (34%), morphometric (53%), and metabolic systems (53%). The remainder was due to environmental factors unique to each individual plus error. Multivariate Cholesky decomposition showed that among aging trajectories for various body systems there were significant and substantial correlations between the unique environmental latent factors as well as shared environmental factors. However, there was no evidence for a single common factor for aging. This study, the first of its kind in aging, suggests that diverse organ systems share non-genetic sources of variance for aging trajectories. Confirmatory studies are needed using population-based twin cohorts and alternative methods of handling missing data.

  2. A CLUSTERING OF DJA STOCKS - THE APPLICATION IN FINANCE OF A METHOD FIRST USED IN GENE TRAJECTORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silaghi Gheorghe Cosmin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Previously we employed the Gene Trajectory Clustering methodology to search for different associations of the stocks composing the DJA index, with the aim of finding different, logic clusters, supported by economic reasons, preferably different than the

  3. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  4. Adverse trajectories of mental health problems predict subsequent burnout and work-family conflict: A longitudinal study of employed women with children followed over 18 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsen, W.; Skipstein, A.; Demerouti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The long-term consequence of experiencing mental health problems may lead to several adverse outcomes. The current study aims to validate previous identified trajectories of mental health problems from 1993 to 2006 in women by examining their implications on subsequent work and

  5. Aging-related trajectories of lung function in the general population-The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Sandra H; Engelfriet, Peter M; Verschuren, W M Monique; Schipper, Maarten; Wouters, Inge M; Boezen, Marike; Smit, Henriëtte A; Kerstjens, Huib A M; Picavet, H Susan J

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore trajectories of lung function decline with age in the general population, and to study the effect of sociodemographic and life style related risk factors, in particular smoking and BMI. For this purpose, we used data from the Doetinchem Cohort Study (DCS)

  6. Income trajectories affect treatment of dental caries from childhood to young adulthood: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Marco Aurelio; Liu, Pingzhou; Demarco, Flavio Fernando; Silva, Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro; Wehrmeister, Fernando Cesar; Menezes, Ana Maria; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the effects of family income trajectories on the increase in dental caries from childhood to young adulthood. Data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, in which dental caries was measured at ages 6, 12, and 18 years, were analyzed. Family income of 302 participants was assessed at birth, and at 4, 11, 15, and 18 years of age. Mother's education, toothbrushing frequency, dental visiting, dental caries in primary dentition, and birth weight were covariates. A latent class growth analysis was conducted to characterize trajectories of time-varying variables. The influence of income trajectories on the increase in dental caries from age 6 to age 18 was evaluated by a generalized linear mixed model. After adjustment, the increases in numbers of decayed and missing teeth (DMT) from age 6 to age 18 were associated with family income trajectory. The incident rate ratios (IRR) of DMT compared with the group of stable high incomes were 2.36 for stable low incomes, 1.71 for downward, and 1.64 for upward. The IRR of teeth being filled in stable low-income groups compared with stable high-income groups was 0.55. Family income mobility affected treatment patterns of dental caries. Differences across income trajectory groups were found in the components of dental caries indices rather than in the experience of disease.

  7. Trajectories of maternal depression and offspring psychopathology at 6 years: 2004 Pelotas cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Joseph; Cooper, Peter J.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Barros, Fernando C.; Santos, Iná S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have addressed the course and severity of maternal depression and its effects on child psychiatric disorders from a longitudinal perspective. This study aimed to identify longitudinal patterns of maternal depression and to evaluate whether distinct depression trajectories predict particular psychiatric disorders in offspring. Methods Cohort of 4231 births followed-up in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months and 6 years after delivery. Psychiatric disorders in 6-year-old children were evaluated through the development and well-being assessment (DAWBA) instrument. Trajectories of maternal depression were calculated using a group-based modelling approach. Results We identified five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: a “low” trajectory (34.8%), a “moderate low” (40.9%), a “increasing” (9.0%), a “decreasing” (9.9%), and a “high-chronic” trajectory (5.4%). The probability of children having any psychiatric disorder, as well as both internalizing and externalizing problems, increased as we moved from the “low” to the “high-chronic” trajectory. These differences were not explained by maternal and child characteristics examined in multivariate analyses. Limitations Data on maternal depression at 3-months was available on only a sub-sample. In addition, we had to rely on maternal report of child’s behavior alone. Conclusions The study revealed an additive effect on child outcome of maternal depression over time. We identified a group of mothers with chronic and severe symptoms of depression throughout the first six years of the child life and for this group child psychiatric outcome was particularly compromised. PMID:25553403

  8. Identifying Latent Trajectories of Personality Disorder Symptom Change: Growth Mixture Modeling in the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Michael N.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous reports have documented mean-level declines in personality disorder (PD) symptoms over time, little is known about whether personality pathology sometimes emerges among nonsymptomatic adults, or whether rates of change differ qualitatively among symptomatic persons. Our study sought to characterize heterogeneity in the longitudinal course of PD symptoms with the goal of testing for and describing latent trajectories. Participants were 250 young adults selected into two groups using a PD screening measure: those who met diagnostic criteria for a DSM-III-R PD (PPD, n = 129), and those with few PD symptoms (NoPD, n = 121). PD symptoms were assessed three times over a four-year study using semistructured interviews. Total PD symptom counts and symptoms of each DSM-III-R PD were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. In the NoPD group, latent trajectories were characterized by stable, minor symptoms; the rapid or gradual remission of subclinical symptoms; or the emergence of symptoms of Avoidant, Obsessive-Compulsive, or Paranoid PD. In the PPD group, three latent trajectories were evident: rapid symptom remission, slow symptom decline, or a relative absence of symptoms. Rapid remission of PD symptoms was associated with fewer comorbid disorders, lower negative emotionality, and greater positive emotionality and constraint, whereas emergent personality dysfunction was associated with comorbid PD symptoms and lower positive emotionality. In most cases, symptom change for one PD was associated with concomitant changes in other PDs, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. These results indicate that the longitudinal course of PD symptoms is heterogeneous, with distinct trajectories evident for both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic individuals. The prognosis of PD symptoms may be informed by an assessment of personality and comorbid psychopathology. PMID:23231459

  9. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (P<0.001). No ECV-associated complications occurred in women with previous cesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  10. Cognitive Trajectory Changes Over 20 Years Before Dementia Diagnosis: A Large Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge; Larson, Eric B; Shofer, Jane B; Crane, Paul K; Gibbons, Laura E; McCormick, Wayne; Bowen, James D; Thompson, Mary Lou

    2017-12-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown an increase in cognitive decline many years before clinical diagnosis of dementia. We sought to estimate changes, relative to "normal" aging, in the trajectory of scores on a global cognitive function test-the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI). A prospective cohort study. Community-dwelling members of a U.S. health maintenance organization. Individuals aged 65 and older who had no dementia diagnosis at baseline and had at least two visits with valid CASI test score (N = 4,315). Average longitudinal trajectories, including changes in trajectory before clinical diagnosis in those who would be diagnosed with dementia, were estimated for CASI item response theory (IRT) scores. The impact of sex, education level, and APOE genotype on cognitive trajectories was assessed. Increased cognitive decline relative to "normal" aging was evident in CASI IRT at least 10 years before clinical diagnosis. Male gender, lower education, and presence of ≥1 APOE ε4 alleles were associated with lower average IRT scores. In those who would be diagnosed with dementia, a trajectory change point was estimated at an average of 3.1 years (95% confidence interval 3.0-3.2) before clinical diagnosis, after which cognitive decline appeared to accelerate. The change point did not differ by sex, education level, or APOE ε4 genotype. There were subtle differences in trajectory slopes by sex and APOE ε4 genotype, but not by education. Decline in average global cognitive function was evident at least 10 years before clinical diagnosis of dementia. The decline accelerated about 3 years before clinical diagnosis. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Management by Trajectory Trade Study of Roles and Responsibilities Between Participants and Automation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Alicia D.; Kaler, Curt; Leiden, Kenneth; Atkins, Stephen; Bell, Alan; Kilbourne, Todd; Evans, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a trade study of roles and responsibilities associated with the Management by Trajectory (MBT) concept. The MBT concept describes roles, responsibilities, and information and automation requirements for providing air traffic controllers and managers the ability to quickly generate, evaluate and implement changes to an aircraft's trajectory. In addition, the MBT concept describes mechanisms for imposing constraints on flight operator preferred trajectories only to the extent necessary to maintain safe and efficient traffic flows, and the concept provides a method for the exchange of trajectory information between ground automation systems and the aircraft that allows for trajectory synchronization and trajectory negotiation. The participant roles considered in this trade study include: airline dispatcher, flight crew, radar controller, traffic manager, and Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC) traffic management specialists. The proposed allocation of roles and responsibilities was based on analysis of several use cases that were developed for this purpose as well as for walking through concept elements. The resulting allocation of roles and responsibilities reflects both increased automation capability to support many aviation functions, as well as increased flexibility to assign responsibilities to different participants - in many cases afforded by the increased automation capabilities. Note that the selection of participants to consider for allocation of each function is necessarily rooted in the current environment, in that MBT is envisioned as an evolution of the National Airspace System (NAS), and not a revolution. A key feature of the MBT allocations is a vision for the traffic management specialist to take on a greater role. This is facilitated by the vision that separation management functions, in addition to traffic management functions, will be carried out as trajectory management functions. This creates an opportunity

  12. Parenting and Trajectories of Children's Maladaptive Behaviors: A 12-Year Prospective Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A.; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parenting accounted for interindividual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting,…

  13. Research Review: A Critical Review of Studies on the Developmental Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…

  14. Trajectories of schizotypy and their emotional and social functioning: An 18-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Shi, Hai-Song; Liu, Wen-Hua; Xie, Dong-Jie; Geng, Fu-Lei; Yan, Chao; Wang, Ya; Xiao, Ya-Hui; So, Suzanne H W; Chiu, Chui-De; Leung, Patrick W L; Cheung, Eric F C; Gooding, Diane C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2018-03-01

    Schizotypy is a set of personality traits that convey liability to develop schizophrenia. Studying schizotypy in healthy individuals may facilitate the understanding of the psychopathological processes underlying schizophrenia. The present study aimed to examine the developmental trajectories of schizotypy over time using a longitudinal study design. The Chapman Scales for Psychosis Proneness were administered to 1541 college students at baseline, and subsequently at six-monthly intervals up to 18months. Latent class growth analysis was conducted to track the different trajectories. In addition, self-reported scales were used to measure idea of reference, emotional experiences and expression, stress and coping, as well as social functioning. We identified four latent classes with distinct trajectories: "nonschizotypy" group (LC1), "stable high schizotypy" group (LC3), "high reactive schizotypy" group (LC2) and "low reactive schizotypy" group (LC4). These findings suggest that there may be distinct developmental trajectories for schizotypy. Two groups may be of particular interest: the "stable high schizotypy" group that displayed the worst clinical and functioning outcomes on almost all measures and the "high reactive schizotypy" group characterized by a relatively rapid decline in functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterizing Resilience and Growth Among Soldiers: A Trajectory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    shifted to embrace a disease model of human nature. People are seen as flawed and fragile, casualties of cruel environments or bad genetics . Positive...research shows numerous benefits of positive thinking. Optimism has been studied extensively by psychologists, under several different rubrics

  16. Structural social relations and cognitive ageing trajectories: evidence from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Sommerlad, Andrew; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2017-11-07

    Social relations are important for health, particularly at older ages. We examined the salience of frequency of social contacts and marital status for cognitive ageing trajectories over 21 years, from midlife to early old age. Data are from the Whitehall II cohort study, including 4290 men and 1776 women aged 35-55 years at baseline (1985-88). Frequency of social contacts and marital status were measured in 1985-88 and 1989-90. Assessment of cognitive function on five occasions (1991-94, 1997-99, 2003-04, 2007-09 and 2012-13) included the following tests: short-term memory, inductive reasoning, verbal fluency (phonemic and semantic) and a combined global score. Cognitive trajectories over the study period were analysed using longitudinal latent growth class analyses, and the associations of these latent classes (trajectory memberships) with social relations were analysed using multinominal logistic regression. More frequent social contacts [relative risk (RRR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 - 0.98] and being married (RRR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58 - 0.84) were associated with lower probability of being on a low rather than high cognitive performance trajectory over the subsequent 21 years. These associations persisted after adjustment for covariates. Of the sub-tests, social relations variables had the strongest association with phonemic fluency (RRR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94 - 0.97 for frequent contact; RRR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48 - 0.71 for being married). More frequent social contacts and having a spouse were associated with more favourable cognitive ageing trajectories. Further studies are needed to examine whether interventions designed to improve social connections affect cognitive ageing. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  17. Computing with spatial trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Covers the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art research inspired by the spatial trajectory data Readers are provided with tutorial-style chapters, case studies and references to other relevant research work This is the first book that presents the foundation dealing with spatial trajectories and state-of-the-art research and practices enabled by trajectories

  18. Neighborhood Walkability and Body Mass Index Trajectories: Longitudinal Study of Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Rania A; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Orpana, Heather; Ross, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    To assess the impact of neighborhood walkability on body mass index (BMI) trajectories of urban Canadians. Data are from Canada's National Population Health Survey (n = 2935; biannual assessments 1994-2006). We measured walkability with the Walk Score. We modeled body mass index (BMI, defined as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters [kg/m(2)]) trajectories as a function of Walk Score and sociodemographic and behavioral covariates with growth curve models and fixed-effects regression models. In men, BMI increased annually by an average of 0.13 kg/m(2) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11, 0.14) over the 12 years of follow-up. Moving to a high-walkable neighborhood (2 or more Walk Score quartiles higher) decreased BMI trajectories for men by approximately 1 kg/m(2) (95% CI = -1.16, -0.17). Moving to a low-walkable neighborhood increased BMI for men by approximately 0.45 kg/m(2) (95% CI = 0.01, 0.89). There was no detectable influence of neighborhood walkability on body weight for women. Our study of a large sample of urban Canadians followed for 12 years confirms that neighborhood walkability influences BMI trajectories for men, and may be influential in curtailing male age-related weight gain.

  19. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs

  20. Adverse trajectories of mental health problems predict subsequent burnout and work-family conflict - a longitudinal study of employed women with children followed over 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Wendy; Skipstein, Anni; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2016-11-08

    The long-term consequence of experiencing mental health problems may lead to several adverse outcomes. The current study aims to validate previous identified trajectories of mental health problems from 1993 to 2006 in women by examining their implications on subsequent work and family-related outcomes in 2011. Employed women (n = 439) with children were drawn from the Tracking Opportunities and Problems-Study (TOPP), a community-based longitudinal study following Norwegian families across 18 years. Previous identified latent profiles of mental health trajectories (i.e., High; Moderate; Low-rising and Low levels of mental health problems over time) measured at six time points between 1993 and 2006 were examined as predictors of burnout (e.g., exhaustion and disengagement from work) and work-family conflict in 2011 in univariate and multivariate analyses of variance adjusted for potential confounders (age, job demands, and negative emotionality). We found that having consistently High and Moderate symptoms as well as Low-Rising symptoms from 1993 to 2006 predicted higher levels of exhaustion, disengagement from work and work-family conflict in 2011. Findings remained unchanged when adjusting for several potential confounders, but when adjusting for current mental health problems only levels of exhaustion were predicted by the mental health trajectories. The study expands upon previous studies on the field by using a longer time span and by focusing on employed women with children who experience different patterns of mental health trajectories. The long-term effect of these trajectories highlight and validate the importance of early identification and prevention in women experiencing adverse patterns of mental health problems with regards to subsequent work and family-related outcomes.

  1. Social adversity in pregnancy and trajectories of women's depressive symptoms: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Ann M; Plotnikova, Maria; Clavarino, Alexandra; Mamun, Abullah; Najman, Jake M

    2018-02-01

    Sound evidence has linked the experience of adversity with depression. Less is known about this association over time. The aim of this study is to determine whether or not social adversity experienced by pregnant women is associated with their patterns of depressive symptoms over their reproductive life course. Data were obtained from a cohort of women collected at their first obstetrical clinic visit of an index pregnancy (time-point 1) and at a further six time-points to 27 years following the birth. Latent Class Growth Modelling was used to estimate trajectories of women's depressive symptoms over this time period. Logistic regression modelling determined the prospective association between measures of adversity in pregnancy and 27-year postpartum depression trajectories, controlling for potential confounders. Experiencing financial problems, housing problems, serious disagreements with partners and with others, and experiencing serious health problems in pregnancy were associated with membership of high and middle depression trajectories over the 27 years. Having someone close die or have a serious illness was associated with the high depression trajectory only. Younger maternal age and low family-income at first clinic visit were also associated with an increased risk of women's membership of both high and middle depression trajectories. Experiencing adversity during pregnancy predicts subsequent patterns of maternal depression over an extended period of women's reproductive life course. It is not clear whether women's experiences of adversity during pregnancy were causally associated with subsequent depression or whether there are other explanations of the observed association. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Trajectories of health-related quality of life after stroke : results from a one-year prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mierlo, Maria; van Heugten, Caroline; Post, Marcel W M; Hoekstra, Trynke; Visser-Meily, Anne

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify trajectories of physical and psychosocial health-related quality of life (HRQoL) from two months to one-year post stroke and to determine the factors that are associated with trajectory membership. METHOD: Multicenter prospective cohort study in which 351 stroke patients were

  3. Study of functional-performance deficits in athletes with previous ankle sprains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Babaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.

  4. Changing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Heavy Drinking Trajectories Through Young Adulthood: A Comparative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Edwina; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Lui, Camillia K

    2018-01-01

    There is evidence of racial/ethnic differences in the age at which young adults age out of heavy drinking. Some studies have found Black and Hispanic drinkers engage in more frequent heavy drinking than White people beyond adulthood. Yet, the alcohol-related disparities literature has produced contradictory findings on whether an age-crossover effect is evident among racial/ethnic groups; that is, whether racial/ethnic minorities' drinking levels or trajectories are lower than White people at young ages but later exceed (or crossover) those of White people. This study extends this scant literature by assessing whether racial/ethnic differences in heavy drinking have changed over time (possibly accounting for mixed findings from prior research); and tests for an age-crossover effect in heavy drinking using longitudinal data from 2 cohorts born 20 years apart. Data are from the 1979 (n = 10,963) and 1997 (n = 8,852) cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Generalized estimating equations were used to model trajectories of heavy drinking frequency from ages 17 to 31. Racial/ethnic differences were determined using sex-stratified models and 3-way interactions of race/ethnicity with age, age-squared, and cohort. Racial/ethnic differences in heavy drinking trajectories have changed over time in men and women. In the older NLSY cohort, Hispanic men and Black women surpassed White men's and women's heavy drinking frequency by age 31. This crossover was absent in the younger cohort, where trajectories of all racial-sex groups converged by age 31. Normative trajectories have changed in Hispanics and White people of both sexes, with a delay in age of peak frequency, and greater levels of heavy drinking in the younger cohort of women. Changes in heavy drinking trajectories over time suggest the need for targeted interventions during young adulthood. While disparities in young adult heavy drinking were no longer apparent in the more recent birth cohort

  5. Work-Team Implementation and Trajectories of Manufacturing Quality: A Longitudinal Field Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Joy M. Field; Kingshuk K. Sinha

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the sustainability of manufacturing quality improvements following the implementation of work teams on production lines. We posit that the impact on manufacturing quality, measured as the defect rate trajectory, is monotonically nonincreasing over time and may, more specifically, assume the shape of an inverted S-curve. Employing a longitudinal research design, we investigate four work teams over a 28-month period in a field setting. Each team corresponds to one of the four...

  6. Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality) : A longitudinal, multidomain study on sexual development of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitz, Ellen; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan; Dalenberg, Wieke; Dubas, Judith; van Aken, Marcel; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom; van der Eijnden, Regina; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Kunnen, Saskia; Timmerman, Greetje; van Geert, Paul; Dekovic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to

  7. Data from studies of previous radioactive waste disposal in Massachusetts Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, W.R.; Mardis, H.M.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies conducted in Massachusetts Bay during 1981 and 1982. Included are data from: (1) a side scan sonar survey of disposal areas in the Bay that was carried out by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for EPA; (2) Collections of sediment and biota by NOAA for radiochemical analysis by EPA; (3) collections of marketplace seafood samples by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for radioanalysis by both FDA and EPA; and (4) a radiological monitoring survey of LLW disposal areas by EPA to determine whether there should be any concern for public health resulting from previous LLW disposals in the Bay

  8. Employment Trajectories After Spinal Cord Injury : Results From a 5-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdiana, Astri; Post, Marcel W.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van der Woude, Luccas H.; van der Klink, Jac J.; Bultmann, Ute

    Objectives: To identify different employment trajectories in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) after discharge from initial rehabilitation and to determine predictors of different trajectories from demographic, injury, functional, and psychological characteristics. Design: Prospective cohort

  9. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50...... at follow-up (2 had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 13 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 12 had impaired glucose tolerance). Compared with the control subjects, women with previous GDM had relatively impaired insulin secretion (decreased insulinogenic index and delayed peak insulin...... for subsequent development of overt diabetes (logistic regression analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Women who develop GDM have a relative insulin secretion deficiency, the severity of which is predictive for later development of diabetes. Furthermore, our data indicate that their relatively reduced beta-cell function may...

  10. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  11. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulí, Anna; Morillas, Juan D; Rigau, Joaquim; Latorre, Mercedes; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Peña, Elena; Riestra, Sabino; Payá, Artemio; Jover, Rodrigo; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Villanueva, Cristina M; Moreno, Victor; Piqué, Josep M; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Andreu, Montserrat; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Muñoz, Jenifer; Gonzalo, Victoria; Bessa, Xavier; González, Dolors; Clofent, Joan; Cubiella, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1

  12. Education, bilingualism, and cognitive trajectories: Sacramento Area Latino Aging Study (SALSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Dan; Early, Dawnté R; Glymour, M Maria; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Haan, Mary N

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the influence of education, country where education occurred, and monolingual-bilingual (English/Spanish) language usage on late life cognitive trajectories in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA), an epidemiological study of health and cognition in Hispanics, mostly of Mexican origin, age 60 and over (N = 1,499). SALSA followed a large cohort of older Latinos for up to 7 assessment waves from 1998 to 2007. Global cognition was assessed by using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination, and the Spanish English Verbal Learning Test was used to measure episodic memory. Education, country of origin, and language usage patterns were collected at the baseline assessment and used as predictors of longitudinal trajectories of cognition. Parallel process mixed effects models were used to examine effects of education and language variables on baseline cognition and rate of cognitive decline. Mixed effects longitudinal models showed that education had strong effects on baseline global cognition and verbal memory but was not related to decline over up to 9 years of longitudinal follow-up. Differences in education effects between subgroups educated in Mexico and in the United States were minor. Monolingual-bilingual language usage was not related to cognitive decline, and bilinguals did not significantly differ from monolingual English speakers on baseline cognitive scores. Hypotheses that higher education and bilingualism protect against late life cognitive decline were not supported and education effects on late-life cognitive trajectories did not substantially differ across U.S.- and Mexico-educated groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The impact of parity on life course blood pressure trajectories: the HUNT study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Eirin B; Horn, Julie; Markovitz, Amanda Rose; Fraser, Abigail; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Tilling, Kate; Romundstad, Pål Richard; Rich-Edwards, Janet Wilson; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav

    2018-01-24

    The drop in blood pressure during pregnancy may persist postpartum, but the impact of pregnancy on blood pressure across the life course is not known. In this study we examined blood pressure trajectories for women in the years preceding and following pregnancy and compared life course trajectories of blood pressure for parous and nulliparous women. We linked information on all women who participated in the population-based, longitudinal HUNT Study, Norway with pregnancy information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 23,438 women were included with up to 3 blood pressure measurements per woman. Blood pressure trajectories were compared using a mixed effects linear spline model. Before first pregnancy, women who later gave birth had similar mean blood pressure to women who never gave birth. Women who delivered experienced a drop after their first birth of - 3.32 mmHg (95% CI, - 3.93, - 2.71) and - 1.98 mmHg (95% CI, - 2.43, - 1.53) in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Subsequent pregnancies were associated with smaller reductions. These pregnancy-related reductions in blood pressure led to persistent differences in mean blood pressure, and at age 50, parous women still had lower systolic (- 1.93 mmHg; 95% CI, - 3.33, - 0.53) and diastolic (- 1.36 mmHg; 95% CI, - 2.26, - 0.46) blood pressure compared to nulliparous women. The findings suggest that the first pregnancy and, to a lesser extent, successive pregnancies are associated with lasting and clinically relevant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

  14. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  15. Drinking and smoking patterns during pregnancy: Development of group-based trajectories in the Safe Passage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Kimberly; Tripp, Tara; Willinger, Marian; Odendaal, Hein; Elliott, Amy J; Kinney, Hannah C; Robinson, Fay; Petersen, Julie M; Raffo, Cheryl; Hereld, Dale; Groenewald, Coen; Angal, Jyoti; Hankins, Gary; Burd, Larry; Fifer, William P; Myers, Michael M; Hoffman, Howard J; Sullivan, Lisa

    2017-08-01

    Precise identification of drinking and smoking patterns during pregnancy is crucial to better understand the risk to the fetus. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the methodological approach used to define prenatal drinking and smoking trajectories from a large prospective pregnancy cohort, and to describe maternal characteristics associated with different exposure patterns. In the Safe Passage Study, detailed information regarding quantity, frequency, and timing of exposure was self-reported up to four times during pregnancy and at 1 month post-delivery. Exposure trajectories were developed using data from 11,692 pregnancies (9912 women) where pregnancy outcome was known. Women were from three diverse populations: white (23%) and American Indian (17%) in the Northern Plains, US, and mixed ancestry (59%) in South Africa (other/not specified [1%]). Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify 5 unique drinking trajectories (1 none/minimal, 2 quitting groups, 2 continuous groups) and 7 smoking trajectories (1 none/minimal, 2 quitting groups, 4 continuous groups). Women with pregnancies assigned to the low- or high-continuous drinking groups were less likely to have completed high school and were more likely to have enrolled in the study in the third trimester, be of mixed ancestry, or be depressed than those assigned to the none/minimal or quit-drinking groups. Results were similar when comparing continuous smokers to none/minimal and quit-smoking groups. Further, women classified as high- or low-continuous drinkers were more likely to smoke at moderate-, high-, and very high-continuous levels, as compared to women classified as non-drinkers and quitters. This is the first study of this size to utilize group-based trajectory modeling to identify unique prenatal drinking and smoking trajectories. These trajectories will be used in future analyses to determine which specific exposure patterns subsequently manifest as poor peri- and postnatal outcomes

  16. Fire Risk Scoping Study: Investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk, including previously unaddressed issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Nowlen, S.P.; Nicolette, V.F.; Bohn, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk issues raised as a result of the USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories has been performed. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to review and requantify fire risk scenarios from four fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) in light of updated data bases made available as a result of USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program and updated computer fire modeling capabilities, (2) to identify potentially significant fire risk issues that have not been previously addressed in a fire risk context and to quantify the potential impact of those identified fire risk issues where possible, and (3) to review current fire regulations and plant implementation practices for relevance to the identified unaddressed fire risk issues. In performance of the fire risk scenario requantifications several important insights were gained. It was found that utilization of a more extensive operational experience base resulted in both fire occurrence frequencies and fire duration times (i.e., time required for fire suppression) increasing significantly over those assumed in the original works. Additionally, some thermal damage threshold limits assumed in the original works were identified as being nonconservative based on more recent experimental data. Finally, application of the COMPBRN III fire growth model resulted in calculation of considerably longer fire damage times than those calculated in the original works using COMPBRN I. 14 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs

  17. The roles of lesson study in the development of mathematics learning instrument based on learning trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnasanti; Dien, C. A.; Azizah, F.

    2018-03-01

    This study is aimed to describe Lesson Study (LS) activity and its roles in the development of mathematics learning instruments based on Learning Trajectory (LT). This study is a narrative study of teacher’s experiences in joining LS activity. Data collecting in this study will use three methods such as observation, documentations, and deep interview. The collected data will be analyzed with Milles and Huberman’s model that consists of reduction, display, and verification. The study result shows that through LS activity, teachers know more about how students think. Teachers also can revise their mathematics learning instrument in the form of lesson plan. It means that LS activity is important to make a better learning instruments and focus on how student learn not on how teacher teach.

  18. Numerical study and ex vivo assessment of HIFU treatment time reduction through optimization of focal point trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisey, A.; Yon, S.; Pechoux, T.; Letort, V.; Lafitte, P.

    2017-03-01

    Treatment time reduction is a key issue to expand the use of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery, especially for benign pathologies. This study aims at quantitatively assessing the potential reduction of the treatment time arising from moving the focal point during long pulses. In this context, the optimization of the focal point trajectory is crucial to achieve a uniform thermal dose repartition and avoid boiling. At first, a numerical optimization algorithm was used to generate efficient trajectories. Thermal conduction was simulated in 3D with a finite difference code and damages to the tissue were modeled using the thermal dose formula. Given an initial trajectory, the thermal dose field was first computed, then, making use of Pontryagin's maximum principle, the trajectory was iteratively refined. Several initial trajectories were tested. Then, an ex vivo study was conducted in order to validate the efficicency of the resulting optimized strategies. Single pulses were performed at 3MHz on fresh veal liver samples with an Echopulse and the size of each unitary lesion was assessed by cutting each sample along three orthogonal planes and measuring the dimension of the whitened area based on photographs. We propose a promising approach to significantly shorten HIFU treatment time: the numerical optimization algorithm was shown to provide a reliable insight on trajectories that can improve treatment strategies. The model must now be improved in order to take in vivo conditions into account and extensively validated.

  19. Web application for recording learners’ mouse trajectories and retrieving their study logs for data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Miyazaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With the accelerated implementation of e-learning systems in educational institutions, it has become possible to record learners’ study logs in recent years. It must be admitted that little research has been conducted upon the analysis of the study logs that are obtained. In addition, there is no software that traces the mouse movements of learners during their learning processes, which the authors believe would enable teachers to better understand their students’ behaviors. The objective of this study is to develop a Web application that records students’ study logs, including their mouse trajectories, and to devise an IR tool that can summarize such diversified data. The results of an experiment are also scrutinized to provide an analysis of the relationship between learners’ activities and their study logs.

  20. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Trajectory of social isolation following hip fracture: an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Toby O; Dainty, Jack R; MacGregor, Alex

    2018-01-01

    social isolation is defined as a lack of meaningful and sustained communication or interactions with social networks. There is limited understanding on the prevalence of social isolation and loneliness in people following hip fracture and no previous understanding of how this changes over time. to determine the prevalence and trajectory of social isolation and loneliness before a hip fracture, during the recovery phase and a minimum of 2 years post-hip fracture in an English population. data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) cohort (2004/5-2014/15). The sample comprised of 215 participants who had sustained a hip fracture. Measures of social isolation and loneliness were analysed through multilevel modelling to determine their trajectories during three-time intervals (pre-fracture; interval at hip fracture and recovery; minimum 2 years post-fracture). The prevalence of social isolation and loneliness were determined pre- and post-fracture. prevalence of social isolation was 19% post-hip fracture and loneliness 13% post-hip fracture. There was no statistically significant change in social isolation pre-fracture compared to a minimum of 2 years post-fracture (P = 0.78). Similarly, there was no statistically significant change in loneliness pre-fracture compared to a minimum of 2 years post-fracture (P = 0.12). this analysis has determined that whilst social isolation and loneliness do not change over time following hip fracture, these remain a significant problem for this population. Interventions are required to address these physical and psychological health needs. This is important as they may have short and longer term health benefits for people post-hip fracture. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Household Food Insecurity and Children's Behaviour Problems: New Evidence from a Trajectories-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between household food insecurity (insufficient access to adequate and nutritious food) and trajectories of externalising and internalising behaviour problems in children from kindergarten to fifth grade using longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative study in the USA. Household food insecurity was assessed using the eighteen-item standard food security scale, and children's behaviour problems were reported by teachers. Latent growth curve analysis was conducted on 7,348 children in the ECLS-K, separately for boys and girls. Following adjustment for an extensive array of confounding variables, results suggest that food insecurity generally was not associated with developmental change in children's behaviour problems. The impact of food insecurity on behaviour problems may be episodic or interact with certain developmental stages. PMID:27559210

  3. Hopefulness predicts resilience after hereditary colorectal cancer genetic testing: a prospective outcome trajectories study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Annie TW

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Genetic testing for hereditary colorectal cancer (HCRC had significant psychological consequences for test recipients. This prospective longitudinal study investigated the factors that predict psychological resilience in adults undergoing genetic testing for HCRC. Methods - A longitudinal study was carried out from April 2003 to August 2006 on Hong Kong Chinese HCRC family members who were recruited and offered genetic testing by the Hereditary Gastrointestinal Cancer Registry to determine psychological outcomes after genetic testing. Self-completed questionnaires were administered immediately before (pre-disclosure baseline and 2 weeks, 4 months and 1 year after result disclosure. Using validated psychological inventories, the cognitive style of hope was measured at baseline, and the psychological distress of depression and anxiety was measured at all time points. Results - Of the 76 participating subjects, 71 individuals (43 men and 28 women; mean age 38.9 ± 9.2 years from nine FAP and 24 HNPCC families completed the study, including 39 mutated gene carriers. Four patterns of outcome trajectories were created using established norms for the specified outcome measures of depression and anxiety. These included chronic dysfunction (13% and 8.7%, recovery (0% and 4.3%, delayed dysfunction (13% and 15.9% and resilience (76.8% and 66.7%. Two logistic regression analyses were conducted using hope at baseline to predict resilience, with depression and anxiety employed as outcome indicators. Because of the small number of participants, the chronic dysfunction and delayed dysfunction groups were combined into a non-resilient group for comparison with the resilient group in all subsequent analysis. Because of low frequencies, participants exhibiting a recovery trajectory (n = 3 for anxiety and n = 0 for depression were excluded from further analysis. Both regression equations were significant. Baseline hope was a significant

  4. Hopefulness predicts resilience after hereditary colorectal cancer genetic testing: a prospective outcome trajectories study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Samuel M Y; Ho, Judy W C; Bonanno, George A; Chu, Annie T W; Chan, Emily M S

    2010-06-11

    Genetic testing for hereditary colorectal cancer (HCRC) had significant psychological consequences for test recipients. This prospective longitudinal study investigated the factors that predict psychological resilience in adults undergoing genetic testing for HCRC. A longitudinal study was carried out from April 2003 to August 2006 on Hong Kong Chinese HCRC family members who were recruited and offered genetic testing by the Hereditary Gastrointestinal Cancer Registry to determine psychological outcomes after genetic testing. Self-completed questionnaires were administered immediately before (pre-disclosure baseline) and 2 weeks, 4 months and 1 year after result disclosure. Using validated psychological inventories, the cognitive style of hope was measured at baseline, and the psychological distress of depression and anxiety was measured at all time points. Of the 76 participating subjects, 71 individuals (43 men and 28 women; mean age 38.9 +/- 9.2 years) from nine FAP and 24 HNPCC families completed the study, including 39 mutated gene carriers. Four patterns of outcome trajectories were created using established norms for the specified outcome measures of depression and anxiety. These included chronic dysfunction (13% and 8.7%), recovery (0% and 4.3%), delayed dysfunction (13% and 15.9%) and resilience (76.8% and 66.7%). Two logistic regression analyses were conducted using hope at baseline to predict resilience, with depression and anxiety employed as outcome indicators. Because of the small number of participants, the chronic dysfunction and delayed dysfunction groups were combined into a non-resilient group for comparison with the resilient group in all subsequent analysis. Because of low frequencies, participants exhibiting a recovery trajectory (n = 3 for anxiety and n = 0 for depression) were excluded from further analysis. Both regression equations were significant. Baseline hope was a significant predictor of a resilience outcome trajectory for depression

  5. Cohort Study of ECG Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Trajectories: Ethnic Disparities, Associations With Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Clinical Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Carlos; Round, Alfred D; Lu, Meng; Okin, Peter M; McNulty, Edward J

    2017-10-05

    ECG left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a well-known predictor of cardiovascular disease. However, no prior study has characterized patterns of presence/absence of ECG LVH ("ECG LVH trajectories") across the adult lifespan in both sexes and across ethnicities. We examined: (1) correlates of ECG LVH trajectories; (2) the association of ECG LVH trajectories with incident coronary heart disease, transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and heart failure; and (3) reclassification of cardiovascular disease risk using ECG LVH trajectories. We performed a cohort study among 75 412 men and 107 954 women in the Northern California Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program who had available longitudinal exposures of ECG LVH and covariates, followed for a median of 4.8 (range ECG LVH was measured by Cornell voltage-duration product. Adverse trajectories of ECG LVH (persistent, new development, or variable pattern) were more common among blacks and Native American men and were independently related to incident cardiovascular disease with hazard ratios ranging from 1.2 for ECG LVH variable pattern and transient ischemic attack in women to 2.8 for persistent ECG LVH and heart failure in men. ECG LVH trajectories reclassified 4% and 7% of men and women with intermediate coronary heart disease risk, respectively. ECG LVH trajectories were significant indicators of coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure risk, independently of level and change in cardiovascular disease risk factors, and may have clinical utility. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  6. Early life socioeconomic determinants of dietary score and pattern trajectories across six waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Constantine E; Mensah, Fiona K; Kerr, Jessica A; Wake, Melissa

    2017-12-01

    Social patterning of dietary-related diseases may partly be explained by population disparities in children's diets. This study aimed to determine which early life socioeconomic factors best predict dietary trajectories across childhood. For waves 2-6 of the Baby (B) Cohort (ages 2-3 to 10-11 years) and waves 1-6 of the Kindergarten (K) Cohort (ages 4-5 to 14-15 years) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, we constructed trajectories of dietary scores and of empirically derived dietary patterns. Dietary scores, based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines, summed children's consumption frequencies of seven groups of foods or drinks over the last 24 hours. Dietary patterns at each wave were derived using factor analyses of 12-16 food or drink items. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we examined associations of baseline single (parental education, remoteness area, parental employment, income, food security and home ownership) and composite (socioeconomic position and neighbourhood disadvantage) factors with adherence to dietary trajectories. All dietary trajectory outcomes across both cohorts showed profound gradients by composite socioeconomic position but not by neighbourhood disadvantage. For example, odds for children in the lowest relative to highest socioeconomic position quintile being in the 'never healthy' relative to the 'always healthy' score trajectory were OR=16.40, 95% CI 9.40 to 28.61 (B Cohort). Among the single variables, only parental education consistently predicted dietary trajectories. Child dietary trajectories vary profoundly by family socioeconomic position. If causal, reducing dietary inequities may require researching underlying pathways, tackling socioeconomic inequities and targeting health promoting interventions to less educated families. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  7. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on growth trajectories in young Ethiopian children: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineyam Taye

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: These findings add to the growing body of evidence supporting that H. pylori infection is inversely associated with childhood growth trajectory, after controlling for a range of factors associated with reduced growth and H. pylori status. Further follow-up will be important to confirm possible catch-up in height trajectory among H. pylori-infected children as they grow older.

  8. Gender-Specific Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety during Adolescence : Determinants and Outcomes. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legerstee, Jeroen S; Verhulst, Frank C; Robbers, Sylvana C C; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; van Oort, Floor V A

    OBJECTIVE: To identify developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms for adolescent girls and boys. Trajectories were compared with regard to early-adolescent risk factors and psychiatric outcomes during adolescence and in young adulthood. METHOD: A community sample of 2,230 adolescents was

  9. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  10. Cultural Orientation Trajectories and Substance Use: Findings From a Longitudinal Study of Mexican-Origin Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Rick A; King, Kevin M; Cauce, Ana M; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W

    2017-03-01

    Cultural adaptation may influence Latino youth substance use (SU) development, yet few longitudinal studies have examined cultural change over time and adolescent SU outcomes. Using longitudinal data collected annually across ages 10-16 from 674 Mexican-origin youth (50% female), the authors characterized cultural adaptation patterns for language use (English and Spanish use), values (American values and familism values), and identity (ethnic pride), and examined whether these cultural adaptation patterns were associated with differential SU risk. Youth with increasing bilingualism and high/stable family values had lower SU risk compared to youth who primarily spoke English and endorsed decreasing family values, respectively. Ethnic pride trajectories were not associated with SU. Findings highlight the importance of considering cultural change related to Latino youth SU. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. Parenting and Trajectories of Children’s Maladaptive Behaviors: A 12-year Prospective Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A.; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parenting accounted for inter-individual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting, inconsistent discipline) across 12 annual assessments (ages 6–18). Four longitudinal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, uninvolved) were differentiated on the basis of levels and rates of change in the constituent parenting dimensions. Multi-group analyses demonstrated that these parenting styles were differentially related to changes in parent- and child-reported measures of children’s alcohol and cigarette use, antisocial behavior, and internalizing symptoms, with the authoritative parenting class being related to the most optimal long-term development. Practical implications and future research suggestions are discussed. PMID:21534057

  12. Parenting and trajectories of children's maladaptive behaviors: a 12-year prospective community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A; Hampson, Sarah E; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parenting accounted for interindividual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting, inconsistent discipline) across 12 annual assessments (ages 6-18). Four longitudinal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, uninvolved) were differentiated on the basis of levels and rates of change in the constituent parenting dimensions. Multigroup analyses demonstrated that these parenting styles were differentially related to changes in parent- and child-reported measures of children's alcohol and cigarette use, antisocial behavior, and internalizing symptoms, with the authoritative parenting class being related to the most optimal long-term development.

  13. Group-based developmental BMI trajectories, polycystic ovary syndrome, and gestational diabetes: a community-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoly, Nadira Sultana; Earnest, Arul; Moran, Lisa J; Teede, Helena J; Joham, Anju E

    2017-11-06

    Obesity is common in young women, increasing insulin resistance (IR) and worsening pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes (GDM). Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are commonly obese, which aggravates the severity of PCOS clinical expression. Relationships between these common insulin-resistant conditions, however, remain unclear. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) database, including data from 8009 women aged 18-36 years across six surveys. We used latent-curve growth modelling to identify distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectories and multinomial logistic regression to explore sociodemographic and health variables characterizing BMI group membership. Logistic regression was used to assess independent risk of GDM. A total of 662 women (8.29%, 95% CI 7.68-8.89) reported PCOS. Three distinct BMI trajectories emerged, namely low stable (LSG) (63.8%), defined as an average trajectory remaining at ~25 kg/m 2 ; moderately rising (MRG) (28.8%), a curvilinear trajectory commencing in a healthy BMI and terminating in the overweight range; and high-rising (HRG) (7.4%), a curvilinear trajectory starting and terminating in the obese range. A high BMI in early reproductive life predicted membership in higher trajectories. The HRG BMI trajectory was independently associated with GDM (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.80-3.48) and was a stronger correlate than PCOS (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.41-2.54), maternal age, socioeconomic status, or parity. Our results suggest heterogeneity in BMI change among Australian women of reproductive age, with and without PCOS. Reducing early adult life weight represents an ideal opportunity to intervene at an early stage of reproductive life and decreases the risk of long-term metabolic complications such as GDM.

  14. Impact of childhood asthma on growth trajectories in early adolescence: Findings from the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movin, Maria; Garden, Frances L; Protudjer, Jennifer L P; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Svensdotter, Frida; Andersson, David; Kruse, Andreas; Cowell, Chris T; Toelle, Brett G; Marks, Guy B; Almqvist, Catarina

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the associations between childhood asthma and growth in early adolescence by accounting for the heterogeneity of growth during puberty has been largely unexplored. The objective was to identify sex-specific classes of growth trajectories during early adolescence, using a method which takes the heterogeneity of growth into account and to evaluate the association between childhood asthma and different classes of growth trajectories in adolescence. Our longitudinal study included participants with a family history of asthma born during 1997-1999 in Sydney, Australia. Hence, all participants were at high risk for asthma. Asthma status was ascertained at 8 years of age using data from questionnaires and lung function tests. Growth trajectories between 11 and 14 years of age were classified using a latent basis growth mixture model. Multinomial regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between asthma and the categorized classes of growth trajectories. In total, 316 participants (51.6% boys), representing 51.3% of the entire cohort, were included. Sex-specific classes of growth trajectories were defined. Among boys, asthma was not associated with the classes of growth trajectories. Girls with asthma were more likely than girls without asthma to belong to a class with later growth (OR: 3.79, 95% CI: 1.33, 10.84). Excluding participants using inhaled corticosteroids or adjusting for confounders did not significantly change the results for either sex. We identified sex-specific heterogeneous classes of growth using growth mixture modelling. Associations between childhood asthma and different classes of growth trajectories were found for girls only. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  15. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. Methods: One hundred forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis. PMID:27975009

  16. Ultra-processed food consumption and adiposity trajectories in a Brazilian cohort of adolescents: ELANA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Diana Barbosa; da Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2018-05-25

    In Brazil, the increase in obesity rates has been accompanied by increased consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF). The objective of this paper was to evaluate body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (%BF) trajectories in adolescents over a 3-year follow-up according to the frequency of UPF consumption. Data of three consecutive years (2010, 2011, and 2012) were obtained from the Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study (ELANA) that aimed to assess changes in anthropometric indicators of nutritional status, and 1035 adolescents enrolled in the 1st year of high school from six schools (four private and two public) in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were included. At three follow-ups, they had their weights and heights measured. Body composition was measured at the first and second follow-ups. Mixed linear regression models were used to estimate BMI and %BF trajectories based on quartiles of UPF intake, adjusting for type of school, sex, physical activity, and underreporting. Compared to their counterparts in the 1st quartile, adolescents in the 4th quartile of UPF consumption had a lower daily intake of fruits, cooked vegetables, and raw vegetables and a higher intake of total sugar and physical activity levels (p < 0.001). There was an inverse association between UPF consumption and BMI both at baseline and at follow-up. Values for %BF followed the same trend. Adolescents in the 4th quartile had the greatest level of physical activity and lowest total energy intake. This study confirmed that greater intake of UPF is a marker of an unhealthy diet, but did not support the hypothesis of a high rate of change in BMI associated with greater UPF consumption, even after adjusting for physical activity.

  17. Trajectory Generation Method with Convolution Operation on Velocity Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Doik [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The use of robots is no longer limited to the field of industrial robots and is now expanding into the fields of service and medical robots. In this light, a trajectory generation method that can respond instantaneously to the external environment is strongly required. Toward this end, this study proposes a method that enables a robot to change its trajectory in real-time using a convolution operation. The proposed method generates a trajectory in real time and satisfies the physical limits of the robot system such as acceleration and velocity limit. Moreover, a new way to improve the previous method, which generates inefficient trajectories in some cases owing to the characteristics of the trapezoidal shape of trajectories, is proposed by introducing a triangle shape. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is shown through a numerical simulation and a comparison with the previous convolution method.

  18. Trajectory calculation of a trapped particle in electro-dynamic balance for study of chemical reaction of aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Miho; Itou, Takahiro; Harano, Azuchi; Takarada, Takayuki; James, Davis E

    2013-01-01

    Electrodynamic balance (EDB) is a powerful tool for investigating the chemical reactions between a fine particle and gaseous species. But the EDB device alone is inadequate to match the rapid weight change of a fine particle caused by chemical reactions, because it takes a few seconds to set a fine particle at null point. The particle trajectory calculation for the trapped particle added to the EDB is thus a very useful tool for the measurement of the transient response of a particle weight change with no need to adjust the applied DC voltage to set the null point. The purpose of this study is to develop the trajectory calculation method to track the particle oscillation pattern in the EDB and examine the possibility for kinetic studies on the reaction of a single aerosol particle with gaseous species. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying particle trajectory calculation to realize the research purpose.

  19. Protocol for a prospective longitudinal study investigating the participation and educational trajectories of Australian students with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jacqueline Margaret Anne; Adams, Dawn; Heussler, Helen; Keen, Deborah; Paynter, Jessica; Trembath, David; Westerveld, Marleen; Williams, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Autism is associated with high cost to individuals, families, communities and government. Understanding educational and participation trajectories during the school years, and factors influencing these, is fundamental to reducing financial and personal costs. The primary aim of this study is to document the trajectories of Australian students with autism during their education. The secondary aim is to examine personal (eg, student skills) and environmental (eg, school setting) factors associated with differing trajectories and outcomes. Methods and analysis The cross-sequential longitudinal study will recruit two cohorts of 120 parents/caregivers of children with autism. Cohort 1 aged between 4 and 5 years and cohort 2 between 9 and 10 years to start the study. Information will be gathered from parents, teachers and school principals at six annual time points (T1 to T6). Parents will be emailed a link to an online initial questionnaire (T1) and then contacted annually and asked to complete either an extended questionnaire (T3, T5 and T6) or an abbreviated questionnaire (T2, T4). Where consent is given, the child’s current school will be contacted annually (T1 to T6) and teacher and school principal asked to complete questionnaires about the child and school. Parent and school questionnaires are comprised of questions about demographic and school factors that could influence trajectories and a battery of developmental and behavioural assessment tools designed to assess educational and participation trajectories and outcomes. Surveys will provide longitudinal data on educational and participation trajectories for children and adolescents with autism. In addition cross-sectional comparisons (within or between age groups) at each time point and cohort effects will be explored. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals have been granted for this study by all recruiting sites and universities in the project. Study findings will inform policy and practice

  20. Interplanetary Trajectory Design for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission Alternate Approach Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond Gabriel; Qu, Min; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Englander, Jacob A.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents mission performance analysis methods and results for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) option to capture a free standing boulder on the surface of a 100 m or larger NEA. It details the optimization and design of heliocentric low-thrust trajectories to asteroid targets for the ARRM solar electric propulsion spacecraft. Extensive searches were conducted to determine asteroid targets with large pick-up mass potential and potential observation opportunities. Interplanetary trajectory approximations were developed in method based tools for Itokawa, Bennu, 1999 JU3, and 2008 EV5 and were validated by end-to-end integrated trajectories.

  1. Kinematic evaluation of virtual walking trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirio, Gabriel; Olivier, Anne-Hélène; Marchal, Maud; Pettré, Julien

    2013-04-01

    Virtual walking, a fundamental task in Virtual Reality (VR), is greatly influenced by the locomotion interface being used, by the specificities of input and output devices, and by the way the virtual environment is represented. No matter how virtual walking is controlled, the generation of realistic virtual trajectories is absolutely required for some applications, especially those dedicated to the study of walking behaviors in VR, navigation through virtual places for architecture, rehabilitation and training. Previous studies focused on evaluating the realism of locomotion trajectories have mostly considered the result of the locomotion task (efficiency, accuracy) and its subjective perception (presence, cybersickness). Few focused on the locomotion trajectory itself, but in situation of geometrically constrained task. In this paper, we study the realism of unconstrained trajectories produced during virtual walking by addressing the following question: did the user reach his destination by virtually walking along a trajectory he would have followed in similar real conditions? To this end, we propose a comprehensive evaluation framework consisting on a set of trajectographical criteria and a locomotion model to generate reference trajectories. We consider a simple locomotion task where users walk between two oriented points in space. The travel path is analyzed both geometrically and temporally in comparison to simulated reference trajectories. In addition, we demonstrate the framework over a user study which considered an initial set of common and frequent virtual walking conditions, namely different input devices, output display devices, control laws, and visualization modalities. The study provides insight into the relative contributions of each condition to the overall realism of the resulting virtual trajectories.

  2. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  3. Late preterm birth and previous cesarean section: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseen Iii, Abdool S; Bassil, Kate; Sprague, Ann; Urquia, Marcelo; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2018-02-21

    Late preterm birth (LPB) is increasingly common and associated with higher morbidity and mortality than term birth. Yet, little is known about the influence of previous cesarean section (PCS) and the occurrence of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. We aim to evaluate this association along with the potential mediation by cesarean sections in the current pregnancy. We use population-based birth registry data (2005-2012) to establish a cohort of live born singleton infants born between 34 and 41 gestational weeks to multiparous mothers. PCS was the primary exposure, LPB (34-36 weeks) was the primary outcome, and an unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was the potential mediator. Associations were quantified using propensity weighted multivariable Poisson regression, and mediating associations were explored using the Baron-Kenny approach. The cohort included 481,531 births, 21,893 (4.5%) were LPB, and 119,983 (24.9%) were predated by at least one PCS. Among mothers with at least one PCS, 6307 (5.26%) were LPB. There was increased risk of LPB among women with at least one PCS (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 1.20 (95%CI [1.16, 1.23]). Unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was identified as a strong mediator to this relationship (mediation ratio = 97%). PCS was associated with higher risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. This may be due to an increased risk of subsequent unplanned or emergency preterm cesarean sections. Efforts to minimize index cesarean sections may reduce the risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies.

  4. Mapping technological trajectories as patent citation networks : a study on the history of fuel cell research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspagen, B.

    2005-01-01

    Technological change is argued to be taking place along ordered and selective patterns, shaped jointly by technological and scientific principles, and economic and other societal factors. Historical, descriptive analysis is often used to analyze these "trajectories". Recently, quantitative methods

  5. Mapping technological trajectories as patent citation networks : a study on the history of fuel cell research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspagen, B.

    2007-01-01

    Technological change is argued to be taking place along ordered and selective patterns, shaped jointly by technological and scientific principles, and economic and other societal factors. Historical, descriptive analysis is often used to analyze these "trajectories". Recently, quantitative methods

  6. Phase III Study of Cabozantinib in Previously Treated Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: COMET-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew; De Bono, Johann; Sternberg, Cora; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Oudard, Stéphane; De Giorgi, Ugo; Krainer, Michael; Bergman, Andries; Hoelzer, Wolfgang; De Wit, Ronald; Bögemann, Martin; Saad, Fred; Cruciani, Giorgio; Thiery-Vuillemin, Antoine; Feyerabend, Susan; Miller, Kurt; Houédé, Nadine; Hussain, Syed; Lam, Elaine; Polikoff, Jonathan; Stenzl, Arnulf; Mainwaring, Paul; Ramies, David; Hessel, Colin; Weitzman, Aaron; Fizazi, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Cabozantinib is an inhibitor of kinases, including MET and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, and has shown activity in men with previously treated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This blinded phase III trial compared cabozantinib with prednisone in patients with mCRPC. Men with progressive mCRPC after docetaxel and abiraterone and/or enzalutamide were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio to cabozantinib 60 mg once per day or prednisone 5 mg twice per day. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Bone scan response (BSR) at week 12 as assessed by independent review committee was the secondary end point; radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and effects on circulating tumor cells (CTCs), bone biomarkers, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and symptomatic skeletal events (SSEs) were exploratory assessments. A total of 1,028 patients were randomly assigned to cabozantinib (n = 682) or prednisone (n = 346). Median OS was 11.0 months with cabozantinib and 9.8 months with prednisone (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.06; stratified log-rank P = .213). BSR at week 12 favored cabozantinib (42% v 3%; stratified Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel P < .001). rPFS was improved in the cabozantinib group (median, 5.6 v 2.8 months; hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.57; stratified log-rank P < .001). Cabozantinib was associated with improvements in CTC conversion, bone biomarkers, and post-random assignment incidence of SSEs but not PSA outcomes. Grade 3 to 4 adverse events and discontinuations because of adverse events were higher with cabozantinib than with prednisone (71% v 56% and 33% v 12%, respectively). Cabozantinib did not significantly improve OS compared with prednisone in heavily treated patients with mCRPC and progressive disease after docetaxel and abiraterone and/or enzalutamide. Cabozantinib had some activity in improving BSR, rPFS, SSEs, CTC conversions, and bone biomarkers but not PSA outcomes. © 2016 by

  7. The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ian M; Williams, Jennifer S; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Beiler, Jessica S; Makova, Kateryna D; Marini, Michele E; Hess, Lindsey B; Rzucidlo, Susan E; Verdiglione, Nicole; Mindell, Jodi A; Birch, Leann L

    2014-07-18

    Because early life growth has long-lasting metabolic and behavioral consequences, intervention during this period of developmental plasticity may alter long-term obesity risk. While modifiable factors during infancy have been identified, until recently, preventive interventions had not been tested. The Intervention Nurses Starting Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT). Study is a longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial evaluating a responsive parenting intervention designed for the primary prevention of obesity. This "parenting" intervention is being compared with a home safety control among first-born infants and their parents. INSIGHT's central hypothesis is that responsive parenting and specifically responsive feeding promotes self-regulation and shared parent-child responsibility for feeding, reducing subsequent risk for overeating and overweight. 316 first-time mothers and their full-term newborns were enrolled from one maternity ward. Two weeks following delivery, dyads were randomly assigned to the "parenting" or "safety" groups. Subsequently, research nurses conduct study visits for both groups consisting of home visits at infant age 3-4, 16, 28, and 40 weeks, followed by annual clinic-based visits at 1, 2, and 3 years. Both groups receive intervention components framed around four behavior states: Sleeping, Fussy, Alert and Calm, and Drowsy. The main study outcome is BMI z-score at age 3 years; additional outcomes include those related to patterns of infant weight gain, infant sleep hygiene and duration, maternal responsiveness and soothing strategies for infant/toddler distress and fussiness, maternal feeding style and infant dietary content and physical activity. Maternal outcomes related to weight status, diet, mental health, and parenting sense of competence are being collected. Infant temperament will be explored as a moderator of parenting effects, and blood is collected to obtain genetic predictors of weight status. Finally, second

  8. Behavioral problem trajectories and self-esteem changes in relation with adolescent depressive symptoms: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cherry Y; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2018-07-01

    Prospectively childhood behavioral problems and low self-esteem are associated with depression. However, these mental health changes over time have never been examined. This study assessed the association of childhood behavioral trajectories and self-esteem changes over time with adolescent depressive symptoms. Parent-reported Rutter behavioral assessments and self-reported Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories (SEI) were obtained via record linkage from the Student Health Service, Department of Health (Hong Kong), and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depressive symptom scores were obtained via active follow-up of the Hong Kong's Children of 1997" Chinese birth cohort. Partitional clustering was used to generate homogenous trajectories between ~ 7 and ~ 11 years for Rutter scores. Changes in low self-esteem between ~ 10 and ~ 12 years were obtained from the SEI. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate their associations with depressive symptom scores at ~ 13 years. Four trajectories/groups (stable low, declining, rising, and stable high) of Rutter score and self-esteem groups were created. The stable low behavioral trajectory was associated with the fewest depressive symptoms while the stable high trajectory had 1.23 more depressive symptoms [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 1.61] than the stable low trajectory. Consistently low self-esteem (stable low) was associated with 2.96 more depressive symptoms (95% CI 2.35-3.57) compared to consistently high self-esteem (stable high). Sustained or worsening childhood behavioral problems and low self-esteem were precursors of adolescent depressive symptoms, and as such could be an early indicator of the need for intervention.

  9. Radon diffusion coefficients for soils. Previous studies and their application to uranium-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo; Gunji, Yasuyoshi; Iida, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Radon diffusion in soils has been studied over the years by many researchers. The application of such studies to the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon from uranium-bearing wastes disposed in a shallow land site is very important. The present paper surveyed closely relevant studies and elucidated the inherent nature of radon diffusion in terms of the definition of radon diffusion coefficients. Then, basic features of measurement methods for determining radon diffusion coefficients in soils were explained. Furthermore, theoretical aspects of radon diffusion in soils were discussed in terms of microscopic radon diffusion in soils and large-scale radon diffusion through cover soil defects for uranium mill tailings. Finally, in order to apply the radon diffusion studies to uranium-bearing waste disposal in shallow land sites, new challenges were presented: elucidation of radon diffusion in uranium-bearing wastes and cover-soil cracks, and demonstration of the validity of applying only radon diffusion in the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon, which would come through Japanese cover soils for uranium-bearing waste disposal. (author)

  10. Interbirth interval and history of previous preeclampsia: a case–control study among multiparous women

    OpenAIRE

    Harutyunyan, Arusyak; Armenian, Haroutune; Petrosyan, Varduhi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Preeclampsia is a disorder with a reported incidence of 2%-8% among all pregnancies, accounting for more than 50,000 deaths worldwide each year. In low- and middle- income countries maternal/perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with preeclampsia are high due to the lack of proper prenatal and hospital care and limited access to neonatal intensive care. The objectives of our study were to determine the association of long in...

  11. A Review of Previous Studies on Information Processing in Career Decision Making among University Students

    OpenAIRE

    池田, 智子; Satoko, Ikeda

    2018-01-01

    This review of the researches of career choice of Japanese university students focused the studies on decision-making theory conducted in Japan. The present review suggested the necessity of examination of the effect of self-efficacy about career information search on the process of career choice. It is also needed to examine the relationship between specific self-efficacy about career information search and career decision-making self-efficacy, moreover, general self-efficacy.

  12. A Comment Upon Previous Studies on 3-D Boundary Layer Transition

    OpenAIRE

    ÇARPINLIOĞLU, Melda Özdinç

    2014-01-01

    The common feature of the experimental studies upon 3-D boundary layer development on swept flat plates cited in the available literature is the application of streamwise and/or spanwise pressure gradients. In fact; presence of the pressure gradients was suggested to be vital for having crossflow effective in 3-D boundary layer transition. In the presented paper here, this idea is questioned evaluating the results of an experimental investigation conducted on swept flat plates under the ab...

  13. Neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic comorbidities in patients with previously diagnosed Cushing's disease: a longitudinal observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Dimopoulou, C; Geraedts, V; Stalla, G K; Sievers, C

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Only few studies have systematically investigated neuropsychiatric aspects in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Pain syndromes have been described in patients with pituitary adenomas, but so far no systematical investigation has been conducted in patients with CD. Additionally, CD has an association with cardiometabolic comorbidities which ultimately leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Long-term treatment of the hypercortisolic state cannot prevent the persistence of...

  14. A New Zealand based cohort study of anaesthetic trainees' career outcomes compared with previously expressed intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, E M L; French, R A; Kennedy, R R

    2011-09-01

    Predicting workforce requirements is a difficult but necessary part of health resource planning. A 'snapshot' workforce survey undertaken in 2002 examined issues that New Zealand anaesthesia trainees expected would influence their choice of future workplace. We have restudied the same cohort to see if that workforce survey was a good predictor of outcome. Seventy (51%) of 138 surveys were completed in 2009 compared with 100 (80%) of 138 in the 2002 survey. Eighty percent of the 2002 respondents planned consultant positions in New Zealand. We found 64% of respondents were working in New Zealand (P New Zealand based respondents but only 40% of those living outside New Zealand agreed or strongly agreed with this statement (P New Zealand but was important for only 2% of those resident in New Zealand (P New Zealand were predominantly between NZ$150,000 and $200,000 while those overseas received between NZ$300,000 and $400,000. Of those that are resident in New Zealand, 84% had studied in a New Zealand medical school compared with 52% of those currently working overseas (P < 0.01). Our study shows that stated career intentions in a group do not predict the actual group outcomes. We suggest that 'snapshot' studies examining workforce intentions are of little value for workforce planning. However we believe an ongoing program matching career aspirations against career outcomes would be a useful tool in workforce planning.

  15. Trajectory Browser Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Cyrus; Jaroux, Belgacem A.

    2012-01-01

    The Trajectory Browser is a web-based tool developed at the NASA Ames Research Center to be used for the preliminary assessment of trajectories to small-bodies and planets and for providing relevant launch date, time-of-flight and V requirements. The site hosts a database of transfer trajectories from Earth to asteroids and planets for various types of missions such as rendezvous, sample return or flybys. A search engine allows the user to find trajectories meeting desired constraints on the launch window, mission duration and delta V capability, while a trajectory viewer tool allows the visualization of the heliocentric trajectory and the detailed mission itinerary. The anticipated user base of this tool consists primarily of scientists and engineers designing interplanetary missions in the context of pre-phase A studies, particularly for performing accessibility surveys to large populations of small-bodies. The educational potential of the website is also recognized for academia and the public with regards to trajectory design, a field that has generally been poorly understood by the public. The website is currently hosted on NASA-internal URL http://trajbrowser.arc.nasa.gov/ with plans for a public release as soon as development is complete.

  16. Trajectories of Heroin Addiction: Growth Mixture Modeling Results Based on a 33-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang, David; Chou, Chih-Ping; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates trajectories of heroin use and subsequent consequences in a sample of 471 male heroin addicts who were admitted to the California Civil Addict Program in 1964-1965 and followed over 33 years. Applying a two-part growth mixture modeling strategy to heroin use level during the first 16 years of the addiction careers since…

  17. Adatom Bond Dissociation in the Collision Between an Adsorbed Atom and Incident Diatomic Molecule: A Classical Trajectory Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayhan, U.

    2004-01-01

    The collisional dissociation of the Atom-Surface bond in the diatomic molecule (gas) / atom (ads) collision taking place on a bcc-structure surface have been studied by classical trajectory methods over the collision energy ranges and the attractive well depth of the diatomic molecule (gas) / atom (ads) interactions

  18. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Blood Pressure Trajectories From Childhood to Young Adulthood The Georgia Stress and Heart Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Shaoyong; Wang, Xiaoling; Pollock, Jennifer S.; Treiber, Frank A.; Xu, Xiaojing; Snieder, Harold; McCall, W. Vaughn; Stefanek, Michael; Harshfield, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Background-The purposes of this study were to assess the long-term effect of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood to young adulthood and to examine whether this relation is explained by childhood socioeconomic status (SES) or risk behaviors that are

  19. Trajectories of Symptoms and Impairment for Pediatric Patients with Functional Abdominal Pain: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Shelagh; Lambert, E. Warren; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study characterizes trajectories of symptoms and impairment in pediatric patients with abdominal pain not associated with identifiable organic disease. Method: The Children's Somatization Inventory and the Functional Disability Inventory were administered four times over 5 years to 132 patients (6-18 years old) seen in…

  20. Socioeconomic differences in children’s television viewing trajectory: A population-based prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grieken, Amy; Moll, Henriëtte A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Wijtzes, Anne I.; Raat, Hein

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between family socioeconomic status and repeatedly measured child television viewing time from early childhood to the school period. We analyzed data on 3,561 Dutch children from the Generation R Study, a population-based study in the Netherlands. Parent-reported television viewing time for children aged 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9 years were collected by questionnaires sent from April 2004 until January 2015. Odds ratios of watching television ≥1 hour/day at each age were calculated for children of mothers with low, mid-low, mid-high and high (reference group) education and children from low, middle and high (reference group) income households. A generalized logistic mixed model was used to assess the association between family socioeconomic status and child television viewing time trajectory. The percentage of children watching television ≥1 hour/day increased from age 2 to 9 years for all children (24.2%-85.0% for children of low-educated mothers; 4.7%-61.4% for children of high-educated mothers; 17.2%-74.9% for children from low income households; 6.2%-65.1% for children from high income households). Independent socioeconomic effect in child television viewing time was found for maternal educational level. The interaction between net household income and child age in longitudinal analyses was significant (p = 0.01), indicating that the television viewing time trajectories were different in household income subgroups. However the interaction between maternal educational level and child age was not significant (p = 0.19). Inverse socioeconomic gradients in child television viewing time were found from the preschool period to the late school period. The educational differences between the various educational subgroups remained stable with increasing age, but the differences between household income groups changed over time. Intervention developers and healthcare practitioners need to raise awareness among non-highly educated parents

  1. Socioeconomic differences in children's television viewing trajectory: A population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang-Huang, Junwen; van Grieken, Amy; Moll, Henriëtte A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Wijtzes, Anne I; Raat, Hein

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between family socioeconomic status and repeatedly measured child television viewing time from early childhood to the school period. We analyzed data on 3,561 Dutch children from the Generation R Study, a population-based study in the Netherlands. Parent-reported television viewing time for children aged 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9 years were collected by questionnaires sent from April 2004 until January 2015. Odds ratios of watching television ≥1 hour/day at each age were calculated for children of mothers with low, mid-low, mid-high and high (reference group) education and children from low, middle and high (reference group) income households. A generalized logistic mixed model was used to assess the association between family socioeconomic status and child television viewing time trajectory. The percentage of children watching television ≥1 hour/day increased from age 2 to 9 years for all children (24.2%-85.0% for children of low-educated mothers; 4.7%-61.4% for children of high-educated mothers; 17.2%-74.9% for children from low income households; 6.2%-65.1% for children from high income households). Independent socioeconomic effect in child television viewing time was found for maternal educational level. The interaction between net household income and child age in longitudinal analyses was significant (p = 0.01), indicating that the television viewing time trajectories were different in household income subgroups. However the interaction between maternal educational level and child age was not significant (p = 0.19). Inverse socioeconomic gradients in child television viewing time were found from the preschool period to the late school period. The educational differences between the various educational subgroups remained stable with increasing age, but the differences between household income groups changed over time. Intervention developers and healthcare practitioners need to raise awareness among non-highly educated parents

  2. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB, which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments.A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5.The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers. Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way.Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  3. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf, Ali, E-mail: almakhsme@gmail.com; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  4. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf, Ali; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10 3 MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO 2 eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10 −6 t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10 −6 t SO 2 eq respectively

  5. Quasiclassical trajectory study of the energy transfer in CO2--rare gas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzukawa, H.H. Jr.; Wolfsberg, M.; Thompson, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    Computational methods are presented for the study of collisions between a linear, symmetric triatomic molecule and an atom by three-dimensional quasiclassical trajectory calculations. Application is made to the investigation of translational to rotational and translational to vibrational energy transfer in the systems CO 2 --Kr, CO 2 --Ar, and CO 2 --Ne. Potential-energy surfaces based on spectroscopic and molecular beam scattering data are used. In most of the calculations, the CO 2 molecule is initially in the quantum mechanical zero-point vibrational state and in a rotational state picked from a Boltzmann distribution at 300 0 K. The energy transfer processes are investigated for translational energies ranging from 0.1 to 10 eV. Translational to rotational energy transfer is found to be the major process for CO 2 --rare gas collisions at these energies. Below 1 eV there is very little translational to vibrational energy transfer. The effects of changes in the internal energy of the molecule, in the masses of the collidants, and in the potential-energy parameters are studied in an attempt to gain understanding of the energy transfer processes

  6. Periconception Maternal Folate Status and Human Embryonic Cerebellum Growth Trajectories: The Rotterdam Predict Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene V Koning

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether periconceptional maternal folate status affects human embryonic cerebellar size and growth trajectories. In a prospective periconceptional cohort participants filled out questionnaires and received weekly transvaginal 3D-ultrasounds between 7+0 and 12+6 weeks gestational age (GA. Viable non-malformed singleton pregnancies were selected for cerebellar measurements; transcerebellar diameter, (TCD, left and right cerebellar diameters (LCD, RCD. Linear mixed models were performed to estimate associations between questionnaire data on the timing of maternal folic acid supplement initiation and longitudinal cerebellar measurements as a function of crown-rump length (CRL and GA. Maternal red blood cell folate concentrations were analysed before 8 weeks GA to validate the associations. A total of 263 serial high quality three-dimensional ultrasound scans of 135 pregnancies were studied. Preconceptional compared to postconceptional initiation of folic acid use was associated with slightly larger cerebellar diameters per millimetre increase of CRL (TCD: β = 0.260mm, 95%CI = 0.023-0.491, p<0.05; LCD: β = 0.171mm, 95%CI = 0.038-0.305, p<0.05; RCD: β = 0.156mm, 95%CI = 0.032-0.280, p<0.05 and with proportional cerebellar growth (TCD/CRL:β = 0.015mm/mm, 95%CI = 0.005-0.024, p<0.01; LCD/CRL:β = 0.012mm/mm, 95%CI = 0.005-0.018, p<0.01; RCD/CRL:β = 0.011mm/mm, 95%CI = 0.005-0.017, p<0.01. Cerebellar growth was significantly highest in the third quartile of maternal red blood cell folate levels (1538-1813 nmol/L. These first findings show that periconceptional maternal folate status is associated with human embryonic cerebellar development. Implications of these small but significant variations for fetal cerebellar growth trajectories and the child's neurodevelopmental outcome are yet unknown and warrant further investigation.

  7. Study of 4 trajectories of the DNTE. A pedagogic view of the 4 trajectories studied within the frame of the National Debate on Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Alain; Blanchet, Emmanuel; Finidori, Esther

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this report is, while giving explicit explanations of key variables of the scenarios, to propose a clear and pedagogic analysis of public political measures and of their impact, as well as envisaged technologies for the four trajectories of energy transition defined within the frame of the French National Debate on Energy Transition (DBTE). After a presentation of these four trajectories (DEC for high demand and electricity-based de-carbonation, DIV for average demand and vector diversity, EFF for energy efficiency and vector diversification, and SOB for energy saving and phasing out nuclear), and a presentation of the analysis methodology, a chapter analyses the underlying differences between these scenarios in terms of innovation and standard of living, of final energy consumption, of geography, of development of heat pumps, and of air and sea transport. Technical corrections applied to scenarios are also described. Then, the report proposes a comparative analysis of the evolution of energy demand per sector (housing, office building, transports, industry, agriculture) according to the four different scenarios, a comparative analysis of the evolution of energy production per vector (electricity, gas networks, heat networks, biomass) with an assessment in terms of primary energy, a discussion of issues related to research, innovation and development of technologies, and a discussion of the evolution of consumptions of fossil energies and renewable energies, of the share of renewable energies in final consumption, and of the level of greenhouse gas emissions. The last part discusses some lessons learned from this comparative analysis. Other interesting scenarios (Negatep, Ancre Div, Ademe, Negawatt) are presented in appendix, as well as some graphical representations of the developed analysis

  8. Long range trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    1967-07-01

    results of that study, and in particular, information that may help to evaluate the significance of a trajectory endpoint, whether it is predicted, reconstructed from wind data, or obtained from a single tracer. (author)

  9. Trajectories of problem video gaming among adult regular gamers: an 18-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    A three-wave, longitudinal study examined the long-term trajectory of problem gaming symptoms among adult regular video gamers. Potential changes in problem gaming status were assessed at two intervals using an online survey over an 18-month period. Participants (N=117) were recruited by an advertisement posted on the public forums of multiple Australian video game-related websites. Inclusion criteria were being of adult age and having a video gaming history of at least 1 hour of gaming every week over the past 3 months. Two groups of adult video gamers were identified: those players who did (N=37) and those who did not (N=80) identify as having a serious gaming problem at the initial survey intake. The results showed that regular gamers who self-identified as having a video gaming problem at baseline reported more severe problem gaming symptoms than normal gamers, at all time points. However, both groups experienced a significant decline in problem gaming symptoms over an 18-month period, controlling for age, video gaming activity, and psychopathological symptoms.

  10. Trajectory of sleep disturbances in patients undergoing lung cancer surgery: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Ingrid Helene; Westgaard, Therese Krystad; Wahba, Alexander; Oksholm, Trine; Rustøen, Tone; Gjeilo, Kari Hanne

    2017-08-01

    Patients with lung cancer report sleep difficulties to be frequent and bothersome symptoms. This study describes the trajectory of sleep from before and up to 12 months after surgery for lung cancer. Further, it investigates possible associations between sleep disturbance, demographic and clinical characteristics before surgery. This study is part of a longitudinal multicentre study. Sleep disturbance was measured by The General Sleep Disturbance Scale (GSDS) that investigates frequencies of sleep difficulties (21 items) and a total sum score ≥43 indicates a clinically meaningful level of sleep disturbance (score range 0-147). Linear mixed models were used to study changes in sleep from baseline to 1, 5, 9 and 12 months after surgery. The percentage of patients (n = 264) reporting sleep disturbances was 60.9% at baseline, 68.5% at Month 1, 55.4% at Month 5, 51.3% at Month 9 and 49.7% at Month 12. The increase to and decrease from Month 1 was the only significant alteration in the occurrence of sleep disturbance. The patients reported most problems within the subscales sleep quantity, early awakenings and sleep quality. Factors associated with sleep disturbance were lower age, use of pain medication and psychotropic medication and higher comorbidity score. Lung cancer patients sleep poorly, before as well as after surgery. There is a need to address sleeping disturbance routinely in clinical practice and screening for sleeping problems is indicated. Further studies are warranted concerning factors that contribute to sleep disturbance and how they best can be treated. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of talcum charging status in parallel plate electrostatic separator based on particle trajectory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunxiao, CAO; Zhiqiang, WANG; Jinjun, WANG; Guofeng, LI

    2018-05-01

    Electrostatic separation has been extensively used in mineral processing, and has the potential to separate gangue minerals from raw talcum ore. As for electrostatic separation, the particle charging status is one of important influence factors. To describe the talcum particle charging status in a parallel plate electrostatic separator accurately, this paper proposes a modern images processing method. Based on the actual trajectories obtained from sequence images of particle movement and the analysis of physical forces applied on a charged particle, a numerical model is built, which could calculate the charge-to-mass ratios represented as the charging status of particle and simulate the particle trajectories. The simulated trajectories agree well with the experimental results obtained by images processing. In addition, chemical composition analysis is employed to reveal the relationship between ferrum gangue mineral content and charge-to-mass ratios. Research results show that the proposed method is effective for describing the particle charging status in electrostatic separation.

  12. Trajectory parameterization-A new approach to the study of the cosmic ray penumbra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    A new approach to the examination of the structure of the cosmic ray penumbra has been developed, which, while utilizing the speed, efficiency and ''real'' geomagnetic field modeling capabilities of the digital computer, yields an analytical insight equivalent to that of the earlier and elegant approaches of Stormer, and of Lemaitre and Vallarta. The method involves an assigning of parameters to trajectory features in order to allow the structure and properties of the penumbra to be systematically related to trajectory configuration by means of an automated set of computer procedures. Initial use of this ''trajectory parameterization'' technique to explore the form and stability of the penumbra has yielded new and important knowledge of the penumbra and its phenomenology. Among the new findings is the discovery of isolated forbidden penumbral ''islands.''

  13. Trajectories and the influencing factors of behavior problems in preschool children: a longitudinal study in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Peng; Jing, Jin; Jin, Yu; Hu, Xumin; Liu, Buyun; Hu, Min

    2016-06-01

    Since child mental health problem was a global health issue, many researchers in western countries has focused on the trajectory of it to provide evidence for prevention programs. We designed this study to determine the trajectories of children's behavior problems, and to explore the effect of parent predictors on children's behavior problems in Guangzhou, China. Children (N = 1480) for this longitudinal, population-based survey, were recruited from eight regular kindergartens (October, 2010) across four districts in Guangzhou. Repeated measurement design analysis was used to compare the variation in behavioral problems by gender, only child status, and temperament. Logistic regression was applied to analyze the effect of parents' risks (maternal depression, parenting style) on the change in child problem behaviors. The scores of behavior problems (externalizing, emotional, social communication problems) were stable during the entire preschool period by gender and child number. Children with difficult temperament exhibited more problem behaviors than children with easy temperament in the early years, and the misbehaviors declined significantly over time. Moreover, maternal depression and the increase in excessive interference/over protective or punishing parenting strategies resulted in an increase in child behavior problems. There was no difference between the only-child status and child with siblings in the trajectory of problem behaviors. Parent factors were significant predictions of trajectory of child behavior problem during preschool age.

  14. Ten-year blood pressure trajectories, cardiovascular mortality, and life years lost in 2 extinction cohorts: the Minnesota Business and Professional Men Study and the Zutphen Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielemans, Susanne M A J; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Menotti, Alessandro; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Jacobs, David R; Blackburn, Henry; Kromhout, Daan

    2015-03-09

    Blood pressure (BP) trajectories derived from measurements repeated over years have low measurement error and may improve cardiovascular disease prediction compared to single, average, and usual BP (single BP adjusted for regression dilution). We characterized 10-year BP trajectories and examined their association with cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and life years lost. Data from 2 prospective and nearly extinct cohorts of middle-aged men—the Minnesota Business and Professional Men Study (n=261) and the Zutphen Study (n=632)—were used. BP was measured annually during 1947-1957 in Minnesota and 1960-1970 in Zutphen. BP trajectories were identified by latent mixture modeling. Cox proportional hazards and linear regression models examined BP trajectories with cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and life years lost. Associations were adjusted for age, serum cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes mellitus. Mean initial age was about 50 years in both cohorts. After 10 years of BP measurements, men were followed until death on average 20 years later. All Minnesota men and 98% of Zutphen men died. Four BP trajectories were identified, in which mean systolic BP increased by 5 to 49 mm Hg in Minnesota and 5 to 20 mm Hg in Zutphen between age 50 and 60. The third systolic BP trajectories were associated with 2 to 4 times higher cardiovascular mortality risk, 2 times higher all-cause mortality risk, and 4 to 8 life years lost, compared to the first trajectory. Ten-year BP trajectories were the strongest predictors, among different BP measures, of cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and life years lost in Minnesota. However, average BP was the strongest predictor in Zutphen. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. Ifosfamide in previously untreated disseminated neuroblastoma. Results of Study 3A of the European Neuroblastoma Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, S J; De Kraker, J; Lilleyman, J S; Bowman, A; Pritchard, J

    1988-05-01

    A prospective study of the effectiveness of ifosfamide as a single agent in the management of previously untreated patients with Evans stage IV neuroblastoma was undertaken. Eighteen children aged more than 1 year were treated with ifosfamide (IFX) 3 g/m2 daily for 2 days immediately after diagnosis and 3 weeks later. Treatment was continued with combination chemotherapy using vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatinum and etoposide (OPEC) or a variant. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulphonate) was given to all patients during IFX treatment to prevent urotoxicity. Eight of the 18 patients (44%) responded to IFX. Nine had greater than 66% reduction in baseline tumor volume. Of 15 evaluable patients with raised pre-treatment urinary catecholamine excretion, six (40%) achieved greater than 50% reduction in pretreatment levels. Two of 10 patients evaluable for bone marrow response had complete clearance. Toxicity was mild in all patients. Upon completing 'first line' therapy, only four patients (22%) achieved a good partial remission (GPR) or complete response (CR). Median survival was 11 months. There was a lower rate of attaining GPR and shortened median survival in patients receiving phase II IFX before OPEC or variant, compared to patients with similar pre-treatment characteristics treated with OPEC from diagnosis in an earlier study.

  16. Trajectories of Verbal Episodic Memory in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaya, Beatriz; Bobak, Martin; Haro, Josep Maria; Demakakos, Panayotes

    2017-06-01

    To identify distinct latent groups of baseline levels and age-related decline in verbal episodic memory in middle-aged and older adults, and to identify factors associated with these trajectories. Longitudinal study of six data collections over a period of 10 years. Population-based cohort in England. 9,515 community-dwelling adults aged 50-79 years. Six repeated measurements of immediate and delayed recall of 10 words over 10-year follow-up. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify patterns of baseline levels and subsequent decline in memory in two age categories (50-64 and 65-79 years), and to investigate associations between trajectories and baseline predictors of group membership (gender, education, household wealth, marital status, smoking and physical activity) and time-varying covariates (depressive symptoms and number of chronic conditions). Four trajectories were identified and labelled according to baseline status and decline in memory: very low/decline (9.8%), low/stable (40.2%), average/stable (39.5%) and good/stable (10.5%) in the younger group, and very low/rapid decline (15.7%), low/decline (32.0%), average/stable (38.8%), and good/stable (13.5%) in older participants. In people with stable or declining trajectories, a higher number of depressive symptoms and the presence of cardiovascular diseases were associated with worse memory. Female sex, younger age, and higher education, wealth and physical activity were consistently associated with more favourable trajectories. We identified four memory trajectories. Factors known to be associated with cognitive reserve (such as education, wealth and physical activity) were associated with better memory function while depressive symptoms and cardiovascular disease were associated with poorer memory. This suggests that interventions to reduce depressive symptoms and better manage cardiovascular risk factors and disease in midlife may help prevent or delay future memory decline. © 2017, Copyright

  17. The Career Trajectories of English Language Teachers. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Penny, Ed.; Craig, Cheryl, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This volume identifies, illustrates, compares, contrasts and provides informed reflective commentary on the diverse career trajectories of English language teachers, teacher educators and researchers. Increased migration and globalisation pressures have led to dramatic changes in English language teaching over the last few decades. The resulting…

  18. Evaluating management risks using landscape trajectory analysis: a case study of California fisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Thompson; William J. Zielinski; Kathryn L. Purcell

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem management requires an understanding of how landscapes vary in space and time, how this variation can be affected by management decisions or stochastic events, and the potential consequences for species. Landscape trajectory analysis, coupled with a basic knowledge of species habitat selection, offers a straightforward approach to ecological risk analysis and...

  19. Experimentally Measured Susceptibility to Peer Influence and Adolescent Sexual Behavior Trajectories: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving…

  20. Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choukas-Bradley, S.; Giletta, M.; Widman, L.; Cohen, G.L.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat

  1. Tutorship and Academic Trajectories in School: Comparative Study in Two Public Universities in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Emma Leticia Canales; Robelo, Octaviano García

    2015-01-01

    This work reports on the results of research on modalities of mentoring in the area of social sciences at two Mexican universities and their relationship with the academic trajectories of their students. The analysis focuses on the need to identify influences of different mentoring forms on students' academic performance. The theoretical…

  2. Design Decisions in Developing Learning Trajectories-Based Assessments in Mathematics: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; Confrey, Jere; Maloney, Alan; Rupp, André A.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the design decisions of a team developing diagnostic assessments for a learning trajectory focused on rational number reasoning. The analysis focuses on the design rationale for key decisions about how to develop the cognitive assessments and related validity arguments within a fluid state and national policy context. The…

  3. Periconception Maternal Folate Status and Human Embryonic Cerebellum Growth Trajectories : The Rotterdam Predict Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Irene V; Groenenberg, Irene A L; Gotink, Anniek W; Willemsen, Sten P; Gijtenbeek, Manon; Dudink, Jeroen; Go, Attie T J I; Reiss, Irwin K M; Steegers, Eric A P; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether periconceptional maternal folate status affects human embryonic cerebellar size and growth trajectories. In a prospective periconceptional cohort participants filled out questionnaires and received weekly transvaginal 3D-ultrasounds between 7+0 and 12+6 weeks

  4. Sexual risk behaviour trajectories among men who have sex with menat risk for HIV in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: a 10 year follow-up study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Maartje; Heijne, Janneke Cornelia Maria; Geskus, Ronald; Daas, Chantal Den; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Matser, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Sexual risk behaviour changes during a person's life course. Insights in sexual risk behaviour trajectories of MSM may provide starting points for the timing of HIV prevention methods. We aimed to study longitudinal trajectories of sexual risk behaviour predictive of HIV acquisition from sexual

  5. Assessing transition trajectories towards a sustainable energy system: A case study on the Dutch transition to climate-neutral transport fuel chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurs, R.A.A.; Hekkert, M.P.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Nieuwlaar, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for the ex ante evaluation of technological trajectories. As a case we study the Dutch transport energy system and its transition to climate neutrality. Two technological trajectories are proposed: (i) a sequence of transition steps based on radical infrastructural

  6. Studying precipitation recycling over the Tibetan Plateau using evaporation-tagging and back-trajectory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Regional precipitation recycling (i.e., the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation) is an important component of water cycle over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Two methods were used to investigate regional precipitation recycling: 1) tracking of tagged atmospheric water parcels originating from evaporation in a source region (i.e., E-tagging), and 2) back-trajectory approach to track the evaporative sources contributed to precipitation in a specific region. These two methods were applied to Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate simulations to quantify the precipitation recycling ratio in the TP for three selected years: climatologically normal, dry and wet year. The simulation region is characterized by high average elevation above 4000 m and complex terrain. The back-trajectory approach is also calculated over three sub-regions over the TP: namely western, northeastern and southeastern TP, and the E-tagging approach could provide recycling-ratio distributions over the whole TP. Three aspects are investigated to characterize the precipitation recycling: annual mean, seasonal variations and spatial distributions. Averaged over the TP, the precipitation recycling ratio estimated by the E-tagging approach is higher than that from the back-trajectory method. The back-trajectory approach uses a precipitation threshold as total precipitation in five days divided by a random number, and this number was set to 500 as a tread off between equilibrium and computational efficiency. Lower recycling ratio derived from the back-trajectory approach is related to the precipitation threshold used. The E-tagging, however, tracks every air parcel of evaporation regardless of the precipitation amount. There is no obvious seasonal variation in the recycling ratio using both methods. The E-tagging approach shows high recycling ratios in the center TP, indicating stronger land-atmospheric interactions than elsewhere.

  7. The life trajectories modality of oral history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explore the potential of qualitative research. It presents the life trajectory modality of the oral history method, to discuss the possibility of its utilization in scientific research in the Social Work profession. The epistemological foundations of oral history are discussed to establish its scientific character. The life trajectories modality is presented as a historic and social construction that utilizes different interview techniques to give voice to previously invisible subjects, indicating the principal phases of the methodological procedures used in this approach. The conclusions highlight the importance of the construction of this model and its projection as a research proposal that implies a process of understanding and analyzing the social universes that are contextualized and interconnected, considering the realities of the life trajectories of the subjects studied.

  8. Signatures of unstable semiclassical trajectories in tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levkov, D G; Panin, A G; Sibiryakov, S M

    2009-01-01

    It was found recently that processes of multidimensional tunneling are generally described at high energies by unstable semiclassical trajectories. We study two observational signatures related to the instability of trajectories. First, we find an additional power-law dependence of the tunneling probability on the semiclassical parameter as compared to the standard case of potential tunneling. The second signature is a substantial widening of the probability distribution over final-state quantum numbers. These effects are studied using a modified semiclassical technique which incorporates stabilization of the tunneling trajectories. The technique is derived from first principles. We obtain expressions for the inclusive and exclusive tunneling probabilities in the case of unstable semiclassical trajectories. We also investigate the 'phase transition' between the cases of stable and unstable trajectories across certain 'critical' values of energy. Finally, we derive the relation between the semiclassical probabilities of tunneling from the low-lying and highly excited initial states. This puts on firm ground a conjecture made previously in the semiclassical description of collision-induced tunneling in field theory

  9. Latent trajectories of internalizing symptoms from preschool to school age: A multi-informant study in a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Annette M; Schlesier-Michel, Andrea; Otto, Yvonne; White, Lars O; Andreas, Anna; Sierau, Susan; Bergmann, Sarah; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kai

    2018-04-29

    Recent proposals suggest early adversity sets in motion particularly chronic and neurobiologically distinct trajectories of internalizing symptoms. However, few prospective studies in high-risk samples delineate distinct trajectories of internalizing symptoms from preschool age onward. We examined trajectories in a high-risk cohort, oversampled for internalizing symptoms, several preschool risk/maintenance factors, and school-age outcomes. Parents of 325 children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire on up to four waves of data collection from preschool (3-5 years) to school age (8-9 years) and Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interviews at both ages. Multi-informant data were collected on risk factors and symptoms. Growth mixture modelling identified four trajectory classes of internalizing symptoms with stable low, rising low-to-moderate, stable moderate, and stable high symptoms. Children in the stable high symptom trajectory manifested clinically relevant internalizing symptoms, mainly diagnosed with anxiety disorders/depression at preschool and school age. Trajectories differed regarding loss/separation experience, maltreatment, maternal psychopathology, temperament, and stress-hormone regulation with loss/separation, temperament, maternal psychopathology, and stress-hormone regulation (trend) significantly contributing to explained variance. At school age, trajectories continued to differ on symptoms, disorders, and impairment. Our study is among the first to show that severe early adversity may trigger a chronic and neurobiologically distinct internalizing trajectory from preschool age onward.

  10. Symptom Trajectories Among Child Survivors of Maltreatment: Findings from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Dean; Armour, Cherie

    2016-02-01

    Very few studies have investigated the longitudinal trajectory of depression and anxiety related symptomatology among child victims of maltreatment or among those at risk for maltreatment. The current study examined latent class trajectories of anxiety/depression symptoms in a sample of 1354 (n = 657 boys, n = 697 girls) victimized or at risk children using data collected from the Longtitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Four trajectory groups were identified labeled low-stable, moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing. This study also sought to investigate predictors of group membership. Relative to the low-stable group, membership in the three more pathological groups (i.e., moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing) was predicted by a greater number of maltreatment allegations, more visits to a primary care physician for psychological issues, less perceived support by primary maternal caregiver, and lower rated popularity of the child. Implications for early identification of child maltreatment victims in primary health care settings was discussed.

  11. TrajGraph: A Graph-Based Visual Analytics Approach to Studying Urban Network Centralities Using Taxi Trajectory Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoke; Zhao, Ye; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Chong; Ma, Chao; Ye, Xinyue

    2016-01-01

    We propose TrajGraph, a new visual analytics method, for studying urban mobility patterns by integrating graph modeling and visual analysis with taxi trajectory data. A special graph is created to store and manifest real traffic information recorded by taxi trajectories over city streets. It conveys urban transportation dynamics which can be discovered by applying graph analysis algorithms. To support interactive, multiscale visual analytics, a graph partitioning algorithm is applied to create region-level graphs which have smaller size than the original street-level graph. Graph centralities, including Pagerank and betweenness, are computed to characterize the time-varying importance of different urban regions. The centralities are visualized by three coordinated views including a node-link graph view, a map view and a temporal information view. Users can interactively examine the importance of streets to discover and assess city traffic patterns. We have implemented a fully working prototype of this approach and evaluated it using massive taxi trajectories of Shenzhen, China. TrajGraph's capability in revealing the importance of city streets was evaluated by comparing the calculated centralities with the subjective evaluations from a group of drivers in Shenzhen. Feedback from a domain expert was collected. The effectiveness of the visual interface was evaluated through a formal user study. We also present several examples and a case study to demonstrate the usefulness of TrajGraph in urban transportation analysis.

  12. Estimating the effect of current, previous and never use of drugs in studies based on prescription registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    of this misclassification for analysing the risk of breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prescription data were obtained from Danish Registry of Medicinal Products Statistics and we applied various methods to approximate treatment episodes. We analysed the duration of HT episodes to study the ability to identify......PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do...... not carry any information on the time of discontinuation of treatment.In this study, we investigated the amount of misclassification of exposure (never, current, previous use) to hormone therapy (HT) when the exposure variable was based on prescription data. Furthermore, we evaluated the significance...

  13. A classical trajectory study of the photodissociation of T1 acetaldehyde: The transition from impulsive to statistical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Keiran C.; Crittenden, Deborah L.; Kable, Scott H.; Jordan, Meredith J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Previous experimental and theoretical studies of the radical dissociation channel of T 1 acetaldehyde show conflicting behavior in the HCO and CH 3 product distributions. To resolve these conflicts, a full-dimensional potential-energy surface for the dissociation of CH 3 CHO into HCO and CH 3 fragments over the barrier on the T 1 surface is developed based on RO-CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ(DZ) ab initio calculations. 20 000 classical trajectories are calculated on this surface at each of five initial excess energies, spanning the excitation energies used in previous experimental studies, and translational, vibrational, and rotational distributions of the radical products are determined. For excess energies near the dissociation threshold, both the HCO and CH 3 products are vibrationally cold; there is a small amount of HCO rotational excitation and little CH 3 rotational excitation, and the reaction energy is partitioned dominantly (>90% at threshold) into relative translational motion. Close to threshold the HCO and CH 3 rotational distributions are symmetrically shaped, resembling a Gaussian function, in agreement with observed experimental HCO rotational distributions. As the excess energy increases the calculated HCO and CH 3 rotational distributions are observed to change from a Gaussian shape at threshold to one more resembling a Boltzmann distribution, a behavior also seen by various experimental groups. Thus the distribution of energy in these rotational degrees of freedom is observed to change from nonstatistical to apparently statistical, as excess energy increases. As the energy above threshold increases all the internal and external degrees of freedom are observed to gain population at a similar rate, broadly consistent with equipartitioning of the available energy at the transition state. These observations generally support the practice of separating the reaction dynamics into two reservoirs: an impulsive reservoir, fed by the exit channel dynamics, and a

  14. Latent Trajectories of Trauma Symptoms and Resilience: The 3-Year Longitudinal Prospective USPER Study of Danish Veterans Deployed in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren B.; Karstoft, K. I.; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Checklist (PCL) at 6 occasions from predeployment to 2.5 years postdeployment (study sample = 561). Predeployment vulnerabilities and deployment and postdeployment stressors were also assessed. Results: Six trajectories were identified: a resilient trajectory with low symptom levels across all assessments...... also found. Symptom fluctuation was predicted independently by predeployment risk factors (depression [OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.16-1.39], neuroticism [OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21], and earlier traumas [OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.16]) and deployment-related stressors (danger/injury exposure [OR = 1.20; 95......% CI, 1.04-1.40]), but not by postdeployment stressors. Discussion: The results confirm earlier findings of stress response heterogeneity following military deployment and highlight the impact of predeployment, perideployment, and postdeployment risk factors in predicting PTSD symptomatology and late...

  15. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  16. Trajectory study of supercollision relaxation in highly vibrationally excited pyrazine and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziman; Sansom, Rebecca; Bonella, Sara; Coker, David F; Mullin, Amy S

    2005-09-01

    Classical trajectory calculations were performed to simulate state-resolved energy transfer experiments of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine (E(vib) = 37,900 cm(-1)) and CO(2), which were conducted using a high-resolution transient infrared absorption spectrometer. The goal here is to use classical trajectories to simulate the supercollision energy transfer pathway wherein large amounts of energy are transferred in single collisions in order to compare with experimental results. In the trajectory calculations, Newton's laws of motion are used for the molecular motion, isolated molecules are treated as collections of harmonic oscillators, and intermolecular potentials are formed by pairwise Lennard-Jones potentials. The calculations qualitatively reproduce the observed energy partitioning in the scattered CO(2) molecules and show that the relative partitioning between bath rotation and translation is dependent on the moment of inertia of the bath molecule. The simulations show that the low-frequency modes of the vibrationally excited pyrazine contribute most to the strong collisions. The majority of collisions lead to small DeltaE values and primarily involve single encounters between the energy donor and acceptor. The large DeltaE exchanges result from both single impulsive encounters and chattering collisions that involve multiple encounters.

  17. Handling Trajectory Uncertainties for Airborne Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhydt, Richard; Doble, Nathan A.; Karr, David; Palmer, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne conflict management is an enabling capability for NASA's Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept. DAGTM has the goal of significantly increasing capacity within the National Airspace System, while maintaining or improving safety. Under DAG-TM, autonomous aircraft maintain separation from each other and from managed aircraft unequipped for autonomous flight. NASA Langley Research Center has developed the Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP), an onboard decision support system that provides airborne conflict management (ACM) and strategic flight planning support for autonomous aircraft pilots. The AOP performs conflict detection, prevention, and resolution from nearby traffic aircraft and area hazards. Traffic trajectory information is assumed to be provided by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). Reliable trajectory prediction is a key capability for providing effective ACM functions. Trajectory uncertainties due to environmental effects, differences in aircraft systems and performance, and unknown intent information lead to prediction errors that can adversely affect AOP performance. To accommodate these uncertainties, the AOP has been enhanced to create cross-track, vertical, and along-track buffers along the predicted trajectories of both ownship and traffic aircraft. These buffers will be structured based on prediction errors noted from previous simulations such as a recent Joint Experiment between NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers and from other outside studies. Currently defined ADS-B parameters related to navigation capability, trajectory type, and path conformance will be used to support the algorithms that generate the buffers.

  18. Albumin, Hemoglobin, and the Trajectory of Cognitive Function in Community-Dwelling Older Japanese: A 13-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, H; Shinkai, S; Nishi, M; Taniguchi, Y; Amano, H; Seino, S; Yokoyama, Y; Yoshida, H; Fujiwara, Y; Ito, H

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive function can substantially decline over a long period, and understanding the trajectory of cognitive function is important. However, little is known about the linkage between nutritional biomarkers and long-term cognitive change. We analyzed 13-year longitudinal data for older Japanese to examine the associations of serum albumin and hemoglobin levels with the trajectory of cognitive function. Longitudinal study. Community-based. A total of 1,744 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older who participated in annual health examinations in Kusatsu town, Gunma Prefecture, Japan, from 2002-2014. Cognitive function was assessed annually by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Albumin and hemoglobin levels at baseline (the year when a respondent first participated in the health examination) were divided into quartiles. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze intrapersonal and interpersonal differences in cognitive function. Participants' MMSE scores decreased at an accelerated rate over the 13-year period. Participants with the lowest baseline albumin level (below the first quartile line) showed a greater accelerated decline in MMSE scores over time, compared with those with the highest level (above the third quartile line). Moreover, MMSE scores in participants with a lower hemoglobin level and lower MMSE score at baseline tended to decline faster over time at an accelerated rate. These findings yield new insights about the complex and diverse roles of these nutritional biomarkers on the trajectory of cognitive function in old age.

  19. Trajectories of neighborhood poverty and associations with subclinical atherosclerosis and associated risk factors: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Emily T; Diez Roux, Ana V; Carnethon, Mercedes; Lutsey, Pamela L; Ni, Hanyu; O'Meara, Ellen S

    2010-05-15

    The authors used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and latent trajectory class modeling to determine patterns of neighborhood poverty over 20 years (1980-2000 residential history questionnaires were geocoded and linked to US Census data). Using these patterns, the authors examined 1) whether trajectories of neighborhood poverty were associated with differences in the amount of subclinical atherosclerosis (common carotid intimal-media thickness) and 2) associated risk factors (body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking) at baseline (January 2000-August 2002). The authors found evidence of 5 stable trajectory groups with differing levels of neighborhood poverty ( approximately 6%, 12%, 20%, 30%, and 45%) and 1 group with 29% poverty in 1980 and approximately 11% in 2000. Mostly for women, higher cumulative neighborhood poverty was generally significantly associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes. Trends generally persisted after adjustment for adulthood socioeconomic position and race/ethnicity, although they were no longer statistically significant. Among women who had moved during the 20 years, the long-term measure had stronger associations with outcomes (except smoking) than a single, contemporaneous measure. Results indicate that cumulative 20-year exposure to neighborhood poverty is associated with greater cardiovascular risk for women. In residentially mobile populations, single-point-in-time measures underestimate long-term effects.

  20. Combined effect of education and reproductive history on weight trajectories of young Australian women: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowko, Natalie; Jones, Mark; Koupil, Ilona; Tooth, Leigh; Mishra, Gita

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the combined effect of education and reproductive history on weight trajectory. The association of education with weight trajectory (1996-2012) in relation to reproductive history was analyzed among 9,336 women (born 1973-1978) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health using random effects models. Compared with women with a university degree/higher, lower-educated women were 2 kg heavier at baseline and gained an additional 0.24 kg/year. Giving birth was associated with an increase in weight which was more pronounced among women having their first birth 32 years. While younger first-time mothers had a steeper weight trajectory (∼+0.16 kg/year, 95% CI: 0.1-0.3), this was less steep among lower-educated women. High-educated women with a second birth between 26 and 32 years had 0.9 kg decreased weight after this birth, while low-educated women gained 0.9 kg. While the effect of having children on weight in young adulthood was minimal, women having their first birth women. Educational differences in weight persisted after accounting for reproductive history, suggesting a need to explore alternative mechanisms through which social differences in weight are generated. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  1. Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality) : A longitudinal, multi-domain study on sexual development of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitz, Ellen; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan; Dalenberg, Wieke; Dubas, Judith; van Aken, Marcel; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom; van den Eijnden, Regina; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; Kunnen, Saskia; Timmerman, Greetje; van Geert, Paul; Deković, Maja

    2015-01-01

    This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to

  2. Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality): A longitudinal, multi-domain study on sexual development of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitz, E.; van de Bongardt, D.; Baams, L.; Doornwaard, S.; Dalenberg, W.; Dubas, J.; van Aken, M.; Overbeek, G.; ter Bogt, T.; van der Eijnden, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Kunnen, S.; Timmerman, G.; van Geert, P.; Deković, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to

  3. Delineating the trajectories of social and occupational functioning of young people attending early intervention mental health services in Australia: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorfino, Frank; Hermens, Daniel F; Cross, Shane Pm; Zmicerevska, Natalia; Nichles, Alissa; Badcock, Caro-Anne; Groot, Josine; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2018-03-27

    Mental disorders typically emerge during adolescence and young adulthood and put young people at risk for prolonged socioeconomic difficulties. This study describes the longitudinal course of social and occupational functioning of young people attending primary care-based, early intervention services. A longitudinal study of young people receiving mental healthcare. Data were collected between January 2005 and August 2017 from a designated primary care-based mental health service. 554 young people (54% women) aged 12-32 years. A systematic medical file audit collected clinical and functional information at predetermined time intervals (ie, 3 months to 5+ years) using a clinical pro forma. Group-based trajectory modelling (GBTM) was used to identify distinct trajectories of social and occupational functioning over time (median number of observations per person=4; median follow-up time=23 months). Between first clinical contact and time last seen, 15% of young people had reliably deteriorated, 23% improved and 62% did not demonstrate substantive change in function. Of the whole cohort, 69% had functional scores less than 70 at time last seen, indicative of ongoing and substantive impairment. GBTM identified six distinct functional trajectories whereby over 60% had moderate-to-serious functional impairment at entry and remained chronically impaired over time; 7% entered with serious impairment and deteriorated further; a quarter were mildly impaired at entry and functionally recovered and only a small minority (4%) presented with serious impairments and functionally improved over time. Not being in education, employment or training, previous hospitalisation and a younger age at baseline emerged as significant predictors of these functional trajectories. Young people with emerging mental disorders have significant functional impairment at presentation for care, and for the majority, it persists over the course of clinical care. In addition to providing clinical care

  4. Child- and parent-reported quality of life trajectories in children with epilepsy: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Avery, Lisa; Fayed, Nora; Streiner, David L; Cunningham, Charles E; Boyle, Michael H; Lach, Lucyna; Glidden, Gina; Rosenbaum, Peter L; Ronen, Gabriel M

    2017-07-01

    To describe the developmental trajectories of quality of life (QoL) in a large cohort of children with epilepsy, and to assess the relative contribution of clinical, psychosocial, and sociodemographic variables on QoL trajectories. Five assessments during a 28-month prospective cohort study were used to model trajectories of QoL. Participants were recruited with their parents from six Canadian tertiary centers. A convenience sample of 506 children aged 8-14 years with epilepsy and without intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder were enrolled. A total of 894 children were eligible and 330 refused participation. Participating children were, on average, 11.4 years of age, and 49% were female. Nearly one third (32%) had partial seizures. At baseline, 479 and 503 child- and parent-reported questionnaires were completed. In total, 354 children (74%) and 366 parents (73%) completed the 28-month follow-up. QoL was measured using the child- and parent-reported version of the Childhood Epilepsy QoL scale (CHEQOL-25). Child-reported QoL was fitted best by a six-class model and parent-reported QoL by a five-class model. In both models, trajectories remained either stable or improved over 28 months. Of these children, 62% rated their QoL as high or moderately high, defined as at least one standard deviation above the average CHEQOL-25 score. Greater family, classmate, and peer social support, fewer symptoms of child and parent depression, and higher receptive vocabulary were identified as the most robust predictors of better QoL (all p < 0.001). Most children with epilepsy and their parents reported relatively good QoL in this first joint self- and proxy-reported trajectory study. Findings confirm the heterogeneous QoL outcomes for children with epilepsy and the primary importance of psychosocial factors rather than seizure and AED-specific factors in influencing QoL. These predictors that are potentially amenable to change should now be the focus of specific

  5. Factors impacting the illness trajectory of post-infectious fatigue syndrome: a qualitative study of adults' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormorken, Eva; Jason, Leonard A; Kirkevold, Marit

    2017-12-13

    Post-infectious fatigue syndrome (PIFS), also known as post-viral fatigue syndrome, is a complex condition resulting in physical, cognitive, emotional, neurological, vocational and/or role performance disabilities in varying degrees that changes over time. The needs for health care resources are high, and costly, as is the economic burden on the affected individuals. Many factors may impact the trajectory, and frequently PIFS develops into a chronic condition. Health professionals lack understanding and knowledge, which results in delayed diagnosis, lack of recognition, appropriate treatment, support and practical help. The aim of our study was to explore, from the perspective of persons who had lived with PIFS for four years following an outbreak of Giardia l. induced enteritis, factors that may have impacted their illness trajectory and how these factors had played a role during different phases. In this retrospective exploratory qualitative study a group of 26 affected adults between 26 and 59 years old were selected for in-depth interviews. A maximum variation sample was recruited from a physician-diagnosed cohort of persons with PIFS enrolled at a tertiary outpatient fatigue clinic. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Unhelpful and helpful factors were associated with the healthcare system, health professionals and the affected persons were experienced as having an impact on the trajectory. External impacting factors which are related to the health care system, providers and the social security system are misdiagnosis, trivialization of symptoms, unhelpful advice, delayed diagnosis and lack of appropriate help. Internal impacting factors related to the affected individuals were lack of knowledge, overestimating functional capacity, assuming the condition will pass, ignoring body signals and denial. A model of impacting factors in each phase of the trajectory is presented. Unmet needs may

  6. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in previously treated patients with diabetic macular edema : Subgroup analysis of the MEAD study

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin, A.J.; Kuppermann, B.D.; Lanzetta, P.; Loewenstein, A.; Li, X.; Cui, H.; Hashad, Y.; Whitcup, S.M.; Abujamra, S.; Acton, J.; Ali, F.; Antoszyk, A.; Awh, C.C.; Barak, A.; Bartz-Schmidt, K.U.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.7?mg (DEX 0.7) was approved for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) after demonstration of its efficacy and safety in the MEAD registration trials. We performed subgroup analysis of MEAD study results to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DEX 0.7 treatment in patients with previously treated DME. Methods Three-year, randomized, sham-controlled phase 3 study in patients with DME, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 34?68 Early Treatment...

  7. Disability Trajectories Before and After Stroke and Myocardial Infarction: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamoon, Mandip S; Longstreth, W T; Bartz, Traci M; Kaplan, Robert C; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-12-01

    = .04) more than tripled after stroke (0.15 additional points per year; 95% CI, 0.004 to 0.30; P = .04). The annual increase in disability before MI (0.04 points per year; 95% CI, 0.004 to 0.08; P = .03) did not change significantly after MI (0.02 additional points per year; 95% CI, -0.07 to 0.11; P = .69). In this large, population-based study, a trajectory of increasing disability became significantly steeper after stroke but not after MI. Thus, in addition to the acute brain injury and consequent impairment, ischemic stroke may also be associated with potentially treatable long-term adverse effects on the brain that lead to accelerated functional decline.

  8. Growing up with Asperger’s syndrome: developmental trajectory of autobiographical memory (a clinical case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia eBon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory and social cognition share common properties and both are affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. So far, most of the scant research in ASD has concerned adults, systematically reporting impairment of the episodic component. The only study to be conducted with children concluded that they have poorer personal semantic knowledge than typical developing children. The present study explores the development of both components of autobiographical memory in an 8-year-old boy diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome, based on three examinations in 2007, 2008 and 2010. On each occasion, he underwent a general neuropsychological assessment including theory of mind tasks, and a specially-designed autobiographical memory task allowing us to test both the semantic and the episodic components for three lifetime periods (current year, previous year and earlier years. We observed difficulties in strategic retrieval and theory of mind, with a significant improvement between the second and third examinations. Regarding autobiographical memory, different patterns of performance were noted in all three examinations: 1 relative preservation of current-year personal knowledge, but impairment for the previous and earlier years, and 2 impairment of episodic memory for the current and previous year, but performances similar to those of controls for the earlier years. The first pattern can be explained by abnormal forgetting and by the semanticization mechanism, which needs verbal communication and social interaction to be efficient. The second pattern suggests that the development of episodic memory only reached the stage of event memory. This term refers to memory for personal events lacking in details or spatiotemporal specificity, and is usually observed in children younger than 5. We conclude that the abnormal functioning of social cognition in ASD, encompassing social and personal points of view, has an impact on both components of

  9. Qualitative to quantitative: linked trajectory of method triangulation in a study on HIV/AIDS in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ajay; Hutter, Inge

    2008-10-01

    With 3.1 million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in India and 39.5 million people globally, the epidemic has posed academics the challenge of identifying behaviours and their underlying beliefs in the effort to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is frequently used to identify risk behaviours and adherence behaviour in the field of HIV/AIDS. Risk behaviour studies that apply HBM have been largely quantitative and use of qualitative methodology is rare. The marriage of qualitative and quantitative methods has never been easy. The challenge is in triangulating the methods. Method triangulation has been largely used to combine insights from the qualitative and quantitative methods but not to link both the methods. In this paper we suggest a linked trajectory of method triangulation (LTMT). The linked trajectory aims to first gather individual level information through in-depth interviews and then to present the information as vignettes in focus group discussions. We thus validate information obtained from in-depth interviews and gather emic concepts that arise from the interaction. We thus capture both the interpretation and the interaction angles of the qualitative method. Further, using the qualitative information gained, a survey is designed. In doing so, the survey questions are grounded and contextualized. We employed this linked trajectory of method triangulation in a study on the risk assessment of HIV/AIDS among migrant and mobile men. Fieldwork was carried out in Goa, India. Data come from two waves of studies, first an explorative qualitative study (2003), second a larger study (2004-2005), including in-depth interviews (25), focus group discussions (21) and a survey (n=1259). By employing the qualitative to quantitative LTMT we can not only contextualize the existing concepts of the HBM, but also validate new concepts and identify new risk groups.

  10. Prenatal exposure to disaster-related traumatic stress and developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood: Superstorm Sandy pregnancy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rajendran, Khushmand; Ham, Jacob; Finik, Jackie; Buthmann, Jessica; Davey, Kei; Pehme, Patricia M; Dana, Kathryn; Pritchett, Alexandra; Laws, Holly; Nomura, Yoko

    2018-07-01

    Little is known about the impact of prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) on the developmental trajectory of temperament and few studies have been able to incorporate a natural disaster as a quasi-experimental stressor. The current study investigated PNMS related to Superstorm Sandy ('Sandy'), a hurricane that struck the New York metropolitan area in October 2012, in terms of objective exposure during pregnancy, subjective stress reaction as assessed by maternal symptoms of post-traumatic stress, and their impact on the developmental changes in temperament during early childhood. A subsample of 318 mother-child dyads was drawn from the Stress in Pregnancy Study. Temperament was measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. Objective exposure was associated with greater High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, Perceptual Sensitivity and Fearfulness, but lower Cuddliness and Duration of Orientation at 6 months. Objective exposure and its interaction with subjective stress reaction predicted developmental changes in temperament. In particular, objective exposure was linked to greater increases in Activity Level but decreases in High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, and Fearfulness. The combination of objective exposure and subjective stress reaction was also associated with greater increases in Activity Level. Temperament was measured solely via maternal report. Trimester-specific effects of Sandy on temperament were not examined. This is the first study to examine the effects of prenatal maternal exposure to a natural disaster on trajectories of early childhood temperament. Findings suggest that both objective stress exposure and subjective stress reaction in-utero predict developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Youth suicide: an insight into previous hospitalisation for injury and sociodemographic conditions from a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Francesco; Laflamme, Lucie; Spolaore, Paolo; Visentin, Cristiana; Hasselberg, Marie

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates the degree to which a previous hospitalisation for injury of any intent is a risk of subsequent youth suicide and whether this association is influenced by family socioeconomic status or economic stress. A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted covering all Swedish subjects born between January 1977 and December 1991 (N=1,616,342, male/female ratio=1.05). The cohort subjects were followed-up from January 1998 to December 2003, when aged 7-26 years. Poisson regression and the likelihood ratio test (95% CI) were used to assess the age-adjusted effect of hospitalisation for injuries of various intent on youth suicide and its effect once adjusted for family sociodemographic and social circumstances. Each set of exposures was associated independently and significantly with suicide mortality. Being hospitalised for self-inflicted injuries or injuries of undetermined intent was associated with a risk of suicide 36 to 47 times, respectively, that of subjects never hospitalised in the period under study (95% CI 28.36 to 45.58 and 26.67 to 83.87 for self-inflicted injuries and for events of undetermined intent, respectively; overall psuicide (RR 3.08; 95% CI 2.26 to 4.19). These effects were solid and not substantially altered after adjustment for family demographic and socioeconomic circumstances. A strong association exists between previous hospitalisation for injury of any intent and youth suicide. The association is robust and unaltered by family socioeconomic circumstances.

  12. Trajectories of health-related quality of life during the natural history of dementia: a six-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongmei; Gao, Caihong; Zhang, Yanbo; He, Runlian; Zhou, Liye; Liang, Ruifeng

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore profiles of quality of life (QoL) trajectories during the natural history of dementia and individual variations contributing to QoL trajectories. We conducted a longitudinal community-based study of 520 elderly people with mild cognitive impairment and 100 healthy people aged 60 years or over. We conducted six waves of assessment between October 2010 and May 2013 in Taiyuan, mainland China. Cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment, global impairment, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) were defined as state 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. We assessed health-related QoL (HRQoL) via the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD) Chinese version. We used the latent growth curve model (LGCM) to investigate change in HRQoL over time. Latent growth curve model analysis revealed a mean initial QoL level of 29.865 with substantial variation and a significant mean slope for the whole sample. Multigroup LGCM showed substantial variations across individuals in initial QoL levels for each cognitive state transition group. For the slope factor, we found significant changes and variations for the transition from state 2 to 3 and from state 3 to 4. We estimated mean QoL levels over six assessments based on intercept, slope, and factor loadings for the whole sample and the three cognitive state transition groups. A decline in subjective QoL is not inevitable during the natural history of dementia in community settings, and there is a degree of individual variation in QoL. Future studies should investigate the factors associated with individual variations in QoL trajectories in AD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Systolic Blood Pressure Trajectory, Frailty, and All-Cause Mortality >80 Years of Age: Cohort Study Using Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindrarajah, Rathi; Hazra, Nisha C; Hamada, Shota; Charlton, Judith; Jackson, Stephen H D; Dregan, Alex; Gulliford, Martin C

    2017-06-13

    Clinical trials show benefit from lowering systolic blood pressure (SBP) in people ≥80 years of age, but nonrandomized epidemiological studies suggest lower SBP may be associated with higher mortality. This study aimed to evaluate associations of SBP with all-cause mortality by frailty category >80 years of age and to evaluate SBP trajectories before death. A population-based cohort study was conducted using electronic health records of 144 403 participants ≥80 years of age registered with family practices in the United Kingdom from 2001 to 2014. Participants were followed for ≤5 years. Clinical records of SBP were analyzed. Frailty status was classified using the e-Frailty Index into the categories of fit, mild, moderate, and severe. All-cause mortality was evaluated by frailty status and mean SBP in Cox proportional-hazards models. SBP trajectories were evaluated using person months as observations, with mean SBP and antihypertensive treatment status estimated for each person month. Fractional polynomial models were used to estimate SBP trajectories over 5 years before death. During follow-up, 51 808 deaths occurred. Mortality rates increased with frailty level and were greatest at SBP mortality was 7.7 per 100 person years at SBP 120 to 139 mm Hg, 15.2 at SBP 110 to 119 mm Hg, and 22.7 at SBP mortality may be accounted for by reverse causation if participants with lower blood pressure values are closer, on average, to the end of life. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Interpreting Early Career Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnatt, Joan; Gahlsdorf Terrell, Dianna; D'Souza, Lisa Andries; Jong, Cindy; Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Viesca, Kara Mitchell; Gleeson, Ann Marie; McQuillan, Patrick; Shakman, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Career decisions of four teachers are explored through the concept of figured worlds in this qualitative, longitudinal case study. Participants were purposefully chosen for similarity at entry, with a range of career trajectories over time. Teacher career paths included remaining in one school, repeated changes in schools, attrition after…

  15. Trajectory structures and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, Madalina; Spineanu, Florin

    2004-01-01

    The special problem of transport in two-dimensional divergence-free stochastic velocity fields is studied by developing a statistical approach, the nested subensemble method. The nonlinear process of trapping determined by such fields generates trajectory structures whose statistical characteristics are determined. These structures strongly influence the transport

  16. Previous Fractures at Multiple Sites Increase the Risk for Subsequent Fractures: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Stephen; Saag, Kenneth G.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Hooven, Fred H.; Flahive, Julie; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Compston, Juliet E.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Netelenbos, J. Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Sambrook, Philip N.; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S.; Watts, Nelson B.; Lindsay, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Previous fractures of the hip, spine, or wrist are well-recognized predictors of future fracture, but the role of other fracture sites is less clear. We sought to assess the relationship between prior fracture at 10 skeletal locations and incident fracture. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) is an observational cohort study being conducted in 17 physician practices in 10 countries. Women ≥ 55 years answered questionnaires at baseline and at 1 and/or 2 years (fractures in previous year). Of 60,393 women enrolled, follow-up data were available for 51,762. Of these, 17.6%, 4.0%, and 1.6% had suffered 1, 2, or ≥3 fractures since age 45. During the first 2 years of follow-up, 3149 women suffered 3683 incident fractures. Compared with women with no prior fractures, women with 1, 2, or ≥ 3 prior fractures were 1.8-, 3.0-, and 4.8-fold more likely to have any incident fracture; those with ≥3 prior fractures were 9.1-fold more likely to sustain a new vertebral fracture. Nine of 10 prior fracture locations were associated with an incident fracture. The strongest predictors of incident spine and hip fractures were prior spine fracture (hazard ratio 7.3) and hip (hazard ratio 3.5). Prior rib fractures were associated with a 2.3-fold risk of subsequent vertebral fracture, previous upper leg fracture predicted a 2.2-fold increased risk of hip fracture; women with a history of ankle fracture were at 1.8-fold risk of future fracture of a weight-bearing bone. Our findings suggest that a broad range of prior fracture sites are associated with an increased risk of incident fractures, with important implications for clinical assessments and risk model development. PMID:22113888

  17. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S

    2015-06-23

    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  18. Everolimus for Previously Treated Advanced Gastric Cancer: Results of the Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III GRANITE-1 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Bai, Yu-Xian; Bang, Yung-Jue; Chung, Hyun-Cheol; Pan, Hong-Ming; Sahmoud, Tarek; Shen, Lin; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Chin, Keisho; Muro, Kei; Kim, Yeul Hong; Ferry, David; Tebbutt, Niall C.; Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Smith, Heind; Costantini, Chiara; Rizvi, Syed; Lebwohl, David; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oral mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus demonstrated promising efficacy in a phase II study of pretreated advanced gastric cancer. This international, double-blind, phase III study compared everolimus efficacy and safety with that of best supportive care (BSC) in previously treated advanced gastric cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of systemic chemotherapy were randomly assigned to everolimus 10 mg/d (assignment schedule: 2:1) or matching placebo, both given with BSC. Randomization was stratified by previous chemotherapy lines (one v two) and region (Asia v rest of the world [ROW]). Treatment continued until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate, and safety. Results Six hundred fifty-six patients (median age, 62.0 years; 73.6% male) were enrolled. Median OS was 5.4 months with everolimus and 4.3 months with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.08; P = .124). Median PFS was 1.7 months and 1.4 months in the everolimus and placebo arms, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78). Common grade 3/4 adverse events included anemia, decreased appetite, and fatigue. The safety profile was similar in patients enrolled in Asia versus ROW. Conclusion Compared with BSC, everolimus did not significantly improve overall survival for advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of previous systemic chemotherapy. The safety profile observed for everolimus was consistent with that observed for everolimus in other cancers. PMID:24043745

  19. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  20. Labour market trajectories following sickness absence due to self-reported all cause morbidity-a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Lund, Thomas; Lindholdt, Louise

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate differences in return to work (RTW) and employment trajectories in individuals on sick leave for either mental health reasons or other health related reasons. METHODS: This study was based on 2036 new sickness absence cases who completed a questionnaire on social charac...... compared to employees on sick leave due to other health reasons. The difference could be explained by their lower RTW expectations at baseline. This emphasises the need to develop suitable and specific interventions to facilitate RTW for this group of sickness absentees....

  1. Study on the effect of sink moving trajectory on wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Peijun; Ruan, Feng

    2018-03-01

    Wireless sensor networks are developing very fast in recent years, due to their wide potential applications. However there exists the so-called hot spot problem, namely the nodes close to static sink node tend to die earlier than other nodes since they have heavier burden to forward. The introduction of mobile sink node can effectively alleviate this problem since sink node can move along certain trajectories, causing hot spot nodes more evenly distributed. In this paper, we make extensive experimental simulations for circular sensor network, with one mobile sink moving along different radius circumference. The whole network is divided into several clusters and there is one cluster head (CH) inside each cluster. The ordinary sensors communicate with CH and CHs construct a chain until the sink node. Simulation results show that the best network performance appears when sink moves along 0.25 R in terms of network lifetime.

  2. Forecasting Public Transit Use by Crowdsensing and Semantic Trajectory Mining: Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningyu Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the growing development of smart cities, public transit forecasting has begun to attract significant attention. In this paper, we propose an approach for forecasting passenger boarding choices and public transit passenger flow. Our prediction model is based on mining common user behaviors for semantic trajectories and enriching features using knowledge from geographic and weather data. All the experimental data comes from the Ridge Nantong Limited bus company and Alibaba platform which is also open to the public. We evaluate our approach using various data sources, including point of interest (POI, weather condition, and public bus information in Guangzhou to demonstrate its effectiveness. Experimental results show that our proposal performs better than baselines in the prediction of passenger boarding choices and public transit passenger flow.

  3. Doxorubicin and ifosfamide combination chemotherapy in previously treated acute leukemia in adults: a Southwest Oncology Group pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D H; Bickers, J N; Vial, R H; Hussein, K; Bottomley, R; Hewlett, J S; Wilson, H E; Stuckey, W J

    1980-01-01

    The Southwest Oncology Group did a limited institutional pilot study of the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide in the treatment of previously treated adult patients with acute leukemia. Thirty-four patients received one or two courses of the combination. All patients had received prior chemotherapy and 32 had received prior anthracycline chemotherapy. Three patients died before their responses could be fully evaluated. Fourteen patients achieved complete remission (41%) and one patient achieved partial remission. The complete remission rate was 27% for patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (myelomonoblastic leukemia, monoblastic leukemia, and erythroleukemia) and 89% for patients with acute lymphocytic and undifferentiated leukemia (ALL). Toxic effects included severe hematologic reactions in 33 of 34 patients, hematuria in six patients, altered sensorium in one patient, and congestive heart failure in one patient. The safety of the combination was established and toxic side effects of this therapy were tolerable. The 89% complete remission rate for previously treated patients with ALL suggests that the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide may be particularly effective in ALL.

  4. Sleep Problem Trajectories and Well-Being in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Kate; Sciberras, Emma; Hiscock, Harriet; Mensah, Fiona K

    2016-06-01

    Sleep problems affect up to 70% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are associated with poorer child and family well-being in cross-sectional studies. However, whether these associations hold longitudinally is unclear. The authors aimed to examine the longitudinal relationship between sleep problem trajectories and well-being in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD (n = 186), aged 5 to 13 years, were recruited from 21 pediatric practices across the state of Victoria, Australia. Sleep problem severity data were collected at 3 time points (baseline, 6, and 12 mo) and were used to classify sleep problem trajectories. Child and family well-being (e.g., child emotional and behavioral problems, quality of life [QoL]) were measured at baseline and 12 months by teacher and/or caregiver-report. The well-being of children with "transient" and "persistent" sleep problems was compared with those "never" experiencing sleep problems using a series of hierarchical linear regression models. After accounting for socio-demographic factors, children with transient and persistent sleep trajectories experienced more caregiver-reported behavioral and emotional problems (effect size [ES] both 0.7) and poorer child QoL (ES: -0.7 and -1.2, respectively). These associations remained after also accounting for ADHD medication and symptom severity and comorbidities, but after accounting for baseline measures many associations weakened to the point of nonsignificance. In the fully adjusted model-transient sleep problems were associated with behavioral and emotional problems (ES: 0.2). These associations were not evident by teacher-report. Children with ADHD experiencing transient or persistent sleep problems have poorer caregiver-reported well-being. Managing sleep problems in children with ADHD may improve child well-being.

  5. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; van Blokland, A.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R; Gerris, J.R.M.; van der Laan, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  6. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Blokland, A.A.J.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  7. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, R.; Espen, P. van; Torres, P.P. Godo

    2006-01-01

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a 241 Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery

  8. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  9. Treatment satisfaction with paliperidone extended-release tablets: open-label study in schizophrenia patients dissatisfied with previous antipsychotic medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang FD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fu De Yang,1 Juan Li,1 Yun Long Tan,1 Wei Ye Liang,1 Rongzhen Zhang,1 Ning Wang,1 Wei Feng,1 Shangli Cai,2 Jian Min Zhuo,2 Li Li Zhang2 1Beijing Hui-Long-Guan Hospital, 2Department of Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Ltd, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in treatment satisfaction after switching to paliperidone extended-release (ER in Chinese schizophrenia patients dissatisfied with their previous antipsychotic treatment.Methods: In this 8-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, prospective study, 1,693 patients dissatisfied with previous antipsychotic medication were enrolled and switched to paliperidone ER tablets (3–12 mg/d based on clinical judgment. The primary efficacy end point was change in Medication Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ score from baseline to week 8. The secondary end points included percentage of patients with MSQ score ≥4, as well as changes in Clinical Global Improvement-Severity (CGI-S and Personal and Social Performance (PSP scores.Results: MSQ scores increased significantly from baseline (mean [standard deviation {SD}]: 2.48 [0.55] to week 8 (5.47 [0.89], P<0.0001; primary end point, full analysis set. The percentage of patients with MSQ score ≥4 was 95.9% at week 8, indicating that most of the patients were satisfied with their treatment. Significant (P<0.0001 improvements from baseline to week 8 were noted in CGI-S score (2.37 [1.20] and PSP score (25.5 [15.0]. A total of 174 (10.28% patients experienced adverse events (AEs. The most common (>10 patients events were extrapyramidal disorder (n=84, 4.96%, poor quality sleep (n=18, 1.06% and akathisia (n=13, 0.77%. The majority of AEs were mild to moderate in severity. No deaths occurred.Conclusion: Treatment satisfaction improved after switching to paliperidone ER from the previous antipsychotic in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Keywords: atypical antipsychotics, open label

  10. Influence of psychosocial risk factors on the trajectory of mental health problems from childhood to adolescence: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatori Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies involving child/adolescent mental health problems are scarce in developing countries, particularly in regions characterized by adverse living conditions. We examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the trajectory of child/adolescent mental health problems (CAMHP over time. Methods A population-based sample of 6- to 13-year-olds with CAMHP was followed-up from 2002–2003 (Time 1/T1 to 2007–2008 (Time 2/T2, with 86 out of 124 eligible children/adolescents at T1 being reassessed at T2 (sample loss: 30.6%. Outcome: CAMHP at T2 according to the Child Behavior Checklist/CBCL’s total problem scale. Psychosocial factors: T1 variables (child/adolescent’s age, family socioeconomic status; trajectory of variables from T1 to T2 (child/adolescent exposure to severe physical punishment, mother exposure to severe physical marital violence, maternal anxiety/depression; and T2 variables (maternal education, child/adolescent’s social support and pro-social activities. Results Multivariate analysis identified two risk factors for child/adolescent MHP at T2: aggravation of child/adolescent physical punishment and aggravation of maternal anxiety/depression. Conclusions The current study shows the importance of considering child/adolescent physical punishment and maternal anxiety/depression in intervention models and mental health care policies.

  11. Trajectory grouping structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Buchin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The collective motion of a set of moving entities like people, birds, or other animals, is characterized by groups arising, merging, splitting, and ending. Given the trajectories of these entities, we define and model a structure that captures all of such changes using the Reeb graph, a concept from topology. The trajectory grouping structure has three natural parameters that allow more global views of the data in group size, group duration, and entity inter-distance. We prove complexity bounds on the maximum number of maximal groups that can be present, and give algorithms to compute the grouping structure efficiently. We also study how the trajectory grouping structure can be made robust, that is, how brief interruptions of groups can be disregarded in the global structure, adding a notion of persistence to the structure. Furthermore, we showcase the results of experiments using data generated by the NetLogo flocking model and from the Starkey project. The Starkey data describe the movement of elk, deer, and cattle. Although there is no ground truth for the grouping structure in this data, the experiments show that the trajectory grouping structure is plausible and has the desired effects when changing the essential parameters. Our research provides the first complete study of trajectory group evolvement, including combinatorial,algorithmic, and experimental results.

  12. Value and reliability of findings from previous epidemiologic studies in the assessment of radiation-related cancer risks. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Martignoni, K.

    1990-01-01

    The theories put forward here are predominantly based on pooled data from previous studies in a number of cohorts made up by mostly non-average individuals. These studies were carried out by various researchers and differed in procedures and aims. Factors of major importance to the validity and reliability of the conclusions drawn from this study are pointed out. In one chapter some light is thrown on factors known to bear a relation to the incidence of radiation-induced cancer of the breast, even though at present this can only very vaguely be described on a quantitative basis. These factors include fractionated dose regimens, pregnancies and parturitions, menarche, menopause, synergisms as well as secondary cancer of the breast. The available body of evidence suggests that exposure of each of 1 million women to a dose of 10 mGy (rad) can be linked with approx. 3 additional cases of mammary cancer reported on an average per year after the latency period. The fact that there is some statistical scatter around this value is chiefly attributable to age-related causes at the beginning of exposure. Differences in ethnic and cultural characteristics between the populations investigated appeared to be less important here. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Barriers to postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Forough; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Mehrdad, Neda; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    Risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Postpartum glycemic screening is recommended in women with recent GDM. But this screening rate is low and the reasons are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Iranian women with recent GDM on barriers of postpartum screening for diabetes. This qualitative study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interview was used for data collection. 22 women with recent GDM were interviewed. These women gave birth in Tehran hospitals at a minimum of 6 months before interview. The missed screening defined as not attending to laboratory for Fasting Blood Sugar and/or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, 6 week to 6 month after their child birthing. The data was analyzed by content analysis method. Themes and sub-themes that illustrated the barriers to postpartum diabetes screening were: inadequate education (about developing diabetes in the future, implementation of the screening, and glucometer validity in diagnosis of diabetes), perceiving the screening as difficult (feeling comfortable with the glucometer, poor laboratory conditions, issues related to the baby/babies, and financial problems), improper attitudes toward the screening (unwilling to get diagnosed, not giving priority to oneself, having false beliefs) and procrastination (gap to intention and action, self-deception and self-regulation failure). Women with recent GDM reported several barriers for postpartum diabetes screening. This study help to develop the evidence-based interventions for improving this screening rate.

  14. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Moshe; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Rosa, Fernanda; Paterakis, Periklis; Milanova, Vihra; Smulevich, Anatoly B; Lahaye, Marjolein; Schreiner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥ 20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤ 5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0 ± 12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥ 20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8 ± 5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥ 7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine.

  15. Proton transfer to charged platinum electrodes. A molecular dynamics trajectory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Florian; Schmickler, Wolfgang; Spohr, Eckhard

    2010-05-05

    A recently developed empirical valence bond (EVB) model for proton transfer on Pt(111) electrodes (Wilhelm et al 2008 J. Phys. Chem. C 112 10814) has been applied in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a water film in contact with a charged Pt surface. A total of seven negative surface charge densities σ between -7.5 and -18.9 µC cm(-2) were investigated. For each value of σ, between 30 and 84 initial conditions of a solvated proton within a water slab were sampled, and the trajectories were integrated until discharge of a proton occurred on the charged surfaces. We have calculated the mean rates for discharge and for adsorption of solvated protons within the adsorbed water layer in contact with the metal electrode as a function of surface charge density. For the less negative values of σ we observe a Tafel-like exponential increase of discharge rate with decreasing σ. At the more negative values this exponential increase levels off and the discharge process is apparently transport limited. Mechanistically, the Tafel regime corresponds to a stepwise proton transfer: first, a proton is transferred from the bulk into the contact water layer, which is followed by transfer of a proton to the charged surface and concomitant discharge. At the more negative surface charge densities the proton transfer into the contact water layer and the transfer of another proton to the surface and its discharge occur almost simultaneously.

  16. Anatomic Assessment of K-Wire Trajectory for Transverse Percutaneous Fixation of Small Finger Metacarpal Fractures: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandizio, Louis C; Speeckaert, Amy; Kozick, Zach; Klena, Joel C

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this cadaveric study is to evaluate the trajectory of percutaneous transverse Kirschner wire (K-wire) placement for fifth metacarpal fractures relative to the sagittal profile of the fifth metacarpal in order to develop a targeting strategy for the treatment of fifth metacarpal fractures. Using 12 unmatched fresh human upper limbs, we evaluated the trajectory of percutaneous transverse K-wire placement relative to the sagittal profile of the fifth metacarpal in order to develop a targeting strategy for treatment of fifth metacarpal fractures. The midpoint of the small and ring finger metacarpals in the sagittal plane was identified at 3 points. At each point, a K-wire was inserted from the small finger metacarpal into the midpoint of the ring finger metacarpal ("center-center" position). The angle of the transverse K-wire relative to the table needed to achieve a center-center position averaged 20.8°, 18.9°, and 16.7° for the proximal diaphysis, middiaphysis, and the collateral recess, respectively. Approximately 80% of transversely placed K-wires obtained purchase in the long finger metacarpal. These results can serve as a guide to help surgeons in the accurate placement of percutaneous K-wires for small finger metacarpal fractures and may aid in surgeon training.

  17. Maternal psychological distress and fetal growth trajectories : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, J. J.; Roza, S. J.; van den Berg, M. P.; Schmidt, H. G.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Verhulst, F. C.; Tiemeier, H.

    Background. Previous research suggests, though not consistently, that maternal psychological distress during pregnancy leads to adverse birth outcomes. We investigated whether maternal psychological distress affects fetal growth during the period of mid-pregnancy until birth. Method. Pregnant women

  18. Identifying developmental trajectories of body mass index in childhood using latent class growth (mixture modelling: associations with dietary, sedentary and physical activity behaviors: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Koning

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, many epidemiologic studies examining associations between obesity and dietary and sedentary/physical activity behaviors have focused on assessing Body Mass Index (BMI at one point in time. Recent developments in statistical techniques make it possible to study the potential heterogeneity in the development of BMI during childhood by identifying distinct subpopulations characterized by distinct developmental trajectories. Using Latent Class Growth (Mixture Modelling (LCGMM techniques we aimed to identify BMI trajectories in childhood and to examine associations between these distinct trajectories and dietary, sedentary and physical activity behaviors. Methods This longitudinal study explored BMI standard deviation score (SDS trajectories in a sample of 613 children from 4 to 12 years of age. In 2006, 2009 and 2012 information on children’s health related behaviors was obtained by parental questionnaires, and children’s height and weight were measured. Associations with behaviors were investigated with logistic regression models. Results We identified two BMI SDS trajectories; a decreasing BMI SDS trajectory (n = 416; 68 % and an increasing BMI SDS trajectory (n = 197; 32 %. The increasing BMI SDS trajectory consisted of more participants of lower socio-economic status (SES and of non-western ethnicity. Maternal overweight status was associated with being in the increasing BMI SDS trajectory at both baseline and follow-up six years later (2006: Odds Ratio (OR, 2.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.9 to 4.3; 2012 OR, 1.8; 95 % CI 1.2 to 2.6. The increasing BMI SDS trajectory was associated with the following behaviors; drinking sugared drinks > 3 glasses per day, participation in organized sports  2 h per day, though participation in organized sports at follow-up was the only significant result. Conclusions Our results indicate the importance of healthy lifestyle behaviors at a young age, and

  19. Towards Efficient Search for Activity Trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Kai; Shang, Shuo; Yuan, Jing

    2013-01-01

    , recent proliferation in location-based web applications (e.g., Foursquare, Facebook) has given rise to large amounts of trajectories associated with activity information, called activity trajectory. In this paper, we study the problem of efficient similarity search on activity trajectory database. Given...

  20. Methods for control over learning individual trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsel, A. A.; Cherniaeva, N. V.

    2015-09-01

    The article discusses models, methods and algorithms of determining student's optimal individual educational trajectory. A new method of controlling the learning trajectory has been developed as a dynamic model of learning trajectory control, which uses score assessment to construct a sequence of studied subjects.

  1. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold David McIntyre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n=13 versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n=15. Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD were: Age  33±4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI 30.0±9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range}, increased by 60 (0–540 mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580 mins/week in the UC group (P=0.234. Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period.

  2. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis Marthoenis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  3. A Questionnaire Study on the Attitudes and Previous Experience of Croatian Family Physicians toward their Preparedness for Disaster Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekez-Pavliško, Tanja; Račić, Maja; Jurišić, Dinka

    2018-04-01

    To explore family physicians' attitudes, previous experience and self-assessed preparedness to respond or to assist in mass casualty incidents in Croatia. The cross-sectional survey was carried out during January 2017. Study participants were recruited through a Facebook group that brings together family physicians from Croatia. They were asked to complete the questionnaire, which was distributed via google.docs. Knowledge and attitudes toward disaster preparedness were evaluated by 18 questions. Analysis of variance, Student t test and Kruskal-Wallis test t were used for statistical analysis. Risk awareness of disasters was high among respondents (M = 4.89, SD=0.450). Only 16.4 of respondents have participated in the management of disaster at the scene. The majority (73.8%) of physicians have not been participating in any educational activity dealing with disaster over the past two years. Family physicians believed they are not well prepared to participate in national (M = 3.02, SD=0.856) and local community emergency response system for disaster (M = 3.16, SD=1.119). Male physicians scored higher preparedness to participate in national emergency response system for disaster ( p =0.012), to carry out accepted triage principles used in the disaster situation ( p =0.003) and recognize differences in health assessments indicating potential exposure to specific agents ( p =0,001) compared to their female colleagues. Croatian primary healthcare system attracts many young physicians, who can be an important part of disaster and emergency management. However, the lack of experience despite a high motivation indicates a need for inclusion of disaster medicine training during undergraduate studies and annual educational activities.

  4. Previous injuries and some training characteristics predict running-related injuries in recreational runners: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz Carlos; Pena Costa, Leonardo Oliveira; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2013-12-01

    What is the incidence of running-related injuries (RRIs) in recreational runners? Which personal and training characteristics predict RRIs in recreational runners? Prospective cohort study. A total of 200 recreational runners answered a fortnightly online survey containing questions about their running routine, races, and presence of RRI. These runners were followed-up for a period of 12 weeks. The primary outcome of this study was running-related injury. The incidence of injuries was calculated taking into account the exposure to running and was expressed by RRI/1000 hours. The association between potential predictive factors and RRIs was estimated using generalised estimating equation models. A total of 84 RRIs were registered in 60 (31%) of the 191 recreational runners who completed all follow-up surveys. Of the injured runners 30% (n=18/60) developed two or more RRIs, with 5/18 (28%) being recurrences. The incidence of RRI was 10 RRI/1000 hours of running exposure. The main type of RRI observed was muscle injuries (30%, n=25/84). The knee was the most commonly affected anatomical region (19%, n=16/84). The variables associated with RRI were: previous RRI (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.51), duration of training although the effect was very small (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02), speed training (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.10), and interval training (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.88). Physiotherapists should be aware and advise runners that past RRI and speed training are associated with increased risk of further RRI, while interval training is associated with lower risk, although these associations may not be causative. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Trajectories of sleep changes during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury: A 7-day actigraphy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yean Chiu

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep duration are common symptoms in acute TBI patients. Both head injury severity and age predicted the trajectories of daytime and 24-hour sleep duration during the acute phase of TBI, whereas gender predicted the trajectories of 24-hour sleep duration in the mild TBI subgroup.

  6. Galileo's Trajectory with Mild Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of Galileo's classical trajectory that persists in a simple resistance model is noted. The resistive model provides a case study for the classroom analysis of limiting behaviour of an implicitly defined function. (Contains 1 note.)

  7. Blood donations from previously transfused or pregnant donors: a multicenter study to determine the frequency of alloexposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Jorge A; Schlumpf, Karen S; Kakaiya, Ram M; Triulzi, Darrell J; Roback, John D; Kleinman, Steve H; Murphy, Edward L; Gottschall, Jerome L; Carey, Patricia M

    2011-06-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) mitigation strategies include the deferral of female donors from apheresis platelet (PLT) donations and the distribution of plasma for transfusion from male donors only. We studied the implications of these policies in terms of component loss at six blood centers in the United States. We collected data from allogeneic blood donors making whole blood and blood component donations during calendar years 2006 through 2008. We analyzed the distribution of donations in terms of the sex, transfusion and pregnancy histories, and blood type. A TRALI mitigation policy that would not allow plasma from female whole blood donors to be prepared into transfusable plasma components would result in nearly a 50% reduction in the units of whole blood available for plasma manufacturing and would decrease the number of type AB plasma units that could be made from whole blood donations by the same amount. Deferral of all female apheresis PLT donors, all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies, or all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies and positive screening test results for antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) will result in a loss of 37.1, 22.5, and 5.4% of all apheresis PLT donations, respectively. A TRALI mitigation policy that only defers female apheresis PLT donors with previous pregnancies and HLAs would result in an approximately 5% decrease in the inventory of apheresis PLTs, but would eliminate a large proportion of components that are associated with TRALI. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. PCNL - a comparative study in nonoperated and in previously operated (open nephrolithotomy/pyelolithotomy patients - a single-surgeon experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Gupta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Re-procedure in patients with history of open stone surgery is usually challenging due to the alteration in the retroperitoneal anatomy. The aim of this study was to determine the possible impact of open renal surgery on the efficacy and morbidity of subsequent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 2009 until September 2010, 120 patients underwent PCNL. Of these, 20 patients were excluded (tubeless or bilateral simultaneous PCNL. Of the remaining 100, 55 primary patients were categorized as Group 1 and the remaining (previous open nephrolithotomy as Group 2. Standard preoperative evaluation was carried out prior to intervention, Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v. 11 with the chi-square test, independent samples t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test. A p-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS: Both groups were similar in demographic profile and stone burden. Attempts to access the PCS was less in Group 1 compared to Group 2 (1.2 + 1 2 vs 3 + 1.3 respectively and this was statistically significant (p < 0.04. However, the mean operative time between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.44. Blood transfusion rate was comparable in the two groups (p = 0.24. One patient in Group 2 developed hemothorax following a supra-11th puncture. Remaining complications were comparable in both groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with past history of renal stone surgery may need more attempts to access the pelvicaliceal system and have difficulty in tract dilation secondary to retroperitoneal scarring. But overall morbidity and efficacy is same in both groups.

  9. Cluster dynamics: A classical trajectory study of A + A/sub n/arrow-right-leftA*/sub n/+1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, J.W.; Doll, J.D.; Thompson, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The dynamics of the collision of an atom A with a small cluster of atoms, A/sub n/, leading to the formation of a quasibound A*/sub n/+1 complex, which subsequently decays, has been studied using classical trajectories. Pairwise Lennard-Jones potentials (with parameters appropriate for argon) were used to describe the identical point masses (Ar). The results illustrate the feasibility of direct calculations of microscopic rates for nucleation processes. The dissociation of collisionally formed A*/sub n/+1 (n=3,4, and 5) occurs by first-order exponential decay. Furthermore the energy dependence of the dissociation rate constants appears to be well described by the RRK functional form

  10. Quasiclassical trajectory study of the molecular beam kinetics of the deuterium atom--hydrogen halide exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raff, L.M.; Suzukawa, H.H. Jr.; Thompson, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Unadjusted quasiclassical trajectory computations have been carried out to simulate the molecular beam scattering of thermal D atom beams at 2800 degreeK crossed with beams of HCl and HI at 250 degreeK. Total reaction cross sections, energy partitioning distributions, and differential scattering cross sections have been computed for the exchange reactions D+HCl → DCl+H and D+HI → DI+H while total reaction cross sections are reported for the corresponding abstractions, i.e., D+HCl → HD+Cl and D+HI → HD+I. For the exchange reactions, the computed reaction cross sections are within the range estimated from the crossed beam experiments. The calculated average energy partitioned into relative translational motion of products is in near quantitative agreement with the beam results, and the predicted differential scattering cross sections appear to be in qualitative accord with the beam experiments. The over-all agreement between theory and experiment indicates that previously computed values for the thermal rate coefficients for the exchange reactions are of the right order and that a systematic error exists in the interpretation of photolysis data in the hydrogen--hydrogen halide systems

  11. The role of social position and depressive symptoms in adolescence for life-course trajectories of education and work: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Brydsten, Anna; Hammarström, Anne; Virtanen, Pekka; Almquist, Ylva B

    2016-11-18

    While a vast amount of studies confirm the social reproduction of class and status from one generation to the next, less is known about the role of health in the child generation for these processes. Research has shown that particularly mental distress in adolescence is important for future life chances. This study aimed to examine the importance of parental socioeconomic position and depressive symptoms in youth for life-course trajectories of education and labour market attachment among men and women. Based on four waves of questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 1,001), consisting of individuals born in 1965, three steps of gender-separate analyses were undertaken. First, the individual trajectories of education and labour market attachment from age 18 to 42 were mapped through sequence analysis. Second, cluster analysis was used to identify typical trajectories. Third, two indicators of parental socioeconomic position - occupational class and employment status - and depressive symptoms at age 16 were used in multinomial regression analyses to predict adult life-course trajectories. Four typical trajectories were identified for men, of which three were characterised by stable employment and various lengths of education, and the fourth reflected a more unstable situation. Among women, five trajectories emerged, characterised by more instability compared to men. Low parental occupational class and unemployment were significantly associated with a higher risk of ending up in less advantaged trajectories for men while, for women, this was only the case for occupational class. Youth levels of depressive symptoms did not significantly differ across the trajectories. This study found support for the intergenerational reproduction of social position, particularly when measured in terms of parental occupational class. Youth depressive symptoms did not show clear differences across types of trajectories, subsequently impeding such symptoms to trigger any

  12. Trajectories of physical and mental health among persons with morbid obesity and persons with COPD: a longitudinal comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsaksen T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tore Bonsaksen,1 May Solveig Fagermoen,2 Anners Lerdal2,3 1Department of Occupational Therapy, Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, 2Department of Nursing Science, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, 3Department for Patient Safety and Development, Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, Oslo, NorwayBackground: Morbid obesity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are prevalent diseases associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Research generally indicates that persons with morbid obesity increase their HRQoL following intervention, whereas evidence of increases in HRQoL in persons with COPD is mixed. Examining the patterns of change over time instead of merely examining whether HRQoL changes will add to the knowledge in this field.Methods: A sample of persons with morbid obesity and persons with COPD was recruited from learning and mastery courses and rehabilitation centers in Norway. The data were collected by self-report questionnaires at the start of patient education and at four subsequent time points during the 1-year follow-up. HRQoL was measured with the Short Form 12, version 2, and repeated measures analysis of variance was employed in the statistical analysis.Results: Participants with morbid obesity linearly increased their physical HRQoL during the 1-year follow-up, whereas participants with COPD showed no change. None of the groups changed their mental HRQoL during follow-up. In all subdomains of HRQoL, the participants with morbid obesity showed favorable, linearly increasing trajectories across the follow-up period. Among the participants with COPD, no change patterns occurred in the subdomains of HRQoL, except for a fluctuating pattern in the mental health domain. Age, sex, and work status did not influence the trajectories of HRQoL in any of the domains.Conclusion: A more favorable trajectory

  13. Sunburn and sun-protective behaviors among adults with and without previous nonmelanoma skin cancer: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander H.; Wang, Timothy S.; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are at increased risk for subsequent skin cancer, and should therefore limit UV exposure. Objective To determine whether individuals with previous NMSC engage in better sun protection than those with no skin cancer history. Methods We pooled self-reported data (2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys) from US non-Hispanic white adults (758 with and 34,161 without previous NMSC). We calculated adjusted prevalence odds ratios (aPOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), taking into account the complex survey design. Results Individuals with previous NMSC versus no history of NMSC had higher rates of frequent use of shade (44.3% versus 27.0%; aPOR=1.41; 1.16–1.71), long sleeves (20.5% versus 7.7%; aPOR=1.55; 1.21–1.98), a wide-brimmed hat (26.1% versus 10.5%; aPOR=1.52; 1.24–1.87), and sunscreen (53.7% versus 33.1%; aPOR=2.11; 95% CI=1.73–2.59), but did not have significantly lower odds of recent sunburn (29.7% versus 40.7%; aPOR=0.95; 0.77–1.17). Among subjects with previous NMSC, recent sunburn was inversely associated with age, sun avoidance, and shade but not sunscreen. Limitations Self-reported cross-sectional data and unavailable information quantifying regular sun exposure. Conclusion Physicians should emphasize sunburn prevention when counseling patients with previous NMSC, especially younger adults, focusing on shade and sun avoidance over sunscreen. PMID:27198078

  14. Au pair trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    pair-sending families in the Philippines, this dissertation examines the long-term trajectories of these young Filipinas. It shows how the au pairs’ local and transnational family relations develop over time and greatly influence their life trajectories. A focal point of the study is how au pairs...... that Filipina au pairs see their stay abroad as an avenue of personal development and social recognition, I examine how the au pairs re-position themselves within their families at home through migration, and how they navigate between the often conflicting expectations of participation in the sociality......Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send...

  15. A Numerical Study of Low-Thrust Limited Power Trajectories between Coplanar Circular Orbits in an Inverse-Square Force Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro da Silva Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of optimal low-thrust limited power trajectories for simple transfer (no rendezvous between circular coplanar orbits in an inverse-square force field is performed by two different classes of algorithms in optimization of trajectories. This study is carried out by means of a direct method based on gradient techniques and by an indirect method based on the second variation theory. The direct approach of the trajectory optimization problem combines the main positive characteristics of two well-known direct methods in optimization of trajectories: the steepest-descent (first-order gradient method and a direct second variation (second-order gradient method. On the other hand, the indirect approach of the trajectory optimization problem involves two different algorithms of the well-known neighboring extremals method. Several radius ratios and transfer durations are considered, and the fuel consumption is taken as the performance criterion. For small-amplitude transfers, the results are compared to the ones provided by a linear analytical theory.

  16. Using the life course perspective to study the entry into the illness trajectory: The perspective of caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Normand; Bernard, Paul; Grenier, Amanda; Guberman, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The research community is showing increasing interest in the analysis of the care trajectory of people with chronic health problems, especially dementias such as Alzheimer’s disease. However, despite this interest, there is little research on the initial phases of the care trajectory. The fact that the first symptoms of dementia are generally noticed by those surrounding the elderly person suggests that the recognition of the disease is intimately linked to interactions not only amongst family members but also amongst friends, neighbours and health professionals. This study focuses on the period beginning with the first manifestations of cognitive difficulties and ending with the diagnosis of Alzheimer-type dementia. Interviews with 60 caregivers in Montreal, Canada were used to reconstruct how older people with Alzheimer-type dementia enter into the care trajectory. Our methods consisted of the analysis of social networks, social dynamics and action sequences. Our findings are presented in the form of a typology comprised of 5 pathways of entries into the care trajectory that are structured around the following four principles of the Life Course Perspective: family history, linked lives, human agency and organisational effects. We believe that analyses of the initial phases of the care trajectory, such as this one, are essential for the application of effective early detection and intervention policies. They are also central to informing future studies that seek to understand the care experience in its entirety. PMID:20207459

  17. Exploring the Trajectory of Personal, Moral and Spiritual Values of 16- to 18-Year-Old Students Taking Religious Studies at A Level in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew; Parker, Stephen G.

    2017-01-01

    This study set out to explore the trajectory of personal, moral and spiritual values of students taking Religious Studies at A level in the UK. A sample of 150 students completed a battery of measures at the beginning of their period of A level study and again at the end. The data found no difference over this period of time in personal values…

  18. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  19. Objectively measured physical activity and 12-month trajectories of neck-shoulder pain in workers: A prospective study in DPHACTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, David M; Birk Jørgensen, Marie; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity at work and leisure and the intensity (mean level and time course) of neck-shoulder pain (NSP) over 12 months among male and female blue collar workers. Data were obtained from 625 blue collar workers from the Danish cohort DPHACTO. Physical activity was measured objectively at baseline using accelerometers. The percentage of time spent in physical activity (walking, climbing stairs, running and cycling) was calculated for both work and leisure time. Longitudinal data on the intensity of NSP (numerical rating scale 0-10) were collected using text messages every fourth week over 12 months. Linear mixed models were used to investigate the associations between occupational physical activity (OPA) and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and the trajectories of the intensity of NSP, adjusted for individual, biomechanical and psychosocial factors, and baseline pain. OPA was not associated with the mean intensity of NSP over 12 months. LTPA was negatively associated with the mean intensity of NSP both among men ( B=-0.71, 95% CI -1.31 to -0.11) and women ( B=-0.85, 95% CI -1.57 to -0.13). Sex interactions on the 12-month trajectories of NSP showed that higher physical activity was associated with a slower reduction in NSP among men for OPA only ( B=0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.05) and women for LTPA only ( B=0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.09). We found that more time in LTPA was associated with a lower overall intensity of NSP over 12 months among blue collar workers. However, depending on sex and domain, high physical activity had an unfavourable effect on the course of NSP over 12 months.

  20. Developmental Trajectories of Youth Character: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study of Cub Scouts and Non-Scout Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ferris, Kaitlyn A; Hershberg, Rachel M; Lerner, Richard M

    2015-12-01

    Youth development programs, such as the Boy Scouts of America, aim to develop positive attributes in youth (e.g., character virtues, prosocial behaviors, and positive civic actions), which are necessary for individuals and societies to flourish. However, few developmental studies have focused on how specific positive attributes develop through participation in programs such as the Boy Scouts of America. As part of the Character and Merit Project, this article examined the developmental trajectories of character and other positive attributes, which are of focal concern of the Boy Scouts of America and the developmental literature. Data were collected from 1398 Scouts (M = 8.59 years, SD = 1.29 years, Range 6.17-11.92 years) and 325 non-Scout boys (M = 9.06 years, SD = 1.43 years, Range 6.20-11.81 years) over five waves of testing across a two-and-half-year period. Latent growth-curve analyses of self-report survey data examined the developmental trajectories of the attributes. Older youth rated themselves lower than younger participants on helpfulness, reverence, thriftiness, and school performance. However, all youth had moderately high self-ratings on all the attributes. Across waves, Scouts' self-ratings increased significantly for cheerfulness, helpfulness, kindness, obedience, trustworthiness, and hopeful future expectations. Non-Scout boys' self-ratings showed no significant change for any attributes except for a significant decrease in religious reverence among non-Scout boys from religious institutions. We discuss implications for positive youth development and for the role of the Boy Scouts of America programming in character development.

  1. The trajectory of experience of critical care nurses in providing end-of-life care: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Keh Kiong; Ting, Kit Cheng; Chow, Yeow Leng

    2018-01-01

    To understand the perceptions of critical care nurses towards providing end-of-life care. There has been an increasing interest in end-of-life care in the critical care setting. In Singapore, approximately half of deaths in the hospital occur during critical care. While nurses are well positioned to provide end-of-life care to patients and their family members, they faced barriers to providing end-of-life care. Also, providing end-of-life care has profound positive and negative psychological effects on nurses, with the latter being more prominent. Qualitative descriptive design. Data collection was performed in a medical intensive care unit of a public tertiary hospital in Singapore. Ten registered nurses were purposively sampled and interviewed individually using a semi-structured interview guide. A codebook was developed to guide coding, and data were thematically analysed. Rigour was maintained. Nurses went through a trajectory of experience. They experienced the culture of care and developed dissatisfaction with it. The tension shaped their perception and meaning of life and death, and they developed mechanisms to reach resolution. This study provides insight on nurses' perception as a trajectory of experience and raised several implications on clinical practice, policy and research. There is a need to alleviate the tension nurses face and to facilitate coming to terms with the tension by improving the culture of care and supporting nurses. Nurses could be involved more in decision-making and empowered to start end-of-life care conversations within the team and with family members. Communication with family members and between nurses and doctors could be improved. Support for nurses providing end-of-life care could be enhanced through promoting social networks, education and bereavement support. Further research is needed to explore ways to support and empower nurses to provide end-of-life care in critical care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Entropic Movement Complexity Reflects Subjective Creativity Rankings of Visualized Hand Motion Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhen; Braun, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study we have shown that human motion trajectories can be characterized by translating continuous trajectories into symbol sequences with well-defined complexity measures. Here we test the hypothesis that the motion complexity individuals generate in their movements might be correlated to the degree of creativity assigned by a human observer to the visualized motion trajectories. We asked participants to generate 55 novel hand movement patterns in virtual reality, where each pattern had to be repeated 10 times in a row to ensure reproducibility. This allowed us to estimate a probability distribution over trajectories for each pattern. We assessed motion complexity not only by the previously proposed complexity measures on symbolic sequences, but we also propose two novel complexity measures that can be directly applied to the distributions over trajectories based on the frameworks of Gaussian Processes and Probabilistic Movement Primitives. In contrast to previous studies, these new methods allow computing complexities of individual motion patterns from very few sample trajectories. We compared the different complexity measures to how a group of independent jurors rank ordered the recorded motion trajectories according to their personal creativity judgment. We found three entropic complexity measures that correlate significantly with human creativity judgment and discuss differences between the measures. We also test whether these complexity measures correlate with individual creativity in divergent thinking tasks, but do not find any consistent correlation. Our results suggest that entropic complexity measures of hand motion may reveal domain-specific individual differences in kinesthetic creativity. PMID:26733896

  3. A Winding Road--Professional Trajectories from Higher Education to Working Life: A Case Study of Political Science and Psychology Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Sofia; Dahlgren, Madeleine Abrandt; Dahlgren, Lars Owe

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative and longitudinal study focuses on graduate employment and the development of graduate employment paths. The aim of this article is to explore the present professional trajectory from higher education to working life, with particular reference to graduates from two different study programmes at Linkoping University in Sweden:…

  4. Radioimmunotherapy with Y-90-epratuzumab in patients with previously treated B-cell lymphoma. A fractionated dose-escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, O.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Tennvall, J.; Hindorf, C.; Olsson, T.; Strand, S.E.; Stenberg, L.; Wingardh, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Fractionated RIT may improve outcome by decreasing heterogeneity in absorbed dose and by increasing therapeutic window. The humanised anti-CD22 antibody, Epratuzumab, (Immunomedics, Inc., Morris Plains, NJ) can be given repeatedly with minimal risk of neutralising Ab (HAHA), making fractionated treatment with 90 Y-labelled epratuzumab possible. Materials and Methods: Patients with previously treated B-cell lymphoma received increasing number (2-4) of weekly infusions of 90 Y-epratuzumab. Patients received either 185 MBq/m 2 per infusion (group A), or, if they had a history of high-dose chemotherapy with stem-cell rescue, 92.5 MBq/m 2 per infusion (group B). The first infusion included 150 MBq of 111 Indium for scintigraphic verification of tumour targeting and dosimetry. 1.5 mg/kg epratuzumab was administered with each infusion. The treatment could be repeated once after 3 m. Results: Of 23 patients, 16 in group A and 6 in group B were evaluable for response. The RR in group A was 62% objective response (OR) and 25% CR/CRu. One patient in group B showed OR. OR was seen in aggressive and indolent lymphoma. Response was also long-lasting and event-free survival of patients showing CR/CRu was 14 to 25+ months. In group A all seven patient, receiving three infusions, showed less than grade 3 platelet and neutrophil toxicity, except for two patients suffering grade 3 neutropenia. Of five patients with 4 weekly infusions there were two patients with dose-limiting haematological toxicity (DLT), both recently treated with high dose cytosar before RIT. With criteria used the maximal tolerated dose was three infusions 185 MBq/m 2 . In group B no patient suffered DLT and one patient exhibited OR. Seven patients were retreated after 3 months with minor toxicity, but improvement in OR in two cases. No patient has developed HAHA. CD22 expression on tumour cells, as assessed by flow cytometry, is available in 18 of 22 patients. In group A, seven of eight patients with

  5. Childhood predictors of lung function trajectories and future COPD risk: a prospective cohort study from the first to the sixth decade of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Dinh S; Lodge, Caroline J; Burgess, John A; Lowe, Adrian J; Perret, Jennifer; Bui, Minh Q; Bowatte, Gayan; Gurrin, Lyle; Johns, David P; Thompson, Bruce R; Hamilton, Garun S; Frith, Peter A; James, Alan L; Thomas, Paul S; Jarvis, Deborah; Svanes, Cecilie; Russell, Melissa; Morrison, Stephen C; Feather, Iain; Allen, Katrina J; Wood-Baker, Richard; Hopper, John; Giles, Graham G; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, Eugene H; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2018-04-05

    Lifetime lung function is related to quality of life and longevity. Over the lifespan, individuals follow different lung function trajectories. Identification of these trajectories, their determinants, and outcomes is important, but no study has done this beyond the fourth decade. We used six waves of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) to model lung function trajectories measured at 7, 13, 18, 45, 50, and 53 years. We analysed pre-bronchodilator FEV 1 z-scores at the six timepoints using group-based trajectory modelling to identify distinct subgroups of individuals whose measurements followed a similar pattern over time. We related the trajectories identified to childhood factors and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using logistic regression, and estimated population-attributable fractions of COPD. Of the 8583 participants in the original cohort, 2438 had at least two waves of lung function data at age 7 years and 53 years and comprised the study population. We identified six trajectories: early below average, accelerated decline (97 [4%] participants); persistently low (136 [6%] participants); early low, accelerated growth, normal decline (196 [8%] participants); persistently high (293 [12%] participants); below average (772 [32%] participants); and average (944 [39%] participants). The three trajectories early below average, accelerated decline; persistently low; and below average had increased risk of COPD at age 53 years compared with the average group (early below average, accelerated decline: odds ratio 35·0, 95% CI 19·5-64·0; persistently low: 9·5, 4·5-20·6; and below average: 3·7, 1·9-6·9). Early-life predictors of the three trajectories included childhood asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, allergic rhinitis, eczema, parental asthma, and maternal smoking. Personal smoking and active adult asthma increased the impact of maternal smoking and childhood asthma, respectively, on the early below average, accelerated decline

  6. Zipf exponent of trajectory distribution in the hidden Markov model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkarev, V. V.; Lerner, E. Yu

    2014-03-01

    This paper is the first step of generalization of the previously obtained full classification of the asymptotic behavior of the probability for Markov chain trajectories for the case of hidden Markov models. The main goal is to study the power (Zipf) and nonpower asymptotics of the frequency list of trajectories of hidden Markov frequencys and to obtain explicit formulae for the exponent of the power asymptotics. We consider several simple classes of hidden Markov models. We prove that the asymptotics for a hidden Markov model and for the corresponding Markov chain can be essentially different.

  7. Zipf exponent of trajectory distribution in the hidden Markov model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochkarev, V V; Lerner, E Yu

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the first step of generalization of the previously obtained full classification of the asymptotic behavior of the probability for Markov chain trajectories for the case of hidden Markov models. The main goal is to study the power (Zipf) and nonpower asymptotics of the frequency list of trajectories of hidden Markov frequencys and to obtain explicit formulae for the exponent of the power asymptotics. We consider several simple classes of hidden Markov models. We prove that the asymptotics for a hidden Markov model and for the corresponding Markov chain can be essentially different

  8. Early PTSD Symptom Trajectories: Persistence, Recovery, and Response to Treatment: Results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention Study (J-TOPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Ankri, Yael; Freedman, Sara; Israeli-Shalev, Yossi; Roitman, Pablo; Gilad, Moran; Shalev, Arieh Y.

    2013-01-01

    Context Uncovering heterogeneities in the progression of early PTSD symptoms can improve our understanding of the disorder's pathogenesis and prophylaxis. Objectives To describe discrete symptom trajectories and examine their relevance for preventive interventions. Design Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM) of data from a randomized controlled study of early treatment. LGMM identifies latent longitudinal trajectories by exploring discrete mixture distributions underlying observable data. Setting Hadassah Hospital unselectively receives trauma survivors from Jerusalem and vicinity. Participants Adult survivors of potentially traumatic events consecutively admitted to the hospital's emergency department (ED) were assessed ten days and one-, five-, nine- and fifteen months after ED admission. Participants with data at ten days and at least two additional assessments (n = 957) were included; 125 received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) between one and nine months. Approach We used LGMM to identify latent parameters of symptom progression and tested the effect of CBT on these parameters. CBT consisted of 12 weekly sessions of either cognitive therapy (n = 41) or prolonged exposure (PE, n = 49), starting 29.8±5.7 days after ED admission, or delayed PE (n = 35) starting at 151.8±42.4 days. CBT effectively reduced PTSD symptoms in the entire sample. Main Outcome Measure Latent trajectories of PTSD symptoms; effects of CBT on these trajectories. Results Three trajectories were identified: Rapid Remitting (rapid decrease in symptoms from 1- to 5-months; 56% of the sample), Slow Remitting (progressive decrease in symptoms over 15 months; 27%) and Non-Remitting (persistently elevated symptoms; 17%). CBT accelerated the recovery of the Slow Remitting class but did not affect the other classes. Conclusions The early course of PTSD symptoms is characterized by distinct and diverging response patterns that are centrally relevant to understanding the disorder

  9. Adaptive Trajectory Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Adaptive Trajectory Design (ATD) is an original concept for quick and efficient end-to-end trajectory designs using proven piece-wise dynamical methods. With ongoing...

  10. Do body mass index trajectories affect the risk of type 2 diabetes? A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Yoshihiko; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kohta; Takahashi, Atsunori; Yoda, Yoshioki; Tsuji, Masahiro; Sato, Miri; Shinohara, Ryoji; Mizorogi, Sonoko; Mochizuki, Mie; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2015-07-28

    Although obesity is a well-studied risk factor for diabetes, there remains an interest in whether "increasing body mass index (BMI)," "high BMI per se," or both are the actual risk factors for diabetes. The present study aimed to retrospectively compare BMI trajectories of individuals with and without diabetes in a case-control design and to assess whether increasing BMI alone would be a risk factor. Using comprehensive health check-up data measured over ten years, we conducted a case-control study and graphically drew the trajectories of BMIs among diabetic patients and healthy subjects, based on coefficients in fitted linear mixed-effects models. Patient group was matched with healthy control group at the onset of diabetes with an optimal matching method in a 1:10 ratio. Simple fixed-effects models assessed the differences in increasing BMIs over 10 years between patient and control groups. At the time of matching, the mean ages in male patients and controls were 59.3 years [standard deviation (SD) = 9.2] and 57.7 years (SD = 11.2), whereas the mean BMIs were 25.0 kg/m(2) (SD = 3.1) and 25.2 kg/m(2) (SD = 2.9), respectively. In female patients and controls, the mean ages were 61.4 years (SD = 7.9) and 60.1 years (SD = 9.6), whereas the mean BMIs were 24.8 kg/m(2) (SD = 3.5) and 24.9 kg/m(2) (SD = 3.4), respectively. The simple fixed-effects models detected no statistical significance for the differences of increasing BMIs between patient and control groups in males (P = 0.19) and females (P = 0.67). Sudden increases in BMI were observed in both male and female patients when compared with BMIs 1 year prior to diabetes onset. The present study suggested that the pace of increasing BMIs is similar between Japanese diabetic patients and healthy individuals. The increasing BMI was not detected to independently affect the onset of type 2 diabetes.

  11. The Effects of the Green House Nursing Home Model on ADL Function Trajectory: A Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOON, Ju Young; BROWN, Roger L.; BOWERS, Barbara J.; SHARKEY, Siobhan S.; HORN, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Growing attention in the past few decades has focused on improving care quality and quality of life for nursing home residents. Many traditional nursing homes have attempted to transform themselves to become more homelike emphasizing individualized care. This trend is referred to as nursing home culture change in the U.S. A promising culture change nursing home model, the Green House (GH) nursing home model, has shown positive psychological outcomes. However, little is known about whether the GH nursing home model has positive effects on physical function compared to traditional nursing homes. Objectives To examine the longitudinal effects of the GH nursing home model by comparing change patterns of ADL function over time between GH home residents and traditional nursing home residents. Design A retrospective longitudinal study. Settings Four GH organizations (nine GH units and four traditional units). Participants A total of 242 residents (93 GH residents and 149 traditional home residents) who had stayed in the nursing home at least six months from admission. Methods The outcome was ADL function, and the main independent variable was the facility type in which the resident stayed: a GH or traditional unit. Age, gender, comorbidity score, cognitive function, and depressive symptoms at baseline were controlled. All of these measures were from a minimum dataset. Growth curve modeling and growth mixture modeling were employed in this study for longitudinal analyses. Results The mean ADL function showed deterioration over time, and the rates of deterioration between GH and traditional home residents were not different over time. Four different ADL function trajectories were identified for 18 months, but there was no statistical difference in the likelihood of being in one of the four trajectory classes between the two groups. Conclusions Although GH nursing homes are considered to represent an innovative model changing the nursing home environment into more

  12. The effects of the Green House nursing home model on ADL function trajectory: A retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ju Young; Brown, Roger L; Bowers, Barbara J; Sharkey, Siobhan S; Horn, Susan D

    2016-01-01

    Growing attention in the past few decades has focused on improving care quality and quality of life for nursing home residents. Many traditional nursing homes have attempted to transform themselves to become more homelike emphasizing individualized care. This trend is referred to as nursing home culture change in the U.S. A promising culture change nursing home model, the Green House nursing home model, has shown positive psychological outcomes. However, little is known about whether the Green House nursing home model has positive effects on physical function compared to traditional nursing homes. To examine the longitudinal effects of the Green House nursing home model by comparing change patterns of activities of daily living function over time between Green House home residents and traditional nursing home residents. A retrospective longitudinal study. Four Green House organizations (nine Green House units and four traditional units). A total of 242 residents (93 Green House residents and 149 traditional home residents) who had stayed in the nursing home at least 6 months from admission. The outcome was activities of daily living function, and the main independent variable was the facility type in which the resident stayed: a Green House or traditional unit. Age, gender, comorbidity score, cognitive function, and depressive symptoms at baseline were controlled. All of these measures were from a minimum dataset. Growth curve modeling and growth mixture modeling were employed in this study for longitudinal analyses. The mean activities of daily living function showed deterioration over time, and the rates of deterioration between Green House and traditional home residents were not different over time. Four different activities of daily living function trajectories were identified for 18 months, but there was no statistical difference in the likelihood of being in one of the four trajectory classes between the two groups. Although Green House nursing homes are

  13. Trajectories of CKD-MBD biochemical parameters over a 2-year period following diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism: a pharmacoepidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipozzi, Pierre; Ayav, Carole; Ngueyon Sime, Willy; Laurain, Emmanuelle; Kessler, Michèle; Brunaud, Laurent; Frimat, Luc

    2017-03-27

    To define groups of patients according to the changes of biochemical parameters, that is, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH), over a 2-year follow-up period using group-based multi-trajectory modeling (GBMM) among a cohort of dialysis patients with newly diagnosed secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) (ie, PTH≥500 ng/L for the first time) and to compare their patient characteristics and treatments. Pharmacoepidemiological study. In the 12 dialysis units located in the French region of Lorraine. A total of 269 dialysis patients with newly diagnosed SHPT were prospectively included from December 2009 to May 2012 and followed-up for 2 years. We identified four distinct trajectory groups: 'rapid PTH drop' experiencing a rapid and sharp decrease (over weeks) in PTH level associated with decreasing phosphate level within normal range (n=34; 12.7%), 'gradual PTH decrease' experiencing a gradual and continuous decrease (over months) in PTH level and maintaining phosphate at a middle level throughout the study (n=98; 36.4%), 'slow PTH decrease with high phosphate' experiencing a slow decrease in PTH level associated with a relatively high phosphate level (n=105; 39.0%) and 'uncontrolled SHPT' with high levels of PTH and phosphate throughout the study (n=32; 11.9%). Patients in the 'uncontrolled SHPT' group were significantly (p<0.00001) younger than patients in other groups. Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) targets for PTH, phosphate and calcium were reached simultaneously for 14.9% of patients at baseline and 16.7% at the end of the study. Patients were given cinacalcet more frequently at months 3 and 6 in the 'rapid PTH drop' and at month 24 in the 'uncontrolled SHPT' groups. Over 2 years following a new SHPT diagnosis, a younger age and a higher rate of alkaline phosphatase were associated to a continuous uncontrolled SHPT. Patients with the lowest PTH at the end of the follow-up tended to receive more often cinacalcet. Clinical

  14. Trajectory of physical activity after hip fracture: An analysis of community-dwelling individuals from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelmagd, Tariq; Dainty, Jack R; MacGregor, Alex; Smith, Toby O

    2018-03-01

    To analyse physical activity participation in a community-dwelling people in England with hip fracture the interval prior to fracture, in the fracture recovery period, and a minimum of two years post-fracture. 215 individuals were identified from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing cohort (2002-2014) who sustained a hip fracture following a fall and for whom data were available on physical activity participation relating to the period pre-fracture, within-fracture recovery phase and post-fracture (minimum of two years). Physical activity was assessed using the validated ELSA physical activity questionnaire. Prevalence of 'low' physical activity participation was calculated and multi-level modelling analyses were performed to explore physical activity trajectories over the follow-up phase, and whether age, depression, gender and frailty were associated with physical activity participation. Prevalence of low physical activity participation within two years prior to hip fracture was 16.7% (95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 11.6% to 21.8%). This increased at the final follow-up phase to 21.3% (95% CI: 15.1% to 27.6%). This was not a statistically significant change (P = 0.100). Age (P = 0.005) and frailty (P dwelling individuals. This contrasts with previous reports of reduced mobility post-hip fracture, suggesting that 'physical activity' and 'mobility' should be considered as separate outcomes in this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trajectory and Relative Dispersion Case Studies and Statistics from the Green River Mesoscale Deformation, Dispersion, and Dissipation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Brand Lee

    A major field program to study beta-mesoscale transport and dispersion over complex mountainous terrain was conducted during 1969 with the cooperation of three government agencies at the White Sands Missile Range in central Utah. The purpose of the program was to measure simultaneously on a large number of days the synoptic and mesoscale wind fields, the relative dispersion between pairs of particle trajectories and the rate of small scale turbulence dissipation. The field program included measurements during more than 60 days in the months of March, June, and November. The large quantity of data generated from this program has been processed and analyzed to provide case studies and statistics to evaluate and refine Lagrangian variable trajectory models. The case studies selected to illustrate the complexities of mesoscale transport and dispersion over complex terrain include those with terrain blocking, lee waves, and stagnation, as well as those with large vertical wind shears and horizontal wind field deformation. The statistics of relative particle dispersion were computed and compared to the classical theories of Richardson and Batchelor and the more recent theories of Lin and Kao among others. The relative particle dispersion was generally found to increase with travel time in the alongwind and crosswind directions, but in a more oscillatory than sustained or even accelerated manner as predicted by most theories, unless substantial wind shears or finite vertical separations between particles were present. The relative particle dispersion in the vertical was generally found to be small and bounded even when substantial vertical motions due to lee waves were present because of the limiting effect of stable temperature stratification. The data show that velocity shears have a more significant effect than turbulence on relative particle dispersion and that sufficient turbulence may not always be present above the planetary boundary layer for "wind direction shear

  16. Genetic influences on alcohol use behaviors have diverging developmental trajectories: a prospective study among male and female twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Salvatore, Jessica E; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M

    2014-11-01

    Both alcohol-specific genetic factors and genetic factors related to externalizing behavior influence problematic alcohol use. Little is known, however, about the etiologic role of these 2 components of genetic risk on alcohol-related behaviors across development. Prior studies conducted in a male cohort of twins suggest that externalizing genetic factors are important for predicting heavy alcohol use in adolescence, whereas alcohol-specific genetic factors increase in importance during the transition to adulthood. In this report, we studied twin brothers and sisters and brother-sister twin pairs to examine such developmental trajectories and investigate whether sex and cotwin sex effects modify these genetic influences. We used prospective, longitudinal twin data collected between ages 12 and 22 within the population-based FinnTwin12 cohort study (analytic n = 1,864). Our dependent measures of alcohol use behaviors included alcohol initiation (age 12), intoxication frequency (ages 14 and 17), and alcohol dependence criteria (age 22). Each individual's genetic risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD-GR) was indexed by his/her parents' and cotwin's DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence (AD) criterion counts. Likewise, each individual's genetic risk of externalizing disorders (EXT-GR) was indexed with a composite measure of parents' and cotwin's DSM-IV Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder criterion counts. EXT-GR was most strongly related to alcohol use behaviors during adolescence, while AUD-GR was most strongly related to alcohol problems in young adulthood. Further, sex of the twin and sex of the cotwin significantly moderated the associations between genetic risk and alcohol use behaviors across development: AUD-GR influenced early adolescent alcohol use behaviors in females more than in males, and EXT-GR influenced age 22 AD more in males than in females. In addition, the associations of AUD-GR and EXT-GR with intoxication frequency were greater among 14- and

  17. Trajectories of abstinence-induced Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms: A prospective pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Kaptsis; Daniel L. King; Paul H. Delfabbro; Michael Gradisar

    2016-01-01

    Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The IGD criteria refer to withdrawal symptoms, including irritability, anxiety, or sadness, that follow cessation of Internet gaming (APA, 2013). The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the nature of Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms, if they occur, under gaming abstinence conditions. This study employed a repeated-measures protocol to examine the cognitive-affective ...

  18. Pre-event trajectories of mental health and health-related disabilities, and post-event traumatic stress symptoms and health : A 7-wave population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Peter; Bosmans, Mark; van der Meulen, Erik; Vermunt, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown to what extent classes of trajectories of pre-event mental health problems (MHP) and health-related disabilities (HRD), predict post-event traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), MHP and HRD. Aim of the present 7-wave study was to assess the predictive values using a representative sample of

  19. Socioeconomic differences in children’s television viewing trajectory: A population-based prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang-Huang, J. (Junwen); A. van Grieken (Amy); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); H. Raat (Hein)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe aimed to evaluate the association between family socioeconomic status and repeatedly measured child television viewing time from early childhood to the school period. We analyzed data on 3,561 Dutch children from the Generation R Study, a population-based study in the Netherlands.

  20. Trajectories of Alcohol Use Disorders and Their Differential Impact: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Weiss, Helen A; Bhat, Bhargav; Patel, Vikram

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine trajectories of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) over a 6 year period and compare the bio-psycho-social correlates between these trajectories. Community-based cohort of 1899 adult men were interviewed in 2006-2008 and 2012-2014. AUD were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and potential correlates including psycho-social problems, morbidity and physiological parameters were measured at follow-up. Logistic regression was conducted to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for the association of persistent and incident AUD, respectively, with the potential correlates. Analyses were weighted to account for sampling design, number of adults aged 18-49 years in the household and non-response. Compared with men who had recovered from AUD, there was strong evidence (P < 0.001) that men with persistent AUD were more likely to have marital problems, tobacco use, and raised Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) and strong evidence (0.001 < P < 0.01) that they were more likely to have workplace problems, social problems, increased healthcare contact and raised Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV). Compared with men who did not have AUD at baseline and follow-up, there was strong evidence (P < 0.001) that men with incident AUD were more likely to have workplace problems, social problems, marital problems, tobacco use, and raised GGT and strong evidence (0.001 < P < 0.01) that they were more likely to have hypertension, accident and injuries and Common Mental Disorders (CMD). This community-based longitudinal study of AUD, the first from a low and middle income country, clearly demonstrates significant health and social consequences of AUD in men and highlights the need for interventions for their treatment and prevention. Compared to persistent AUD, recovery from AUD has several benefits in health and social domains. Compared to developing new AUD, not having AUD has several benefits in health and social domains. Sustaining the state of not

  1. Family income trajectory during childhood is associated with adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O

    2014-10-01

    Although childhood socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked with adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in cross-sectional research, less is known about the influence of changes in socioeconomic status during childhood. Upward socioeconomic mobility may attenuate the negative influence of earlier socioeconomic disadvantage on health, while downward mobility may counter the health benefits of earlier socioeconomic advantage. This study evaluated the influence of common trajectories of family income during childhood on smoking and alcohol use during adolescence. Data utilized were part of the 15-year longitudinal Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. A 5-class trajectory model (two stable, one downward, and two upward income trajectories) was developed previously with this sample (N=1356). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether children of the more disadvantaged income trajectories were more likely to engage in tobacco and alcohol use at age 15 relative to those of the most advantaged trajectory. Family income trajectory was significantly associated with ever-smoking (p=.02) and past-year alcohol use at age 15years (p=.008). Children from the less advantaged trajectories were more likely to have ever-smoked than children of the most advantaged trajectory (all p'schildhood socioeconomic disadvantage influences adolescent smoking, while downward socioeconomic mobility influences adolescent alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hopefulness predicts resilience after hereditary colorectal cancer genetic testing: a prospective outcome trajectories study

    OpenAIRE

    Chu Annie TW; Bonanno George A; Ho Judy WC; Ho Samuel MY; Chan Emily MS

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background - Genetic testing for hereditary colorectal cancer (HCRC) had significant psychological consequences for test recipients. This prospective longitudinal study investigated the factors that predict psychological resilience in adults undergoing genetic testing for HCRC. Methods - A longitudinal study was carried out from April 2003 to August 2006 on Hong Kong Chinese HCRC family members who were recruited and offered genetic testing by the Hereditary Gastrointestinal Cancer R...

  3. A longitudinal study of the educational and career trajectories of female participants of an urban informal science education program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadigan, Kathleen A.; Hammrich, Penny L.

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal case study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of 152 young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during high school. Utilizing data drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews, this study also attempts to determine how the program affected the participants' educational and career choices to provide insight into the role informal science education programs play in increasing the participation of women and minorities in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET)-related fields. Findings revealed 109 participants (93.16%) enrolled in a college program following high school completion. Careers in medical or health-related fields followed by careers in SMET emerged as the highest ranking career paths with 24 students (23.76%) and 21 students (20.79%), respectively, employed in or pursuing careers in these areas. The majority of participants perceived having staff to talk to, the job skills learned, and having the museum as a safe place to go as having influenced their educational and career decisions. These findings reflect the need for continued support of informal science education programs for urban girls and at-risk youth.

  4. Tracing the Transition from Study to a Contemporary Creative Working Life: The Trajectories of Professional Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuti, Sini; Littleton, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The classical music academy is a site dominated by traditional meanings of creative practice and an image of the professional creative career as solo performer that is fully available to only a very few students after graduating. The purpose of the study reported in this paper is to explore career-young professional pianists' talk about the…

  5. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  6. Quasi-classical trajectory study of the reaction H + HS on a new ab ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CBS PES) by fitting accu- rate multireference configuration interaction energies .... 2.3 QCT calculations. We employed the standard QCT method (see the details in Refs 4–7 and the references therein) to study the stereodynamics of the title ...

  7. A case study of IMRT planning (Plan B) subsequent to a previously treated IMRT plan (Plan A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Cao, F; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Leong, C; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Schroeder, J; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Lee, B

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment of the contralateral neck after previous ipsilateral intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer is a challenging problem. We have developed a technique that limits the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while maximizing coverage of a planning target volume (PTV) in the contralateral neck. Our case involves a patient with right tonsil carcinoma who was given ipsilateral IMRT with 70Gy in 35 fractions (Plan A). A left neck recurrence was detected 14 months later. The patient underwent a neck dissection followed by postoperative left neck radiation to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions (Plan B). Materials and Methods: The spinal cord-brainstem margin (SCBM) was defined as the spinal cord and brainstem with a 1.0 cm margin. Plan A was recalculated on the postoperative CT scan but the fluence outside of SCBM was deleted. A further modification of Plan A resulted in a base plan that was summed with Plan B to evaluate the cumulative dose received by the spinal cord and brainstem. Plan B alone was used to evaluate for coverage of the contralateral neck PTV. Results: The maximum cumulative doses to the spinal cord with 0.5cm margin and brainstem with 0.5cm margin were 51.96 Gy and 45.60 Gy respectively. For Plan B, 100% of the prescribed dose covered 95% of PTVb1. Conclusion: The use of a modified ipsilateral IMRT plan as a base plan is an effective way to limit the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while enabling coverage of a PTV in the contralateral neck.

  8. Evaluation of a rapid dipstick (Crystal VC for the diagnosis of cholera in Zanzibar and a comparison with previous studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Ley

    Full Text Available The gold standard for the diagnosis of cholera is stool culture, but this requires laboratory facilities and takes at least 24 hours. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT that can be used by minimally trained staff at treatment centers could potentially improve the reporting and management of cholera outbreaks.We evaluated the Crystal VC™ RDT under field conditions in Zanzibar in 2009. Patients presenting to treatment centers with watery diarrhea provided a stool sample for rapid diagnostic testing. Results were compared to stool culture performed in a reference laboratory. We assessed the overall performance of the RDT and evaluated whether previous intake of antibiotics, intravenous fluids, location of testing, and skill level of the technician affected the RDT results.We included stool samples from 624 patients. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivity of the RDT was 93.1% (95%CI: 88.7 to 96.2%, specificity was 49.2% (95%CI: 44.3 to 54.1%, the positive predictive value was 47.0% (95%CI: 42.1 to 52.0% and the negative predictive value was 93.6% (95%CI: 89.6 to 96.5%. The overall false positivity rate was 50.8% (213/419; fieldworkers frequently misread very faint test lines as positive.The observed sensitivity of the Crystal VC RDT evaluated was similar compared to earlier versions, while specificity was poorer. The current version of the RDT could potentially be used as a screening tool in the field. Because of the high proportion of false positive results when field workers test stool specimens, positive results will need to be confirmed with stool culture.

  9. Trajectories of abstinence-induced Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms: A prospective pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kaptsis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD is positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The IGD criteria refer to withdrawal symptoms, including irritability, anxiety, or sadness, that follow cessation of Internet gaming (APA, 2013. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the nature of Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms, if they occur, under gaming abstinence conditions. This study employed a repeated-measures protocol to examine the cognitive-affective reactions of participants undertaking an 84-h Internet gaming abstinence period. The sample included individuals who met the IGD criteria as well as those who regularly played Internet games but did not meet the IGD criteria. Outcome variables included affect (positive and negative, psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress, and Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms (craving/urge, thoughts about gaming, inability to resist gaming. A total of 24 participants (Mage = 24.6 years, SD = 5.8 were recruited from online gaming communities, and completed a series of online surveys before, during, and after abstaining from Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO games. Both the IGD group and the non-IGD group experienced an abstinence-induced decline in withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect, and psychological distress. The IGD group experienced its largest decline in withdrawal symptomatology within the first 24 h of abstinence. These preliminary data suggest that gaming withdrawal symptoms may follow, at least initially, negative linear and quadratic trends. Further prospective work in larger samples involving longer periods of abstinence is required to verify and expand upon these observations.

  10. Trajectories of abstinence-induced Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms: A prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptsis, Dean; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The IGD criteria refer to withdrawal symptoms, including irritability, anxiety, or sadness, that follow cessation of Internet gaming (APA, 2013). The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the nature of Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms, if they occur, under gaming abstinence conditions. This study employed a repeated-measures protocol to examine the cognitive-affective reactions of participants undertaking an 84-h Internet gaming abstinence period. The sample included individuals who met the IGD criteria as well as those who regularly played Internet games but did not meet the IGD criteria. Outcome variables included affect (positive and negative), psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress), and Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms (craving/urge, thoughts about gaming, inability to resist gaming). A total of 24 participants ( M age  = 24.6 years, SD  = 5.8) were recruited from online gaming communities, and completed a series of online surveys before, during, and after abstaining from Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO) games. Both the IGD group and the non-IGD group experienced an abstinence-induced decline in withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect, and psychological distress. The IGD group experienced its largest decline in withdrawal symptomatology within the first 24 h of abstinence. These preliminary data suggest that gaming withdrawal symptoms may follow, at least initially, negative linear and quadratic trends. Further prospective work in larger samples involving longer periods of abstinence is required to verify and expand upon these observations.

  11. Longitudinal Cognitive Trajectories of Women Veterans from the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Claudia B.; Weitlauf, Julie C.; Rosen, Allyson C.; Reiber, Gayle; Cochrane, Barbara B.; Naughton, Michelle J.; Li, Wenjun; Rissling, Michelle; Yaffe, Kristine; Hunt, Julie R.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Goldstein, Mary K.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: A comparison of longitudinal global cognitive functioning in women Veteran and non-Veteran participants in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). Design and Methods: We studied 7,330 women aged 65–79 at baseline who participated in the WHI Hormone Therapy Trial and its ancillary Memory Study (WHIMS). Global cognitive functioning (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MSE]) in Veterans (n = 279) and non-Veterans (n = 7,051) was compared at baseline and annually for 8 years using generalized linear modeling methods. Results: Compared with non-Veterans, Veteran women were older, more likely to be Caucasian, unmarried, and had higher rates of educational and occupational attainment. Results of unadjusted baseline analyses suggest 3MSE scores were similar between groups. Longitudinal analyses, adjusted for age, education, ethnicity, and WHI trial assignment revealed differences in the rate of cognitive decline between groups over time, such that scores decreased more in Veterans relative to non-Veterans. This relative difference was more pronounced among Veterans who were older, had higher educational/occupational attainment and greater baseline prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., angina, stroke). Implications: Veteran status was associated with higher prevalence of protective factors that may have helped initially preserve cognitive functioning. However, findings ultimately revealed more pronounced cognitive decline among Veteran relative to non-Veteran participants, likely suggesting the presence of risks that may impact neuropathology and the effects of which were initially masked by Veterans’ greater cognitive reserve. PMID:26615021

  12. Trajectories of psychopathology in extremely low birth weight survivors from early adolescence to adulthood: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Ferro, Mark A; Schmidt, Louis A; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M; Mathewson, Karen J

    2018-04-18

    Individuals born extremely preterm are exposed to significant perinatal stresses that are associated with an increased risk of psychopathology. However, a paucity of longitudinal studies has prevented the empirical examination of long-term, dynamic effects of perinatal adversity on mental health. Here, internalizing and externalizing problems from adolescence through adulthood were compared in individuals born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; 2,500 g). Internalizing and externalizing data were collected over 20 years in three waves, during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood. Growth models were used to compare longitudinal trajectories in a geographically based sample of 151 ELBW survivors and 137 NBW control participants born between 1977 and 1982 matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status at age 8. After adjusting for sex, socioeconomic and immigrant status, and family functioning, ELBW survivors failed to show the normative, age-related decline in internalizing problems over time relative to their NBW peers (β = .21; p Self-esteem (but not physical health, IQ, or maternal mood) partially mediated the association between ELBW status and internalizing problems. Extremely low birth weight survivors experienced a blunting of the expected improvement in depression and anxiety from adolescence to adulthood. These findings suggest that altered physiological regulatory systems supporting emotional and cognitive processing may contribute to the maintenance of internalizing problems in this population. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. Trajectories of premorbid childhood and adolescent functioning in schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses: A first-episode study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Leslie E; Tarbox, Sarah I; Olino, Thomas M; Haas, Gretchen L

    2015-06-30

    Evidence of social and behavioral problems preceding the onset of schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses is consistent with a neurodevelopmental model of these disorders. Here we predict that individuals with a first episode of schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses will evidence one of three patterns of premorbid adjustment: an early deficit, a deteriorating pattern, or adequate or good social adjustment. Participants were 164 (38% female; 31% black) individuals ages 15-50 with a first episode of schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses. Premorbid adjustment was assessed using the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale. We compared the fit of a series of growth mixture models to examine premorbid adjustment trajectories, and found the following 3-class model provided the best fit with: a "stable-poor" adjustment class (54%), a "stable-good" adjustment class (39%), and a "deteriorating" adjustment class (7%). Relative to the "stable-good" class, the "stable-poor" class experienced worse negative symptoms at 1-year follow-up, particularly in the social amotivation domain. This represents the first known growth mixture modeling study to examine premorbid functioning patterns in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses. Given that the stable-poor adjustment pattern was most prevalent, detection of social and academic maladjustment as early as childhood may help identify people at increased risk for schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses, potentially increasing feasibility of early interventions. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Integrating ecosystem services in the assessment of urban energy trajectories – A study of the Stockholm Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mörtberg, Ulla; Goldenberg, Romain; Kalantari, Zahra; Kordas, Olga; Deal, Brian; Balfors, Berit; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Urban development trajectories are changing towards compact, energy-efficient cities and renewable energy sources, and this will strongly affect ecosystem services (ES) that cities are dependent on but tend to disregard. Such ES can be provisioning, regulating and cultural ES, around which competition over land resources will increase with energy system shifts. Much of this can be foreseen to take place within urbanising regions that are simultaneously the living environment of a major part of the human population today. In order to inform critical urban policy decisions, tools for integrated assessment of urban energy and transport options and ecosystem services need to be developed. For this purpose, a case study of the Stockholm region was conducted, analysing three scenarios for the future urbanisation of the region, integrating a transport energy perspective and an ES perspective. The results showed that a dense but polycentric development pattern gives more opportunities for sustainable urban development, while the dense monocentric scenario has apparent drawbacks from an ES perspective. The methodology is compatible with a model integration platform for urban policy support and will thus enable integrated policy assessment of complex urban systems, with the goal of increasing their sustainability. - Highlights: • A diffuse urban pattern leads to low access to jobs and high energy consumption. • A dense monocentric urban pattern implies high energy efficiency and low access to ES. • A dense polycentric urban pattern allows for a combination of urban functions. • ES needs to be integrated into sustainability assessments of urban policy options.

  15. Trajectory of phantom limb pain relief using mirror therapy: Retrospective analysis of two studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Sarah C; Curran, Sean; Chan, Annie W Y; Finn, Sacha B; Baker, Chris I; Pasquina, Paul F; Tsao, Jack W

    2017-04-01

    Research indicates that mirror therapy reduces phantom limb pain (PLP). Objectives were to determine when mirror therapy works in those who respond to treatment, the relevance of baseline PLP to when pain relief occurs, and what pain symptoms respond to mirror therapy. Data from two independent cohorts with unilateral lower limb amputation were analyzed for this study (n=33). Mirror therapy consisted of 15-min sessions in which amputees performed synchronous movements of the phantom and intact legs/feet. PLP was measured using a visual analogue scale and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. The severity of PLP at the beginning of treatment predicted when pain relief occurred. Those with low baseline PLP experienced a reduction (ppain relief by session 14 of treatment, and those with high baseline PLP experienced pain relief by session 21 of treatment. Mirror therapy reduced throbbing, shooting, stabbing, sharp, cramping, aching, tender, splitting, tiring/exhausting, and punishing-cruel pain symptoms. The degree of PLP at baseline predicts when mirror therapy relieves pain. This article indicates that the degree of baseline PLP affects when mirror therapy relieves pain: relief occurs by session 7 in patients with low PLP but by session 21 in patients with high PLP. Clinicians should anticipate slower pain relief in patients who begin treatment with high levels of pain. ClinicalTrials.gov numbers:NCT00623818 and NCT00662415. Copyright © 2017 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain. All rights reserved.

  16. Gut microbiota trajectory in patients with severe burn: A time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinying; Yang, Jianbo; Tian, Feng; Zhang, Li; Lei, Qiucheng; Jiang, Tingting; Zhou, Jihong; Yuan, Siming; Wang, Jun; Feng, Zhijian; Li, Jieshou

    2017-12-01

    This time series experiments aimed to investigate the dynamic change of gut microbiomes after severe burn and its association with enteral nutrition (EN). Seven severely burned patients who suffered from a severe metal dust explosion injury were recruited in this study. The dynamic changes of gut microbiome of fecal samples at six time points (1-3days, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6weeks after severe burn) were detected using 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing technology. Following the post-burn temporal order, gut microbiota dysbiosis was detected in the gut microbiome after severe burn, then it was gradually resolved. The bio-diversity of gut bacteria was initially decreased, and then returned to normal level. In addition, at the early stage (from 2 to 4weeks), the majority of those patients' gut microbiome were opportunistic pathogen genus, Enterococcus and Escherichia; while at the end of this study, the majority was a beneficial genus, Bacteroides. EN can promote the recovery of gut microbiota, especially in EN well-tolerated patients. Severe burn injury can cause a dramatic dysbiosis of gut microbiota. A trend of enriched beneficial bacteria and diminished opportunistic pathogen bacteria may serve as prognosis microbiome biomarkers of severe burn patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Longitudinal Cognitive Trajectories of Women Veterans from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Claudia B; Weitlauf, Julie C; Rosen, Allyson C; Reiber, Gayle; Cochrane, Barbara B; Naughton, Michelle J; Li, Wenjun; Rissling, Michelle; Yaffe, Kristine; Hunt, Julie R; Stefanick, Marcia L; Goldstein, Mary K; Espeland, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    A comparison of longitudinal global cognitive functioning in women Veteran and non-Veteran participants in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). We studied 7,330 women aged 65-79 at baseline who participated in the WHI Hormone Therapy Trial and its ancillary Memory Study (WHIMS). Global cognitive functioning (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MSE]) in Veterans (n = 279) and non-Veterans (n = 7,051) was compared at baseline and annually for 8 years using generalized linear modeling methods. Compared with non-Veterans, Veteran women were older, more likely to be Caucasian, unmarried, and had higher rates of educational and occupational attainment. Results of unadjusted baseline analyses suggest 3MSE scores were similar between groups. Longitudinal analyses, adjusted for age, education, ethnicity, and WHI trial assignment revealed differences in the rate of cognitive decline between groups over time, such that scores decreased more in Veterans relative to non-Veterans. This relative difference was more pronounced among Veterans who were older, had higher educational/occupational attainment and greater baseline prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., angina, stroke). Veteran status was associated with higher prevalence of protective factors that may have helped initially preserve cognitive functioning. However, findings ultimately revealed more pronounced cognitive decline among Veteran relative to non-Veteran participants, likely suggesting the presence of risks that may impact neuropathology and the effects of which were initially masked by Veterans' greater cognitive reserve. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Trajectories of legitimate peripheral participation: Ethnographic case studies of learning ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gervase Michael Reynolds

    1999-09-01

    Current reform documents in education call for elementary and high school students to engage in "authentic" scientific practices. In the past several years a number of authors have suggested that science education research and curriculum development could benefit from insights gained by research in the social studies of science that documents and theorizes science as it is actually done. Yet, although practices of laboratory science are well understood and provide a foundation from which educational practices could be drawn, little is known about the practices of the science disciplines which deal with field research and how people are enculturated into those practices. This dissertation is constituted by a series of research papers on different (although inter-related) topics, in which I examine the enculturation into the practices of field ecology and the world-view that is associated with that enculturation. To better understand the practices of field ecology and how they develop, I conducted several projects: (i) a video ethnography of a second-year university ecology class and observations on research experiences undergraduates experience; (ii) ethnographic research with ecologists conducting field research; (iii) observations of graduate student and professional ecologists as they participated in conferences, engaged in interaction in their laboratory and social settings, and presented/discussed their findings in various settings; (iv) interviews with graduate student and professional ecologists discussing their field research experiences; (v) videotaped interviews with practicing researchers and under/graduate science and non-science students as they interpreted various ecology-related inscriptions; (vi) an analysis of the inscriptions and textual information present in the various texts (textbooks and journals) used to teach students about ecology; and, (vii) observations of elementary school students engaged in practices congruent with those of field

  19. Service Use and Unmet Needs in Youth Suicide: A Study of Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Johanne; Séguin, Monique; Lesage, Alain D; Marquette, Claude; Choo, Bettina; Turecki, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: While 90% of suicide victims have suffered from mental health disorders, less than one-half are in contact with a mental health professional in the year preceding their death. Service use in the last year of life of young suicide victims and control subjects was studied in Quebec. We wanted to determine what kinds of health care services were needed and if they were actually received by suicide victims. Method: We recruited 67 consecutive suicide victims and 56 matched living control subjects (aged 25 years and younger). We evaluated subjects’ psychopathological profile and determined which services would have been indicated by conducting a needs assessment. We then compared this with what services were actually received. Results: Suicide victims were more likely than living control subjects to have a psychiatric diagnosis. They were most in need of services to address substance use disorder, depression, interpersonal distress, and suicide-related problems. There were significant deficits in the domains of coordination and continuity of care, mental health promotion and training, and governance. Conclusions: Our results show that we need to urgently take action to address these identified deficits to prevent further loss of life in our young people. PMID:25565685

  20. Design study of double-layer beam trajectory accelerator based on the Rhodotron structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbari, Iraj, E-mail: i_jabbari@ast.ui.ac.ir [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 8174673441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poursaleh, Ali Mohammad [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 8174673441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Central Iran Research Complex, NSTRI, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalafi, Hossein [Central Iran Research Complex, NSTRI, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-21

    In this paper, the conceptual design of a new structure of industrial electron accelerator based on the Rhodotron accelerator is presented and its properties are compared with those of Rhodotron-TT200 accelerator. The main goal of this study was to reduce the power of RF system of accelerator at the same output electron beam energy. The main difference between the new accelerator structure with the Rhodotron accelerator is the length of the coaxial cavity that is equal to the wavelength at the resonant frequency. Also two sets of bending magnets were used around the acceleration cavity in two layers. In the new structure, the beam crosses several times in the coaxial cavity by the bending magnets around the cavity at the first layer and then is transferred to the second layer using the central bending magnet. The acceleration process in the second layer is similar to the first layer. Hence, the energy of the electron beam will be doubled. The electrical power consumption of the RF system and magnet system were calculated and simulated for the new accelerator structure and TT200. Comparing the calculated and simulated results of the TT200 with those of experimental results revealed good agreement. The results showed that the overall electrical power consumption of the new accelerator structure was less than that of the TT200 at the same energy and power of the electron beam. As such, the electrical efficiency of the new structure was improved.

  1. Service use and unmet needs in youth suicide: a study of trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Johanne; Séguin, Monique; Lesage, Alain D; Marquette, Claude; Choo, Bettina; Turecki, Gustavo

    2014-10-01

    While 90% of suicide victims have suffered from mental health disorders, less than one-half are in contact with a mental health professional in the year preceding their death. Service use in the last year of life of young suicide victims and control subjects was studied in Quebec. We wanted to determine what kinds of health care services were needed and if they were actually received by suicide victims. We recruited 67 consecutive suicide victims and 56 matched living control subjects (aged 25 years and younger). We evaluated subjects' psychopathological profile and determined which services would have been indicated by conducting a needs assessment. We then compared this with what services were actually received. Suicide victims were more likely than living control subjects to have a psychiatric diagnosis. They were most in need of services to address substance use disorder, depression, interpersonal distress, and suicide-related problems. There were significant deficits in the domains of coordination and continuity of care, mental health promotion and training, and governance. Our results show that we need to urgently take action to address these identified deficits to prevent further loss of life in our young people.

  2. Trajectory dynamics study of the Ar + CH4 dissociation reaction at high temperatures: the importance of zero-point-energy effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, J M C; Martínez-Núñez, E; Fernandez-Ramos, A; Vazquez, S A

    2005-06-23

    Large-scale classical trajectory calculations have been performed to study the reaction Ar + CH4--> CH3 +H + Ar in the temperature range 2500 energy surface used for ArCH4 is the sum of the nonbonding pairwise potentials of Hase and collaborators (J. Chem. Phys. 2001, 114, 535) that models the intermolecular interaction and the CH4 intramolecular potential of Duchovic et al. (J. Phys. Chem. 1984, 88, 1339), which has been modified to account for the H-H repulsion at small bending angles. The thermal rate coefficient has been calculated, and the zero-point energy (ZPE) of the CH3 product molecule has been taken into account in the analysis of the results; also, two approaches have been applied for discarding predissociative trajectories. In both cases, good agreement is observed between the experimental and trajectory results after imposing the ZPE of CH3. The energy-transfer parameters have also been obtained from trajectory calculations and compared with available values estimated from experiment using the master equation formalism; in general, the agreement is good.

  3. Smoking Trajectories during the Perinatal Period and Their Risk Factors: The Nationally Representative French ELFE (Etude Longitudinale Française Depuis l'Enfance) Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Fabienne; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Van Der Waerden, Judith; Surkan, Pamela; Martins, Silvia; Keyes, Katherine; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Melchior, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In France, rates of perinatal smoking are among the highest worldwide; however, perinatal smoking trajectories and associated factors have still not been adequately researched. Among women participating in the French nationally representative etude longitudinale française depuis l'enfance birth cohort (n = 15,540), perinatal smoking trajectories were estimated using group-based modelling. Associated characteristics were studied using multinomial logistic regression. Four trajectories were identified: non-smokers (59%), quitters (20%), persistent moderate (12%) and persistent heavy (9%) smokers. Older age, being native French, low socioeconomic position, persistent psychological difficulties and alcohol use in pregnancy, lack of social support, partner's smoking, mistimed pregnancy, and child formula feeding at birth were associated with persistent heavy smoking. Most of these factors were also associated, but to a lesser extent, with persistent moderate smoking, except for age and migrant status, which had opposite effects. Women who successfully lost weight prior to pregnancy had higher levels of quitting smoking. Women's long-term smoking trajectories vary in terms of initial tobacco consumption level but also in relation to socio-demographic, psychological, behavioral and partner characteristics. Health professionals in contact with pregnant smokers should address perceived risks and benefits of smoking, including partner's smoking and weight-gain concerns. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Vitamin D Insufficiency and Cognitive Function Trajectories in Older Adults: The Rancho Bernardo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Gail A; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Reas, Emilie T; Jassal, Simerjot K; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; McEvoy, Linda K

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of a role for vitamin D (VitD) in cognitive aging is mixed and based primarily on extreme VitD deficiency. We evaluated the association of VitD insufficiency with cognitive function in older, community-dwelling adults living in a temperate climate with year-round sunshine. A population-based longitudinal study of 1,058 adults (median age 75; 62% women) who had cognitive function assessed and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitaminD (25OHD) measured in 1997-99 and were followed for up to three additional cognitive function assessments over a 12-year period. Overall, 14% (n = 145) of participants had VitD insufficiency defined as 25OHD age, sex, education, and season, VitD insufficiency was associated with poorer baseline performance on the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) (p = 0.013), Trails Making Test B (Trails B) (p = 0.015), Category Fluency (p = 0.006), and Long Term Retrieval (p = 0.019); differences were equivalent to 5 years of age. For those with VitD insufficiency, the odds of mildly impaired performance at baseline were 38% higher for MMSE (p = 0.08), 78% higher for Trails B (p = 0.017), and 2-fold higher for Category Fluency and Long Term Retrieval (both p = 0.001). VitD insufficiency was not related to the rate of cognitive decline on any test or the risk of developing impaired performance during follow-up. In this population with little VitD deficiency, even moderately low VitD was associated with poorer performance on multiple domains of cognitive function. Low VitD did not predict 12-year cognitive decline. Clinical trials are essential to establish a causal link between VitD and cognitive well-being.

  5. Studies in iodine metabolism: 33 year summary, 1948-1979 (as previously submitted) with appendix, 1979-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middlesworth, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of research into iodine metabolism from 1948 to 1982 are summarized. Study areas included the monitoring of iodine 131 from fallout in the thyroid glands of cattle and humans, the biological functions and metabolism of thyroid hormones, and methods to reduce the retention of radioiodine in the thyroid

  6. Study on Oil Pressure Characteristics and Trajectory Tracking Control in Shift Process of Wet-Clutch for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate control of oil pressure of wet-clutch is of great importance for improving shift quality. Based on dynamic models of two-gear planetary transmission and hydraulic control system, a trajectory tracking model of oil pressure was built by sliding mode control method. An experiment was designed to verify the validity of hydraulic control system, through which the relationship between duty cycle of on-off valve and oil pressure of clutch was determined. The tracking effect was analyzed by simulation. Results showed that oil pressure could follow well the optimal trajectory and the shift quality was effectively improved.

  7. Mental health trajectories from childhood to young adulthood affect the educational and employment status of young adults: results from the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Ortiz, Josue Almansa; Verhulst, Frank C; Bültmann, Ute

    2015-06-01

    Young adults at work without basic educational level (BEL), and young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment outcomes. Evidence lacks on the impact of mental health problems during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood on employment outcomes of young adults. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) identify trajectories of mental health problems from childhood to young adulthood and (2) investigate the relation between these trajectories and the educational or employment status of young adults. Data were used from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch prospective cohort study with 9-year follow-up. Trajectories of mental health problems measured at ages 11, 13.5, 16 and 19 years were identified in 1711 young adults with latent class growth models. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of total problems, from childhood to young adulthood, were more likely to work without BEL or be in NEET at age 19, than to be at school or to work with BEL (28.0% vs 16.0%, p=0.01). The same was found for externalising problems (35.3% vs 23.2%, p=0.02). For internalising and attention problems, no statistically significant differences were found. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of mental health problems from age 11 to 19, were at risk of adverse employment outcomes. Interventions reducing mental health problems in childhood may improve the educational or employment status of young adults and their chances for successfully entering the labour market. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Abrasive Particle Trajectories and Material Removal Non-Uniformity during CMP and Filtration Characteristics of CMP Slurries - A Simulation and Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Vahid

    Nanoscale finishing and planarization are integral process steps in multilevel metallization designs for integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing since it is necessary to ensure local and global surface planarization at each metal layer before depositing the next layer. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) has been widely recognized as the most promising technology to eliminate topographic variation and has allowed the construction of multilevel interconnection structures with a more regularly stacked sequence, resulting in better device performance [1]. Understanding fundamental of the CMP mechanisms can offer guidance to the control and optimization of the polishing processes. CMP kinematics based on slurry distribution and particle trajectories have a significant impact on MRR profiles. In this work a mathematical model to describe particle trajectories during chemical mechanical polishing was developed and extended to account for the effect of larger particles, particle location changes due to slurry dispensing and in-situ conditioning. Material removal rate (MRR) and within wafer non-uniformity (WIWNU) were determined based on the calculated particle trajectory densities. Rotary dynamics and reciprocating motion were optimized to obtain best MRR uniformity. Edge-fast MRR profile was discussed based on mechanical aspect of CMP. Using the model, we also investigated the effect of variable rotational speeds of wafer and pad, and of large particles on WIWNU and scratch growth. It was shown that the presence of even a small portion of large particles can deteriorate the WIWNU significantly and also lead to more scratches. Furthermore, it was shown that the in-situ conditioning improves the uniformity of the polished wafers. Furthermore, a combined experimental and computational study of fibrous filters for removal of larger abrasive particles from aqueous dispersions, essential to minimize defects during chemical mechanical polishing, was performed. Dilute aqueous

  9. CHRONOVAC VOYAGEUR: A study of the immune response to yellow fever vaccine among infants previously immunized against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Catherine; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Tondeur, Laura; Poirier, Béatrice; Seffer, Valérie; Desprès, Philippe; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2017-10-27

    For administration of multiple live attenuated vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends either simultaneous immunization or period of at least 28days between vaccines, due to a possible reduction in the immune response to either vaccine. The main objective of this study was to compare the immune response to measles (alone or combined with mumps and rubella) and yellow fever vaccines among infants aged 6-24months living in a yellow fever non-endemic country who had receivedmeasles and yellow fever vaccines before travelling to a yellow fever endemic area. A retrospective, multicenter case-control study was carried out in 7 travel clinics in the Paris area from February 1st 2011 to march 31, 2015. Cases were defined as infants immunized with the yellow fever vaccine and with the measles vaccine, either alone or in combination with mumps and rubella vaccine, with a period of 1-27days between each immunization. For each case, two controls were matched based on sex and age: a first control group (control 1) was defined as infants having received the measles vaccine and the yellow fever vaccine simultaneously; a second control group (control 2) was defined as infants who had a period of more than 27days between receiving the measles vaccine and yellow fever vaccine. The primary endpoint of the study was the percentage of infants with protective immunity against yellow fever, measured by the titer of neutralizing antibodies in a venous blood sample. One hundred and thirty-one infants were included in the study (62 cases, 50 infants in control 1 and 19 infants in control 2). Of these, 127 (96%) were shown to have a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies. All 4 infants without a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies were part of control group 1. The measles vaccine, alone or combined with mumps and rubella vaccines, appears to have no influence on humoral immune response to the yellow fever vaccine when administered between 1 and 27

  10. Structural Study and Evaluation of Previous Restoration Work of Mohammad 'Ali Pasha Mosque at the Citadel in Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Yaser Yehya Amin Abdel-Aty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad 'Ali Pasha Mosque at the Citadel in Cairo is considered one of the main landmarks in Egypt. It majestically stands at a northwestern bend of the Citadel and it is visible from numerous locations in Cairo. It has become the symbol of the Citadel, to the point that its name is given to the whole complex in the colloquial Egyptian parlance. This paper studies analytically the static and dynamic structural behavior of this great mosque using computer numerical modeling techniques, to reach the main reasons for past cracking and failures in its domed-roof and other structural elements, which occurred by the end of 19th Century. A number of 3D-models are analyzed to study the mosque, in both original and after restoration conditions, under static (i.e. dead and live loads and dynamic (i.e. Eigenvector modal analysis, response-spectrum and time-history cases of loading. Besides, structural evaluation of major restoration project, in 1930s, is conducted to determine the current structural safety status of the mosque

  11. Technical description of the RIVM trajectory model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, E.S.; Van Pul, W.A.J.

    1995-12-01

    The RIVM trajectory model, described in this report, enables calculation of a backward or forward trajectory. These trajectories are used to `follow` previous released air pollution in a backward mode or to `find` the origin of air pollution in a forward mode. The trajectories are used in the smog forecasting and in the TREND model for the distribution of materials in Europe. Presently 6-hourly ECMWF wind fields at 1000 and 850 hPa, with 3 deg x 3 deg latitude-longitude resolution are used. Wind fields with a different resolution in latitude-longitude can also be used after simple adjustments. An iterative method, described elsewhere, is applied to calculate the trajectories. Within limits, the user is free to choose the time step (1, 2 or 6-hour), transport height, length, starting or arrival date and starting or arrival position of the trajectory. The differences between the trajectories calculated with time steps of 1, 2 and 6 h were small. For the 96-hour trajectories at 1000 and 850 hPa the deviations were generally within 1 deg latitude and longitude, i.e. 100-200 km. The trajectory calculated with the 6-hour time step could be used without a great loss in accuracy compared to the calculations with the 1-hour time step. A typical error in the trajectory path at 1000 and 850 hPa was 500 km, which is about 30% of a typical travel distance. However, close to quickly changing weather systems, such as cyclones, the error can be as large as the travel distance and makes the calculations unreliable. The error in the forecasted trajectory was found to be larger than the above error estimation due to larger uncertainties in the forecasted compared to the analyzed wind fields. A manual on how to run the model is also given. 5 figs., 3 tabs., 5 refs., 6 appendices

  12. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  13. Comparative study of a novel application of automated HR HPV assay and stability in a previously untested Preservative media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Mike E; McBride, Simon E; Gomez, Maria P

    2017-12-01

    The suitability and stability of cervical cells in Novaprep media (NHQ) for certain HPV assays is unknown. We evaluated the accuracy of an automated HPV assay (Abbott RealTime HR HPV) for cervical cells prepared in NHQ and NHQ with a pre-treatment to mimic a worst case clinical use, compared to the assay manufacturers media; repeatability and reproducibility of HPV results and the stability of detectable HPV in NHQ over time compared to CE marked liquid based cytology preservatives. Cell lines were used to simulate patient samples. Cells stored in NHQ produced accurate, repeatable and reproducible results. Stability in NHQ was comparable to the best performing LBC, with at least 7 months' stability at 18-25°C, 2-8°C, -20°C and -80°C; and at least 3 months' stability at 40°C. Similar results were obtained for pre-treated NHQ except only 3.5 months' stability at 18-25°C. Cell line samples in all media and concentrations tested were detected appropriately by the assay. Based on this first stage validation analytical study, cervical cells stored in NHQ are suitable for the Realtime HPV assay. There should be no reservations for inclusion of NHQ in any further validation and clinical performance evaluation of this assay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld; Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10?19, we identified five distinct delinquency trajectories differing in both level and change in seriousness over time: a nondelinquent, minor persisting, moderate desisting, serious persist...

  15. Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Visiting Vehicle Group needed a targeting tool for vehicles that rendezvous with the ISS. The Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory targeting tool provides the ability to perform both realtime and planning operations for the Visiting Vehicle Group. This tool provides a highly reconfigurable base, which allows the Visiting Vehicle Group to perform their work. The application is composed of a telemetry processing function, a relative motion function, a targeting function, a vector view, and 2D/3D world map type graphics. The software tool provides the ability to plan a rendezvous trajectory for vehicles that visit the ISS. It models these relative trajectories using planned and realtime data from the vehicle. The tool monitors ongoing rendezvous trajectory relative motion, and ensures visiting vehicles stay within agreed corridors. The software provides the ability to update or re-plan a rendezvous to support contingency operations. Adding new parameters and incorporating them into the system was previously not available on-the-fly. If an unanticipated capability wasn't discovered until the vehicle was flying, there was no way to update things.

  16. Comparative study of a novel application of automated HR HPV assay and stability in a previously untested Preservative media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike E. Morel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The suitability and stability of cervical cells in Novaprep media (NHQ for certain HPV assays is unknown. Methods: We evaluated the accuracy of an automated HPV assay (Abbott RealTime HR HPV for cervical cells prepared in NHQ and NHQ with a pre-treatment to mimic a worst case clinical use, compared to the assay manufacturers media; repeatability and reproducibility of HPV results and the stability of detectable HPV in NHQ over time compared to CE marked liquid based cytology preservatives. Cell lines were used to simulate patient samples. Results: Cells stored in NHQ produced accurate, repeatable and reproducible results. Stability in NHQ was comparable to the best performing LBC, with at least 7 months’ stability at 18–25 °C, 2–8 °C, −20 °C and −80 °C; and at least 3 months’ stability at 40 °C. Similar results were obtained for pre-treated NHQ except only 3.5 months’ stability at 18–25 °C. Cell line samples in all media and concentrations tested were detected appropriately by the assay. Conclusions: Based on this first stage validation analytical study, cervical cells stored in NHQ are suitable for the Realtime HPV assay. There should be no reservations for inclusion of NHQ in any further validation and clinical performance evaluation of this assay. Keywords: HPV, Preservative, Sample stability, Automated HR HPV assay

  17. The Gavialis-Tomistoma debate: the contribution of skull ontogenetic allometry and growth trajectories to the study of crocodylian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Paolo; Colangelo, Paolo; Adams, Dean C; Buscalioni, Angela; Cubo, Jorge; Kotsakis, Tassos; Meloro, Carlo; Raia, Pasquale

    2010-01-01

    The phylogenetic placement of Tomistoma and Gavialis crocodiles depends largely upon whether molecular or morphological data are utilized. Molecular analyses consider them as sister taxa, whereas morphological/paleontological analyses set Gavialis apart from Tomistoma and other crocodylian species. Here skull allometric trajectories of Tomistoma and Gavialis were contrasted with those of two longirostral crocodylian taxa, Crocodylus acutus and Mecistops cataphractus, to examine similarities in growth trajectories in light of this phylogenetic controversy. Entire skull shape and its two main modules, rostrum and postrostrum, were analyzed separately. We tested differences for both multivariate angles between trajectories and for shape differences at early and late stages of development. Based on a multivariate regression of shape data and size, Tomistoma seems to possess a peculiar rate of growth in comparison to the remaining taxa. However, its morphology at both juvenile and adult sizes is always closer to those of Brevirostres crocodylians, for the entire head shape, as well as the shape of the postrostrum and rostrum. By contrast, the allometric trajectory of Gavialis always begins and ends in a unique region of the multidimensional morphospace. These findings concur with a morphological hypothesis that places Gavialis separate from Brevirostres, and Tomistoma closer to other crocodylids, and provides an additional, and independent, data set to inform on this ongoing phylogenetic discussion. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evaluating and Improving a Learning Trajectory for Linear Measurement in Elementary Grades 2 and 3: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jeffrey E.; Sarama, Julie; Clements, Douglas H.; Cullen, Craig; McCool, Jenni; Witkowski-Rumsey, Chepina; Klanderman, David

    2012-01-01

    We examined children's development of strategic and conceptual knowledge for linear measurement. We conducted teaching experiments with eight students in grades 2 and 3, based on our hypothetical learning trajectory for length to check its coherence and to strengthen the domain-specific model for learning and teaching. We checked the hierarchical…

  19. The study of the particle trajectories in the magnetic fields of MARUSYA setup using GEANT 3 package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argintaru, Danut; Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru; Esanu, Tiberiu; Calin, Marius; Argintaru, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Using the GEANT 3 package we simulate the trajectories of the detected particles in the MARUSYA (JINR Dubna) setup. The dependence between the particle momenta and TOF, dE/dx, velocities and angles are important both for the detectors design and particle identification (PID). (authors)

  20. Trajectories of martian habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-02-01

    Beginning from two plausible starting points-an uninhabited or inhabited Mars-this paper discusses the possible trajectories of martian habitability over time. On an uninhabited Mars, the trajectories follow paths determined by the abundance of uninhabitable environments and uninhabited habitats. On an inhabited Mars, the addition of a third environment type, inhabited habitats, results in other trajectories, including ones where the planet remains inhabited today or others where planetary-scale life extinction occurs. By identifying different trajectories of habitability, corresponding hypotheses can be described that allow for the various trajectories to be disentangled and ultimately a determination of which trajectory Mars has taken and the changing relative abundance of its constituent environments.

  1. Fluctuation theorems and atypical trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, M; Lahiri, S; Jayannavar, A M

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have studied simple models that can be solved analytically to illustrate various fluctuation theorems. These fluctuation theorems provide symmetries individually to the distributions of physical quantities such as the classical work (W c ), thermodynamic work (W), total entropy (Δs tot ) and dissipated heat (Q), when the system is driven arbitrarily out of equilibrium. All these quantities can be defined for individual trajectories. We have studied the number of trajectories which exhibit behaviour unexpected at the macroscopic level. As the time of observation increases, the fraction of such atypical trajectories decreases, as expected at the macroscale. The distributions for the thermodynamic work and entropy production in nonlinear models may exhibit a peak (most probable value) in the atypical regime without violating the expected average behaviour. However, dissipated heat and classical work exhibit a peak in the regime of typical behaviour only.

  2. Repetitive Rockfall Trajectory Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Volkwein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of rockfall trajectories are a standard procedure for evaluating rockfall hazards. For these simulations, corresponding software codes must be calibrated and evaluated based on field data. This study addresses methods of repeatable rockfall tests, and investigates whether it is possible to produce traceable and statistically analysable data. A testing series is described extensively covering how to conduct rockfall experiments and how certain elements of rockfall trajectories can be measured. The tests use acceleration and rotation sensors inside test blocks, a system to determine block positions over time, surveying measurements, and video recordings. All systems are evaluated regarding their usability in the field and for analyses. The highly detailed description of testing methods is the basis for sound understanding and reproducibility of the tests. This article serves as a reference for future publications and other rockfall field tests, both as a guide and as a basis for comparisons. First analyses deliver information on runout with a shadow angle ranging between 21 and 45 degrees for a slope consisting of homogeneous soft soil. A digital elevation model of the test site as well as point clouds of the used test blocks are part of this publication.

  3. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  4. Long-term temporal trajectories to enhance restoration efficiency and sustainability on large rivers: an interdisciplinary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbach, David; Schmitt, Laurent; Imfeld, Gwenaël; May, Jan-Hendrik; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Preusser, Frank; Trauerstein, Mareike; Skupinski, Grzegorz

    2018-05-01

    While the history of a fluvial hydrosystem can provide essential knowledge on present functioning, historical context remains rarely considered in river restoration. Here we show the relevance of an interdisciplinary study for improving restoration within the framework of a European LIFE+ project on the French side of the Upper Rhine (Rohrschollen Island). Investigating the planimetric evolution combined with historical high-flow data enabled us to reconstruct pre-disturbance hydromorphological functioning and major changes that occurred on the reach. A deposition frequency assessment combining vertical evolution of the Rhine thalweg, chronology of deposits in the floodplain, and a hydrological model revealed that the period of incision in the main channel corresponded to high rates of narrowing and lateral channel filling. Analysis of filling processes using Passega diagrams and IRSL dating highlights that periods of engineering works were closely related to fine sediment deposition, which also presents concomitant heavy metal accumulation. In fact, current fluvial forms, processes and sediment chemistry around Rohrschollen Island directly reflect the disturbances that occurred during past correction works, and up to today. Our results underscore the advantage of combining functional restoration with detailed knowledge of the past trajectory to (i) understand the functioning of the hydrosystem prior to anthropogenic disturbances, (ii) characterize the human-driven morphodynamic adjustments during the last 2 centuries, (iii) characterize physico-chemical sediment properties to trace anthropogenic activities and evaluate the potential impact of the restoration on pollutant remobilization, (iv) deduce the post-restoration evolution tendency and (v) evaluate the efficiency and sustainability of the restoration effects. We anticipate our approach will expand the toolbox of decision-makers and help orientate functional restoration actions in the future.

  5. Early Childhood IQ Trajectories in Individuals Later Developing Schizophrenia and Affective Psychoses in the New England Family Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Buka, Stephen L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Smoller, Jordan W; Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J

    2015-07-01

    Individuals who develop schizophrenia in adulthood exhibit, on average, deficits in childhood cognition relative to healthy controls. However, it remains unclear when in childhood such deficits emerge and whether they are stable across childhood or change (increase or decrease) across development. Importantly, whether the trajectory of childhood cognition differs among youth who later develop affective psychoses (AP) vs schizophrenia as adults remains unresolved. Subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project were administered the Stanford-Binet IQ test at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. A total of 9809 (54.7%) participants in the New England Study sites were tested at both ages, including 37 who later developed schizophrenia spectrum psychoses (SSP) and 39 who later developed AP. Logistic regression models examined the association of level of and change in childhood IQ and later SSP or AP. Lower overall childhood IQ was associated with higher risk of SSP. Additionally, there was a small mean increase in IQ in the SSP group relative to a mean decrease in the control group from age 4 to 7 such that positive change in IQ was significantly associated with a higher risk of SSP. Neither overall level nor change in IQ was associated with risk of AP. The results are consistent with neurocognitive impairment throughout early childhood specifically for children who later develop schizophrenia, affirming the theory of atypical neurodevelopment in premorbid schizophrenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Long-term temporal trajectories to enhance restoration efficiency and sustainability on large rivers: an interdisciplinary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Eschbach

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available While the history of a fluvial hydrosystem can provide essential knowledge on present functioning, historical context remains rarely considered in river restoration. Here we show the relevance of an interdisciplinary study for improving restoration within the framework of a European LIFE+ project on the French side of the Upper Rhine (Rohrschollen Island. Investigating the planimetric evolution combined with historical high-flow data enabled us to reconstruct pre-disturbance hydromorphological functioning and major changes that occurred on the reach. A deposition frequency assessment combining vertical evolution of the Rhine thalweg, chronology of deposits in the floodplain, and a hydrological model revealed that the period of incision in the main channel corresponded to high rates of narrowing and lateral channel filling. Analysis of filling processes using Passega diagrams and IRSL dating highlights that periods of engineering works were closely related to fine sediment deposition, which also presents concomitant heavy metal accumulation. In fact, current fluvial forms, processes and sediment chemistry around Rohrschollen Island directly reflect the disturbances that occurred during past correction works, and up to today. Our results underscore the advantage of combining functional restoration with detailed knowledge of the past trajectory to (i understand the functioning of the hydrosystem prior to anthropogenic disturbances, (ii characterize the human-driven morphodynamic adjustments during the last 2 centuries, (iii characterize physico-chemical sediment properties to trace anthropogenic activities and evaluate the potential impact of the restoration on pollutant remobilization, (iv deduce the post-restoration evolution tendency and (v evaluate the efficiency and sustainability of the restoration effects. We anticipate our approach will expand the toolbox of decision-makers and help orientate functional restoration actions in the

  7. Trajectory of Material Hardship and Income Poverty in Families of Children Undergoing Chemotherapy: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Kira; London, Wendy B; Guo, Dongjing; Frank, Deborah A; Wolfe, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Poverty is correlated with negative health outcomes in pediatric primary care, and is emerging as a negative prognostic indicator in pediatric oncology. However, measures of poverty amenable to targeted intervention, such as household material hardship (HMH)--including food, energy, and housing insecurity--have not been described in pediatric oncology. We describe the trajectory of family reported HMH and income poverty at a pediatric oncology referral center in New England with high psychosocial supports. Single site, prospective cohort study including 99 English-speaking families of children receiving chemotherapy for primary cancer. Families completed face-to-face surveys at two time-points: (1) Within 30 days of child's diagnosis (T1) (N = 99, response rate 88%); (2) 6-months following diagnosis (T2) (N = 93, response rate 94%). HMH was assessed in three domains: food, energy, and housing insecurity. Twenty percent of families reported low-income (≤200% Federal Poverty Level) and at least one HMH prior to their child's diagnosis. At T2, 25% of families lost >40% annual household income secondary to treatment-related work disruptions, and 29% of families reported HMH despite utilization of psychosocial supports. Low-income and HMH are prevalent in a significant proportion of newly diagnosed pediatric oncology families at a large referral center. Despite psychosocial supports, the proportion of families experiencing unmet basic needs increases during chemotherapy to nearly one in three families. HMH provides a quantifiable and remediable measure of poverty in pediatric oncology. Interventions to ameliorate this concrete component of poverty could benefit a significant proportion of pediatric oncology families. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Labour market trajectories following sickness absence due to self-reported all cause morbidity--a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Lund, Thomas; Lindholdt, Louise; Nohr, Ellen A; Jensen, Chris; Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Labriola, Merete

    2016-04-16

    To investigate differences in return to work (RTW) and employment trajectories in individuals on sick leave for either mental health reasons or other health related reasons. This study was based on 2036 new sickness absence cases who completed a questionnaire on social characteristics, expectations for RTW and reasons for sickness absence. They were divided into two exposure groups according to their self-reported sickness absence reason: mental health reasons or other health reasons. The outcome was employment status during the following 51 weeks and was measured both as time-to-event analysis and with sequence analysis. Individuals with mental health reasons for sickness absence had a higher risk of not having returned to work (RR 0.87 (0.80;0.93)). Adjusting for gender, age, education and employment did not change the estimate, however, after adding RTW expectations to the model, the excess risk was no longer present (RR 1.01 (0.95;1.08)). In relation to the sequence analysis, individuals with mental health related absence had significantly higher odds of being in the sickness absence cluster and significantly lower odds for being in the fast RTW cluster, but when adjusting for RTW expectations, the odds were somewhat attenuated and no longer significant. Employees on sick leave due to self-reported mental health problems spent more weeks in sickness absence and temporary benefits and had a higher risk of not having returned to work within a year compared to employees on sick leave due to other health reasons. The difference could be explained by their lower RTW expectations at baseline. This emphasises the need to develop suitable and specific interventions to facilitate RTW for this group of sickness absentees.

  9. Satellite Images-Based Obstacle Recognition and Trajectory Generation for Agricultural Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bodur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a method for the generation of tracking trajectory points, detection and positioning of obstacles in agricultural fields have been presented. Our principal contribution is to produce traceable GPS trajectories for agricultural vehicles to be utilized by path planning algorithms, rather than a new path planning algorithm. The proposed system works with minimal initialization requirements, specifically, a single geographical coordinate entry of an agricultural field. The automation of agricultural plantation requires many aspects to be addressed, many of which have been covered in previous studies. Depending on the type of crop, different agricultural vehicles may be used in the field. However, regardless of their application, they all follow a specified trajectory in the field. This study takes advantage of satellite images for the detection and positioning of obstacles, and the generation of GPS trajectories in the agricultural realm. A set of image processing techniques is applied in Matlab for detection and positioning.

  10. Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: an analysis from the Whitehall II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabák, A.G.; Jokela, M.; Akbaraly, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the timing of changes in glucose metabolism before occurrence of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to characterise trajectories of fasting and postload glucose, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in individuals who develop type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We analysed data...... from our prospective occupational cohort study (Whitehall II study) of 6538 (71% male and 91% white) British civil servants without diabetes mellitus at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 9.7 years, 505 diabetes cases were diagnosed (49.1% on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test). We...... assessed retrospective trajectories of fasting and 2-h postload glucose, homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) insulin sensitivity, and HOMA beta-cell function from up to 13 years before diabetes diagnosis (diabetic group) or at the end of follow-up (non-diabetics). FINDINGS: Multilevel models adjusted...

  11. Longitudinal sex differences of externalising and internalising depression symptom trajectories: Implications for assessment of depression in men from an online study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Simon M; Fallon, Barry J; Aucote, Helen M; Möller-Leimkühler, AnneMaria; Treeby, Matt S; Amminger, G Paul

    2015-05-01

    Clinical reports indicate that men tend to engage in a range of externalising behaviours in response to negative emotional states. Such externalising behaviours have been theorised to reflect a male sub-type of depression that is inconsistent with current diagnostic criteria, resulting in impeded detection and treatment rates of depressed men. In addressing previous study design limitations, this article presents self-report longitudinal data for the multidimensional Male Depression Risk Scale (MDRS-22) against ratings of diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder as assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-Depression Module (PHQ-9). Longitudinal psychometric properties of the MDRS-22 are reported and symptom trajectories described. A sample of 233 adults (males = 125; 54%) completed measures of externalising and prototypic depression symptoms at Time 1, and again at Time 2 (15 weeks later). Psychometric properties were examined and within-subjects analyses undertaken. The MDRS-22 demonstrated stable internal consistency and test-retest correlations equivalent to those observed for the PHQ-9. Both prototypic and externalising depression symptoms increased with experiences of recent negative life events. Marked gender differences were observed. Males experiencing ≥ 2 stressful negative life events reported significantly higher MDRS-22 scores at both Time 1 and Time 2 relative to comparable females. Findings contribute to the validity of the MDRS-22 as a measure of externalising depression symptoms. Results suggest that while both males and females experience externalising depression symptoms, these symptoms may be particularly elevated for men following experiences of negative life events. Findings suggest that externalising symptoms may be a special feature of depression for men. Given the problematic nature of such externalising symptoms (e.g. excessive substance use, aggression, risk-taking), their clinical assessment appears warranted. © The Author

  12. Perceived Social Support Trajectories and the All-Cause Mortality Risk of Older Mexican American Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terrence D.; Uchino, Bert N.; Eckhardt, Jessica L.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies of non-Hispanic whites and blacks show that social integration and social support tend to favor longevity, it is unclear whether this general pattern extends to the Mexican American population. Building on previous research, we employed seven waves of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to examine the association between perceived social support trajectories and the all-cause mortality risk of older Mexican Americans. Growth mixture estimates revealed three latent classes of support trajectories: high, moderate, and low. Cox regression estimates indicated that older Mexican American men in the low support trajectory tend to exhibit a higher mortality risk than their counterparts in the high support trajectory. Social support trajectories were unrelated to the mortality risk of older Mexican American women. A statistically significant interaction term confirmed that social support was more strongly associated with the mortality risk of men. PMID:26966256

  13. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-09-07

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider the case of trajectory similarity join (TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Thus, given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. This join targets applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm\\'s per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  14. Physical activity and trajectories of frailty among older adults: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina T Rogers

    Full Text Available Frail older adults are heavy users of health and social care. In order to reduce the costs associated with frailty in older age groups, safe and cost-effective strategies are required that will reduce the incidence and severity of frailty.We investigated whether self-reported intensity of physical activity (sedentary, mild, moderate or vigorous performed at least once a week can significantly reduce trajectories of frailty in older adults who are classified as non-frail at baseline (Rockwood's Frailty Index [FI] ≤ 0.25.Multi-level growth curve modelling was used to assess trajectories of frailty in 8649 non-frail adults aged 50 and over and according to baseline self-reported intensity of physical activity. Frailty was measured in five-year age cohorts based on age at baseline (50-54; 55-59; 60-64; 65-69; 70-74; 75-79; 80+ on up to 6 occasions, providing an average of 10 years of follow-up. All models were adjusted for baseline sex, education, wealth, cohabitation, smoking, and alcohol consumption.Compared with the sedentary reference group, mild physical activity was insufficient to significantly slow the progression of frailty, moderate physical activity reduced the progression of frailty in some age groups (particularly ages 65 and above and vigorous activity significantly reduced the trajectory of frailty progression in all older adults.Healthy non-frail older adults require higher intensities of physical activity for continued improvement in frailty trajectories.

  15. Machine learning and evolutionary techniques in interplanetary trajectory design

    OpenAIRE

    Izzo, Dario; Sprague, Christopher; Tailor, Dharmesh

    2018-01-01

    After providing a brief historical overview on the synergies between artificial intelligence research, in the areas of evolutionary computations and machine learning, and the optimal design of interplanetary trajectories, we propose and study the use of deep artificial neural networks to represent, on-board, the optimal guidance profile of an interplanetary mission. The results, limited to the chosen test case of an Earth-Mars orbital transfer, extend the findings made previously for landing ...

  16. Access, Coping and Relevance of Education at Local Level: A Case Study. A life course approach to the analysis of young people’s educational trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Demozzi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces the objectives and the design of the project “Governance of Educational Trajectories in Europe” (GOETE and it presents some findings emerging from a case study conducted in one of the cities involved in the project, Bologna. GOETE project analyzed how educational trajectories of children and young people between the end of primary education and the beginning of post-compulsory routes are regulated in eight different EU-member states: Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia and the UK. The research assesses the outcomes of education, taking into account the effects of social inequalities, changes in the governance of education in terms of lifelong learning, knowledge societies and transnational educational spaces. “Life course” perspective provides an interactive understanding of educational processes and addresses the interplay between the institutionalization of individual lives and subjective biographies.

  17. 3D trajectories re-construction of droplets ejected in controlled tungsten melting studies in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhongshi; Krieger, K.; Lunt, T.; Brochard, F.; Briancon, J.-L.; Neu, R.; Dux, R.; Janzer, A.; Potzel, S.; Pütterich, T.

    2013-01-01

    Two fast visible range camera systems with vertically and tangentially oriented crossed viewing fields in the divertor region of ASDEX Upgrade were used to observe tungsten (W) droplets ejected from a melting W-pin into the divertor plasma. To obtain the spatial (3D) trajectories of the tungsten droplets, the trajectory of a given droplet in the (2D) camera image coordinate system was derived for each view separately. From these data, the 3D droplet position was derived by computing the shortest line segment connecting crossed viewing chords to a given droplet taking the centre coordinate of the line segment as actual coordinate. The experimental error of the derived position was estimated from the length of the connecting line segment. In the toroidal direction, the computed trajectories can be described by an analytical transport model for the droplets assuming an initial droplet diameter in the range of 60–100 μm. In the vertical direction the vertical distance droplets travelled when reaching the edge of the viewing field also agrees with the model predictions. However, discrepancies are found with respect to the time point whence a droplet reverts its initial downwards motion due to centrifugal forces exceeding gravity and plasma generated force components

  18. Sense of coherence predicts post-myocardial infarction trajectory of leisure time physical activity: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerber Yariv

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity confers a survival advantage after myocardial infarction (MI, yet the majority of post-MI patients are not regularly active. Since sense of coherence (SOC has been associated with health outcomes and some health behaviours, we investigated whether it plays a role in post-MI physical activity. We examined the predictive role of SOC in the long-term trajectory of leisure time physical activity (LTPA after MI using a prospective cohort design. Methods A cohort of 643 patients aged ≤ 65 years admitted to hospital in central Israel with incident MI between February 1992 and February 1993 were followed up for 13 years. Socioeconomic, clinical and psychological factors, including SOC, were assessed at baseline, and LTPA was self-reported on 5 separate occasions during follow-up. The predictive role of SOC in long-term trajectory of LTPA was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Results SOC was consistently associated with engagement in LTPA throughout follow-up. Patients in the lowest SOC tertile had almost twice the odds (odds ratio,1.99; 95% confidence interval,1.52-2.60 of decreasing their engagement in LTPA as those in the highest tertile. A strong association remained after controlling for disease severity, depression, sociodemographic and clinical factors. Conclusion Our evidence suggests that SOC predicts LTPA trajectory post-MI. Assessment of SOC can help identify high-risk MI survivors, who may require additional help in following secondary prevention recommendations which can dramatically improve prognosis.

  19. Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Börnhorst

    Full Text Available Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences.The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008 and follow-up examination (2009/2010 supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences.Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers' smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found.Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed the strongest association

  20. PANTHER. Trajectory Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rintoul, Mark Daniel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Andrew T. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Valicka, Christopher G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kegelmeyer, W. Philip [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shead, Timothy M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newton, Benjamin D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Czuchlewski, Kristina Rodriguez [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We want to organize a body of trajectories in order to identify, search for, classify and predict behavior among objects such as aircraft and ships. Existing compari- son functions such as the Fr'echet distance are computationally expensive and yield counterintuitive results in some cases. We propose an approach using feature vectors whose components represent succinctly the salient information in trajectories. These features incorporate basic information such as total distance traveled and distance be- tween start/stop points as well as geometric features related to the properties of the convex hull, trajectory curvature and general distance geometry. Additionally, these features can generally be mapped easily to behaviors of interest to humans that are searching large databases. Most of these geometric features are invariant under rigid transformation. We demonstrate the use of different subsets of these features to iden- tify trajectories similar to an exemplar, cluster a database of several hundred thousand trajectories, predict destination and apply unsupervised machine learning algorithms.

  1. Heterogeneity in 10-Year Course Trajectories of Moderate to Severe Major Depressive Disorder: A Danish National Register-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musliner, Katherine L; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas M; Eaton, William W; Zandi, Peter P; Mortensen, Preben B

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests that long-term trajectories of major depressive disorder (MDD) are heterogeneous. The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) provides a rare opportunity to examine patterns and correlates of long-term trajectories in a large sample of patients with moderate to severe MDD. To characterize patterns and correlates of 10-year course trajectories of MDD in the DPCRR. A cohort containing 11 640 individuals born in Denmark in 1955 or later with their first recorded MDD diagnosis in the DPCRR between 1995 and 2002 was established. Patients were followed for 10 years from the date of their initial MDD diagnosis. Data were obtained from Danish civil and psychiatric national registers in June 2013 and were analyzed from April 4, 2014, to December 17, 2015. Correlates of trajectory class membership were sex, characteristics of the first recorded MDD episode (ie, age, severity, inpatient treatment, and record of suicide attempt or self-harm), and psychiatric diagnoses in parents (ie, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, substance abuse, and anxiety or somatoform disorders). The outcome variable was past-year contact at a psychiatric hospital with a main diagnosis of MDD during each of the 10 years following the initial MDD diagnosis. Trajectories were modeled using latent class growth analysis. The sample included 11 640 individuals (7493 [64.4%] women) aged 18 to 48 years (mean [SD], 31.4 [7.3]) at their first recorded MDD diagnosis. Four trajectory classes were identified: brief contact (77.0%) (characterized by low probability of contact after 2 years); prolonged initial contact (12.8%) (characterized by high decreasing probability of contact during the first 5 years); later reentry (7.1%) (characterized by moderate probability of contact during the second 5 years); and persistent contact (3.1%) (characterized by high or moderate probability of contact throughout). Female sex (odds ratio [OR] range, 1

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel W; McCann, Kenneth

    2012-08-29

    Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

  3. Parallel trajectory similarity joins in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2018-04-04

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider two cases of trajectory similarity joins (TS-Joins), including a threshold-based join (Tb-TS-Join) and a top-k TS-Join (k-TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the Tb-TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. In contrast, the k-TS-Join does not take a threshold as a parameter, and it returns the top-k most similar trajectory pairs from the two sets. The TS-Joins target diverse applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide purposeful definitions of similarity. To enable efficient processing of the TS-Joins on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and enable use of the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer search framework that lays the foundation for the algorithms for the Tb-TS-Join and the k-TS-Join that rely on different pruning techniques to achieve efficiency. For each trajectory, the algorithms first find similar trajectories. Then they merge the results to obtain the final result. The algorithms for the two joins exploit different upper and lower bounds on the spatiotemporal trajectory similarity and different heuristic scheduling strategies for search space pruning. Their per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the mergings have constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithms and demonstrates that they are capable of outperforming well-designed baseline algorithms by an order of magnitude.

  4. Parallel trajectory similarity joins in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; Chen, Lisi; Wei, Zhewei; Jensen, Christian S.; Zheng, Kai; Kalnis, Panos

    2018-01-01

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider two cases of trajectory similarity joins (TS-Joins), including a threshold-based join (Tb-TS-Join) and a top-k TS-Join (k-TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the Tb-TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. In contrast, the k-TS-Join does not take a threshold as a parameter, and it returns the top-k most similar trajectory pairs from the two sets. The TS-Joins target diverse applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide purposeful definitions of similarity. To enable efficient processing of the TS-Joins on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and enable use of the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer search framework that lays the foundation for the algorithms for the Tb-TS-Join and the k-TS-Join that rely on different pruning techniques to achieve efficiency. For each trajectory, the algorithms first find similar trajectories. Then they merge the results to obtain the final result. The algorithms for the two joins exploit different upper and lower bounds on the spatiotemporal trajectory similarity and different heuristic scheduling strategies for search space pruning. Their per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the mergings have constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithms and demonstrates that they are capable of outperforming well-designed baseline algorithms by an order of magnitude.

  5. Path-based Queries on Trajectory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Pelekis, Nikos; Theodoridis, Yannis

    2014-01-01

    In traffic research, management, and planning a number of path-based analyses are heavily used, e.g., for computing turn-times, evaluating green waves, or studying traffic flow. These analyses require retrieving the trajectories that follow the full path being analyzed. Existing path queries cannot...... sufficiently support such path-based analyses because they retrieve all trajectories that touch any edge in the path. In this paper, we define and formalize the strict path query. This is a novel query type tailored to support path-based analysis, where trajectories must follow all edges in the path...... a specific path by only retrieving data from the first and last edge in the path. To correctly answer strict path queries existing network-constrained trajectory indexes must retrieve data from all edges in the path. An extensive performance study of NETTRA using a very large real-world trajectory data set...

  6. Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words:  Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.

  7. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  8. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R; Francisco, J L. de

    1961-07-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  9. Action Recognition Using Discriminative Structured Trajectory Groups

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati

    2015-01-06

    In this paper, we develop a novel framework for action recognition in videos. The framework is based on automatically learning the discriminative trajectory groups that are relevant to an action. Different from previous approaches, our method does not require complex computation for graph matching or complex latent models to localize the parts. We model a video as a structured bag of trajectory groups with latent class variables. We model action recognition problem in a weakly supervised setting and learn discriminative trajectory groups by employing multiple instance learning (MIL) based Support Vector Machine (SVM) using pre-computed kernels. The kernels depend on the spatio-temporal relationship between the extracted trajectory groups and their associated features. We demonstrate both quantitatively and qualitatively that the classification performance of our proposed method is superior to baselines and several state-of-the-art approaches on three challenging standard benchmark datasets.

  10. The influence of work-family conflict trajectories on self-rated health trajectories in Switzerland: a life course approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullati, Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) trajectories tend to decline over a lifetime. Moreover, the Cumulative Advantage and Disadvantage (CAD) model indicates that SRH trajectories are known to consistently diverge along socioeconomic positions (SEP) over the life course. However, studies of working adults to consider the influence of work and family conflict (WFC) on SRH trajectories are scarce. We test the CAD model and hypothesise that SRH trajectories diverge over time according to socioeconomic positions and WFC trajectories accentuate this divergence. Using longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (N = 2327 working respondents surveyed from 2004 to 2010), we first examine trajectories of SRH and potential divergence over time across age, gender, SEP and family status using latent growth curve analysis. Second, we assess changes in SRH trajectories in relation to changes in WFC trajectories and divergence in SRH trajectories according to gender, SEP and family status using parallel latent growth curve analysis. Three measures of WFC are used: exhaustion after work, difficulty disconnecting from work, and work interference in private family obligations. The results show that SRH trajectories slowly decline over time and that the rate of change is not influenced by age, gender or SEP, a result which does not support the CAD model. SRH trajectories are significantly correlated with exhaustion after work trajectories but not the other two WFC measures. When exhaustion after work trajectories are taken into account, SRH trajectories of higher educated people decline slower compared to less educated people, supporting the CAD hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term effect of galantamine on cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer’s disease versus a simulated disease trajectory: an observational study in the clinical setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa R

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ryoko Nakagawa,1 Takashi Ohnishi,1 Hisanori Kobayashi,1 Toshio Yamaoka,2 Tsutomu Yajima,3 Ai Tanimura,4 Toshiya Kato,4 Kazutake Yoshizawa1 1Evidence Generation Department, Medical Affairs Division, 2Clinical Data Management Department, R&D Division, 3Biostatistics Department, Quantitative Science Division, 4Drug Surveillance Department, R&D Division, Janssen Pharmaceutical K.K., Tokyo, Japan Background: Long-term maintenance of cognitive function is an important goal of treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but evidence about the long-term efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors is sparse. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of galantamine for AD in routine clinical practice, we conducted a 72-week post-marketing surveillance study. The effect of galantamine on cognitive function was estimated in comparison with a simulated disease trajectory. Patients and methods: Patients with mild-to-moderate AD received flexible dosing of galantamine (16–24 mg/day during this study. Cognitive function was assessed by the mini mental state examination (MMSE and the clinical status was determined by the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I. Changes of the MMSE score without treatment were estimated in each patient using Mendiondo’s model. Generalized linear mixed model analysis was performed to compare the simulated MMSE scores with the actual scores. Results: Of the 661 patients who were enrolled, 642 were evaluable for safety and 554 were assessed for efficacy. The discontinuation rate was 46.73%. Cognitive decline indicated by the mean change of actual MMSE scores was significantly smaller than the simulated decline. Individual analysis demonstrated that >70% of patients had better actual MMSE scores than their simulated scores. Significant improvement of CGI-I was also observed during the observation period. Adverse events occurred in 28.5% of patients and were serious in 8.41%. The reported events generally corresponded with the

  12. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential

  13. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns

  14. The impact of parental educational trajectories on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity status: a study of three generations of Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M P; Koupil, Ilona

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of grandparental and parental education and parental educational trajectory on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity. We used register data from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, based on a representative cohort born in Sweden 1915-1929 (G1). Our sample included 5122 women and 11,204 men who were grandchildren of G1 (G3), their parents (G2), and grandparents. G3's overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was based on pre-pregnancy weight/height for women before their first birth (average age=26 years), and measured weight/height at conscription for men (average age=18 years). G1's, G2's, and G3's highest educational attainment was obtained from routine registers and classified as low, intermediate, or high based on respective sample distributions. Parental (G2) educational trajectory was defined as change in education between their own and their highest educated parent (G1), classified into 5 categories: always advantaged (AA), upward trajectory (UT), stable-intermediate (SI), downward trajectory (DT), and always disadvantaged (AD). We used hierarchical gender-stratified logistic regression models adjusted for G3's age, education, year of BMI collection, lineage and G2's year of birth and income. Grandparental and parental education were negatively associated with men's odds of overweight/obesity and parental education affected women's overweight/obesity risk. Furthermore, men and women whose parents belonged to the UT, SI, DT, and AD groups had greater odds of overweight/obesity compared to men and women whose parents belonged to the AA group (adjusted for G3's age, year of BMI collection, lineage, and G2's year of birth). These associations were attenuated when further adjusting for parental income and G3's own education. Socioeconomic inequalities can have long-term consequences and impact the health of future generations. For overweight/obesity in concurrent young cohorts, this inequality

  15. Marriage Trajectories and Health Risk Behaviors throughout Adulthood among Urban African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified a protective effect of marriage on risky health behaviors, gaps remain in our understanding of how marriage improves health, particularly among African Americans. This study uses longitudinal data to take selection into account and examines whether marital trajectories that incorporate timing, stability,…

  16. Trajectories of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Swartout

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purposes of this study were to assess the extent to which latent trajectories of female intimate partner violence (IPV victimization exist; and, if so, use negative childhood experiences to predict trajectory membership.Methods: We collected data from 1,575 women at 5 time-points regarding experiences during adolescence and their 4 years of college. We used latent class growth analysis to fit a series of personcentered, longitudinal models ranging from 1 to 5 trajectories. Once the best-fitting model was selected, we used negative childhood experience variables—sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence—to predict most-likely trajectory membership via multinomial logistic regression.Results: A 5-trajectory model best fit the data both statistically and in terms of interpretability. The trajectories across time were interpreted as low or no IPV, low to moderate IPV, moderate to low IPV, high to moderate IPV, and high and increasing IPV, respectively. Negative childhood experiences differentiated trajectory membership, somewhat, with childhood sexual abuse as a consistent predictor of membership in elevated IPV trajectories.Conclusion: Our analyses show how IPV risk changes over time and in different ways. These differential patterns of IPV suggest the need for prevention strategies tailored for women that consider victimization experiences in childhood and early adulthood. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3:272–277.

  17. Association of 10-year C-reactive protein trajectories with markers of healthy aging: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassale, Camille; Batty, G David; Steptoe, Andrew; Cadar, Dorina; Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Kivimäki, Mika; Zaninotto, Paola

    2018-02-15

    Elevated systematic inflammation is a hallmark of aging, but the association of long-term inflammation trajectories with subsequent aging phenotypes has been little examined. We assessed inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) repeatedly over time and examined whether long-term changes predicted aging outcomes. A total of 2,437 men and women aged 47-87 years at baseline (1998-2001) who were participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing had CRP measured on two or three occasions between 1998 and 2009. Inflammation trajectories were computed using latent-class growth mixture modelling and were related to aging outcomes measured in 2012/2013: physical functioning, cardiometabolic, respiratory, mental health, and a composite "healthy aging" outcome. Four CRP trajectories were identified: 'stable-low' (71% of the sample) with baseline mean 1.33mg/L remaining <3mg/L; 'medium-to-high' (14%) with baseline 2.7mg/L rising to 5.3mg/L; 'high-to-medium' (10%) with baseline 6.6mg/L decreasing to 2.4mg/L; 'stable-high' (5%) with levels from 5.7 to 7.5mg/L. Relative to the stable-low trajectory, individuals in the medium-to-high had a higher risk of limitations in basic activities of daily living (ADL, Odds Ratio; 95% Confidence Interval: 2.09; 1.51,2.88), instrumental ADL (1.62; 1.15,2.30), impaired balance (1.59; 1.20,2.11) and walking speed (1.61; 1.15,2.24), arthritis (1.55; 1.16,2.06), hypertension (1.57; 1.21,2.04), obesity (1.95; 1.36,2.80), poor respiratory function (1.84; 1.36,2.50), and depression (1.55; 1.13,2.12). A lower odds of healthy aging was observed in people in the medium-to-high (0.57; 0.40,0.79) and stable-high (0.50; 0.27,0.91) trajectories. Older people who displayed an elevation in CRP levels over a decade experienced an increased risk of adverse aging outcomes.

  18. Picking Robot Arm Trajectory Planning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The picking robot arm is scheduled to complete picking tasks in the working space, to overcome the shaking vibration to improve the picking stability, its movement should follow specific consistence trajectory points. Usually we should give definite multiple feature picking points, map their inverse kinematics to the joint space, establish motion equation for the corresponding point in the joint space, then follow these equations motion for the interpolation on the joint so that we can meet the movement requirements. Trajectory planning is decisive significance for accuracy and stability of controlling robot arm. The key issue that picking arm complete picking task will be come true by trajectory planning, namely, robot arm track the desired trajectory. which based on kinematics and statics picking analysis in a joint space according to the requirements of picking tasks, and obtain the position and orientation for picking robot arm, study and calculate the theory of trajectory parameters timely.

  19. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H

    2008-02-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10-19, we identified five distinct delinquency trajectories differing in both level and change in seriousness over time: a nondelinquent, minor persisting, moderate desisting, serious persisting, and serious desisting trajectory. More serious delinquents tended to more frequently engage in delinquency, and to report a higher proportion of theft. Proportionally, serious persistent delinquents were the most violent of all trajectory groups. Using cluster analysis we identified three parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian (moderately supportive), and neglectful (punishing). Controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood delinquency, neglectful parenting was more frequent in moderate desisters, serious persisters, and serious desisters, suggesting that parenting styles differentiate non- or minor delinquents from more serious delinquents.

  20. A cross-sectional study of tuberculosis drug resistance among previously treated patients in a tertiary hospital in Accra, Ghana: public health implications of standardized regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Audrey; Kwara, Awewura; Kudzawu, Samuel; Omari, Michael; Otu, Jacob; Gehre, Florian; de Jong, Bouke; Antonio, Martin

    2018-04-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance is a major challenge to the use of standardized regimens for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, especially among previously treated patients. We aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of drug resistance among previously treated patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. This was a cross-sectional survey of mycobacterial isolates from previously treated patients referred to the Chest Clinic Laboratory between October 2010 and October 2013. The Bactec MGIT 960 system for mycobactrerial culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) was used for sputum culture of AFB smear-positive patients with relapse, treatment failure, failure of smear conversion, or default. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics, and frequency and patterns of drug resistance. A total of 112 isolates were studied out of 155 from previously treated patients. Twenty contaminated (12.9%) and 23 non-viable isolates (14.8%) were excluded. Of the 112 studied isolates, 53 (47.3%) were pan-sensitive to all first-line drugs tested Any resistance (mono and poly resistance) to isoniazid was found in 44 isolates (39.3%) and any resistance to streptomycin in 43 (38.4%). Thirty-one (27.7%) were MDR-TB. Eleven (35.5%) out of 31 MDR-TB isolates were pre-XDR. MDR-TB isolates were more likely than non-MDR isolates to have streptomycin and ethambutol resistance. The main findings of this study were the high prevalence of MDR-TB and streptomycin resistance among previously treated TB patients, as well as a high prevalence of pre-XDR-TB among the MDR-TB patients, which suggest that first-line and second-line DST is essential to aid the design of effective regimens for these groups of patients in Ghana.

  1. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  2. Branching trajectory continual integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.P.; Chebotarev, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Heuristic definition of the Feynman continual integral over branching trajectories is suggested which makes it possible to obtain in the closed form the solution of the Cauchy problem for the model Hartree equation. A number of properties of the solution is derived from an integral representation. In particular, the quasiclassical asymptotics, exact solution in the gaussian case and perturbation theory series are described. The existence theorem for the simpliest continual integral over branching trajectories is proved [ru

  3. Partitioning of the nonfixed excess energy and the reverse critical energy in CH2OH + --> CHO + +H2: A classical trajectory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Geol; Kim, Myung Soo; Park, Seung C.

    1996-04-01

    Dynamics of the four-centered elimination reaction CH2OH+→CHO++H2 has been investigated over the internal energy range 4.6-5.9 eV using the classical trajectory method. A realistic semiempirical potential reported previously [J. Chem. Phys. (in press, 1996)] has been used for the calculation. It has been found that the disposal of the nonfixed excess energy at the transition state and of the reverse critical energy can be considered independently as manifest in the sum rule analysis. The former is determined statistically while the latter dynamically. Based on the above idea, a method to determine the kinetic energy release distribution originating only from the reverse critical energy has been developed.

  4. Personalized trajectory matching in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2013-07-31

    With the increasing availability of moving-object tracking data, trajectory search and matching is increasingly important. We propose and investigate a novel problem called personalized trajectory matching (PTM). In contrast to conventional trajectory similarity search by spatial distance only, PTM takes into account the significance of each sample point in a query trajectory. A PTM query takes a trajectory with user-specified weights for each sample point in the trajectory as its argument. It returns the trajectory in an argument data set with the highest similarity to the query trajectory. We believe that this type of query may bring significant benefits to users in many popular applications such as route planning, carpooling, friend recommendation, traffic analysis, urban computing, and location-based services in general. PTM query processing faces two challenges: how to prune the search space during the query processing and how to schedule multiple so-called expansion centers effectively. To address these challenges, a novel two-phase search algorithm is proposed that carefully selects a set of expansion centers from the query trajectory and exploits upper and lower bounds to prune the search space in the spatial and temporal domains. An efficiency study reveals that the algorithm explores the minimum search space in both domains. Second, a heuristic search strategy based on priority ranking is developed to schedule the multiple expansion centers, which can further prune the search space and enhance the query efficiency. The performance of the PTM query is studied in extensive experiments based on real and synthetic trajectory data sets. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. Is email a reliable means of contacting authors of previously published papers? A study of the Emergency Medicine Journal for 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, F

    2003-07-01

    To determine whether it is possible to contact authors of previously published papers via email. A cross sectional study of the Emergency Medicine Journal for 2001. 118 articles were included in the study. The response rate from those with valid email addresses was 73%. There was no statistical difference between the type of email address used and the address being invalid (p=0.392) or between the type of article and the likelihood of a reply (p=0.197). More responses were obtained from work addresses when compared with Hotmail addresses (86% v 57%, p=0.02). Email is a valid means of contacting authors of previously published articles, particularly within the emergency medicine specialty. A work based email address may be a more valid means of contact than a Hotmail address.

  6. Crossed Molecular Beams and Quasiclassical Trajectory Surface Hopping Studies of the Multichannel Nonadiabatic O((3)P) + Ethylene Reaction at High Collision Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balucani, Nadia; Leonori, Francesca; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio; Fu, Bina; Bowman, Joel M

    2015-12-17

    The combustion relevant O((3)P) + C2H4 reaction stands out as a prototypical multichannel nonadiabatic reaction involving both triplet and singlet potential energy surfaces (PESs), which are strongly coupled. Crossed molecular beam (CMB) scattering experiments with universal soft electron ionization mass spectrometric detection have been used to characterize the dynamics of this reaction at the relatively high collision energy Ec of 13.7 kcal/mol, attained by crossing the reactant beams at an angle of 135°. This work is a full report of the data at the highest Ec investigated for this reaction. From laboratory product angular and velocity distribution measurements, angular and translational energy distributions in the center-of-mass system have been obtained for the five observed exothermic competing reaction channels leading to H + CH2CHO, H + CH3CO, CH3 + HCO, CH2 + H2CO, and H2 + CH2CO. The product branching ratios (BRs) have been derived. The elucidation of the reaction dynamics is assisted by synergic full-dimensional quasiclassical trajectory surface-hopping calculations of the reactive differential cross sections on coupled ab initio triplet/singlet PESs. This joint experimental/theoretical study extends and complements our previous combined CMB and theoretical work at the lower collision energy of 8.4 kcal/mol. The theoretically derived BRs and extent of intersystem crossing (ISC) are compared with experimental results. In particular, the predictions of the QCT results for the three main channels (those leading to vinoxy + H, methyl + HCO and methylene + H2CO formation) are compared directly with the experimental data in the laboratory frame. Good overall agreement is noted between theory and experiment, although some small, yet significant shortcomings of the theoretical differential cross section are noted. Both experiment and theory find almost an equal contribution from the triplet and singlet surfaces to the reaction, with a clear tendency of the

  7. Quasi-classical trajectory study of the role of vibrational and translational energy in the Cl(2P) + NH3 reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Palacios, M; Corchado, J C; Espinosa-Garcia, J

    2012-05-28

    A detailed state-to-state dynamics study was performed to analyze the effects of vibrational excitation and translational energy on the dynamics of the Cl((2)P) + NH(3)(v) gas-phase reaction, effects which are connected to such issues as mode selectivity and Polanyi's rules. This reaction evolves along two deep wells in the entry and exit channels. At low and high collision energies quasi-classical trajectory calculations were performed on an analytical potential energy surface previously developed by our group, together with a simplified model surface in which the reactant well is removed to analyze the influence of this well. While at high energy the independent vibrational excitation of all NH(3)(v) modes increases the reactivity by a factor ≈1.1-2.9 with respect to the vibrational ground-state, at low energy the opposite behaviour is found (factor ≈ 0.4-0.9). However, when the simplified model surface is used at low energy the independent vibrational excitation of all NH(3)(v) modes increases the reactivity, showing that the behaviour at low energies is a direct consequence of the existence of the reactant well. Moreover, we find that this reaction exhibits negligible mode selectivity, first because the independent excitation of the N-H symmetric and asymmetric stretch modes, which lie within 200 cm(-1) of each other, leads to reactions with similar reaction probabilities, and second because the vibrational excitation of the reactive N-H stretch mode is only partially retained in the products. For this "late transition-state" reaction, we also find that vibrational energy is more effective in driving the reaction than an equivalent amount of energy in translation, consistent with an extension of Polanyi's rules. Finally, we find that the non-reactive events, Cl((2)P)+NH(3)(v) → Cl((2)P) + NH(3)(v'), lead to a great number of populated vibrational states in the NH(3)(v') product, even starting from the NH(3)(v = 0) vibrational ground state at low energies

  8. Theory of the paraxial ion trajectory in the spiral inflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprek, Dragan

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical and numerical theory of the paraxial ion trajectory through the spiral inflector. Analytical expressions for the equations which describe the paraxial ion trajectory are derived. The analytical derivations of the electric field expansion around the central ion trajectory has also been studied

  9. Pneumatic motor speed control by trajectory tracking fuzzy logic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, trajectory tracking fuzzy logic controller (TTFLC) is proposed for the speed control of a pneumatic motor (PM). A third order trajectory is defined to determine the trajectory function that has to be tracked by the PM speed. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to find the TTFLC boundary values of membership functions ...

  10. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  11. A classical trajectory study of the adatom -surface bond dissociation in the collision reaction between an adsorbed H atom and an N2 molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayhan, U.

    2005-01-01

    The collisionnal dissociation of the Adatom-Surface bond in the diatomic molecule N2(gas)/H(ads) collision taking place on a W(100) bcc-structure surface have been studied by classical trajectory method over the collision energy ranges (0.1-2.0 eV ) and the attractive well depth (0.19-4.0 eV). of the N2 molecule (gas)/H(ads) interactions. When the energy accumulate into the adatom bond, thus leading to a a large dissociation probability

  12. Previous dropout from diabetic care as a predictor of patients' willingness to use mobile applications for self-management: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoko; Waki, Kayo; Tomizawa, Nobuko; Waki, Hironori; Nannya, Yasuhito; Nangaku, Masaomi; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2017-07-01

    Preventing dropout is crucial in managing diabetes. Accordingly, we investigated whether patients who had dropped out of diabetic care are suitable candidates for the use of mobile technologies - such as smartphone applications - to support self-management (mHealth), which might help prevent dropout. We carried out a cross-sectional study in Tokyo, Japan. Patients aged 20 years or older who were clinically diagnosed as diabetic and who regularly visited the outpatient unit at the University of Tokyo Hospital were recruited between August 2014 and March 2015. Data were collected through face-to-face structured interviews, physical measurements and medical records. Participants were asked whether they were willing to use mHealth after being shown DialBetics - an mHealth application for diabetics - as an example, and about their history of dropout and previous mHealth experience. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression models. Of 307 patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, 34 (11.1%) had previously dropped out from diabetic care. Multivariate analysis identified previous mHealth experience as a negative predictor of dropout (odds ratio 0.211, P = 0.023). Of those 34 patients, 27 (79.4%) expressed willingness to use mHealth, a significantly higher percentage than for those who had never dropped out (51.5%, P = 0.002). After adjusting for confounders, history of dropout remained a strong predictor of willingness (odds ratio 3.870, P = 0.004). Patients who previously dropped out of diabetic care are suitable candidates for mHealth. Future studies must evaluate whether mHealth is effective for preventing repeated dropout and improving glycemic control among this population. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Trajectory Optimization and Conceptual Study of Small Test Vehicles for Hypersonic Engine Using High-Altitude Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Takenaka, Youichi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Sawai, Shujiro

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA announced a long-term vision recently. In the vision, JAXA aims to develop hypersonic aircrafts. A pre-cooled turbojet engine has great potential as one of newly developed hypersonic air-breathing engines. We also expect the engine to be installed in space transportation vehicles in future. For combustion test in real flight condition of the engines, JAXA has an experimental plan with a small test vehicle falling from a high-altitude balloon. This paper applies numerical analysis and optimization techniques to conceptual designs of the test vehicle in order to obtain the best configuration and trajectory that can achieve the flight test. The results show helpful knowledge when we design prototype vehicles.

  14. Trajectory Optimization and Conceptual Study of Small Test Vehicles for a Hypersonic Engine Using a High-Altitude Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Takenaka, Youichi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Sawai, Shujiro

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA, announced a long-term vision recently. In the vision, JAXA aims to develop hypersonic aircrafts. A pre-cooled turbojet engine has great potential as one of newly developed hypersonic airbreathing engines. We also expect the engine to be installed in space transportation vehicles in the future. For combustion test in the real flight conditions of the engines, JAXA has an experimental plan where a small test vehicle is released from a high-altitude balloon. This paper applies numerical analysis and optimization techniques to conceptual designs of the test vehicle in order to obtain the best configuration and trajectory for the flight test. The results show helpful knowledge for designing prototype vehicles.

  15. Mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with different insulin secretagogues compared with metformin in type 2 diabetes, with or without a previous myocardial infarction: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Vaag, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Aims The impact of insulin secretagogues (ISs) on long-term major clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We examined mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with all available ISs compared with metformin in a nationwide study. Methods and results All Danish residents >20 years......, initiating single-agent ISs or metformin between 1997 and 2006 were followed for up to 9 years (median 3.3 years) by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and the composite of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cardiovascular mortality...... associated with individual ISs were investigated in patients with or without previous MI by multivariable Cox proportional-hazard analyses including propensity analyses. A total of 107 806 subjects were included, of whom 9607 had previous MI. Compared with metformin, glimepiride (hazard ratios and 95...

  16. Educational Trajectories at the Crossroads: The Making and Unmaking of Multilingual Communities of Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budach, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the educational trajectories of young multilingual learners in Germany. Drawing on previous ethnographic research in a primary bilingual German-Italian Two-Way-Immersion classroom, this study examines the continuity and fragmentation of multilingual learning as they occur in the transition from primary to secondary…

  17. Simulation of molecular transitions using classical trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, A.; Martens, C. C. [University of California, California (United States)

    2001-03-01

    In the present work, we describe the implementation of a semiclassical method to study physical-chemical processes in molecular systems where electronic state transitions and quantum coherence play a dominant role. The method is based on classical trajectory propagation on the underlying coupled electronic surfaces and is derived from the semiclassical limit of the quantum Liouville equation. Unlike previous classical trajectory-based methods, quantum electronic coherence are treated naturally within this approach as complex weighted trajectory ensembles propagating on the average electronic surfaces. The method is tested on a model problem consisting of one-dimensional motion on two crossing electronic surfaces. Excellent agreement is obtained when compared to the exact results obtained by wave packet propagation. The method is applied to model quantum wave packet interferometry, where two wave packets, differing only in a relative phase, collide in the region where the two electronic surfaces cross. The dependence of the resulting population transfer on the initial relative phase of the wave packets is perfectly captured by our classical trajectory method. Comparison with an alternative method, surface hopping, shows that our approach is appropriate for modelling quantum interference phenomena. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describe la implementacion de un metodo semiclasico para estudiar procesos fisicos-quimicos en sistemas moleculares donde las transiciones entre estados electronicos y las coherencias cuanticas juegan un papel predominante. El metodo se basa en la propagacion de trayectorias clasicas sobre las correspondientes superficies electronicas acopladas y se deriva a partir del limite semiclasico de la ecuacion cuantica de Liouville. A diferencia de metodos previos basados en trayectoria clasica, dentro de este esquema, las coherencias electronicas cuanticas son tratadas de manera natural como ensamble de trayectorias con pesos complejos, moviendose en

  18. A mathematical model for describing the retinal nerve fiber bundle trajectories in the human eye : Average course, variability, and influence of refraction, optic disc size and optic disc position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Schiefer, Julia; Nevalainen, Jukka; Paetzold, Jens; Schiefer, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Previously we developed a mathematical model for describing the retinal nerve fiber bundle trajectories in the superior-temporal and inferior-temporal regions of the human retina, based on traced trajectories extracted from fundus photographs. Aims of the current study were to (i) validate the

  19. An Innovative Context-Based Crystal-Growth Activity Space Method for Environmental Exposure Assessment: A Study Using GIS and GPS Trajectory Data Collected in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Kwan, Mei-Po; Chai, Yanwei

    2018-04-09

    Scholars in the fields of health geography, urban planning, and transportation studies have long attempted to understand the relationships among human movement, environmental context, and accessibility. One fundamental question for this research area is how to measure individual activity space, which is an indicator of where and how people have contact with their social and physical environments. Conventionally, standard deviational ellipses, road network buffers, minimum convex polygons, and kernel density surfaces have been used to represent people's activity space, but they all have shortcomings. Inconsistent findings of the effects of environmental exposures on health behaviors/outcomes suggest that the reliability of existing studies may be affected by the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP). This paper proposes the context-based crystal-growth activity space as an innovative method for generating individual activity space based on both GPS trajectories and the environmental context. This method not only considers people's actual daily activity patterns based on GPS tracks but also takes into account the environmental context which either constrains or encourages people's daily activity. Using GPS trajectory data collected in Chicago, the results indicate that the proposed new method generates more reasonable activity space when compared to other existing methods. This can help mitigate the UGCoP in environmental health studies.

  20. Age trajectories of stroke case fatality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2011-01-01

    Mortality rates level off at older ages. Age trajectories of stroke case-fatality rates were studied with the aim of investigating prevalence of this phenomenon, specifically in case-fatality rates at older ages....

  1. Acceleration and Orientation Jumping Performance Differences Among Elite Professional Male Handball Players With or Without Previous ACL Reconstruction: An Inertial Sensor Unit-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setuain, Igor; González-Izal, Miriam; Alfaro, Jesús; Gorostiaga, Esteban; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-12-01

    Handball is one of the most challenging sports for the knee joint. Persistent biomechanical and jumping capacity alterations can be observed in athletes with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Commonly identified jumping biomechanical alterations have been described by the use of laboratory technologies. However, portable and easy-to-handle technologies that enable an evaluation of jumping biomechanics at the training field are lacking. To analyze unilateral/bilateral acceleration and orientation jumping performance differences among elite male handball athletes with or without previous ACL reconstruction via a single inertial sensor unit device. Case control descriptive study. At the athletes' usual training court. Twenty-two elite male (6 ACL-reconstructed and 16 uninjured control players) handball players were evaluated. The participants performed a vertical jump test battery that included a 50-cm vertical bilateral drop jump, a 20-cm vertical unilateral drop jump, and vertical unilateral countermovement jump maneuvers. Peak 3-dimensional (X, Y, Z) acceleration (m·s(-2)), jump phase duration and 3-dimensional orientation values (°) were obtained from the inertial sensor unit device. Two-tailed t-tests and a one-way analysis of variance were performed to compare means. The P value cut-off for significance was set at P handball athletes with previous ACL reconstruction demonstrated a jumping biomechanical profile similar to control players, including similar jumping performance values in both bilateral and unilateral jumping maneuvers, several years after ACL reconstruction. These findings are in agreement with previous research showing full functional restoration of abilities in top-level male athletes after ACL reconstruction, rehabilitation and subsequent return to sports at the previous level. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Developmental Trajectories of Hand Movements in Typical Infants and Those at Risk of Developmental Disorders: An Observational Study of Kinematics during the First Year of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ouss

    2018-02-01

    are significantly associated with age in cohorts of typical and at-risk infantsdiffer significantly at 5–6 months of age, depending on the context: relating either with an object or a person.Environmental and developmental factors shape the developmental trajectories of hand movements in different cohorts: environment for infants with VIMs; stage of development for premature infants and those with West syndrome; and both factors for infants with orality disorders.The curvature of hand movements specifically reflects atypical development in infants with West syndrome when developmental age is considered.We aimed to discriminate between typical and atypical developmental trajectory patterns of at-risk infants in an interactive setting in this observational and longitudinal study, with the assumption that hand movements (HM reflect preverbal communication and its disorders. We examined the developmental trajectories of HM in five cohorts of at-risk infants and one control cohort, followed from ages 2 to 10 months: 25 West syndrome (WS, 13 preterm birth (PB, 16 orality disorder (OD, 14 with visually impaired mothers (VIM, 7 early hospitalization (EH, and 19 typically developing infants (TD. Video-recorded data were collected in three different structured interactive contexts. Descriptors of the hand motion were used to examine the extent to which HM were associated with age and cohort. We obtained four principal results: (i the kinematics of HM (spatial use, curvature, acceleration, and velocity were significantly associated with age in all cohorts; (ii HM significantly differed at 5–6 months of age in TD infants, depending on the context; (iii environmental and developmental factors shaped the developmental trajectories of HM in different cohorts: environment for VIM, development for PB and WS, and both factors for OD and; (iv the curvatures of HM showed atypical development in WS infants when developmental age was considered. These findings support the importance

  3. A prospective study of the impact of child maltreatment and friend support on psychological distress trajectory: From adolescence to emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Jacinthe; Matte-Gagné, Célia; Daigneault, Isabelle; Blackburn, Marie-Eve; Hébert, Martine; McDuff, Pierre; Auclair, Julie; Veillette, Suzanne; Perron, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Transition into adulthood is a critical developmental period that may be influenced by adverse life events as well as by protective factors. This study aimed at investigating the effect of different forms of child maltreatment experienced prior to age 14 (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence), and of friend support at age 14 on the psychological distress trajectory from age 14 to 24. Participants were 605 adolescents from the general population involved in a 10-year longitudinal study. Psychological distress was evaluated at ages 14, 16, 18 and 24. Child maltreatment prior to 14 years was retrospectively assessed at 14 and 24 years while perception of support from friends was evaluated at age 14. Multilevel growth modeling indicated that psychological distress followed a significant decreasing curvilinear trajectory, with participants reporting fewer distressing psychological symptoms after 18 years. All three forms of child maltreatment, as well as their cumulative effect, predicted more psychological distress over 10 years above and beyond the protective effect of support from friends. Higher support from friends at age 14 was related to lower distress at baseline andover 10 years, beyond the effect of child maltreatment. Self-report nature of all measures, attrition, and measures of child maltreatment forms. Psychological distress decreased during the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Results also revealed the detrimental impact of child maltreatment and the promotive role of friend support, which underscore the importance of early intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Socioeconomic status and trajectory of overweight from birth to mid-childhood: the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C Jones-Smith

    Full Text Available Our objective was to use longitudinal data from a US birth cohort to test whether the probability of overweight or obesity during the first 6 years of life varied according to socioeconomic status.Using six waves of longitudinal data from full-term children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; n≈4,950, we examined the prevalence of overweight or obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI>2 standard deviations above age- and sex- specific WHO Childhood Growth Standard reference mean; henceforth, "overweight/obesity" according to age, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity using generalized estimating equation models.The association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity varied significantly by race/ethnicity, but not by sex. Overweight/obesity was significantly associated with socioeconomic status among whites, Hispanics and Asians; the adjusted odds of overweight/obesity began to diverge according to SES after the first 9 months of life. By approximately 4 years, children with the highest SES had a significantly lower odds of overweight/obesity. SES was not significantly related to overweight/obesity among African Americans and American Indians during early childhood.Few studies have assessed the associations between SES and overweight/obesity within racial/ethnic groups in the US. We find that in contemporary, US-born children, SES was inversely associated with overweight/obesity among more racial/ethnic groups (whites, Hispanics, and Asians than previously reported.

  5. Design and Analysis of Optimal Ascent Trajectories for Stratospheric Airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Joseph Bernard

    varying launch locations, and show that significant energy savings can be realized with minimum-energy flights, compared to minimum-time time flights, given small increases in flight time. The performance of the optimal trajectories are then studied with respect to solar energy production during ascent, as well as sensitivity of the solutions to small changes in drag coefficient and wind model parameters. Results of solar power model simulations indicate that solar energy is sufficient to power ascent flights, but that significant energy loss can occur for certain types of trajectories. Sensitivity to the drag and wind model is approximated through numerical simulations, showing that optimal solutions change gradually with respect to changing wind and drag parameters and providing deeper insight into the characteristics of optimal airship flights. Finally, alternative methods are developed to generate near-optimal ascent trajectories in a manner suitable for onboard implementation. The structures and characteristics of previously developed minimum-time and minimum-energy ascent trajectories are used to construct simplified trajectory models, which are efficiently solved in a smaller numerical optimization problem. Comparison of these alternative solutions to the original SNOPT solutions show excellent agreement, suggesting the alternate formulations are an effective means to develop near-optimal solutions in an onboard setting.

  6. De novo adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma presenting anew in an elderly patient with previous normal CT and MRI studies: A case report and implications on pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Walker, B.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas are histologically benign epithelial tumors which arise from embryonic remnants of the craniopharyngeal duct and Rathke’s pouch. They are thought to have a congenital origin and are histologically unique from papillary craniopharyngioma. We describe the case of an elderly male who presented with symptoms related to a large craniopharyngioma with previously normal brain magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging studies. These findings dispute the embryogenic theory that craniopharyngiomas observed in adults develop from the persistent slow growth of embryonic remnants.

  7. Efficient Trajectory Options Allocation for the Collaborative Trajectory Options Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Olga; Arneson, Heather; Sridhar, Banavar; Evans, Antony

    2017-01-01

    The Collaborative Trajectory Options Program (CTOP) is a Traffic Management Initiative (TMI) intended to control the air traffic flow rates at multiple specified Flow Constrained Areas (FCAs), where demand exceeds capacity. CTOP allows flight operators to submit the desired Trajectory Options Set (TOS) for each affected flight with associated Relative Trajectory Cost (RTC) for each option. CTOP then creates a feasible schedule that complies with capacity constraints by assigning affected flights with routes and departure delays in such a way as to minimize the total cost while maintaining equity across flight operators. The current version of CTOP implements a Ration-by-Schedule (RBS) scheme, which assigns the best available options to flights based on a First-Scheduled-First-Served heuristic. In the present study, an alternative flight scheduling approach is developed based on linear optimization. Results suggest that such an approach can significantly reduce flight delays, in the deterministic case, while maintaining equity as defined using a Max-Min fairness scheme.

  8. Impact of Availability and Use of ART/PMTCT Services on Fertility Desires of Previously Pregnant Women in Rakai, Uganda: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Lindsay E; Makumbi, Frederick E; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Serwada, David; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-07-01

    To assess fertility desires by availability and use of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (ART/PMTCT) services in Rakai, Uganda. Retrospective analyses of longitudinal data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Study participants were retrospectively identified and categorized by HIV status. Availability of ART/PMTCT services in Rakai was defined in three periods: (1) pre-ART/PMTCT (ART/PMTCT rollout (2005-2006), and (3) universal ART/PMTCT (>2006); and use of ART/PMTCT was coded as yes if the woman received services. Trends in fertility desires were assessed by χ. "Modified" Poisson regression was performed using generalized linear models with a log link and Poisson family to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of desire for another child among previously and currently pregnant women; PRRs were adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors. A total of 4227 sexually active women in Rakai, including 436 HIV+ women, contributed 13,970 observations over 5 survey rounds. Fertility desires increased in the population in the ART/PMTCT rollout [adjusted (adj.) PRR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13] and the universal availability periods (adj. PRR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.14) compared with pre-ART/PMTCT period. A total of 862 woman observations used ART/PMTCT services. Fertility desires were similar among ART/PMTCT service users and nonusers in cross-sectional analysis (adj. PRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.14) and 1 year after ART/PMTCT use (adj. PRR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.94). Availability of ART/PMTCT may increase fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda. Use of ART/PMTCT services was not correlated with fertility desires of previously or current pregnant women.

  9. Postdeployment Suicidal Ideations and Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Danish Soldiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T.; Karstoft, K. I.; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Suicidal ideation in veterans is of great concern. The objective of this study is to examine how heterogeneous posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) trajectories are associated with postdeployment suicidal ideation in veterans 2.5 years postdeployment to a combat zone in Afghanistan....... If PTSD trajectories are associated with postdeployment suicidal ideations, then the accumulative knowledge on what characterizes veterans falling into different PTSD trajectories may provide better opportunities for early identification of suicidal high-risk veterans. Method: In this prospective study...... of PTSD (measured by the PTSD Checklist, Civilian Version) and other mental and physical health variables, demographics, and social and combat-related factors. Suicidal ideation was measured by an item from the European Parasuicide Study Interview Schedule II. In a previous study based on soldiers from...

  10. Exact quantum dynamics study of the O++H2(v=0,j=0)→OH++H ion-molecule reaction and comparison with quasiclassical trajectory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Rodrigo; Lucas, Josep M.; Gimenez, Xavier; Aguilar, Antonio; Gonzalez, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    The close-coupling hyperspherical (CCH) exact quantum method was used to study the title barrierless reaction up to a collision energy (E T ) of 0.75 eV, and the results compared with quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) calculations to determine the importance of quantum effects. The CCH integral cross section decreased with E T and, although the QCT results were in general quite similar to the CCH ones, they presented a significant deviation from the CCH data within the 0.2-0.6 eV collision energy range, where the QCT method did not correctly describe the reaction probability. A very good accord between both methods was obtained for the OH + vibrational distribution, where no inversion of population was found. For the OH + rotational distributions, the agreement between the CCH and QCT results was not as good as in the vibrational case, but it was satisfactory in many conditions. The kk ' angular distribution showed a preferential forward character, and the CCH method produced higher forward peaks than the QCT one. All the results were interpreted considering the potential energy surface and plots of a representative sampling of reactive trajectories

  11. A Big Five approach to self-regulation: personality traits and health trajectories in the Hawaii longitudinal study of personality and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Sarah E; Edmonds, Grant W; Barckley, Maureen; Goldberg, Lewis R; Dubanoski, Joan P; Hillier, Teresa A

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory processes influencing health outcomes may have their origins in childhood personality traits. The Big Five approach to personality was used here to investigate the associations between childhood traits, trait-related regulatory processes and changes in health across middle age. Participants (N = 1176) were members of the Hawaii longitudinal study of personality and health. Teacher assessments of the participants' traits when they were in elementary school were related to trajectories of self-rated health measured on 6 occasions over 14 years in middle age. Five trajectories of self-rated health were identified by latent class growth analysis: Stable Excellent, Stable Very Good, Good, Decreasing and Poor. Childhood Conscientiousness was the only childhood trait to predict membership in the Decreasing class vs. the combined healthy classes (Stable Excellent, Stable Very Good and Good), even after controlling for adult Conscientiousness and the other adult Big Five traits. The Decreasing class had poorer objectively assessed clinical health measured on one occasion in middle age, was less well-educated, and had a history of more lifespan health-damaging behaviors compared to the combined healthy classes. These findings suggest that higher levels of childhood Conscientiousness (i.e. greater self-discipline and goal-directedness) may prevent subsequent health decline decades later through self-regulatory processes involving the acquisition of lifelong healthful behavior patterns and higher educational attainment.

  12. Outcome of secondary high-grade glioma in children previously treated for a malignant condition: A study of the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carret, Anne-Sophie; Tabori, Uri; Crooks, Bruce; Hukin, Juliette; Odame, Isaac; Johnston, Donna L.; Keene, Daniel L.; Freeman, Carolyn; Bouffet, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reports of secondary high-grade glioma (HGG) in survivors of childhood cancer are scarce. The aim of this study was to review the pattern of diagnosis, the treatment, and outcome of secondary pediatric HGG. Patients and methods: We performed a multi-center retrospective study among the 17 paediatric institutions participating in the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium (CPBTC). Results: We report on 18 patients (14 males, 4 females) treated in childhood for a primary cancer, who subsequently developed a HGG as a second malignancy. All patients had previously received radiation therapy +/- chemotherapy for either acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 9) or solid tumour (n = 9). All HGG occurred within the previous radiation fields. At the last follow-up, 17 patients have died and the median survival time is 9.75 months. Conclusion: Although aggressive treatment seems to provide sustained remissions in some patients, the optimal management is still to be defined. Further documentation of such cases is necessary in order to better understand the pathogenesis, the natural history and the prevention of these tumours

  13. Trajectory phases of a quantum dot model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genway, Sam; Hickey, James M; Garrahan, Juan P; Armour, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    We present a thermodynamic formalism to study the trajectories of charge transport through a quantum dot coupled to two leads in the resonant-level model. We show that a close analogue of equilibrium phase transitions exists for the statistics of transferred charge; by tuning an appropriate ‘counting field’, crossovers to different trajectory phases are possible. Our description reveals a mapping between the statistics of a given device and current measurements over a range of devices with different dot–lead coupling strengths. Furthermore insight into features of the trajectory phases are found by studying the occupation of the dot conditioned on the transported charge between the leads; this is calculated from first principles using a trajectory biased two-point projective measurement scheme. (paper)

  14. Trajectory Stability in the Traveling Salesman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sánchez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two generalizations of the traveling salesman problem in which sites change their position in time are presented. The way the rank of different trajectory lengths changes in time is studied using the rank diversity. We analyze the statistical properties of rank distributions and rank dynamics and give evidence that the shortest and longest trajectories are more predictable and robust to change, that is, more stable.

  15. Vitamin D deficiency in medical patients at a central hospital in Malawi: a comparison with TB patients from a previous study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamikani Mastala

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD in adult medical, non-tuberculous (non-TB patients. To investigate associations with VDD. To compare the results with a similar study in TB patients at the same hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample. SETTING: Central hospital in Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-TB patients (n = 157, inpatients and outpatients. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the prevalence of VDD. Potentially causal associations sought included nutritional status, in/outpatient status, HIV status, anti-retroviral therapy (ART and, by comparison with a previous study, a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D (≤75 nmol/L occurred in 47.8% (75/157 of patients, 16.6% (26/157 of whom had VDD (≤50 nmol/L. None had severe VDD (≤25 nmol/L. VDD was found in 22.8% (23/101 of in-patients and 5.4% (3/56 of out-patients. In univariable analysis in-patient status, ART use and low dietary vitamin D were significant predictors of VDD. VDD was less prevalent than in previously studied TB patients in the same hospital (68/161 = 42%. In multivariate analysis of the combined data set from both studies, having TB (OR 3.61, 95%CI 2.02-6.43 and being an in-patient (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.46-5.01 were significant independent predictors of VDD. CONCLUSIONS: About half of adult medical patients without TB have suboptimal vitamin D status, which is more common in in-patients. VDD is much more common in TB patients than non-TB patients, even when other variables are controlled for, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with TB.

  16. Terminal attack trajectories of peregrine falcons are described by the proportional navigation guidance law of missiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Caroline H; Thomas, Adrian L R; Taylor, Graham K

    2017-12-19

    The ability to intercept uncooperative targets is key to many diverse flight behaviors, from courtship to predation. Previous research has looked for simple geometric rules describing the attack trajectories of animals, but the underlying feedback laws have remained obscure. Here, we use GPS loggers and onboard video cameras to study peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus , attacking stationary targets, maneuvering targets, and live prey. We show that the terminal attack trajectories of peregrines are not described by any simple geometric rule as previously claimed, and instead use system identification techniques to fit a phenomenological model of the dynamical system generating the observed trajectories. We find that these trajectories are best-and exceedingly well-modeled by the proportional navigation (PN) guidance law used by most guided missiles. Under this guidance law, turning is commanded at a rate proportional to the angular rate of the line-of-sight between the attacker and its target, with a constant of proportionality (i.e., feedback gain) called the navigation constant ( N ). Whereas most guided missiles use navigation constants falling on the interval 3 ≤ N ≤ 5, peregrine attack trajectories are best fitted by lower navigation constants (median N law could find use in small visually guided drones designed to remove other drones from protected airspace. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  17. Modelling environmentally friendly fairways using Lagrangian trajectories: a case study for the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomere, Tarmo; Berezovski, Mihhail; Quak, Ewald; Viikmäe, Bert

    2011-10-01

    We address possibilities of minimising environmental risks using statistical features of current-driven propagation of adverse impacts to the coast. The recently introduced method for finding the optimum locations of potentially dangerous activities (Soomere et al. in Proc Estonian Acad Sci 59:156-165, 2010) is expanded towards accounting for the spatial distributions of probabilities and times for reaching the coast for passively advecting particles released in different sea areas. These distributions are calculated using large sets of Lagrangian trajectories found from Eulerian velocity fields provided by the Rossby Centre Ocean Model with a horizontal resolution of 2 nautical miles for 1987-1991. The test area is the Gulf of Finland in the northeastern Baltic Sea. The potential gain using the optimum fairways from the Baltic Proper to the eastern part of the gulf is an up to 44% decrease in the probability of coastal pollution and a similar increase in the average time for reaching the coast. The optimum fairways are mostly located to the north of the gulf axis (by 2-8 km on average) and meander substantially in some sections. The robustness of this approach is quantified as the typical root mean square deviation (6-16 km) between the optimum fairways specified from different criteria. Drastic variations in the width of the `corridors' for almost optimal fairways (2-30 km for the average width of 15 km) signifies that the sensitivity of the results with respect to small changes in the environmental criteria largely varies in different parts of the gulf.

  18. Phylogenetic and CRISPR/Cas9 Studies in Deciphering the Evolutionary Trajectory and Phenotypic Impacts of Rice ERECTA Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchun Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ERECTA family genes (ERfs have been found to play diverse functions in Arabidopsis, including controlling cell proliferation and cell growth, regulating stomata patterning, and responding to various stresses. This wide range of functions has rendered them as a potential candidate for crop improvement. However, information on their functional roles, particularly their morphological impact, in crop genomes, such as rice, is limited. Here, through evolutionary prediction, we first depict the evolutionary trajectory of the ER family, and show that the ER family is actually highly conserved across different species, suggesting that most of their functions may also be observed in other plant species. We then take advantage of the CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–associated nuclease 9 system to assess their morphological impact on one of the most important crops, rice. Loss-of-function mutants of OsER1 and OsER2 display shortened plant stature and reduced panicle size, suggesting they possibly also functioned in regulating cell proliferation and cell growth in rice. In addition to functions similar to that in Arabidopsis, we also find clues that rice ERfs may play unique functional roles. The OsER2 displayed more severe phenotypic changes than OsER1, indicating putative differentiation in their functions. The OsERL might be of essential in its function, and the proper function of all three rice ER genes might be dependent of their genetic background. Future investigations relating to these functions are key to exploiting ERfs in crop development.

  19. Trajectories of income and social benefits for mothers and fathers of children with cancer: A national cohort study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Ayako; Montgomery, Scott; Bottai, Matteo; Hovén, Emma I

    2018-04-01

    The contribution of different income sources from work and social benefits to trajectories of income for the parents of children with cancer has not been empirically investigated. Using Swedish registers, parents of children with an incidence cancer diagnosis between 2004 and 2009 were identified and matched with parents of children without cancer (reference parents). A total of 20,091 families were followed from the year before the diagnosis to a maximum of 8 years. Generalized linear models estimated the ratios of mean incomes from work and social benefits and of its total. Around the time of the child's cancer diagnosis, the total income was on average up to 6% higher among the mothers of children with cancer compared with reference mothers, but no differences were noted among fathers. Income from work dropped to the lowest level around the time of a cancer diagnosis, with swift recovery noted for fathers but not for mothers. Sickness and childcare-related benefits were up to 6 times larger for the parents of children with cancer than reference parents. As social benefits diminished after approximately 3 years, the total income of mothers of children with cancer became lower than that of reference mothers, and the gap widened over time. Social benefits appeared to ease the financial burden during the years around a cancer diagnosis. However, mothers experienced persistently lower income after benefits diminished. Experiences differed by single-parent versus dual-parent households, the survival of the child with cancer, and other relevant characteristics. Further investigation is needed for potential long-term consequences for mothers, including their career and future pension in retirement. Cancer 2018;124:1492-500. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  20. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; Chen, Lisi; Wei, Zhewei; Jensen, Christian S.; Zheng, Kai; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm's per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  1. Plantar pressure in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with active foot ulceration, previous ulceration and no history of ulceration: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu Eranga; Crowther, Robert George; Pappas, Elise; Lazzarini, Peter Anthony; Cunningham, Margaret; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure time integral (PTI) were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310). Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290-0.811, pdiabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic neuropathy without a history of ulceration. More homogenous data is needed to confirm these findings.

  2. Phase II study of a 3-day schedule with topotecan and cisplatin in patients with previously untreated small cell lung cancer and extensive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, Ulrik Niels; Jensen, Peter Buhl

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment with a topoisomerase I inhibitor in combination with a platinum results in superior or equal survival compared with etoposide-based treatment in extensive disease small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Five-day topotecan is inconvenient and therefore shorter schedules of topotecan...... and cisplatin are needed. The aim of this phase II study was to establish the response rate and response duration in chemo-naive patients with SCLC receiving a 3-day topotecan and cisplatin schedule. METHODS: Simons optimal two-stage design was used. Patients with previously untreated extensive disease SCLC...... age was 59 (range 44-74), 79% had performance status 0 or 1. Thirty-one patients completed all six cycles. Grade 3/4 anemia, neutrocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia were recorded in 9.5%, 66.7%, and 21.4% of patients, respectively. Fourteen percent of patients experienced neutropenic fever. No episodes...

  3. Flash trajectory imaging of target 3D motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Yan; Fan, Songtao; He, Jun; Liu, Yuliang

    2011-03-01

    We present a flash trajectory imaging technique which can directly obtain target trajectory and realize non-contact measurement of motion parameters by range-gated imaging and time delay integration. Range-gated imaging gives the range of targets and realizes silhouette detection which can directly extract targets from complex background and decrease the complexity of moving target image processing. Time delay integration increases information of one single frame of image so that one can directly gain the moving trajectory. In this paper, we have studied the algorithm about flash trajectory imaging and performed initial experiments which successfully obtained the trajectory of a falling badminton. Our research demonstrates that flash trajectory imaging is an effective approach to imaging target trajectory and can give motion parameters of moving targets.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  5. Trial of labour and vaginal birth after previous caesarean section: A population based study of Eastern African immigrants in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belihu, Fetene B; Small, Rhonda; Davey, Mary-Ann

    2017-03-01

    Variations in caesarean section (CS) between some immigrant groups and receiving country populations have been widely reported. Often, African immigrant women are at higher risk of CS than the receiving population in developed countries. However, evidence about subsequent mode of birth following CS for African women post-migration is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine differences in attempted and successful vaginal birth after previous caesarean (VBAC) for Eastern African immigrants (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) compared with Australian-born women. A population-based observational study was conducted using the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to generate adjusted odds ratios for attempted and successful VBAC. Victoria, Australia. 554 Eastern African immigrants and 24,587 Australian-born eligible women with previous CS having singleton births in public care. 41.5% of Eastern African immigrant women and 26.1% Australian-born women attempted a VBAC with 50.9% of Eastern African immigrants and 60.5% of Australian-born women being successful. After adjusting for maternal demographic characteristics and available clinical confounding factors, Eastern African immigrants were more likely to attempt (OR adj 1.94, 95% CI 1.57-2.47) but less likely to succeed (OR adj 0.54 95% CI 0.41-0.71) in having a VBAC. There are disparities in attempted and successful VBAC between Eastern African origin and Australian-born women. Unsuccessful VBAC attempt is more common among Eastern African immigrants, suggesting the need for improved strategies to select and support potential candidates for vaginal birth among these immigrants to enhance success and reduce potential complications associated with failed VBAC attempt. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomarker-driven trial in metastatic pancreas cancer: feasibility in a multicenter study of saracatinib, an oral Src inhibitor, in previously treated pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcaroli, John; Quackenbush, Kevin; Dasari, Arvind; Powell, Rebecca; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik-Choon; Foster, Nathan R; Picus, Joel; Wright, John; Nallapareddy, Sujatha; Erlichman, Charles; Hidalgo, Manuel; Messersmith, Wells A

    2012-01-01

    Src tyrosine kinases are overexpressed in pancreatic cancers, and the oral Src inhibitor saracatinib has shown antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreas cancer. We performed a CTEP-sponsored Phase II clinical trial of saracatinib in previously treated pancreas cancer patients, with a primary endpoint of 6-month survival. A Simon MinMax two-stage phase II design was used. Saracatinib (175 mg/day) was administered orally continuously in 28-day cycles. In the unselected portion of the study, 18 patients were evaluable. Only two (11%) patients survived for at least 6 months, and three 6-month survivors were required to move to second stage of study as originally designed. The study was amended as a biomarker-driven trial (leucine rich repeat containing protein 19 [LRRC19] > insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 [IGFBP2] “top scoring pairs” polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay, and PIK3CA mutant) based on preclinical data in a human pancreas tumor explant model. In the biomarker study, archival tumor tissue or fresh tumor biopsies were tested. Biomarker-positive patients were eligible for the study. Only one patient was PIK3CA mutant in a 3′ untranslated region (UTR) portion of the gene. This patient was enrolled in the study and failed to meet the 6-month survival endpoint. As the frequency of biomarker-positive patients was very low (<3%), the study was closed. Although we were unable to conclude whether enriching for a subset of second/third line pancreatic cancer patients treated with a Src inhibitor based on a biomarker would improve 6-month survival, we demonstrate that testing pancreatic tumor samples for a biomarker-driven, multicenter study in metastatic pancreas cancer is feasible

  7. Developmental trajectories of fronto-executive functions in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A preliminary study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Howley, S A

    2011-01-01

    22qll.2 deletion syndrome (22qllDS) is associated with borderline-mild intellectual disability and specific neurocognitive deficits, particularly in prefrontally-mediated executive functions (EF). There is evidence for white matter abnormalities in frontal cortical regions in 22qllDS, however little is known about the development of EF across the age range. Forty-eight individuals with 22qllDS were divided into 3 age groups: Child (7 male; n = 16; 6–11 years; M (SD) age = 8.4 (1.7); mean FSIQ = 72.9); Adolescent (7 male; n = 15; 12–15 years; M (SD) age = 13.1 (0.8); mean FSIQ = 68.0) and Adult (7 male; n = 17; 16–45 years; M (SD) age = 28.8 (11.5); mean FSIQ = 69.6). Forty healthy controls were also recruited and divided into the same 3 age groups: Child (6 male; 6–11 years, n = 12; M (SD) age = 9.3 (1.7); mean FSIQ = 99.1); Adolescent (6 male; 12–15 years; n = 12; M (SD) age = 13.2 (1.1); mean FSIQ = 100.9) and Adult (6 male; 16–45 years; n = 16; M (SD) age = 28.8 (9.4); mean FSIQ = 109). All participants completed standardised tests of a range of executive functions, specifically working memory, planning, problem-solving, strategy formation, cognitive flexibility and inhibition, and cross-sectional developmental trajectories of each function were constructed. No age-mediated improvements on EF tasks were observed in the 22qllDS groups, with the exception of verbal working memory. The control group exhibited significant age-mediated improvements in working memory, strategy formation and planning efficiency. These findings support the hypothesis that 22qllDS individuals experience atypical development of neuroanatomical regions and networks associated with EF in typical individuals. Future longitudinal work is required to examine intra-individual development of executive and non-executive cognitive processes.

  8. Women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous caesarean section in Taiwan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Wen; Hutchinson, Alison M; Nagle, Cate; Bucknall, Tracey K

    2018-01-17

    Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is an alternative option for women who have had a previous caesarean section (CS); however, uptake is limited because of concern about the risks of uterine rupture. The aim of this study was to explore women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous CS. A qualitative approach was used. The research comprised three stages. Stage I consisted of naturalistic observation at 33-34 weeks' gestation. Stage II involved interviews with pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation. Stage III consisted of interviews with the same women who were interviewed postnatally, 1 month after birth. The research was conducted in a private medical centre in northern Taiwan. Using a purposive sampling, 21 women and 9 obstetricians were recruited. Data collection involved in-depth interviews, observation and field notes. Constant comparative analysis was employed for data analysis. Ensuring the safety of mother and baby was the focus of women's decisions. Women's decisions-making influences included previous birth experience, concern about the risks of vaginal birth, evaluation of mode of birth, current pregnancy situation, information resources and health insurance. In communicating with obstetricians, some women complied with obstetricians' recommendations for repeat caesarean section (RCS) without being informed of alternatives. Others used four step decision-making processes that included searching for information, listening to obstetricians' professional judgement, evaluating alternatives, and making a decision regarding mode of birth. After birth, women reflected on their decisions in three aspects: reflection on birth choices; reflection on factors influencing decisions; and reflection on outcomes of decisions. The health and wellbeing of mother and baby were the major concerns for women. In response to the decision-making influences, women's interactions with obstetricians regarding birth choices

  9. Differences and similarities in the trajectories of self-esteem and positive and negative affect in persons with chronic illness: an explorative longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic illness is a risk factor for low self-esteem, and the research literature needs to include more studies of self-esteem and its development in chronic illness groups using longitudinal and comparative designs. The aim of this study was to explore the trajectories of self-esteem and of positive and negative affect in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Patient education course attendants in Norway having morbid obesity (n=139) or COPD (n=97) participated in the study. Data concerning self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and sociodemographic background were collected at the start and at the end of the patient education, with subsequent follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measures. Results Taking all measurements into account, our data revealed a statistically significant increase in self-esteem for participants with morbid obesity but not for those with COPD. There were no significant differences in levels of negative and positive affect between the two groups, and the time-trajectories were also similar. However, participants in both groups achieved lower levels of negative affect for all the successive measurement points. Conclusion An increase in self-esteem during the first year after the patient education course was observed for persons with morbid obesity, but not for persons with COPD. Initial higher levels of self-esteem in the participants with COPD may indicate that they are less troubled with low self-esteem than people with morbid obesity are. The pattern of reduced negative affect for both groups during follow-up is promising. PMID:27574438

  10. Differences and similarities in the trajectories of self-esteem and positive and negative affect in persons with chronic illness: an explorative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2016-01-01

    Chronic illness is a risk factor for low self-esteem, and the research literature needs to include more studies of self-esteem and its development in chronic illness groups using longitudinal and comparative designs. The aim of this study was to explore the trajectories of self-esteem and of positive and negative affect in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patient education course attendants in Norway having morbid obesity (n=139) or COPD (n=97) participated in the study. Data concerning self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and sociodemographic background were collected at the start and at the end of the patient education, with subsequent follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measures. Taking all measurements into account, our data revealed a statistically significant increase in self-esteem for participants with morbid obesity but not for those with COPD. There were no significant differences in levels of negative and positive affect between the two groups, and the time-trajectories were also similar. However, participants in both groups achieved lower levels of negative affect for all the successive measurement points. An increase in self-esteem during the first year after the patient education course was observed for persons with morbid obesity, but not for persons with COPD. Initial higher levels of self-esteem in the participants with COPD may indicate that they are less troubled with low self-esteem than people with morbid obesity are. The pattern of reduced negative affect for both groups during follow-up is promising.

  11. Mental health trajectories and related factors among perinatal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Chao; Hung, Chich-Hsiu

    2015-06-01

    To investigate Taiwanese women's mental health trajectories from the third trimester of pregnancy to four weeks postpartum and the correlations of these trajectories with perceived social support and demographic characteristics. Previous studies have reported differences between prenatal and postpartum mental health status. A repeated design study was conducted in a medical hospital in Southern Taiwan. One-hundred and ninety-four Taiwanese women completed the Chinese Health Questionnaire and Social Support Scale at the 36th prenatal week and first and fourth week postpartum. Three linear mental health trajectories for perinatal women were identified. Consistently poor perinatal mental health was reported by 16·0% of the participants. Less social support was associated with lower prenatal mental health scores. Younger age was a risk factor for consistently poor perinatal health. Vaginal delivery was associated with improved mental health after childbirth. Mental health was worse in the third trimester of pregnancy than postpartum. Less social support was associated with lower prenatal mental health scores, and this association was similarly distributed between women with consistently poor and improved mental health after birth. Health care providers should assess women's mental health status and provide timely interventions during the perinatal period. Social support should be provided for pregnant women, especially younger women or those with lower perceived social support. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Semantic Enrichment of GPS Trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, V.; van Keulen, Maurice; de By, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Semantic annotation of GPS trajectories helps us to recognize the interests of the creator of the GPS trajectories. Automating this trajectory annotation circumvents the requirement of additional user input. To annotate the GPS traces automatically, two types of automated input are required: 1) a

  13. Optimizing interplanetary trajectories with deep space maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navagh, John

    1993-09-01

    Analysis of interplanetary trajectories is a crucial area for both manned and unmanned missions of the Space Exploration Initiative. A deep space maneuver (DSM) can improve a trajectory in much the same way as a planetary swingby. However, instead of using a gravitational field to alter the trajectory, the on-board propulsion system of the spacecraft is used when the vehicle is not near a planet. The purpose is to develop an algorithm to determine where and when to use deep space maneuvers to reduce the cost of a trajectory. The approach taken to solve this problem uses primer vector theory in combination with a non-linear optimizing program to minimize Delta(V). A set of necessary conditions on the primer vector is shown to indicate whether a deep space maneuver will be beneficial. Deep space maneuvers are applied to a round trip mission to Mars to determine their effect on the launch opportunities. Other studies which were performed include cycler trajectories and Mars mission abort scenarios. It was found that the software developed was able to locate quickly DSM's which lower the total Delta(V) on these trajectories.

  14. Searching Trajectories by Regions of Interest

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-03-22

    With the increasing availability of moving-object tracking data, trajectory search is increasingly important. We propose and investigate a novel query type named trajectory search by regions of interest (TSR query). Given an argument set of trajectories, a TSR query takes a set of regions of interest as a parameter and returns the trajectory in the argument set with the highest spatial-density correlation to the query regions. This type of query is useful in many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation, and location based services in general. TSR query processing faces three challenges: how to model the spatial-density correlation between query regions and data trajectories, how to effectively prune the search space, and how to effectively schedule multiple so-called query sources. To tackle these challenges, a series of new metrics are defined to model spatial-density correlations. An efficient trajectory search algorithm is developed that exploits upper and lower bounds to prune the search space and that adopts a query-source selection strategy, as well as integrates a heuristic search strategy based on priority ranking to schedule multiple query sources. The performance of TSR query processing is studied in extensive experiments based on real and synthetic spatial data.

  15. Searching Trajectories by Regions of Interest

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; chen, Lisi; Jensen, Christian S.; Wen, Ji-Rong; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing availability of moving-object tracking data, trajectory search is increasingly important. We propose and investigate a novel query type named trajectory search by regions of interest (TSR query). Given an argument set of trajectories, a TSR query takes a set of regions of interest as a parameter and returns the trajectory in the argument set with the highest spatial-density correlation to the query regions. This type of query is useful in many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation, and location based services in general. TSR query processing faces three challenges: how to model the spatial-density correlation between query regions and data trajectories, how to effectively prune the search space, and how to effectively schedule multiple so-called query sources. To tackle these challenges, a series of new metrics are defined to model spatial-density correlations. An efficient trajectory search algorithm is developed that exploits upper and lower bounds to prune the search space and that adopts a query-source selection strategy, as well as integrates a heuristic search strategy based on priority ranking to schedule multiple query sources. The performance of TSR query processing is studied in extensive experiments based on real and synthetic spatial data.

  16. Electron trajectory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-11-01

    The SLAC Electron Trajectory Program is described and instructions and examples for users are given. The program is specifically written to compute trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child's Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magntic fields may be specified using arbitrary configurations of coils, or the output of a magnet program such as Poisson or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields. The program is available in IBM FORTRAN but can be easily converted for use on other brands of hardware. The program is intended to be used with a plotter whose interface the user must provide

  17. Electron trajectory program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-11-01

    The SLAC Electron Trajectory Program is described and instructions and examples for users are given. The program is specifically written to compute trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child's Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magntic fields may be specified using arbitrary configurations of coils, or the output of a magnet program such as Poisson or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields. The program is available in IBM FORTRAN but can be easily converted for use on other brands of hardware. The program is intended to be used with a plotter whose interface the user must provide.

  18. Sleep Duration Trajectories and Systemic Inflammation in Young Adults: Results From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Chighaf; Schwartz, Skai; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Wang, Wei; Sappenfield, William; Couluris, Marisa; Chen, Henian

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the effects of short and long sleep duration patterns in young adults on the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as the potential effect modification by sex. Using data from waves III (age 18-26) and IV (age 24-32) of the National Longitudinal study of adolescent to adult health, we examined the association between sleep trajectories in young adults, and the risk of elevated high sensitivity-CRP (hs-CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation. Short sleep trajectories were associated with significantly elevated log-transformed hs-CRP (coefficient = 0.11, p-value .03) and with significantly higher odds of having hs-CRP levels > 3 mg/L (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.29, 2.67). The association was modified by sex, with the association between short sleep duration and hs-CRP limited to males. Both the continuous (coefficient 0.117, p-value = .0362) and the categorized hs-CRP (OR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.48, 3.30) were significantly elevated with short sleep durations in males, whereas no significant associations were seen in females with short sleep durations. By contrast, log hs-CRP was significantly elevated in females with long sleep durations (coefficient = 0.232, p-value = .0296), with a nonsignificant increase in the odds of having hs-CRP levels greater than 3 mg/L (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 0.75, 2.93), whereas there were no associations with long sleep duration in males. Systemic inflammation, measured by an elevated level of hs-CRP, is seen with persistent short sleep duration in young adult men and persistent long sleep duration in young adult women. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Outcome of older persons admitted to intensive care unit, mortality, prognosis factors, dependency scores and ability trajectory within 1 year: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Level, Claude; Tellier, Eric; Dezou, Patrick; Chaoui, Karim; Kherchache, Aissa; Sejourné, Philippe; Rullion-Pac Soo, Anne Marie

    2017-12-06

    The outcome and functional trajectory of older persons admitted to intensive care (ICU) unit remain a true question for critical care physicians and geriatricians, due to the heterogeneity of geriatric population, heterogeneity of practices and absence of guidelines. To describe the 1-year outcome, prognosis factors and functional trajectory for older people admitted to ICU. In a prospective 1-year cohort study, all patients aged 75 years and over admitted to our ICU were included according to a global comprehensive geriatric assessment. Follow-up was conducted for 1 year survivors, in particular, ability scores and living conditions. Of 188 patients included [aged 82.3 ± 4.7 years, 46% of admissions, median SAPS II 53.5 (43-74), ADL of Katz's score 4.2 ± 1.6, median Barthel's index 71 (55-90), AGGIR scale 4.5 ± 1.5], the ICU, hospital and 1-year mortality were, respectively, 34, 42.5 and 65.5%. Prognosis factors were: SAPS 2, mechanical ventilation, comorbidity (Lee's and Mc Cabe's scores), disability scores (ADL of Katz's score, Barthel's index and AGGIR scale), admission creatinin, hypoalbuminemia, malignant haemopathy, cognitive impairment. One-year survivors lived in their own home for 83%, with a preserved physical ability, without significant variation of the three ability assessed scores compared to prior ICU admission. The mortality of older people admitted to ICU is high, with a significant impact of disabilty scores, and preserved 1-year survivor independency. Other studies, including a better comprehensive geriatric assessment, seem necessary to determine a predictive "phenotype" of survival with a "satisfactory" level of autonomy.

  20. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Late tamoxifen in patients previously operated for breast cancer without postoperative tamoxifen: 5-year results of a single institution randomised study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, Andrea; Miolo, GianMaria; Magri, Maria D; Crivellari, Diana; Scalone, Simona; Bidoli, Ettore; Lombardi, Davide

    2010-01-01

    A population of breast cancer patients exists who, for various reasons, never received adjuvant post-operative tamoxifen (TAM). This study was aimed to evaluate the role of late TAM in these patients. From 1997 to 2003, patients aged 35 to 75 years, operated more than 2 years previously for monolateral breast cancer without adjuvant TAM, with no signs of metastases and no contraindication to TAM were randomized to TAM 20 mg/day orally for 2 years or follow-up alone. Events were categorized as locoregional relapse, distant metastases, metachronous breast cancer, tumours other than breast cancer and death from any causes, whichever occurred first. The sample size (197 patients per arm, plus 10% allowance) was based on the assumption of a 30% decrease in the number of events occurring at a rate of 5% annually in the 10 years following randomization. Four hundred and thirty-three patients were randomized in the study (TAM 217, follow-up 216). Patients characteristics (TAM/follow-up) included: median age 55/55 years, median time from surgery 25/25 months (range, 25-288/25-294), in situ carcinoma 18/24, oestrogen receptor (ER) positive in 75/68, negative in 70/57, unknown in 72/91 patients. Previous adjuvant treatment included chemotherapy in 131/120 and an LHRH analogue in 11/13 patients. Thirty-six patients prematurely discontinued TAM after a median of 1 month, mostly because of subjective intolerance. Eighty-three events (TAM 39, follow-up 44) occurred: locoregional relapse in 10/8, distant metastases in 14/16, metachronous breast cancer in 4/10, other tumours in 11/10 patients. Less ER-positive secondary breast cancers occurred in the TAM treated patients than in follow-up patients (1 vs 10, p = 0.005). Event-free survival was similar in both groups of patients. This 5-year analysis revealed significantly less metachronous ER-positive breast cancers in the TAM treated patients. No other statistically significant differences have emerged thus far

  2. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Sitagliptin Prevented Weight Regain in Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Previously Treated with Liraglutide: A Pilot Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjan, Simona; Janez, Andrej; Jensterle, Mojca

    2017-12-01

    Weight loss is often nonsustainable after liraglutide cessation. The present study is the first insight into the potential prevention of weight regain in obese subjects who have been withdrawn from liraglutide. We evaluated whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin in adjunct to metformin prevents body weight regain more effectively than metformin alone in obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) previously treated with liraglutide. A 12-week prospective randomized open-label study was conducted with 24 obese women with PCOS who had been pretreated with liraglutide 3.0 mg due to antiobesity management (aged 34.3 ± 6.8 years, body mass index [BMI] 36.3 ± 5.2 kg/m 2 , mean ± standard deviation). They were randomized to combined treatment (COMBO) with sitagliptin 100 mg per day (QD) and metformin (MET) 1000 mg twice daily (BID) (n = 12) or MET 1000 mg BID (n = 12). Lifestyle intervention was promoted in both groups. The primary outcome was change in anthropometric measures of obesity. Women treated with MET regain 4.7 ± 2.7 kg (P = 0.002) compared with a 0.9 ± 2.5 kg in COMBO (P = 0.147). BMI increased for 1.7 ± 0.9 kg/m 2 in MET (P = 0.002) compared with 0.3 ± 0.8 kg/m 2 increase in COMBO (P = 0.136). MET group regain 4.5% ± 2.5% of body weight as opposed to 0.8% ± 2.6% in COMBO. The between-treatment differences were significant for weight change (P weight change (P weight regain in obese women with PCOS previously treated with liraglutide.

  3. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-01-01

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  4. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  5. Evaluation of the Widal tube agglutination test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among children admitted to a rural hdospital in Tanzania and a comparison with previous studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malahiyo Rajabu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of typhoid fever is confirmed by culture of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi. However, a more rapid, simpler, and cheaper diagnostic method would be very useful especially in developing countries. The Widal test is widely used in Africa but little information exists about its reliability. Methods We assessed the performance of the Widal tube agglutination test among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of various anti-TH and -TO titers using culture-confirmed typhoid fever cases as the "true positives" and all other febrile children with blood culture negative for S. typhi as the "true negatives." Results We found that 16 (1% of 1,680 children had culture-proven typhoid fever. A single anti-TH titer of 1:80 and higher was the optimal indicator of typhoid fever. This had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 98%, NPV of 100%, but PPV was only 26%. We compared our main findings with those from previous studies. Conclusion Among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children with a low prevalence of typhoid fever, a Widal titer of ≥ 1:80 performed well in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and NPV. However a test with improved PPV that is similarly easy to apply and cost-efficient is desirable.

  6. Caring for women wanting a vaginal birth after previous caesarean section: A qualitative study of the experiences of midwives and obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foureur, Maralyn; Turkmani, Sabera; Clack, Danielle C; Davis, Deborah L; Mollart, Lyndall; Leiser, Bernadette; Homer, Caroline S E

    2017-02-01

    One of the greatest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate is elective repeat caesarean section. Decisions around mode of birth are often complex for women and influenced by the views of the doctors and midwives who care for and counsel women. Women may be more likely to choose a repeat elective caesarean section (CS) if their health care providers lack skills and confidence in supporting vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC). To explore the views and experiences of providers in caring for women considering VBAC, in particular the decision-making processes and the communication of risk and safety to women. A descriptive interpretive method was utilised. Four focus groups with doctors and midwives were conducted. The central themes were: 'developing trust', 'navigating the system' and 'optimising support'. The impact of past professional experiences; the critical importance of continuity of carer and positive relationships; the ability to weigh up risks versus benefits; and the language used were all important elements. The role of policy and guidelines on providing standardised care for women who had a previous CS was also highlighted. Midwives and doctors in this study were positively oriented towards assisting and supporting women to attempt a VBAC. Care providers considered that women who have experienced a prior CS need access to midwifery continuity of care with a focus on support, information-sharing and effective communication. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gefitinib plus cisplatin and radiotherapy in previously untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Vincent; Hamoir, Marc; Chen Changhu; Kane, Madeleine; Kawecki, Andrzej; Julka, Pramod K.; Wang, Hung-Ming; Prasad, Srihari; D'Cruz, Anil K.; Radosevic-Jelic, Ljiljana; Kumar, Rejnish R.; Korzeniowski, Stanislaw; Fijuth, Jacek; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Sellers, Mark V.; Tchakov, Ilian; Raben, David

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of gefitinib given concomitantly and/or as maintenance therapy to standard cisplatin/radiotherapy for previously untreated, unresected, stage III/IV non-metastatic SCCHN. Materials and methods: In this phase II, double-blind, study, 226 patients were randomized to gefitinib 250 mg/day, 500 mg/day or placebo in two phases: a concomitant phase (gefitinib or placebo with chemoradiotherapy), followed by a maintenance phase (gefitinib or placebo alone). Primary endpoint was local disease control rate (LDCR) at 2 years; secondary endpoints were LDCR at 1 year, objective response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety and tolerability. Results: Gefitinib (250 and 500 mg/day) did not improve 2-year LDCR compared with placebo either when given concomitantly with chemoradiotherapy (32.7% vs. 33.6%, respectively; OR 0.921, 95% CI 0.508, 1.670 [1-sided p = 0.607]) or as maintenance therapy (28.8% vs. 37.4%, respectively; OR 0.684, 95% CI 0.377, 1.241 [1-sided p = 0.894]). Secondary efficacy outcomes were broadly consistent with the 2-year LDCR results. In both doses, gefitinib was well-tolerated and did not adversely affect the safety and tolerability of concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Conclusion: Gefitinib was well-tolerated, but did not improve efficacy compared with placebo when given concomitantly with chemoradiotherapy, or as maintenance therapy alone.

  8. Trajectories of Italian Children's Peer Rejection: Associations with Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, Physical Attractiveness, and Adolescent Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giunta, Laura; Pastorelli, Concetta; Thartori, Eriona; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Baumgartner, Emma; Fabes, Richard A; Martin, Carol Lynn; Enders, Craig K

    2017-12-08

    In the present study, the predictors and outcomes associated with the trajectories of peer rejection were examined in a longitudinal sample of Italian children (338 boys, 269 girls) ages 10 to 14 years. Follow-up assessments included 60% of the original sample at age 16-17. Low, medium, and high rejection trajectory groups were identified using growth mixture models. Consistent with previous studies, we found that (a) being less prosocial and more physically aggressive at age 10 was characteristic of those children with the high rejection trajectory; (b) being less attractive was related to higher peer rejection from age 10 to 14; and (c) boys with a high rejection trajectory showed high levels of delinquency and anxiety-depression and low levels of academic aspiration at age 16-17, whereas girls with a high rejection trajectory showed low levels of academic aspiration and social competence at age 16-17. Our findings indicate the detrimental consequences of peer rejection on children's development and adjustment and shed light on the mechanisms that contribute to maintaining or worsening (e.g., being attractive, prosocial, and aggressive) a child's negative status (e.g., being rejected) within his or her peer group over time.

  9. Growth Trajectories of Health Behaviors from Adolescence through Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Breivik, Kyrre; Wold, Bente

    2015-10-28

    Based on nine waves of data collected during a period of 17 years (1990-2007), the present study explored different developmental trajectories of the following unhealthy behaviors: regular smoking, lack of regular exercise, lack of daily fruit intake, and drunkenness. A baseline sample of 1195 13-year-old pupils was from 22 randomly selected schools in the Hordaland County in western Norway. Latent class growth analysis revealed three developmental trajectories. The first trajectory was a conventional trajectory, comprising 36.3% of participants, who showed changes in smoking, physical exercise, fruit intake, and drunkenness consistent with the prevailing age specific norms of these behaviors in the Norwegian society at the time. The second trajectory was a passive trajectory, comprising 25.5% of participants, who reported low levels of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors during the 17-year period. The third trajectory was an unhealthy trajectory, comprising 38.2% of participants, who had high levels of unhealthy behaviors over time. Several covariates were examined, but only sex and mother's and father's educational levels were found to be significantly associated with the identified trajectories. While these findings need to be replicated in future studies, the identification of the different trajectories suggests the need to tailor intervention according to specific needs.

  10. Growth Trajectories of Health Behaviors from Adolescence through Young Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Wiium

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on nine waves of data collected during a period of 17 years (1990–2007, the present study explored different developmental trajectories of the following unhealthy behaviors: regular smoking, lack of regular exercise, lack of daily fruit intake, and drunkenness. A baseline sample of 1195 13-year-old pupils was from 22 randomly selected schools in the Hordaland County in western Norway. Latent class growth analysis revealed three developmental trajectories. The first trajectory was a conventional trajectory, comprising 36.3% of participants, who showed changes in smoking, physical exercise, fruit intake, and drunkenness consistent with the prevailing age specific norms of these behaviors in the Norwegian society at the time. The second trajectory was a passive trajectory, comprising 25.5% of participants, who reported low levels of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors during the 17-year period. The third trajectory was an unhealthy trajectory, comprising 38.2% of participants, who had high levels of unhealthy behaviors over time. Several covariates were examined, but only sex and mother’s and father’s educational levels were found to be significantly associated with the identified trajectories. While these findings need to be replicated in future studies, the identification of the different trajectories suggests the need to tailor intervention according to specific needs.

  11. Growth Trajectories of Health Behaviors from Adolescence through Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Breivik, Kyrre; Wold, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Based on nine waves of data collected during a period of 17 years (1990–2007), the present study explored different developmental trajectories of the following unhealthy behaviors: regular smoking, lack of regular exercise, lack of daily fruit intake, and drunkenness. A baseline sample of 1195 13-year-old pupils was from 22 randomly selected schools in the Hordaland County in western Norway. Latent class growth analysis revealed three developmental trajectories. The first trajectory was a conventional trajectory, comprising 36.3% of participants, who showed changes in smoking, physical exercise, fruit intake, and drunkenness consistent with the prevailing age specific norms of these behaviors in the Norwegian society at the time. The second trajectory was a passive trajectory, comprising 25.5% of participants, who reported low levels of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors during the 17-year period. The third trajectory was an unhealthy trajectory, comprising 38.2% of participants, who had high levels of unhealthy behaviors over time. Several covariates were examined, but only sex and mother’s and father’s educational levels were found to be significantly associated with the identified trajectories. While these findings need to be replicated in future studies, the identification of the different trajectories suggests the need to tailor intervention according to specific needs. PMID:26516889

  12. Prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet in refugees previously exposed to torture: a ten-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorthe Reff; Montgomery, Edith; Bøjholm, Søren

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To estimate change over 10 years concerning the prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet, among previously tortured refugees settled in Denmark, and to compare associations between methods of torture and prevalent pain at baseline and at 10-year follow-up. METHODS: 139 refugees previous...... associated with the type and bodily focus of the torture. This presents a considerable challenge to future evidence-based development of effective treatment programs....

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-07

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A phase II study of VP-16-ifosfamide-cisplatin combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, In Sook; Park, Young Suk; Kwon, Sung Hee

    2000-01-01

    At present the addition of thoracic irradiation to combination chemotherapy is a standard treatment for limited staged small cell ling cancer. However, there is still controversy about the optimum timing of chest irradiation. We conducted a phase II study of etoposide (VP-16)-ifosfamide-cisplatin (VIP) combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for the patients with previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer in order to assess if the treatment modality could improve the response rate and the toxicity. Forty-four patients with limited small cell lung cancer were treated with etoposide-ifosfamide-cisplatin and concurrent thoracic irradiation. Combination chemotherapy consisted of etoposide 100 mg/m 2 (on day 1-3), ifosfamide 1000 mg/m 2 (on days 1 and 2) and cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 (on day 1). Concurrent thoracic irradiation consisted of a total of 4000 cGy over 4 weeks starting on the first day of the first chemotherapy. All patients who showed a complete response were given prophylactic cranial irradiation for 2.5 weeks. Forty-four of the 49 patients who entered the study from May 1994 to August 1998 were evaluable. The median age was 59 years and 40 patients had a performance status of 0 or 1. The median survival time was 22.5 months. Twenty-eight patients (62%) showed a complete response and 16 (38%) a partial response. Twenty-four patients (54%) developed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia; there was a 9% RTOG score 3 or 4 esophagitis. VIP combination chemotherapy and early concurrent thoracic irradiation for patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer revealed excellent antitumor response with tolerable toxicity. (author)

  15. Synthetic triphones from trajectory-based feature distributions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available we reconstruct models for unseen transitions. In the current study, we restrict ourselves to triphone modelling, and aim to generate synthetic triphones from seen diphones. If this is possible, the same approach should be applicable to larger contexts... are applied in a similar fashion. Using trajectory models for the same goal, builds on prior work analysing co-articulation trajectories [7], [8], [9] as well as various studies on trajectory modelling for ASR purposes [10], [11], [12], [13]. Particularly...

  16. Food and Drug Administration criteria for the diagnosis of drug-induced valvular heart disease in patients previously exposed to benfluorex: a prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchaux, Sylvestre; Rusinaru, Dan; Jobic, Yannick; Ederhy, Stéphane; Donal, Erwan; Réant, Patricia; Arnalsteen, Elise; Boulanger, Jacques; Garban, Thierry; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Jeu, Antoine; Szymanski, Catherine; Tribouilloy, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria for diagnosis of drug-induced valvular heart disease (DIVHD) are only based on the observation of aortic regurgitation ≥ mild and/or mitral regurgitation ≥ moderate. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic value of FDA criteria in a cohort of control patients and in a cohort of patients exposed to a drug (benfluorex) known to induce VHD. This prospective, multicentre study included 376 diabetic control patients not exposed to valvulopathic drugs and 1000 subjects previously exposed to benfluorex. Diagnosis of mitral or aortic DIVHD was based on a combined functional and morphological echocardiographic analysis of cardiac valves. Patients were classified according to the FDA criteria [mitral or aortic-FDA(+) and mitral or aortic-FDA(-)]. Among the 376 control patients, 2 were wrongly classified as mitral-FDA(+) and 17 as aortic-FDA(+) (0.53 and 4.5% of false positives, respectively). Of those exposed to benfluorex, 48 of 58 with a diagnosis of mitral DIVHD (83%) were classified as mitral-FDA(-), and 901 of the 910 patients (99%) without a diagnosis of the mitral DIVHD group were classified as mitral-FDA(-). All 40 patients with a diagnosis of aortic DIVHD were classified as aortic-FDA(+), and 105 of the 910 patients without a diagnosis of aortic DIVHD (12%) were classified aortic-FDA(+). Older age and lower BMI were independent predictors of disagreement between FDA criteria and the diagnosis of DIVHD in patients exposed to benfluorex (both P ≤ 0.001). FDA criteria solely based on the Doppler detection of cardiac valve regurgitation underestimate for the mitral valve and overestimate for the aortic valve the frequency of DIVHD. Therefore, the diagnosis of DIVHD must be based on a combined echocardiographic and Doppler morphological and functional analysis of cardiac valves. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. SAFETY AND ACTIVITY OF TEMSIROLIMUS AND BEVACIZUMAB IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED RENAL CELL CARCINOMA PREVIOUSLY TREATED WITH TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS: A PHASE 2 CONSORTIUM STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchan, Jaime R.; Qin, Rui; Pitot, Henry; Picus, Joel; Liu, Glenn; Fitch, Tom; Maples, William J.; Flynn, Patrick J.; Fruth, Briant F.; Erlichman, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bevacizumab or Temsirolimus regimens have clinical activity in the first line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This phase I/II trial was conducted to determine the safety of combining both agents and its efficacy in RCC patients who progressed on at least one prior anti-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (RTKI) agent. Methods In the phase I portion, eligible patients were treated with Temsirolimus (25 mg IV weekly) and escalating doses of IV Bevacizumab (level 1=5mg/kg; level 2=10 mg/kg) every other week. The primary endpoint for the phase II portion (RTKI resistant patients) was the 6-month progression free rate. Secondary endpoints were response rate, toxicity evaluation, PFS and OS. Results MTD was not reached at the maximum dose administered in 12 phase I patients. Forty evaluable patients were treated with the phase II recommended dose (Temsirolimus 25 mg IV weekly and Bevacizumab 10 mg/kg IV every two weeks). The 6-month progression free rate was 40% (16/40 pts). Median PFS was 5.9 (4-7.8) months, and median OS was 20.6 (11.5-23.7) months. Partial response/stable/progressive disease were seen in 23%/63%/14% of patients. Most common grade 3-4 AEs included fatigue (17.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (11.1%), stomatitis (8.9%), proteinuria (8.9%), abdominal pain (6.7%), and anemia (6.7%). Baseline levels of serum sFLT-1 and VEGF-A were inversely correlated with PFS and OS, respectively. Conclusions Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab is a feasible combination in patients with advanced RCC previously exposed to oral anti-VEGF agents. The safety and efficacy results warrant further confirmatory studies in this patient population. PMID:25556030

  18. Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Christopher M; Moon, Jordan R; Smith, Abbie E; Tobkin, Sarah E; Kendall, Kristina L; Graef, Jennifer L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2010-08-01

    Energy drink use has grown despite limited research to support efficacy or safety and amid concerns when combined with exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 10 weeks of once-daily energy drink consumption or energy drink consumption with exercise on measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, mood, and safety in previously sedentary males. Thirty-eight males were randomly assigned to energy drink + exercise (EX-A), energy drink (NEX-A), placebo + exercise (EX-B), or placebo (NEX-B). All participants consumed 1 drink per day for 10 weeks; EX-A and EX-B participated in 10 weeks of resistance and endurance exercise. Testing was performed before (PRE) and after (POST) the 10-week intervention. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were observed for body composition, fitness, or strength in NEX-A; however, significantly greater decreases in fat mass and percentage body fat and increases in VO2peak were observed in EX-A versus EX-B. Ventilatory threshold (VT), minute ventilation, VO2 at VT, and power output at VT improved significantly PRE to POST in EX-A but not in EX-B or nonexercising groups. Clinical markers for hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and immune function, as determined by PRE and POST blood work revealed no adverse effects in response to the energy drink. Mood was not affected by energy drink use. Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, chronic ingestion of a once-daily low-calorie energy drink appears ineffective at improving body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, or strength in sedentary males. However, when combined with exercise, preworkout energy drink consumption may significantly improve some physiological adaptations to combined aerobic and resistance training.

  19. Phase I/II study of gefitinib (Iressa(®)) and vorinostat (IVORI) in previously treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Youn; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Geon Kook; Yun, Tak; Lee, Young Joo; Hwang, Kum Hui; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Heung Tae

    2015-03-01

    Vorinostat has been shown to overcome resistance to gefitinib. We performed a phase I/II study combining gefitinib with vorinostat in previously treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was used to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Three dose levels were tested: 250 mg/day gefitinib on days 1-28 and 200, 300 or 400 mg/day vorinostat on days 1-7, and 15-21 out of every 28 days. The primary endpoint was median progression-free survival (PFS). Fifty-two patients were enrolled and treated (43 in phase II). The median age was 59 years, 28 patients were male, 44 had adenocarcinoma, 29 had never smoked, and 36 had undergone one prior treatment. Twenty-two patients exhibited sensitive EGFR mutations. Planned dose escalation was completed without reaching the MTD. The RP2D was 250 mg gefitinib and 400 mg vorinostat. In 43 assessable patients in phase II, the median PFS was 3.2 months; the overall survival (OS) was 19.0 months. There were 16 partial responses and six cases of stable disease. In EGFR-mutant NSCLC, response rate was 77 %, median PFS was 9.1 months, and median OS was 24.1 months. The most common adverse events were anorexia and diarrhea. Treatment with 250 mg gefitinib daily with biweekly 400 mg/day vorinostat was feasible and well tolerated. In an unselected patient population, this combination dose did not improve PFS. However, this combination showed a potential for improving efficacy of gefitinib in EGFR-mutant NSCLC (NCT01027676).

  20. Effect of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease previously untreated or treated with memantine or nootropic agents in Germany: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Tatjana; Ibach, Bernd; Schoenknecht, Peter; Kamleiter, Martin; Silver, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Johannes; Mielke, Ruediger

    2005-05-01

    This open-label, prospective, observational, Post-Marketing Surveillance (PMS) study assessed the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients who had been switched from therapies currently used in Germany to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as memantine and nootropics, due to insufficient efficacy or poor tolerability. A treatment-naive population was included as a comparator. Patients with AD were treated with donepezil and observed for a period of approximately 3 months. A cognitive assessment was made using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the investigators who answered the question 'How did therapy with donepezil influence the QoL of the patient and/or his family over the observation period?' and was graded using three ratings: improved/unchanged/worsened. Adverse events (AEs) were also monitored. A total of 913 patients entered the study (mean +/- SD MMSE score 18.03 +/- 5.34). Efficacy assessments were analyzed for three groups: an overall group of patients who had received any form of prior AD drug therapy (N+ group; n = 709); a subgroup of patients from the N+ group who had received prior memantine therapy only (M+ group; n = 111) and patients who were drug treatment naive (N- group; n = 204). In the evaluable population donepezil improved MMSE scores by 2.21 +/- 3.47 points on average, with similar improvements observed in all three groups. QoL was judged to be improved in at least 70% of patients, again with similar results obtained for all three groups. Donepezil was well tolerated, with 85 of 913 (9.3%) patients reporting AEs. The most common AEs were those typically seen with cholinergic therapies (i.e., diarrhoea, vomiting and nausea). In this observational PMS study, donepezil was shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients who were being insufficiently treated with memantine or nootropic therapy. The magnitude of response was similar to that observed in patients who were previously

  1. Sunburn and sun-protective behaviors among adults with and without previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC): A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander H; Wang, Timothy S; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are at increased risk for subsequent skin cancer, and should therefore limit ultraviolet exposure. We sought to determine whether individuals with previous NMSC engage in better sun protection than those with no skin cancer history. We pooled self-reported data (2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys) from US non-Hispanic white adults (758 with and 34,161 without previous NMSC). We calculated adjusted prevalence odds ratios (aPOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), taking into account the complex survey design. Individuals with previous NMSC versus no history of NMSC had higher rates of frequent use of shade (44.3% vs 27.0%; aPOR 1.41; 95% CI 1.16-1.71), long sleeves (20.5% vs 7.7%; aPOR 1.55; 95% CI 1.21-1.98), a wide-brimmed hat (26.1% vs 10.5%; aPOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.24-1.87), and sunscreen (53.7% vs 33.1%; aPOR 2.11; 95% CI 1.73-2.59), but did not have significantly lower odds of recent sunburn (29.7% vs 40.7%; aPOR 0.95; 95% CI 0.77-1.17). Among those with previous NMSC, recent sunburn was inversely associated with age, sun avoidance, and shade but not sunscreen. Self-reported cross-sectional data and unavailable information quantifying regular sun exposure are limitations. Physicians should emphasize sunburn prevention when counseling patients with previous NMSC, especially younger adults, focusing on shade and sun avoidance over sunscreen. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differences and similarities in the trajectories of self-esteem and positive and negative affect in persons with chronic illness: an explorative longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsaksen T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tore Bonsaksen,1 Anners Lerdal,2,3 Milada Cvancarova Småstuen,4 May Solveig Fagermoen3 1Department of Occupational Therapy, Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway; 2Research Department, Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 3Department of Nursing Science, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 4Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway Background: Chronic illness is a risk factor for low self-esteem, and the research literature needs to include more studies of self-esteem and its development in chronic illness groups using longitudinal and comparative designs. The aim of this study was to explore the trajectories of self-esteem and of positive and negative affect in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Methods: Patient education course attendants in Norway having morbid obesity (n=139 or COPD (n=97 participated in the study. Data concerning self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and sociodemographic background were collected at the start and at the end of the patient education, with subsequent follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measures.Results: Taking all measurements into account, our data revealed a statistically significant increase in self-esteem for participants with morbid obesity but not for those with COPD. There were no significant differences in levels of negative and positive affect between the two groups, and the time-trajectories were also similar. However, participants in both groups achieved lower levels of negative affect for all the successive measurement points.Conclusion: An increase in self-esteem during the first year after the patient education course was observed

  3. Advancing nursing science through health trajectory research: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Jean F; Henly, Susan J

    2011-01-01

    The Minnesota Center for Health Trajectory Research has focused on developing ways to better understand how interventions influence health trajectories during transitional, acute, or chronic health challenges across the life span. The health trajectory perspective advances nursing science by providing a person-centered point of view that emphasizes change in health over time within individuals, families, groups, or communities. Theoretical considerations and statistical modeling approaches used in studying health trajectories, along with exemplars from nursing research studies from this special issue of Nursing Research, are highlighted.

  4. A Design Research Study of a Curriculum and Diagnostic Assessment System for a Learning Trajectory on Equipartitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confrey, Jere; Maloney, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Design research studies provide significant opportunities to study new innovations and approaches and how they affect the forms of learning in complex classroom ecologies. This paper reports on a two-week long design research study with twelve 2nd through 4th graders using curricular materials and a tablet-based diagnostic assessment system, both…

  5. Trajectory attractors of equations of mathematical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishik, Marko I; Chepyzhov, Vladimir V

    2011-01-01

    In this survey the method of trajectory dynamical systems and trajectory attractors is described, and is applied in the study of the limiting asymptotic behaviour of solutions of non-linear evolution equations. This method is especially useful in the study of dissipative equations of mathematical physics for which the corresponding Cauchy initial-value problem has a global (weak) solution with respect to the time but the uniqueness of this solution either has not been established or does not hold. An important example of such an equation is the 3D Navier-Stokes system in a bounded domain. In such a situation one cannot use directly the classical scheme of construction of a dynamical system in the phase space of initial conditions of the Cauchy problem of a given equation and find a global attractor of this dynamical system. Nevertheless, for such equations it is possible to construct a trajectory dynamical system and investigate a trajectory attractor of the corresponding translation semigroup. This universal method is applied for various types of equations arising in mathematical physics: for general dissipative reaction-diffusion systems, for the 3D Navier-Stokes system, for dissipative wave equations, for non-linear elliptic equations in cylindrical domains, and for other equations and systems. Special attention is given to using the method of trajectory attractors in approximation and perturbation problems arising in complicated models of mathematical physics. Bibliography: 96 titles.

  6. Trajectories of Change in Students' Self-Concepts of Ability and Values in Math and College Major Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musu-Gillette, Lauren E.; Wigfield, Allan; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2015-01-01

    This study extends previous research on the long-term connections between motivation constructs in expectancy-value theory and achievement outcomes. Using growth mixture modelling, we examined trajectories of change for 421 students from 4th grade through college in their self-concept of ability (SCA) in math, interest in math, and perceived…

  7. GeoTravel: Harvesting Ambient Geographic Footprints from GPS Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Li Ching; Goh, Ong Sing

    2014-01-01

    This study is about harvesting point of interest from GPS trajectories. Trajectories are the paths that moving objects move by follow through space in a function of time while GPS trajectories generally are point-sequences with geographic coordinates, time stamp, speed and heading. User can get information from GPS enable device. For example, user can acquire present location, search the information around them and design driving routes to a destination and thus design travel itineraries. By ...

  8. Trajectory optimization using indirect methods and parametric scramjet cycle analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the solution of time sensitive regional strike trajectories for hypersonic missiles. This minimum time trajectory is suspected to be best performed by scramjet powered hypersonic missiles which creates strong coupled interaction between the flight dynamics and the performance of the engine. Comprehensive engine models are necessary to gain better insight into scramjet propulsion. Separately, robust and comprehensive trajectory analysis provides references for vehicles ...

  9. Equilibrium sampling by reweighting nonequilibrium simulation trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Wan, Biao; Xu, Shun; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin

    2016-03-01

    Based on equilibrium molecular simulations, it is usually difficult to efficiently visit the whole conformational space of complex systems, which are separated into some metastable regions by high free energy barriers. Nonequilibrium simulations could enhance transitions among these metastable regions and then be applied to sample equilibrium distributions in complex systems, since the associated nonequilibrium effects can be removed by employing the Jarzynski equality (JE). Here we present such a systematical method, named reweighted nonequilibrium ensemble dynamics (RNED), to efficiently sample equilibrium conformations. The RNED is a combination of the JE and our previous reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method. The original JE reproduces equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium trajectories but requires that the initial distribution of these trajectories is equilibrium. The RED reweights many equilibrium trajectories from an arbitrary initial distribution to get the equilibrium distribution, whereas the RNED has both advantages of the two methods, reproducing equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium simulation trajectories with an arbitrary initial conformational distribution. We illustrated the application of the RNED in a toy model and in a Lennard-Jones fluid to detect its liquid-solid phase coexistence. The results indicate that the RNED sufficiently extends the application of both the original JE and the RED in equilibrium sampling of complex systems.

  10. A quasiclassical trajectory study for the N(4S)+O2(X3Σg-)->NO(X2Π)+O(3P) atmospheric reaction based on a new ground potential energy surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianfeng; Liu Shixing; Liu Xueshen; Ding Peizhu

    2005-01-01

    A quasiclassical trajectory study with the fourth-order explicit symplectic algorithm for the N( 4 S)+O 2 (X 3 Σ g - )->NO(X 2 Π)+O( 3 P) atmospheric reaction has been performed by employing a new analytical fit of ab initio electronic structure calculations for the ground potential energy surface reported by Sayos et al. The effect of the relative translational energy, the vibrational energy and rotational energy of O 2 molecule on the reaction probability and the reaction cross-section has been analyzed in details. The microscopic rate constant and the thermal rate constant have also been evaluated at the low translational temperature, and results have been compared with the experimental data and previous theoretical values. It is concluded that the thermal rate constants at the low temperature considered in this work agree well with the recommended experimental data and are very close to the variational transition state theory values carried out by Sayos et al

  11. Moyal dynamics and trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunss, G.

    2010-01-01

    We give first an approximation of the operator δh: f → δhf := h*planckf - f*planckh in terms of planck2n, n >= 0, where h\\equiv h(p,q), (p,q)\\in {\\mathbb R}^{2 n} , is a Hamilton function and *planck denotes the star product. The operator, which is the generator of time translations in a *planck-algebra, can be considered as a canonical extension of the Liouville operator Lh: f → Lhf := {h, f}Poisson. Using this operator we investigate the dynamics and trajectories of some examples with a scheme that extends the Hamilton-Jacobi method for classical dynamics to Moyal dynamics. The examples we have chosen are Hamiltonians with a one-dimensional quartic potential and two-dimensional radially symmetric nonrelativistic and relativistic Coulomb potentials, and the Hamiltonian for a Schwarzschild metric. We further state a conjecture concerning an extension of the Bohr-Sommerfeld formula for the calculation of the exact eigenvalues for systems with classically periodic trajectories.

  12. Developmental trajectories of bullying and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepler, Debra; Jiang, Depeng; Craig, Wendy; Connolly, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories in bullying through adolescence were studied along with individual, family, and peer relationship factors. At the outset, participants' ages ranged from 10 to 14; 74% identified as European Canadian with the remainder from diverse backgrounds. With 8 waves of data over 7 years, 871 students (466 girls and 405 boys) were studied to reveal 4 trajectories: 9.9% reported consistently high levels of bullying, 13.4% reported early moderate levels desisting to almost no bullying at the end of high school, 35.1% reported consistently moderate levels, and 41.6% almost never reported bullying. Students who bullied had elevated risks in individual, parent, and peer relationship domains. Risk profiles and trajectories provide direction for interventions to curtail the development of power and aggression in relationships.

  13. Canonical transformations of Kepler trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostowski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, canonical transformations generated by constants of motion in the case of the Kepler problem are discussed. It is shown that canonical transformations generated by angular momentum are rotations of the trajectory. Particular attention is paid to canonical transformations generated by the Runge-Lenz vector. It is shown that these transformations change the eccentricity of the orbit. A method of obtaining elliptic trajectories from the circular ones with the help of canonical trajectories is discussed.

  14. Neighbourhood effects as indirect effects: evidence from a Dutch case study on the significance of neighbourhood for employment trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkster, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in the study of neighbourhood effects on work is to understand the pathways through which disadvantaged neighbourhoods impact the employment opportunities of residents. Endogenous explanations for neighbourhood effects focus on social life in these neighbourhoods,

  15. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Ghinai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes.

  16. The impact of the refugee decision on the trajectory of PTSD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms among asylum seekers: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Steel, Zachary; Susljik, Ina; Frommer, Naomi; Loneragan, Celia; Chey, Tien; Brooks, Robert; le Touze, Dominique; Ceollo, Mariano; Smith, Mitchell; Harris, Elizabeth; Bryant, Richard

    2007-01-01

    To examine prospectively the trajectory of trauma-related psychiatric symptoms and disability amongst asylum seekers over the course of the refugee determination process. To identify the direct impact of the refugee decision on psychiatric symptoms by adjusting for other variables, namely sociodemographic characteristics, past trauma, and ongoing postmigration stresses. A prospective cohort study of asylum seekers recruited from a random sample of immigration agents in Sydney, Australia. Consecutive asylum seekers were referred for interview by immigration agents. Interviews were undertaken after the initial application and on average, 3.8 months after the refugee decision. Measures assessed premigration trauma and postmigration stressors. Mental health status was assessed using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Functional impairment was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form 12. Sixty-two of 73 asylum seekers were retained at follow-up. The accepted (16) and rejected (46) groups did not differ on premigration trauma or baseline psychiatric symptoms. Postdecision, the accepted group showed substantial improvements in posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, and in mental health functioning, whereas the rejected group maintained high levels of symptoms on all psychiatric indices. Establishing secure residency status for asylum seekers may be important to their recovery from trauma-related psychiatric symptoms. The practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  17. Mining of hospital laboratory information systems: a model study defining age- and gender-specific reference intervals and trajectories for plasma creatinine in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søeby, Karen; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Werge, Thomas; Sørensen, Steen

    2015-09-01

    The knowledge of physiological fluctuation and variation of even commonly used biochemical quantities in extreme age groups and during development is sparse. This challenges the clinical interpretation and utility of laboratory tests in these age groups. To explore the utility of hospital laboratory data as a source of information, we analyzed enzymatic plasma creatinine as a model analyte in two large pediatric hospital samples. Plasma creatinine measurements from 9700 children aged 0-18 years were obtained from hospital laboratory databases and partitioned into high-resolution gender- and age-groups. Normal probability plots were used to deduce parameters of the normal distributions from healthy creatinine values in the mixed hospital datasets. Furthermore, temporal trajectories were generated from repeated measurements to examine developmental patterns in periods of changing creatinine levels. Creatinine shows great age dependence from birth throughout childhood. We computed and replicated 95% reference intervals in narrow gender and age bins and showed them to be comparable to those determined in healthy population studies. We identified pronounced transitions in creatinine levels at different time points after birth and around the early teens, which challenges the establishment and usefulness of reference intervals in those age groups. The study documents that hospital laboratory data may inform on the developmental aspects of creatinine, on periods with pronounced heterogeneity and valid reference intervals. Furthermore, part of the heterogeneity in creatinine distribution is likely due to differences in biological and chronological age of children and should be considered when using age-specific reference intervals.

  18. The role of study and work in cannabis use and dependence trajectories among young adult frequent cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke eLiebregts

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Life course theory considers events in study and work as potential turning points in deviance, including illicit drug use. This qualitative study explores the role of occupational life in cannabis use and dependence in young adults. Two and three years after the initial structured interview, 47 at baseline frequent cannabis users were interviewed in-depth about the dynamics underlying changes in their cannabis use and dependence. Overall, cannabis use and dependence declined, including interviewees who quit using cannabis completely, in particular with students, both during their study and after they got employed. Life course theory appeared to be a useful framework to explore how and why occupational life is related to cannabis use and dependence over time. Our study showed that life events in this realm are rather common in young adults and can have a strong impact on cannabis use. While sometimes changes in use are temporary, turning points can evolve from changes in educational and employment situations; an effect that seems to be related to the consequences of these changes in terms of amount of leisure time and agency (i.e. feelings of being in control.

  19. Foreign language learning as a complex dynamic process: A microgenetic case study of a Chinese child's English learning trajectory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, He; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; van der Steen, Steffie; Cox, Ralf; de Bot, Kees

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on one child's (male, 3 years old) learning behaviors in an English as a Foreign Language classroom, and explores the coordination and developmental patterns of his nonverbal (gestures and body language) and verbal (verbal repetition and verbal responses) learning behaviors

  20. Disability Trajectories in Patients With Complaints of Arm, Neck, and Shoulder (CANS) in Primary Care : Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Harald S; Feleus, Anita; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; Hoekstra, T.; Burdorf, Alex; Koes, Bart W

    BACKGROUND: Nontraumatic complaints of arm, neck, and shoulder (CANS) represent an important health issue, with a high prevalence in the general working age population and huge economic impact. Nevertheless, only few prospective cohort studies for the outcome of CANS are available. OBJECTIVES: The

  1. Developmental trajectories and reciprocal associations between career adaptability and vocational identity : A three-wave longitudinal study with adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negru-Subtirica, Oana; Pop, Eleonora Ioana; Crocetti, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was two-fold. First, we investigated patterns of stability and change in career adaptability and vocational identity in adolescents. Second, we examined reciprocal associations between career adaptability and vocational identity. In addressing both research

  2. Romantic attraction and adolescent smoking trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Research on sexual orientation and substance use has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are more likely to smoke than heterosexuals. This analysis furthers the examination of smoking behaviors across sexual orientation groups by describing how same- and opposite-sex romantic attraction, and changes in romantic attraction, are associated with distinct six-year developmental trajectories of smoking. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health dataset is used to test our hypotheses. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting smoking trajectory membership as a function of romantic attraction were separately estimated for men and women. Romantic attraction effects were found only for women. The change from self-reported heterosexual attraction to lesbian or bisexual attraction was more predictive of higher smoking trajectories than was a consistent lesbian or bisexual attraction, with potentially important differences between the smoking patterns of these two groups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantum trajectory phase transitions in the micromaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrahan, Juan P; Armour, Andrew D; Lesanovsky, Igor

    2011-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the single-atom maser, or micromaser, by means of the recently introduced method of thermodynamics of quantum jump trajectories. We find that the dynamics of the micromaser displays multiple space-time phase transitions, i.e., phase transitions in ensembles of quantum jump trajectories. This rich dynamical phase structure becomes apparent when trajectories are classified by dynamical observables that quantify dynamical activity, such as the number of atoms that have changed state while traversing the cavity. The space-time transitions can be either first order or continuous, and are controlled not just by standard parameters of the micromaser but also by nonequilibrium "counting" fields. We discuss how the dynamical phase behavior relates to the better known stationary-state properties of the micromaser.

  4. Evaluating Trajectory Queries over Imprecise Location Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Scott, Xike; Cheng, Reynold; Yiu, Man Lung

    2012-01-01

    Trajectory queries, which retrieve nearby objects for every point of a given route, can be used to identify alerts of potential threats along a vessel route, or monitor the adjacent rescuers to a travel path. However, the locations of these objects (e.g., threats, succours) may not be precisely...... obtained due to hardware limitations of measuring devices, as well as the constantly-changing nature of the external environment. Ignoring data uncertainty can render low query quality, and cause undesirable consequences such as missing alerts of threats and poor response time in rescue operations. Also......, the query is quite time-consuming, since all the points on the trajectory are considered. In this paper, we study how to efficiently evaluate trajectory queries over imprecise location data, by proposing a new concept called the u-bisector. In general, the u-bisector is an extension of bisector to handle...

  5. Trajectories of Depression Symptoms among Older Youths Exiting Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th…

  6. Predictors of Latent Trajectory Classes of Physical Dating Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    This study identified classes of developmental trajectories of physical dating violence victimization from grades 8 to 12 and examined theoretically-based risk factors that distinguished among trajectory classes. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study spanning 8th through 12th grade (n = 2,566; 51.9 % female). Growth mixture models were…

  7. Exploring Categorical Body Mass Index Trajectories in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Boles, Shawn; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Evers, Cody

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of body mass index (BMI) change have focused on understanding growth trajectories from childhood to adolescence and adolescence to adulthood, but few have explored BMI trajectories solely in elementary (grades K-5) school children. This report complements these studies by exploring changes in obesity status using analytic…

  8. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  9. Urban water trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Adriana; Hofmann, Pascale; Teh, Tse-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Water is an essential element in the future of cities. It shapes cities’ locations, form, ecology, prosperity and health. The changing nature of urbanisation, climate change, water scarcity, environmental values, globalisation and social justice mean that the models of provision of water services and infrastructure that have dominated for the past two centuries are increasingly infeasible. Conventional arrangements for understanding and managing water in cities are being subverted by a range of natural, technological, political, economic and social changes. The prognosis for water in cities remains unclear, and multiple visions and discourses are emerging to fill the space left by the certainty of nineteenth century urban water planning and engineering. This book documents a sample of those different trajectories, in terms of water transformations, option, services and politics. Water is a key element shaping urban form, economies and lifestyles, part of the ongoing transformation of cities. Cities are face...

  10. Trajectories of mental health problems in children of parents with mental health problems: results of the BELLA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plass-Christl, Angela; Otto, Christiane; Klasen, Fionna; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Barkmann, Claus; Hölling, Heike; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2017-11-24

    Children of parents with mental health problems (CPM) have an increased risk for behavioral and psychological problems. This study investigated the age- and gender-specific course as well as predictors of mental health problems in CPM using the longitudinal data (baseline 1- and 2-year follow-ups) of a German general population sample from the BELLA study. Children and adolescents aged 11-17 years (at baseline) who had a parent with mental health problems (n = 325) were analyzed. The mental health problems of the children were assessed by the self-reported version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). We used individual growth modeling to investigate the age- and gender-specific course, and the effects of risk as well as personal, familial and social protective factors on self-reported mental health problems in CPM. Additionally, data were examined differentiating internalizing and externalizing mental health problems in CPM. Results indicated that female compared to male CPM showed increasing mental health problems with increasing age. Mental health problems in CPM were associated with lower self-efficacy, worse family climate and less social competence over time. Internalizing problems were associated with lower self-efficacy, less social competence and more severe parental mental health problems. Externalizing problems were associated with lower self-efficacy, worse family climate and lower social competence. The main limitations of the study are the short time period (2 years) covered and the report of mental health problems by only one parent. Our findings should be considered in the development of treatment and prevention programs for mental health problems in CPM.

  11. DESTINY+ Trajectory Design to (3200) Phaethon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Bruno Victorino; Horikawa, Makoto; Yam, Chit Hong; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Takayuki

    2018-03-01

    This work explores the target selection and trajectory design of the mission candidate for ISAS/JAXA's small science satellite series, DESTINY PLUS or DESTINY+. This mission combines unique aspects of the latest satellite technology and exploration of transition bodies to fill a technical and scientific gap in the Japanese space science program. The spacecraft is targeted to study the comet-asteroid transition body (3200) Phaethon through a combination of low-thrust propulsion and Earth Gravity Assist. The trajectory design concept is presented in details together with the launch window and flyby date analysis. Alternative targets for a possible mission extension scenario are also explored.

  12. Application of GPS Trajectory Data for Investigating the Interaction between Human Activity and Landscape Pattern: A Case Study of the Lijiang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between human activity and landscape pattern has been a hot research topic during the last few decades. However, scholars used to measure human activity by social, economic and humanistic indexes. These indexes cannot directly reflect human activity and are not suitable for fine-grained analysis due to the coarse spatial resolution. In view of the above problems, this paper proposes a method that obtains the intensity of human activity from GPS trajectory data, collects landscape information from remote sensing images and further analyzes the interaction between human activity and landscape pattern at a fine-grained scale. The Lijiang River Basin is selected as the study area. Experimental results show that human activity and landscape pattern interact synergistically in this area. Built-up land and water boost human activity, while woodland restrains human activity. The effect of human activity on landscape pattern differs by the land cover category. Overall, human activities make natural land, such as woodland and water, scattered and fragmented, but cause man-built land, such as built-up land and farmland, clustered and regular. Nevertheless, human activities inside and outside urban areas are the opposite. The research findings in this paper are helpful for designing and implementing sustainable management plans.

  13. Trajectory of intimate partner violence and healthcare seeking over the life course: study of Japanese women in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, A; Yoshihama, M; Bybee, D

    2013-10-01

    To describe the trajectory of, and examine factors affecting, intimate partner violence (IPV) and IPV-specific healthcare seeking among Japanese women over the life course. Life course study. One hundred and one women, aged 24-80 years, who had a lifetime history of IPV were interviewed in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan in 2005 and 2006. Life course data were collected according to the life history calendar method. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine IPV-specific healthcare seeking over the life course. Injury, formal or informal help seeking, public assistance, worse self-rated health status and smoking significantly increased the likelihood of IPV-specific healthcare seeking over the life course. There are significant cohort effects on healthcare seeking. The results suggest that women who experience IPV may seek healthcare services not only immediately after the first occurrence of IPV, but also later in life. IPV is not always associated with immediate healthcare seeking. In particular, sexual IPV is not significantly associated with healthcare seeking. Pursuing formal and informal help is associated with healthcare seeking. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Racial disparities in the health benefits of educational attainment: a study of inflammatory trajectories among African American and white adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Curtis, David S; Doan, Stacey N; Coe, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the prospective effects of educational attainment on proinflammatory physiology among African American and white adults. Participants were 1192 African Americans and 1487 whites who participated in Year 5 (mean [standard deviation] age = 30 [3.5] years), and Year 20 (mean [standard deviation] age = 45 [3.5]) of an ongoing longitudinal study. Initial analyses focused on age-related changes in fibrinogen across racial groups, and parallel analyses for C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 assessed at Year 20. Models then estimated the effects of educational attainment on changes in inflammation for African Americans and whites before and after controlling for four blocks of covariates: a) early life adversity, b) health and health behaviors at baseline, c) employment and financial measures at baseline and follow-up, and d) psychosocial stresses in adulthood. African Americans had larger increases in fibrinogen over time than whites (B = 24.93, standard error = 3.24, p educational attainment were weaker for African Americans than for whites (B = 10.11, standard error = 3.29, p = .002), and only 8% of this difference was explained by covariates. Analyses for C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 yielded consistent results. The effects of educational attainment on inflammation levels were stronger for white than for African American participants. Why African Americans do not show the same health benefits with educational attainment is an important question for health disparities research.

  15. Predicting adolescent postpartum caregiving from trajectories of depression and anxiety prior to childbirth: A five year prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L.; Xiong, Shuangyan; Paul, Elena; Merrick, Natalie; McClelland, Samantha; Verble, Danielle; Keenan, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Symptoms of depression and anxiety in pregnancy have been linked to later impaired caregiving. However, mood symptoms are often elevated in pregnancy and may reflect motherhood-specific concerns. In contrast, little is known about the effects of pre-pregnancy depression and anxiety on postpartum caregiving. Understanding these developmental risk factors is especially important when childbearing also occurs during adolescence. Methods The sample comprised 188 adolescent mothers (ages 12–19 years) who had participated in a longitudinal study since childhood. Mothers were observed in face-to-face interaction with the infant at 4 months postpartum, and caregiving behaviors (sensitivity, hostile-intrusive behavior and mental state talk) were coded independently. Data on self-reported depression and anxiety gathered in the five years prior to childbirth were drawn from the large-scale longitudinal study. Results Parallel process latent growth curve models revealed unique effects of distal anxiety and slow decline in anxiety over time on lower levels of maternal mental state talk after accounting for the overlap with depression symptom development. Depressive symptoms showed significant stability from distal measurement to the postpartum period, but only concurrent postpartum mood was associated with poorer quality of maternal speech. Conclusions The results highlight specific targets for well-timed preventive interventions with vulnerable dyads. PMID:26971266

  16. Treatment and Control: A Qualitative Study of Older Mentally Ill Offenders' Perceptions on Their Detention and Care Trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Stefaan; Van Hecke, Nele; Verté, Dominique; Broekaert, Eric; Ryan, Denis; Vandevelde, Stijn

    2015-08-01

    The life of older mentally ill offenders (OMIOs) is often characterized by successive periods of detention in correctional facilities, admissions to psychiatric services, and unsuccessful attempts to live independently. Through in-depth interviews, eight personal stories from OMIOs under supervision of the commission of social defence in Ghent (Belgium) were analyzed in the phenomenological research tradition. The results of the study reveal that OMIOs had more positive and less negative experiences in prison settings when compared with other institutional care settings. Independent living, unsurprisingly, is favored the most. This may be due to the fact that the latter option fosters personal competence, feelings of being useful, personal choices, and contact with the "outside" world. Even in later lifetime, a combined approach of risk assessment with improvement of well-being remains valuable to stimulate offender rehabilitation. Therefore, more research into concepts that could be used to support OMIOs needs further consideration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Geometric Algorithms for Trajectory Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staals, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Technology such as the Global Positing System (GPS) has made tracking moving entities easy and cheap. As a result there is a large amount of trajectory data available, and an increasing demand on tools and techniques to analyze such data. We consider several analysis tasks for trajectory data,

  18. Cognitive function trajectories and their determinants in older people: 8 years of follow-up in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninotto, Paola; Batty, G David; Allerhand, Michael; Deary, Ian J

    2018-04-24

    Maintaining cognitive function is an important aspect of healthy ageing. In this study, we examined age trajectories of cognitive decline in a large nationally representative sample of older people in England. We explored the factors that influence such decline and whether these differed by gender. Latent growth curve modelling was used to explore age-specific changes, and influences on them, in an 8-year period in memory, executive function, processing speed and global cognitive function among 10 626 participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We run gender-specific models with the following exposures: age, education, wealth, childhood socioeconomic status, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, physical function, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol, smoking, depression and dementia. After adjustment, women had significantly less decline than men in memory (0.011, SE 0.006), executive function (0.012, SE 0.006) and global cognitive function (0.016, SE 0.004). Increasing age and dementia predicted faster rates of decline in all cognitive function domains. Depression and alcohol consumption predicted decline in some cognitive function domains in men only. Poor physical function, physical inactivity and smoking were associated with faster rates of decline in specific cognitive domains in both men and women. For example, relative to study members who were physically active, the sedentary experienced greater declines in memory (women -0.018, SE 0.009) and global cognitive function (men -0.015, SE 0.007 and women -0.016, SE 0.007). The potential determinants of cognitive decline identified in this study, in particular modifiable risk factors, should be tested in the context of randomised controlled trials. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Saura Pedro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC. Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination, 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction, and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052.

  20. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anasagasti-Angulo, Lorenzo; Garcia-Vega, Yanelda; Barcelona-Perez, Silvia; Lopez-Saura, Pedro; Bello-Rivero, Iraldo

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions) are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN) may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC) or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC). Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old) patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination), 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction), and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052

  1. Development of a Web Application: Recording Learners' Mouse Trajectories and Retrieving their Study Logs to Identify the Occurrence of Hesitation in Solving Word-Reordering Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsumasa Zushi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most computer marking systems evaluate the results of the answers reached by learners without looking into the process by which the answers are produced, which will be insufficient to ascertain learners' understanding level because correct answers may well include lucky hunches, namely accidentally correct but not confident answers. In order to differentiate these lucky answers from confident correct ones, we have developed a Web application that can record mouse trajectories during the performance of tasks. Mathematical analyses of these trajectories have revealed that some parameters for mouse movements can be useful indicators to identify the occurrence of hesitation resulting from lack of knowledge or confidence in solving problems.

  2. OPTIMAL AIRCRAFT TRAJECTORIES FOR SPECIFIED RANGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.

    1994-01-01

    For an aircraft operating over a fixed range, the operating costs are basically a sum of fuel cost and time cost. While minimum fuel and minimum time trajectories are relatively easy to calculate, the determination of a minimum cost trajectory can be a complex undertaking. This computer program was developed to optimize trajectories with respect to a cost function based on a weighted sum of fuel cost and time cost. As a research tool, the program could be used to study various characteristics of optimum trajectories and their comparison to standard trajectories. It might also be used to generate a model for the development of an airborne trajectory optimization system. The program could be incorporated into an airline flight planning system, with optimum flight plans determined at takeoff time for the prevailing flight conditions. The use of trajectory optimization could significantly reduce the cost for a given aircraft mission. The algorithm incorporated in the program assumes that a trajectory consists of climb, cruise, and descent segments. The optimization of each segment is not done independently, as in classical procedures, but is performed in a manner which accounts for interaction between the segments. This is accomplished by the application of optimal control theory. The climb and descent profiles are generated by integrating a set of kinematic and dynamic equations, where the total energy of the aircraft is the independent variable. At each energy level of the climb and descent profiles, the air speed and power setting necessary for an optimal trajectory are determined. The variational Hamiltonian of the problem consists of the rate of change of cost with respect to total energy and a term dependent on the adjoint variable, which is identical to the optimum cruise cost at a specified altitude. This variable uniquely specifies the optimal cruise energy, cruise altitude, cruise Mach number, and, indirectly, the climb and descent profiles. If the optimum

  3. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  4. Developmental Trajectories of Early Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatta, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study focused on developmental trajectories of prelinguistic communication skills and their connections to later parent-reported language difficulties. Method: The participants represent a subset of a community-based sample of 508 children. Data include parent reports of prelinguistic communication skills at 12, 15, 18, and 21 months…

  5. Landscape and Heritage: trajectories and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, David

    2015-01-01

    supporting and often parallel endeavour of academic, policy and popular inquiry that explores the significance of landscape and heritage as meaningful categories of an emergent and processual nature. Despite such a parallel trajectory, however, the actual practices of landscape and heritage studies still...

  6. Type 2 diabetes, depressive symptoms and trajectories of cognitive decline in a national sample of community-dwellers: A prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotes Demakakos

    Full Text Available We examined the individual and synergistic effects of type 2 diabetes and elevated depressive symptoms on memory and executive function trajectories over 10 and eight years of follow-up, respectively. Our sample comprised 10,524 community-dwellers aged ≥50 years in 2002-03 from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. With respect to memory (word recall, participants with either diabetes or elevated depressive symptoms recalled significantly fewer words compared with those free of these conditions (reference category, but more words compared with those with both conditions. There was a significant acceleration in the rate of memory decline in participants aged 50-64 years with both conditions (-0.27, 95% CI, -0.45 to -0.08, per study wave, which was not observed in those with either condition or aged ≥65 years. With respect to executive function (animal naming, participants aged ≥65 years with diabetes or those with elevated depressive symptoms named significantly fewer animals compared with the reference category, while those with both conditions named fewer animals compared with any other category. The rate of executive function decline was significantly greater in participants with both conditions (-0.54, 95% CI, -0.99 to -0.10; and -0.71, 95% CI, -1.16 to -0.27, per study wave, for those aged 50-64 and ≥65 years, respectively, but not in participants with either condition. Diabetes and elevated depressive symptoms are inversely associated with memory and executive function, but, individually, do not accelerate cognitive decline. The co-occurrence of diabetes and elevated depressive symptoms significantly accelerates cognitive decline over time, especially among those aged 50-64 years.

  7. Computational Method for Ice Crystal Trajectories in a Turbofan Compressor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, E.J.; Norde, Ellen; van der Weide, Edwin Theodorus Antonius; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    2015-01-01

    In this study the characteristics of ice crystals on their trajectory in a single stage of a turbofan engine compressor are determined. The particle trajectories are calculated with a Lagrangian method employing a classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta time integration scheme. The air flow field is

  8. Teacher Performance Trajectories in High- and Lower-Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zeyu; Özek, Umut; Hansen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study explores whether teacher performance trajectory over time differs by school-poverty settings. Focusing on elementary school mathematics teachers in North Carolina and Florida, we find no systematic relationship between school student poverty rates and teacher performance trajectories. In both high- (=60% free/reduced-price lunch [FRPL])…

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Girls' and Boys' Delinquency and Associated Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepler, Debra J.; Jiang, Depeng; Craig, Wendy M.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Developmental trajectories in delinquency through adolescence were studied along with family and peer relationship problems. Drawing from eight waves of data over seven years, we conducted trajectory analyses with a sample of 746 students (402 girls; 344 boys). Analyzing girls and boys together, a five-class model emerged: 60% of the adolescents…

  10. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  11. Implementation of an electronic medical record system in previously computer-naïve primary care centres: a pilot study from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoutis, George; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Kounalakis, Dimitris K; Zachariadou, Theodora; Philalithis, Anastasios; Lionis, Christos

    2007-01-01

    The computer-based electronic medical record (EMR) is an essential new technology in health care, contributing to high-quality patient care and efficient patient management. The majority of southern European countries, however, have not yet implemented universal EMR systems and many efforts are still ongoing. We describe the development of an EMR system and its pilot implementation and evaluation in two previously computer-naïve public primary care centres in Cyprus. One urban and one rural primary care centre along with their personnel (physicians and nurses) were selected to participate. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation tools were used during the implementation phase. Qualitative data analysis was based on the framework approach, whereas quantitative assessment was based on a nine-item questionnaire and EMR usage parameters. Two public primary care centres participated, and a total often health professionals served as EMR system evaluators. Physicians and nurses rated EMR relatively highly, while patients were the most enthusiastic supporters for the new information system. Major implementation impediments were the physicians' perceptions that EMR usage negatively affected their workflow, physicians' legal concerns, lack of incentives, system breakdowns, software design problems, transition difficulties and lack of familiarity with electronic equipment. The importance of combining qualitative and quantitative evaluation tools is highlighted. More efforts are needed for the universal adoption and routine use of EMR in the primary care system of Cyprus as several barriers to adoption exist; however, none is insurmountable. Computerised systems could improve efficiency and quality of care in Cyprus, benefiting the entire population.

  12. Trajectories of metabolic risk factors and biochemical markers prior to the onset of type 2 diabetes : the population-based longitudinal Doetinchem study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G; Spijkerman, A M W; van der Schouw, Y T; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gansevoort, R T; Smit, H A; Verschuren, W M M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk factors often develop at young age and are maintained over time, but it is not fully understood how risk factors develop over time preceding type 2 diabetes. We examined how levels and trajectories of metabolic risk factors and biochemical markers prior to diagnosis differ between

  13. Making Gender Matter: Knowledge Ecologies, Contested Research Objects, and the Trajectory of Women's and Gender Studies in American Universities, 1970-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christine Virginia

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the trajectory of research programs on women and gender in American universities between 1970 and 2010. The dissertation melds perspectives in the sociology of science with organizational analyses of the development of academic disciplines. The analysis forwards a new understanding of how local conditions in research…

  14. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrícia A; Dias, João M D; Silva, Silvia L A; Dias, Rosângela C

    2015-01-01

    The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa = 0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa = 0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35 ± 1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning.

  15. The importance of continued exercise participation in quality of life and psychological well-being in previously inactive postmenopausal women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbury, Elizabeth A; Chandrruangphen, Pornpat; Collins, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity provide a wide range of health benefits for postmenopausal women, although the impact of maintained exercise participation on psychological well-being is unclear. An exploration of continued exercise participation in psychological well-being after a moderate-intensity exercise program in previously inactive postmenopausal women was therefore undertaken. : Twenty-three healthy sedentary postmenopausal women (age 56 +/- 4 years) were randomly assigned to two groups. All participants completed the Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Health Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ) and then began a 6-week walking program at 50% heart rate reserve defined by (.-)V(O(2)) treadmill testing. Post-intervention, all participants underwent (.-)V(O(2)) treadmill testing and questionnaires. Group 1 was then instructed to continue exercising, whereas group 2 was instructed to desist for an additional 6-week period. On completion of the 6-week follow-up, participants completed a final set of questionnaires. Participants performed 97% of the prescribed 15-hour (900 minute) exercise program (875.1 +/- 177.4 minutes) in an average of 26 +/- 5 sessions. Total HAQ (P = 0.001), health worry (P = 0.001), fear of illness (P = 0.037), reassurance seeking behavior (P = 0.037), SF-36 well-being (P = 0.037), total HADS (P = 0.019), and HADS depression (P = 0.015) improved significantly following the exercise program. At follow-up, group 1 had lower HADS anxiety (P = 0.013), total HADS (P = 0.02), total HAQ (P = 0.03), and HAQ interference with life (P = 0.03) and significantly higher SF-36 energy (P = 0.01) than group 2. Healthy postmenopausal women gain significant psychological benefit from moderate-intensity exercise. However, exercise participation must continue to maintain improvements in psychological well-being and quality of life.

  16. Solar sail time-optimal interplanetary transfer trajectory design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Shengpin; Gao Yunfeng; Li Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    The fuel consumption associated with some interplanetary transfer trajectories using chemical propulsion is not affordable. A solar sail is a method of propulsion that does not consume fuel. Transfer time is one of the most pressing problems of solar sail transfer trajectory design. This paper investigates the time-optimal interplanetary transfer trajectories to a circular orbit of given inclination and radius. The optimal control law is derived from the principle of maximization. An indirect method is used to solve the optimal control problem by selecting values for the initial adjoint variables, which are normalized within a unit sphere. The conditions for the existence of the time-optimal transfer are dependent on the lightness number of the sail and the inclination and radius of the target orbit. A numerical method is used to obtain the boundary values for the time-optimal transfer trajectories. For the cases where no time-optimal transfer trajectories exist, first-order necessary conditions of the optimal control are proposed to obtain feasible solutions. The results show that the transfer time decreases as the minimum distance from the Sun decreases during the transfer duration. For a solar sail with a small lightness number, the transfer time may be evaluated analytically for a three-phase transfer trajectory. The analytical results are compared with previous results and the associated numerical results. The transfer time of the numerical result here is smaller than the transfer time from previous results and is larger than the analytical result.

  17. Indexing the Trajectories of Moving Objects in Symbolic Indoor Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lu, Hua; Yang, Bin

    2009-01-01

    . This scenario calls for the indexing of indoor trajectories. Based on an appropriate notion of indoor trajectory and definitions of pertinent types of queries, the paper proposes two R-tree based structures for indexing object trajectories in symbolic indoor space. The RTR-tree represents a trajectory as a set......Indoor spaces accommodate large populations of individuals. With appropriate indoor positioning, e.g., Bluetooth and RFID, in place, large amounts of trajectory data result that may serve as a foundation for a wide variety of applications, e.g., space planning, way finding, and security...... for each index. An empirical performance study suggests that the two indexes are effective, efficient, and robust. The study also elicits the circumstances under which our proposals perform the best....

  18. Friendship networks and trajectories of adolescent tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2010-07-01

    This article examines how friendship networks in adolescence are linked to tobacco use trajectories through a combination of analytic techniques that traditionally are located in separate literatures: social network analysis and developmental trajectory analysis. Using six years of longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we identify a set of six unique developmental trajectories of smoking (never smokers, steady lows, delayed increasers, early increasers, decreasers, and steady highs). Individuals' locations in their friendship networks were then linked to their trajectory group membership. Adolescents with a greater number of smoking friends were more likely to belong to the higher use trajectories. Beyond this exposure to smoking peers, individuals who at baseline were either members of a smoking group or liaisons to a smoking group were more likely than members of a nonsmoking group to belong to the higher use trajectories. Liaisons to a smoking group were particularly likely to belong to the delayed increaser trajectory group. Trajectory group membership for adolescents who belonged to a nonsmoking group did not significantly differ from those who were isolates or liaisons to a nonsmoking group. The study suggests features of an individual's social network have long-lasting associations with smoking behaviors. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre-event trajectories of mental health and health-related disabilities, and post-event traumatic stress symptoms and health: A 7-wave population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; van der Meulen, Erik; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2016-12-30

    It is unknown to what extent classes of trajectories of pre-event mental health problems (MHP) and health-related disabilities (HRD), predict post-event traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), MHP and HRD. Aim of the present 7-wave study was to assess the predictive values using a representative sample of adult Dutch (N=4052) participating in three health-surveys in November-December 2009 (T1), 2010 (T2), 2011 (T3). In total, 2988 out of 4052 also participated in trauma-surveys in April(T4), August(T5) and December(T6) 2012 and a fourth health-survey in November-December 2012 (T7). About 10% (N=314) was confronted with potentially traumatic events (PTE) in the 4 months before T4 or T5. Latent class analyses among 4052 respondents identified four classes of pre-event MHP and HRD. Series of multivariate logistic regression analyses with class membership, peri-traumatic stress, type of event, gender, age and education as predictors, showed that classes with high levels of MHP or HRD, were more at risk for high levels of PTSS at baseline and follow-ups at 4 and 8 months, than classes with low levels of MHP or HRD. These classes were very strong predictors for high levels of post-event MHP and HRD: no differences were found between non-affected and affected respondents with different levels of peri-traumatic stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fetal growth trajectories in pregnancies of European and South Asian mothers with and without gestational diabetes, a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletner, Line; Jenum, Anne Karen; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Nakstad, Britt; Rognerud-Jensen, Odd Harald; Birkeland, Kåre I; Vangen, Siri

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the impact of gestational diabetes (GDM), from before the GDM-diagnosis is made, on fetal growth trajectories, and to compare it in Europeans and South Asians; two ethnic groups with dissimilar fetal growth patterns. We studied European (n = 349) and South Asian (n = 184) pregnant women, from the population-based STORK-Groruddalen cohort in Oslo, Norway. Mothers were enrolled in early pregnancy, screened for GDM in gestational week 28 ±2, and classified as "non-GDM", "mild GDM" or "moderate/severe GDM". We measured fetal head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length by ultrasound, and estimated fetal weight in gestational week 24, 32 and 37, and performed corresponding measurements at birth. In non-GDM pregnancies, South Asian fetuses (n = 156) had a slower growth from gestational week 24, compared with Europeans (n = 310). More than two thirds of the European mothers later diagnosed with GDM were overweight or obese in early pregnancy, while this was not observed in South Asians. Fetuses of GDM mothers tended to be smaller than fetuses of non-GDM mothers in week 24, but thereafter grew faster until birth. This pattern was especially pronounced in fetuses of South Asian mothers with moderate/severe GDM. In week 24 these fetuses had a -0.95 SD (95% CI: -1.53, -0.36) lower estimated fetal weight than their non-GDM counterparts. In contrast, at birth they were 0.45 SD (0.09, 0.81) larger. Offspring of GDM mothers were smaller in mid pregnancy, but subsequently grew faster until birth, compared with offspring of non-GDM mothers. This pattern was most prominent in South Asian mothers with moderate to severe GDM. However, the most remarkable characteristic of these fetuses was not a large size at birth, but the small size in mid pregnancy, before the GDM diagnosis was set.

  1. Long-term River Trajectories to Enhance Restoration Efficiency and Sustainability on the Upper Rhine: an Interdisciplinary Study (Rohrschollen Island, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbach, D.; Laurent, S.; May, J. H.; Imfeld, G.; Payraudeau, S.; Preusser, F.

    2017-12-01

    While the history of a fluvial hydrosystem can provide essential knowledge on present functioning, historical context remains rarely considered in river restoration. Here we show the relevance of an interdisciplinary historical study for improving restoration within the framework of a European LIFE+ project on the French side of the Upper-Rhine (Rohrschollen Island). Planimetric evolution combined with historical high flow data enabled to reconstruct pre-disturbance hydromorphological functioning and major changes that occurred on the reach. A deposition frequency assessment combining vertical evolution of the Rhine thalweg, chronology of deposits in the floodplain and a hydrological model revealed that the period of vertical incision in the main channel corresponded to high rates of narrowing and lateral channel filling. The analysis of filling processes by Passega diagram and IRLS dating highlight that periods of engineering works were closely related to fine sediment deposition, which present also concomitant heavy metal accumulation. In fact, current fluvial forms, processes and sediment chemistry around the Rohrschollen Island directly reflect the disturbances that occurred during past correction works, and up to today. Our results underscore the advantage of combining functional restoration with detailed knowledge of past-trajectory to: (i) understand the functioning of the hydrosystem prior anthropogenic disturbances, (ii) characterize the human-driven morphodynamic adjustments during the two last centuries, (iii) characterize physio-chemical sediment properties to trace anthropogenic activities and evaluate the potential impact of the restoration on pollutant remobilization, (iv) deduce post-restoration evolution and (v) evaluate efficiency and sustainability of the restoration effects. We anticipate our approach to expand the toolbox of decision-makers and help orientating functional restoration actions in the future.

  2. Prenatal cerebellar growth trajectories and the impact of periconceptional maternal and fetal factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, I V; Dudink, J; Groenenberg, I A L; Willemsen, S P; Reiss, I K M; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: CAN WE assess human prenatal cerebellar growth from the first until the third trimester of pregnancy and create growth trajectories to investigate associations with periconceptional maternal and fetal characteristics? SUMMARY ANSWER: Prenatal growth trajectories of the human

  3. Capturing transitions and trajectories: the role of socioeconomic status in later life disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Miles G

    2010-11-01

    Disability is conceptualized as a life course process and measured using either transitions or trajectories. Previous research does not simultaneously explore both aspects of disablement, accounting for timing and trajectory. The role of education is noted in disability research, but its independent effects over time have not been fully examined. I investigate the effects of education and income on disability onset and progression over a decade. I use a latent curve modeling approach with four waves of the Duke Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly data to independently test the preventive and mediating effects education and income provide for disability. Education has a preventive effect for disability onset but no significant effect on progression once income is held constant. Income has both a preventive and mediating effect on disability, although preventive effects are stronger for education. Later life disability is measured here using both onset and trajectory. Findings are consistent with health research suggesting that education and income work through shared and independent mechanisms to affect disability over time. These findings also highlight the importance of modeling timing when studying health trajectories.

  4. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cholesterol from Midlife through Late Life according to Apolipoprotein E Allele Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Downer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research indicates that total cholesterol levels increase with age during young adulthood and middle age and decline with age later in life. This is attributed to changes in diet, body composition, medication use, physical activity, and hormone levels. In the current study we utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Original Cohort to determine if variations in apolipoprotein E (APOE, a gene involved in regulating cholesterol homeostasis, influence trajectories of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and total: HDL cholesterol ratio from midlife through late life. Methods: Cholesterol trajectories from midlife through late life were modeled using generalized additive mixed models and mixed-effects regression models. Results: APOE e2+ subjects had lower total cholesterol levels, higher HDL cholesterol levels, and lower total: HDL cholesterol ratios from midlife to late life compared to APOE e3 and APOE e4+ subjects. Statistically significant differences in life span cholesterol trajectories according to gender and use of cholesterol-lowering medications were also detected. Conclusion: The findings from this research provide evidence that variations in APOE modify trajectories of serum cholesterol from midlife to late life. In order to efficiently modify cholesterol through the life span, it is important to take into account APOE allele status.

  5. Drug trajectories among youth undergoing treatment: the influence of psychological problems and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Natacha; Bertrand, Karine; Beaudoin, Isabelle; Ledoux, Cinthia; Gendron, Annie; Arseneault, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has documented associations of addiction with delinquency and psychological problems. However, few studies have evaluated their influence on adolescent's drug use trajectories. The current study aims to examine the influence of these factors on the recovery trajectories of 199 youths aged 15.6 years on average admitted to inpatient and outpatient addiction treatment centers, followed up three and six months later. Results indicate that youth who show higher severity of drug abuse exhibit greater improvement than youth with a lower severity of drug abuse at the onset of treatment. Although psychological problems were associated with baseline drug use, they did not influence drug use trajectory over time. Only delinquency influenced the recovery trajectories of these youth. Results suggest that a high level of delinquency can have a significant effect on the drug recovery process of adolescents and that interventions should attempt to reduce both drug use and delinquency. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Developmental Links between Trajectories of Physical Violence, Vandalism, Theft, and Alcohol-Drug Use from Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, Pol A. C.; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Koot, Hans M.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in developmental trajectories of physical violence, vandalism, theft, and alcohol-drug use from ages 10 to 15 were studied. For females and for males, three trajectories of theft and of alcohol-drug use increased from 10 years to 15 years, while only the high trajectory of vandalism increased from ten to 14. All trajectories of…

  7. Generic trajectory representation and trajectory following for wheeled robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2014-01-01

    will drive. Safe: Avoid fatal collisions. Based on a survey of existing methods and algorithms the article presents a generic way to represent constraints for different types of robots, a generic way to represent trajectories using Bëzier curves, a method to convert the trajectory so it can be driven...... in a smooth motion, a method to create a safe velocity profile for the robot, and a path following controller....

  8. Clinical and cognitive trajectories in cognitively healthy elderly individuals with suspected non-Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology (SNAP) or Alzheimer's disease pathology: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Samantha C; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Doré, Vincent; Savage, Greg; Brown, Belinda; Laws, Simon; Maruff, Paul; Salvado, Olivier; Ames, David; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Villemagne, Victor L

    2016-09-01

    Brain amyloid β (Aβ) deposition and neurodegeneration have been documented in about 50-60% of cognitively healthy elderly individuals (aged 60 years or older). The long-term cognitive consequences of the presence of Alzheimer's disease pathology and neurodegeneration, and whether they have an independent or synergistic effect on cognition, are unclear. We aimed to characterise the long-term clinical and cognitive trajectories of healthy elderly individuals using a two-marker (Alzheimer's disease pathology and neurodegeneration) imaging construct. Between Nov 3, 2006, and Nov 25, 2014, 573 cognitively healthy individuals in Melbourne and Perth, Australia, (mean age 73·1 years [SD 6·2]; 58% women) were enrolled in the Australian Imaging, Biomarker and Lifestyle (AIBL) study. Alzheimer's disease pathology (A) was determined by measuring Aβ deposition by PET, and neurodegeneration (N) was established by measuring hippocampal volume using MRI. Individuals were categorised as A(-)N(-), A(+)N(-), A(+)N(+), or suspected non-Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology (A(-)N(+), SNAP). Clinical progression, hippocampal volume, standard neuropsychological tests, and domain-specific and global cognitive composite scores were assessed over 6 years of follow-up. Linear mixed effect models and a Cox proportional hazards model of survival were used to evaluate, compare, and contrast the clinical, cognitive, and volumetric trajectories of patients in the four AN categories. 50 (9%) healthy individuals were classified as A(+)N(+), 87 (15%) as A(+)N(-), 310 (54%) as A(-)N(-), and 126 (22%) as SNAP. APOE ε4 was more frequent in participants in the A(+)N(+) (27; 54%) and A(+)N(-) (42; 48%) groups than in the A(-)N(-) (66; 21%) and SNAP groups (23; 18%). The A(+)N(-) and A(+)N(+) groups had significantly faster cognitive decline than the A(-)N(-) group (0·08 SD per year for AIBL-Preclinical AD Cognitive Composite [PACC]; p<0·0001; and 0·25; p<0·0001; respectively). The A (+)N

  9. Low Thrust Trajectory Design for GSFC Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) is a global trajectory optimization tool. EMTG is intended for use in designing interplanetary missions which...

  10. Control system design for UAV trajectory tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Gao, Jinyuan

    2006-11-01

    In recent years, because of the emerging requirements for increasing autonomy, the controller of uninhabited air vehicles must be augmented with a very sophisticated autopilot design which is capable of tracking complex and agile maneuvering trajectory. This paper provides a simplified control system framework to solve UAV maneuvering trajectory tracking problem. The flight control system is divided into three subsystems including command generation, transformation and allocation. According to the kinematics equations of the aircraft, flight path angle commands can be generated by desired 3D position from path planning. These commands are transformed to body angular rates through direct nonlinear mapping, which is simpler than common multi-loop method based on time scale separation assumption. Then, by using weighted pseudo-inverse method, the control surface deflections are allocated to follow body angular rates from the previous step. In order to improve the robustness, a nonlinear disturbance observer-based approach is used to compensate the uncertainty of system. A 6DOF nonlinear UAV model is controlled to demonstrate the performance of the trajectory tracking control system. Simulation results show that the control strategy is easy to be realized and the precision of tracking is satisfying.

  11. The possibility of previous epidemiological data to serve as baseline for future national oral health surveys--a study in Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Truin, G.J.; Can, N.; Khanh, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent epidemiological data (1985-2000) on dental caries and periodontal diseases in Vietnam in an attempt to obtain a 'baseline' for future national oral health surveys. METHODS: Studies on periodontal diseases and caries were included when CPITN

  12. Logarithmic spiral trajectories generated by Solar sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetto, Marco; Niccolai, Lorenzo; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Mengali, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    Analytic solutions to continuous thrust-propelled trajectories are available in a few cases only. An interesting case is offered by the logarithmic spiral, that is, a trajectory characterized by a constant flight path angle and a fixed thrust vector direction in an orbital reference frame. The logarithmic spiral is important from a practical point of view, because it may be passively maintained by a Solar sail-based spacecraft. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic study concerning the possibility of inserting a Solar sail-based spacecraft into a heliocentric logarithmic spiral trajectory without using any impulsive maneuver. The required conditions to be met by the sail in terms of attitude angle, propulsive performance, parking orbit characteristics, and initial position are thoroughly investigated. The closed-form variations of the osculating orbital parameters are analyzed, and the obtained analytical results are used for investigating the phasing maneuver of a Solar sail along an elliptic heliocentric orbit. In this mission scenario, the phasing orbit is composed of two symmetric logarithmic spiral trajectories connected with a coasting arc.

  13. Potential Cislunar and Interplanetary Proving Ground Excursion Trajectory Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Strange, Nathan J.; Burke, Laura M.; MacDonald, Mark A.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Landau, Damon F.; Lantoine, Gregory; Hack, Kurt J.; Lopez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    NASA has been investigating potential translunar excursion concepts to take place in the 2020s that would be used to test and demonstrate long duration life support and other systems needed for eventual Mars missions in the 2030s. These potential trajectory concepts could be conducted in the proving ground, a region of cislunar and near-Earth interplanetary space where international space agencies could cooperate to develop the technologies needed for interplanetary spaceflight. Enabled by high power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technologies, the excursion trajectory concepts studied are grouped into three classes of increasing distance from the Earth and increasing technical difficulty: the first class of excursion trajectory concepts would represent a 90-120 day round trip trajectory with abort to Earth options throughout the entire length, the second class would be a 180-210 day round trip trajectory with periods in which aborts would not be available, and the third would be a 300-400 day round trip trajectory without aborts for most of the length of the trip. This paper provides a top-level summary of the trajectory and mission design of representative example missions of these three classes of excursion trajectory concepts.

  14. Clustering Trajectories by Relevant Parts for Air Traffic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrienko, Gennady; Andrienko, Natalia; Fuchs, Georg; Garcia, Jose Manuel Cordero

    2018-01-01

    Clustering of trajectories of moving objects by similarity is an important technique in movement analysis. Existing distance functions assess the similarity between trajectories based on properties of the trajectory points or segments. The properties may include the spatial positions, times, and thematic attributes. There may be a need to focus the analysis on certain parts of trajectories, i.e., points and segments that have particular properties. According to the analysis focus, the analyst may need to cluster trajectories by similarity of their relevant parts only. Throughout the analysis process, the focus may change, and different parts of trajectories may become relevant. We propose an analytical workflow in which interactive filtering tools are used to attach relevance flags to elements of trajectories, clustering is done using a distance function that ignores irrelevant elements, and the resulting clusters are summarized for further analysis. We demonstrate how this workflow can be useful for different analysis tasks in three case studies with real data from the domain of air traffic. We propose a suite of generic techniques and visualization guidelines to support movement data analysis by means of relevance-aware trajectory clustering.

  15. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  16. Attitude and Trajectory Estimation Using Earth Magnetic Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1996-01-01

    The magnetometer has long been a reliable, inexpensive sensor used in spacecraft momentum management and attitude estimation. Recent studies show an increased accuracy potential for magnetometer-only attitude estimation systems. Since the Earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computer and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of both the spacecraft trajectory and attitude errors. Therefore, these errors can be used to estimate both trajectory and attitude. Traditionally, satellite attitude and trajectory have been estimated with completely separate system, using different measurement data. Recently, trajectory estimation for low earth orbit satellites was successfully demonstrated in ground software using only magnetometer data. This work proposes a single augmented extended Kalman Filter to simultaneously and autonomously estimate both spacecraft trajectory and attitude with data from a magnetometer and either dynamically determined rates or gyro-measured body rates.

  17. Effect of benzalkonium chloride?free travoprost on intraocular pressure and ocular surface symptoms in patients with glaucoma previously on latanoprost: an open-label study

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Joao F.; Hubatsch, Douglas A.; Amaris, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005?% were transitioned to recei...

  18. Longitudinal impact of interprofessional education on attitudes, skills and career trajectories: a protocol for a quasi-experimental study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Ben; Brown, Melanie; Gallagher, Peter; Gray, Lesley; McKinlay, Eileen; Purdie, Gordon; Wilson, Christine; Pullon, Sue

    2018-01-21

    Interprofessional practice is recognised as an important element of safe and effective healthcare. However, few studies exist that evaluate how preregistration education contributes to interprofessional competencies, and how these competencies develop throughout the early years of a health professional's career. This quasiexperimental study will gather longitudinal data during students' last year of preregistration training and their first 3 years of professional practice to evaluate the ongoing development of interprofessional competencies and the influence that preregistration education including an explicit interprofessional education (IPE) programme may have on these. Participants are students and graduates from the disciplines of dentistry, dietetics, medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, oral health, pharmacy and physiotherapy recruited before their final year of study. A subset of these students attended a 5-week IPE immersion programme during their final year of training. All data will be collected via five written or electronic surveys completed at 12-month intervals. Each survey will contain the Attitudes Towards Health Care Teams Scale and the Team Skills Scale, as well as quantitative and free-text items to explore vocational satisfaction, career trajectories and influences on these. Students who attend the IPE programme will complete additional free-text items to explore the effects of this programme on their careers. Quantitative analysis will compare scores at each time point, adjusted for baseline scores, for graduates who did and did not participate in the IPE programme. Associations between satisfaction data and discipline, professional setting, location and IPE participation will also be examined. Template analysis will explore free-text themes related to influences on career choices including participation in preregistration IPE. This study has received approval from the University of Otago Ethics Committee (D13/019). Results will be

  19. Flight test trajectory control analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Gupta, N.

    1983-01-01

    Recent extensions to optimal control theory applied to meaningful linear models with sufficiently flexible software tools provide powerful techniques for designing flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs). This report describes the principal steps for systematic development of flight trajectory controllers, which can be summarized as planning, modeling, designing, and validating a trajectory controller. The techniques have been kept as general as possible and should apply to a wide range of problems where quantities must be computed and displayed to a pilot to improve pilot effectiveness and to reduce workload and fatigue. To illustrate the approach, a detailed trajectory guidance law is developed and demonstrated for the F-15 aircraft flying the zoom-and-pushover maneuver.

  20. Effect of benzalkonium chloride-free travoprost on intraocular pressure and ocular surface symptoms in patients with glaucoma previously on latanoprost: an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Joao F; Hubatsch, Douglas A; Amaris, Patricia

    2015-11-12

    Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005 % were transitioned to receive once-daily BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % containing polyquaternium-1 (Travatan® preserved with POLYQUAD® [PQ], Alcon Laboratories, Inc; Fort Worth, TX) for 12 weeks. Mean change in IOP from baseline (primary efficacy endpoint) and the percentage of patients who achieved a target IOP of ≤18 mmHg were evaluated at all on-therapy visits. Ocular hyperemia, patient preference, and self-projected adherence were assessed at week 12. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study. All enrolled patients were included in the analysis (n = 191); the majority of patients (90.6 %, n = 173/191) completed the study. Mean (SD) patient age was 67.5 (11.3) years, and mean baseline IOP was 14.8 mmHg. Mean IOP was reduced by 0.94 mmHg at week 6 and by 1.09 mmHg at week 12 (P glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost. BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % is a viable alternative for patients who require switching their IOP-lowering medications because of tolerability issues. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01510145.

  1. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Hansen, Ole Hyldegaard; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack

    2011-01-01

    in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Eighty patients eligible for HBO treatment on the indication of prevention/treatment of osteoradionecrosis or soft tissue radiation injury were consecutively sampled, of whom 45 had hyposalivation (i.e. unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) flow rate......Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO...

  2. Previous study for the setting up and optimization of detection of ZnS(Ag) scintillation applied to the measure of alpha radioactivity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Montero, M.

    1998-01-01

    The determination of radiological water quality is useful for a wide range of environmental studies. In these cases, the gross alpha activity is one of the parameters to determine. This parameter permits to decide if further radiological analyses are necessary in order to identify and quantify the presence of alpha emitters in water. The usual method for monitoring the gross alpha activity includes sample evaporation to dryness on a disk and counting using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. Detector electronics is provided with two components which are adjustable by the user the high-voltage applied to the photomultiplier tubes and the low level discriminator that is used to eliminate the electronic noise. The high-voltage and low level discriminator optimization are convenient in order to reach the best counting conditions. This paper is a preliminary study of the procedure followed for the setting up and optimization of the detector electronics in the laboratories of CEDEX for the measurement of gross alpha activity. (Author)

  3. [Mutations of resistance of HIV-1 in previously untreated patients at penitentiary centers of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain. REPRICOVA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, Julio; Herrero, Agustín; Vera, Enrique; Almenara, José M; Araújo, Rosa; Saurí, Vicente V; Castellano, Juan C; Fernández-Clemente, Luis; Bedia, Miguel; Llorente, María I; González-Morán, Francisco

    2002-03-02

    Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of mutations of resistance to nucleoside inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (NIRT) and protease inhibitors (PI) in the HIV-1 genotype of naïve infected subjects in the prisons of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain. Multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study of prevalence including a systematic stratified and randomised sampling by centres. Demographic, clinical, virological and immunological data were collected. The HIV gene of protease and transcriptase was studied in peripheral blood plasma samples by means of double PCR amplification and subsequent automatic sequence. Reference: wild strain HXB2. Plasma was obtained from 133 individuals (119 men and 14 women). 117 samples were selected and the rest did not have enough copies for transcription. With regard to NIRT, 7 samples (5.2% of total) showed some mutation of resistance: M41L, D67N, L210W and K219Q, all them secondary to and associated with resistance to zidovudine, abacavir as well as group B multinucleoside-resistance. With regard to PI, only one sample showed a primary mutation, M46I, which was associated with resistance to indinavir. Moreover, a further 41 samples were found to express some secondary mutation. In our series, there was a low number of primary mutations of resistance. These results allow us to exclude the systematic use of resistance tests before an initiation antiretroviral therapy.

  4. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  5. The relationship between the golf swing plane and ball impact characteristics using trajectory ellipse fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Andrew; McGrath, Denise; Wallace, Eric S

    2018-02-01

    The trajectory of the clubhead close to ball impact during the golf swing has previously been shown to be planar. However, the relationship between the plane orientation and the orientation characteristics of the clubhead at ball impact has yet to be defined. Fifty-two male golfers (27 high skilled, 25 intermediate skilled) hit 40 drives each in an indoor biomechanics laboratory. This study successfully fitted the trajectory of the clubhead near impact to an ellipse for each swing for players of different skill levels to help better explain this relationship. Additionally, the eccentricities of the ellipses were investigated for links to skill level. The trajectory of the clubhead was found to fit to an ellipse with RMSE of 1.2 mm. The eccentricity of the ellipse was found to be greater in the high-skilled golfers. The club path and angle of attack generated from the ellipse fitted clubhead trajectory were found to have a normalised bias-corrected RMSE of 2% and 3%, respectively. A set of "rule of thumb" values for the relationship between the club path, angle of attack and delivery plane angle was generated for use by coaches.

  6. Designing train-speed trajectory with energy efficiency and service quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiannan; Yang, Kai; Yang, Lixing; Gao, Yuan; Li, Shukai

    2018-05-01

    With the development of automatic train operations, optimal trajectory design is significant to the performance of train operations in railway transportation systems. Considering energy efficiency and service quality, this article formulates a bi-objective train-speed trajectory optimization model to minimize simultaneously the energy consumption and travel time in an inter-station section. This article is distinct from previous studies in that more sophisticated train driving strategies characterized by the acceleration/deceleration gear, the cruising speed, and the speed-shift site are specifically considered. For obtaining an optimal train-speed trajectory which has equal satisfactory degree on both objectives, a fuzzy linear programming approach is applied to reformulate the objectives. In addition, a genetic algorithm is developed to solve the proposed train-speed trajectory optimization problem. Finally, a series of numerical experiments based on a real-world instance of Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Railway are implemented to illustrate the practicability of the proposed model as well as the effectiveness of the solution methodology.

  7. US Decadal Survey Outer Solar System Missions: Trajectory Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, T. R.; Atkinson, D. H.; Strange, N. J.; Landau, D.

    2012-04-01

    The report of the US Planetary Science Decadal Survey (PSDS), released in draft form March 7, 2011, identifies several mission concepts involving travel to high-priority outer solar system (OSS) destinations. These include missions to Europa and Jupiter, Saturn and two of its satellites, and Uranus. Because travel to the OSS involves much larger distances and larger excursions out of the sun's gravitational potential well than inner solar system (ISS) missions, transfer trajectories for OSS missions are stronger drivers of mission schedule and resource requirements than for ISS missions. Various characteristics of each planet system, such as obliquity, radiation belts, rings, deep gravity wells, etc., carry ramifications for approach trajectories or trajectories within the systems. The maturity of trajectory studies for each of these destinations varies significantly. Europa has been the focus of studies for well over a decade. Transfer trajectory options from Earth to Jupiter are well understood. Current studies focus on trajectories within the Jovian system that could reduce the total mission cost of a Europa orbiter mission. Three missions to the Saturn system received high priority ratings in the PSDS report: two flagship orbital missions, one to Titan and one to Enceladus, and a Saturn atmospheric entry probe mission for NASA's New Frontiers Program. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) studies of 2007-2009 advanced our understanding of trajectory options for transfers to Saturn, including solar electric propulsion (SEP) trajectories. But SEP trajectories depend more on details of spacecraft and propulsion system characteristics than chemical trajectories, and the maturity of SEP trajectory search tools has not yet caught up with chemical trajectory tools, so there is still more useful research to be done on Saturn transfers. The TSSM studies revealed much about Saturn-orbiting trajectories that yield efficient and timely delivery to Titan or Enceladus

  8. Beyond experimentation: Five trajectories of cigarette smoking in a longitudinal sample of youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M Dutra

    Full Text Available The first goal of this study was to identify the most appropriate measure of cigarette smoking for identifying unique smoking trajectories among adolescents; the second goal was to describe the resulting trajectories and their characteristics. Using 15 annual waves of smoking data in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97, we conducted an exploratory latent class growth analysis to determine the best of four outcome variables for yearly smoking (cigarettes per day on days smoked, days smoked per month, mean cigarettes per day, and total cigarettes per month among individuals aged 12 to 30 (n = 8,791. Days smoked per month was the best outcome variable for identifying unique longitudinal trajectories of smoking and characteristics of these trajectories that could be used to target different types of smokers for prevention and cessation. Objective statistics were used to identify four trajectories in addition to never smokers (34.1%: experimenters (13.6%, quitters (8.1%, early established smokers (39.0%, and late escalators (5.2%. We identified a quitter and late escalator class not identified in the only other comparable latent class growth analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify the characteristics of individuals in each trajectory. Compared with never smokers, all trajectories except late escalators were less likely to be black; experimenters were more likely to be out of school and unemployed and drink alcohol in adolescence; quitters were more likely to have a mother with a high school degree/GED or higher (versus none and to use substances in adolescence and less likely to have ever married as a young adult; early established smokers were more likely to have a mother with a high school diploma or GED, be out of school and unemployed, not live with both parents, have used substances, be depressed, and have peers who smoked in adolescence and to have children as young adults and less likely to be Hispanic and to

  9. In Vitro Fertilization Outcomes After Placement of Essure Microinserts in Patients With Hydrosalpinges Who Previously Failed In Vitro Fertilization Treatment: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shlomo B; Bouaziz, Jerome; Schiff, Eyal; Simon, Alexander; Nadjary, Michel; Goldenberg, Mordechai; Orvieto, Raoul; Revel, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether hysteroscopic proximal tubal occlusion with Essure microinserts (Conceptus Inc.; Bayer, AG, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) can improve pregnancy rates in patients with hydrosalpinges who had failed in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. A prospective cohort study. University-affiliated tertiary centers. Twenty-four consecutive women with hydrosalpinges who had failed IVF treatment were included. Hysteroscopic placement of Essure microinserts for hydrosalpinx blockage followed by IVF treatment. Ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates were recorded. Of the 24 patients undergoing a total of 42 IVF cycles after Essure insertion, 18 (75% of patients and 42.8% of IVF cycle attempts) conceived and 16 delivered live births (66.6% of patients and 38.1% of IVF cycle attempts). Hysteroscopic proximal occlusion of hydrosalpinges with Essure microinserts is a valuable alternative to laparoscopic salpingectomy, resulting in reasonable pregnancy rates. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Organized Sport Trajectories from Childhood to Adolescence and Health Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Erin K; McVeigh, Joanne A; Smith, Anne J; Straker, Leon M

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify unique organized sport trajectories from early childhood to late adolescence in an Australian pregnancy cohort, the Raine Study. Participation in organized sport was assessed at ages 5, 8, 10, 14, and 17 yr. Physical activity, body composition, and self-rated physical and mental health were assessed at the age of 20 yr. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of sport participation. To assess the internal validity of the trajectory classes, differences in health characteristics between trajectories were analyzed using generalized linear models. For girls, three trajectory classes were identified: consistent sport participators (47.5%), sport dropouts (34.3%), and sport nonparticipators (18.1%). For boys, three trajectory classes were identified: consistent sport participators (55.2%), sport dropouts (36.9%), and sport joiners (8.1%). For girls, there were overall differences across trajectory classes in lean body mass (P = 0.003), lean mass index (P = 0.06), and physical health (P = 0.004). For boys, there were differences across classes in physical activity (P = 0.018), percent body fat (P = 0.002), lean body mass (P sport participation. The differences in health outcomes between trajectory classes, such as participants with consistent sport participation having more preferable health outcomes at the age of 20 yr, support the internal validity of the trajectories. Strategies are needed to identify and encourage those in the dropout trajectory to maintain their participation and those in the nonparticipator or joiner trajectories to join sport earlier. Specifically, interventions to encourage early sport participation in girls and help nonparticipating boys to join sport during adolescence may help more children receive the benefits of sport participation.

  11. Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Score Is Associated With Incident Heart Failure Hospitalization in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Without Previously Diagnosed Heart Failure: Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rakesh K; Yang, Wei; Roy, Jason; Anderson, Amanda H; Bansal, Nisha; Chen, Jing; DeFilippi, Christopher; Delafontaine, Patrice; Feldman, Harold I; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Kusek, John W; Lora, Claudia M; Rosas, Sylvia E; Go, Alan S; Shlipak, Michael G

    2015-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for heart failure (HF). Patients with chronic kidney disease without diagnosed HF have an increased burden of symptoms characteristic of HF. It is not known whether these symptoms are associated with occurrence of new onset HF. We studied the association of a modified Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire with newly identified cases of hospitalized HF among 3093 participants enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study who did not report HF at baseline. The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was categorized into quartiles (Q1-4) with the lower scores representing the worse symptoms. Multivariable-adjusted repeated measure logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, clinical risk factors for HF, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide level and left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Over a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 4.3±1.6 years, there were 211 new cases of HF hospitalizations. The risk of HF hospitalization increased with increasing symptom quartiles; 2.62, 1.85, 1.14, and 0.74 events per 100 person-years, respectively. The median number of annual Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire assessments per participant was 5 (interquartile range, 3-6). The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was independently associated with higher risk of incident HF hospitalization in multivariable-adjusted models (odds ratio, 3.30 [1.66-6.52]; P=0.001 for Q1 compared with Q4). Symptoms characteristic of HF are common in patients with chronic kidney disease and are associated with higher short-term risk for new hospitalization for HF, independent of level of kidney function, and other known HF risk factors. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. BMI trajectory groups in veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Patricia H; Ning, Yuming; Brandt, Cynthia; Allore, Heather; Haskell, Sally

    2011-09-01

    The study sought to determine BMI trajectories in Iraq/Afghanistan veterans over 6 years and to examine sociodemographic factors associated with BMI trajectory membership. Our study sample included 16,656 veterans post-deployment and entering the Veteran Healthcare Administration (VHA) healthcare system. We used national VHA administrative sociodemographic data, tracked veteran BMI for 6 years, and used trajectory modeling to identify BMI trajectories and sociodemographic characteristics associated with trajectory membership. Five trajectory groups determined in the full sample were primarily differentiated by their post-deployment initial BMI: "healthy" (14.1%), "overweight" (36.3%), "borderline obese" (27.9%), "obese" (15.7%), and "severely obese" (6.0). Being female, younger, and white were associated with lower initial BMI trajectory group membership (p'seducation and white female Veterans were associated with the lowest initial BMI group (p'sEducation level and racial status are differentially related to BMI trajectory by gender. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Spatial variability of hailfalls in France: an analysis of air mass retro-trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Lucía; Merino, Andrés; Sánchez, José Luis; Berthet, Claude; Dessens, Jean; López, Laura; Fernández-González, Sergio; Gascón, Estíbaliz; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Hail is the main meteorological risk in south-west France, with the strongest hailfalls being concentrated in just a few days. Specifically, this phenomenon occurs most often and with the greatest severity in the Midi-Pyrénées area. Previous studies have revealed the high spatial variability of hailfall in this part of France, even leading to different characteristics being recorded on hailpads that were relatively close together. For this reason, an analysis of the air mass trajectories was carried out at ground level and at altitude, which subsequently led to the formation of the hail recorded by these hailpads. It is already known that in the study zone, the trajectories of the storms usually stretch for long distances and are oriented towards the east, leading to hailstones with diameters in excess of 3 cm, and without any change in direction above 3 km. We analysed different days with hail precipitation where there was at least one stone with a diameter of 3 cm or larger. Using the simulations from these days, an analysis of the backward trajectories of the air masses was carried out. We used the HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) to determine the origin of the air masses, and tracked them toward each of the hailpads that were hit during the day studied. The height of the final points was the height of the impacted hailpads. Similarly, the backward trajectories for different heights were also established. Finally, the results show how storms that affect neighbouring hailpads come from very different air masses; and provide a deeper understanding of the high variability that affects the characteristics of hailfalls. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Regional Government of Castile-León for its financial support through the project LE220A11-2. This study was supported by the following grants: GRANIMETRO (CGL2010-15930); MICROMETEO (IPT-310000-2010-22).

  14. Gender differences in trajectories of relational aggression perpetration and victimization from middle to high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; McNicholas, Caroline; Nahapetyan, Lusine

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression refers to harming others through damaging or manipulating peer relationships. In a cohort of students surveyed annually from middle to high school, this study identified groups of adolescents who followed distinct trajectories of perpetration and of victimization of relational aggression, compared the proportion of boys and girls in each trajectory, and examined the overlap between perpetration and victimization trajectories. The sample consisted of 620 randomly selected sixth graders. Students completed yearly surveys from Grade 6-12. We used group-based trajectory modeling to identify the trajectories. Adolescents followed three developmental trajectories of perpetration and three similar trajectories of victimization: Low (lowest aggression), Moderate, and High Declining (high in middle school, with a steep decline in high school). All trajectories declined from Grade 6-12. The largest groups were the Low perpetration (55%) and Low victimization (48%). Relational aggression trajectories differed by gender: more boys reported perpetration, and more girls reported victimization. For perpetration, slightly more boys than girls were classified in the two trajectories of higher aggression. For victimization, significantly fewer girls than boys were classified in the Low trajectory, and significantly more girls than boys were classified in the Moderate trajectory. There was substantial overlap of the perpetration and victimization trajectories. These findings highlight the importance of implementing programs to reduce relational aggression for boys and for girls. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Pilot study on quantitative assessment of muscle imbalance: differences of muscle synergies, equilibrium-point trajectories, and endpoint stiffness in normal and pathological upper-limb movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Takanori; Uno, Kanna; Nishi, Tomoki; Kageyama, Masayuki; Phatiwuttipat, Pipatthana; Koba, Keitaro; Yamashita, Yuto; Murakami, Kenta; Uemura, Mitsunori; Hirai, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Fumio; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for assessment of muscle imbalance based on muscle synergy hypothesis and equilibrium point (EP) hypothesis of motor control. We explain in detail the method for extracting muscle synergies under the concept of agonist-antagonist (AA) muscle pairs and for estimating EP trajectories and endpoint stiffness of human upper limbs in a horizontal plane using an electromyogram. The results of applying this method to the reaching movement of one normal subject and one hemiplegic subject suggest that (1) muscle synergies (the balance among coactivation of AA muscle pairs), particularly the synergies that contributes to the angular directional kinematics of EP and the limb stiffness, are quite different between the normal subject and the hemiplegic subject; (2) the concomitant EP trajectory is also different between the normal and hemiplegic subjects, corresponding to the difference of muscle synergies; and (3) the endpoint (hand) stiffness ellipse of the hemiplegic subject becomes more elongated and orientation of the major axis rotates clockwise more than that of the normal subject. The level of motor impairment would be expected to be assessed from a comparison of these differences of muscle synergies, EP trajectories, and endpoint stiffness among normal and pathological subjects using the method.

  16. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Damien C; Miralbell, Raymond; Wang, Hui; Cozzi, Luca; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Khan, Haleem G; Ratib, Osman; Rouzaud, Michel; Vees, Hansjoerg; Zaidi, Habib

    2009-01-01

    A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA) and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT) radiation therapy (RT) for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined on 18 F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (D Max ) of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, D Max was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal D Median was < 17 Gy. Results were analyzed using Dose-Volume Histogram and conformity index (CI 90 ) parameters. Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV) was improved with RA (V 95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%), when compared to IMRT (V 95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%). The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V 95% 88.9 ± 10.5%) and better for the PTV (V 95% 85.6 ± 5.0%). The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy) were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3%) and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%), when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%). CI 90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm 3 *10 5 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk

  17. Phase 2 study of tabalumab, a human anti-B-cell activating factor antibody, with bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raje, Noopur S; Moreau, Philippe; Terpos, Evangelos; Benboubker, Lotfi; Grząśko, Norbert; Holstein, Sarah A; Oriol, Albert; Huang, Shang-Yi; Beksac, Meral; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Tai, Datchen F; Wooldridge, James E; Conti, Ilaria; Kaiser, Christopher J; Nguyen, Tuan S; Cronier, Damien M; Palumbo, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    In this double-blind, Phase 2 study, 220 patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive placebo (N = 72), tabalumab 100 mg (N = 74), or tabalumab 300 mg (N = 74), each in combination with dexamethasone 20 mg and subcutaneous bortezomib 1·3 mg/m 2 on a 21-day cycle. No significant intergroup differences were observed among primary (median progression-free survival [mPFS]) or secondary efficacy outcomes. The mPFS was 6·6, 7·5 and 7·6 months for the tabalumab 100, 300 mg and placebo groups, respectively (tabalumab 100 mg vs. placebo Hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1·13 [0·80-1·59], P = 0·480; tabalumab 300 mg vs. placebo HR [95% CI] = 1·03 [0·72-1·45], P = 0·884). The most commonly-reported treatment-emergent adverse events were thrombocytopenia (37%), fatigue (37%), diarrhoea (35%) and constipation (32%). Across treatments, patients with low baseline BAFF (also termed TNFSF13B) expression (n = 162) had significantly longer mPFS than those with high BAFF expression (n = 55), using the 75th percentile cut-off point (mPFS [95% CI] = 8·3 [7·0-9·3] months vs. 5·8 [3·7-6·6] months; HR [95% CI] = 1·59 [1·11-2·29], P = 0·015). Although generally well tolerated, PFS was not improved during treatment with tabalumab compared to placebo. A higher dose of 300 mg tabalumab did not improve efficacy compared to the 100 mg dose. Nonetheless, BAFF appears to have some prognostic value in patients with multiple myeloma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  19. Trajectories of saltating sand particles behind a porous fence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Lee, Sang Joon; Chen, Ting-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Trajectories of aeolian sand particles behind a porous wind fence embedded in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer were visualized experimentally, to investigate the shelter effect of the fence on sand saltation. Two sand samples, one collected from a beach (d = 250 μm) and the other from a desert (d = 100 μm), were tested in comparison with the previous studies of a 'no-fence' case. A wind fence (ε = 38.5%) was installed on a flat sand bed filled with each sand sample. A high-speed photography technique and the particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) method were employed to reconstruct the trajectories of particles saltating behind the fence. The collision processes of these sand particles were analyzed, momentum and kinetic energy transfer between saltating particles and ground surface were also investigated. In the wake region, probability density distributions of the impact velocities agree well with the pattern of no-fence case, and can be explained by a log-normal law. The horizontal component of impact velocity for the beach sand is decreased by about 54%, and about 76% for the desert sand. Vertical restitution coefficients of bouncing particles are smaller than 1.0 due to the presence of the wind fence. The saltating particles lose a large proportion of their energy during the collision process. These results illustrate that the porous wind fence effectively abates the further evolution of saltating sand particles.

  20. Peace and war: trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms before, during, and after military deployment in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Johannessen, Kim B; Thomsen, Yvonne D; Bertelsen, Mette; Hoyle, Rick H; Rubin, David C

    2012-12-01

    In the study reported here, we examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 746 Danish soldiers measured on five occasions before, during, and after deployment to Afghanistan. Using latent class growth analysis, we identified six trajectories of change in PTSD symptoms. Two resilient trajectories had low levels across all five times, and a new-onset trajectory started low and showed a marked increase of PTSD symptoms. Three temporary-benefit trajectories, not previously described in the literature, showed decreases in PTSD symptoms during (or immediately after) deployment, followed by increases after return from deployment. Predeployment emotional problems and predeployment traumas, especially childhood adversities, were predictors for inclusion in the nonresilient trajectories, whereas deployment-related stress was not. These findings challenge standard views of PTSD in two ways. First, they show that factors other than immediately preceding stressors are critical for PTSD development, with childhood adversities being central. Second, they demonstrate that the development of PTSD symptoms shows heterogeneity, which indicates the need for multiple measurements to understand PTSD and identify people in need of treatment.

  1. Review of previous geophysical and geological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Levchenko, O.V.; Neprochnov, Y.P; Rao, D.G; Subrahmanyam, C.; Murthy, K.S

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  2. Creating drag and lift curves from soccer trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Kelley, John; Hobson, Chad M.; Seo, Kazuya; Asai, Takeshi; Choppin, S. B.

    2017-07-01

    Trajectory analysis is an alternative to using wind tunnels to measure a soccer ball’s aerodynamic properties. It has advantages over wind tunnel testing such as being more representative of game play. However, previous work has not presented a method that produces complete, speed-dependent drag and lift coefficients. Four high-speed cameras in stereo-calibrated pairs were used to measure the spatial co-ordinates for 29 separate soccer trajectories. Those trajectories span a range of launch speeds from 9.3 to 29.9 m s-1. That range encompasses low-speed laminar flow of air over a soccer ball, through the drag crises where air flow is both laminar and turbulent, and up to high-speed turbulent air flow. Results from trajectory analysis were combined to give speed-dependent drag and lift coefficient curves for the entire range of speeds found in the 29 trajectories. The average root mean square error between the measured and modelled trajectory was 0.028 m horizontally and 0.034 m vertically. The drag and lift crises can be observed in the plots of drag and lift coefficients respectively.

  3. Trayectorias con ruta predefinida en una bodega de datos: un caso de estudio sobre transporte público Trajectory with predefined path on a data warehouse: a case study on public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Moreno Arboleda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoy, gracias a los sistemas de posicionamiento global y dispositivos móviles equipados con sensores se puede capturar información acerca de la trayectoria seguida por objetos móviles tales como personas, animales, vehículos, entre otros. En este artículo se examinan en particular las trayectorias seguidas por objetos móviles en una ruta predefinida, por ejemplo un sistema de transporte público en el que los vehículos deben recorrer una ruta preestablecida. Se presenta un caso de estudio donde este tipo de trayectorias se incorporan como un sujeto de análisis en una bodega de datos.Today, thanks to global positioning systems and mobile devices equipped with sensors, it is possible to capture information about the trajectory followed by moving objects such as persons, animals, and vehicles, among others. In this paper we analyze, in particular, the trajectories followed by moving objects on a predefined route, as in the case of a public transport system, in which vehicles should travel by a predetermined route. We present a case study where this type of trajectories are incorporated as a subject of analysis in a data warehouse.

  4. Foot trajectory approximation using the pendulum model of walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Juan; Vuckovic, Aleksandra; Galen, Sujay; Conway, Bernard A; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Generating a natural foot trajectory is an important objective in robotic systems for rehabilitation of walking. Human walking has pendular properties, so the pendulum model of walking has been used in bipedal robots which produce rhythmic gait patterns. Whether natural foot trajectories can be produced by the pendulum model needs to be addressed as a first step towards applying the pendulum concept in gait orthosis design. This study investigated circle approximation of the foot trajectories, with focus on the geometry of the pendulum model of walking. Three able-bodied subjects walked overground at various speeds, and foot trajectories relative to the hip were analysed. Four circle approximation approaches were developed, and best-fit circle algorithms were derived to fit the trajectories of the ankle, heel and toe. The study confirmed that the ankle and heel trajectories during stance and the toe trajectory in both the stance and the swing phases during walking at various speeds could be well modelled by a rigid pendulum. All the pendulum models were centred around the hip with pendular lengths approximately equal to the segment distances from the hip. This observation provides a new approach for using the pendulum model of walking in gait orthosis design.

  5. Job satisfaction developmental trajectories and health: A life course perspective.