International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
La Pointe, P.R.
1994-11-01
This report describes the comparison of stationary and non-stationary geostatistical models for the purpose of inferring block-scale hydraulic conductivity values from packer tests at Aespoe. The comparison between models is made through the evaluation of cross-validation statistics for three experimental designs. The first experiment consisted of a 'Delete-1' test previously used at Finnsjoen. The second test consisted of 'Delete-10%' and the third test was a 'Delete-50%' test. Preliminary data analysis showed that the 3 m and 30 m packer test data can be treated as a sample from a single population for the purposes of geostatistical analyses. Analysis of the 3 m data does not indicate that there are any systematic statistical changes with depth, rock type, fracture zone vs non-fracture zone or other mappable factor. Directional variograms are ambiguous to interpret due to the clustered nature of the data, but do not show any obvious anisotropy that should be accounted for in geostatistical analysis. Stationary analysis suggested that there exists a sizeable spatially uncorrelated component ('Nugget Effect') in the 3 m data, on the order of 60% of the observed variance for the various models fitted. Four different nested models were automatically fit to the data. Results for all models in terms of cross-validation statistics were very similar for the first set of validation tests. Non-stationary analysis established that both the order of drift and the order of the intrinsic random functions is low. This study also suggests that conventional cross-validation studies and automatic variogram fitting are not necessarily evaluating how well a model will infer block scale hydraulic conductivity values. 20 refs, 20 figs, 14 tabs
Corneal perforation after conductive keratoplasty with previous refractive surgery.
Kymionis, George D; Titze, Patrik; Markomanolakis, Marinos M; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Pallikaris, Ioannis G
2003-12-01
A 56-year-old woman had conductive keratoplasty (CK) for residual hyperopia and astigmatism. Three years before the procedure, the patient had arcuate keratotomy, followed by laser in situ keratomileusis 2 years later for high astigmatism correction in both eyes. During CK, a corneal perforation occurred in the right eye; during the postoperative examination, an iris perforation and anterior subcapsule opacification were seen beneath the perforation site. The perforation was managed with a bandage contact lens and an antibiotic-steroid ointment; it had a negative Seidel sign by the third day. The surgery in the left eye was uneventful. Three months after the procedure, the uncorrected visual acuity was 20/32 and the best corrected visual acuity 20/20 in both eyes with a significant improvement in corneal topography. Care must be taken to prevent CK-treated spots from coinciding with areas in the corneal stroma that might have been altered by previous refractive procedures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jannot, Yves; Degiovanni, Alain; Félix, Vincent; Bal, Harouna
2011-01-01
This paper presents a method dedicated to the thermal conductivity measurement of thin insulating anisotropic materials. The method is based on three hot-strip-type experiments in which the stationary temperature is measured at the center of the hot strip. A 3D model of the heat transfer in the system is established and simulated to determine the validity of a 2D transfer hypothesis at the center of the hot strip. A simplified 2D model is then developed leading to the definition of a geometrical factor calculable from a polynomial expression. A very simple calculation method enabling the estimation of the directional thermal conductivities from the three stationary temperature measurements and from the geometrical factor is presented. The uncertainties on each conductivity are estimated. The method is then validated by measurements on polyethylene foam and Ayous (anistropic low-density tropical wood); the estimated values of the thermal conductivities are in good agreement with the values estimated using the hot plate and the flash method. The method is finally applied on a thin super-insulating fibrous material for which no other method is able to measure the in-plane conductivity
The role of the dynamic pressure in stationary heat conduction of a rarefied polyatomic gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arima, Takashi, E-mail: arima@kanagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Barbera, Elvira, E-mail: ebarbera@unime.it [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Messina, V.le F. D' Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Brini, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.brini@unibo.it [Department of Mathematics, University of Bologna, via Saragozza 8, 40123 Bologna (Italy); Sugiyama, Masaru, E-mail: sugiyama@nitech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)
2014-07-18
The effect of the dynamic pressure (non-equilibrium pressure) on stationary heat conduction in a rarefied polyatomic gas at rest is elucidated by the theory of extended thermodynamics. It is shown that this effect is observable in a non-polytropic gas. Numerical studies are presented for a para-hydrogen gas as a typical example. - Highlights: • Heat transfer problem in polyatomic rarefied gases is studied in different domains. • Non-zero dynamic pressure is predicted in non-polytropic gases. • The effect of dynamic pressure can be observed indirectly in an experiment. • The case of para-hydrogen is analyzed as an example. • Navier–Stokes, Fourier, and Extended Thermodynamics predictions are compared.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vakulenko, M.O.
1992-01-01
Within the general renormalized statistical approach, the low-frequency short-wave stationary spectra of potential and magnetic perturbations in a finite-pressure plasma, are obtained. Anomalous heat conductivity considerably enhances due to non-linear interaction between magnetic excitations. 11 refs. (author)
Hydraulic conductivity in sugar cane cultivated in soils previous vin aza application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Musso, M.; Pereira, S.; Fajardo, L.
2012-01-01
This work analyzes the hydraulic conductivity in soil clay loams developed in Libertad formation in Bella Union where grows sugar cane with vinaza. In the agricultural activities are used different chemical additives such as organic and inorganic fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides, which interact with the biotic (roots, soil microbiology) and abiotic (clay, soil solution, etc.) elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Zarubin
2016-01-01
dependence of the absorption factor on the local intensity of this radiation. Furthermore, it can be a significant dependence of this factor on the local value of the material temperature, reflecting the above-mentioned relationship between the absorption of electromagnetic wave energy and the excitation of material microparticles. This process can be described by Boltzmann distribution function that comprises the energy to activate microparticles and the local value of temperature.This paper presents a variational formulation of the nonlinear problem of stationary heat conduction in a plate for the case when the radiation reduction factor in relation to the Bouguer law depends on the local temperature. This formulation includes a functional that can have several fixed points corresponding to different steady states of the plate temperature. Analysis of the properties of this functional enabled us to identify the stationary points, which correspond to the realized temperature distribution in the plate.
Stationary nonlinear Airy beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.
2011-01-01
We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Combes, J.M.
1980-10-01
A complementary approach to the time dependent scattering theory for one-body Schroedinger operators is presented. The stationary theory is concerned with objects of quantum theory like scattering waves and amplitudes. In the more recent abstract stationary theory some generalized form of the Lippman-Schwinger equation plays the basic role. Solving this equation leads to a linear map between generalized eigenfunctions of the perturbed and unperturbed operators. This map is the section at fixed energy of the wave-operator from the time dependent theory. Although the radiation condition does not appears explicitely in this formulation it can be shown to hold a posteriori in a variety of situations thus restoring the link with physical theories
Stationary theory of scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, T.
1977-01-01
A variant of the stationary methods is described, and it is shown that it is useful in a wide range of problems, including scattering, by long-range potentials, two-space scattering, and multichannel scattering. The method is based on the notion of spectral forms. The paper is restricted to the simplest case of continuous spectral forms defined on a Banach space embedded in the basic Hilbert space. (P.D.)
Analyzing Non Stationary Processes in Radiometers
Racette, Paul
2010-01-01
The lack of well-developed techniques for modeling changing statistical moments in our observations has stymied the application of stochastic process theory for many scientific and engineering applications. Non linear effects of the observation methodology is one of the most perplexing aspects to modeling non stationary processes. This perplexing problem was encountered when modeling the effect of non stationary receiver fluctuations on the performance of radiometer calibration architectures. Existing modeling approaches were found not applicable; particularly problematic is modeling processes across scales over which they begin to exhibit non stationary behavior within the time interval of the calibration algorithm. Alternatively, the radiometer output is modeled as samples from a sequence random variables; the random variables are treated using a conditional probability distribution function conditioned on the use of the variable in the calibration algorithm. This approach of treating a process as a sequence of random variables with non stationary stochastic moments produce sensible predictions of temporal effects of calibration algorithms. To test these model predictions, an experiment using the Millimeter wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) was conducted. The MIR with its two black body calibration references was configured in a laboratory setting to observe a third ultra-stable reference (CryoTarget). The MIR was programmed to sequentially sample each of the three references in approximately a 1 second cycle. Data were collected over a six-hour interval. The sequence of reference measurements form an ensemble sample set comprised of a series of three reference measurements. Two references are required to estimate the receiver response. A third reference is used to estimate the uncertainty in the estimate. Typically, calibration algorithms are designed to suppress the non stationary effects of receiver fluctuations. By treating the data sequence as an ensemble
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reinhold Steinacker
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In 1906, the Austrian scientist Max Margules published a paper on temperature stratification in resting and non-accelerated moving air. The paper derives conditions for stationary slopes of air mass boundaries and was an important forerunner of frontal theories. Its formulation of relations between changes in density and geostrophic wind across the front is basically a discrete version of the thermal wind balance equation. The paper was highly influential and is still being cited to the present day. This paper accompanies an English translation of Margules’ seminal paper. We conclude here our “Classic Papers” series of the Meteorologische Zeitschrift.
Berger, Jorge
2018-06-01
In the customary mode of operation of a SQUID, the electromagnetic field in the SQUID is an oscillatory function of time. In this situation, electromagnetic radiation is emitted and couples to the sample. This is a back action that can alter the state that we intend to measure. A circuit that could perform as a stationary SQUID consists of a loop of superconducting material that encloses the magnetic flux, connected to a superconducting and to a normal electrode. This circuit does not contain Josephson junctions, or any other miniature feature. We study the evolution of the order parameter and of the electrochemical potential in this circuit; they converge to a stationary regime, and the voltage between the electrodes depends on the enclosed flux. We obtain expressions for the power dissipation and for the heat transported by the electric current; the validity of these expressions does not rely on a particular evolution model for the order parameter. We evaluate the influence of fluctuations. For a SQUID perimeter of the order of 1μ m and temperature 0.9T_c, we obtain a flux resolution of the order of 10^{-5}Φ _0/Hz^{1/2}; the resolution is expected to improve as the temperature is lowered.
Stationary flywheel energy storage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilhaus, A; Hau, E; Gassner, G; Huss, G; Schauberger, H
1981-01-01
The aim of this system study is to find out industrial applications of stationary flywheel energy accumulators. The economic value for the consumer and the effects on the power supply grid are investigated. Up to now, stationary flywheel energy accumulators have only been used in a small range. The main reason for thinking of the application in a wider range was the hope that those could be used economically for lowering the maximum output demand of the power supply grid. The possible savings in energy costs, however, proved to be too small for paying back the investment costs. Further benefits are necessary for advantageous application. As to overall economy, compensation of short time maximum power output seems to be more favorable at the power stations. An additional possibility for energy storage by flywheels is given where otherwise lost energy can be used effectively, according to the successful brake energy storage in vehicles. Under this aspect the future use of flywheels in wind-power-plants seems to be promising. Attractive savings of energy can be obtained by introducing modern flywheel technology for emergency power supply units which are employed for instance in telecommunication systems. Especially the application for emergency power supply, in power stations and in combustion with wind energy converters need further investigation.
Direct imaging of slow, stored and stationary EIT polaritons
Campbell, Geoff T.; Cho, Young-Wook; Su, Jian; Everett, Jesse; Robins, Nicholas; Lam, Ping Koy; Buchler, Ben
2017-09-01
Stationary and slow light effects are of great interest for quantum information applications. Using laser-cooled Rb87 atoms, we performed side imaging of our atomic ensemble under slow and stationary light conditions, which allows direct comparison with numerical models. The polaritons were generated using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), with stationary light generated using counter-propagating control fields. By controlling the power ratio of the two control fields, we show fine control of the group velocity of the stationary light. We also compare the dynamics of stationary light using monochromatic and bichromatic control fields. Our results show negligible difference between the two situations, in contrast to previous work in EIT-based systems.
Stationary and Transient Response Statistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Peter Hauge; Krenk, Steen
1982-01-01
The covariance functions for the transient response of a linear MDOF-system due to stationary time limited excitation with an arbitrary frequency content are related directly to the covariance functions of the stationary response. For rational spectral density functions closed form expressions fo...
4. Workshop - Measurement techniques of stationary and transient multiphase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prasser, H.M. (ed.)
2001-05-01
In November 2000, the 4th Workshop on Measurement Techniques for Stationary and Transient Multiphase Flows took place in Rossendorf. Three previous workshops of this series were national meetings; this time participants from different countries took part. The programme comprised 14 oral presentations, 9 of which are included in these proceedings in full length. A special highlight of the meeting was the main lecture ''Ultrasonic doppler method for bubbly flow measurement'' of Professor Masanori Aritomi, Dr. Hiroshige Kikura and Dr. Yumiko Suzuki. The workshop again dealt with high-resolution phase distribution and phase velocity measurement techniques based on electrical conductivity, ultrasound, laser light and high-speed cinematography. A number of presentations were dedicated to the application of wire-mesh sensors developed by FZR for different applications used by the Technical Universities of Delft and Munich and the Tokyo Institute of Technology. (orig.)
4. Workshop - Measurement techniques of stationary and transient multiphase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasser, H.M.
2001-05-01
In November 2000, the 4th Workshop on Measurement Techniques for Stationary and Transient Multiphase Flows took place in Rossendorf. Three previous workshops of this series were national meetings; this time participants from different countries took part. The programme comprised 14 oral presentations, 9 of which are included in these proceedings in full length. A special highlight of the meeting was the main lecture ''Ultrasonic doppler method for bubbly flow measurement'' of Professor Masanori Aritomi, Dr. Hiroshige Kikura and Dr. Yumiko Suzuki. The workshop again dealt with high-resolution phase distribution and phase velocity measurement techniques based on electrical conductivity, ultrasound, laser light and high-speed cinematography. A number of presentations were dedicated to the application of wire-mesh sensors developed by FZR for different applications used by the Technical Universities of Delft and Munich and the Tokyo Institute of Technology. (orig.)
Population inversion in a stationary recombining plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otsuka, M.
1980-01-01
Population inversion, which occurs in a recombining plasma when a stationary He plasma is brought into contact with a neutral gas, is examined. With hydrogen as a contact gas, noticeable inversion between low-lying levels of H as been found. The overpopulation density is of the order of 10 8 cm -3 , which is much higher then that (approx. =10 5 cm -3 ) obtained previously with He as a contact gas. Relations between these experimental results and the conditions for population inversion are discussed with the CR model
The stationary neutron radiography system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weeks, A.A.; Newell, D.L.; Heidel, C.C.
1990-01-01
To provide the high intensity neutron beam and support systems necessary for radiography, the Stationary Neutron Radiography System was constructed at McClellan Air Force Base. The Stationary Neutron Radiography System utilizes a one megawatt TRIGA reactor contained in an Aluminium tank surrounded by eight foot thick concrete walls. There are four neutron beam tubes at inclined angles from the reactor core to separate radiography bays. In three of the bays, robotic systems manipulate aircraft components in the neutron beam, while real-time imaging systems provide images concurrent with the irradiation. Film radiography of smaller components is performed in the remaining bay
Stationary measure in the multiverse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linde, Andrei; Vanchurin, Vitaly; Winitzki, Sergei
2009-01-01
We study the recently proposed ''stationary measure'' in the context of the string landscape scenario. We show that it suffers neither from the ''Boltzmann brain'' problem nor from the ''youngness'' paradox that makes some other measures predict a high CMB temperature at present. We also demonstrate a good performance of this measure in predicting the results of local experiments, such as proton decay
Dampers for Stationary Labyrinth Seals
El-Aini, Yehia; Mitchell, William; Roberts, Lawrence; Montgomery, Stuart; Davis, Gary
2011-01-01
Vibration dampers have been invented that are incorporated as components within the stationary labyrinth seal assembly. These dampers are intended to supplement other vibration-suppressing features of labyrinth seals in order to reduce the incidence of high-cycle-fatigue failures, which have been known to occur in the severe vibratory environments of jet engines and turbopumps in which labyrinth seals are typically used. A vibration damper of this type includes several leaf springs and/or a number of metallic particles (shot) all held in an annular seal cavity by a retaining ring. The leaf springs are made of a spring steel alloy chosen, in conjunction with design parameters, to maintain sufficient preload to ensure effectiveness of damping at desired operating temperatures. The cavity is vented via a small radial gap between the retaining ring and seal housing. The damping mechanism is complex. In the case of leaf springs, the mechanism is mainly friction in the slippage between the seal housing and individual dampers. In the case of a damper that contains shot, the damping mechanism includes contributions from friction between individual particles, friction between particles and cavity walls, and dissipation of kinetic energy of impact. The basic concept of particle/shot vibration dampers has been published previously; what is new here is the use of such dampers to suppress traveling-wave vibrations in labyrinth seals. Damping effectiveness depends on many parameters, including, but not limited to, coefficient of friction, mode shape, and frequency and amplitude of vibrational modes. In tests, preloads of the order of 6 to 15 lb (2.72 to 6.8 kilograms) per spring damper were demonstrated to provide adequate damping levels. Effectiveness of shot damping of vibrations having amplitudes from 20 to 200 times normal terrestrial gravitational acceleration (196 to 1,960 meters per square second) and frequencies up to 12 kHz was demonstrated for shot sizes from 0.032 to
Long time tails in stationary random media II: Applications
Machta, J.; Ernst, M.H.; Dorfman, J.R.; Beijeren, H. van
1984-01-01
In a previous paper we developed a mode-coupling theory to describe the long time properties of diffusion in stationary, statistically homogeneous, random media. Here the general theory is applied to deterministic and stochastic Lorentz models and several hopping models. The mode-coupling theory
Virtual Stationary Automata for Mobile Networks
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Dolev, Shlomi; Gilbert, Seth; Lahiani, Limor; Lynch, Nancy; Nolte, Tina
2005-01-01
We define a programming abstraction for mobile networks called the Virtual Stationary Automata programming layer, consisting of real mobile clients, virtual timed I/O automata called virtual stationary automata (VSAs...
Stationary measure in the multiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linde, Andrei [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Vanchurin, Vitaly; Winitzki, Sergei, E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu, E-mail: vitaly@cosmos2.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: winitzki@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany)
2009-01-15
We study the recently proposed ''stationary measure'' in the context of the string landscape scenario. We show that it suffers neither from the ''Boltzmann brain'' problem nor from the ''youngness'' paradox that makes some other measures predict a high CMB temperature at present. We also demonstrate a good performance of this measure in predicting the results of local experiments, such as proton decay.
Mallak, Saed
1996-01-01
Ankara : Department of Mathematics and Institute of Engineering and Sciences of Bilkent University, 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves leaf 29 In thi.s work, we studierl the Ergodicilv of Non-Stationary .Markov chains. We gave several e.xainples with different cases. We proved that given a sec[uence of Markov chains such that the limit of this sec|uence is an Ergodic Markov chain, then the limit of the combination ...
Propagation of Boundary-Induced Discontinuity in Stationary Radiative Transfer
Kawagoe, Daisuke; Chen, I.-Kun
2018-01-01
We consider the boundary value problem of the stationary transport equation in the slab domain of general dimensions. In this paper, we discuss the relation between discontinuity of the incoming boundary data and that of the solution to the stationary transport equation. We introduce two conditions posed on the boundary data so that discontinuity of the boundary data propagates along positive characteristic lines as that of the solution to the stationary transport equation. Our analysis does not depend on the celebrated velocity averaging lemma, which is different from previous works. We also introduce an example in two dimensional case which shows that piecewise continuity of the boundary data is not a sufficient condition for the main result.
Effective Complexity of Stationary Process Realizations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arleta Szkoła
2011-06-01
Full Text Available The concept of effective complexity of an object as the minimal description length of its regularities has been initiated by Gell-Mann and Lloyd. The regularities are modeled by means of ensembles, which is the probability distributions on finite binary strings. In our previous paper [1] we propose a definition of effective complexity in precise terms of algorithmic information theory. Here we investigate the effective complexity of binary strings generated by stationary, in general not computable, processes. We show that under not too strong conditions long typical process realizations are effectively simple. Our results become most transparent in the context of coarse effective complexity which is a modification of the original notion of effective complexity that needs less parameters in its definition. A similar modification of the related concept of sophistication has been suggested by Antunes and Fortnow.
Climatic feedbacks between stationary and transient eddies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Branscome, L.E.
1994-01-01
Stationary eddies make a significant contribution to poleward heat transport during Northern Hemisphere winter, equaling the transport by transient eddies. On the other hand, stationary eddy transport during the summer is negligible. The effect of topography on time-mean stationary waves and low-frequency variability has been widely studied. In contrast, little attention has been given to the climatic feedbacks associated with stationary eddies. Furthermore, the relationship between stationary and transient eddies in the context of global and regional climate is not well understood. The response of the climate system to anthropogenic forcing is likely to have some dependence on stationary wave transport and its interaction with transient eddies. Some early GCM simulations and observational analyses indicate a strong feedback between the meridional heat fluxes of stationary and transient eddies
Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zulfo Godinjak
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.
Quantum cosmology and stationary states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padmanabhan, T.
1983-01-01
A model for quantum gravity, in which the conformal part of the metric is quantized using the path integral formalism, is presented. Einstein's equations can be suitably modified to take into account the effects of quantum conformal fluctuations. A closed Friedman model can be described in terms of well-defined stationary states. The ''ground state'' sets a lower bound (at Planck length) to the scale factor preventing the collapse. A possible explanation for matter creation and quantum nature of matter is suggested. (author)
Strong Stationary Duality for Diffusion Processes
Fill, James Allen; Lyzinski, Vince
2014-01-01
We develop the theory of strong stationary duality for diffusion processes on compact intervals. We analytically derive the generator and boundary behavior of the dual process and recover a central tenet of the classical Markov chain theory in the diffusion setting by linking the separation distance in the primal diffusion to the absorption time in the dual diffusion. We also exhibit our strong stationary dual as the natural limiting process of the strong stationary dual sequence of a well ch...
Condensational theory of stationary tornadoes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makarieva, A.M.; Gorshkov, V.G.; Nefiodov, A.V.
2011-01-01
Using the Bernoulli integral for air streamline with condensing water vapor a stationary axisymmetric tornado circulation is described. The obtained profiles of vertical, radial and tangential velocities are in agreement with observations for the Mulhall tornado, world's largest on record and longest-lived among the three tornadoes for which 3D velocity data are available. Maximum possible vortex velocities are estimated. -- Highlights: → Water vapor condensation causes a logarithmic drop of air pressure towards tornado center. → The first ever theoretical description of tornado velocities is obtained. → The maximum vortex velocity grows logarithmically with decreasing tornado eye radius. → Air motion with high velocities can only develop in sufficiently large condensation areas.
CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Pagan, Marianas Archipelago, 2007
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 9 sites around Pagan in the...
CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Niihau, Main Hawaiian Islands, 2006
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 6 sites around Niihau in the Main...
CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Ni'ihau Island, 2005
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Ni'ihau in July, 2005 from...
CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Agrihan Island, 2003
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Agrihan in the Commonwealth...
CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Rose Atoll, 2004
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Rose Atoll in American Samoa...
CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Asuncion, Marianas Archipelago, 2005
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 3 sites around Asuncion in the...
CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Kaui Island, 2005
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Kaui in July, 2005 from the...
CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Maug, Marianas Archipelago, 2007
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 9 sites around Maug in the...
CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Kaula Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands, 2006
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 2 sites around Kaula Rock in the...
CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Midway Atoll, 2003
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Midway Atoll in July and...
CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Kure Atoll, 2004
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in October, 2004...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 10 sites around French Frigate...
CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Ta'u, American Samoa, 2006
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 9 sites around Ta'u in the...
CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Ofu-Olosega, American Samoa, 2006
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 12 sites around Ofu-Olosega in the...
CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Rota Island, 2003
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Rota Island in the...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchis, R.; Palomo, M. J.; Munoz-Cobo, J. L.
1998-01-01
The signals registered in the nuclear plants have non stationary characteristics, in numerous times. This made difficult the application of the methods of analysis. There are determinate temporal intervals in that the signal is stationary with determinate mean, value together of zones with corrupt registers, and other zones with mean value distinct, but stationary during a temporal interval. The methodology consist in a stationary analysis to the signal received of the nuclear plant. With the Gabor Transformation are determined the temporal intervals of the stationary signals, synthesised it, as previous phase to the application of the methods of the analysis of stability parameters with methods ARMA, SVD, Neural Net,... to the reconstructed signal. 4 refs. (Author)
Cappell, M S; Spray, D C; Bennett, M V
1988-06-28
Protractor muscles in the gastropod mollusc Navanax inermis exhibit typical spontaneous miniature end plate potentials with mean amplitude 1.71 +/- 1.19 (standard deviation) mV. The evoked end plate potential is quantized, with a quantum equal to the miniature end plate potential amplitude. When their rate is stationary, occurrence of miniature end plate potentials is a random, Poisson process. When non-stationary, spontaneous miniature end plate potential occurrence is a non-stationary Poisson process, a Poisson process with the mean frequency changing with time. This extends the random Poisson model for miniature end plate potentials to the frequently observed non-stationary occurrence. Reported deviations from a Poisson process can sometimes be accounted for by the non-stationary Poisson process and more complex models, such as clustered release, are not always needed.
Stationary spectra in a quasi neutral current-carrying plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vakulenko, M.O.
1992-01-01
The low-frequency short-wave equilibrium spectra of electromagnetic fluctuations are obtained, accounting for cross-field correlations. The statistical analysis shows that a longitudinal current in a dense quasi neutral (α e ≡4πnomec 2 /Bo 2 >>1) plasma destroys the stationary of fluctuation spectra corresponding to zero fluxes of motion invariants, and may alter also the anomalous electron heat conductivity. 2 refs. (author)
Noise Diagnostics of Stationary and Non-Stationary Reactor Processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sunde, Carl
2007-04-15
This thesis concerns the application of noise diagnostics on different problems in the area of reactor physics involving both stationary and non-stationary core processes. Five different problems are treated, divided into three different parts. The first problem treated in the first part is the classification of two-phase flow regimes from neutron radiographic and visible light images with a neuro-wavelet algorithm. The algorithm consists of wavelet pre-processing and of an artificial neural network. The result indicates that the wavelet pre-processing is improving the training of the neural network. Next, detector tubes which are suspected of impacting on nearby fuel-assemblies in a boiling water reactor (BWR) are identified by both a classical spectral method and wavelet-based methods. It was found that there is good agreement between the different methods as well as with visual inspections of detector tube and fuel assembly damage made during the outage at the plant. The third problem addresses the determination of the decay ratio of a BWR from the auto-correlation function (ACF). Here wavelets are used, with some success, both for de-trending and de-nosing of the ACF and also for direct estimation of the decay ratio from the ACF. The second part deals with the analysis of beam-mode and shell-mode core-barrel vibrations in pressurised water reactors (PWRs). The beam-mode vibrations are analysed by using parameters of the vibration peaks, in spectra from ex core detectors. A trend analysis of the peak amplitude shows that the peak amplitude is changing during the fuel cycle. When it comes to the analysis of the shell-mode vibration, 1-D analytical and numerical calculations are performed in order to calculate the neutron noise induced in the core. The two calculations are in agreement and show that a large local noise component is present in the core which could be used to classify the shell-mode vibrations. However, a measurement made in the PWR Ringhals-3 shows
Noise Diagnostics of Stationary and Non-Stationary Reactor Processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sunde, Carl
2007-01-01
This thesis concerns the application of noise diagnostics on different problems in the area of reactor physics involving both stationary and non-stationary core processes. Five different problems are treated, divided into three different parts. The first problem treated in the first part is the classification of two-phase flow regimes from neutron radiographic and visible light images with a neuro-wavelet algorithm. The algorithm consists of wavelet pre-processing and of an artificial neural network. The result indicates that the wavelet pre-processing is improving the training of the neural network. Next, detector tubes which are suspected of impacting on nearby fuel-assemblies in a boiling water reactor (BWR) are identified by both a classical spectral method and wavelet-based methods. It was found that there is good agreement between the different methods as well as with visual inspections of detector tube and fuel assembly damage made during the outage at the plant. The third problem addresses the determination of the decay ratio of a BWR from the auto-correlation function (ACF). Here wavelets are used, with some success, both for de-trending and de-nosing of the ACF and also for direct estimation of the decay ratio from the ACF. The second part deals with the analysis of beam-mode and shell-mode core-barrel vibrations in pressurised water reactors (PWRs). The beam-mode vibrations are analysed by using parameters of the vibration peaks, in spectra from ex core detectors. A trend analysis of the peak amplitude shows that the peak amplitude is changing during the fuel cycle. When it comes to the analysis of the shell-mode vibration, 1-D analytical and numerical calculations are performed in order to calculate the neutron noise induced in the core. The two calculations are in agreement and show that a large local noise component is present in the core which could be used to classify the shell-mode vibrations. However, a measurement made in the PWR Ringhals-3 shows
Stationary black holes as holographs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Racz, Istvan [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan); MTA KFKI, Reszecske- es Magfizikai Kutatointezet, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary)
2007-11-21
Smooth spacetimes possessing a (global) one-parameter group of isometries and an associated Killing horizon in Einstein's theory of gravity are investigated. No assumption concerning the asymptotic structure is made; thereby, the selected spacetimes may be considered as generic distorted stationary black holes. First, spacetimes of arbitrary dimension, n {>=} 3, with matter satisfying the dominant energy condition and allowing a non-zero cosmological constant are investigated. In this part, complete characterization of the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is given. It is shown that the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is allowed to possess a much larger variety than that of the isolated black hole configurations. In the second part, four-dimensional (non-degenerate) electrovac distorted black hole spacetimes are considered. It is shown that the spacetime geometry and the electromagnetic field are uniquely determined in the black hole region once the geometry of the bifurcation surface and one of the electromagnetic potentials are specified there. Conditions guaranteeing the same type of determinacy, in a neighbourhood of the event horizon, on the domain of outer communication side are also investigated. In particular, they are shown to be satisfied in the analytic case.
An inversion-relaxation approach for sampling stationary points of spin model Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, Ciaran; Mehta, Dhagash; Wales, David J.
2014-01-01
Sampling the stationary points of a complicated potential energy landscape is a challenging problem. Here, we introduce a sampling method based on relaxation from stationary points of the highest index of the Hessian matrix. We illustrate how this approach can find all the stationary points for potentials or Hamiltonians bounded from above, which includes a large class of important spin models, and we show that it is far more efficient than previous methods. For potentials unbounded from above, the relaxation part of the method is still efficient in finding minima and transition states, which are usually the primary focus of attention for atomistic systems
On the Existence of Solutions for Stationary Mean-Field Games with Congestion
Evangelista, David
2017-09-11
Mean-field games (MFGs) are models of large populations of rational agents who seek to optimize an objective function that takes into account their location and the distribution of the remaining agents. Here, we consider stationary MFGs with congestion and prove the existence of stationary solutions. Because moving in congested areas is difficult, agents prefer to move in non-congested areas. As a consequence, the model becomes singular near the zero density. The existence of stationary solutions was previously obtained for MFGs with quadratic Hamiltonians thanks to a very particular identity. Here, we develop robust estimates that give the existence of a solution for general subquadratic Hamiltonians.
On the Existence of Solutions for Stationary Mean-Field Games with Congestion
Evangelista, David; Gomes, Diogo A.
2017-01-01
Mean-field games (MFGs) are models of large populations of rational agents who seek to optimize an objective function that takes into account their location and the distribution of the remaining agents. Here, we consider stationary MFGs with congestion and prove the existence of stationary solutions. Because moving in congested areas is difficult, agents prefer to move in non-congested areas. As a consequence, the model becomes singular near the zero density. The existence of stationary solutions was previously obtained for MFGs with quadratic Hamiltonians thanks to a very particular identity. Here, we develop robust estimates that give the existence of a solution for general subquadratic Hamiltonians.
Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)
1996-12-31
Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.
ANALYSIS, OPTIMAL CONTROL, AND SIMULATION OF CONDUCTIVE-RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Philip
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This article surveys recent results regarding the existence of weaksolutions to quasilinear partial differential equations(PDEcouplednonlocally by the integral operator of the radiosity equation, modeling conductive-radiative heat transfer. Both the stationary and the transient case are considered. For the stationary case, an optimal control problem with control constraints is presented withfirst-order necessary optimality conditions, where recent results on the solution theory of the linearized state equation allow to close a previous gap.Afinite volume scheme for the discretization of the stationary system is described and, based on this scheme, a numerical computation of the temperaturefield(solution of the state equationis shown as well as the numerical solution to a realistic control problem in the context of industrial applications in crystal growth.
Stationary axisymmetric Einstein--Maxwell field equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catenacci, R.; Diaz Alonso, J.
1976-01-01
We show the existence of a formal identity between Einstein's and Ernst's stationary axisymmetric gravitational field equations and the Einstein--Maxwell and the Ernst equations for the electrostatic and magnetostatic axisymmetric cases. Our equations are invariant under very simple internal symmetry groups, and one of them appears to be new. We also obtain a method for associating two stationary axisymmetric vacuum solutions with every electrostatic known
Stationary inﬁnitely divisible processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.
Several recent strands of work has led to the consideration of various types of continuous time stationary and infinitely divisible processes. A review of these types, with some new results, is presented.......Several recent strands of work has led to the consideration of various types of continuous time stationary and infinitely divisible processes. A review of these types, with some new results, is presented....
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Analysis: Lessons Learned from Stationary Power Generation Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scott E. Grasman; John W. Sheffield; Fatih Dogan; Sunggyu Lee; Umit O. Koylu; Angie Rolufs
2010-04-30
This study considered opportunities for hydrogen in stationary applications in order to make recommendations related to RD&D strategies that incorporate lessons learned and best practices from relevant national and international stationary power efforts, as well as cost and environmental modeling of pathways. The study analyzed the different strategies utilized in power generation systems and identified the different challenges and opportunities for producing and using hydrogen as an energy carrier. Specific objectives included both a synopsis/critical analysis of lessons learned from previous stationary power programs and recommendations for a strategy for hydrogen infrastructure deployment. This strategy incorporates all hydrogen pathways and a combination of distributed power generating stations, and provides an overview of stationary power markets, benefits of hydrogen-based stationary power systems, and competitive and technological challenges. The motivation for this project was to identify the lessons learned from prior stationary power programs, including the most significant obstacles, how these obstacles have been approached, outcomes of the programs, and how this information can be used by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program to meet program objectives primarily related to hydrogen pathway technologies (production, storage, and delivery) and implementation of fuel cell technologies for distributed stationary power. In addition, the lessons learned address environmental and safety concerns, including codes and standards, and education of key stakeholders.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yinping
2009-01-01
In this paper, we study the existence, uniqueness and global stability of periodic solution (i.e. stationary oscillation) for general bidirectional associative memory neural networks with impulses. Some sufficient conditions are obtained for stationary oscillation of the nonautonomous bidirectional associative memory neural networks with impulses. It is derived by using a new method which is different from those of previous literatures, and a assumption in previous results does not required. The model considered is more general and some previous results are extended and improved. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness and less conservativeness of the obtained results.
Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Won Sik; Grandy, Andrew; Boroski, Andrew; Krajtl, Lubomir; Johnson, Terry
2015-01-01
For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel
Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Grandy, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boroski, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krajtl, Lubomir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Johnson, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2015-09-30
For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel
Stationary radiation of objects with scattering media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasil'eva, Inna A
2001-01-01
The radiation observed inside or outside a stationary radiator with a scattering medium is a sum of components, each being determined by, first, the primary radiation from some part of the radiator and, second, the probability of this radiation reaching the region where it is observed. In this review, general and rather simple relations between these components are discussed. These relations, unlike the components themselves, are independent of the specific optical characteristics of the object as well as of its geometry, inhomogeneity, etc. In deriving the relations, the situations in which geometrical optics is either applicable or inapplicable to radiation in a scattering medium are considered. For the case where geometrical optics does apply, stationary relations are derived from the probabilistic stationarity condition for radiation passing through the medium, i.e., from the fact that all radiation emitted in a stationary regime disappears with probability unity. Equilibrium relations are derived from the stationary relations in the particular case of a thermal radiator in an isothermal cavity. To derive the stationary relations in the geometrical optics approximation, we obtain general solutions of the linear equation of transfer using the Green function approach. If geometrical optics cannot be applied to a scattering and radiating medium, only relations for the components of outgoing thermal radiation are obtained, and the generalized Kirchhoff law, obtained by Levin and Rytov using statistical radio-physics methods, is employed. In this case, stationary relations are also derived from a probabilistic stationarity condition; the equilibrium relations follow from the stationary ones as well as from the equilibrium condition for radiation in the isothermal cavity. The quantities involved in all the relations obtained are a subject of experimental and computational spectroscopic studies. Examples of current and potential applications are given. The relations
Plasma oscillations in a stationary external magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciulli, S [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow (USSR); Micu, M [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania)
1958-07-01
The stationary distribution function as well as the small deviations from the stationary state of a gas discharge using the Boltzmann equation is studied as a basis for the calculations. The stationary problem which is discussed corresponds to plasma with cylindrical symmetry. It leads to a Maxwell velocity distribution and to a spatial distribution function which has the asymptotic form 1/r{sup 4}. The plasma perturbations are estimated by the deviations of the first order moments from their Maxwell values. A homogeneous system of differential equations is derived for the Fourier amplitudes of the magnetic field and their asymptotic form is studied. The dispersion relation is obtained by joining smoothly a solution regular at the origin with the regular asymptotic one.A number of idealizations and approximations have been made in the present analysis which limit the utility of the formulae obtained. For example, if the collision term is included in the Boltzmann equation additional quantities appear in the final results, i.e., viscosity, thermal and electrical conductivity, etc. Furthermore, the finite dimensions of linear discharge tubes or the toroidal form of some discharges strongly modify the present results. Taking into account these additional effects, exact solutions are to be obtained numerically for different values of the experimental parameters.
Stability and instability of stationary solutions for sublinear parabolic equations
Kajikiya, Ryuji
2018-01-01
In the present paper, we study the initial boundary value problem of the sublinear parabolic equation. We prove the existence of solutions and investigate the stability and instability of stationary solutions. We show that a unique positive and a unique negative stationary solutions are exponentially stable and give the exact exponent. We prove that small stationary solutions are unstable. For one space dimensional autonomous equations, we elucidate the structure of stationary solutions and study the stability of all stationary solutions.
Towards Gravitating Discs around Stationary Black Holes
Semerák, Oldřich
This article outlines the search for an exact general relativistic description of the exterior(vacuum) gravitational field of a rotating spheroidal black hole surrounded by a realistic axially symmetric disc of matter. The problem of multi-body stationary spacetimes is first exposed from the perspective of the relativity theory (section 1) and astrophysics (section 2), listing the basic methods employed and results obtained. Then (in section 3) basic formulas for stationary axisymmetric solutions are summarized. Sections 4 and 5 review what we have learnt with Miroslav Žáček and Tomáš Zellerin about certain static and stationary situations recently. Concluding remarks are given in section 6. Although the survey part is quite general, the list of references cannot be complete.Our main desideratum was the informative value rather than originality — novelties have been preferred, mainly reviews and those with detailed introductions.
Stationary Double Layers in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Noriyoshi, Sato; Mieno, Tetsu; Hatakeyama, Rikizo
1983-01-01
of the plate on the low-potential side, being accompanied with current limitation. This localized potential drop moves along the plasma column, but finally stops and results in the formation of the stationary double layer in the presence of sufficient plasma supply from the plate on the high-potential side.......Stationary double layers are generated in a magnetoplasma by applying potential differences between two heated plates on which the plasma is produced by surface ionization. By measuring the double-layer formation process, a localized potential drop is found to be formed initially in front...
The stationary Alfven wave in laboratory and space regimes
Finnegan, S. M.
In this thesis, a non-linear, collisional, two-fluid model of uniform plasma convection across field-aligned current (FAC) sheets, describing stationary Alfven (StA) waves is developed in support of laboratory experiments performed to test the hypothesis that a stationary inertial Alfven wave pattern forms within a channel of parallel electron current across which plasma is convected. In a previous work, Knudsen (D. J. Knudsen, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,761 (1996)) showed that, for cold, collisionless plasma, stationary inertial Alfven (StIA) waves can accelerate electrons parallel to a background magnetic field and cause large, time-independent plasma-density variations having spatial periodicity in the direction of the convective flow over a broad range of spatial scales and energies. Here, Knudsen's model has been generalized for warm, collisional, anisotropic plasma. The inclusion of parallel electron thermal pressure introduces dispersive effects which extend the model to the kinetic (beta > me/mi) regime. The effects of both ion-neutral and electron-ion collisional resistivity on StIA and stationary kinetic Alfven (StKA) wave solutions is studied. Conditions for both periodic and solitary wave solutions are identified. In the small amplitude limit, it is shown that the StA wave equation reduces to the differential equation describing the behavior of a forced harmonic oscillator. Analytical solutions are obtained for both a step and impulse, of finite width, forcing functions. Plasma rotation experiments in the West Virginia University Q-machine (WVUQ) demonstrate that an electron-emitting spiral electrode produces controllable, parabolic radial profile of floating potential, while the space potential showed no such structure. Laser-induced fluorescence measurements confirmed that the azimuthal ion drift velocity is inconsistent with a drift due to a gradient in the space potential. Experiments designed to produce StIA wave signatures were performed in the
A Novel Vehicle Stationary Detection Utilizing Map Matching and IMU Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md. Syedul Amin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Precise navigation is a vital need for many modern vehicular applications. The global positioning system (GPS cannot provide continuous navigation information in urban areas. The widely used inertial navigation system (INS can provide full vehicle state at high rates. However, the accuracy diverges quickly in low cost microelectromechanical systems (MEMS based INS due to bias, drift, noise, and other errors. These errors can be corrected in a stationary state. But detecting stationary state is a challenging task. A novel stationary state detection technique from the variation of acceleration, heading, and pitch and roll of an attitude heading reference system (AHRS built from the inertial measurement unit (IMU sensors is proposed. Besides, the map matching (MM algorithm detects the intersections where the vehicle is likely to stop. Combining these two results, the stationary state is detected with a smaller timing window of 3 s. A longer timing window of 5 s is used when the stationary state is detected only from the AHRS. The experimental results show that the stationary state is correctly identified and the position error is reduced to 90% and outperforms previously reported work. The proposed algorithm would help to reduce INS errors and enhance the performance of the navigation system.
Main principles of development stationary training facilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsiptsyura, R.D.
1986-01-01
The designation of stationary training facilities is shown and the main requirements for them are formulated. When considering the above-mentioned requirements, special attention was paid to obligatory correspondence between training experience and practical skill of an operator. It is shown, that the switchboard block is the major unit of the training facility, which should develop skills and habits of an operator
Stationary solutions and asymptotic flatness I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiris, Martin
2014-01-01
In general relativity, a stationary isolated system is defined as an asymptotically flat (AF) stationary spacetime with compact material sources. Other definitions that are less restrictive on the type of asymptotic could in principle be possible. Between this article and its sequel, we show that under basic assumptions, asymptotic flatness indeed follows as a consequence of Einstein's theory. In particular, it is proved that any vacuum stationary spacetime-end whose (quotient) manifold is diffeomorphic to R 3 minus a ball and whose Killing field has its norm bounded away from zero, is necessarily AF with Schwarzschildian fall off. The ‘excised’ ball would contain (if any) the actual material body, but this information is unnecessary to reach the conclusion. In this first article, we work with weakly asymptotically flat (WAF) stationary ends, a notion that generalizes as much as possible that of the AF end, and prove that WAF ends are AF with Schwarzschildian fall off. Physical and mathematical implications are also discussed. (paper)
Stone Stability under Stationary Nonuniform Flows
Steenstra, Remco; Hofland, B.; Paarlberg, Andries; Smale, Alfons; Huthoff, Fredrik; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.
2016-01-01
A stability parameter for rock in bed protections under nonuniform stationary flow is derived. The influence of the mean flow velocity, turbulence, and mean acceleration of the flow are included explicitly in the parameter. The relatively new notion of explicitly incorporating the mean acceleration
New interval forecast for stationary autoregressive models ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, we proposed a new forecasting interval for stationary Autoregressive, AR(p) models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. Ordinarily, the AIC function is used to determine the order of an AR(p) process. In this study however, AIC forecast interval compared favorably with the theoretical forecast ...
Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Armas, J.; Obers, N.A.
2013-01-01
under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent...
Characterization of Stationary Distributions of Reflected Diffusions
2014-01-01
operations research to finance and mathemat- ical physics , and their stationary distributions often serve to characterize or approximate important...REFERENCES [1] Atar , R., Budhiraja, A. and Dupuis, P. (2001). On positive recurrence of constrained diffusion processes. Ann. Probab., 29 No. 2, 979-1000
The stationary states of interacting fields
Frazer, W.R.; Hove, Léon van
1958-01-01
As an application of a time-independent perturbation formalism developed earlier for systems with many degrees of freedom, we give in terms of diagrams the general perturbation expressions for the exact stationary states of interacting fields. The physical vacuum is obtained by applying to the bare
Calendar Year 2016 Stationary Source Emissions Inventory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-01-01
The City of Albuquerque (COA) Environmental Health Department Air Quality Program has issued stationary source permits and registrations the Department of Energy/Sandia Field Office for operations at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. This emission inventory report meets the annual reporting compliance requirements for calendar year (CY) 2016 as required by the COA.
Chaotic Bohmian trajectories for stationary states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cesa, Alexandre; Martin, John; Struyve, Ward
2016-01-01
In Bohmian mechanics, the nodes of the wave function play an important role in the generation of chaos. However, so far, most of the attention has been on moving nodes; little is known about the possibility of chaos in the case of stationary nodes. We address this question by considering stationary states, which provide the simplest examples of wave functions with stationary nodes. We provide examples of stationary wave functions for which there is chaos, as demonstrated by numerical computations, for one particle moving in three spatial dimensions and for two and three entangled particles in two dimensions. Our conclusion is that the motion of the nodes is not necessary for the generation of chaos. What is important is the overall complexity of the wave function. That is, if the wave function, or rather its phase, has a complex spatial variation, it will lead to complex Bohmian trajectories and hence to chaos. Another aspect of our work concerns the average Lyapunov exponent, which quantifies the overall amount of chaos. Since it is very hard to evaluate the average Lyapunov exponent analytically, which is often computed numerically, it is useful to have simple quantities that agree well with the average Lyapunov exponent. We investigate possible correlations with quantities such as the participation ratio and different measures of entanglement, for different systems and different families of stationary wave functions. We find that these quantities often tend to correlate to the amount of chaos. However, the correlation is not perfect, because, in particular, these measures do not depend on the form of the basis states used to expand the wave function, while the amount of chaos does. (paper)
Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources
This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide...
Learning Markov models for stationary system behaviors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Yingke; Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred
2012-01-01
to a single long observation sequence, and in these situations existing automatic learning methods cannot be applied. In this paper, we adapt algorithms for learning variable order Markov chains from a single observation sequence of a target system, so that stationary system properties can be verified using......Establishing an accurate model for formal verification of an existing hardware or software system is often a manual process that is both time consuming and resource demanding. In order to ease the model construction phase, methods have recently been proposed for automatically learning accurate...... the learned model. Experiments demonstrate that system properties (formulated as stationary probabilities of LTL formulas) can be reliably identified using the learned model....
Stationary nonimaging lenses for solar concentration.
Kotsidas, Panagiotis; Chatzi, Eleni; Modi, Vijay
2010-09-20
A novel approach for the design of refractive lenses is presented, where the lens is mounted on a stationary aperture and the Sun is tracked by a moving solar cell. The purpose of this work is to design a quasi-stationary concentrator by replacing the two-axis tracking of the Sun with internal motion of the miniaturized solar cell inside the module. Families of lenses are designed with a variation of the simultaneous multiple surface technique in which the sawtooth genetic algorithm is implemented to optimize the geometric variables of the optic in order to produce high fluxes for a range of incidence angles. Finally, we show examples of the technique for lenses with 60° and 30° acceptance half-angles, with low to medium attainable concentrations.
Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes
Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A.
2013-02-01
Fluid mechanics can be formulated on dynamical surfaces of arbitrary codimension embedded in a background space-time. This has been the main object of study of the blackfold approach in which the emphasis has primarily been on stationary fluid configurations. Motivated by this approach we show under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent of the number of space-time dimensions and of the fluid arising from a gravitational dual, reveal the (electro)elastic character of (charged) black branes when considering extrinsic perturbations.
Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, M.; Illerup, J. B.
Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are: SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. Since 1990 the fuel consumption...... in stationary combustion has increased by 12% - the fossil fuel consumption however only by 6%. Despite the increased fuel consumption the emission of several pollutants have decreased due to the improved flue gas cleaning technology, improved burner technology and the change of fuel type used. A considerable...... plants. The emission of PAH increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential boilers and stoves. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated....
Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, M.; Illerup, J. B.
Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOX, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. Since 1990 the fuel consumption...... in stationary combustion has increased by 14% - the fossil fuel consumption however only by 8%. Despite the increased fuel consumption the emission of several pollutants has decreased due to the improved flue gas cleaning technology, improved burner technology and the change of fuel type used. A considerable...... plants. The emission of PAH increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential boilers and stoves. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated...
Solar radiation on Mars: Stationary photovoltaic array
Appelbaum, J.; Sherman, I.; Landis, G. A.
1993-01-01
Solar energy is likely to be an important power source for surface-based operation on Mars. Photovoltaic cells offer many advantages. In this article we have presented analytical expressions and solar radiation data for stationary flat surfaces (horizontal and inclined) as a function of latitude, season and atmospheric dust load (optical depth). The diffuse component of the solar radiation on Mars can be significant, thus greatly affecting the optimal inclination angle of the photovoltaic surface.
Covariance matrix estimation for stationary time series
Xiao, Han; Wu, Wei Biao
2011-01-01
We obtain a sharp convergence rate for banded covariance matrix estimates of stationary processes. A precise order of magnitude is derived for spectral radius of sample covariance matrices. We also consider a thresholded covariance matrix estimator that can better characterize sparsity if the true covariance matrix is sparse. As our main tool, we implement Toeplitz [Math. Ann. 70 (1911) 351–376] idea and relate eigenvalues of covariance matrices to the spectral densities or Fourier transforms...
Quantum field theory in stationary coordinate systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfautsch, J.D.
1981-01-01
Quantum field theory is examined in stationary coordinate systems in Minkowski space. Preliminary to quantization of the scalar field, all of the possible stationary coordinate systems in flat spacetime are classified and explicitly constructed. Six distinct classes of such systems are found. Of these six, three have (identical) event horizons associated with them and five have Killing horizons. Two classes have distinct Killing and event horizons, with an intervening region analogous to the ergosphere in rotating black holes. Particular representatives of each class are selected for subsequent use in the quantum field theory. The scalar field is canonically quantized and a vacuum defined in each of the particular coordinate systems chosen. The vacuum states can be regarded as adapted to the six classes of stationary motions. There are only two vacuum states found, the Minkowski vacuum in those coordinate systems without event horizons and the Fulling vacuum in those with event horizons. The responses of monopole detectors traveling along stationary world lines are calculated in both the Minkowski and Fulling vacuums. The responses for each class of motions are distinct from those for every other class. A vacuum defined by the response of a detector must therefore not be equivalent in general to a vacuum defined by canonical quantization. Quantization of the scalar field within a rotating wedge is examined. It has not been possible to construct mode functions satisfying appropriate boundary conditions on the surface of the wedge. The asymptotic form of the renormalized stress tensor near the surfaces had been calculated and is found to include momentum terms which represent a circulation of energy within the wedge
Stationary black holes: large D analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro
2015-01-01
We consider the effective theory of large D stationary black holes. By solving the Einstein equations with a cosmological constant using the 1/D expansion in near zone of the black hole we obtain the effective equation for the stationary black hole. The effective equation describes the Myers-Perry black hole, bumpy black holes and, possibly, the black ring solution as its solutions. In this effective theory the black hole is represented as an embedded membrane in the background, e.g., Minkowski or Anti-de Sitter spacetime and its mean curvature is given by the surface gravity redshifted by the background gravitational field and the local Lorentz boost. The local Lorentz boost property of the effective equation is observed also in the metric itself. In fact we show that the leading order metric of the Einstein equation in the 1/D expansion is generically regarded as a Lorentz boosted Schwarzschild black hole. We apply this Lorentz boost property of the stationary black hole solution to solve perturbation equations. As a result we obtain an analytic formula for quasinormal modes of the singly rotating Myers-Perry black hole in the 1/D expansion.
Generating stationary entangled states in superconducting qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jing; Liu Yuxi; Li Chunwen; Tarn, T.-J.; Nori, Franco
2009-01-01
When a two-qubit system is initially maximally entangled, two independent decoherence channels, one per qubit, would greatly reduce the entanglement of the two-qubit system when it reaches its stationary state. We propose a method on how to minimize such a loss of entanglement in open quantum systems. We find that the quantum entanglement of general two-qubit systems with controllable parameters can be controlled by tuning both the single-qubit parameters and the two-qubit coupling strengths. Indeed, the maximum fidelity F max between the stationary entangled state, ρ ∞ , and the maximally entangled state, ρ m , can be about 2/3≅max(tr(ρ ∞ ρ m ))=F max , corresponding to a maximum stationary concurrence, C max , of about 1/3≅C(ρ ∞ )=C max . This is significant because the quantum entanglement of the two-qubit system can be produced and kept, even for a long time. We apply our proposal to several types of two-qubit superconducting circuits and show how the entanglement of these two-qubit circuits can be optimized by varying experimentally controllable parameters.
Stationary stochastic processes theory and applications
Lindgren, Georg
2012-01-01
Some Probability and Process BackgroundSample space, sample function, and observablesRandom variables and stochastic processesStationary processes and fieldsGaussian processesFour historical landmarksSample Function PropertiesQuadratic mean propertiesSample function continuityDerivatives, tangents, and other characteristicsStochastic integrationAn ergodic resultExercisesSpectral RepresentationsComplex-valued stochastic processesBochner's theorem and the spectral distributionSpectral representation of a stationary processGaussian processesStationary counting processesExercisesLinear Filters - General PropertiesLinear time invariant filtersLinear filters and differential equationsWhite noise in linear systemsLong range dependence, non-integrable spectra, and unstable systemsThe ARMA-familyLinear Filters - Special TopicsThe Hilbert transform and the envelopeThe sampling theoremKarhunen-Loève expansionClassical Ergodic Theory and MixingThe basic ergodic theorem in L2Stationarity and transformationsThe ergodic th...
Backset-stationary and during car driving.
Jonsson, Bertil; Stenlund, Hans; Björnstig, Ulf
2008-12-01
The aim of the study was to measure and analyze backset, defined as the horizontal distance between the back of the occupant's head and a point located on the ventral/top aspect of the sewn rim of the head restraint, with the car stationary and during driving, in the driver's position in a modern car. A population of 65 subjects, 35 males and 30 females, was studied in a Volvo V70 car, model year 2007. The subjects were studied in the driver's position, in a self-selected posture. Stationary backset was measured with the technique described by Jonsson et al. (2007) and backset during driving with video analysis. Descriptive data were calculated, and variability and correlation analyses were performed. A t-test was used to test differences of means. Significance level was set to 0.05. In comparison to stationary backset, mean backset during driving was 43 mm greater in males and 41 mm greater in females. Driving backset was 44 mm larger in males than in females. Driving backset was moderately correlated (0.37-0.43) to stature, seated height, and seat back angle in males and moderately correlated (0.44-0.52) to hip width, waist circumference, and weight in females. The overall intraclass correlation coefficient for backset during driving was 0.81 (CI: 0.75-0.86). These results may be of use in designing future updates of test protocols/routines for geometric backset, such as RCAR and RCAR-IIWPG.
30 CFR 57.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 57.14115 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14115 Stationary grinding machines. Stationary grinding machines, other than special bit grinders, shall be equipped with— (a) Peripheral hoods...
30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped with...
30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than... the wheel. (3) Safety washers. (b) Grinding wheels shall be operated within the specifications of the...
30 CFR 56.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 56.14115 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14115 Stationary grinding machines. Stationary grinding machines, other than special bit grinders, shall be equipped with— (a) Peripheral hoods capable of...
RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani
2002-03-01
Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.
RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani
2002-12-01
Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 July to 30 September 2002 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on feasibility demonstration of direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection and characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.
RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Steven M. Masutani
2001-08-01
Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.
RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dr. Takashi Nakamura
2003-04-01
Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2002 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on feasibility demonstration of direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection and characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.
RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani
2002-01-01
Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report is the summary first year report covering the reporting period 1 October 2000 to 30 September 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.
RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani
2002-01-01
Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO(sub 2) from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO(sub 2) sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO(sub 2) sequestration system
Learning Theory Estimates with Observations from General Stationary Stochastic Processes.
Hang, Hanyuan; Feng, Yunlong; Steinwart, Ingo; Suykens, Johan A K
2016-12-01
This letter investigates the supervised learning problem with observations drawn from certain general stationary stochastic processes. Here by general, we mean that many stationary stochastic processes can be included. We show that when the stochastic processes satisfy a generalized Bernstein-type inequality, a unified treatment on analyzing the learning schemes with various mixing processes can be conducted and a sharp oracle inequality for generic regularized empirical risk minimization schemes can be established. The obtained oracle inequality is then applied to derive convergence rates for several learning schemes such as empirical risk minimization (ERM), least squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs) using given generic kernels, and SVMs using gaussian kernels for both least squares and quantile regression. It turns out that for independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) processes, our learning rates for ERM recover the optimal rates. For non-i.i.d. processes, including geometrically [Formula: see text]-mixing Markov processes, geometrically [Formula: see text]-mixing processes with restricted decay, [Formula: see text]-mixing processes, and (time-reversed) geometrically [Formula: see text]-mixing processes, our learning rates for SVMs with gaussian kernels match, up to some arbitrarily small extra term in the exponent, the optimal rates. For the remaining cases, our rates are at least close to the optimal rates. As a by-product, the assumed generalized Bernstein-type inequality also provides an interpretation of the so-called effective number of observations for various mixing processes.
Ground Reaction Force and Cadence during Stationary Running Sprint in Water and on Land.
Fontana, H de Brito; Ruschel, C; Haupenthal, A; Hubert, M; Roesler, H
2015-06-01
This study was aimed at analyzing the cadence (Cadmax) and the peak vertical ground reaction force (Fymax) during stationary running sprint on dry land and at hip and chest level of water immersion. We hypothesized that both Fymax and Cadmax depend on the level of immersion and that differences in Cadmax between immersions do not affect Fymax during stationary sprint. 32 subjects performed the exercise at maximum cadence at each immersion level and data were collected with force plates. The results show that Cadmax and Fymax decrease 17 and 58% from dry land to chest immersion respectively, with no effect of cadence on Fymax. While previous studies have shown similar neuromuscular responses between aquatic and on land stationary sprint, our results emphasize the differences in Fymax between environments and levels of immersion. Additionally, the characteristics of this exercise permit maximum movement speed in water to be close to the maximum speed on dry land. The valuable combination of reduced risk of orthopedic trauma with similar neuromuscular responses is provided by the stationary sprint exercise in water. The results of this study support the rationale behind the prescription of stationary sprinting in sports training sessions as well as rehabilitation programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Dynamics in stationary, non-globally hyperbolic spacetimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seggev, Itai [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2004-06-07
Classically, the dynamics of a scalar field in a non-globally hyperbolic spacetime is ill-posed. Previously, a prescription was given for defining dynamics in static spacetimes in terms of a second-order operator acting on a Hilbert space defined on static slices. The present work extends this result by giving a similar prescription for defining dynamics in stationary spacetimes obeying certain mild assumptions. The prescription is defined in terms of a first-order operator acting on a different Hilbert space from that used in the static prescription. It preserves the important properties of the earlier prescription: the formal solution agrees with the Cauchy evolution within the domain of dependence, and smooth data of compact support always give rise to smooth solutions. In the static case, the first-order formalism agrees with the second-order formalism (using specifically the Friedrichs extension). Applications to field quantization are also discussed.
Stationary and non-stationary extreme value modeling of extreme temperature in Malaysia
Hasan, Husna; Salleh, Nur Hanim Mohd; Kassim, Suraiya
2014-09-01
Extreme annual temperature of eighteen stations in Malaysia is fitted to the Generalized Extreme Value distribution. Stationary and non-stationary models with trend are considered for each station and the Likelihood Ratio test is used to determine the best-fitting model. Results show that three out of eighteen stations i.e. Bayan Lepas, Labuan and Subang favor a model which is linear in the location parameter. A hierarchical cluster analysis is employed to investigate the existence of similar behavior among the stations. Three distinct clusters are found in which one of them consists of the stations that favor the non-stationary model. T-year estimated return levels of the extreme temperature are provided based on the chosen models.
Thermal conductivity of granular materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buyevich, Yu A
1974-01-01
Stationary heat transfer in a granular material consisting of a continuous medium containing spherical granules of other substances is considered under the assumption that the spatial distribution of granules is random. The effective thermal conductivity characterizing macroscopic heat transfer in such a material is expressed as a certain function of the conductivities and volume fractions of the medium and dispersed substances. For reasons of mathematical analogy, all the results obtained for the thermal conductivity are valid while computing the effective diffusivity of some admixture in granular materials as well as for evaluation of the effective electric conductivity or the mean dielectric and magnetic permeabilities of granular conductors and dielectrics. (23 refs.)
Localization and stationary phase approximation on supermanifolds
Zakharevich, Valentin
2017-08-01
Given an odd vector field Q on a supermanifold M and a Q-invariant density μ on M, under certain compactness conditions on Q, the value of the integral ∫Mμ is determined by the value of μ on any neighborhood of the vanishing locus N of Q. We present a formula for the integral in the case where N is a subsupermanifold which is appropriately non-degenerate with respect to Q. In the process, we discuss the linear algebra necessary to express our result in a coordinate independent way. We also extend the stationary phase approximation and the Morse-Bott lemma to supermanifolds.
Non-stationary compositions of Anosov diffeomorphisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stenlund, Mikko
2011-01-01
Motivated by non-equilibrium phenomena in nature, we study dynamical systems whose time-evolution is determined by non-stationary compositions of chaotic maps. The constituent maps are topologically transitive Anosov diffeomorphisms on a two-dimensional compact Riemannian manifold, which are allowed to change with time—slowly, but in a rather arbitrary fashion. In particular, such systems admit no invariant measure. By constructing a coupling, we prove that any two sufficiently regular distributions of the initial state converge exponentially with time. Thus, a system of this kind loses memory of its statistical history rapidly
Stationary stochastic processes for scientists and engineers
Lindgren, Georg; Sandsten, Maria
2013-01-01
""This book is designed for a first course in stationary stochastic processes in science and engineering and does a very good job in introducing many concepts and ideas to students in these fields. … the book has probably been tested in the classroom many times, which also manifests itself in its virtual lack of typos. … Another great feature of the book is that it contains a wealth of worked example from many different fields. These help clarify concepts and theorems and I believe students will appreciate them-I certainly did. … The book is well suited for a one-semester course as it contains
Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heusler Markus
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.
Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piotr T. Chruściel
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.
Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.
Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S
2016-08-01
The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and
Shin, Yechul; Kang, Sarah M.; Watanabe, Masahiro
2017-12-01
Previous studies suggest large uncertainties in the stationary wave response under global warming. Here, we investigate how the Arctic climate responds to changes in the latitudinal position of stationary waves, and to high-latitudes surface warming that mimics the effect of Arctic sea ice loss under global warming. To generate stationary waves in an atmospheric model coupled to slab ocean, a series of experiments is performed where the thermal forcing with a zonal wavenumber-2 (with zero zonal-mean) is prescribed at the surface at different latitude bands in the Northern Hemisphere. When the stationary waves are generated in the subtropics, the cooling response dominates over the warming response in the lower troposphere due to cloud radiative effects. Then, the low-level baroclinicity is reduced in the subtropics, which gives rise to a poleward shift of the eddy driven jet, thereby inducing substantial cooling in the northern high latitudes. As the stationary waves are progressively generated at higher latitudes, the zonal-mean climate state gradually becomes more similar to the integration with no stationary waves. These differences in the mean climate affect the Arctic climate response to high-latitudes surface warming. Additional surface heating over the Arctic is imposed to the reference climates in which the stationary waves are located at different latitude bands. When the stationary waves are positioned at lower latitudes, the eddy driven jet is located at higher latitude, closer to the prescribed Arctic heating. As baroclinicity is more effectively perturbed, the jet shifts more equatorward that accompanies a larger reduction in the poleward eddy transport of heat and momentum. A stronger eddy-induced descending motion creates greater warming over the Arctic. Our study calls for a more accurate simulation of the present-day stationary wave pattern to enhance the predictability of the Arctic warming response in a changing climate.
Tropical influence on boreal summer mid-latitude stationary waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Douville, Herve [Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, Toulouse (France); CNRM/GMGEC/VDR, Toulouse (France); Bielli, S.; Deque, M.; Tyteca, S.; Voldoire, A. [Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, Toulouse (France); Cassou, C. [CNRS-Cerfacs, Toulouse (France); Hall, N.M.J. [CNES/LEGOS, Toulouse (France)
2011-11-15
While organized tropical convection is a well-known source of extratropical planetary waves, state-of-the-art climate models still show serious deficiencies in simulating accurately the atmospheric response to tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and the associated teleconnections. In the present study, the remote influence of the tropical atmospheric circulation is evaluated in ensembles of global boreal summer simulations in which the Arpege-Climat atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) is nudged towards 6-h reanalyses. The nudging is applied either in the whole tropical band or in a regional summer monsoon domain. Sensitivity tests to the experimental design are first conducted using prescribed climatological SST. They show that the tropical relaxation does not improve the zonal mean extratropical climatology but does lead to a significantly improved representation of the mid-latitude stationary waves in both hemispheres. Low-pass filtering of the relaxation fields has no major effect on the model response, suggesting that high-frequency tropical variability is not responsible for extratropical biases. Dividing the nudging strength by a factor 10 only decreases the magnitude of the response. Model errors in each monsoon domain contribute to deficiencies in the model's mid-latitude climatology, although an exaggerated large-scale subsidence in the central equatorial Pacific appears as the main source of errors for the representation of stationary waves in the Arpege-Climat model. Case studies are then conducted using either climatological or observed SST. The focus is first on summer 2003 characterized by a strong and persistent anticyclonic anomaly over western Europe. This pattern is more realistic in nudging experiments than in simulations only driven by observed SST, especially when the nudging domain is centred over Central America. Other case studies also show a significant tropical forcing of the summer mid-latitude stationary waves
Ionic liquid stationary phases for gas chromatography.
Poole, Colin F; Poole, Salwa K
2011-04-01
This article provides a summary of the development of ionic liquids as stationary phases for gas chromatography beginning with early work on packed columns that established details of the retention mechanism and established working methods to characterize selectivity differences compared with molecular stationary phases through the modern development of multi-centered cation and cross-linked ionic liquids for high-temperature applications in capillary gas chromatography. Since there are many reviews on ionic liquids dealing with all aspects of their chemical and physical properties, the emphasis in this article is placed on the role of gas chromatography played in the design of ionic liquids of low melting point, high thermal stability, high viscosity, and variable selectivity for separations. Ionic liquids provide unprecedented opportunities for extending the selectivity range and temperature-operating range of columns for gas chromatography, an area of separation science that has otherwise been almost stagnant for over a decade. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Eddy current inspection of stationary blade rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krzywosz, K.J.; Hastings, S.N.
1994-01-01
Stationary turbine blade rings in a US power plant have experienced chloride-induced cracking. Failure analysis determined two types of cracking mechanisms: corrosion fatigue cracking confined to the leading edge of the outer shroud; and stress corrosion cracking present all over the blade surface. Fluorescent dye penetrant is typically used to detect and size cracks. However, it requires cleaning the blade rings by sandblasting to obtain reliable inspection results. Sand blasting in turn requires sealing the lower half of the turbine housing to prevent sand from contaminating the rest of the power plant components. Furthermore, both the penetrant examination and the removal of the sand are time consuming and costly. An alternative NDE technique is desirable which requires no pre-cleaning of the blade and a quick go/no-go inspection with the capability of estimating the crack length. This paper presents an innovative eddy current technique which meets the desired objectives by incorporating the use of specially designed contoured scanners equipped with an array of pancake coils. A set of eddy current pancake coils housed in three different scanners is used to manually scan and inspect the convex side of the stationary blade rings. The pancake coils are operated in a transmit/receive mode using two separate eddy current instruments. This paper presents the inspection concept, including scanner and probe designs, and test results from the various stages of multiple blade rings
Concentration and limit behaviors of stationary measures
Huang, Wen; Ji, Min; Liu, Zhenxin; Yi, Yingfei
2018-04-01
In this paper, we study limit behaviors of stationary measures of the Fokker-Planck equations associated with a system of ordinary differential equations perturbed by a class of multiplicative noise including additive white noise case. As the noises are vanishing, various results on the invariance and concentration of the limit measures are obtained. In particular, we show that if the noise perturbed systems admit a uniform Lyapunov function, then the stationary measures form a relatively sequentially compact set whose weak∗-limits are invariant measures of the unperturbed system concentrated on its global attractor. In the case that the global attractor contains a strong local attractor, we further show that there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which all limit measures are actually concentrated on the local attractor; and on the contrary, in the presence of a strong local repeller in the global attractor, there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which no limit measure can be concentrated on the local repeller. Moreover, we show that if there is a strongly repelling equilibrium in the global attractor, then limit measures with respect to typical families of multiplicative noises are always concentrated away from the equilibrium. As applications of these results, an example of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and an example with non-decomposable ω-limit sets are provided. Our study is closely related to the problem of noise stability of compact invariant sets and invariant measures of the unperturbed system.
Stationary two-variable gravitational vortex fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koppel, A.
1974-01-01
Some properties of stationary two-variable solutions of the Einstein equations were studied on the basis of rigorous analysis of the nonrelativistic limit of the relativistic gravitation theory. For this case a particular method was developed of determining so-called vortex gravitational fields described by vortex solutions, which in the nonrelativistic limit transform from → infinity to the nonnewtonian type solutions. The main formulae for such fields are derived and a scheme for their calculation is presented. It is shown that under certain conditions the exact stationary solutions of the Papapetrou type for vacuum relativistic equations are vortical. From this fact, first, the presence of particular exact vortical solutions for the Einstein equations is proved, and secondly, a new possibility of a physical interpretation is proposed for the Papapetrou solutions. It is also shown that the nonrelativistic limit of this class of solutions strongly depends on the structure of solution parameters (under certain conditions these solutions may also have the Newtonian limit). 'Multipole' and 'one-variable' partial solutions of the Papapetrou class solution are derived as particular examples of vortical solutions. It is shown that for a specific parameter structure the known NUT solution is also vortical, since it belongs to the Papapetrou class [ru
RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takashi Nakamura
2004-11-01
Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run further, pilot and full scale, carbon sequestration tests with actual propane combustion gases utilizing two different strains of microalgae. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns. Aquasearch also tested an alternative cell separation technology. University of Hawaii performed experiments at the Mera Pharmaceuticals facility in Kona in mid June to obtain data on the carbon venting rate out of the photobioreactor; gas venting rates were measured with an orifice flow meter and gas samples were collected for GC analysis to determine the carbon content of the vented gases.
The application of unattended ground sensors to stationary targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sleefe, G.E.; Peglow, S.; Hamrick, R.
1997-01-01
The unattended sensing of stationary (i.e. non-mobile) targets is important in applications ranging from counter-proliferation to law enforcement. With stationary targets, sources of seismic, acoustic, and electro-magnetic emissions can potentially be used to detect, identify, and locate the target. Stationary targets have considerably different sensing requirements than the traditional mobile-target unattended ground sensor applications. This paper presents the novel features and requirements of a system for sensing stationary targets. In particular, issues associated with long-listen time signal processing for signal detection, and array processing techniques for signal localization are presented. Example data and signal processing outputs from a stationary target will be used to illustrate these issues. The impact on sensor, electronic signal processing, battery subsystem, and communication requirements will also be discussed. The paper will conclude with a detailed comparison between mobile-target and stationary-target unattended ground sensor architectures
Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)
2012-02-07
Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough
Stationary closed strings in five-dimensional flat spacetime
Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Nishiwaki, Keisuke
2012-11-01
We investigate stationary rotating closed Nambu-Goto strings in five-dimensional flat spacetime. The stationary string is defined as a world sheet that is tangent to a timelike Killing vector. The Nambu-Goto equation of motion for the stationary string is reduced to the geodesic equation on the orbit space of the isometry group action generated by the Killing vector. We take a linear combination of a time-translation vector and space-rotation vectors as the Killing vector, and explicitly construct general solutions of stationary rotating closed strings in five-dimensional flat spacetime. We show a variety of their configurations and properties.
Quantum teleportation between stationary macroscopic objects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bao, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Pan, Jian-Wei [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Xu, Xiao-Fan [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Li, Che-Ming [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)
2010-07-01
Quantum teleportation is a process to transfer a quantum state of an object without transferring the state carrier itself. So far, most of the teleportation experiments realized are within the photonic regime. For the teleportation of stationary states, the largest system reported is a single ion. We are now performing an experiment to teleport the state of an macroscopic atomic cloud which consists about 10{sup 6} single atoms. In our experiment two atomic ensembles are utilized. In the first ensemble A we prepare the collective atomic state to be teleported using the quantum feedback technique. The second ensemble B is utilized to generate entanglement between it collective state with a scattered single-photon. Teleportation is realized by converting the atomic state of A to a single-photon and making a Bell state measurement with the scattered single-photon from ensemble B.
Landau superfluids as nonequilibrium stationary states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wreszinski, Walter F.
2015-01-01
We define a superfluid state to be a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS), which, at zero temperature, satisfies certain metastability conditions, which physically express that there should be a sufficiently small energy-momentum transfer between the particles of the fluid and the surroundings (e.g., pipe). It is shown that two models, the Girardeau model and the Huang-Yang-Luttinger (HYL) model, describe superfluids in this sense and, moreover, that, in the case of the HYL model, the metastability condition is directly related to Nozières’ conjecture that, due to the repulsive interaction, the condensate does not suffer fragmentation into two (or more) parts, thereby assuring its quantum coherence. The models are rigorous examples of NESS in which the system is not finite, but rather a many-body system
Modified method of perturbed stationary states. I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, T.A.
1978-10-01
The reaction coordinate approach of Mittleman is used to generalize the method of Perturbed Stationary States. A reaction coordinate is defined for each state in the scattering expansion in terms of parameters which depend on the internuclear separation. These are to be determined from a variational principle described by Demkov. The variational result agrees with that of Bates and McCarroll in the limit of separated atoms, but is generally different elsewhere. The theory is formulated for many-electron systems, and the construction of the scattering expansion is discussed for simple one-, two-, and three-electron systsm. The scattering expansion and the Lagrangian for the radial scattering functions are given in detail for a heteronuclear one-electron system. 2 figures
Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt
Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, NH3, particulate matter, heavy metals, PCDD/F, HCB and PAH. The CO2 emission in 2011...... of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably until 2007 resulting in increased emission of PAH and particulate matter. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased...... combustion of wood in residential plants and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The PCDD/F emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants....
Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt
Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, NH3, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, HCB and PAH. The CO2 emission in 2008...... incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably in recent years resulting in increased emission of PAH, particulate matter and CO. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased combustion of wood in residential plants...... and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The dioxin emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants. However in recent years the emission has increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential plants....
Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt
Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, HCB and PAH. The CO2 emission in 2007 was 10...... incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably in recent years resulting in increased emission of PAH, particulate matter and CO. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased combustion of wood in residential plants...... and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The dioxin emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants. However in recent years the emission has increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential plants....
Stationary spiral flow in polytropic stellar models
Pekeris, C. L.
1980-01-01
It is shown that, in addition to the static Emden solution, a self-gravitating polytropic gas has a dynamic option in which there is stationary flow along spiral trajectories wound around the surfaces of concentric tori. The motion is obtained as a solution of a partial differential equation which is satisfied by the meridional stream function, coupled with Poisson's equation and a Bernoulli-type equation for the pressure (density). The pressure is affected by the whole of the Bernoulli term rather than by the centrifugal part only, which acts for a rotating model, and it may be reduced down to zero at the center. The spiral type of flow is illustrated for an incompressible fluid (n = 0), for which an exact solution is obtained. The features of the dynamic constant-density model are discussed as a basis for future comparison with the solution for compressible models. PMID:16592825
Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling
Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.
2015-06-01
Historical records are an important source of information on extreme and rare floods and fundamental to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historical records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 yr flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their contribution within hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations in flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators, and (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, which incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency
A stationary evacuated collector with integrated concentrator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Snail, K.A.; O' Gallagher, J.J.; Winston, R.
1984-01-01
A comprehensive set of experimental tests and detailed optical and thermal models are presented for a newly developed solar thermal collector. The new collector has an optical efficiency of 65 per cent and achieves thermal efficiencies of better than 50 per cent at fluid temperatures of 200/sup 0/C without tracking the sun. The simultaneous features of high temperature operation and a fully stationary mount are made possible by combining vacuum insulation, spectrally selective coatings, and nonimaging concentration in a novel way. These 3 design elements are ''integrated'' together in a self containe unit by shaping the outer glass envelope of a conventional evacuated tube into the profile of a nonimaging CPC-type concentrator. This permits the use of a first surface mirror and eliminates the need for second cover glazing. The new collector has been given the name ''Integrated Stationary Evacuated Concentrator'', or ISEC collector. Not only is the peak thermal efficiency of the ISEC comparable to that of commercial tracking parabolic troughs, but projections of the average yearly energy delivery also show competitive performance with a net gain for temperatures below 200/sup 0/C. In addition, the ISEC is less subject to exposure induced degradation and could be mass produced with assembly methods similar to those used with fluorescent lamps. Since no tracking or tilt adjustments are ever required and because its sensitive optical surfaces are protected from the environment, the ISEC collector provides a simple, easily maintained solar thermal collector for the range 100-300/sup 0/C which is suitable for most climates and atmospheric conditions. Potential applications include space heating, air conditioning, and industrial process heat.
Stationary flow in magnetic tubes of force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engvold, O.; Jensen, E.
1976-01-01
For one particular set of boundary conditions Pikel'ner obtained a stationary solution displaying a condensation, which he applied to quiescent prominences. Calculations in the stationary case for a range of parameters have been carried out, after some modifications of the basic equations. These modifications involved a complete non-LTE formulation of the ionization equilibrium, an improved radiative loss-function and more accurate values of the thermodynamic parameters. The calculations were carried out for a hydrogen helium mixture with B = 10 and for a pure hydrogen gas. The solutions were terminated where the optical thickness in lyα along the tube exceeded unity, corresponding to T approx.equal to 20 000K. The solutions are strongly dependent upon the geometry of the tube of force. Condensations may be made to appear on the ascending as well as on the descending branch of the magnetic arch by varying the parameters. Solutions also depend strongly upon the energy input into the tube at the footpoint, mainly determined by the injection velocity and the starting value of the temperature gradient. The radiative loss is of less importance for the values of the gas pressure close to the Pikel'ner case. Recent observational data indicate gas pressure in the chromosphere corona transition region as much as 4 times the boundary pressure assumed by Pikel'ner. Such a high initial pressure, however, produce no condensation. In the temperature range 1.2x10 5 K > T > 5x10 4 K the temperature gradients in the condensations are in fair agreement with observations of the CIII lines in the EUV-region. For higher temperatures 5x10 5 K > T > 2x10 5 K our temperature gradients are much smaller than those indicated by observations. (Auth.)
Quasi-stationary gravitational collapse of slowly rotating bodies in general relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, J C [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics
1977-05-01
This paper presents results of quasi-stationary collapse calculations for a class of slowly rotating non-homogeneous bodies in general relativity. The results are qualitatively similar to those obtained previously for homogeneous models indicating that the effects described for the homogeneous models are likely to have some relevance for the gravitational collapse of real stars towards the black hole state. There is also a discussion of some basic questions associated with such calculations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yahalom, A
2014-01-01
Variational principles for magnetohydrodynamics have been introduced by previous authors both in Lagrangian and Eulerian form. Yahalom and Lynden-Bell (2008) have previously introduced simpler Eulerian variational principles from which all the relevant equations of barotropic magnetohydrodynamics can be derived. These variational principles were given in terms of six independent functions for non-stationary barotropic flows with given topologies and three independent functions for stationary barotropic flows. This is less then the seven variables which appear in the standard equations of barotropic magnetohydrodynamics which are the magnetic field B-vector the velocity field v-vector and the density ρ. Later, Yahalom (2010) introduced a simpler variational principle in terms of four functions for non-stationary barotropic magnetohydrodynamics. It was shown that the above variational principles are also relevant for flows of non-trivial topologies and in fact using those variational variables one arrives at additional topological conservation laws in terms of cuts of variables which have close resemblance to the Aharonov- Bohm phase (Yahalom (2013)). In previous examples (Yahalom and Lynden-Bell (2008); Yahalom (2013)) the magnetic field lines with non-trivial topology were at the intersection of two surface one of which was always multivalued; in this paper an example is introduced in which the magnetic helicity is not zero yet both surfaces are single-valued
Analysis of stress and deformation in non-stationary creep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feijoo, R.A.; Taroco, E.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.
1980-12-01
A variational method and its algorithm are presented; they permit the analysis of stress and deformation in non-stationary creep. This algorithm is applied to an infinite cylinder submitted to an internal pressure. The solution obtained is compared with the solution of non-stationary creep problems [pt
Stationary states of two-level open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardas, Bartlomiej; Puchala, Zbigniew
2011-01-01
A problem of finding stationary states of open quantum systems is addressed. We focus our attention on a generic type of open system: a qubit coupled to its environment. We apply the theory of block operator matrices and find stationary states of two-level open quantum systems under certain conditions applied on both the qubit and the surrounding.
Principles of Security Vulnerability Analysis of stationary industrial installations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borysiewicz, M.
2006-01-01
Security and safety have been key priorities at facilities that manufacture, store, use, or handle hazardous chemicals, after the terrorist attacks on the United States of September 11, 2001. Security improvements may be needed, especially at sites that pose a more attractive target to terrorists due to their economic importance, perceived level of consequences, and other factors. The first step in the process of managing security risks is to identify and analyze the threats and the vulnerabilities facing a facility by conducting a Security Vulnerability Analysis (SVA). The SVA is a systematic process that evaluates the likelihood that a threat against a facility will be successful. It considers the potential severity of consequences to the facility itself, to the surrounding community and on the energy supply chain. The objective of conducting a SVA is to identify security hazards, threats, and vulnerabilities facing a facility, and to evaluate the countermeasures to provide for the protection of the public, workers, national interests, the environment, and the company. With this information security risks can be assessed and strategies can be formed to reduce vulnerabilities as required. SVA is a tool to assist management in making decisions on the need for countermeasures to address the threats and vulnerabilities. The paper provides an overview of fundamental steps of SVA for stationary industrial installations. (author)
Modeling stationary and moving pebbles in a pebble bed reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Xiang; Montgomery, Trent; Zhang, Sijun
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The stationary and moving pebbles in a PBR are numerically studied by DEM. • The packing structure of stationary pebbles is simulated by a filling process. • The packing structural properties are obtained and analyzed. • The dynamic behavior of pebbles is predicted and discussed. - Abstract: This paper presents a numerical study of the stationary and moving pebbles in a pebble bed reactor (PBR) by means of discrete element method (DEM). The packing structure of stationary pebbles is simulated by a filling process that terminates with the settling of the pebbles into a PBR. The packing structural properties are obtained and analyzed. Subsequently, when the outlet of the PBR is opened during the operation of the PBR, the stationary pebbles start to flow downward and are removed at the bottom of the PBR. The dynamic behavior of pebbles is predicted and discussed. Our results indicate the DEM can offer both macroscopic and microscopic information for PBR design calculations and safety assessment
Secondary instabilities of hypersonic stationary crossflow waves
Edelman, Joshua B.
A sharp, circular 7° half-angle cone was tested in the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel at 6° angle of attack. Using a variety of roughness configurations, measurements were made using temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) and fast pressure sensors. High-frequency secondary instabilities of the stationary crossflow waves were detected near the aft end of the cone, from 110° to 163° from the windward ray. At least two frequency bands of the secondary instabilities were measured. The secondary instabilities have high coherence between upstream and downstream sensor pairs. In addition, the amplitudes of the instabilities increase with the addition of roughness elements near the nose of the cone. Two of the measured instabilities were captured over a range of axial Reynolds numbers of about 1 - 2 million, with amplitudes ranging from low to turbulent breakdown. For these instabilities, the wave speed and amplitude growth can be calculated. The wave speeds were all near the edge velocity. Measured growth before breakdown for the two instabilities are between e3 and e4 from background noise levels. The initial linear growth rates for the instabilities are near 50 /m. Simultaneous measurement of two frequency bands of the secondary instabilities was made during a single run. It was found that each mode was spatially confined within a small azimuthal region, and that the regions of peak amplitude for one mode correspond to regions of minimal amplitude for the other.
Stationary intraoral tomosynthesis for dental imaging
Inscoe, Christina R.; Wu, Gongting; Soulioti, Danai E.; Platin, Enrique; Mol, Andre; Gaalaas, Laurence R.; Anderson, Michael R.; Tucker, Andrew W.; Boyce, Sarah; Shan, Jing; Gonzales, Brian; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto
2017-03-01
Despite recent advances in dental radiography, the diagnostic accuracies for some of the most common dental diseases have not improved significantly, and in some cases remain low. Intraoral x-ray is the most commonly used x-ray diagnostic tool in dental clinics. It however suffers from the typical limitations of a 2D imaging modality including structure overlap. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) uses high radiation dose and suffers from image artifacts and relatively low resolution. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of developing a stationary intraoral tomosynthesis (s-IOT) using spatially distributed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray array technology, and to evaluate its diagnostic accuracy compared to conventional 2D intraoral x-ray. A bench-top s-IOT device was constructed using a linear CNT based X-ray source array and a digital intraoral detector. Image reconstruction was performed using an iterative reconstruction algorithm. Studies were performed to optimize the imaging configuration. For evaluation of s-IOT's diagnostic accuracy, images of a dental quality assurance phantom, and extracted human tooth specimens were acquired. Results show s-IOT increases the diagnostic sensitivity for caries compared to intraoral x-ray at a comparable dose level.
Growth of microalgae in autotrophic stationary systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo Cunha
2008-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the growth of nine marine microalgae species (Nannochloropsis oculata, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Isochrysis galbana, Tetraselmis suecica, Tetraselmis chuii, Chaetoceros muelleri, Thalassiosira fluviatilis and Isochrysis sp. and one freshwater species (Chlorella vulgaris under stationary autotrophy conditions, using erlenmeyers fl asks with 800mL of culture medium exposed to constant light intensities providing a photon flux density of about 150μmol.m-2.s-1 and 25±2oC temperature and constant air flow. The experiment was carried out in a controlled environment considering a block delineating randomized over time with three replicates. The Nannochloropsis oculata showed the highest value of maximum cellular density, but with a longer period of time and a lower growth rate. This was probably due to its tiny cell size, demanding a large number of cells per volume to attain its optimum conditions for light, nutrients, water and atmospheric carbon dioxide. In addition, in spite of showing one of the lowest values of maximum cellular density, Thalassiosira fluviatilis was the species that reached its maximum in a short period of time at the highest growth rate. Chlorella vulgaris was the only freshwater species tested and it showed the poorest performance for all the variables analyzed in the current study.
Stationary quenching wave in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alikhanov, S.G.; Glushkov, I.S.
1976-01-01
The interaction of a magnetized hot plasma (ωsub(e)tau sub(e)>>1) with cold plasma or a gas leads to the appearanci of a cooling wave. The transition layer between hot and cold plasma is the main source of radiation losses which should be compensated by a heat flow from the hot region. A stationary state is considered, equations are written in the system in which temperature and magnetic field profiles are steady, and the plasma flux with magnetic field passes through the cooling wave. Calculations, have been carried out on a computer. The dependence of the magnetized plasma flux velocity Vsub(r) on the ratio p/Hsub(r) is shown, where p is the pressure, Hsub(r) is the magnetic field in the hot reqion. The dependence of the characteristic dimension of the cooling wave on the magnetic field is determined for the hot plasma region. A considerable fraction of the rediation losses is shown to fall to the region of (ωsub(e)tausub(e)< or approximately)1
Stationary black holes with stringy hair
Boos, Jens; Frolov, Valeri P.
2018-01-01
We discuss properties of black holes which are pierced by special configurations of cosmic strings. For static black holes, we consider radial strings in the limit when the number of strings grows to infinity while the tension of each single string tends to zero. In a properly taken limit, the stress-energy tensor of the string distribution is finite. We call such matter stringy matter. We present a solution of the Einstein equations for an electrically charged static black hole with the stringy matter, with and without a cosmological constant. This solution is a warped product of two metrics. One of them is a deformed 2-sphere, whose Gaussian curvature is determined by the energy density of the stringy matter. We discuss the embedding of a corresponding distorted sphere into a three-dimensional Euclidean space and formulate consistency conditions. We also found a relation between the square of the Weyl tensor invariant of the four-dimensional spacetime of the stringy black holes and the energy density of the stringy matter. In the second part of the paper, we discuss test stationary strings in the Kerr geometry and in its Kerr-NUT-(anti-)de Sitter generalizations. Explicit solutions for strings that are regular at the event horizon are obtained. Using these solutions, the stress-energy tensor of the stringy matter in these geometries is calculated. Extraction of the angular momentum from rotating black holes by such strings is also discussed.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
would exhibit electronic conductivity, their conductivities (of compressed pellets) were indeed measured by others, and were found to be .... Polyaniline. Polyphenylene. Polypheny lene- vinylene. Table 1. G!NeRAl I ARTICl! structure. Maximum conductivity Stem Stability. Processability. ~. 1.5 x 105. Reacts with Film not n air.
Experimental Investigations of a Krypton Stationary Plasma Thruster
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. I. Bugrova
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Stationary plasma thrusters are attractive electric propulsion systems for spacecrafts. The usual propellant is xenon. Among the other suggested propellants, krypton could be one of the best candidates. Most studies have been carried out with a Hall effect thruster previously designed for xenon. The ATON A-3 developed by MSTU MIREA (Moscow initially defined for xenon has been optimized for krypton. The stable high-performance ATON A-3 operation in Kr has been achieved after optimization of its magnetic field configuration and its optimization in different parameters: length and width of the channel, buffer volume dimensions, mode of the cathode operation, and input parameters. For a voltage of 400 V and the anode mass flow rate of 2.5 mg/s the anode efficiency reaches 60% and the specific impulse reaches 2900 s under A-3 operating with Kr. The achieved performances under operation A-3 with Kr are presented and compared with performances obtained with Xe.
New Splitting Criteria for Decision Trees in Stationary Data Streams.
Jaworski, Maciej; Duda, Piotr; Rutkowski, Leszek; Jaworski, Maciej; Duda, Piotr; Rutkowski, Leszek; Rutkowski, Leszek; Duda, Piotr; Jaworski, Maciej
2018-06-01
The most popular tools for stream data mining are based on decision trees. In previous 15 years, all designed methods, headed by the very fast decision tree algorithm, relayed on Hoeffding's inequality and hundreds of researchers followed this scheme. Recently, we have demonstrated that although the Hoeffding decision trees are an effective tool for dealing with stream data, they are a purely heuristic procedure; for example, classical decision trees such as ID3 or CART cannot be adopted to data stream mining using Hoeffding's inequality. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new algorithms, which are both mathematically justified and characterized by good performance. In this paper, we address this problem by developing a family of new splitting criteria for classification in stationary data streams and investigating their probabilistic properties. The new criteria, derived using appropriate statistical tools, are based on the misclassification error and the Gini index impurity measures. The general division of splitting criteria into two types is proposed. Attributes chosen based on type- splitting criteria guarantee, with high probability, the highest expected value of split measure. Type- criteria ensure that the chosen attribute is the same, with high probability, as it would be chosen based on the whole infinite data stream. Moreover, in this paper, two hybrid splitting criteria are proposed, which are the combinations of single criteria based on the misclassification error and Gini index.
A non-stationary cost-benefit based bivariate extreme flood estimation approach
Qi, Wei; Liu, Junguo
2018-02-01
Cost-benefit analysis and flood frequency analysis have been integrated into a comprehensive framework to estimate cost effective design values. However, previous cost-benefit based extreme flood estimation is based on stationary assumptions and analyze dependent flood variables separately. A Non-Stationary Cost-Benefit based bivariate design flood estimation (NSCOBE) approach is developed in this study to investigate influence of non-stationarities in both the dependence of flood variables and the marginal distributions on extreme flood estimation. The dependence is modeled utilizing copula functions. Previous design flood selection criteria are not suitable for NSCOBE since they ignore time changing dependence of flood variables. Therefore, a risk calculation approach is proposed based on non-stationarities in both marginal probability distributions and copula functions. A case study with 54-year observed data is utilized to illustrate the application of NSCOBE. Results show NSCOBE can effectively integrate non-stationarities in both copula functions and marginal distributions into cost-benefit based design flood estimation. It is also found that there is a trade-off between maximum probability of exceedance calculated from copula functions and marginal distributions. This study for the first time provides a new approach towards a better understanding of influence of non-stationarities in both copula functions and marginal distributions on extreme flood estimation, and could be beneficial to cost-benefit based non-stationary bivariate design flood estimation across the world.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peculea, M.; Beca, T.; Constantinescu, D.M.; Dumitrescu, M.; Dimulescu, A.; Isbasescu, G.; Stefanescu, I.; Mihai, M.; Dogaru, C.; Marinescu, M.; Olariu, S.; Constantin, T.; Necula, A.
1995-01-01
This paper refers to testing procedures of the production capacity of heavy water production pilot, industrial scale plants and of heavy water reconcentration facilities. Simulation codes taking into account the mass and heat transfers inside the exchange columns were developed. These codes provided valuable insight about the isotope build-up of the installation which allowed estimating the time of reaching the stationary regime. Also transient regimes following perturbations in the operating parameters (i.e. temperature, pressure, fluid rates) of the installation were simulated and an optimal rate of routine inspections and adjustments was thus established
Urban Noise Recorded by Stationary Monitoring Stations
Bąkowski, Andrzej; Radziszewski, Leszek; Dekýš, Vladimir
2017-10-01
The paper presents the analysis results of equivalent sound level recorded by two road traffic noise monitoring stations. The stations were located in Kielce (an example of a medium-size town in Poland) at the roads in the town in the direction of Łódź and Lublin. The measurements were carried out through stationary stations monitoring the noise and traffic of motor vehicles. The RMS values based on A-weighted sound level were recorded every 1 s in the buffer and the results were registered every 1 min over the period of investigations. The registered data were the basis for calculating the equivalent sound level for three time intervals: from 6:00 to 18:00, from 18:00 to 22:00 and from 22:00 to 6:00. Analysis included the values of the equivalent sound level recorded for different days of the week split into 24h periods, nights, days and evenings. The data analysed included recordings from 2013. The agreement of the distribution of the variable under analysis with normal distribution was evaluated. It was demonstrated that in most cases (for both roads) there was sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis at the significance level of 0.05. It was noted that compared with Łódź Road, in the case of Lublin Road data, more cases were recorded for which the null hypothesis could not be rejected. Uncertainties of the equivalent sound level measurements were compared within the periods under analysis. The standard deviation, coefficient of variation, the positional coefficient of variation, the quartile deviation was proposed for performing a comparative analysis of the obtained data scattering. The investigations indicated that the recorded data varied depending on the traffic routes and time intervals. The differences concerned the values of uncertainties and coefficients of variation of the equivalent sound levels.
Stationary phases for superheated water chromatography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saha, Shikha
2002-01-01
This project focused on the comparison of conventional liquid chromatography and superheated water chromatography. It examined the differences in efficiency and retention of a range of different stationary phases. Alkyl aryl ketones and eight aromatic compounds were separated on PBD-zirconia, Xterra RP 18, Luna C 18 (2) and Oasis HLB columns using conventional LC and superheated water chromatography system. The retention indices were determined in the different eluents. On changing the organic component of the eluent from methanol to acetonitrile to superheated water considerable improvements were found in the peak shapes and column efficiencies on the PBD-zirconia and Oasis HLB columns. PS-DVB, PBD-zirconia and Xterra RP 18 columns have been used in efficiency studies. It was found that simply elevating the column temperature did not increase the efficiency of a separation in superheated water chromatography. The efficiency depended on flow rate, injection volume and also mobile phase preheating system. Although high efficiencies were not achieved with superheated water on PS-DVB and Xterra RP 18 columns, a higher efficiency was achieved on a PBD-zirconia column with superheated water than with 25-35% ACN at room temperature. The proposed theoretical increases in u opt were measured on three columns using superheated water as the mobile phase. The application of the superheated water chromatographic method to the separation of the pungent constituents of ginger by superheated water chromatography-NMR coupling system was studied. The coupling of superheated water chromatography using deuterium oxide to NMR spectroscopy for the separation of dry ginger extract was successful, although the NMR sensitivity in on-line mode coupling system was low. However, four compounds were identified in the ginger extract by stop-flow mode on superheated water chromatography-UV-NMR detection system. (author)
On the existence of classical solutions for stationary extended mean field games
Gomes, Diogo A.; Patrizi, Stefania; Voskanyan, Vardan
2014-01-01
In this paper we consider extended stationary mean-field games, that is mean-field games which depend on the velocity field of the players. We prove various a-priori estimates which generalize the results for quasi-variational mean-field games in Gomes et al. (2012). In addition we use adjoint method techniques to obtain higher regularity bounds. Then we establish the existence of smooth solutions under fairly general conditions by applying the continuity method. When applied to standard stationary mean-field games as in Lasry and Lions (2006), Gomes and Sanchez-Morgado (2011) or Gomes et al. (2012) this paper yields various new estimates and regularity properties not available previously. We discuss additionally several examples where the existence of classical solutions can be proved. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
On the existence of classical solutions for stationary extended mean field games
Gomes, Diogo A.
2014-04-01
In this paper we consider extended stationary mean-field games, that is mean-field games which depend on the velocity field of the players. We prove various a-priori estimates which generalize the results for quasi-variational mean-field games in Gomes et al. (2012). In addition we use adjoint method techniques to obtain higher regularity bounds. Then we establish the existence of smooth solutions under fairly general conditions by applying the continuity method. When applied to standard stationary mean-field games as in Lasry and Lions (2006), Gomes and Sanchez-Morgado (2011) or Gomes et al. (2012) this paper yields various new estimates and regularity properties not available previously. We discuss additionally several examples where the existence of classical solutions can be proved. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Modeling stationary and dynamic pebbles in a pebble bed reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Xiang; Montgomery, Trent; Zhang, Sijun
2011-01-01
This paper presents a numerical study of the stationary and dynamic pebbles in a pebble bed reactor (PBR) by means of discrete element method (DEM). At first, the packing structure of stationary pebbles is simulated by filling process until the settling of pebbles into PBR. The packing structural properties are obtained and analyzed. Subsequently, when the outlet of PBR is open during the operational maintenance of PBR, the stationary pebbles start to flow downward and are removed at the bottom of PBR. The dynamic behavior of pebbles is predicted and discussed. Our results indicate the DEM can offer both macroscopic and microscopic information for PBR design calculations and safety assessment. (author)
Cosmological red shift in the Seeliger-Einstein stationary Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kropotkin, P.N.
1988-01-01
A problem of Seeliger-Einstein stationary Universe is considered. Simple empirical relations between cosmological and physical constants to which attention was paid by Stanukovich K., Dikke R., Dirac P. testify to the supposition on stationary Universe. The Universe expansion being absent, a hypothesis of ''photon aging'' suggested in 1929 by Belopolskij A. and Zwicky F. must be accepted for explanation of Hubble effect. It is stated that abandon the Seeliger-Einstein stationary cosmological model would be premature. Study and comparison of different mechanisms suggested for validation of photon aging hypothesis is necessary
Membrane oscillations in the channel of a stationary plasma motor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugrova, A.I.; Lipatov, A.S.; Morozov, A.I.; Kharchevnikov, V.K.
1999-01-01
Results of measuring the ion flux density in the channel of the stationary plasma drive are presented. Two plane easters move both along and transverse to the plasma flux. During the experiment, the strong low-frequency oscillations (∼ 35 kHz) are observed in the channel of the stationary plasma drive. It is found that membrane oscillations are accompanied by oscillations of the electron temperature. These membrane oscillations affect the divergence of the output plasma jet and the erosion of the output part of the channel of the stationary plasma drive [ru
H2 emission from non-stationary magnetized bow shocks
Tram, L. N.; Lesaffre, P.; Cabrit, S.; Gusdorf, A.; Nhung, P. T.
2018-01-01
When a fast moving star or a protostellar jet hits an interstellar cloud, the surrounding gas gets heated and illuminated: a bow shock is born that delineates the wake of the impact. In such a process, the new molecules that are formed and excited in the gas phase become accessible to observations. In this paper, we revisit models of H2 emission in these bow shocks. We approximate the bow shock by a statistical distribution of planar shocks computed with a magnetized shock model. We improve on previous works by considering arbitrary bow shapes, a finite irradiation field and by including the age effect of non-stationary C-type shocks on the excitation diagram and line profiles of H2. We also examine the dependence of the line profiles on the shock velocity and on the viewing angle: we suggest that spectrally resolved observations may greatly help to probe the dynamics inside the bow shock. For reasonable bow shapes, our analysis shows that low-velocity shocks largely contribute to H2 excitation diagram. This can result in an observational bias towards low velocities when planar shocks are used to interpret H2 emission from an unresolved bow. We also report a large magnetization bias when the velocity of the planar model is set independently. Our 3D models reproduce excitation diagrams in BHR 71 and Orion bow shocks better than previous 1D models. Our 3D model is also able to reproduce the shape and width of the broad H2 1-0S(1) line profile in an Orion bow shock (Brand et al. 1989).
Shape memory thermal conduction switch
Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.
Safety of stationary grinding machines - impact resistance of work zone enclosures.
Mewes, Detlef; Adler, Christian
2017-09-01
Guards on machine tools are intended to protect persons from being injured by parts ejected with high kinetic energy from the work zone of the machine. Stationary grinding machines are a typical example. Generally such machines are provided with abrasive product guards closely enveloping the grinding wheel. However, many machining tasks do not allow the use of abrasive product guards. In such cases, the work zone enclosure has to be dimensioned so that, in case of failure, grinding wheel fragments remain inside the machine's working zone. To obtain data for the dimensioning of work zone enclosures on stationary grinding machines, which must be operated without an abrasive product guard, burst tests were conducted with vitrified grinding wheels. The studies show that, contrary to widely held opinion, narrower grinding wheels can be more critical concerning the impact resistance than wider wheels although their fragment energy is smaller.
Asymptotic Theory for the QMLE in GARCH-X Models with Stationary and Non-Stationary Covariates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Han, Heejoon; Kristensen, Dennis
as captured by its long-memory parameter dx; in particular, we allow for both stationary and non-stationary covariates. We show that the QMLE'’s of the regression coefficients entering the volatility equation are consistent and normally distributed in large samples independently of the degree of persistence....... This implies that standard inferential tools, such as t-statistics, do not have to be adjusted to the level of persistence. On the other hand, the intercept in the volatility equation is not identifi…ed when the covariate is non-stationary which is akin to the results of Jensen and Rahbek (2004, Econometric...
STABLE STATIONARY STATES OF NON-LOCAL INTERACTION EQUATIONS
FELLNER, KLEMENS
2010-12-01
In this paper, we are interested in the large-time behaviour of a solution to a non-local interaction equation, where a density of particles/individuals evolves subject to an interaction potential and an external potential. It is known that for regular interaction potentials, stable stationary states of these equations are generically finite sums of Dirac masses. For a finite sum of Dirac masses, we give (i) a condition to be a stationary state, (ii) two necessary conditions of linear stability w.r.t. shifts and reallocations of individual Dirac masses, and (iii) show that these linear stability conditions imply local non-linear stability. Finally, we show that for regular repulsive interaction potential Wε converging to a singular repulsive interaction potential W, the Dirac-type stationary states ρ̄ ε approximate weakly a unique stationary state ρ̄ ∈ L∞. We illustrate our results with numerical examples. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness
... collapse boxes. Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing ...
Genetics Home Reference: X-linked congenital stationary night blindness
... collapse boxes. Description X-linked congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing ...
Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness
... collapse boxes. Description Autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing ...
Acoustic Characterization of a Stationary Field Synchronous Motor
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Woodward, E
2001-01-01
.... We investigate the gross acoustic signature of a notional stationary field synchronous motor utilized as a marine propulsion motor in a naval combatant using the following methodology: (1) model the forces...
New source review for stationary sources of air pollution
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Committee on Changes in New Source Review Programs for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution, National Research Council
2006-01-01
The Clean Air Act established a pair of programsâ€"known as New Source Review (NSR)â€"that regulate large stationary sources of air pollution, such as factories and electricity-generating facilities...
Vacillations induced by interference of stationary and traveling planetary waves
Salby, Murry L.; Garcia, Rolando R.
1987-01-01
The interference pattern produced when a traveling planetary wave propagates over a stationary forced wave is explored, examining the interference signature in a variety of diagnostics. The wave field is first restricted to a diatomic spectrum consisting of two components: a single stationary wave and a single monochromatic traveling wave. A simple barotropic normal mode propagating over a simple stationary plane wave is considered, and closed form solutions are obtained. The wave fields are then restricted spatially, providing more realistic structures without sacrificing the advantages of an analytical solution. Both stationary and traveling wave fields are calculated numerically with the linearized Primitive Equations in a realistic basic state. The mean flow reaction to the fluctuating eddy forcing which results from interference is derived. Synoptic geopotential behavior corresponding to the combined wave and mean flow fields is presented, and the synoptic signature in potential vorticity on isentropic surfaces is examined.
Expansions of general stationary stochastic optical fields: general formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez-Herrero, R.; Mejias, P.M.
1985-01-01
A new expansion of a general stationary stochastic optical field is derived. Each term of the series is seen to represent a recently defined new class of optical fields, the so-called spectrally quasi-factorizable fields. Alternative expansion in terms of nonstationary fields that obey the wave equation is also shown. A relationship between temporal and spatial features of stationary free optical fields is discussed
Stationary Density Variation Produced by a Standing Plasma Wave
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1977-01-01
Measurements are presented of a stationary density modulation produced by a standing electron plasma wave. The experimental results are well explained by taking into account the ponderomotive forces on the electrons exerted by the high frequency field.......Measurements are presented of a stationary density modulation produced by a standing electron plasma wave. The experimental results are well explained by taking into account the ponderomotive forces on the electrons exerted by the high frequency field....
Similarity flows between a rotating and a stationary disk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchmann, J.H.; Qassim, R.Y.
1981-07-01
The radial distribution of fluid pressure on a stationary disk coaxial with a rotating disk is determined experimentally for various inter-disc spacings. The results show that similarity flows are only possible for both small and large values of this distance. In the former case, the flow faraway from the stationary disk appears to be that suggested by Batchelor, while in the latter case, the flow turns out to be in accordance with the assumption of Stewartson. (Author) [pt
The computation of stationary distributions of Markov chains through perturbations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeffery J. Hunter
1991-01-01
Full Text Available An algorithmic procedure for the determination of the stationary distribution of a finite, m-state, irreducible Markov chain, that does not require the use of methods for solving systems of linear equations, is presented. The technique is based upon a succession of m, rank one, perturbations of the trivial doubly stochastic matrix whose known steady state vector is updated at each stage to yield the required stationary probability vector.
Costationarity of Locally Stationary Time Series Using costat
Cardinali, Alessandro; Nason, Guy P.
2013-01-01
This article describes the R package costat. This package enables a user to (i) perform a test for time series stationarity; (ii) compute and plot time-localized autocovariances, and (iii) to determine and explore any costationary relationship between two locally stationary time series. Two locally stationary time series are said to be costationary if there exists two time-varying combination functions such that the linear combination of the two series with the functions produces another time...
Pushing concentration of stationary solar concentrators to the limit.
Winston, Roland; Zhang, Weiya
2010-04-26
We give the theoretical limit of concentration allowed by nonimaging optics for stationary solar concentrators after reviewing sun- earth geometry in direction cosine space. We then discuss the design principles that we follow to approach the maximum concentration along with examples including a hollow CPC trough, a dielectric CPC trough, and a 3D dielectric stationary solar concentrator which concentrates sun light four times (4x), eight hours per day year around.
Geophysics-based method of locating a stationary earth object
Daily, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM; Rohde, Steven B [Corrales, NM; Novak, James L [Albuquerque, NM
2008-05-20
A geophysics-based method for determining the position of a stationary earth object uses the periodic changes in the gravity vector of the earth caused by the sun- and moon-orbits. Because the local gravity field is highly irregular over a global scale, a model of local tidal accelerations can be compared to actual accelerometer measurements to determine the latitude and longitude of the stationary object.
Tightly localized stationary pulses in a multilevel atomic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Xiong-Jun; Oh, C. H.; Liu, Xin; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Kwek, L. C.
2007-01-01
We show that the pulse matching phenomenon can be obtained in the general multilevel system with electromagnetically induced transparency. For this we find a different way to create tightly localized stationary pulses by using counterpropagating pump fields. The present process is a spatial compression of excitation so that it allows us to shape and further intensify the localized stationary pulses, without using standing waves of pump fields or spatially modulated pump fields
Formation of X-ray emitting stationary shocks in magnetized protostellar jets
Ustamujic, S.; Orlando, S.; Bonito, R.; Miceli, M.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.; López-Santiago, J.
2016-12-01
Context. X-ray observations of protostellar jets show evidence of strong shocks heating the plasma up to temperatures of a few million degrees. In some cases, the shocked features appear to be stationary. They are interpreted as shock diamonds. Aims: We investigate the physics that guides the formation of X-ray emitting stationary shocks in protostellar jets; the role of the magnetic field in determining the location, stability, and detectability in X-rays of these shocks; and the physical properties of the shocked plasma. Methods: We performed a set of 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations that modelled supersonic jets ramming into a magnetized medium and explored different configurations of the magnetic field. The model takes into account the most relevant physical effects, namely thermal conduction and radiative losses. We compared the model results with observations, via the emission measure and the X-ray luminosity synthesized from the simulations. Results: Our model explains the formation of X-ray emitting stationary shocks in a natural way. The magnetic field collimates the plasma at the base of the jet and forms a magnetic nozzle there. After an initial transient, the nozzle leads to the formation of a shock diamond at its exit which is stationary over the time covered by the simulations ( 40-60 yr; comparable with timescales of the observations). The shock generates a point-like X-ray source located close to the base of the jet with luminosity comparable with that inferred from X-ray observations of protostellar jets. For the range of parameters explored, the evolution of the post-shock plasma is dominated by the radiative cooling, whereas the thermal conduction slightly affects the structure of the shock. A movie is available at http://www.aanda.org
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Su
Full Text Available The Parkinson's disease protein DJ-1 is involved in various cellular functions including detoxification of dicarbonyl compounds, autophagy and oxidative stress response. DJ-1 homologs are widely found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, constituting a superfamily of proteins that appear to be involved in stress response. Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains six DJ-1 homologs, designated Hsp3101-Hsp3105 and Sdj1 (previously named SpDJ-1. Here we show that deletion of any one of these six genes somehow affects autophagy during prolonged stationary phase. Furthermore, deletions of each of these DJ-1 homologs result in reduced stationary phase survival. Deletion of sdj1 also increases the sensitivity of stationary-phase cells to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 whereas overexpression of sdj1 has the opposite effect. Consistent with their role in stationary phase, expression of hsp3101, hsp3102, hsp3105 and sdj1, and to a lesser extent hsp3103 and hsp3104, is increased in stationary phase. The induction of hsp3101, hsp3102, hsp3105 and sdj1 involves the Sty1-regulated transcription factor Atf1 but not the transcription factor Pap1. Our results firmly establish that S. pombe homologs of DJ-1 are stationary-phase associated proteins and are likely involved in autophagy and antioxidant defense in stationary phase of S. pombe cells.
Influence of Stationary Crossflow Modulation on Secondary Instability
Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Paredes, Pedro
2016-01-01
A likely scenario for swept wing transition on subsonic aircraft with natural laminar flow involves the breakdown of stationary crossflow vortices via high frequency secondary instability. A majority of the prior research on this secondary instability has focused on crossflow vortices with a single dominant spanwise wavelength. This paper investigates the effects of the spanwise modulation of stationary crossflow vortices at a specified wavelength by a subharmonic stationary mode. Secondary instability of the modulated crossflow pattern is studied using planar, partial-differential-equation based eigenvalue analysis. Computations reveal that weak modulation by the first subharmonic of the input stationary mode leads to mode splitting that is particularly obvious for Y-type secondary modes that are driven by the wall-normal shear of the basic state. Thus, for each Y mode corresponding to the fundamental wavelength of results in unmodulated train of crossflow vortices, the modulated flow supports a pair of secondary modes with somewhat different amplification rates. The mode splitting phenomenon suggests that a more complex stationary modulation such as that induced by natural surface roughness would yield a considerably richer spectrum of secondary instability modes. Even modest levels of subharmonic modulation are shown to have a strong effect on the overall amplification of secondary disturbances, particularly the Z-modes driven by the spanwise shear of the basic state. Preliminary computations related to the nonlinear breakdown of these secondary disturbances provide interesting insights into the process of crossflow transition in the presence of the first subharmonic of the dominant stationary vortex.
Stationary shear flows in CGL anisotropic toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pastukhov, V.P.; Ilgisonis, V.I.
1996-01-01
Recently a general structure of stationary shear flows in toroidal plasmas was obtained in the frame of ideal isotropic-pressure MHD model. The structure of the stationary plasma flows was shown to be determined by a hidden symmetry of MHD equations inherent in the toroidal systems with nested magnetic surfaces. However, the characteristic frequencies of the stationary plasma motion can considerably exceed the collisional frequencies in real plasma experiments. In this case the CGL collisionless MHD model seems to be more adequate than the simplified isotropic-pressure MHD model to describe the stationary plasma flows. In this paper we have generalized our approach to analyze the stationary plasma flows in the frame of the collisionless CGL model. We have found again that the hidden symmetry inherent in the toroidal topology results in two integral invariants which depend on two independent surface functions. The structure of stationary flows for CGL model is still the same as for isotropic MHD, however, the pressure tensor components satisfy a appreciably modifies the steady state force-balance equation. These results are applied to analyze the generalized equilibrium in axisymmetric (tokamak-like) magnetic confinement systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.
1984-01-01
Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations
Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan
1993-01-01
Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)
... objections runs away from home often truant from school Children who exhibit these behaviors should receive a comprehensive evaluation by an experience mental health professional. Many children with a conduct disorder may ...
Stationary Hand Gesture Authentication Using Edit Distance on Finger Pointing Direction Interval
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alex Ming Hui Wong
2016-01-01
Full Text Available One of the latest authentication methods is by discerning human gestures. Previous research has shown that different people can develop distinct gesture behaviours even when executing the same gesture. Hand gesture is one of the most commonly used gestures in both communication and authentication research since it requires less room to perform as compared to other bodily gestures. There are different types of hand gesture and they have been researched by many researchers, but stationary hand gesture has yet to be thoroughly explored. There are a number of disadvantages and flaws in general hand gesture authentication such as reliability, usability, and computational cost. Although stationary hand gesture is not able to solve all these problems, it still provides more benefits and advantages over other hand gesture authentication methods, such as making gesture into a motion flow instead of trivial image capturing, and requires less room to perform, less vision cue needed during performance, and so forth. In this paper, we introduce stationary hand gesture authentication by implementing edit distance on finger pointing direction interval (ED-FPDI from hand gesture to model behaviour-based authentication system. The accuracy rate of the proposed ED-FPDI shows promising results.
Demaria, E. M.; Goodrich, D. C.; Keefer, T.
2017-12-01
Observed sub-daily precipitation intensities from contrasting hydroclimatic environments in the USA are used to evaluate temporal trends and to develop Intensity-Duration Frequency (IDF) curves under stationary and nonstationary climatic conditions. Analyses are based on observations from two United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) experimental watersheds located in a semi-arid and a temperate environment. We use an Annual Maximum Series (AMS) and a Partial Duration Series (PDS) approach to identify temporal trends in maximum intensities for durations ranging from 5- to 1440-minutes. A Bayesian approach with Monte Carlo techniques is used to incorporate the effect of non-stationary climatic assumptions in the IDF curves. The results show increasing trends in observed AMS sub-daily intensities in both watersheds whereas trends in the PDS observations are mostly positive in the semi-arid site and a mix of positive and negative in the temperate site. Stationary climate assumptions lead to much lower estimated sub-daily intensities than those under non-stationary assumptions with larger absolute differences found for shorter durations and smaller return periods. The risk of failure (R) of a hydraulic structure is increased for non-stationary effects over those of stationary effects, with absolute differences of 25% for a 100-year return period (T) and a project life (n) of 100 years. The study highlights the importance of considering non-stationarity, due to natural variability or to climate change, in storm design.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habibi, Z.
2011-01-01
We are interested in the homogenization of heat transfer in periodic porous media modelling the geometry of a gas cooled nuclear reactor. This geometry is made of a solid media perforated by several long thin parallel cylinders, the diameter of which is of the same order than the period. The heat is transported by conduction in the solid part of the domain and by conduction, convection and radiative transfer in the fluid part (the cylinders). A non-local boundary condition models the radiative heat transfer on the cylinder walls. It is a stationary analysis corresponding to a nominal performance of the reactor core, and also non-stationary corresponding to a normal shut-down of the core. To obtain the homogenized problem we first use a formal two-scale asymptotic expansion method. The mathematical justification of our results is based on the notion of two-scale convergence. One feature of this work in dimension 3 is that it combines homogenization with a 3D to 2D asymptotic analysis since the radiative transfer in the limit cell problem is purely two-dimensional. A second feature of this work is the study of this heat transfer when it contains an oscillating thermal source at the microscopic level and a thermal exchange with the perforations. In this context, our numerical analysis shows a non-negligible contribution of the second order corrector which helps us to model the gradients appearing between the source area and the perforations. (author) [fr
Role of anisotropic thermal conductivity in the reversed-field pinch dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.
2011-01-01
Two compressible magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the reversed-field pinch are performed, with isotropic and anisotropic thermal conductivity. We describe in detail the numerical method we use to reproduce the effect of a large parallel thermal conductivity, which makes magnetic field lines almost isothermal. We compare the results of the two simulations, showing that the anisotropic thermal conductivity causes the formation of a hot island when closed magnetic surfaces exist, while temperature becomes almost uniform when the magnetic field is chaotic. After a transient single-helicity state that is formed in the initial phase, a stationary state is reached where the RFP configuration exists in a multiple helicity state, even though the Hartmann number is below the threshold found in previous simulations for the formation of multiple helicity states.
Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.
2013-01-01
Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic
Gueven, I.; Steeb, H.; Luding, S.
2014-12-01
Electrokinetic waves describe the coupling between seismic and electromagnetic waves that exist in porous media. The coupling between them arise from an electrochemical boundary layer between grain and fluid interface of saturated porous media. Acoustical waves cause a disturbance of the electrical fluid charge within the double layer, which therefore creates an electric streaming current (seismoelectric effect). Inversely, electromagnetic waves can generate mechanical signals (electroseismic effect). Electrokinetic conversion potentially combines high seismic resolution with good electromagnetic hydrocarbon sensitivity. The (stationary and frequency-dependent) streaming potential coefficient is a key property, which gives rise to the coupling between electromagnetic and acoustical waves. It depends strongly on the fluid conductivity, porosity, tortuosity, permeability, pore throat and zeta potential of porous media. We examine experimentally both, the stationary and dynamic permeabilities and coupling coefficients of sintered glass bead systems. For this purpose a multi-purpose measuring cell was developed which allows us to carry out - besides common ultrasound experiments - also to perform stationary and frequency-dependent permeability and coupling coefficient measurements. For the experiments sintered mono- and slightly polydisperse glass bead samples with different glass bead diameters between 0.4 and 8mm and porosities ranging between 21 and 39% were used. The stationary and dynamic permeability and streaming potential measurements are supported by μCT scans which enable us a deeper insight into the porous medium. Based on the μCT scans of the produced sintered glass bead samples essential influence parameters, like tortuosity, porosity, effective particle diameters and pore throats in different regions of the entire scanned region have been analyzed in detail to understand the laboratory experiments, cf. Illustration 1. In addition lattice Boltzmann
Stability of Bifurcating Stationary Solutions of the Artificial Compressible System
Teramoto, Yuka
2018-02-01
The artificial compressible system gives a compressible approximation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes system. The latter system is obtained from the former one in the zero limit of the artificial Mach number ɛ which is a singular limit. The sets of stationary solutions of both systems coincide with each other. It is known that if a stationary solution of the incompressible system is asymptotically stable and the velocity field of the stationary solution satisfies an energy-type stability criterion, then it is also stable as a solution of the artificial compressible one for sufficiently small ɛ . In general, the range of ɛ shrinks when the spectrum of the linearized operator for the incompressible system approaches to the imaginary axis. This can happen when a stationary bifurcation occurs. It is proved that when a stationary bifurcation from a simple eigenvalue occurs, the range of ɛ can be taken uniformly near the bifurcation point to conclude the stability of the bifurcating solution as a solution of the artificial compressible system.
Nicoll-Griffith, D A
1987-07-31
A chiral recognition model is proposed which incorporates the electronic and steric interactions between amide derivatives of ibuprofen and the (R)-N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)phenylglycine-derived Pirkle chiral stationary phase during high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on this rationale, amide derivatives of ibuprofen were prepared using 4-chloroaniline, 4-bromoaniline, aniline, 4-methoxyaniline and 1-aminonaphthylene to improve the enantiomer separation over previously reported results with this column. The amides prepared gave separation values of 1.16, 1.16, 1.19, 1.21 and 1.23, respectively. These high separation values are consistent with the proposed model.
Carbon nanotube stationary phases for microchip electrochromatography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter; Kutter, Jörg Peter
, microfluidic devices with microfabricated carbon nanotube columns for electrochromatographic separations will be presented. The electrically conductive carbon nanotube layer has been patterned into hexoganol micropillars in order to support electroosmotic flow without forming gas bubbles from electrolysis......The use of nanomaterials in separation science has increased rapidly in the last decade. The reason for this is to take advantage of the unique properties of these materials, such as a very high surface-to-volume ratio and favourable sorbent behaviour. Carbon nanostructures, such as carbon...
Impact of the updating scheme on stationary states of networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radicchi, F; Ahn, Y Y; Meyer-Ortmanns, H
2008-01-01
From Boolean networks it is well known that the number of attractors as a function of the system size depends on the updating scheme which is chosen either synchronously or asynchronously. In this contribution, we report on a systematic interpolation between synchronous and asynchronous updating in a one-dimensional chain of Ising spins. The stationary state for fully synchronous updating is antiferromagnetic. The interpolation allows us to locate a phase transition between phases with an absorbing and a fluctuating stationary state. The associated universality class is that of parity conservation. We also report on a more recent study of asynchronous updates applied to the yeast cell-cycle network. Compared to the synchronous update, the basin of attraction of the largest attractor considerably shrinks and the convergence to the biological pathway slows down and is less dominant. Both examples illustrate how sensitively the stationary states and the properties of attractors can depend on the updating mode of the algorithm
Recent development of ionic liquid stationary phases for liquid chromatography.
Shi, Xianzhe; Qiao, Lizhen; Xu, Guowang
2015-11-13
Based on their particular physicochemical characteristics, ionic liquids have been widely applied in many fields of analytical chemistry. Many types of ionic liquids were immobilized on a support like silica or monolith as stationary phases for liquid chromatography. Moreover, different approaches were developed to bond covalently ionic liquids onto the supporting materials. The obtained ionic liquid stationary phases show multi-mode mechanism including hydrophobic, hydrophilic, hydrogen bond, anion exchange, π-π, and dipole-dipole interactions. Therefore, they could be used in different chromatographic modes including ion-exchange, RPLC, NPLC and HILIC to separate various classes of compounds. This review mainly summarizes the immobilized patterns and types of ionic liquid stationary phases, their retention mechanisms and applications in the recent five years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Non-stationary condition monitoring through event alignment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Larsen, Jan
2004-01-01
We present an event alignment framework which enables change detection in non-stationary signals. change detection. Classical condition monitoring frameworks have been restrained to laboratory settings with stationary operating conditions, which are not resembling real world operation....... In this paper we apply the technique for non-stationary condition monitoring of large diesel engines based on acoustical emission sensor signals. The performance of the event alignment is analyzed in an unsupervised probabilistic detection framework based on outlier detection with either Principal Component...... Analysis or Gaussian Processes modeling. We are especially interested in the true performance of the condition monitoring performance with mixed aligned and unaligned data, e.g. detection of fault condition of unaligned examples versus false alarms of aligned normal condition data. Further, we expect...
Non-Stationary Internal Tides Observed with Satellite Altimetry
Ray, Richard D.; Zaron, E. D.
2011-01-01
Temporal variability of the internal tide is inferred from a 17-year combined record of Topex/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeters. A global sampling of along-track sea-surface height wavenumber spectra finds that non-stationary variance is generally 25% or less of the average variance at wavenumbers characteristic of mode-l tidal internal waves. With some exceptions the non-stationary variance does not exceed 0.25 sq cm. The mode-2 signal, where detectable, contains a larger fraction of non-stationary variance, typically 50% or more. Temporal subsetting of the data reveals interannual variability barely significant compared with tidal estimation error from 3-year records. Comparison of summer vs. winter conditions shows only one region of noteworthy seasonal changes, the northern South China Sea. Implications for the anticipated SWOT altimeter mission are briefly discussed.
Non-Stationary Dependence Structures for Spatial Extremes
Huser, Raphaël
2016-03-03
Max-stable processes are natural models for spatial extremes because they provide suitable asymptotic approximations to the distribution of maxima of random fields. In the recent past, several parametric families of stationary max-stable models have been developed, and fitted to various types of data. However, a recurrent problem is the modeling of non-stationarity. In this paper, we develop non-stationary max-stable dependence structures in which covariates can be easily incorporated. Inference is performed using pairwise likelihoods, and its performance is assessed by an extensive simulation study based on a non-stationary locally isotropic extremal t model. Evidence that unknown parameters are well estimated is provided, and estimation of spatial return level curves is discussed. The methodology is demonstrated with temperature maxima recorded over a complex topography. Models are shown to satisfactorily capture extremal dependence.
Integrity assessment of stationary blade ring for nuclear power plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jung Yong; Chung, Yong Keun; Park, Jong Jin; Kang, Yong Ho
2004-01-01
The inner side between HP stationary blades in no.1 turbine of nuclear power plant A is damaged by the FAC(Flow Assisted Corrosion) which is exposed to moisture. For many years the inner side is repaired by welding the damaged part, however, the FAC continues to deteriorate the original material of the welded blade ring. In this study, we have two stages to verify the integrity of stationary blade ring in nuclear power plant A. In the stage I, replication of blade ring is performed to survey the microstructure of blade ring. In the stage II, the stress analysis of blade ring is performed to verify the structural safety of blade ring. Throughout the two stages analysis of blade ring, the stationary blade ring had remained undamaged
Inference for local autocorrelations in locally stationary models.
Zhao, Zhibiao
2015-04-01
For non-stationary processes, the time-varying correlation structure provides useful insights into the underlying model dynamics. We study estimation and inferences for local autocorrelation process in locally stationary time series. Our constructed simultaneous confidence band can be used to address important hypothesis testing problems, such as whether the local autocorrelation process is indeed time-varying and whether the local autocorrelation is zero. In particular, our result provides an important generalization of the R function acf() to locally stationary Gaussian processes. Simulation studies and two empirical applications are developed. For the global temperature series, we find that the local autocorrelations are time-varying and have a "V" shape during 1910-1960. For the S&P 500 index, we conclude that the returns satisfy the efficient-market hypothesis whereas the magnitudes of returns show significant local autocorrelations.
Retention of Halogenated Solutes on Stationary Phases Containing Heavy Atoms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toshio Miwa
2013-05-01
Full Text Available To examine the effects of weak intermolecular interactions on solid-phase extraction (SPE and chromatographic separation, we synthesized some novel stationary phases with a heavy atom effect layer by immobilizing halogenated aromatic rings and hydroxyl groups onto the surface of a hydrophilic base polymer. Using SPE cartridges packed with the functionalized materials, we found that the heavy atom stationary phases could selectively retain halophenols in organic solvents, such as 1-propanol which blocks the hydrogen bonding, or acetonitrile which blocks the p-p interaction. The extraction efficiency of the materials toward the halophenols depended on the dipole moments of phenoxy groups present as functional groups. On the other hand, the extraction efficiency of solutes toward the functional group depended on their molar refractions, i.e., induced dipole moments. The retention of the solutes to the stationary phase ultimately depended on not only strong intermolecular interactions, but also the effects of weak interactions such as the dispersion force.
Pool boiling from rotating and stationary spheres in liquid nitrogen
Cuan, Winston M.; Schwartz, Sidney H.
1988-01-01
Results are presented for a preliminary experiment involving saturated pool boiling at 1 atm from rotating 2 and 3 in. diameter spheres which were immersed in liquid nitrogen (LN2). Additional results are presented for a stationary, 2 inch diameter sphere, quenched in LN2, which were obtained utilizing a more versatile and complete experimental apparatus that will eventually be used for additional rotating sphere experiments. The speed for the rotational tests was varied from 0 to 10,000 rpm. The stationary experiments parametrically varied pressure and subcooling levels from 0 to 600 psig and from 0 to 50 F, respectively. During the rotational tests, a high speed photographic analysis was undertaken to measure the thickness of the vapor film surrounding the sphere. The average Nusselt number over the cooling period was plotted against the rotational Reynolds number. Stationary sphere results included local boiling heat transfer coefficients at different latitudinal locations, for various pressure and subcooling levels.
On Maximal Hard-Core Thinnings of Stationary Particle Processes
Hirsch, Christian; Last, Günter
2018-02-01
The present paper studies existence and distributional uniqueness of subclasses of stationary hard-core particle systems arising as thinnings of stationary particle processes. These subclasses are defined by natural maximality criteria. We investigate two specific criteria, one related to the intensity of the hard-core particle process, the other one being a local optimality criterion on the level of realizations. In fact, the criteria are equivalent under suitable moment conditions. We show that stationary hard-core thinnings satisfying such criteria exist and are frequently distributionally unique. More precisely, distributional uniqueness holds in subcritical and barely supercritical regimes of continuum percolation. Additionally, based on the analysis of a specific example, we argue that fluctuations in grain sizes can play an important role for establishing distributional uniqueness at high intensities. Finally, we provide a family of algorithmically constructible approximations whose volume fractions are arbitrarily close to the maximum.
Quasi-Stationary Temperature Field of Two-Layer Half-Space with Moving Boundary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. A. Vlasov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Due to intensive introduction of mathematical modeling methods into engineering practice, analytical methods for solving problems of heat conduction theory along with computational methods become increasingly important. Despite the well-known limitations of the analytical method applicability, this trend is caused by many reasons. In particular, solutions of the appropriate problems presented in analytically closed form can be used to test the new efficient computational algorithms, to carry out a parametric study of the temperature field of the analyzed system and to explore specific features of its formation, to formulate and solve optimization problems. In addition, these solutions allow us to explore the possibility for simplifying mathematical model with retaining its adequacy to the studied process.The main goal of the conducted research is to provide an analytically closed-form solution to the problem of finding the quasi-stationary temperature field of the system, which is simulated by isotropic half-space with isotropic coating of constant thickness. The outer boundary of this system is exposed to the Gaussian-type heat flux and uniformly moves in parallel with itself.A two-dimensional mathematical model that takes into account the axial symmetry of the studied process has been used. After the transition to a moving coordinate system rigidly associated with a moving boundary the Hankel integral transform of zero order (with respect to the radial variable and the Laplace transform (with respect to the temporal variable were used. Next, the image of the Hankel transform for the stationary temperature field of the system with respect to the moving coordinate system was found using a limit theorem of operational calculus. This allowed representing the required quasi-stationary field in the form of an improper integral of the first kind, which depends on the parameters. This result obtained can be used to conduct a parametric study and solve
A Generalized Framework for Non-Stationary Extreme Value Analysis
Ragno, E.; Cheng, L.; Sadegh, M.; AghaKouchak, A.
2017-12-01
Empirical trends in climate variables including precipitation, temperature, snow-water equivalent at regional to continental scales are evidence of changes in climate over time. The evolving climate conditions and human activity-related factors such as urbanization and population growth can exert further changes in weather and climate extremes. As a result, the scientific community faces an increasing demand for updated appraisal of the time-varying climate extremes. The purpose of this study is to offer a robust and flexible statistical tool for non-stationary extreme value analysis which can better characterize the severity and likelihood of extreme climatic variables. This is critical to ensure a more resilient environment in a changing climate. Following the positive feedback on the first version of Non-Stationary Extreme Value Analysis (NEVA) Toolbox by Cheng at al. 2014, we present an improved version, i.e. NEVA2.0. The upgraded version herein builds upon a newly-developed hybrid evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach for numerical parameters estimation and uncertainty assessment. This addition leads to a more robust uncertainty estimates of return levels, return periods, and risks of climatic extremes under both stationary and non-stationary assumptions. Moreover, NEVA2.0 is flexible in incorporating any user-specified covariate other than the default time-covariate (e.g., CO2 emissions, large scale climatic oscillation patterns). The new feature will allow users to examine non-stationarity of extremes induced by physical conditions that underlie the extreme events (e.g. antecedent soil moisture deficit, large-scale climatic teleconnections, urbanization). In addition, the new version offers an option to generate stationary and/or non-stationary rainfall Intensity - Duration - Frequency (IDF) curves that are widely used for risk assessment and infrastructure design. Finally, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) of the package is provided, making NEVA
EDITORIAL: CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems
Dodonov, Victor V.; Man'ko, Margarita A.
2010-09-01
Although time-dependent quantum systems have been studied since the very beginning of quantum mechanics, they continue to attract the attention of many researchers, and almost every decade new important discoveries or new fields of application are made. Among the impressive results or by-products of these studies, one should note the discovery of the path integral method in the 1940s, coherent and squeezed states in the 1960-70s, quantum tunneling in Josephson contacts and SQUIDs in the 1960s, the theory of time-dependent quantum invariants in the 1960-70s, different forms of quantum master equations in the 1960-70s, the Zeno effect in the 1970s, the concept of geometric phase in the 1980s, decoherence of macroscopic superpositions in the 1980s, quantum non-demolition measurements in the 1980s, dynamics of particles in quantum traps and cavity QED in the 1980-90s, and time-dependent processes in mesoscopic quantum devices in the 1990s. All these topics continue to be the subject of many publications. Now we are witnessing a new wave of interest in quantum non-stationary systems in different areas, from cosmology (the very first moments of the Universe) and quantum field theory (particle pair creation in ultra-strong fields) to elementary particle physics (neutrino oscillations). A rapid increase in the number of theoretical and experimental works on time-dependent phenomena is also observed in quantum optics, quantum information theory and condensed matter physics. Time-dependent tunneling and time-dependent transport in nano-structures are examples of such phenomena. Another emerging direction of study, stimulated by impressive progress in experimental techniques, is related to attempts to observe the quantum behavior of macroscopic objects, such as mirrors interacting with quantum fields in nano-resonators. Quantum effects manifest themselves in the dynamics of nano-electromechanical systems; they are dominant in the quite new and very promising field of circuit
2008-01-01
The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.
Nilpotent orbits in real symmetric pairs and stationary black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dietrich, Heiko; De Graaf, Willem A.; Ruggeri, Daniele; Trigiante, Mario
2017-01-01
In the study of stationary solutions in extended supergravities with symmetric scalar manifolds, the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair play an important role. In this paper we discuss two approaches to determine the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair. We apply our methods to an explicit example, and thereby classify the nilpotent orbits of (SL 2 (R)) 4 acting on the fourth tensor power of the natural 2-dimensional SL 2 (R)-module. This makes it possible to classify all stationary solutions of the so-called STU-supergravity model. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Stationary neoclassical profiles of plasma parameters in stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danilkin, I.S.; Mineev, A.B.
1991-01-01
Peculiarities of neoclassical model of heat and particle transfer, occuring by calculations of plasma stationary profile parameters in stellarators are considered. The main peculiarity out of all consists in ineadequate compatibility with real physical conditions on the boundary, requiring application of supplementary 'anomalous' transfer or special (but technically possible) adjustment of particle and heat sources to achieve solution in form of 'correct' monotonically sloping profile. It is stated, that neoclassical theory does not provide for well-known ambiguity of solutions for ambipolar electrical field by search of monotonous stationary profiles supported by outside sources
Uniqueness of solution to a stationary boundary kinetic problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhykharsky, A.V.
1992-01-01
The paper treats the question of uniqueness of solution to the boundary kinetic problem. This analysis is based on the accurate solutions to the stationary one-dimensional boundary kinetic problem for the limited plasma system. In the paper a simplified problem statement is used (no account is taken of the external magnetic field, a simplest form of boundary conditions is accepted) which, however, covers all features of the problem considered. Omitting the details of the conclusion we will write a set of Vlasov stationary kinetic equations for the cases of plane, cylindrical and spherical geometry of the problem. (author) 1 ref
Non-stationary flow of hydraulic oil in long pipe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hružík Lumír
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with experimental evaluation and numerical simulation of non-stationary flow of hydraulic oil in a long hydraulic line. Non-stationary flow is caused by a quick closing of valves at the beginning and the end of the pipe. Time dependence of pressure is measured by means of pressure sensors at the beginning and the end of the pipe. A mathematical model of a given circuit is created using Matlab SimHydraulics software. The long line is simulated by means of segmented pipe. The simulation is verified by experiment.
Income dynamics with a stationary double Pareto distribution.
Toda, Alexis Akira
2011-04-01
Once controlled for the trend, the distribution of personal income appears to be double Pareto, a distribution that obeys the power law exactly in both the upper and the lower tails. I propose a model of income dynamics with a stationary distribution that is consistent with this fact. Using US male wage data for 1970-1993, I estimate the power law exponent in two ways--(i) from each cross section, assuming that the distribution has converged to the stationary distribution, and (ii) from a panel directly estimating the parameters of the income dynamics model--and obtain the same value of 8.4.
Power variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Corcuera, J.M.; Podolskij, Mark
2009-01-01
We develop the asymptotic theory for the realised power variation of the processes X=•G, where G is a Gaussian process with stationary increments. More specifically, under some mild assumptions on the variance function of the increments of G and certain regularity conditions on the path of the pr......We develop the asymptotic theory for the realised power variation of the processes X=•G, where G is a Gaussian process with stationary increments. More specifically, under some mild assumptions on the variance function of the increments of G and certain regularity conditions on the path...... a chaos representation....
Stationary neoclassical profiles of plasma parameters in stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danilkin, I.S.; Mineev, A.B.
1991-01-01
The properties of the neoclassical model of heat and particle transport are considered in connection with calculations of stationary profiles of the plasma parameters in stellarators. The most important feature is the poor agreement with real physical conditions of the boundary, which imposes the necessity of invoking either an additional anomalous transport or a special (although technically possible) consistency between the particle and heat sources in order to obtain a solution in the form of a correct monotonically decreasing profile. In search for monotonic stationary profiles maintained by external sources, it is ascertained that the neoclassical theory does not give rise to the well-known multivalued solutions for the ambipolar electric field
Randomly forced CGL equation stationary measures and the inviscid limit
Kuksin, S
2003-01-01
We study a complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation perturbed by a random force which is white in time and smooth in the space variable~$x$. Assuming that $\\dim x\\le4$, we prove that this equation has a unique solution and discuss its asymptotic in time properties. Next we consider the case when the random force is proportional to the square root of the viscosity and study the behaviour of stationary solutions as the viscosity goes to zero. We show that, under this limit, a subsequence of solutions in question converges to a nontrivial stationary process formed by global strong solutions of the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation.
Spin in stationary gravitational fields and rotating frames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obukhov, Yuri N.; Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V.
2010-01-01
A spin motion of particles in stationary spacetimes is investigated in the framework of the classical gravity and relativistic quantum mechanics. We bring the Dirac equation for relativistic particles in nonstatic spacetimes to the Hamiltonian form and perform the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We show the importance of the choice of tetrads for description of spin dynamics in the classical gravity. We derive classical and quantum mechanical equations of motion of the spin for relativistic particles in stationary gravitational fields and rotating frames and establish the full agreement between the classical and quantum mechanical approaches.
Stationary nonimaging concentrator as a second stage element in tracking systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kritchman, E.M.; O' Gallagher, J.; Snail, K.A.; Winston, R.
1983-06-01
The University of Chicago solar energy group and GTE Research have developed an Integrated Stationary Evacuated Concentration (ISEC) collector tube. In this paper the increase in concentration of line focus concentrators that can be achieved using the evacuated CPC collector tube as a second stage element is examined. Three primary elements of the overall concentration are analyzed: a flat parabolic absorber trough, a flat Fresnel lens, and a color and coma corrected Fresnel lens. The three examples demonstrate that high concentration ratios may be achieved by using the already fabricated ISEC as a second stage element. The ISEC also suppresses thermal losses due to conduction, convection, and infrared radiation.
Do weak stationary magnetic fields affect the perceived astringency of red wine?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Wesley Rowcliffe
2018-03-01
Full Text Available To investigate claims that products containing weak stationary magnets can reduce the astringency of tannic red wine, a double- blind randomized trial was carried out, in which 96 paired tastings were conducted of magnetized and non-magnetized samples of a young Nebbiolo. The data showed no association between reported differences in astringency and actual difference in the magnetic treatments given to the wine (χ2=0.135, degrees of freedom=1, P=0.71. This study confirms an earlier work that magnets have no observable effect on red wine.
Do weak stationary magnetic fields affect the perceived astringency of red wine?
Stephen Wesley Rowcliffe
2018-01-01
To investigate claims that products containing weak stationary magnets can reduce the astringency of tannic red wine, a double- blind randomized trial was carried out, in which 96 paired tastings were conducted of magnetized and non-magnetized samples of a young Nebbiolo. The data showed no association between reported differences in astringency and actual difference in the magnetic treatments given to the wine (χ2=0.135, degrees of freedom=1, P=0.71). This study confirms an earlier work that...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The large-area stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The large-area stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...
Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.
Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P
1990-12-15
To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.
Design of a stationary-basket (microreactor)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Timidei, A; Raisa, L
1977-05-01
A continuous-flow stirred-tank microreactor (295 cc capacity) for kinetic studies in gas-solid heterogeneous catalysis has been designed to obtain an apparatus characterized by perfect mixing, absence of resistance to mass and heat transfer, and pressure tightness, and which would not require sophisticated machine-shop work. This reactor is suitable for operation at up to 300/sup 0/C and 20 atm, and has clear advantages over the spinning-basket or rotating reactor in studies of catalysts of low mechanical strength. Tests with nitrogen or ethane as tracer and helium as carrier gas, run with a thermal conductivity detector, gave a ''decadence'' curve with a -0.97 slope at all mixing speeds, compared with a -1.0 slope for perfect mixing. Thermal gradients between fluid and pellet were minimal for three different pellet positions within the annular bed, at 92/sup 0/C. In benzene hydrogenation over a nickel/kieselguhr catalyst, measurement of reaction rates as a function of mixing speeds showed that good results in kinetic studies were obtainable at 1500 rpm and above. Diagrams and graphs.
Numerical Clifford Analysis for the Non-stationary Schroedinger Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faustino, N.; Vieira, N.
2007-01-01
We construct a discrete fundamental solution for the parabolic Dirac operator which factorizes the non-stationary Schroedinger operator. With such fundamental solution we construct a discrete counterpart for the Teodorescu and Cauchy-Bitsadze operators and the Bergman projectors. We finalize this paper with convergence results regarding the operators and a concrete numerical example
Detection of Multiple Stationary Humans Using UWB MIMO Radar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fulai Liang
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Remarkable progress has been achieved in the detection of single stationary human. However, restricted by the mutual interference of multiple humans (e.g., strong sidelobes of the torsos and the shadow effect, detection and localization of the multiple stationary humans remains a huge challenge. In this paper, ultra-wideband (UWB multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO radar is exploited to improve the detection performance of multiple stationary humans for its multiple sight angles and high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capacity. A signal model of the vital sign considering both bi-static angles and attitude angle of the human body is firstly developed, and then a novel detection method is proposed to detect and localize multiple stationary humans. In this method, preprocessing is firstly implemented to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the vital signs, and then a vital-sign-enhanced imaging algorithm is presented to suppress the environmental clutters and mutual affection of multiple humans. Finally, an automatic detection algorithm including constant false alarm rate (CFAR, morphological filtering and clustering is implemented to improve the detection performance of weak human targets affected by heavy clutters and shadow effect. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can get a high-quality image of multiple humans and we can use it to discriminate and localize multiple adjacent human targets behind brick walls.
Conserved quantities for stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esposito, F.P.; Witten, L.
1978-01-01
It is shown that every stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-time has eight divergence-free vector fields and these are isolated in general form. The vector fields and associated conserved quantities are calculated for several families of space-times. (Auth.)
Plasma equilibria and stationary flows in axisymmetric systems. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zelazny, R.; Stankiewicz, R.; Potempski, S.
1988-05-01
Part I of this report described the computational problems connected with the bifurcating solutions to static and extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equations (with stationary flows). Part II is a listing of the computer program for solving the extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equations developed in Part I. (author)
Bipower variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Corcuera, José Manuel; Podolskij, Mark
2009-01-01
Convergence in probability and central limit laws of bipower variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments and for integrals with respect to such processes are derived. The main tools of the proofs are some recent powerful techniques of Wiener/Itô/Malliavin calculus for establishing...
Stationary solutions of multicomponent chiral and gauge models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.
1979-01-01
The authors examine stationary solutions of completely integrable systems in (x, t) dimensions having infinitely many components. Among the cases under investigation are: (1) the infinite-component non-linear Schroedinger equation; (2) infinite component CPsup(Ω) or SU(N) sigma-models; (3) general gauge and chiral completely integrable systems. (Auth.)
DViN - stationary setup for identification of explosives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bystritskij, V.M.; Gerasimov, V.V.; Kadyshevskij, V.G.
2007-01-01
A stationary system for identification of hidden explosives has been developed and constructed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR). The results of the examination of the system as well as the operation principle of the system and design of the main elements are presented in this paper
Existence of stationary solutions in the coronal loop problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hulshof, J; Terman, D; Verhulst, F
1988-01-01
The study of a hot plasma confined to a magnetic loop in the sun's corona leads to a singularly perturbed nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation with rather unusual side conditions. Monotone solutions of the stationary problem appear as fixed points of an iteration map which is contractive if the perturbation parameter is sufficiently small.
PSSGP : Program for Simulation of Stationary Gaussian Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
This report describes the computer program PSSGP. PSSGP can be used to simulate realizations of stationary Gaussian stochastic processes. The simulation algorithm can be coupled with some applications. One possibility is to use PSSGP to estimate the first-passage density function of a given system...
Sigma-convergence of stationary Navier-Stokes type equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel Nguetseng
2009-06-01
Full Text Available In the framework of homogenization theory, the Sigma-convergence method is carried out on stationary Navier-Stokes type equations on a fixed domain. Our main tools are the two-scale convergence concept and the so-called homogenization algebras.
On the nonparametric prediction of conditionally stationary sequences
S. Caires; J.A. Ferreira
2003-01-01
textabstractWe prove the strong consistency of estimators of the conditional distribution function and conditional expectation of a future observation of a discrete time stochastic process given a fixed number of past observations. The results apply to conditionally stationary processes (a class of
75 FR 55635 - Restructuring of the Stationary Source Audit Program
2010-09-13
... assurance requirements that would make an additional audit sample redundant. We believe that Method 18 also has sufficient quality assurance measures that make an audit sample unnecessary. This method requires... Stationary Source Audit Program; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 176 / Monday, September 13...
Variance-optimal hedging for processes with stationary independent increments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hubalek, Friedrich; Kallsen, J.; Krawczyk, L.
We determine the variance-optimal hedge when the logarithm of the underlying price follows a process with stationary independent increments in discrete or continuous time. Although the general solution to this problem is known as backward recursion or backward stochastic differential equation, we...
Long time tails in stationary random media. I. Theory
Ernst, M.H.; Machta, J.; Dorfman, J.R.; Beijeren, H. van
1984-01-01
Diffusion of moving particles in stationary disordered media is studied using a phenomenological mode-coupling theory. The presence of disorder leads to a generalized diffusion equation, with memory kernels having power law long time tails. The velocity autocorrelation function is found to decay
The spectral analysis of cyclo-non-stationary signals
Abboud, D.; Baudin, S.; Antoni, J.; Rémond, D.; Eltabach, M.; Sauvage, O.
2016-06-01
Condition monitoring of rotating machines in speed-varying conditions remains a challenging task and an active field of research. Specifically, the produced vibrations belong to a particular class of non-stationary signals called cyclo-non-stationary: although highly non-stationary, they contain hidden periodicities related to the shaft angle; the phenomenon of long term modulations is what makes them different from cyclostationary signals which are encountered under constant speed regimes. In this paper, it is shown that the optimal way of describing cyclo-non-stationary signals is jointly in the time and the angular domains. While the first domain describes the waveform characteristics related to the system dynamics, the second one reveals existing periodicities linked to the system kinematics. Therefore, a specific class of signals - coined angle-time cyclostationary is considered, expressing the angle-time interaction. Accordingly, the related spectral representations, the order-frequency spectral correlation and coherence functions are proposed and their efficiency is demonstrated on two industrial cases.
Inertial algorithms for the stationary Navier-Stokes equations
Hou, Yanren; Mattheij, R.M.M.
2003-01-01
Several kind of new numerical schemes for the stationary Navier-Stokes equations based on the virtue of Inertial Manifold and Approximate Inertial Manifold, which we call them inertial algorithms in this paper, together with their error estimations are presented. All these algorithms are constructed
Two Numerical Approaches to Stationary Mean-Field Games
Almulla, Noha; Ferreira, Rita; Gomes, Diogo A.
2016-01-01
Here, we consider numerical methods for stationary mean-field games (MFG) and investigate two classes of algorithms. The first one is a gradient-flow method based on the variational characterization of certain MFG. The second one uses monotonicity properties of MFG. We illustrate our methods with various examples, including one-dimensional periodic MFG, congestion problems, and higher-dimensional models.
Cointegration and Econometric Analysis of Non-Stationary Data in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This is in conformity with the philosophy underlying the cointegration theory. Therefore, ignoring cointegration in non-stationary time series variables could lead to misspecification of the underlying process in the determination of corporate income tax in Nigeria. Thus, the study conclude that cointegration is greatly enhanced ...
Non-Stationary Dependence Structures for Spatial Extremes
Huser, Raphaë l; Genton, Marc G.
2016-01-01
been developed, and fitted to various types of data. However, a recurrent problem is the modeling of non-stationarity. In this paper, we develop non-stationary max-stable dependence structures in which covariates can be easily incorporated. Inference
Methylgroup interaction of hydrocarbon stationary phases and hydrocarbon solutes
Kemenade, van A.W.C.; Groenendijk, H.
1969-01-01
The temperature dependency of the retention behaviour of some alkanes with squalane as stationary phase has been measured at a very high precision level, at temperatures from 30 to 90°C. Besides the retention index itself [1], its temperature dependency appears to be a source of information about
Stationary strings near a higher-dimensional rotating black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, Valeri P.; Stevens, Kory A.
2004-01-01
We study stationary string configurations in a space-time of a higher-dimensional rotating black hole. We demonstrate that the Nambu-Goto equations for a stationary string in the 5D (five-dimensional) Myers-Perry metric allow a separation of variables. We present these equations in the first-order form and study their properties. We prove that the only stationary string configuration that crosses the infinite redshift surface and remains regular there is a principal Killing string. A worldsheet of such a string is generated by a principal null geodesic and a timelike at infinity Killing vector field. We obtain principal Killing string solutions in the Myers-Perry metrics with an arbitrary number of dimensions. It is shown that due to the interaction of a string with a rotating black hole, there is an angular momentum transfer from the black hole to the string. We calculate the rate of this transfer in a space-time with an arbitrary number of dimensions. This effect slows down the rotation of the black hole. We discuss possible final stationary configurations of a rotating black hole interacting with a string
Ceramic stationary gas turbine development. Final report, Phase 1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1994-09-01
This report summarizes work performed by Solar Turbines Inc. and its subcontractors during the period September 25, 1992 through April 30, 1993. The objective of the work is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through implementation of selected ceramic components.
Two Numerical Approaches to Stationary Mean-Field Games
Almulla, Noha
2016-10-04
Here, we consider numerical methods for stationary mean-field games (MFG) and investigate two classes of algorithms. The first one is a gradient-flow method based on the variational characterization of certain MFG. The second one uses monotonicity properties of MFG. We illustrate our methods with various examples, including one-dimensional periodic MFG, congestion problems, and higher-dimensional models.
Robust Forecasting of Non-Stationary Time Series
Croux, C.; Fried, R.; Gijbels, I.; Mahieu, K.
2010-01-01
This paper proposes a robust forecasting method for non-stationary time series. The time series is modelled using non-parametric heteroscedastic regression, and fitted by a localized MM-estimator, combining high robustness and large efficiency. The proposed method is shown to produce reliable
Buitelaar, Jan K; Smeets, Kirsten C; Herpers, Pierre; Scheepers, Floor; Glennon, Jeffrey; Rommelse, Nanda N J
2013-02-01
Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to CD in the light of the forthcoming DSM-5 definition. The diagnostic criteria for CD will remain unchanged in DSM-5, but the introduction of a specifier of CD with a callous-unemotional (CU) presentation is new. Linked to this, we discuss the pros and cons of various other ways to subtype aggression/CD symptoms. Existing guidelines for CD are, with few exceptions, already of a relatively older date and emphasize that clinical assessment should be systematic and comprehensive and based on a multi-informant approach. Non-medical psychosocial interventions are recommended as the first option for the treatment of CD. There is a role for medication in the treatment of comorbid syndromes and/or in case of insufficient response to psychosocial interventions and severe and dangerous aggressive and violent behaviours.
Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.
1959-01-01
A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)
Lin, Weilu; Wang, Zejian; Huang, Mingzhi; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang
2018-06-01
The isotopically non-stationary 13C labelling experiments, as an emerging experimental technique, can estimate the intracellular fluxes of the cell culture under an isotopic transient period. However, to the best of our knowledge, the issue of the structural identifiability analysis of non-stationary isotope experiments is not well addressed in the literature. In this work, the local structural identifiability analysis for non-stationary cumomer balance equations is conducted based on the Taylor series approach. The numerical rank of the Jacobian matrices of the finite extended time derivatives of the measured fractions with respect to the free parameters is taken as the criterion. It turns out that only one single time point is necessary to achieve the structural identifiability analysis of the cascaded linear dynamic system of non-stationary isotope experiments. The equivalence between the local structural identifiability of the cascaded linear dynamic systems and the local optimum condition of the nonlinear least squares problem is elucidated in the work. Optimal measurements sets can then be determined for the metabolic network. Two simulated metabolic networks are adopted to demonstrate the utility of the proposed method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bocek, M.; Armas, I.
1982-01-01
It was the aim of the present investigation to examine how the recovery rate in creep is influenced by a non-stationary stress. For purposes of phenomenological analysis it is postulated that, irrespective of whether the applied stress is stationary or not, for large strains the mean internal stress sigmasub(i) approaches a stationary value sigmasub(i,s). The stationary recovery rate Rsub(s) for constant load creep turns out be governed by the applied stress indicating that the recovery mechanism is dynamic in nature. For sigma-ramp loading, Rsub(s) is dependent on the stress rate sigma. In tensional stress cycling, Rsub(s) is governed by the maximum stress sigmasub(M) and is also dependent on the ratio of sigmasub(M) to the minimum stress sigma 0 . TEM examination of Zircaloy-4 specimens crept at 800 0 C at constant and cycling load respectively could not reveal any differences in the deformation substructure for the two loading types. Subgrain formation did not appear, individual dislocations were observed only rarely. However, typical networks were formed as well as pileups which perhaps are responsible for the back stress in high temperature plasticity (HTP). (orig.)
Proteomic Analysis of Stationary Phase in the Marine Bacterium "Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique"
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sowell, S. M.; Norbeck, A. D.; Lipton, M. S.; Nicora, C. D.; Callister, S. J.; Smith, R. D.; Barofsky, D. F.; Giovannoni, S. J.
2008-05-09
The α-proteobacterium ‘Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique’ str. HTCC1062, and most other members of the SAR11 clade, lack genes for assimilatory sulfate reduction, making them dependent on organosulfur compounds that occur naturally in seawater. To investigate how these cells adapt to sulfur limitation, batch cultures were grown in defined media containing either limiting or non-limiting amounts of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) as the sole sulfur source. Protein and mRNA expression were measured during exponential growth, immediately prior to stationary phase, and in late stationary phase. Two distinct responses were observed: one as DMSP became exhausted, and another as cells acclimated to a sulfur-limited environment. The first response was characterized by increased transcription and translation of all Ca. P. ubique genes downstream of previously confirmed S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) riboswitches: bhmT, mmuM, and metY. Proteins encoded by these genes were up to 33 times more abundant as DMSP became limiting. Their predicted function is to shunt all available sulfur to methionine. The secondary response, observed during sulfur-depleted stationary phase, was a 6-10 fold increase in transcription of the heme c shuttle ccmC and two small genes of unknown function (SAR11_1163 and SAR11_1164). This bacterium's strategy for coping with sulfur stress appears to be intracellular redistribution to support methionine biosynthesis, rather than increasing organosulfur import. Many of the genes and SAM riboswitches involved in this response are located in a hypervariable genome region (HVR). One of these HVR genes, ordL, is located downstream of a conserved motif that evidence suggests is a novel riboswitch.
Radio-Oxidation in Polyolefins: Non-Stationary Kinetic Conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dely, N.
2006-01-01
In the last fifty years, many authors have been interested in the radio-oxidation processes occurring in polymers. The polymer degradation under ionising radiations in presence of dioxygen is well described by a radical chemistry. The radio-oxidation process occurs in three steps: the first one is the production of radicals P degree by interaction between the polymer and the ionising radiations; then radicals P degree react spontaneously with O 2 solved in the polymer giving a peroxy radical POO degree which attacks the polymer forming a hydroperoxide POOH and a new radical P degree (propagation). The third step corresponds to the termination step, that is bimolecular reactions between radicals. It is generally assumed that the stationary state is rapidly reached and consequently that the oxidation induced during the built-up period of the radical concentration can be neglected. However, to our best knowledge, the temporal evolution of radical concentrations before reaching the steady state regime has never been studied in details. We recently performed a complete study of oxygen consumption under electron irradiation for an EPDM elastomer. An analysis, as function of dose rate and oxygen pressure, and assuming steady state conditions, allowed extracting all the kinetic constants. Starting for these experimental data, we calculated the build-up of the radical concentration by solving numerically the differential equations with help of the Minichem code. We conclude that, in fact, the oxidation induced during the built-up period is negligible. In this paper we show that [P degree] could present a quasi-stationary plateau before reaching its stationary level. Consequently, the full radical time evolution is essentially determined by two characteristic times for reaching the quasi and stationary levels and three concentrations: [P degree] and [POO degree] at the stationary level and [P degree] at the quasi-stationary plateau. We show that realistic approximations can
77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification
2012-11-23
... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...
On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.
1997-01-01
Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)
Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death
Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.
Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to
Heat-transfer characteristics of flowing and stationary particle-bed-type fusion-reactor blankets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nietert, R.E.
1983-02-01
The following five appendices are included: (1) physical properties of materials, (2) thermal entrance length Nusselt number variations, (3) stationary particle bed temperature variations, (4) falling bed experimental data and calculations, and (5) stationary bed experimental data and calculations
Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun
2017-12-01
Organic carbonyl electrode materials that have the advantages of high capacity, low cost and being environmentally friendly, are regarded as powerful candidates for next-generation stationary and redox flow rechargeable batteries (RFBs). However, low carbonyl utilization, poor electronic conductivity and undesired dissolution in electrolyte are urgent issues to be solved. Here, we summarize a molecular engineering approach for tuning the capacity, working potential, concentration of active species, kinetics, and stability of stationary and redox flow batteries, which well resolves the problems of organic carbonyl electrode materials. As an example, in stationary batteries, 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) with two carbonyls delivers a capacity of 257 mAh g -1 (2.27 V vs Li + /Li), while increasing the number of carbonyls to four with the formation of 5,7,12,14-pentacenetetrone results in a higher capacity of 317 mAh g -1 (2.60 V vs Li + /Li). In RFBs, AQ, which is less soluble in aqueous electrolyte, reaches 1 M by grafting -SO 3 H with the formation of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonic acid, resulting in a power density exceeding 0.6 W cm -2 with long cycling life. Therefore, through regulating substituent groups, conjugated structures, Coulomb interactions, and the molecular weight, the electrochemical performance of carbonyl electrode materials can be rationally optimized. This review offers fundamental principles and insight into designing advanced carbonyl materials for the electrodes of next-generation rechargeable batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Inferential framework for non-stationary dynamics: theory and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duggento, Andrea; Luchinsky, Dmitri G; McClintock, Peter V E; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N
2009-01-01
An extended Bayesian inference framework is presented, aiming to infer time-varying parameters in non-stationary nonlinear stochastic dynamical systems. The convergence of the method is discussed. The performance of the technique is studied using, as an example, signal reconstruction for a system of neurons modeled by FitzHugh–Nagumo oscillators: it is applied to reconstruction of the model parameters and elements of the measurement matrix, as well as to inference of the time-varying parameters of the non-stationary system. It is shown that the proposed approach is able to reconstruct unmeasured (hidden) variables of the system, to determine the model parameters, to detect stepwise changes of control parameters for each oscillator and to track the continuous evolution of the control parameters in the adiabatic limit
On the stationary Einstein-Maxwell-Klein-Gordon equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gegenberg, J.D.
1981-05-01
The stationary Einstein-Maxwell-Klein-Gordon (EMKG) equations for interacting gravitational, electromagnetic and meson fields are examined. The theory is cast into the formalism of principal fiber bundles with a connection, wherein its relationship to current trends in theoretical physics is made manifest. The EMKG equations are shown to admit a Higgs-like mechanism for giving mass to the gauge field. A theorem specifying sufficient conditions for the stationarity of the spacetime metric to imply stationarity of the other fields is proved. By imposing additional constraints and symmetries, the EMKG equations are considerably simplified. An attempt is made to apply a solution-generation technique, and this meets with only partial success. Finally, a stationary but non-static solution is found, and the geometric and physical properties are discussed
Nilpotent orbits in real symmetric pairs and stationary black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dietrich, Heiko [School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC (Australia); De Graaf, Willem A. [Department of Mathematics, University of Trento, Povo (Italy); Ruggeri, Daniele [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Trigiante, Mario [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy)
2017-02-15
In the study of stationary solutions in extended supergravities with symmetric scalar manifolds, the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair play an important role. In this paper we discuss two approaches to determine the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair. We apply our methods to an explicit example, and thereby classify the nilpotent orbits of (SL{sub 2}(R)){sup 4} acting on the fourth tensor power of the natural 2-dimensional SL{sub 2}(R)-module. This makes it possible to classify all stationary solutions of the so-called STU-supergravity model. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
A simple stationary semi-analytical wake model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Gunner Chr.
We present an idealized simple, but fast, semi-analytical algorithm for computation of stationary wind farm wind fields with a possible potential within a multi-fidelity strategy for wind farm topology optimization. Basically, the model considers wakes as linear perturbations on the ambient non......-linear. With each of these approached, a parabolic system are described, which is initiated by first considering the most upwind located turbines and subsequently successively solved in the downstream direction. Algorithms for the resulting wind farm flow fields are proposed, and it is shown that in the limit......-uniform mean wind field, although the modelling of the individual stationary wake flow fields includes non-linear terms. The simulation of the individual wake contributions are based on an analytical solution of the thin shear layer approximation of the NS equations. The wake flow fields are assumed...
Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis from stationary biking: a case report.
Inklebarger, J; Galanis, N; Kirkos, J; Kapetanos, G
2010-10-01
There are several reports concerning exercise and rabdomyolysis. There has been no report in the English literature of exercise induced rabdomyolisis from a stationary bike.A 63-year-old female recreational athlete presented to our hospital seeking treatment for lower back, leg pain and stiffness after exercising on a stationary bicycle one day prior. Blood work showed a raised CK of 38,120 U/L, a myoglobin of 5330 and an AST 495 U/L with normal urea and electrolytes. Urinalysis remained negative. She was admitted for oral and intravenous hydration and fluid balance monitoringThis is a very rare case of rhabdomyolysis due to exercise. This study highlights the difficulties faced by accident and emergency teams in distinguishing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) from exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, and reinforces the concept that rhabdomyolysis can occur at any level of exercise intensity.
Scaling law of resistance fluctuations in stationary random resistor networks
Pennetta; Trefan; Reggiani
2000-12-11
In a random resistor network we consider the simultaneous evolution of two competing random processes consisting in breaking and recovering the elementary resistors with probabilities W(D) and W(R). The condition W(R)>W(D)/(1+W(D)) leads to a stationary state, while in the opposite case, the broken resistor fraction reaches the percolation threshold p(c). We study the resistance noise of this system under stationary conditions by Monte Carlo simulations. The variance of resistance fluctuations is found to follow a scaling law |p-p(c)|(-kappa(0)) with kappa(0) = 5.5. The proposed model relates quantitatively the defectiveness of a disordered media with its electrical and excess-noise characteristics.
Learning in Non-Stationary Environments Methods and Applications
Lughofer, Edwin
2012-01-01
Recent decades have seen rapid advances in automatization processes, supported by modern machines and computers. The result is significant increases in system complexity and state changes, information sources, the need for faster data handling and the integration of environmental influences. Intelligent systems, equipped with a taxonomy of data-driven system identification and machine learning algorithms, can handle these problems partially. Conventional learning algorithms in a batch off-line setting fail whenever dynamic changes of the process appear due to non-stationary environments and external influences. Learning in Non-Stationary Environments: Methods and Applications offers a wide-ranging, comprehensive review of recent developments and important methodologies in the field. The coverage focuses on dynamic learning in unsupervised problems, dynamic learning in supervised classification and dynamic learning in supervised regression problems. A later section is dedicated to applications in which dyna...
On the continuity of the stationary state distribution of DPCM
Naraghi-Pour, Morteza; Neuhoff, David L.
1990-03-01
Continuity and singularity properties of the stationary state distribution of differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) are explored. Two-level DPCM (i.e., delta modulation) operating on a first-order autoregressive source is considered, and it is shown that, when the magnitude of the DPCM prediciton coefficient is between zero and one-half, the stationary state distribution is singularly continuous; i.e., it is not discrete but concentrates on an uncountable set with a Lebesgue measure of zero. Consequently, it cannot be represented with a probability density function. For prediction coefficients with magnitude greater than or equal to one-half, the distribution is pure, i.e., either absolutely continuous and representable with a density function, or singular. This problem is compared to the well-known and still substantially unsolved problem of symmetric Bernoulli convolutions.
Stationary density profiles in the Alcator C-mod tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kesner, J.; Ernst, D.; Hughes, J.; Mumgaard, R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Whyte, D.; Scott, S.
2012-01-01
In the absence of an internal particle source, plasma turbulence will impose an intrinsic relationship between an inwards pinch and an outwards diffusion resulting in a stationary density profile. The Alcator C-mod tokamak utilizes RF heating and current drive so that fueling only occurs in the vicinity of the separatrix. Discharges that transition from L-mode to I-mode are seen to maintain a self-similar stationary density profile as measured by Thomson scattering. For discharges with negative magnetic shear, an observed rise of the safety factor in the vicinity of the magnetic axis appears to be accompanied by a decrease of electron density, qualitatively consistent with the theoretical expectations.
Reduction of NOx emission from stationary combustion sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, P.F.
1992-01-01
The environmental impacts of NO x emission from stationary combustion sources are briefly described. These include the formation of both acid rain and photochemical smog, major environmental problems. The three mechanisms which have been identified for the formation of NO x in combustion (thermal, prompt and fuel) are also briefly outlined. Recently stringent standards have been introduced to control emissions of NO x and the review describes the major primary and secondary measures. 10 refs. 2 tabs., 5 figs
Stationary walking solitons in bulk quadratic nonlinear media
Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, D; Crasonavn, L C; Torner Sabata, Lluís
1997-01-01
We study the mutual trapping of fundamental and second-harmonic light beams propagating in bulk quadratic nonlinear media in the presence of Poynting vector beam walk-off. We show numerically the existence of a two-parameter family of (2 + 1)-dimensional stationary, spatial walking solitons. We have found that the solitons exist at various values of material parameters with different wave intensities and soliton velocities. We discuss the differences between (2 + 1) and (1 + 1)-dimensional wa...
On the dynamics of non-stationary binary stellar systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekov, A. A.; Bejsekov, A.N.; Aldibaeva, L.T.
2005-01-01
The motion of test body in the external gravitational field of the binary stellar system with slowly variable some physical parameters of radiating components is considered on the base of restricted non-stationary photo-gravitational three and two bodies problem. The family of polar and coplanar solutions are obtained. These solutions give the possibility of the dynamical and structure interpretation of the binary young evolving stars and galaxies. (author)
Stationary solution of a time dependent density matrix formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tohyama, Mitsuru
1994-01-01
A stationary solution of a time-dependent density-matrix formalism, which is an extension of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory to include the effects of two-body correlations, is obtained for the Lipkin model hamiltonian, using an adiabatic treatment of the two-body interaction. It is found that the obtained result is a reasonable approximation for the exact solution of the model. (author)
Occurence of stationary waves in angiography of peripheral vessels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boettcher, H.D.; Schmilowski, G.M.; Haverkamp, U.; Wagner, W.
1983-01-01
Among 229 angiographies of periphal vascular occlusions performed in 1981 and during the first half of 1982 at the Radiologic Clinic of Muenster University, stationary waves developed in one case in the vascular band before the occlusion. This phenomenon can be a pointer towards assuming that over long distances before the occlusion there is no satisfactory outflow provided for by collaterals, intact arterio-arterial or arterio-venous connections. (orig.) [de
On the instability increments of a stationary pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bud'ko, A.B.
1989-01-01
The stability of stationary pinch to helical modes is numerically studied. It is shown that in the case of a rather fast plasma pressure decrease to the pinch boundary, for example, for an isothermal diffusion pinch with Gauss density distribution instabilities with m=0 modes are the most quickly growing. Instability increments are calculated. A simple analytical expression of a maximum increment of growth of sausage instability for automodel Gauss profiles is obtained
Real Time Indoor Robot Localization Using a Stationary Fisheye Camera
Delibasis , Konstantinos ,; Plagianakos , Vasilios ,; Maglogiannis , Ilias
2013-01-01
Part 7: Intelligent Signal and Image Processing; International audience; A core problem in robotics is the localization of a mobile robot (determination of the location or pose) in its environment, since the robot’s behavior depends on its position. In this work, we propose the use of a stationary fisheye camera for real time robot localization in indoor environments. We employ an image formation model for the fisheye camera, which is used for accelerating the segmentation of the robot’s top ...
Ultrastrong Stationary Double Layers in a Nondischarge Magnetoplasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sato, N.; Hatakeyama, R.; Iizuka, S.
1981-01-01
Ultrastrong stationary double layers are generated in a magnetoplasma by simply applying potential differences between two plasma sources. The potential drop ϕD of the double layer is increased up to eϕD/Te≃2×103 (Te is the electron temperature in eV) with no difficulties caused by gas discharge....... There are always large spiky fluctuations on the low-potential tail of the double layers....
Robust Forecasting of Non-Stationary Time Series
Croux, C.; Fried, R.; Gijbels, I.; Mahieu, K.
2010-01-01
This paper proposes a robust forecasting method for non-stationary time series. The time series is modelled using non-parametric heteroscedastic regression, and fitted by a localized MM-estimator, combining high robustness and large efficiency. The proposed method is shown to produce reliable forecasts in the presence of outliers, non-linearity, and heteroscedasticity. In the absence of outliers, the forecasts are only slightly less precise than those based on a localized Least Squares estima...
Hydrodynamic Limit with Geometric Correction of Stationary Boltzmann Equation
Wu, Lei
2014-01-01
We consider the hydrodynamic limit of a stationary Boltzmann equation in a unit plate with in-flow boundary. We prove the solution can be approximated in $L^{\\infty}$ by the sum of interior solution which satisfies steady incompressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier system, and boundary layer with geometric correction. Also, we construct a counterexample to the classical theory which states the behavior of solution near boundary can be described by the Knudsen layer derived from the Milne problem.
Alpha Channeling in Rotating Plasma with Stationary Waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, A.; Fisch, N.J.
2010-01-01
An extension of the alpha channeling effect to supersonically rotating mirrors shows that the rotation itself can be driven using alpha particle energy. Alpha channeling uses radiofrequency waves to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. We show that stationary magnetic fields with high n θ can be used for this purpose, and simulations show that a large fraction of the alpha energy can be converted to rotation energy.
Identification of QRS complex in non-stationary electrocardiogram of sick infants.
Kota, S; Swisher, C B; Al-Shargabi, T; Andescavage, N; du Plessis, A; Govindan, R B
2017-08-01
Due to the high-frequency of routine interventions in an intensive care setting, electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings from sick infants are highly non-stationary, with recurrent changes in the baseline, alterations in the morphology of the waveform, and attenuations of the signal strength. Current methods lack reliability in identifying QRS complexes (a marker of individual cardiac cycles) in the non-stationary ECG. In the current study we address this problem by proposing a novel approach to QRS complex identification. Our approach employs lowpass filtering, half-wave rectification, and the use of instantaneous Hilbert phase to identify QRS complexes in the ECG. We demonstrate the application of this method using ECG recordings from eight preterm infants undergoing intensive care, as well as from 18 normal adult volunteers available via a public database. We compared our approach to the commonly used approaches including Pan and Tompkins (PT), gqrs, wavedet, and wqrs for identifying QRS complexes and then compared each with manually identified QRS complexes. For preterm infants, a comparison between the QRS complexes identified by our approach and those identified through manual annotations yielded sensitivity and positive predictive values of 99% and 99.91%, respectively. The comparison metrics for each method are as follows: PT (sensitivity: 84.49%, positive predictive value: 99.88%), gqrs (85.25%, 99.49%), wavedet (95.24%, 99.86%), and wqrs (96.99%, 96.55%). Thus, the sensitivity values of the four methods previously described, are lower than the sensitivity of the method we propose; however, the positive predictive values of these other approaches is comparable to those of our method, with the exception of the wqrs approach, which yielded a slightly lower value. For adult ECG, our approach yielded a sensitivity of 99.78%, whereas PT yielded 99.79%. The positive predictive value was 99.42% for both our approach as well as for PT. We propose a novel method for
Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.
Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue
2010-01-01
Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.
Non-stationary and relaxation phenomena in cavity-assisted quantum memories
Veselkova, N. G.; Sokolov, I. V.
2017-12-01
We investigate the non-stationary and relaxation phenomena in cavity-assisted quantum memories for light. As a storage medium we consider an ensemble of cold atoms with standard Lambda-scheme of working levels. Some theoretical aspects of the problem were treated previously by many authors, and recent experiments stimulate more deep insight into the ultimate ability and limitations of the device. Since quantum memories can be used not only for the storage of quantum information, but also for a substantial manipulation of ensembles of quantum states, the speed of such manipulation and hence the ability to write and retrieve the signals of relatively short duration becomes important. In our research we do not apply the so-called bad cavity limit, and consider the memory operation of the signals whose duration is not much larger than the cavity field lifetime, accounting also for the finite lifetime of atomic coherence. In our paper we present an effective approach that makes it possible to find the non-stationary amplitude and phase behavior of strong classical control field, that matches the desirable time profile of both the envelope and the phase of the retrieved quantized signal. The phase properties of the retrieved quantized signals are of importance for the detection and manipulation of squeezing, entanglement, etc by means of optical mixing and homodyning.
Mutations Enhancing Amino Acid Catabolism Confer a Growth Advantage in Stationary Phase
Zinser, Erik R.; Kolter, Roberto
1999-01-01
Starved cultures of Escherichia coli undergo successive rounds of population takeovers by mutants of increasing fitness. These mutants express the growth advantage in stationary phase (GASP) phenotype. Previous work identified the rpoS819 allele as a GASP mutation allowing cells to take over stationary-phase cultures after growth in rich media (M. M. Zambrano, D. A. Siegele, M. A. Almirón, A. Tormo, and R. Kolter, Science 259:1757–1760, 1993). Here we have identified three new GASP loci from an aged rpoS819 strain: sgaA, sgaB, and sgaC. Each locus is capable of conferring GASP on the rpoS819 parent, and they can provide successively higher fitnesses for the bacteria in the starved cultures. All four GASP mutations isolated thus far allow for faster growth on both individual and mixtures of amino acids. Each mutation confers a growth advantage on a different subset of amino acids, and these mutations act in concert to increase the overall catabolic capacity of the cell. We present a model whereby this enhanced ability to catabolize amino acids is responsible for the fitness gain during carbon starvation, as it may allow GASP mutants to outcompete the parental cells when growing on the amino acids released by dying cells. PMID:10482523
Around and about an application of the GAMLSS package to non-stationary flood frequency analysis
Debele, S. E.; Bogdanowicz, E.; Strupczewski, W. G.
2017-08-01
The non-stationarity of hydrologic processes due to climate change or human activities is challenging for the researchers and practitioners. However, the practical requirements for taking into account non-stationarity as a support in decision-making procedures exceed the up-to-date development of the theory and the of software. Currently, the most popular and freely available software package that allows for non-stationary statistical analysis is the GAMLSS (generalized additive models for location, scale and shape) package. GAMLSS has been used in a variety of fields. There are also several papers recommending GAMLSS in hydrological problems; however, there are still important issues which have not previously been discussed concerning mainly GAMLSS applicability not only for research and academic purposes, but also in a design practice. In this paper, we present a summary of our experiences in the implementation of GAMLSS to non-stationary flood frequency analysis, highlighting its advantages and pointing out weaknesses with regard to methodological and practical topics.
On the non-stationary generalized Langevin equation
Meyer, Hugues; Voigtmann, Thomas; Schilling, Tanja
2017-12-01
In molecular dynamics simulations and single molecule experiments, observables are usually measured along dynamic trajectories and then averaged over an ensemble ("bundle") of trajectories. Under stationary conditions, the time-evolution of such averages is described by the generalized Langevin equation. By contrast, if the dynamics is not stationary, it is not a priori clear which form the equation of motion for an averaged observable has. We employ the formalism of time-dependent projection operator techniques to derive the equation of motion for a non-equilibrium trajectory-averaged observable as well as for its non-stationary auto-correlation function. The equation is similar in structure to the generalized Langevin equation but exhibits a time-dependent memory kernel as well as a fluctuating force that implicitly depends on the initial conditions of the process. We also derive a relation between this memory kernel and the autocorrelation function of the fluctuating force that has a structure similar to a fluctuation-dissipation relation. In addition, we show how the choice of the projection operator allows us to relate the Taylor expansion of the memory kernel to data that are accessible in MD simulations and experiments, thus allowing us to construct the equation of motion. As a numerical example, the procedure is applied to Brownian motion initialized in non-equilibrium conditions and is shown to be consistent with direct measurements from simulations.
HIGH PERFORMANCE STATIONARY DISCHARGES IN THE DIII-D TOKAMAK
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luce, T.C.; Wade, M.R.; Ferron, J.R.; Politzer, P.A.; Hyatt, A.W.; Sips, A.C.C.; Murakami, M.
2003-01-01
Recent experiments in the DIII-D tokamak [J.L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42,614 (2002)] have demonstrated high β with good confinement quality under stationary conditions. Two classes of stationary discharges are observed--low q 95 discharges with sawteeth and higher q 95 without sawteeth. The discharges are deemed stationary when the plasma conditions are maintained for times greater than the current profile relaxation time. In both cases the normalized fusion performance (β N H 89P /q 95 2 ) reaches or exceeds the value of this parameter projected for Q fus = 10 in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design [R. Aymar, et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44, 519 (2002)]. The presence of sawteeth reduces the maximum achievable normalized β, while confinement quality (confinement time relative to scalings) is largely independent of q 95 . Even with the reduced β limit, the normalized fusion performance maximizes at the lowest q 95 . Projections to burning plasma conditions are discussed, including the methodology of the projection and the key physics issues which still require investigation
Stationary battery guide: Design, application, and maintenance. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1997-11-01
This guide has been prepared to assist a variety of users with stationary battery design, application, and maintenance. The following battery-related topics are discussed in detail: (1) fundamentals--how batteries are designed and how they work; (2) aging, degradation, and failures with an emphasis on how various maintenance tasks can prevent, detect, or repair certain degradation mechanisms; (3) applications--how batteries are designed for a specific purpose and how the battery industry has evolved; (4) sizing for different applications; (5) protection and charging; (6) periodic inspections and checks; (7) capacity discharge testing; (8) installation and replacement considerations; and (9) problems that can occur with battery systems. Since the original guide was published, new IEEE Recommended Practices related to stationary battery applications have been issued. This revision addresses those industry changes as well as some of the emerging issues related to the development of other industry documents. This guide has been prepared as a comprehensive reference source for stationary batteries and is intended to address the design, application, and maintenance needs of users. The technical discussions are at the application level. Fundamentals of battery design are covered in greater detail in this revision. More details related to internal cell materials, their operational relationship, and performance over the expected life of the battery cell are provided. This information has been included because many changes in battery cell materials, manufacturing and design processes are not always communicated to the user
APLIKASI SIX SIGMA PADA PRODUK CLEAR FILE DI PERUSAHAAN STATIONARY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Desy Emilasari
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the application of the Six Sigma methods is used in order to improve quality in manufacturing company that produce stationary product. DMAIC approach is utilized to analyze and improve 'Pocket Clear File' product since this product has more variability and defects. Quality improvement also monitor the process that influenced pocket defect in Bag Making, Kami-ire, Karidome, and Pocket after Karidome Inspections section. Determining of Six Sigma project is based in process and defect type in each section. FMEA also gave the recommendation for quality improvement we need to evaluate the final result of the improvement since some of them were not working properly. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Paper ini menggambarkan bagaimana aplikasi metode Six Sigma digunakan untuk melakukan perbaikan kualitas pada perusahaan manufaktur yang memproduksi produk stationary. Pendekatan DMAIC dipakai untuk menganalisa dan melakukan perbaikan produk 'Pocket Clear File' karena tingginya variabilitas dan cacat dibanding produk lain. Perbaikan kualitas juga memperhatikan proses yang mempengaruhi terjadinya cacat pocket pada section Bag Making, Kami-ire, Karidome, dan Pocket after Karidome Inspection. Penentuan proyek Six Sigma didasarkan atas proses dan jenis cacat pada setiap section. Pendekatan FMEA mampu memberi rekomendasi perbaikan kualitas. Evaluasi dari hasil perbaikan penting untuk dilakukan karena beberapa implementasi perbaikan kualitas tidak berjalan sesuai dengan rencana. kata kunci: six sigma, DMAIC, perusahaan stationary.
Thermal conduction in classical low-dimensional lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lepri, Stefano; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio
2003-01-01
Deriving macroscopic phenomenological laws of irreversible thermodynamics from simple microscopic models is one of the tasks of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We consider stationary energy transport in crystals with reference to simple mathematical models consisting of coupled oscillators on a lattice. The role of lattice dimensionality on the breakdown of the Fourier's law is discussed and some universal quantitative aspects are emphasized: the divergence of the finite-size thermal conductivity is characterized by universal laws in one and two dimensions. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics methods are presented along with a critical survey of previous numerical results. Analytical results for the non-equilibrium dynamics can be obtained in the harmonic chain where the role of disorder and localization can be also understood. The traditional kinetic approach, based on the Boltzmann-Peierls equation is also briefly sketched with reference to one-dimensional chains. Simple toy models can be defined in which the conductivity is finite. Anomalous transport in integrable non-linear systems is briefly discussed. Finally, possible future research themes are outlined
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marseguerra, M.; Minoggio, S.; Rossi, A.; Zio, E.
1992-01-01
The correlated noise affecting many industrial plants under stationary or cyclo-stationary conditions - nuclear reactors included -has been successfully modeled by autoregressive moving average (ARMA) due to the versatility of this technique. The relatively recent neural network methods have similar features and much effort is being devoted to exploring their usefulness in forecasting and control. Identifying a signal by means of an ARMA model gives rise to the problem of selecting its correct order. Similar difficulties must be faced when applying neural network methods and, specifically, particular care must be given to the setting up of the appropriate network topology, the data normalization procedure and the learning code. In the present paper the capability of some neural networks of learning ARMA and seasonal ARMA processes is investigated. The results of the tested cases look promising since they indicate that the neural networks learn the underlying process with relative ease so that their forecasting capability may represent a convenient fault diagnosis tool. (Author)
Previous Experience a Model of Practice UNAE
Ormary Barberi Ruiz; María Dolores Pesántez Palacios
2017-01-01
The statements presented in this article represents a preliminary version of the proposed model of pre-professional practices (PPP) of the National University of Education (UNAE) of Ecuador, an urgent institutional necessity is revealed in the descriptive analyzes conducted from technical support - administrative (reports, interviews, testimonials), pedagogical foundations of UNAE (curricular directionality, transverse axes in practice, career plan, approach and diagnostic examination as subj...
Better Proton-Conducting Polymers for Fuel-Cell Membranes
Narayan, Sri; Reddy, Prakash
2012-01-01
Polyoxyphenylene triazole sulfonic acid has been proposed as a basis for development of improved proton-conducting polymeric materials for solid-electrolyte membranes in hydrogen/air fuel cells. Heretofore, the proton-conducting membrane materials of choice have been exemplified by a family of perfluorosulfonic acid-based polymers (Nafion7 or equivalent). These materials are suitable for operation in the temperature of 75 to 85 C, but in order to reduce the sizes and/or increase the energy-conversion efficiencies of fuel-cell systems, it would be desirable to increase temperatures to as high as 120 C for transportation applications, and to as high as 180 C for stationary applications. However, at 120 C and at relative humidity values below 50 percent, the loss of water from perfluorosulfonic acid-based polymer membranes results in fuel-cell power densities too low to be of practical value. Therefore, membrane electrolyte materials that have usefully high proton conductivity in the temperature range of 180 C at low relative humidity and that do not rely on water for proton conduction at 180 C would be desirable. The proposed polyoxyphenylene triazole sulfonic acid-based materials have been conjectured to have these desirable properties. These materials would be free of volatile or mobile acid constituents. The generic molecular structure of these materials is intended to exploit the fact, demonstrated in previous research, that materials that contain ionizable acid and base groups covalently attached to thermally stable polymer backbones exhibit proton conduction even in the anhydrous state.
Nepomuceno-Mejía, Tomás; Lara-Martínez, Reyna; Cevallos, Ana María; López-Villaseñor, Imelda; Jiménez-García, Luis Felipe; Hernández, Roberto
2010-12-01
Our group is interested in rRNA and ribosome biogenesis in the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Epimastigotes represent an extracellular replicative stage of T. cruzi and can be cultured in axenic media. The growth curve of epimastigotes allows assessment of potential differences in the nucleoli of cells undergoing growth-rate transitions. To establish cellular parameters for studying ribosome biogenesis in T. cruzi, a morphometric analysis of the nucleoli of cultured cells in the exponential and stationary phases was conducted. Electron micrograph-based measurements of nuclear sections from independent cells demonstrated that the nucleolar area is over twofold higher in exponentially growing cells, as compared with epimastigotes in the stationary phase. The granular component of the nucleoli of actively growing cells was the main structural element. Cycloheximide moderately reduced the apparent size of the nucleoli without an apparent disruption of their architecture. Our results provide a firm basis for the establishment of an experimental model to study the organization of the nucleolus during the growth and development of T. cruzi. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Kurnia; LW Lim; T Takeuchi
2016-01-01
The hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled to environmental friendly capillary liquid chromatography was employed to investigate retention behavior of carbofuran. Aim of this research is to investigate retention behavior of carbofuran using TSK gel amide 80 as stationary phase. Several condition was conducted to investigate retention behavior of carbofuran such as comparison study of TSK gel amide 80 with other polar column, comparison study retention behavior of carbofuran on various system wavelength, water content effect in HILIC mode, effect of buffer concentration on HILIC mode, and analytical performance. Results showed that TSK gel imidazole was superior compare to other polar stationary phase on determine carbofuran, wavelength 251 and 254 nm was resulting higher absorbance for carbofuran than others, increase of water content on mobile phase was decrease the retention time, also increase buffer salt concentration was decrease the retention time and according to analysis performance that is the accuracy was 101±10,1, the LOD 0.66 ppm while LOQ 2.22 ppm. As conclusions that TSK gel amide 80 was offering good determine on carbofuran even using capillary liquid chromatography with 10 cm length of column. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Gao
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Tool fault diagnosis in numerical control (NC machines plays a significant role in ensuring manufacturing quality. However, current methods of tool fault diagnosis lack accuracy. Therefore, in the present paper, a fault diagnosis method was proposed based on stationary subspace analysis (SSA and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM using only a single sensor. First, SSA was used to extract stationary and non-stationary sources from multi-dimensional signals without the need for independency and without prior information of the source signals, after the dimensionality of the vibration signal observed by a single sensor was expanded by phase space reconstruction technique. Subsequently, 10 dimensionless parameters in the time-frequency domain for non-stationary sources were calculated to generate samples to train the LS-SVM. Finally, the measured vibration signals from tools of an unknown state and their non-stationary sources were separated by SSA to serve as test samples for the trained SVM. The experimental validation demonstrated that the proposed method has better diagnosis accuracy than three previous methods based on LS-SVM alone, Principal component analysis and LS-SVM or on SSA and Linear discriminant analysis.
Hammouda, Imen; Mihoubi, Daoued
2017-12-01
This work deals with a numerical study of the response of a porcelain slab when subjected to convective drying in stationary and non-stationary conditions. The used model describes heat, mass, and momentum transfers is applied to an unsaturated viscoelastic medium described by a Maxwell model. The numerical code allows us to determine the effect of the surrounding air temperature on drying kinetics and on mechanical stress intensities. Von Mises stresses are analysed in order to foresee an eventual damage that may occur during drying. Simulation results for several temperatures in the range of [30 °C, 90 °C] shows that for the temperature from 30 °C to 60 °C, Von Mises stresses are always lower than the yield strength. But above 70 °C, Von Mises stresses are higher than the ultimate strength, and consequently there is a risk of crack at the end of the constant drying rate period. The idea proposed in this work is to integrate a reducing temperature phase when the predicted Von Mises stress intensity exceeds the admissible stress. Simulation results shows that a non-stationary convective drying (90-60 °C) allows us to optimize costs and quality by reducing the drying time and maintaining Von Mises stress values under the admissible stress.
Investigation of the stationary-thermonuclear-reaction realization possibility in a tokamak device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Reznik, S.N.; Fursa, A.D.
1976-01-01
The stationary (quasistationary) selfsustaining thermonuclear D-T reaction is shown to be possible in a toroidal device such as 'Tokamak' with large enough plasma radius. The stationary temperature of the plasma can be quite high. Thus when the transport processes are assumed to be neoclassical the temperature of the central part of a plasma colomn of radius approximately 10-200 cm in the stationary state is 70 keV.The stationary temperature distribution is reached spontaneously as a result of the thermal instability development if plasma is preheated to 10 keV. The stationary thermonuclear burning is also possible at lower temperatures if plasma energy balance is controlled
Books average previous decade of economic misery.
Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
2014-01-01
For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.
Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery
Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
2014-01-01
For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arnaldo Simal do Nascimento
1997-12-01
Full Text Available We use $Gamma$--convergence to prove existence of stable multiple--layer stationary solutions (stable patterns to the reaction--diffusion equation. $$ eqalign{ {partial v_varepsilon over partial t} =& varepsilon^2, hbox{div}, (k_1(xabla v_varepsilon + k_2(x(v_varepsilon -alpha(Beta-v_varepsilon (v_varepsilon -gamma_varepsilon(x,,hbox{ in }Omegaimes{Bbb R}^+ cr &v_varepsilon(x,0 = v_0 quad {partial v_varepsilon over partial widehat{n}} = 0,, quadhbox{ for } xin partialOmega,, t >0,.} $$ Given nested simple closed curves in ${Bbb R}^2$, we give sufficient conditions on their curvature so that the reaction--diffusion problem possesses a family of stable patterns. In particular, we extend to two-dimensional domains and to a spatially inhomogeneous source term, a previous result by Yanagida and Miyata.
STATIONARY DISTRIBUTION OF A TANDEM QUEUE WITH ADDITIONAL FLOWS ON THE STATIONS OF THE TANDEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. I. Klimenok
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A tandem queueing system consisting of a finite number of multi-server stations without buffers is analized. The input flow at the first station is a ???????????? (Markovian arrival process. The customers from this flow aim to be served at all stations of the tandem. For any station, besides transit customers proceeding from the previous station, an additional ???????????? flow of new customers arrives at this station directly. Customers from this flow aim to be served at this station and all subsequent stations of the tandem. The service times of customer at the stations are exponentially distributed with the service rate depending of number of the station. The algorithms for culculation of stationary distributions and the loss probabilities associated with the tandem are given.
Scanning laser techniques for dynamic thermo-magnetic recording onto stationary media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clegg, Warwick; Jenkins, David; Helian, Na; Windmill, James; Windmill, Robert; Atkinson, Ron; Hendren, Bill; Wright, C. David
2002-09-01
Scanning laser microscopes (SLMs) have been used to characterise the magnetic properties of materials for some time (J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 95(1) (1991); IEEE Trans. Magn. 31(6 Pt. 1) (1995)). An SLM has been designed to facilitate a number of operating modes: both for writing and reading magneto-optical data. The current SLM is capable of thermo-magnetically recording bits onto magneto-optical thin films. Unlike previous SLMs, the current instrument has been designed to write bits both statically and dynamically onto stationary media. It will be used to write to magneto-optic (MO) disk material thermo-magnetically prior to imaging. Images may be derived from the longitudinal and polar magneto-optic Kerr effects, which are wavelength dependent, using the appropriate laser wavelength. In this paper the two configurations for dynamic recording are described.
Scanning laser techniques for dynamic thermo-magnetic recording onto stationary media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clegg, Warwick; Jenkins, David; Helian, Na; Windmill, James; Windmill, Robert; Atkinson, Ron; Hendren, Bill; Wright, C. David
2002-01-01
Scanning laser microscopes (SLMs) have been used to characterise the magnetic properties of materials for some time (J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 95(1) (1991); IEEE Trans. Magn. 31(6 Pt. 1) (1995)). An SLM has been designed to facilitate a number of operating modes: both for writing and reading magneto-optical data. The current SLM is capable of thermo-magnetically recording bits onto magneto-optical thin films. Unlike previous SLMs, the current instrument has been designed to write bits both statically and dynamically onto stationary media. It will be used to write to magneto-optic (MO) disk material thermo-magnetically prior to imaging. Images may be derived from the longitudinal and polar magneto-optic Kerr effects, which are wavelength dependent, using the appropriate laser wavelength. In this paper the two configurations for dynamic recording are described
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreno Bermudez, J.; Cabrera Quevedo, C.; Alfonso Mendez, L.; Rodriguez Aguilera, M.
1994-01-01
The development of an analytical procedure for spectrophotometric determination of uranium in polimetalic mineral, phosphorites and technological licours is described. The method is based on the previous separation of interfering elements by extraction chromatography and on spectrophotometric determination of uranium (IV) with arsenazo III in concentrated hydrochloric acid. Tributyl phosphate impregnate on politetrafluoroethylene is used as stationary phase and 5.5 M nitric acid is used as movie phase. The influence of matrix-component elements was studies. The development procedure was applied to real samples, being the results compared with those obtained by other well established analytical methods like gamma-spectrometry, laser fluorimetric, spectrophotometry previous uranium separation by liquid liquid extraction and anion exchange. The reproducibility is evaluated and the detection limited has been established for each studied matrix. A procedure for correcting the thorium interference has been developed for samples with a Th/ 3U8O higher than 0.2
Assessment of the environmental benefits of transport and stationary fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauen, A.; Hart, D.
2000-01-01
Fuel cells (FCs) offer significant environmental benefits over competing technologies and hence the environment is a strong driving force behind the development of FC systems for transport and stationary applications. This paper provides a comprehensive comparison of FC and competing systems, and points out strengths and weaknesses of the different FC systems, suggesting areas for improvement. The results presented build on earlier work [D. Hart, G. Hoermandinger, Initial assessment of the environmental characteristics of fuel cells and competing technologies, ETSU F/02/00111/REP/1, ETSU, Harwell, UK, 1997.] and provide a detailed analysis of a wider range of systems, The analysis takes the form of a model, which compares system emissions (global, regional and local pollutants) and energy consumption on a full fuel cycle basis. It considers a variety of primary energy sources, intermediate fuel supply steps and FC systems for transport and stationary end-uses. These are compared with alternative systems for transport and stationary applications. Energy and pollutant emission reductions of FC systems compared to alternative vehicle technology vary considerably, though all FC technologies show reduction in energy use and CO 2 emissions of at least 20%; as well as reductions of several orders of magnitude in regulated pollutants compared to the base-case vehicle. The location of emissions is also of importance, with most emissions in the case of FC vehicles occurring in the fuel supply stage. The energy, CO 2 and regulated emissions advantages of FC systems for distributed and baseload electricity are more consistent than for transport applications, with reductions in regulated pollutants generally larger than one order of magnitude compared to competing technologies. For CHP applications, the advantages of FC systems with regard to regulated pollutants remain large. However, energy and CO 2 emission advantages are reduced, depending largely on the assumptions made
Autocalibration method for non-stationary CT bias correction.
Vegas-Sánchez-Ferrero, Gonzalo; Ledesma-Carbayo, Maria J; Washko, George R; Estépar, Raúl San José
2018-02-01
Computed tomography (CT) is a widely used imaging modality for screening and diagnosis. However, the deleterious effects of radiation exposure inherent in CT imaging require the development of image reconstruction methods which can reduce exposure levels. The development of iterative reconstruction techniques is now enabling the acquisition of low-dose CT images whose quality is comparable to that of CT images acquired with much higher radiation dosages. However, the characterization and calibration of the CT signal due to changes in dosage and reconstruction approaches is crucial to provide clinically relevant data. Although CT scanners are calibrated as part of the imaging workflow, the calibration is limited to select global reference values and does not consider other inherent factors of the acquisition that depend on the subject scanned (e.g. photon starvation, partial volume effect, beam hardening) and result in a non-stationary noise response. In this work, we analyze the effect of reconstruction biases caused by non-stationary noise and propose an autocalibration methodology to compensate it. Our contributions are: 1) the derivation of a functional relationship between observed bias and non-stationary noise, 2) a robust and accurate method to estimate the local variance, 3) an autocalibration methodology that does not necessarily rely on a calibration phantom, attenuates the bias caused by noise and removes the systematic bias observed in devices from different vendors. The validation of the proposed methodology was performed with a physical phantom and clinical CT scans acquired with different configurations (kernels, doses, algorithms including iterative reconstruction). The results confirmed the suitability of the proposed methods for removing the intra-device and inter-device reconstruction biases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Non-stationary (13)C-metabolic flux ratio analysis.
Hörl, Manuel; Schnidder, Julian; Sauer, Uwe; Zamboni, Nicola
2013-12-01
(13)C-metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) has become a key method for metabolic engineering and systems biology. In the most common methodology, fluxes are calculated by global isotopomer balancing and iterative fitting to stationary (13)C-labeling data. This approach requires a closed carbon balance, long-lasting metabolic steady state, and the detection of (13)C-patterns in a large number of metabolites. These restrictions mostly reduced the application of (13)C-MFA to the central carbon metabolism of well-studied model organisms grown in minimal media with a single carbon source. Here we introduce non-stationary (13)C-metabolic flux ratio analysis as a novel method for (13)C-MFA to allow estimating local, relative fluxes from ultra-short (13)C-labeling experiments and without the need for global isotopomer balancing. The approach relies on the acquisition of non-stationary (13)C-labeling data exclusively for metabolites in the proximity of a node of converging fluxes and a local parameter estimation with a system of ordinary differential equations. We developed a generalized workflow that takes into account reaction types and the availability of mass spectrometric data on molecular ions or fragments for data processing, modeling, parameter and error estimation. We demonstrated the approach by analyzing three key nodes of converging fluxes in central metabolism of Bacillus subtilis. We obtained flux estimates that are in agreement with published results obtained from steady state experiments, but reduced the duration of the necessary (13)C-labeling experiment to less than a minute. These results show that our strategy enables to formally estimate relative pathway fluxes on extremely short time scale, neglecting cellular carbon balancing. Hence this approach paves the road to targeted (13)C-MFA in dynamic systems with multiple carbon sources and towards rich media. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abarzhi, S.I.
1996-01-01
The stationary solutions of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for spatially periodic flows with general symmetry are investigated here for the first time. The existence of a set of stationary solutions is established. The question of its dimensionality in function space is resolved on the basis of an analysis of the symmetry of the initial perturbation. The interrelationship between the dimensionality of the solution set and the symmetry of the flow is found. The dimensionality of the solution set is established for flows invariant with respect to one of five symmorphic two-dimensional groups. The nonuniversal character of the set of stationary solutions of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is demonstrated. For flows in a tube, on the contrary, universality of the solution set, along with its independence of the symmetry of the initial perturbation, is assumed. The problem of the free boundary in the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is solved in the first two approximations, and their convergence is investigated. The dependence of the velocity and Fourier harmonics on the parameters of the problem is found. Possible symmetry violations of the flow are analyzed. Limits to previously studied cases are investigated, and their accuracy is established. Questions of the stability of the solutions obtained and the possibility of a physically correct statement of the problem are discussed
Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries
Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME
2008-01-01
INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501
[Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].
Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa
2014-01-01
Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.
Impact of the Injection Protocol on an Impurity's Stationary State
Gamayun, Oleksandr; Lychkovskiy, Oleg; Burovski, Evgeni; Malcomson, Matthew; Cheianov, Vadim V.; Zvonarev, Mikhail B.
2018-06-01
We examine stationary-state properties of an impurity particle injected into a one-dimensional quantum gas. We show that the value of the impurity's end velocity lies between zero and the speed of sound in the gas and is determined by the injection protocol. This way, the impurity's constant motion is a dynamically emergent phenomenon whose description goes beyond accounting for the kinematic constraints of the Landau approach to superfluidity. We provide exact analytic results in the thermodynamic limit and perform finite-size numerical simulations to demonstrate that the predicted phenomena are within the reach of the ultracold gas experiments.
Automatic Adviser on stationary devices status identification and anticipated change
Shabelnikov, A. N.; Liabakh, N. N.; Gibner, Ya M.; Pushkarev, E. A.
2018-05-01
A task is defined to synthesize an Automatic Adviser to identify the automation systems stationary devices status using an autoregressive model of changing their key parameters. An applied model type was rationalized and the research objects monitoring process algorithm was developed. A complex of mobile objects status operation simulation and prediction results analysis was proposed. Research results are commented using a specific example of a hump yard compressor station. The work was supported by the Russian Fundamental Research Fund, project No. 17-20-01040.
Local polynomial Whittle estimation covering non-stationary fractional processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Frank
to the non-stationary region. By approximating the short-run component of the spectrum by a polynomial, instead of a constant, in a shrinking neighborhood of zero we alleviate some of the bias that the classical local Whittle estimators is prone to. This bias reduction comes at a cost as the variance is in...... study illustrates the performance of the proposed estimator compared to the classical local Whittle estimator and the local polynomial Whittle estimator. The empirical justi.cation of the proposed estimator is shown through an analysis of credit spreads....
The complex, variable structure of stationary lines in SS433
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falomo, R.; Boksenberg, A.; Tanzi, E.G.; Tarenghi, M.; Treves, A.
1987-01-01
On 1979 June 3-6, a number of spectra of SS433 were obtained using the UCL Image Photon Counting System on the 3.6-m telescope of the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. The stationary Hα and He I lambdalambda5875, 6678 and 7065 lines have a complex structure which on June 4-5 exhibited a central feature accompanied by two equally displaced (+- 1000 km s -1 ) side components. Variability of the line profile and equivalent width is observed on time-scales as short as a quarter of an hour. (author)
Complex, variable structure of stationary lines in SS433
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Falomo, R.; Boksenberg, A.; Tanzi, E.G.; Tarenghi, M.; Treves, A.
1987-01-15
On 1979 June 3-6, a number of spectra of SS433 were obtained using the UCL Image Photon Counting System on the 3.6-m telescope of the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. The stationary H..cap alpha.. and He I lambdalambda5875, 6678 and 7065 lines have a complex structure which on June 4-5 exhibited a central feature accompanied by two equally displaced (+- 1000 km s/sup -1/) side components. Variability of the line profile and equivalent width is observed on time-scales as short as a quarter of an hour.
Handbook of differential equations stationary partial differential equations
Chipot, Michel
2006-01-01
This handbook is volume III in a series devoted to stationary partial differential quations. Similarly as volumes I and II, it is a collection of self contained state-of-the-art surveys written by well known experts in the field. The topics covered by this handbook include singular and higher order equations, problems near critically, problems with anisotropic nonlinearities, dam problem, T-convergence and Schauder-type estimates. These surveys will be useful for both beginners and experts and speed up the progress of corresponding (rapidly developing and fascinating) areas of mathematics. Ke
Solid polymer fuel cell stationary power generation design studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pyke, S.H.; Wood, A.; Williams, G.J.; Kearney, P.
2000-07-01
This report summarises the results of a study investigating potential markets for solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC) stationary power generating systems and evaluating design options for grid connected and stand-alone systems. The specification of potential application for SPFC systems, initial modelling and economic analysis of twelve candidate SPFC applications, and the ranking and evaluation of candidate applications are examined. Details are given of performance modelling and economic analysis of four preferred SPFC systems (domestic, commercial, light industrial, and transportable generation), and comparison of SPFC with competing technologies. The economics of SPFC and conventional technologies for commercial applications are compared and market opportunities and potential barriers to commercialisation are identified.
On stationary states of electron beams in drift space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovalev, N.F.
2002-01-01
The article is devoted to studying the conditions of formation and existence of virtual cathodes. The problem on stationary states of the strongly magnetized electron beams in the homogeneous drift channels is discussed. The problem on the planar and coaxial moduli of the drift spaces is considered. The possibility of existing the virtual cathodes in the coaxial tubular beams by the injection currents, smaller than the threshold ones is highly proved. The inaccuracy of results of a number of works, studying the properties of the virtual cathodes in the strongly magnetized electron beams, is shown [ru
First-order, stationary mean-field games with congestion
Evangelista, David
2018-04-30
Mean-field games (MFGs) are models for large populations of competing rational agents that seek to optimize a suitable functional. In the case of congestion, this functional takes into account the difficulty of moving in high-density areas. Here, we study stationary MFGs with congestion with quadratic or power-like Hamiltonians. First, using explicit examples, we illustrate two main difficulties: the lack of classical solutions and the existence of areas with vanishing densities. Our main contribution is a new variational formulation for MFGs with congestion. With this formulation, we prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions. Finally, we consider applications to numerical methods.
Effect of multiplicative noise on stationary stochastic process
Kargovsky, A. V.; Chikishev, A. Yu.; Chichigina, O. A.
2018-03-01
An open system that can be analyzed using the Langevin equation with multiplicative noise is considered. The stationary state of the system results from a balance of deterministic damping and random pumping simulated as noise with controlled periodicity. The dependence of statistical moments of the variable that characterizes the system on parameters of the problem is studied. A nontrivial decrease in the mean value of the main variable with an increase in noise stochasticity is revealed. Applications of the results in several physical, chemical, biological, and technical problems of natural and humanitarian sciences are discussed.
On quantization of free fields in stationary space-times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreno, C.
1977-01-01
In Section 1 the structure of the infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system described by the Klein-Gordon equation (free real scalar field) in stationary space-times with closed space sections, is analysed, an existence and uniqueness theorem is given for the Lichnerowicz distribution kernel G 1 together with its proper Fourier expansion, and the Hilbert spaces of frequency-part solutions defined by means of G 1 are constructed. In Section 2 an analysis, a theorem and a construction similar to the above are formulated for the free real field spin 1, mass m>0, in one kind of static space-times. (Auth.)
Improved inventory for heavy metal emissions from stationary combustion plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif
On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment DCE at Aarhus University annually reports heavy metals (HM) emissions to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). This report presents updated heavy metal emission factors......-2009. The report also include methodology, references and an uncertainty estimate. In Denmark, stationary combustion plants are among the most important emission sources for heavy metals. Emissions of all heavy metals have decreased considerably (73 % - 92 %) since 1990. The main HM emission sources are coal...
On Optimal Feedback Control for Stationary Linear Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russell, David L.
2010-01-01
We study linear-quadratic optimal control problems for finite dimensional stationary linear systems AX+BU=Z with output Y=CX+DU from the viewpoint of linear feedback solution. We interpret solutions in relation to system robustness with respect to disturbances Z and relate them to nonlinear matrix equations of Riccati type and eigenvalue-eigenvector problems for the corresponding Hamiltonian system. Examples are included along with an indication of extensions to continuous, i.e., infinite dimensional, systems, primarily of elliptic type.
On the negligible emissions from stationary energy production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haaland, Leif
2002-01-01
According to this article, the emissions from stationary energy production are so small that it is immaterial which energy carriers are used. Percentage comparison may be misleading. There are many myths about the emissions from various energy carriers, one deals with bio fuel and the emission of cadmium, another with light oil and the emission of SO 2 . However, wood-burning accounts for substantial amounts of dust emission and old-fashioned stoves should have been forbidden in built-up areas. The article concludes by recommending that Norway should use more district heating
Influence of stationary vehicles on bridge aerodynamic and aeroelastic coefficients
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pospíšil, Stanislav; Buljac, A.; Kozmar, H.; Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Macháček, Michael; Král, Radomil
2017-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 05016012. ISSN 1084-0702 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : wind-vehicle-bridge system * cable-supported bridge * bridge aerodynamics and aeroelasticity * stationary vehicles * wind tunnel tests Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Construction engineering, Municipal and structural engineering Impact factor: 1.476, year: 2016 http://ascelibrary.org/doi/full/10.1061/%28ASCE%29BE.1943-5592.0001017
Detrending of non-stationary noise data by spline techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behringer, K.
1989-11-01
An off-line method for detrending non-stationary noise data has been investigated. It uses a least squares spline approximation of the noise data with equally spaced breakpoints. Subtraction of the spline approximation from the noise signal at each data point gives a residual noise signal. The method acts as a high-pass filter with very sharp frequency cutoff. The cutoff frequency is determined by the breakpoint distance. The steepness of the cutoff is controlled by the spline order. (author) 12 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs
First-order, stationary mean-field games with congestion
Evangelista, David; Ferreira, Rita; Gomes, Diogo A.; Nurbekyan, Levon; Voskanyan, Vardan K.
2018-01-01
Mean-field games (MFGs) are models for large populations of competing rational agents that seek to optimize a suitable functional. In the case of congestion, this functional takes into account the difficulty of moving in high-density areas. Here, we study stationary MFGs with congestion with quadratic or power-like Hamiltonians. First, using explicit examples, we illustrate two main difficulties: the lack of classical solutions and the existence of areas with vanishing densities. Our main contribution is a new variational formulation for MFGs with congestion. With this formulation, we prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions. Finally, we consider applications to numerical methods.
External determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells-Infrastructure and policy issues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karger, Cornelia R.; Bongartz, Richard
2008-01-01
This paper investigates the relevance of external determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells (FCs) by different user groups with respect to the marketability of this innovative technology. FCs allow electricity and heat to be decentrally generated in an energy-efficient and potentially environmentally friendly manner. European energy policy is undertaking efforts to increase the proportion of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. A series of studies have spoken of their considerable market potential. A qualitative study was conducted with six focus groups consisting of 49 commercial users and six focus groups with 54 private consumers. The results of the study show that the specific infrastructure required for decentralisation and policy issues are highly relevant for the user adoption of FCs. Security of supply when energy generation is more strongly decentralised, reliable maintenance of the system, and clear political objectives are examples of factors that are considered essential prerequisites for the adoption of this technology
Previous Experience a Model of Practice UNAE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ormary Barberi Ruiz
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The statements presented in this article represents a preliminary version of the proposed model of pre-professional practices (PPP of the National University of Education (UNAE of Ecuador, an urgent institutional necessity is revealed in the descriptive analyzes conducted from technical support - administrative (reports, interviews, testimonials, pedagogical foundations of UNAE (curricular directionality, transverse axes in practice, career plan, approach and diagnostic examination as subject nature of the pre professional practice and the demand of socio educational contexts where the practices have been emerging to resize them. By relating these elements allowed conceiving the modeling of the processes of the pre-professional practices for the development of professional skills of future teachers through four components: contextual projective, implementation (tutoring, accompaniment (teaching couple and monitoring (meetings at the beginning, during and end of practice. The initial training of teachers is inherent to teaching (academic and professional training, research and links with the community, these are fundamental pillars of Ecuadorian higher education.
Thermal conductivity in high critical temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castello, D.J.
1990-01-01
A measuring procedure to obtain the electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power of samples of low conductivity has been developed. The setup was designed to allow the removal of the sample in clean fashion, so that further heat treatments could be performed, and therefore no adhesives were used in the mounting of the thermocouples or heat sinks, etc. The heat equation has been analyzed with time-dependent boundary conditions, with the purpose of developing a dynamic measuring method which avoids the long delays involved in reaching thermal equilibrium above 30K. Based on this analysis, the developed measuring method allows a precise and reliable measurements, in a continuous fashion, for temperatures above 25K. The same setup is used in a stationary mode at low temperatures, so the sample needs to be mounted only once. κ(T) has been measured in two ceramic samples of La 2 CuO 4 : the first semiconducting, the other superconducting (SC) as a consequence of an oxygen annealing. Both exhibit a strong thermal resistivity due to defects, though lower in the SC, where two maxima are observed and are attributed to an AF ordering: T N ' ≅ 40K and T N '' ≅ 240K. The low temperature dependence is T 1 .6 and T 2 .3 respectively. It was interpreted that the former sample presents a greater dispersion due to localized excitations, characteristic of amorphouus materials, 'tunneling two-level systems' (TS). A third syntherized sample of CuO exhibits a typical behaviour of an insulator, with T 2 .6 at low temperatures, a maximum at 40K and a decrease in T -1 at high temperatures. κ(T) in a SC sample of La 1 .85Sr 1 .15CuO 4 with T c =35.5K has also been measured, observing a small increase below T c because of the diminishing of the phonon dispersion due to the condensating electrons. κ(T) is lower than in the previous samples and thus a greater number of defects was inferred. At low temperatures, its dependence is T 1 .4 in agreement with the
Kim, Myoung-Ho; Choi, Suk-Jung
2015-04-15
In this study, we devised a stationary liquid-phase lab-on-a-chip (SLP LOC), which was operated by moving solid-phase magnetic particles in the stationary liquid phase. The SLP LOC consisted of a sample chamber to which a sample and reactants were added, a detection chamber containing enzyme substrate solution, and a narrow channel connecting the two chambers and filled with buffer. As a model system, competitive immunoassays of saxitoxin (STX), a paralytic shellfish toxin, were conducted in the SLP LOC using protein G-coupled magnetic particles (G-MPs) as the solid phase. Anti-STX antibodies, STX-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, G-MPs, and a STX sample were added to the sample chamber and reacted by shaking. While liquids were in the stationary state, G-MPs were transported from the sample chamber to the detection chamber by moving a magnet below the LOC. After incubation to allow the enzymatic reaction to occur, the absorbance of the detection chamber solution was found to be reciprocally related to the STX concentration of the sample. Thus, the SLP LOC may represent a novel, simple format for point-of-care testing applications of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays by eliminating complicated liquid handling steps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Managing previously disposed waste to today's standards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-01-01
A Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) was established at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in 1952 for controlled disposal of radioactive waste generated at the INEL. Between 1954 and 1970 waste characterized by long lived, alpha emitting radionuclides from the Rocky Flats Plant was also buried at this site. Migration of radionuclides and other hazardous substances from the buried Migration of radionuclides and other hazardous substances from the buried waste has recently been detected. A Buried Waste Program (BWP) was established to manage cleanup of the buried waste. This program has four objectives: (1) determine contaminant sources, (2) determine extent of contamination, (3) mitigate migration, and (4) recommend an alternative for long term management of the waste. Activities designed to meet these objectives have been under way since the inception of the program. The regulatory environment governing these activities is evolving. Pursuant to permitting activities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into a Consent Order Compliance Agreement (COCA) for cleanup of past practice disposal units at the INEL. Subsequent to identification of the RWMC as a release site, cleanup activities proceeded under dual regulatory coverage of RCRA and the Atomic Energy Act. DOE, EPA, and the State of Idaho are negotiating a RCRA/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Interagency Agreement (IAG) for management of waste disposal sites at the INEL as a result of the November 1989 listing of the INEL on the National Priority List (NPL). Decision making for selection of cleanup technology will be conducted under the CERCLA process supplemented as required to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). 7 figs
Quantized Majorana conductance
Zhang, Hao; Liu, Chun-Xiao; Gazibegovic, Sasa; Xu, Di; Logan, John A.; Wang, Guanzhong; van Loo, Nick; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Car, Diana; Op Het Veld, Roy L. M.; van Veldhoven, Petrus J.; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Pendharkar, Mihir; Pennachio, Daniel J.; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Lee, Joon Sue; Palmstrøm, Chris J.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Sarma, S. Das; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.
2018-04-01
Majorana zero-modes—a type of localized quasiparticle—hold great promise for topological quantum computing. Tunnelling spectroscopy in electrical transport is the primary tool for identifying the presence of Majorana zero-modes, for instance as a zero-bias peak in differential conductance. The height of the Majorana zero-bias peak is predicted to be quantized at the universal conductance value of 2e2/h at zero temperature (where e is the charge of an electron and h is the Planck constant), as a direct consequence of the famous Majorana symmetry in which a particle is its own antiparticle. The Majorana symmetry protects the quantization against disorder, interactions and variations in the tunnel coupling. Previous experiments, however, have mostly shown zero-bias peaks much smaller than 2e2/h, with a recent observation of a peak height close to 2e2/h. Here we report a quantized conductance plateau at 2e2/h in the zero-bias conductance measured in indium antimonide semiconductor nanowires covered with an aluminium superconducting shell. The height of our zero-bias peak remains constant despite changing parameters such as the magnetic field and tunnel coupling, indicating that it is a quantized conductance plateau. We distinguish this quantized Majorana peak from possible non-Majorana origins by investigating its robustness to electric and magnetic fields as well as its temperature dependence. The observation of a quantized conductance plateau strongly supports the existence of Majorana zero-modes in the system, consequently paving the way for future braiding experiments that could lead to topological quantum computing.
Calculation of stationary plasma parameters in an electromagnetic trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karpukhin, V.I.; Lavrent'ev, O.A.; Sappa, N.N.
1978-01-01
The model of energy and particle balance is considered and the numerical calculations for stationary plasma parameters, supported by the electron injection, are obtained for a hypothetical electromagnetic trap with linear dimensions, magnetic field strength and energy contribution to plasma of the order of these parameters for the modern tokamak-type traps. The process of limitation of an effective injection current and energy contribution to plasma caused by returning of electrons to the injector due to diffusion in the velocity space is simulated. In approximation of a classical diffusion dependences are obtained of the effective energy contribution to plasma and of the parameters ntausub(E) and Tsub(i) (n is a plasma density; tausub(E)- energetic lifetime; Tsub(i) ion temperature) on electron injection current and power and on the confining magnetic field strength. It had been established that at classical character of diffusion in electromagnetic trap with above parameters one could obtain stationary plasma with ntausub(E)=10 12 cm -3 s and Tsub(i)=1keV, maintaining only by electron injection
Dynamic Classification using Multivariate Locally Stationary Wavelet Processes
Park, Timothy
2018-03-11
Methods for the supervised classification of signals generally aim to assign a signal to one class for its entire time span. In this paper we present an alternative formulation for multivariate signals where the class membership is permitted to change over time. Our aim therefore changes from classifying the signal as a whole to classifying the signal at each time point to one of a fixed number of known classes. We assume that each class is characterised by a different stationary generating process, the signal as a whole will however be nonstationary due to class switching. To capture this nonstationarity we use the recently proposed Multivariate Locally Stationary Wavelet model. To account for uncertainty in class membership at each time point our goal is not to assign a definite class membership but rather to calculate the probability of a signal belonging to a particular class. Under this framework we prove some asymptotic consistency results. This method is also shown to perform well when applied to both simulated and accelerometer data. In both cases our method is able to place a high probability on the correct class for the majority of time points.
Dynamic Classification using Multivariate Locally Stationary Wavelet Processes
Park, Timothy; Eckley, Idris A.; Ombao, Hernando
2018-01-01
Methods for the supervised classification of signals generally aim to assign a signal to one class for its entire time span. In this paper we present an alternative formulation for multivariate signals where the class membership is permitted to change over time. Our aim therefore changes from classifying the signal as a whole to classifying the signal at each time point to one of a fixed number of known classes. We assume that each class is characterised by a different stationary generating process, the signal as a whole will however be nonstationary due to class switching. To capture this nonstationarity we use the recently proposed Multivariate Locally Stationary Wavelet model. To account for uncertainty in class membership at each time point our goal is not to assign a definite class membership but rather to calculate the probability of a signal belonging to a particular class. Under this framework we prove some asymptotic consistency results. This method is also shown to perform well when applied to both simulated and accelerometer data. In both cases our method is able to place a high probability on the correct class for the majority of time points.
Stationary bubbles and their tunneling channels toward trivial geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Pisin; Yeom, Dong-han [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: guillem.domenech@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: innocent.yeom@gmail.com [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2016-04-01
In the path integral approach, one has to sum over all histories that start from the same initial condition in order to obtain the final condition as a superposition of histories. Applying this into black hole dynamics, we consider stable and unstable stationary bubbles as a reasonable and regular initial condition. We find examples where the bubble can either form a black hole or tunnel toward a trivial geometry, i.e., with no singularity nor event horizon. We investigate the dynamics and tunneling channels of true vacuum bubbles for various tensions. In particular, in line with the idea of superposition of geometries, we build a classically stable stationary thin-shell solution in a Minkowski background where its fate is probabilistically given by non-perturbative effects. Since there exists a tunneling channel toward a trivial geometry in the entire path integral, the entire information is encoded in the wave function. This demonstrates that the unitarity is preserved and there is no loss of information when viewed from the entire wave function of the universe, whereas a semi-classical observer, who can see only a definitive geometry, would find an effective loss of information. This may provide a resolution to the information loss dilemma.
Stationary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of toroidal plasma in rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Missiato, O.
1986-01-01
The stationary equations of classical magnetohydrodynamics are utilized to study the toroidal motion of a thermonuclear magnetically - confined plasma with toroidal symmetry (Tokamak). In the present work, we considered a purely toroidal stationary rotation and te problem is reduced to studing a second order partial differencial equation of eliptic type Maschke-Perrin. Assuming that the temperature remains constant on the magnetic surfaces, an analitic solution, valid for low Mach numbers (M ≤ 0 .4), was obtained for the above-mentioned equation by means of a technique developed by Pantuso Sudano. From the solution found, we traced graphs for the quantities which described the equilibrium state of the plasma, namely: mass density, pressure, temperature, electric current density and toroidal magnetic field. Finally we compare this analitical model with others works which utilized differents analitical models and numerical simulations. We conclude that the solutions obtained are in good agreement with the previos results. In addition, however, our model contains the results of Sudano-Goes with the additional advantage of employing much simple analitical expressions. (author) [pt
Traffic State Estimation Using Connected Vehicles and Stationary Detectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ellen F. Grumert
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Real-time traffic state estimation is of importance for efficient traffic management. This is especially the case for traffic management systems that require fast detection of changes in the traffic conditions in order to apply an effective control measure. In this paper, we propose a method for estimating the traffic state and speed and density, by using connected vehicles combined with stationary detectors. The aim is to allow fast and accurate estimation of changes in the traffic conditions. The proposed method does only require information about the speed and the position of connected vehicles and can make use of sparsely located stationary detectors to limit the dependence on the infrastructure equipment. An evaluation of the proposed method is carried out by microscopic traffic simulation. The traffic state estimated using the proposed method is compared to the true simulated traffic state. Further, the density estimates are compared to density estimates from one detector-based method, one combined method, and one connected-vehicle-based method. The results of the study show that the proposed method is a promising alternative for estimating the traffic state in traffic management applications.
2010-07-01
... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion... manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or a manufacturer of...
Digital simulation of an arbitrary stationary stochastic process by spectral representation.
Yura, Harold T; Hanson, Steen G
2011-04-01
In this paper we present a straightforward, efficient, and computationally fast method for creating a large number of discrete samples with an arbitrary given probability density function and a specified spectral content. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set with the desired spectral distribution, after which this colored Gaussian probability distribution is transformed via an inverse transform into the desired probability distribution. In contrast to previous work, where the analyses were limited to auto regressive and or iterative techniques to obtain satisfactory results, we find that a single application of the inverse transform method yields satisfactory results for a wide class of arbitrary probability distributions. Although a single application of the inverse transform technique does not conserve the power spectra exactly, it yields highly accurate numerical results for a wide range of probability distributions and target power spectra that are sufficient for system simulation purposes and can thus be regarded as an accurate engineering approximation, which can be used for wide range of practical applications. A sufficiency condition is presented regarding the range of parameter values where a single application of the inverse transform method yields satisfactory agreement between the simulated and target power spectra, and a series of examples relevant for the optics community are presented and discussed. Outside this parameter range the agreement gracefully degrades but does not distort in shape. Although we demonstrate the method here focusing on stationary random processes, we see no reason why the method could not be extended to simulate non-stationary random processes. © 2011 Optical Society of America
The Proteome and Lipidome of Thermococcus kodakarensis across the Stationary Phase
Gagen, Emma J.; Yoshinaga, Marcos Y.; Garcia Prado, Franka; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Thomm, Michael
2016-01-01
The majority of cells in nature probably exist in a stationary-phase-like state, due to nutrient limitation in most environments. Studies on bacteria and yeast reveal morphological and physiological changes throughout the stationary phase, which lead to an increased ability to survive prolonged nutrient limitation. However, there is little information on archaeal stationary phase responses. We investigated protein- and lipid-level changes in Thermococcus kodakarensis with extended time in the...
Optimizing a Military Supply Chain in the Presence of Random, Non-Stationary Demands
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Yew
2003-01-01
... logistics supply chain that satisfies uncertain, non-stationary demands, while taking into account the volatility and singularity of military operations This research focuses on the development...
Stationary distribution and ergodicity of a stochastic food-chain model with Lévy jumps
Yu, Jingyi; Liu, Meng
2017-09-01
In this paper, a three-species stochastic food-chain model with Lévy jumps is proposed and analyzed. Sharp sufficient criteria for the existence and uniqueness of an ergodic stationary distribution are established. The effects of Lévy jumps on the existence of the stationary distribution are revealed: in some cases, the Lévy jumps could make the stationary distribution appear, while in some cases, the Lévy jumps could make the stationary distribution disappear. Some numerical simulations are introduced to illustrate the theoretical results.
Enhancement of Non-Stationary Speech using Harmonic Chirp Filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørholm, Sidsel Marie; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
2015-01-01
In this paper, the issue of single channel speech enhancement of non-stationary voiced speech is addressed. The non-stationarity of speech is well known, but state of the art speech enhancement methods assume stationarity within frames of 20–30 ms. We derive optimal distortionless filters that take...... the non-stationarity nature of voiced speech into account via linear constraints. This is facilitated by imposing a harmonic chirp model on the speech signal. As an implicit part of the filter design, the noise statistics are also estimated based on the observed signal and parameters of the harmonic chirp...... model. Simulations on real speech show that the chirp based filters perform better than their harmonic counterparts. Further, it is seen that the gain of using the chirp model increases when the estimated chirp parameter is big corresponding to periods in the signal where the instantaneous fundamental...
Simple relations between mean passage times and Kramers' stationary rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boilley, David; Jurado, Beatriz; Schmitt, Christelle
2004-01-01
The classical problem of the escape time of a metastable potential well in a thermal environment is generally studied by various quantities like Kramers' stationary escape rate, mean first passage time, nonlinear relaxation time, or mean last passage time. In addition, numerical simulations lead to the definition of other quantities as the long-time limit escape rate and the transient time. In this paper, we propose some simple analytical relations between all these quantities. In particular, we point out the hypothesis used to evaluate these various times in order to clarify their comparison and applicability, and show how average times include the transient time and the long-time limit of the escape rate
Laboratory evidence for stationary inertial Alfvén waves
Koepke, M. E.; Finnegan, S. M.; Vincena, S.; Knudsen, D. J.; Nogami, S. H.; Vassiliadis, D.
2016-08-01
Azimuthal convective flow and density-depleted magnetic field-aligned current co-located in the helium plasma produced in the large plasma device (LAPD-U) at UCLA (Gekelman et al 2016 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87 025105) support an Alfvénic perturbation that is static in the laboratory frame. Electrostatic probes measure the flow and static density perturbations in the 72 cm-diameter, 12 m-long, afterglow plasma, wherein a radially segmented electrode creates the convective flow and an off-cylindrical-axis planar-mesh electrode draws current in a channel parallel to the background magnetic field. This stationary ‘wave’ is measured as a fixed (in the laboratory frame) ion density structure.
Stationary metrics and optical Zermelo-Randers-Finsler geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibbons, G. W.; Warnick, C. M.; Herdeiro, C. A. R.; Werner, M. C.
2009-01-01
We consider a triality between the Zermelo navigation problem, the geodesic flow on a Finslerian geometry of Randers type, and spacetimes in one dimension higher admitting a timelike conformal Killing vector field. From the latter viewpoint, the data of the Zermelo problem are encoded in a (conformally) Painleve-Gullstrand form of the spacetime metric, whereas the data of the Randers problem are encoded in a stationary generalization of the usual optical metric. We discuss how the spacetime viewpoint gives a simple and physical perspective on various issues, including how Finsler geometries with constant flag curvature always map to conformally flat spacetimes and that the Finsler condition maps to either a causality condition or it breaks down at an ergo surface in the spacetime picture. The gauge equivalence in this network of relations is considered as well as the connection to analogue models and the viewpoint of magnetic flows. We provide a variety of examples.
Schrodinger's catapult II: entanglement between stationary and flying fields
Pfaff, W.; Axline, C.; Burkhart, L.; Vool, U.; Reinhold, P.; Frunzio, L.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M.; Schoelkopf, R.
Entanglement between nodes is an elementary resource in a quantum network. An important step towards its realization is entanglement between stationary and flying states. Here we experimentally demonstrate entanglement generation between a long-lived cavity memory and traveling mode in circuit QED. A large on/off ratio and fast control over a parametric mixing process allow us to realize conversion with tunable magnitude and duration between standing and flying mode. In the case of half-conversion, we observe correlations between the standing and flying state that confirm the generation of entangled states. We show this for both single-photon and multi-photon states, paving the way for error-correctable remote entanglement. Our system could serve as an essential component in a modular architecture for error-protected quantum information processing.
On the Field of a Stationary Charged Spherical Source
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stavroulakis N.
2009-04-01
Full Text Available The equations of gravitation related to the field of a spherical charged source imply the existence of an interdependence between gravitation and electricity [5]. The present paper deals with the joint action of gravitation and electricity in the case of a stationary charged spherical source. Let m and " be respectively the mass and the charge of the source, and let k be the gravitational constant. Then the equations of gravitation need specific discussion according as j " j m p k (source strongly charged. In any case the curvature radius of the sphere bounding the matter possesses a strictly positive greatest lower hound, so that the source is necessarily an extended object. Pointwise sources do not exist. In particular, charged black holes do not exist.
Prediction of deformations during gas-tungsten-arc stationary welds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duncan, D.B.; Giedt, W.H.
1980-10-01
Local temperature measurements on the heated and unheated surfaces, and strain measurements on the unheated surfaces of unrestrained circular weld specimens of annealed and cold-rolled Nitronic 40 stainless steel during stationary welding, are compared with values predicted from finite-element programs for temperature and strain variations. Experimental and predicted temperature histories agree within 10%. Predicted and measured hoop strain profiles (using a moire fringe technique), for the unheated surface are compared, showing significant deviations near the central region. Transient deflection measurements of the unheated specimen surfaces show good agreement with theory during the period the arc is operating. Close agreement in deflection behavior was observed during the cooling portion of the weld cycle for the annealed specimen, whereas substantial deviations occurred for the cold-rolled specimens
Statistics of stationary points of random finite polynomial potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehta, Dhagash; Niemerg, Matthew; Sun, Chuang
2015-01-01
The stationary points (SPs) of the potential energy landscapes (PELs) of multivariate random potentials (RPs) have found many applications in many areas of Physics, Chemistry and Mathematical Biology. However, there are few reliable methods available which can find all the SPs accurately. Hence, one has to rely on indirect methods such as Random Matrix theory. With a combination of the numerical polynomial homotopy continuation method and a certification method, we obtain all the certified SPs of the most general polynomial RP for each sample chosen from the Gaussian distribution with mean 0 and variance 1. While obtaining many novel results for the finite size case of the RP, we also discuss the implications of our results on mathematics of random systems and string theory landscapes. (paper)
Integrated stationary Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and double integral processes
Abundo, Mario; Pirozzi, Enrica
2018-03-01
We find a representation of the integral of the stationary Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (ISOU) process in terms of Brownian motion Bt; moreover, we show that, under certain conditions on the functions f and g , the double integral process (DIP) D(t) = ∫βt g(s) (∫αs f(u) dBu) ds can be thought as the integral of a suitable Gauss-Markov process. Some theoretical and application details are given, among them we provide a simulation formula based on that representation by which sample paths, probability densities and first passage times of the ISOU process are obtained; the first-passage times of the DIP are also studied.
Thin viscoelastic disc subjected to radial non-stationary loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adámek V.
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The investigation of non-stationary wave phenomena in isotropic viscoelastic solids using analytical approaches is the aim of this paper. Concretely, the problem of a thin homogeneous disc subjected to radial pressure load nonzero on the part of its rim is solved. The external excitation is described by the Heaviside function in time, so the nonstationary state of stress is induced in the disc. Dissipative material behaviour of solid studied is represented by the discrete material model of standard linear viscoelastic solid in the Zener configuration. After the derivation of motion equations final form, the method of integral transforms in combination with the Fourier method is used for finding the problem solution. The solving process results in the derivation of integral transforms of radial and circumferential displacement components. Finally, the type of derived functions singularities and possible methods for their inverse Laplace transform are mentioned.
Stationary Response of Lotka—Volterra System with Real Noises
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi Lu-Yuan; Xu Wei; Gao Wei-Ting
2013-01-01
A stochastic version of Lotka—Volterra model subjected to real noises is proposed and investigated. The approximate stationary probability densities for both predator and prey are obtained analytically. The original system is firstly transformed to a pair of Itô stochastic differential equations. The Itô formula is then carried out to obtain the Itô stochastic differential equation for the period orbit function. The orbit function is considered as slowly varying process under reasonable assumptions. By applying the stochastic averaging method to the orbit function in one period, the averaged Itô stochastic differential equation of the motion orbit and the corresponding Fokker—Planck equation are derived. The probability density functions of the two species are thus formulated. Finally, a classical real noise model is given as an example to show the proposed approximate method. The accuracy of the proposed procedure is verified by Monte Carlo simulation. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
The stationary storage of energy. Available technologies and CEA researches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2012-01-01
After a discussion of the main challenges related to the stationary storage of energy, this publication proposes an overview of the different available technologies: plant for transfer of energy by pumping, compressed air, energy flywheels, hydrogen, lithium-ion battery, redox-flow battery, thermal storage by sensitive heat, thermal-chemical storage coupled to a thermal solar system, thermal storage by phase change, superconductive inductance storage, super-capacitors. It discusses the criteria of choice of storage technology, either for electric energy storage or for heat storage. It proposes an overview of researches performed within the CEA on storage systems: electrochemical, thermal, and hydrogen-based storages. The final chapter addresses current fundamental researches on storage in the field of lithium-ion batteries, hydrogen as a fuel, and thermoelectricity
Effect of turbulent collisions on diffusion in stationary plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia, H.; Ishihara, O.
1990-01-01
Recently the velocity diffusion process was studied by the generalized Langevin equation derived by the projection operator method. The further study shows that the retarded frictional function plays an important role in suppressing particle diffusion in the velocity space in stronger turbulence as much as the resonance broadening effect. The retarded frictional effect, produced by the effective collisions due to the plasma turbulence is assumed to be a Gaussian, but non-Markovian and non-wide-sense stationary process. The relations between the proposed formulation and the extended resonance broadening theory is discussed. The authors also carry out test particle numerical experiment for Langmuir turbulence to test the theories. In a stronger turbulence a deviation of the diffusion rate from the one predicted by both the quasilinear and the extended resonance theories has been observed and is explained qualitatively by the present formulation
Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trintis, Ionut
The integration of renewable energy sources in the power system, with high percentage, is a well known challenge nowadays. Power sources like wind and solar are highly volatile, with uctuations on various time scales. One long term solution is to build a continentwide or worldwide supergrid....... Another solution is to use distributed energy storage units, and create virtual power plants. Stationary energy storage is a complementary solution, which can postpone the network expansion and can be optimized for dierent kind of grid services. As an energy storage solution with timing for few seconds...... multilevel converter structure with integrated energy storage is introduced. This converter structure is suitable to interface low and medium voltage energy storage units to medium and high voltage grids. It can also interconnect a DC and AC grid with bidirectional power ow, were both can be backed...
Non-stationary vibrations of a thin viscoelastic orthotropic beam
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Adámek, V.; Valeš, František; Tikal, B.
2009-01-01
Roč. 71, č. 12 (2009), e2569-e2576 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/07/0946 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : thin beam * non-stationary vibration * analytical solution Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V0Y-4WB3N8S-4&_user=640952&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1156243286&_rerunOrigin= google &_acct=C000034318&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=640952&md5=ce096901a3382058455e822a20645820
Stationary spherical shells around Kerr-Newman naked singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zdenek Stuchlik; Stanislav Hledik
1998-01-01
It is shown that in the field of some Kerr-Newman naked singularities a stationary spherical shell of charged dust can exist, with the specific charge being the same for all particles of the dusty shell. Gravitational attractions acting on the particles are balanced by electromagnetic repulsion in such a way that the shell is stable against radial perturbations. Particles of the shell move along orbits with constant latitude and radius. Rotation of the shell is differential. The shell is corotating relative to static observers at infinity, but it is counter rotating relative to the family of locally non-rotating observers. No such a shell can exist in the field of Kerr-Newman black holes. (authors)
VRACK: measuring pedal kinematics during stationary bike cycling.
Farjadian, Amir B; Kong, Qingchao; Gade, Venkata K; Deutsch, Judith E; Mavroidis, Constantinos
2013-06-01
Ankle impairment and lower limb asymmetries in strength and coordination are common symptoms for individuals with selected musculoskeletal and neurological impairments. The virtual reality augmented cycling kit (VRACK) was designed as a compact mechatronics system for lower limb and mobility rehabilitation. The system measures interaction forces and cardiac activity during cycling in a virtual environment. The kinematics measurement was added to the system. Due to the constrained problem definition, the combination of inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Kalman filtering was recruited to compute the optimal pedal angular displacement during dynamic cycling exercise. Using a novel benchmarking method the accuracy of IMU-based kinematics measurement was evaluated. Relatively accurate angular measurements were achieved. The enhanced VRACK system can serve as a rehabilitation device to monitor biomechanical and physiological variables during cycling on a stationary bike.
Generalized Predictive Control for Non-Stationary Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Palsson, Olafur Petur; Madsen, Henrik; Søgaard, Henning Tangen
1994-01-01
This paper shows how the generalized predictive control (GPC) can be extended to non-stationary (time-varying) systems. If the time-variation is slow, then the classical GPC can be used in context with an adaptive estimation procedure of a time-invariant ARIMAX model. However, in this paper prior...... knowledge concerning the nature of the parameter variations is assumed available. The GPC is based on the assumption that the prediction of the system output can be expressed as a linear combination of present and future controls. Since the Diophantine equation cannot be used due to the time......-variation of the parameters, the optimal prediction is found as the general conditional expectation of the system output. The underlying model is of an ARMAX-type instead of an ARIMAX-type as in the original version of the GPC (Clarke, D. W., C. Mohtadi and P. S. Tuffs (1987). Automatica, 23, 137-148) and almost all later...
A He-gas Cooled, Stationary Granular Target
Pugnat, P
2003-01-01
In the CERN approach to the design of a neutrino factory, the repetition frequency of the proton beam is high enough to consider stationary solid targets as a viable solution for multi-MW beams. The target consists of high density tantalum spheres of 2 mm diameter which can efficiently be cooled by passing a high mass flow He-gas stream through the voids between the Ta-granules. Very small thermal shocks and stresses will arise in this fine grained structure due to the relatively long burst of 3.3 ms from the SPL-proton linac. In a quadruple target system where each target receives only one quarter of the total beam power of 4 MW, conservative temperature levels and adequate lifetimes of the target are estimated in its very high radiation environment. A conceptual design of the integration of the target into the magnetic horn-pion-collector is presented.
Thermodynamical description of stationary, asymptotically flat solutions with conical singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herdeiro, Carlos; Rebelo, Carmen; Radu, Eugen
2010-01-01
We examine the thermodynamical properties of a number of asymptotically flat, stationary (but not static) solutions having conical singularities, with both connected and nonconnected event horizons, using the thermodynamical description recently proposed in [C. Herdeiro, B. Kleihaus, J. Kunz, and E. Radu, Phys. Rev. D 81, 064013 (2010).]. The examples considered are the double-Kerr solution, the black ring rotating in either S 2 or S 1 , and the black Saturn, where the balance condition is not imposed for the latter two solutions. We show that not only the Bekenstein-Hawking area law is recovered from the thermodynamical description, but also the thermodynamical angular momentum is the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner angular momentum. We also analyze the thermodynamical stability and show that, for all these solutions, either the isothermal moment of inertia or the specific heat at constant angular momentum is negative, at any point in parameter space. Therefore, all these solutions are thermodynamically unstable in the grand canonical ensemble.
Kinetic insights over a PEMFC operating on stationary and oscillatory states.
Mota, Andressa; Gonzalez, Ernesto R; Eiswirth, Markus
2011-12-01
Kinetic investigations in the oscillatory state have been carried out in order to shed light on the interplay between the complex kinetics exhibited by a proton exchange membrane fuel cell fed with poisoned H(2) (108 ppm of CO) and the other in serie process. The apparent activation energy (E(a)) in the stationary state was investigated in order to clarify the E(a) observed in the oscillatory state. The apparent activation energy in the stationary state, under potentiostatic control, rendered (a) E(a) ≈ 50-60 kJ mol(-1) over 0.8 V < E < 0.6 V and (b) E(a) ≈ 10 kJ mol(-1) at E = 0.3 V. The former is related to the H(2) adsorption in the vacancies of the surface poisoned by CO and the latter is correlated to the process of proton conductivity in the membrane. The dependence of the period-one oscillations on the temperature yielded a genuine Arrhenius dependence with two E(a) values: (a) E(a) around 70 kJ mol(-1), at high temperatures, and (b) E(a) around 10-15 kJ mol(-1), at lower temperatures. The latter E(a) indicates the presence of protonic mass transport coupled to the essential oscillatory mechanism. These insights point in the right direction to predict spatial couplings between anode and cathode as having the highest strength as well as to speculate the most likely candidates to promote spatial inhomogeneities. © 2011 American Chemical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodman, F.O.
1977-01-01
A rigorous treatment of the scattering of atoms by a stationary sinusoidal hard wall in (n+1) dimensions is presented, a previous treatment by Masel, Merrill, and Miller for n=1 being contained as a special case. Numerical comparisons are made with the GR method of Garcia, which incorporates the Rayleigh hypothesis. Advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed, and it is concluded that the Rayleigh GR method, if handled properly, will probably work satisfactorily in physically realistic cases
NONLINEAR DYNAMO IN A ROTATING ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING FLUID
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. I. Kopp
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We found a new large-scale instability, which arises in the rotating conductive fluid with small-scale turbulence. Turbulence is generated by small-scale external force with a low Reynolds number. The theory is built simply by the method of multiscale asymptotic expansions. Nonlinear equations for vortex and magnetic perturbations obtained in the third order for small Reynolds number. It is shown that the combined effects of the Coriolis force and the small external forces in a rotating conducting fluid possible large-scale instability. The large-scale increments of the instability, correspond to generation as the vortex and magnetic disturbances. This type of instability is classified as hydrodynamic and MHD alpha-effect. We studied the stationary regimes of nonlinear equations of magneto-vortex dynamo. In the limit of weakly conducting fluid found stationary solutions in the form of helical kinks. In the limit of high conductivity fluid was obtained stationary solutions in the form of nonlinear periodic waves and kinks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mir, Z.A.
2015-01-01
Objectives: To compare the frequencies of post- operative surgical site infection after preoperative marking done with non-sterile stationary. grade markers versus sterile surgical markers in the same patient. Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: The department of Plastic surgery, Mayo hospital, Lahore from August 2013 to August 2014. Methods: This study was conducted after taking approval from the departmental ethical committee. Forty consecutive patients were included. A sterile surgical marker was used to mark one incision site while an alcohol based stationary grade marker was used to mark another incision site on the same patient. A standard preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative protocol was followed. Cultures were performed on swabs taken from the incision sites and surgical site infection was assessed for 30 days. Results: The study included 40 patients; 17 males and 23 females. The mean age of subjects was 25.32 ± 19.69 years with the minimum age being 2 years and the maximum being 63 years. No growth was seen in cultures taken from all the incision sites after skin preparation in the non sterile stationary grade marker group as well as the sterile surgical grade marker group. Also no surgical site infection appeared during the 30 day postoperative observation period in the non sterile stationary grade marker group as well as the sterile surgical grade marker group. (author)
Non-stationary covariance function modelling in 2D least-squares collocation
Darbeheshti, N.; Featherstone, W. E.
2009-06-01
Standard least-squares collocation (LSC) assumes 2D stationarity and 3D isotropy, and relies on a covariance function to account for spatial dependence in the observed data. However, the assumption that the spatial dependence is constant throughout the region of interest may sometimes be violated. Assuming a stationary covariance structure can result in over-smoothing of, e.g., the gravity field in mountains and under-smoothing in great plains. We introduce the kernel convolution method from spatial statistics for non-stationary covariance structures, and demonstrate its advantage for dealing with non-stationarity in geodetic data. We then compared stationary and non- stationary covariance functions in 2D LSC to the empirical example of gravity anomaly interpolation near the Darling Fault, Western Australia, where the field is anisotropic and non-stationary. The results with non-stationary covariance functions are better than standard LSC in terms of formal errors and cross-validation against data not used in the interpolation, demonstrating that the use of non-stationary covariance functions can improve upon standard (stationary) LSC.
Bridging the gap between a stationary point process and its Palm distribution
Nieuwenhuis, G.
1994-01-01
In the context of stationary point processes measurements are usually made from a time point chosen at random or from an occurrence chosen at random. That is, either the stationary distribution P or its Palm distribution P° is the ruling probability measure. In this paper an approach is presented to
2010-11-05
... Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Sewage... ``Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Sewage... performance standards for new units and emission guidelines for existing units for specific categories of...
A new derivation of the conformally flat stationary cyclic non-circular spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayon-Beato, Eloy; Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc; GarcIa, Alberto
2007-01-01
We present an alternative way to derive the conformally flat stationary cyclic non-circular spacetimes. We show that there is no room for stationary axisymmetric non-circular axisymmetric spacetimes. We reproduce the well know results for this sort of spacetimes recently reported in [1
A new derivation of the conformally flat stationary cyclic non-circular spacetimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ayon-Beato, Eloy [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); GarcIa, Alberto [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)
2007-11-15
We present an alternative way to derive the conformally flat stationary cyclic non-circular spacetimes. We show that there is no room for stationary axisymmetric non-circular axisymmetric spacetimes. We reproduce the well know results for this sort of spacetimes recently reported in [1].
On the Oracle Property of the Adaptive LASSO in Stationary and Nonstationary Autoregressions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kock, Anders Bredahl
We show that the Adaptive LASSO is oracle efficient in stationary and non-stationary autoregressions. This means that it estimates parameters consistently, selects the correct sparsity pattern, and estimates the coefficients belonging to the relevant variables at the same asymptotic efficiency...
Nonparametric estimation of the stationary M/G/1 workload distribution function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Martin Bøgsted
2005-01-01
In this paper it is demonstrated how a nonparametric estimator of the stationary workload distribution function of the M/G/1-queue can be obtained by systematic sampling the workload process. Weak convergence results and bootstrap methods for empirical distribution functions for stationary associ...
2011-10-28
...-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. DOT. ACTION: Notice to Manufacturers of In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems... Operations. This notice requests information from manufacturers of systems meeting the technical requirements...
40 CFR 60.3035 - May I conduct performance testing less often?
2010-07-01
... deviation from an emission limitation for any pollutant, you must conduct annual performance tests for that... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I conduct performance testing less... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance...
40 CFR 60.2934 - May I conduct performance testing less often?
2010-07-01
... deviation from an emission limitation for any pollutant, you must conduct annual performance tests for that... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I conduct performance testing less... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and...
Radiative thermal conduction fronts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borkowski, K.J.; Balbus, S.A.; Fristrom, C.C.
1990-01-01
The discovery of the O VI interstellar absorption lines in our Galaxy by the Copernicus observatory was a turning point in our understanding of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). It implied the presence of widespread hot (approx. 10 to the 6th power K) gas in disk galaxies. The detection of highly ionized species in quasi-stellar objects' absorption spectra may be the first indirect observation of this hot phase in external disk galaxies. Previous efforts to understand extensive O VI absorption line data from our Galaxy were not very successful in locating the regions where this absorption originates. The location at interfaces between evaporating ISM clouds and hot gas was favored, but recent studies of steady-state conduction fronts in spherical clouds by Ballet, Arnaud, and Rothenflug (1986) and Bohringer and Hartquist (1987) rejected evaporative fronts as the absorption sites. Researchers report here on time-dependent nonequilibrium calculations of planar conductive fronts whose properties match well with observations, and suggest reasons for the difference between the researchers' results and the above. They included magnetic fields in additional models, not reported here, and the conclusions are not affected by their presence
Teaching geographical hydrology in a non-stationary world
Hendriks, Martin R.; Karssenberg, Derek
2010-05-01
Understanding hydrological processes in a non-stationary world requires knowledge of hydrological processes and their interactions. Also, one needs to understand the (non-linear) relations between the hydrological system and other parts of our Earth system, such as the climate system, the socio-economic system, and the ecosystem. To provide this knowledge and understanding we think that three components are essential when teaching geographical hydrology. First of all, a student needs to acquire a thorough understanding of classical hydrology. For this, knowledge of the basic hydrological equations, such as the energy equation (Bernoulli), flow equation (Darcy), continuity (or water balance) equation is needed. This, however, is not sufficient to make a student fully understand the interactions between hydrological compartments, or between hydrological subsystems and other parts of the Earth system. Therefore, secondly, a student also needs to be knowledgeable of methods by which the different subsystems can be coupled; in general, numerical models are used for this. A major disadvantage of numerical models is their complexity. A solution may be to use simpler models, provided that a student really understands how hydrological processes function in our real, non-stationary world. The challenge for a student then lies in understanding the interactions between the subsystems, and to be able to answer questions such as: what is the effect of a change in vegetation or land use on runoff? Thirdly, knowledge of field hydrology is of utmost importance. For this a student needs to be trained in the field. Fieldwork is very important as a student is confronted in the field with spatial and temporal variability, as well as with real life uncertainties, rather than being lured into believing the world as presented in hydrological textbooks and models, e.g. the world under study is homogeneous, isotropic, or lumped (averaged). Also, students in the field learn to plan and
Recovery and Sequestration of CO2 from Stationary Combustion Systems by Photosynthesis of Microalgae
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
T. Nakamura; C.L. Senior
2005-04-01
Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October 2000 to 31 March 2005 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. This report discusses results of the work pertaining to five tasks: Task 1--Supply of CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas to Photobioreactor; Task 2--Selection of Microalgae; Task 3--Optimization and Demonstration of Industrial Scale Photobioreactor; Task 4--Carbon Sequestration System Design; and Task 5--Economic Analysis. Based on the work conducted in each task summary conclusion is presented.
Evaluation of the Methods for Response Analysis under Non-Stationary Excitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.S. Jangid
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Response of structures to non-stationary ground motion can be obtained either by the evolutionary spectral analysis or by the Markov approach. In certain conditions, a quasi-stationary analysis can also be performed. The first two methods of analysis are difficult to apply for complex situations such as problems involving soil-structure interaction, non-classical damping and primary-secondary structure interaction. The quasi-stationary analysis, on the other hand, provides an easier solution procedure for such cases. Here-in, the effectiveness of the quasi-stationary analysis is examined with the help of the analysis of a single degree-of-freedom (SDOF system under a set of parametric variations. For this purpose, responses of the SDOF system to uniformly modulated non-stationary random ground excitation are obtained by the three methods and they are compared. In addition, the relative computational efforts for different methods are also investigated.
Study of Stationary Phase Metabolism Via Isotopomer Analysis of Amino Acids from an Isolated Protein
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaikh, AfshanS.; Tang, YinjieJ.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Martin, Hector Garcia; Gin, Jennifer; Benke, Peter; Keasling, Jay D.
2009-09-14
Microbial production of many commercially important secondary metabolites occurs during stationary phase, and methods to measure metabolic flux during this growth phase would be valuable. Metabolic flux analysis is often based on isotopomer information from proteinogenic amino acids. As such, flux analysis primarily reflects the metabolism pertinent to the growth phase during which most proteins are synthesized. To investigate central metabolism and amino acids synthesis activity during stationary phase, addition of fully 13C-labeled glucose followed by induction of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression during stationary phase was used. Our results indicate that Escherichia coli was able to produce new proteins (i.e., GFP) in the stationary phase, and the amino acids in GFP were mostly from degraded proteins synthesized during the exponential growth phase. Among amino acid biosynthetic pathways, only those for serine, alanine, glutamate/glutamine, and aspartate/asparagine had significant activity during the stationary phase.
Exponentially Stable Stationary Solutions for Stochastic Evolution Equations and Their Perturbation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caraballo, Tomas; Kloeden, Peter E.; Schmalfuss, Bjoern
2004-01-01
We consider the exponential stability of stochastic evolution equations with Lipschitz continuous non-linearities when zero is not a solution for these equations. We prove the existence of anon-trivial stationary solution which is exponentially stable, where the stationary solution is generated by the composition of a random variable and the Wiener shift. We also construct stationary solutions with the stronger property of attracting bounded sets uniformly. The existence of these stationary solutions follows from the theory of random dynamical systems and their attractors. In addition, we prove some perturbation results and formulate conditions for the existence of stationary solutions for semilinear stochastic partial differential equations with Lipschitz continuous non-linearities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Echim
2008-05-01
Full Text Available We discuss a model for the quasi-stationary coupling between magnetospheric sheared flows in the dusk sector and discrete auroral arcs, previously analyzed for the case of a uniform height-integrated Pedersen conductivity (ΣP. Here we introduce an ionospheric feedback as the variation of ΣP with the energy flux of precipitating magnetospheric electrons (εem. One key-component of the model is the kinetic description of the interface between the duskward LLBL and the plasma sheet that gives the profile of Φm, the magnetospheric electrostatic potential. The velocity shear in the dusk LLBL plays the role of a generator for the auroral circuit closing through Pedersen currents in the auroral ionosphere. The field-aligned current density, j||, and the energy flux of precipitating electrons are given by analytic functions of the field-aligned potential drop, ΔΦ, derived from standard kinetic models of the adiabatic motion of particles. The ionospheric electrostatic potential, Φi (and implicitely ΔΦ is determined from the current continuity equation in the ionosphere. We obtain values of ΔΦ of the order of kilovolt and of j|| of the order of tens of μA/m2 in thin regions of the order of several kilometers at 200 km altitude. The spatial scale is significantly smaller and the peak values of ΔΦ, j|| and εem are higher than in the case of a uniform ΣP. Effects on the postnoon/evening auroral arc electrodynamics due to variations of dusk LLBL and solar wind dynamic and kinetic pressure are discussed. In thin regions (of the order of kilometer embedding the maximum of ΔΦ we evidence a non-linear regime of the current-voltage relationship. The model predicts also that visible arcs form when the velocity shear in LLBL is above a threshold value depending on the generator and ionospheric plasma properties. Brighter arcs are obtained for increased velocity shear in the LLBL; their spatial scale remains virtually unmodified. The field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Echim
2008-05-01
Full Text Available We discuss a model for the quasi-stationary coupling between magnetospheric sheared flows in the dusk sector and discrete auroral arcs, previously analyzed for the case of a uniform height-integrated Pedersen conductivity (Σ_{P}. Here we introduce an ionospheric feedback as the variation of Σ_{P} with the energy flux of precipitating magnetospheric electrons (ε_{em}. One key-component of the model is the kinetic description of the interface between the duskward LLBL and the plasma sheet that gives the profile of Φ_{m}, the magnetospheric electrostatic potential. The velocity shear in the dusk LLBL plays the role of a generator for the auroral circuit closing through Pedersen currents in the auroral ionosphere. The field-aligned current density, j_{||}, and the energy flux of precipitating electrons are given by analytic functions of the field-aligned potential drop, ΔΦ, derived from standard kinetic models of the adiabatic motion of particles. The ionospheric electrostatic potential, Φ_{i} (and implicitely ΔΦ is determined from the current continuity equation in the ionosphere. We obtain values of ΔΦ of the order of kilovolt and of j_{||} of the order of tens of μA/m^{2} in thin regions of the order of several kilometers at 200 km altitude. The spatial scale is significantly smaller and the peak values of ΔΦ, j_{||} and ε_{em} are higher than in the case of a uniform Σ_{P}. Effects on the postnoon/evening auroral arc electrodynamics due to variations of dusk LLBL and solar wind dynamic and kinetic pressure are discussed. In thin regions (of the order of kilometer embedding the maximum of ΔΦ we evidence a non-linear regime of the current-voltage relationship. The model predicts also that visible arcs form when the velocity shear in LLBL is above a threshold value depending on the generator and
Qi, Wei
2017-11-01
Cost-benefit analysis is commonly used for engineering planning and design problems in practice. However, previous cost-benefit based design flood estimation is based on stationary assumption. This study develops a non-stationary cost-benefit based design flood estimation approach. This approach integrates a non-stationary probability distribution function into cost-benefit analysis, and influence of non-stationarity on expected total cost (including flood damage and construction costs) and design flood estimation can be quantified. To facilitate design flood selections, a 'Risk-Cost' analysis approach is developed, which reveals the nexus of extreme flood risk, expected total cost and design life periods. Two basins, with 54-year and 104-year flood data respectively, are utilized to illustrate the application. It is found that the developed approach can effectively reveal changes of expected total cost and extreme floods in different design life periods. In addition, trade-offs are found between extreme flood risk and expected total cost, which reflect increases in cost to mitigate risk. Comparing with stationary approaches which generate only one expected total cost curve and therefore only one design flood estimation, the proposed new approach generate design flood estimation intervals and the 'Risk-Cost' approach selects a design flood value from the intervals based on the trade-offs between extreme flood risk and expected total cost. This study provides a new approach towards a better understanding of the influence of non-stationarity on expected total cost and design floods, and could be beneficial to cost-benefit based non-stationary design flood estimation across the world.
Thin accretion disks in stationary axisymmetric wormhole spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we study the physical properties and the equilibrium thermal radiation emission characteristics of matter forming thin accretion disks in stationary axially symmetric wormhole spacetimes. The thin disk models are constructed by taking different values of the wormhole's angular velocity, and the time averaged energy flux, the disk temperature, and the emission spectra of the accretion disks are obtained. Comparing the mass accretion in a rotating wormhole geometry with the one of a Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for wormholes than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating wormholes provide a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Therefore specific signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum of thin disks around rotating wormholes, thus leading to the possibility of distinguishing wormhole geometries by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.
Stationary drift-Rossby vortices in shear flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horihata, Satoshi; Irie, Haruyuki; Sato, Masatomo
1990-01-01
Starting from Hasegawa-Mima equation with the generalized vorticity q which describes both electrostatic drift waves in plasmas and Rossby waves in the atmosphere of rotating planets, the stationary solutions of this equation in the (x, y) plane were considered assuming that the equilibrium density no depends on x and the electron temperature T 0 is constant. The arbitrary function F(φ) yielded from integration of transformed Hasegawa-Mima equation was taken either linear or nonlinear in φ, where φ is the stream function. When F is linear, vortex solutions were obtained by dividing the entire plane into internal and external regions by a closed boundary curve. Imposing the boundary conditions at the boundary curve, the constants in the solutions φ ex and φ in were determined. 4 examples are figured. When F is nonlinear, isolated (localized) vortex was considered. Deriving the equation to determine F, the equation for ψ, the internal vortical motion beyond the boundary was given. 2 examples are shown. (M.T.)
Plasma equilibria and stationary flows in axisymmetric systems. Pt. 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zelazny, R.; Stankiewicz, R.; Galkowski, A.; Potempski, S.; Pietak, R.
1990-08-01
The problem of the importance of poloidal flows for the behaviour of plasmas in axisymmetric systems has caused a lot of discussion and controversy during the last 15 years. There is no doubt that the mere existence of poloidal flow transforms the elliptic Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation into a system of mixed type partial differential equation and an algebraic multivalued Bernoulli equation. This fact leads to the appearance of Bernoulli branches in the solutions. Then, one can come across three branches of elliptic solutions as well as two branches of hyperbolic solutions with the possible appearance of phenomena connected with ''transsonic'' effects. Problems connected with such a mathematical situation have been extensively discussed in the report with the same title, dated May 1988, which we shall call later Part I of our studies on this subject. The present report, considered as Part III, is devoted to the presentation of results of efforts aimed at constructing programmes which allow us to solve the extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation (EGSS) (with stationary flows) in a more realistic situation relevant to the JET operating conditions. The main problem is to specify for a wider class of profiles the boundary conditions at the magnetic axis for a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations ODE, resulting from EGSS equation after application of Fourier transformation techniques and of inverse method approach. The present report elaborates a much more general case and describes the computational framework enabling us to derive those boundary conditions. (author)
New lube oil for stationary heavy fuel engines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-12-01
An extensively field-tested diesel engine lubricating oil for medium speed, heavy fuel stationary engine applications has been introduced by Caltex Petroleum, in Dallas, Texas. The new oil is similar to a product developed and marketed for marine medium speed heavy fuel propulsion and auxillary engine applications by one of its two parent companies, Chevron. Detailed are results of two field evaluations in Caterpillar 3600 series engines installed at Kimberly Clark (KCPI) and Sime Darby (SDPI), both in the Philippines. Both were one year, 7000-plus hour field evaluations of a new, 40 BN trunk piston engine oil (TPEO), identified as Caltex Delo 3400, SAE 40 engine lube oil. The oil uses the new Phenalate additive technology developed by Chevron Chemical Company`s Oronite Additives Division. This technology is designed to improve engine cleanliness in regard to soft black sludge and piston deposits. The focus of the field evaluations was the performance of the lubricating oil. During controlled tests at Sime Darby, the most noticeable improvement over another technology was in the control of sludge deposits. This improvement was seen in all areas where black sludge forms, such as the rocker cover, crankcase cover and valve assemblies. 4 figs.
Hydrogen Storage using Metal Hydrides in a Stationary Cogeneration System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botzung, Maxime; Chaudourne, Serge; Perret, Christian; Latroche, Michel; Percheron-Guegan, Annick; Marty Philippe
2006-01-01
In the frame of the development of a hydrogen production and storage unit to supply a 40 kW stationary fuel cell, a metal hydride storage tank was chosen according to its reliability and high energetic efficiency. The study of AB5 compounds led to the development of a composition adapted to the project needs. The absorption/desorption pressures of the hydride at 75 C (2 / 1.85 bar) are the most adapted to the specifications. The reversible storage capacity (0.95 %wt) has been optimized to our work conditions and chemical kinetics is fast. The design of the Combined Heat and Power CHP system requires 5 kg hydrogen storage but in a first phase, only a 0.1 kg prototype has been realised and tested. Rectangular design has been chosen to obtain good compactness with an integrated plate fin type heat exchanger designed to reach high absorption/desorption rates. In this paper, heat and mass transfer characteristics of the Metal Hydride tank (MH tank) during absorption/desorption cycles are given. (authors)
Investigation and modelling of rubber stationary friction on rough surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Gal, A; Klueppel, M
2008-01-01
This paper presents novel aspects regarding the physically motivated modelling of rubber stationary sliding friction on rough surfaces. The description of dynamic contact is treated within the framework of a generalized Greenwood-Williamson theory for rigid/soft frictional pairings. Due to the self-affinity of rough surfaces, both hysteresis and adhesion friction components arise from a multi-scale excitation of surface roughness. Beside a complete analytical formulation of contact parameters, the morphology of macrotexture is considered via the introduction of a second scaling range at large length scales which mostly contribute to hysteresis friction. Moreover, adhesion friction is related to the real area of contact combined with the kinetics of interfacial peeling effects. Friction experiments carried out with different rubbers on rough granite and asphalt point out the relevance of hysteresis and adhesion friction concepts on rough surfaces. The two scaling ranges approach significantly improves the description of wet and dry friction behaviour within the range of low sliding velocity. In addition, material and surface effects are predicted and understood on a physical basis. The applicability of such modelling is of high interest for materials developers and road constructors regarding the prediction of wet grip performance of tyres on road tracks
Removal of Stationary Sinusoidal Noise from Random Vibration Signals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Brian; Cap, Jerome S.
2018-02-01
In random vibration environments, sinusoidal line noise may appear in the vibration signal and can affect analysis of the resulting data. We studied two methods which remove stationary sine tones from random noise: a matrix inversion algorithm and a chirp-z transform algorithm. In addition, we developed new methods to determine the frequency of the tonal noise. The results show that both of the removal methods can eliminate sine tones in prefabricated random vibration data when the sine-to-random ratio is at least 0.25. For smaller ratios down to 0.02 only the matrix inversion technique can remove the tones, but the metrics to evaluate its effectiveness also degrade. We also found that using fast Fourier transforms best identified the tonal noise, and determined that band-pass-filtering the signals prior to the process improved sine removal. When applied to actual vibration test data, the methods were not as effective at removing harmonic tones, which we believe to be a result of mixed-phase sinusoidal noise.
Accelerating particles in general relativity (stationary C-metric)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farhoosh, H.
1979-01-01
The purpose of this thesis is to study the physical and geometrical properties of uniformly accelerating particles in the general theory of relativity and it consists of four main parts. In the first part the structure of the Killing horizons in the static vacuum C-metric which represents the gravitational field of a uniformly accelerating Schwarzschild like particle (non-rotating and spherically symmetric) is studied. In the second part these results are generalized to include the effects of the rotation of the source. For small acceleration and small rotation this solution reveals the existance of three Killing horizons. Two the these horizons are the Schwarzschild and the Rindler surfaces which are mainly due to the mass and the acceleration of the particle, respectively. In part three the radial geodesic and non-geodesic motions in the static vacuum C-metric (non-rotating case) are investigated. The effect of the dragging of the inertial frame is also shown in this part. In part four the radiative behavior of the stationary charged C-metric representing the electro-gravitational field of a uniformly accelerating and rotating charged particle with magnetic monopole and the NUT-parameter are investigated. The physical quantities - the news function, mass loss, mass, charge and the multipole moments - are calculated. It is also shown in this part that the magnetic monopole in the presence of rotation and acceleration affects the electric charge
Damping of Quasi-stationary Waves Between Two Miscible Liquids
Duval, Walter M. B.
2002-01-01
Two viscous miscible liquids with an initially sharp interface oriented vertically inside a cavity become unstable against oscillatory external forcing due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The instability causes growth of quasi-stationary (q-s) waves at the interface between the two liquids. We examine computationally the dynamics of a four-mode q-s wave, for a fixed energy input, when one of the components of the external forcing is suddenly ceased. The external forcing consists of a steady and oscillatory component as realizable in a microgravity environment. Results show that when there is a jump discontinuity in the oscillatory excitation that produced the four-mode q-s wave, the interface does not return to its equilibrium position, the structure of the q-s wave remains imbedded between the two fluids over a long time scale. The damping characteristics of the q-s wave from the time history of the velocity field show overdamped and critically damped response; there is no underdamped oscillation as the flow field approaches steady state. Viscous effects serve as a dissipative mechanism to effectively damp the system. The stability of the four-mode q-s wave is dependent on both a geometric length scale as well as the level of background steady acceleration.
Optimal operation of stationary and mobile batteries in distribution grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Yubo; Shi, Wenbo; Wang, Bin; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A DSM minimizes both nodal operational cost and network power losses is proposed. • Uncertainties in distribution grids are captured with stochastic programming. • An ADMM based distributed method is applied for scalability and privacy preserving. - Abstract: The trending integrations of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS, stationary battery) and Electric Vehicles (EV, mobile battery) to distribution grids call for advanced Demand Side Management (DSM) technique that addresses the scalability concerns of the system and stochastic availabilities of EVs. Towards this goal, a stochastic DSM is proposed to capture the uncertainties in EVs. Numerical approximation is then used to make the problem tractable. To accelerate the computational speed, the proposed DSM is tightly relaxed to a convex form using second-order cone programming. Furthermore, in light of the continuous increasing problem size, a distributed method with a guaranteed convergence is applied to shift the centralized computational burden to distributed controllers. To verify the proposed DSM, real-life EV data collected on UCLA campus is used to test the proposed DSM in an IEEE benchmark test system. Numerical results demonstrate the correctness and merits of the proposed approach.
Investigation of the statistical distance to reach stationary distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicholson, S.B.; Kim, Eun-jin
2015-01-01
The thermodynamic length gives a Riemannian metric to a system's phase space. Here we extend the traditional thermodynamic length to the information length (L) out of equilibrium and examine its properties. We utilise L as a useful methodology of analysing non-equilibrium systems without evoking conventional assumptions such as Gaussian statistics, detailed balance, priori-known constraints, or ergodicity and numerically examine how L evolves in time for the logistic map in the chaotic regime depending on initial conditions. To this end, we propose a discrete version of L which is mathematically well defined by taking a set theoretic approach. We identify the areas of phase space where the loss of information of the system takes place most rapidly. In particular, we present an interesting result that the unstable fixed points turn out to most efficiently drive the logistic map towards a stationary distribution through L. - Highlights: • Define a set theoretic version of the discrete thermodynamic length. • These sets allow one to analyse systems having zero probabilities in their evolution. • Numerically analyse the Logistic map using the thermodynamic length. • Show how the unstable fixed points most efficiently lead the system to equilibrium
Investigation and modelling of rubber stationary friction on rough surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le Gal, A; Klueppel, M [Deutsches Institut fuer Kautschuktechnologie, Eupener Strasse 33, D-30519 Hannover (Germany)
2008-01-09
This paper presents novel aspects regarding the physically motivated modelling of rubber stationary sliding friction on rough surfaces. The description of dynamic contact is treated within the framework of a generalized Greenwood-Williamson theory for rigid/soft frictional pairings. Due to the self-affinity of rough surfaces, both hysteresis and adhesion friction components arise from a multi-scale excitation of surface roughness. Beside a complete analytical formulation of contact parameters, the morphology of macrotexture is considered via the introduction of a second scaling range at large length scales which mostly contribute to hysteresis friction. Moreover, adhesion friction is related to the real area of contact combined with the kinetics of interfacial peeling effects. Friction experiments carried out with different rubbers on rough granite and asphalt point out the relevance of hysteresis and adhesion friction concepts on rough surfaces. The two scaling ranges approach significantly improves the description of wet and dry friction behaviour within the range of low sliding velocity. In addition, material and surface effects are predicted and understood on a physical basis. The applicability of such modelling is of high interest for materials developers and road constructors regarding the prediction of wet grip performance of tyres on road tracks.
Variability of road traffic noise recorded by stationary monitoring stations
Bąkowski, Andrzej; Radziszewski, Leszek
2017-11-01
The paper presents the analysis results of equivalent sound level recorded by two road traffic noise monitoring stations. The stations were located in Kielce (an example of a medium-size town in Poland) at the roads out of the town in the direction of Kraków and Warszawa. The measurements were carried out through stationary stations monitoring the noise and traffic of motor vehicles. The RMS values based on A-weighted sound level were recorded every 1 s in the buffer and the results were registered every 1 min over the period of investigations. The registered data were the basis for calculating the equivalent sound level for three time intervals: from 6:00 to 18:00, from 18:00 to 22:00 and from 22:00 to 6:00. Analysis included the values of the equivalent sound level recorded for different days of the week split into 24h periods, nights, days and evenings. The data analysed included recordings from 2013. The coefficient of variation and positional variation were proposed for performing comparative analysis of the obtained data scattering. The investigations indicated that the recorded data varied depending on the traffic routes. The differences concerned the values of coefficients of variation of the equivalent sound levels.
HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Sh. Saitgareev
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies
Chertock, A.; Fellner, K.; Kurganov, A.; Lorz, A.; Markowich, P. A.
2012-01-01
examples, which illustrate (i) the formation of sinking plumes, (ii) the possible merging of neighbouring plumes and (iii) the convergence towards numerically stable stationary plumes. The examples with stable stationary plumes show how the surface
Maleki, Mohammad; Emery, Xavier
2017-12-01
In mineral resources evaluation, the joint simulation of a quantitative variable, such as a metal grade, and a categorical variable, such as a rock type, is challenging when one wants to reproduce spatial trends of the rock type domains, a feature that makes a stationarity assumption questionable. To address this problem, this work presents methodological and practical proposals for jointly simulating a grade and a rock type, when the former is represented by the transform of a stationary Gaussian random field and the latter is obtained by truncating an intrinsic random field of order k with Gaussian generalized increments. The proposals concern both the inference of the model parameters and the construction of realizations conditioned to existing data. The main difficulty is the identification of the spatial correlation structure, for which a semi-automated algorithm is designed, based on a least squares fitting of the data-to-data indicator covariances and grade-indicator cross-covariances. The proposed models and algorithms are applied to jointly simulate the copper grade and the rock type in a Chilean porphyry copper deposit. The results show their ability to reproduce the gradual transitions of the grade when crossing a rock type boundary, as well as the spatial zonation of the rock type.
Bossa, Matias; Zacur, Ernesto; Olmos, Salvador
2010-07-01
Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is an analysis technique where anatomical information is characterized by means of the spatial transformations mapping a customized template with the observed images. Therefore, accurate inter-subject non-rigid registration is an essential prerequisite for both template estimation and image warping. Subsequent statistical analysis on the spatial transformations is performed to highlight voxel-wise differences. Most of previous TBM studies did not explore the influence of the registration parameters, such as the parameters defining the deformation and the regularization models. In this work performance evaluation of TBM using stationary velocity field (SVF) diffeomorphic registration was performed in a subset of subjects from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. A wide range of values of the registration parameters that define the transformation smoothness and the balance between image matching and regularization were explored in the evaluation. The proposed methodology provided brain atrophy maps with very detailed anatomical resolution and with a high significance level compared with results recently published on the same data set using a non-linear elastic registration method. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stationary states of a PT symmetric two-mode Bose–Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graefe, Eva-Maria
2012-01-01
The understanding of nonlinear PT symmetric quantum systems, arising for example in the theory of Bose–Einstein condensates in PT symmetric potentials, is widely based on numerical investigations, and little is known about generic features induced by the interplay of PT symmetry and nonlinearity. To gain deeper insights it is important to have analytically solvable toy models at hand. In the present paper the stationary states of a simple toy model of a PT symmetric system previously introduced in [1, 2] are investigated. The model can be interpreted as a simple description of a Bose–Einstein condensate in a PT symmetric double well trap in a two-mode approximation. The eigenvalues and eigenstates of the system can be explicitly calculated in a straightforward manner; the resulting structures resemble those that have recently been found numerically for a more realistic PT symmetric double delta potential. In addition, a continuation of the system is introduced that allows an interpretation in terms of a simple linear matrix model. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)
Positioning with stationary emitters in a two-dimensional space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coll, Bartolome; Ferrando, Joan Josep; Morales, Juan Antonio
2006-01-01
The basic elements of the relativistic positioning systems in a two-dimensional space-time have been introduced in a previous work [Phys. Rev. D 73, 084017 (2006)] where geodesic positioning systems, constituted by two geodesic emitters, have been considered in a flat space-time. Here, we want to show in what precise senses positioning systems allow to make relativistic gravimetry. For this purpose, we consider stationary positioning systems, constituted by two uniformly accelerated emitters separated by a constant distance, in two different situations: absence of gravitational field (Minkowski plane) and presence of a gravitational mass (Schwarzschild plane). The physical coordinate system constituted by the electromagnetic signals broadcasting the proper time of the emitters are the so called emission coordinates, and we show that, in such emission coordinates, the trajectories of the emitters in both situations, the absence and presence of a gravitational field, are identical. The interesting point is that, in spite of this fact, particular additional information on the system or on the user allows us not only to distinguish both space-times, but also to complete the dynamical description of emitters and user and even to measure the mass of the gravitational field. The precise information under which these dynamical and gravimetric results may be obtained is carefully pointed out
Only adding stationary storage to vaccine supply chains may create and worsen transport bottlenecks.
Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Claypool, Erin G; Weng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y
2013-01-01
Although vaccine supply chains in many countries require additional stationary storage and transport capacity to meet current and future needs, international donors tend to donate stationary storage devices far more often than transport equipment. To investigate the impact of only adding stationary storage equipment on the capacity requirements of transport devices and vehicles, we used HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains) to construct a discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain. We measured the transport capacity requirement for each mode of transport used in the Niger vaccine cold chain, both before and after adding cold rooms and refrigerators to relieve all stationary storage constraints in the system. With the addition of necessary stationary storage, the average transport capacity requirement increased from 88% to 144% for cold trucks, from 101% to 197% for pickup trucks, and from 366% to 420% for vaccine carriers. Therefore, adding stationary storage alone may worsen or create new transport bottlenecks as more vaccines flow through the system, preventing many vaccines from reaching their target populations. Dynamic modeling can reveal such relationships between stationary storage capacity and transport constraints.
Ortiz-Villanueva, Elena; Tauler, Romà
2017-01-01
Metabolomics is a powerful and widely used approach that aims to screen endogenous small molecules (metabolites) of different families present in biological samples. The large variety of compounds to be determined and their wide diversity of physical and chemical properties have promoted the development of different types of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) stationary phases. However, the selection of the most suitable HILIC stationary phase is not straightforward. In this work, four different HILIC stationary phases have been compared to evaluate their potential application for the analysis of a complex mixture of metabolites, a situation similar to that found in non-targeted metabolomics studies. The obtained chromatographic data were analyzed by different chemometric methods to explore the behavior of the considered stationary phases. ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS) were used to explore the experimental factors affecting the stationary phase performance, the main similarities and differences among chromatographic conditions used (stationary phase and pH) and the molecular descriptors most useful to understand the behavior of each stationary phase. PMID:29064436
Assessing the extent of non-stationary biases in GCMs
Nahar, Jannatun; Johnson, Fiona; Sharma, Ashish
2017-06-01
General circulation models (GCMs) are the main tools for estimating changes in the climate for the future. The imperfect representation of climate models introduces biases in the simulations that need to be corrected prior to their use for impact assessments. Bias correction methods generally assume that the bias calculated over the historical period does not change and can be applied to the future. This study investigates this assumption by considering the extent and nature of bias non-stationarity using 20th century precipitation and temperature simulations from six CMIP5 GCMs across Australia. Four statistics (mean, standard deviation, 10th and 90th quantiles) in monthly and seasonal biases are obtained for three different time window lengths (10, 25 and 33 years) to examine the properties of bias over time. This approach is repeated for two different phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), which is known to have strong influences on the Australian climate. It is found that bias non-stationarity at decadal timescales is indeed an issue over some of Australia for some GCMs. When considering interdecadal variability there are significant difference in the bias between positive and negative phases of the IPO. Regional analyses confirmed these findings with the largest differences seen on the east coast of Australia, where IPO impacts tend to be the strongest. The nature of the bias non-stationarity found in this study suggests that it will be difficult to modify existing bias correction approaches to account for non-stationary biases. A more practical approach for impact assessments that use bias correction maybe to use a selection of GCMs where the assumption of bias non-stationarity holds.
Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants. Inventories until 2008
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, M.; Hjelgaard, K.
2010-10-15
Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMVOC, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, HCB and PAH. The CO{sub 2} emission in 2008 was 16 % lower than in 1990. However, fluctuations in the emission level are large as a result of electricity import/export. The emission of CH{sub 4} has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in combined heating and power (CHP) plants. However, the emission has decreased in recent years due to structural changes in the Danish electricity market. The N{sub 2}O emission was higher in 2008 than in 1990 but the fluctuations in the time-series are significant. A considerable decrease of the SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably in recent years resulting in increased emission of PAH, particulate matter and CO. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased combustion of wood in residential plants and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The dioxin emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants. However in recent years the emission has increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential plants. (Author)
A statistical physics of stationary and metastable states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabo, A; González, A; Curilef, S; Cabo-Bizet, N G; Vera, C A
2011-01-01
We present a generalization of Gibbs statistical mechanics designed to describe a general class of stationary and metastable equilibrium states. It is assumed that the physical system maximizes the entropy functional S subject to the standard conditions plus an extra conserved constraint function F, imposed to force the system to remain in the metastable configuration. After requiring additivity for two quasi-independent subsystems, and the commutation of the new constraint with the density matrix ρ, it is argued that F should be a homogeneous function of ρ, at least for systems in which the spectrum is sufficiently dense to be considered as continuous. Therefore, surprisingly, the analytic form of F turns out to be of the kind F(p i ) = p i q , where the p i are the eigenvalues of the density matrix and q is a real number to be determined. Thus, the discussion identifies the physical relevance of Lagrange multiplier constraints of the Tsallis kind and their q parameter, as enforced by the additivity of the constraint F which fixes the metastable state. An approximate analytic solution for the probability density is found for q close to unity. The procedure is applied to describe the results from the plasma experiment of Huang and Driscoll. For small and medium values of the radial distance, the measured density is predicted with a precision similar to that achieved by minimal enstrophy and Tsallis procedures. Also, the particle density is predicted at all the radial positions. Thus, the discussion gives a solution to the conceptual difficulties of the two above mentioned approaches as applied to this problem, which both predict a non-analytic abrupt vanishing of the density above a critical radial distance
A Low-Cost "Stationary Eye" in the Sky
Koch, R.; Lande, K.; Mitchell, R.; Wildenhain, P.; Hoang, N.; Langford, J.
1997-12-01
We are developing a stationary, near the top of the atmosphere, astronomical observing system. The platform is a high altitude robotic aircraft (THESEUS) flying in anti-sense to Earth's rotation at a latitude where the plane's speed closely matches the local ground spin velocity. Thus, either an extended day or night viewing program of a given object can be achieved. Our intention here concentrates on astronomical targets. The system consists of the following components. (1) A low cost robotic aircraft that can fly at an altitude of about 25 km. for 30 to 40 hours with differential GPS navigation. Real time control of the aircraft and the observing instruments is either by on-board computer or from the ground via low altitude, commercial satellite communications systems (Iridium, Teledesic, etc.). (2) A siderostat-fed telescope of small f-ratio is attached to the aircraft via critically damped mechanical isolators. An electronic camera at the prime focus looks at a chosen astronomical target. (3) Image smear due to aircraft engine vibration will be eliminated by a combination of critically damped mechanical isolators and electronic CCD pixel jogging. Very precise piezo- electric driven transverse translation of the CCD camera will be used to compensate for wind induced drift of the image on the focal plane. Bright field stars will be used to drive the stabilizing system. (4) Data are stored on high capacity ruggedized hard drives similar to that used by the Mars Lander. The Aurora THESEUS aircraft, whose design is based upon earlier models, is under development. The image stabilizing system components have been identified. An off-the-shelf data-storage device has been chosen. A first prototype telescope has been built and tested. Other optical configurations are possible and collaborators will be welcomed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Peter; Jensen, Kaj Frank
1991-01-01
chromosomes. Finally, it appeared that the three orf's are indispensable at high temperatures, since the insertion mutants were unable to form colonies above 45°C and since cultures of exponentially growing mutants lysed upon a temperature shift from 37°C to 45°C....... growth (Poulsen et al., Mol., Microbiol., 1989 b). Here we report that the three genes are of importance in the stationary phase. Thus, cultures of the mutants grown to a stationary state in rich media contained bacterial filaments of abnormal morphology. In addition, flow cytometric analyses showed......Previous studies of the upstream region of the pyrE gene in Escherichia coli revealed three genes of unknown function. Inactivation of these genes (designated orfE, orfX and orfY) by crossing the KmR-cassette-disrupted orf into the chromosome indicated that they were not required during exponential...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ermuratschii V.V.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available e paper presents a method of the approximate calculation of the non-stationary temperature field inside of thermal packed bed energy storages with feasible and latent heat. Applying thermoelectric models and computational methods in electrical engineering, the task of computing non-stationary heat transfer is resolved with respect to third type boundary conditions without applying differential equations of the heat transfer. For sub-volumes of the energy storage the method is executed iteratively in spatiotemporal domain. Single-body heating is modeled for each sub-volume, and modeling conditions are assumed to be identical for remained bod-ies, located in the same sub-volume. For each iteration step the boundary conditions will be represented by re-sults at the previous step. The fulfillment of the first law of thermodynamics for system “energy storage - body” is obtained by the iterative search of the mean temperature of the energy storage. Under variable boundary con-ditions the proposed method maybe applied to calculating temperature field inside of energy storages with packed beds consisted of solid material, liquid and phase-change material. The method may also be employed to compute transient, power and performance characteristics of packed bed energy storages.
Mean germination time and germination rate of oat seeds subjected to stationary magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell, Maria Victoria; Amaya Garcia de la Escosura, Jose Manuel
2007-01-01
The objective of the present study is to determine and quantify the effect produced by stationary magnetic fields on oat seed germination (Avena sativa, L. var. c obena ) . For this purpose, seeds were exposed to a magnetic field 125 mT of 250 mT during different periods of time: 20 minutes (E1, E5), 1 hour (E2, E6), 24 hours (E3, E7), or in a conic form (E4, E8) during the whole germination process. Germination tests were carried out under laboratory conditions with cylindrical magnets to obtain the magnetic field. For magnetic treatment seed on Petri dishes were placed on magnets during time necessary for each treatment. Seeds without exposition to the magnetic field were used as control group. Parameters used for germination speed analysis were: number of germinated seeds (G), mean germination time (MGT) and necessary time for germination of 1, 10, 25, 50 and 75% of N number of speeds used for each treatment (T1, T10, T25, T50, and T75). These parameters were supplied through the software Seed calculator, as well as the corresponding germination curves. In general, from the results obtained it can be said that the time required to obtain different germination percentages was lower for seeds exposed to the magnetic field (treatments E1 and E8). Reduction in time for E1 treatment stands up with 20 a minutes-exposition-time to 125 mT. MGT obtained for seeds with magnetic treatment E1 was significantly lower (11.48%) than the control group. Parameters T1, T10, T25 were also lower for seeds submitted to treatment, obtaining reductions of 46.62 %, 24.02 % and 13.46 % respectively. Reduction in germination parameters indicates that germination speed is higher. Because parameters T1 and T10 are related to the beginning of germination, this study represents a progress in germination and a reduction in the induction phase in most of the magnetic treatments applied. Previous studies done by authors about the influence of stationary magnetic fields have shown increases in
Calliste, Jabari; Wu, Gongting; Laganis, Philip E; Spronk, Derrek; Jafari, Houman; Olson, Kyle; Gao, Bo; Lee, Yueh Z; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping
2017-09-01
The aim of this study was to characterize a new generation stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system with higher tube flux and increased angular span over a first generation system. The linear CNT x-ray source was designed, built, and evaluated to determine its performance parameters. The second generation system was then constructed using the CNT x-ray source and a Hologic gantry. Upon construction, test objects and phantoms were used to characterize system resolution as measured by the modulation transfer function (MTF), and artifact spread function (ASF). The results indicated that the linear CNT x-ray source was capable of stable operation at a tube potential of 49 kVp, and measured focal spot sizes showed source-to-source consistency with a nominal focal spot size of 1.1 mm. After construction, the second generation (Gen 2) system exhibited entrance surface air kerma rates two times greater the previous s-DBT system. System in-plane resolution as measured by the MTF is 7.7 cycles/mm, compared to 6.7 cycles/mm for the Gen 1 system. As expected, an increase in the z-axis depth resolution was observed, with a decrease in the ASF from 4.30 mm to 2.35 mm moving from the Gen 1 system to the Gen 2 system as result of an increased angular span. The results indicate that the Gen 2 stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system, which has a larger angular span, increased entrance surface air kerma, and faster image acquisition time over the Gen 1 s-DBT system, results in higher resolution images. With the detector operating at full resolution, the Gen 2 s-DBT system can achieve an in-plane resolution of 7.7 cycles per mm, which is better than the current commercial DBT systems today, and may potentially result in better patient diagnosis. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Multidimensional Heat Conduction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rode, Carsten
1998-01-01
Analytical theory of multidimensional heat conduction. General heat conduction equation in three dimensions. Steay state, analytical solutions. The Laplace equation. Method of separation of variables. Principle of superposition. Shape factors. Transient, multidimensional heat conduction....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-10-01
In the Supplement to the Fourth Edition of AP-42 Volume I, new or revised emissions data are presented for Anthracite Coal Combustion; Natural Gas Combustion; Liquified Petroleum Gas Combustion; Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers; Bagasse Combustion In Sugar Mills; Residential Fireplaces; Residential Wood Stoves; Waste Oil Combustion; Automobile Body Incineration; Conical Burners; Open Burning; Stationary Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation; Heavy Duty Natural Gas Fired Pipeline Compressor Engines; Gasoline and Diesel Industrial Engines; Large Stationary Diesel and All Stationary Dual Fuel Engines; Soap and Detergents; and Storage of Organic Liquids
Discretization of Stationary Solutions of Stochastic Systems Driven by Fractional Brownian Motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garrido-Atienza, Maria J.; Kloeden, Peter E.; Neuenkirch, Andreas
2009-01-01
In this article we study the behavior of dissipative systems with additive fractional noise of any Hurst parameter. Under a one-sided dissipative Lipschitz condition on the drift the continuous stochastic system is shown to have a unique stationary solution, which pathwise attracts all other solutions. The same holds for the discretized stochastic system, if the drift-implicit Euler method is used for the discretization. Moreover, the unique stationary solution of the drift-implicit Euler scheme converges to the unique stationary solution of the original system as the stepsize of the discretization decreases
Groebner Basis Methods for Stationary Solutions of a Low-Dimensional Model for a Shear Flow
Pausch, Marina; Grossmann, Florian; Eckhardt, Bruno; Romanovski, Valery G.
2014-10-01
We use Groebner basis methods to extract all stationary solutions for the nine-mode shear flow model described in Moehlis et al. (New J Phys 6:56, 2004). Using rational approximations to irrational wave numbers and algebraic manipulation techniques we reduce the problem of determining all stationary states to finding roots of a polynomial of order 30. The coefficients differ by 30 powers of 10, so that algorithms for extended precision are needed to extract the roots reliably. We find that there are eight stationary solutions consisting of two distinct states, each of which appears in four symmetry-related phases. We discuss extensions of these results for other flows.
Non-stationary pre-envelope covariances of non-classically damped systems
Muscolino, G.
1991-08-01
A new formulation is given to evaluate the stationary and non-stationary response of linear non-classically damped systems subjected to multi-correlated non-separable Gaussian input processes. This formulation is based on a new and more suitable definition of the impulse response function matrix for such systems. It is shown that, when using this definition, the stochastic response of non-classically damped systems involves the evaluation of quantities similar to those of classically damped ones. Furthermore, considerations about non-stationary cross-covariances, spectral moments and pre-envelope cross-covariances are presented for a monocorrelated input process.
Stationary striations due to interaction of two ionization waves in xenon glow discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, T.; Nishina, S.; Kitamura, H.; Itagaki, K.; Mizuochi, H.
1990-01-01
Experimental observations on stationary striations in the positive column of xenon discharge are reported. Stationary striations are observed when two ionization waves exist simultaneously in the positive column at low pressure and high current region. These stationary striations are caused by nonlinear interference of two backward ionization waves of which frequencies are either equal or are in the ratio 1:2. The spatial intervals for the striated pattern are equal to the reciprocal of the difference between the wave-numbers of two ionization waves. (orig.)
2010-07-01
... Stationary Combustion Turbines 1 Table 1 to Subpart KKKK of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Pt. 60, Subpt. KKKK, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart KKKK of Part 60—Nitrogen Oxide Emission Limits for New Stationary Combustion Turbines Combustion...
2010-07-01
... I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4210 Section 60.4210 Protection of... CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? (a) Stationary CI internal combustion engine... certified to the standards in 40 CFR part 1039. (b) Stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturers...
2010-07-01
... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that are rich burn... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that are rich burn..., and must test their engines as specified in that part. Stationary SI internal combustion engine...
Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?
Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans
2014-01-01
Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566
Measurement of sheath thickness by lining out grooves in the Hall-type stationary plasma thrusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Daren; Wu Zhiwen; Ning Zhongxi; Wang Xiaogang
2007-01-01
Using grooves created along the axial direction of the discharge channel, a method for measuring sheath thickness in Hall-type stationary plasma thrusters has been developed. By distorting the wall surface using these grooves, it is possible to numerically study the effect of the wall surface on the sheath and near wall conductivity. Monte Carlo method is applied to calculate the electron temperature variation with different groove depths. The electron dynamic process in the plasma is described by a test particle method with the electron randomly entering the sheath from the discharge channel and being reflected back. Numerical results show that the reflected electron temperature is hardly affected by the wall surface if the groove depth is much less than the sheath thickness. On the other hand, the reflected electron temperature increases if the groove depth is much greater than the sheath thickness. The reflected electron temperature has a sharp jump when the depth of groove is on the order of the sheath thickness. The simulation is repeated with different sheath thicknesses and the results are the same. Therefore, a diagnosis mean of the sheath thickness can be developed based on the method. Also the simulation results are in accord with the experimental data. Besides, the measurement method may be applicable to other plasma device with similar orthogonal steady state electrical and magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carver, A.C.
1991-10-01
The study was initiated to determine whether chromium emissions should be regulated under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). To support stationary source regulations, it is important that (1) the sampling procedure not change the chromium valence state during sampling and (2) an analytical technique for measuring low concentration levels of chromium be available. These goals are achieved with the current EPA 'Draft Method for Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium at Stationary Sources.' The draft method utilizes a recirculating system to flush impinger reagent into the sampling nozzle during sample collection. Immediate contact of the stack gas with impinger reagent 'fixes' the chromium valence state. Ion chromatography coupled with post column derivatization and ultraviolet visible detector is used to analyze Cr(VI) in the parts per trillion range. Field tests were conducted at metal plating facilities, industrial cooling towers, municipal waste incinerators, sewage sludge incinerators, and hazardous waste incinerators. It was at the hazardous waste facility that the new method was proven to have acceptable precision and essentially no conversion in the sample train
Kubán, Pavel; Kubán, Petr; Kubán, Vlastimil; Hauser, Peter C; Bocek, Petr
2008-05-09
In this paper capillary electrochromatography of alkali and alkaline-earth metal cations in open tubular capillary columns is described. Capillary columns are prepared by coating fused silica capillaries of 75 microm I.D. with poly(butadiene-maleic acid) copolymer (PBMA) in multiple layers. Thermally initiated radical polymerization is used to crosslink the stationary phase. Capillary columns with different number of stationary phase layers can be prepared and allow for the adjustment of separation selectivity in the electrochromatographic mode. Fast and sensitive separations of common inorganic cations are achieved in less than 6 min in a 60 cm capillary column with on-column capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector. Limits of detection (S/N=3) for the determination of alkali and alkaline-earth metal cations range from 0.3 to 2.5 microM and repeatability is better than 0.5, 4.5 and 6.1% for migration times, peak heights and peak areas, respectively.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelson, P.A.; Barney, D.L.; Steunenberg, R.K.
1978-11-01
The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at industrial subcontractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1977--September 1978 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary-energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing electrodes of lithium--aluminum alloy, and molten LiCl--KCl electrolyte. During this fiscal year, cell and battery development work continued at ANL, Eagle--Picher Industries, Inc., the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International, and Gould Inc. Related work was also in progress at the Carborundum Co., General Motors Research Laboratories, and various other organizations. A major event was the initiation of a subcontract with Eagle--Picher Industries to develop, design, and fabricate a 40-kWh battery (Mark IA) for testing in an electric van. Conceptual design studies on a 100-MWh stationary-energy-storage module were conducted as a joint effort between ANL and Rockwell International. A significant technical advance was the development of multiplate cells, which are capable of higher performance than bicells. 89 figures, 57 tables.
Basal-topographic control of stationary ponds on a continuously moving landslide
Coe, J.A.; McKenna, J.P.; Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.
2009-01-01
The Slumgullion landslide in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado has been moving for at least the last few hundred years and has multiple ponds on its surface. We have studied eight ponds during 30 trips to the landslide between July 1998 and July 2007. During each trip, we have made observations on the variability in pond locations and water levels, taken ground-based photographs to document pond water with respect to moving landslide material and vegetation, conducted Global Positioning System surveys of the elevations of water levels and mapped pond sediments on the landslide surface. Additionally, we have used stereo aerial photographs taken in October 1939, October 1940 and July 2000 to measure topographic profiles of the eight pond locations, as well as a longitudinal profile along the approximate centerline of the landslide, to examine topographic changes over a 60- to 61-year period of time. Results from field observations, analyses of photographs, mapping and measurements indicate that all pond locations have remained spatially stationary for 60-300 years while landslide material moves through these locations. Water levels during the observation period were sensitive to changes in the local, spring-fed, stream network, and to periodic filling of pond locations by sediment from floods, hyperconcentrated flows, mud flows and debris flows. For pond locations to remain stationary, the locations must mimic depressions along the basal surface of the landslide. The existence of such depressions indicates that the topography of the basal landslide surface is irregular. These results suggest that, for translational landslides that have moved distances larger than the dimensions of the largest basal topographic irregularities (about 200 m at Slumgullion), landslide surface morphology can be used as a guide to the morphology of the basal slip surface. Because basal slip surface morphology can affect landslide stability, kinematic models and stability
Conducting compositions of matter
Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)
2000-01-01
The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.
Electron heat conduction and suprathermal particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakunin, O.G.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.
1991-01-01
As recognized at present, the applicability of Spitzer-Harm's theory on electron heat conduction along the magnetic field is limited by comparatively small values of the thermal electron mean free path ratio, λ to the characteristic length of changes in plasma parameters, L: γ=λ/L≤10 -2 . The stationary kinetic equation for the electron distribution function inhomogeneous along the x-axis f e (v,x) allows one to have solutions in the self-similar variables. The objective of a given study is to generalize the solutions for the case of arbitrary Z eff , that will allow one to compare approximate solutions to the kinetic equation with the precise ones in a wide range of parameters. (author) 8 refs., 2 figs
Entropy production of stationary diffusions on non-compact Riemannian manifolds
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
龚光鲁; 钱敏平
1997-01-01
The closed form of the entropy production of stationary diffusion processes with bounded Nelson’s current velocity is given.The limit of the entropy productions of a sequence of reflecting diffusions is also discussed.
Gavish, Nir
2018-04-01
We study the existence and stability of stationary solutions of Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations with steric effects (PNP-steric equations) with two counter-charged species. We show that within a range of parameters, steric effects give rise to multiple solutions of the corresponding stationary equation that are smooth. The PNP-steric equation, however, is found to be ill-posed at the parameter regime where multiple solutions arise. Following these findings, we introduce a novel PNP-Cahn-Hilliard model, show that it is well-posed and that it admits multiple stationary solutions that are smooth and stable. The various branches of stationary solutions and their stability are mapped utilizing bifurcation analysis and numerical continuation methods.
Kozachenko, Yuriy; Troshki, Viktor
2015-01-01
We consider a measurable stationary Gaussian stochastic process. A criterion for testing hypotheses about the covariance function of such a process using estimates for its norm in the space $L_p(\\mathbb {T}),\\,p\\geq1$, is constructed.
Large-Deviation Results for Discriminant Statistics of Gaussian Locally Stationary Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junichi Hirukawa
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the large-deviation principle of discriminant statistics for Gaussian locally stationary processes. First, large-deviation theorems for quadratic forms and the log-likelihood ratio for a Gaussian locally stationary process with a mean function are proved. Their asymptotics are described by the large deviation rate functions. Second, we consider the situations where processes are misspecified to be stationary. In these misspecified cases, we formally make the log-likelihood ratio discriminant statistics and derive the large deviation theorems of them. Since they are complicated, they are evaluated and illustrated by numerical examples. We realize the misspecification of the process to be stationary seriously affecting our discrimination.
Stability of stationary states of non-local equations with singular interaction potentials
Fellner, Klemens; Raoul, Gaë l
2011-01-01
repulsive interaction potentials we show the stability of stationary states of uniformly bounded solutions under a convexity condition.Finally, we present numerical simulations to illustrate our results. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Explicit solutions of one-dimensional, first-order, stationary mean-field games with congestion
Gomes, Diogo A.; Nurbekyan, Levon; Prazeres, Mariana
2017-01-01
Here, we consider one-dimensional first-order stationary mean-field games with congestion. These games arise when crowds face difficulty moving in high-density regions. We look at both monotone decreasing and increasing interactions and construct
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caraballo, T.; Kloeden, P.E.
2006-01-01
Under a one-sided dissipative Lipschitz condition on its drift, a stochastic evolution equation with additive noise of the reaction-diffusion type is shown to have a unique stochastic stationary solution which pathwise attracts all other solutions. A similar situation holds for each Galerkin approximation and each implicit Euler scheme applied to these Galerkin approximations. Moreover, the stationary solution of the Euler scheme converges pathwise to that of the Galerkin system as the stepsize tends to zero and the stationary solutions of the Galerkin systems converge pathwise to that of the evolution equation as the dimension increases. The analysis is carried out on random partial and ordinary differential equations obtained from their stochastic counterparts by subtraction of appropriate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck stationary solutions
Stationary Combustion Turbines: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)
Learn about the NESHAP for stationary combustion turbines by reading the rule history, the rule summary, additional resources, docket folder documents, the economic impact analysis, fact sheet and more
This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Stationary Combustion Turbines. This document provides a summary of the information for this NESHAP.
Kan-On, Yukio
2007-04-01
This paper is concerned with the bifurcation structure of positive stationary solutions for a generalized Lotka-Volterra competition model with diffusion. To establish the structure, the bifurcation theory and the interval arithmetic are employed.
Self-adaptive change detection in streaming data with non-stationary distribution
Zhang, Xiangliang; Wang, Wei
2010-01-01
Non-stationary distribution, in which the data distribution evolves over time, is a common issue in many application fields, e.g., intrusion detection and grid computing. Detecting the changes in massive streaming data with a non
Identifying and tracking switching, non-stationary opponents: a Bayesian approach
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Hernandez-Leal, P
2016-02-01
Full Text Available extend BPR to adversarial settings, in particular, to opponents that switch from one stationary strategy to another. Our proposed extension enables learning new models in an online fashion when the learning agent detects that the current policies...
Quantum manipulation of two-color stationary light: Quantum wavelength conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moiseev, S. A.; Ham, B. S.
2006-01-01
We present a quantum manipulation of a traveling light pulse using electromagnetically induced transparency-based slow light phenomenon for the generation of two-color stationary light. We theoretically discuss the two-color stationary light for the quantum wavelength conversion process in terms of pulse area, energy transfer, and propagation directions. The condition of the two-color stationary light pulse generation has been found and the quantum light dynamics has been studied analytically in the adiabatic limit. The quantum frequency conversion rate of the traveling light is dependent on the spatial spreading of the two-color stationary light pulse and can be near unity in an optically dense medium for the optimal frequencies of the control laser fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kock, Anders Bredahl
2016-01-01
We show that the adaptive Lasso is oracle efficient in stationary and nonstationary autoregressions. This means that it estimates parameters consistently, selects the correct sparsity pattern, and estimates the coefficients belonging to the relevant variables at the same asymptotic efficiency...
A method for computing the stationary points of a function subject to linear equality constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uko, U.L.
1989-09-01
We give a new method for the numerical calculation of stationary points of a function when it is subject to equality constraints. An application to the solution of linear equations is given, together with a numerical example. (author). 5 refs
The Spectral Web of stationary plasma equilibria. II. Internal modes
Goedbloed, J. P.
2018-03-01
The new method of the Spectral Web to calculate the spectrum of waves and instabilities of plasma equilibria with sizeable flows, developed in the preceding Paper I [Goedbloed, Phys. Plasmas 25, 032109 (2018)], is applied to a collection of classical magnetohydrodynamic instabilities operating in cylindrical plasmas with shear flow or rotation. After a review of the basic concepts of the complementary energy giving the solution path and the conjugate path, which together constitute the Spectral Web, the cylindrical model is presented and the spectral equations are derived. The first example concerns the internal kink instabilities of a cylindrical force-free magnetic field of constant α subjected to a parabolic shear flow profile. The old stability diagram and the associated growth rate calculations for static equilibria are replaced by a new intricate stability diagram and associated complex growth rates for the stationary model. The power of the Spectral Web method is demonstrated by showing that the two associated paths in the complex ω-plane nearly automatically guide to the new class of global Alfvén instabilities of the force-free configuration that would have been very hard to predict by other methods. The second example concerns the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a rotating theta-pinch. The old literature is revisited and shown to suffer from inconsistencies that are remedied. The most global n = 1 instability and a cluster sequence of more local but much more unstable n =2 ,3 ,…∞ modes are located on separate solution paths in the hydrodynamic (HD) version of the instability, whereas they merge in the MHD version. The Spectral Web offers visual demonstration of the central position the HD flow continuum and of the MHD Alfvén and slow magneto-sonic continua in the respective spectra by connecting the discrete modes in the complex plane by physically meaningful curves towards the continua. The third example concerns the magneto-rotational instability
Concentration field in traveling-wave and stationary convection in fluid mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eaton, K.D.; Ohlsen, D.R.; Yamamoto, S.Y.; Surko, C.M.; Barten, W.; Luecke, M.; Kamps, M.; Kolodner, P.
1991-01-01
By comparison of measurements of shadowgraph images of convection in ethanol-water mixtures with the results of recent numerical calculations, we study the role of the concentration field in traveling-wave and stationary convection. The results confirm the existence of a large concentration contrast between adjacent traveling-wave convection rolls. This concentration modulation, which decreases as the Rayleigh number is increased and the transition to stationary convection is approached, is fundamental to the translation of the pattern
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smetanin, Igor V; Vasil'ev, Petr P
2009-01-01
Parameters of external-cavity semiconductor lasers, when the stationary lasing becomes unstable, were analysed within the framework of a theoretical model of self-starting mode locking. In this case, a train of ultrashort pulses can be generated due to intrinsic nonlinearities of the laser medium. A decisive role of the transverse optical field nonuniformity, pump rate, and gain spectral bandwidth in the development of the instability of stationary lasing was demonstrated. (control of laser radiation parameters)
Yin, Fancheng; Yu, Xiaoyan
2015-01-01
This paper is concerned with the existence of stationary distribution and extinction for multispecies stochastic Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system. The contributions of this paper are as follows. (a) By using Lyapunov methods, the sufficient conditions on existence of stationary distribution and extinction are established. (b) By using the space decomposition technique and the continuity of probability, weaker conditions on extinction of the system are obtained. Finally, a numer...
Trend analysis using non-stationary time series clustering based on the finite element method
Gorji Sefidmazgi, M.; Sayemuzzaman, M.; Homaifar, A.; Jha, M. K.; Liess, S.
2014-01-01
In order to analyze low-frequency variability of climate, it is useful to model the climatic time series with multiple linear trends and locate the times of significant changes. In this paper, we have used non-stationary time series clustering to find change points in the trends. Clustering in a multi-dimensional non-stationary time series is challenging, since the problem is mathematically ill-posed. Clustering based on the finite element method (FEM) is one of the methods ...
Status and Needs Research for On-line Monitoring of VOCs Emissions from Stationary Sources
Zhou, Gang; Wang, Qiang; Zhong, Qi; Zhao, Jinbao; Yang, Kai
2018-01-01
Based on atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution control requirements during the twelfth-five year plan and the current status of monitoring and management at home and abroad, instrumental architecture and technical characteristics of continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) for VOCs emission from stationary sources are investigated and researched. Technological development needs of VOCs emission on-line monitoring techniques for stationary sources in china are proposed from the system sampling pretreatment technology and analytical measurement techniques.
Mitavskiy, Boris; Cannings, Chris
2009-01-01
The evolutionary algorithm stochastic process is well-known to be Markovian. These have been under investigation in much of the theoretical evolutionary computing research. When the mutation rate is positive, the Markov chain modeling of an evolutionary algorithm is irreducible and, therefore, has a unique stationary distribution. Rather little is known about the stationary distribution. In fact, the only quantitative facts established so far tell us that the stationary distributions of Markov chains modeling evolutionary algorithms concentrate on uniform populations (i.e., those populations consisting of a repeated copy of the same individual). At the same time, knowing the stationary distribution may provide some information about the expected time it takes for the algorithm to reach a certain solution, assessment of the biases due to recombination and selection, and is of importance in population genetics to assess what is called a "genetic load" (see the introduction for more details). In the recent joint works of the first author, some bounds have been established on the rates at which the stationary distribution concentrates on the uniform populations. The primary tool used in these papers is the "quotient construction" method. It turns out that the quotient construction method can be exploited to derive much more informative bounds on ratios of the stationary distribution values of various subsets of the state space. In fact, some of the bounds obtained in the current work are expressed in terms of the parameters involved in all the three main stages of an evolutionary algorithm: namely, selection, recombination, and mutation.
Kamble, Saurabh Prakash; Thawkar, Shashank; Gaikwad, Vinayak G.; Kothari, D. P.
2017-12-01
Detection of disturbances is the first step of mitigation. Power electronics plays a crucial role in modern power system which makes system operation efficient but it also bring stationary disturbances in the power system and added impurities to the supply. It happens because of the non-linear loads used in modern day power system which inject disturbances like harmonic disturbances, flickers, sag etc. in power grid. These impurities can damage equipments so it is necessary to mitigate these impurities present in the supply very quickly. So, digital signal processing techniques are incorporated for detection purpose. Signal processing techniques like fast Fourier transform, short-time Fourier transform, Wavelet transform etc. are widely used for the detection of disturbances. Among all, wavelet transform is widely used because of its better detection capabilities. But, which mother wavelet has to use for detection is still a mystery. Depending upon the periodicity, the disturbances are classified as stationary and non-stationary disturbances. This paper presents the importance of selection of mother wavelet for analyzing stationary disturbances using discrete wavelet transform. Signals with stationary disturbances of various frequencies are generated using MATLAB. The analysis of these signals is done using various mother wavelets like Daubechies and bi-orthogonal wavelets and the measured root mean square value of stationary disturbance is obtained. The measured value obtained by discrete wavelet transform is compared with the exact RMS value of the frequency component and the percentage differences are presented which helps to select optimum mother wavelet.
Kucerova, Gabriela; Kalikova, Kveta; Tesarova, Eva
2017-06-01
The enantioselective potential of two polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases for analysis of chiral structurally diverse biologically active compounds was evaluated in supercritical fluid chromatography using a set of 52 analytes. The chiral selectors immobilized on 2.5 μm silica particles were tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarmabate) derivatives of cellulose or amylose. The influence of the polysaccharide backbone, different organic modifiers, and different mobile phase additives on retention and enantioseparation was monitored. Conditions for fast baseline enantioseparation were found for the majority of the compounds. The success rate of baseline and partial enantioseparation with cellulose-based chiral stationary phase was 51.9% and 15.4%, respectively. Using amylose-based chiral stationary phase we obtained 76.9% of baseline enantioseparations and 9.6% of partial enantioseparations of the tested compounds. The best results on cellulose-based chiral stationary phase were achieved particularly with propane-2-ol and a mixture of isopropylamine and trifluoroacetic acid as organic modifier and additive to CO 2 , respectively. Methanol and basic additive isopropylamine were preferred on amylose-based chiral stationary phase. The complementary enantioselectivity of the cellulose- and amylose-based chiral stationary phases allows separation of the majority of the tested structurally different compounds. Separation systems were found to be directly applicable for analyses of biologically active compounds of interest. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable agricultural ... about previously disadvantaged land users involved in communal farming systems ... of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on ...
Early stages of wind wave and drift current generation under non-stationary wind conditions.
Robles-Diaz, Lucia; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert
2016-04-01
Generation and amplification mechanisms of ocean waves are well understood under constant wind speed or limited fetch conditions. Under these situations, the momentum and energy transfers from air to water are also quite well known. However during the wind field evolution over the ocean, we may observe sometime high wind acceleration/deceleration situations (e.g. Mexican Tehuano or Mediterranean Mistral wind systems). The evolution of wave systems under these conditions is not well understood. The purpose of these laboratory experiments is to better understand the early stages of water-waves and surface-drift currents under non-stationary wind conditions and to determine the balance between transfers creating waves and surface currents during non-equilibrium situations. The experiments were conducted in the Institut Pythéas wind-wave facility in Marseille-France. The wave tank is 40 m long, 2.7 m wide and 1 m deep. The air section is 50 m long, 3 m wide and 1.8 m height. We used 11 different resistive wave-gauges located along the tank. The momentum fluxes in the air column were estimated from single and X hot-film anemometer measurements. The sampling frequency for wind velocity and surface displacement measurements was 256 Hz. Water-current measurements were performed with a profiling velocimeter. This device measures the first 3.5 cm of the water column with a frequency rate of 100Hz. During the experiments, the wind intensity was abruptly modified with a constant acceleration and deceleration over time. We observed that wind drag coefficient values for accelerated wind periods are lower than the ones reported in previous studies for constant wind speed (Large and Pond 1981; Ocampo-Torres et al. 2010; Smith 1980; Yelland and Taylor 1996). This is probably because the turbulent boundary layer is not completely developed during the increasing-wind sequence. As it was reported in some theoretical studies (Miles 1957; Phillips 1957; Kahma and Donelan 1988), we
22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...
Determination of near-saturated hydraulic conductivity by automated minidisk infiltrometer
Klipa, Vladimir; Snehota, Michal; Dohnal, Michal; Zumr, David
2013-04-01
Numerical models in surface and subsurface hydrology require knowledge of infiltration properties of soils for their routine use in the field of water management, environmental protection or agriculture. A new automated tension infiltration module has been designed at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague to facilitate the measurements of near-saturated hydraulic conductivity. In the proposed infiltration module the amount of infiltrated water is registered via changes of buoyant force of stationary float attached to the load cell. Presented setup consists of six mini-disk infiltrometer modules held in the light aluminum frame and two Mariotte's bottles. Three infiltrometer modules connected to each Mariotte's bottle allow performing six simultaneous measurements at two different pressure heads. Infiltration modules are connected to the automatic data logging system and consist of: plastic cover with the integrated load cell and the float, reservoir tube (external diameter of 50 mm), and sintered stainless steel plate (diameter of 44.5 mm). The newly developed device was used for determination of near-saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils in experimental catchments Uhlirska (Jizera Mountains, Northern Bohemia) and Kopaninsky creek (Bohemian-Moravian Highlands). The acquired data show a good agreement with the data obtained from previous measurements.
Dynamic Memory Model for Non-Stationary Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendtsen, Claus Nørgaard; Krink, Thiemo
2002-01-01
Real-world problems are often nonstationary and can cause cyclic, repetitive patterns in the search landscape. For this class of problems, we introduce a new GA with dynamic explicit memory, which showed superior performance compared to a classic GA and a previously introduced memory-based GA for...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...
Conducting Polymeric Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvilsted, Søren
2016-01-01
The overall objective of this collection is to provide the most recent developments within the various areas of conducting polymeric materials. The conductivity of polymeric materials is caused by electrically charged particles, ions, protons and electrons. Materials in which electrons...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mala V Rao
Full Text Available Newly synthesized neurofilaments or protofilaments are incorporated into a highly stable stationary cytoskeleton network as they are transported along axons. Although the heavily phosphorylated carboxyl-terminal tail domains of the heavy and medium neurofilament (NF subunits have been proposed to contribute to this process and particularly to stability of this structure, their function is still obscure. Here we show in NF-H/M tail deletion [NF-(H/M(tailΔ] mice that the deletion of both of these domains selectively lowers NF levels 3-6 fold along optic axons without altering either rates of subunit synthesis or the rate of slow axonal transport of NF. Pulse labeling studies carried out over 90 days revealed a significantly faster rate of disappearance of NF from the stationary NF network of optic axons in NF-(H/M(tailΔ mice. Faster NF disappearance was accompanied by elevated levels of NF-L proteolytic fragments in NF-(H/M(tailΔ axons. We conclude that NF-H and NF-M C-terminal domains do not normally regulate NF transport rates as previously proposed, but instead increase the proteolytic resistance of NF, thereby stabilizing the stationary neurofilament cytoskeleton along axons.
Fuel cells - a new contributor to stationary power
Dufour, Angelo U.
Stationary power generation historically started as distributed generation near the user, with the configuration of a very open market, where a lot of small competing utilities were offering electricity to the customers. At a second time it became a `monopolistic' business because of technical reasons. Big steam turbines and electric generators, allowing better efficiencies, were more conveniently installed in very large power plants, necessarily located in sites far away from where the power was needed, and the transmission losses were bounded by AC high voltage technology. The Governments were, therefore, trying to balance the power of monopolies, that were limiting the economical development of the countries, by strengthening the concept of electrical energy price public control and, alternatively, by establishing rules to allow a free flow of electricity from one region to the other, or taking direct control through ownership of big and small utilities. The most effective way of making the electric energy system competitive has proved to be the opening of a partial competition in the generation field by forcing the utilities to compare the cost of their energy, produced with new centralised plants, to the price of the available energy, coming from combined heat and power dispersed generators. In fact, with reference to this cost, all the peculiar features of large central stations and dispersed generators were taken into account, like the widespread use of natural gas, the investment risk reduction with single smaller increments of capacity, the transmission and distribution siting difficulties and high costs, the improved system reliability, and, finally, the high quality electric power. Fuel Cells are a recently become available technology for distributed electrical energy production, because they share the main typical aspects, relevant for a distributed power system, like compatibility with other modular subsystem packages, fully automation possibility
Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects
Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald
2014-06-17
A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.
40 CFR 60.2155 - May I conduct performance testing less often?
2010-07-01
... performance test. (c) If a performance test shows a deviation from an emission limitation for particulate... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I conduct performance testing less... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for...
On the Effects of Variation of Thermal Conductivity in Buildings in the Italian Construction Sector
Berardi, Umberto; Tronchin, Lamberto; Manfren, Massimiliano; Nastasi, B.
2018-01-01
Stationary and dynamic heat and mass transfer analyses of building components are an essential part of energy efficient design of new and retrofitted buildings. Generally, a single constant thermal conductivity value is assumed for each material layer in construction components. However, the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahrenfeldt, Jesper
2008-01-01
The aim of this project has been the characterization of biomass producer gas as a fuel for stationary gas engines in heat and power production. More than 3200 hours of gas engine operation, with producer gas as fuel, has been conducted at the biomass gasification combined heat and power (CHP...... different measuring methods. Likewise, no particles were detected in the gas. Considerable amounts of NH3 were measured in the produced gas.An analysis of engine operation at varying load has been carried out. Standard emissions, load and efficiency have been measured at varying operating conditions ranging...... from 50% to 90% load. Biomass producer gas is an excellent lean burn engine fuel: Operation of a natural aspirated engine has been achieved for 1.2...
Electrically conductive composite material
Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.
1989-01-01
An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cahyono, Bambang; Maduwu, Ratna Dewi; Widayat,; Suzery, Meiny
2015-01-01
Commercial silica gel only used once by many researchers and affected high cost for purification process, also less support the green chemistry program. This research focused in regeneration silica gel that used purification of temulawak’s extracts (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb) by vacuum column chromatography. Sample extracts (contains 10.1195±0.5971% of curcuminoids) was purified by vacuum column chromatography (pressure: 45 kPa, column: 100mm on length and 16mm on diameter). Ethanol 96% and acetone were compared as eluent. The amount of solvent and yield of curcuminoids used as indicator purification. The silica gel was regenerated with heating in 600°C for 8 hours The silica gels were analyzed by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, regenerated silica gel was used as the stationary phase in vacuum column chromatography under the same conditions with the previous purification. All the purification experiments were performed in three repetitions. Based on regression equation, y=0.132x+0.0011 (r 2 =0.9997) the yield of curcuminoids on purified products using ethanol as the eluent was improved 4.26% (to 14.3724±0.5749%) and by acetone was improved 3,03% (to 13.1450 ±0.6318%). The IR spectrum of both silica gel showed the same vibration profile and also there were three crystallinity peaks missing on its X-ray diffraction. Regenerated silica gel has the same performance with new silica gel in purification of temulawak’s extract: by ethanol has increased 4.08% (14.1947±0.7415%) and 2.93% (13.0447±0.4822) by acetone. In addition, all purification products showed similar TLC profiles. Purification using regenerated silica gel as the adsorbent on vacuum column chromatography has exactly same potential with the new silica gel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cahyono, Bambang; Maduwu, Ratna Dewi; Widayat,; Suzery, Meiny [Organic Chemistry Laboratory, Departement of Chemistry, Diponegoro University Jln Prof. Soedharto SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Indonesia Tel / Fax: (024) 7460058 (Indonesia)
2015-12-29
Commercial silica gel only used once by many researchers and affected high cost for purification process, also less support the green chemistry program. This research focused in regeneration silica gel that used purification of temulawak’s extracts (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb) by vacuum column chromatography. Sample extracts (contains 10.1195±0.5971% of curcuminoids) was purified by vacuum column chromatography (pressure: 45 kPa, column: 100mm on length and 16mm on diameter). Ethanol 96% and acetone were compared as eluent. The amount of solvent and yield of curcuminoids used as indicator purification. The silica gel was regenerated with heating in 600°C for 8 hours The silica gels were analyzed by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, regenerated silica gel was used as the stationary phase in vacuum column chromatography under the same conditions with the previous purification. All the purification experiments were performed in three repetitions. Based on regression equation, y=0.132x+0.0011 (r{sup 2}=0.9997) the yield of curcuminoids on purified products using ethanol as the eluent was improved 4.26% (to 14.3724±0.5749%) and by acetone was improved 3,03% (to 13.1450 ±0.6318%). The IR spectrum of both silica gel showed the same vibration profile and also there were three crystallinity peaks missing on its X-ray diffraction. Regenerated silica gel has the same performance with new silica gel in purification of temulawak’s extract: by ethanol has increased 4.08% (14.1947±0.7415%) and 2.93% (13.0447±0.4822) by acetone. In addition, all purification products showed similar TLC profiles. Purification using regenerated silica gel as the adsorbent on vacuum column chromatography has exactly same potential with the new silica gel.
Kinetic theory of a spherical probe in a stationary collision-dominated isothermal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brailsford, A.D.
1977-01-01
Constitutive equations for the charge carrier fluxes in a stationary collision-dominated isothermal plasma surrounding a spherical electrode are derived, from the Boltzmann equation, by a moment method using a two-stream Maxwellian distribution of the type introduced by Lees. In contrast to previous treatments, the constraint of uniform temperature is imposed and its importance emphasized. This condition, together with particle conservation, is shown to necessitate the use of a four-parameter Lees distribution and leads to generalized hydrodynamic equations. These are shown to reduce to conventional flux equations in terms of diffusion and mobility components only when the fields are spatially slowly varying. In addition, boundary conditions are derived by the same formalism. They are formulated for typical physical processes which may be operative at a real probe surface. As an example, the effect of the nonlinearity on the pure diffusion problem is analyzed in detail in the Appendix. A semiquantitative discussion of the current-voltage characteristics for negative probe potentials is also presented. It is shown that the charge carrier distribution around the probe conforms to the ''free-fall'' model only at low probe voltages. Otherwise, the model proposed by Su and Lam holds. The domain covered by the present analysis is determined by the following conditions on the probe radius r/sub p/, mean free path l, and Debye length lambda: (i) l 3 very-much-less-thanlambda 2 r/sub p/, (ii) (e vertical-barphi/sub p/ vertical-barl/kTr/sub p/) 2 /l 2 for l>lambda, where phi/sub p/ is the probe voltage. Analytic approximations to the current-voltage characteristics in both these regimes are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Wifvat, Van; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott
2016-01-01
A study has been performed to understand the quantitative impact of key differences between vehicle-to-grid and stationary energy storage systems on renewable utilization, greenhouse gas emissions, and balancing fleet operation, using California as the example. To simulate the combined electricity and light-duty transportation system, a detailed electric grid dispatch model (including stationary energy storage systems) was combined with an electric vehicle charging dispatch model that incorporates conventional smart and vehicle-to-grid capabilities. By subjecting smaller amounts of renewable energy to round-trip efficiency losses and thereby increasing the efficiency of renewable utilization, it was found that vehicle-to-grid energy storage can achieve higher renewable utilization levels and reduced greenhouse gas emissions compared to stationary energy storage systems. Vehicle-to-grid energy storage, however, is not as capable of balancing the power plant fleet compared to stationary energy storage systems due to the constraints of consumer travel patterns. The potential benefits of vehicle-to-grid are strongly dependent on the availability of charging infrastructure at both home and workplaces, with potential benefits being compromised with residential charging availability only. Overall, vehicle-to-grid energy storage can provide benefits over stationary energy storage depending on the system attribute selected for improvement, a finding amenable to managing through policy. - Highlights: • Using vehicle-to-grid-based storage increases the efficiency of renewable energy utilization. • Vehicle-to-grid-based energy storage has less overall flexibility compared to stationary energy storage. • The discharge ability of vehicle-to-grid-based provides a significant benefit over one-way smart charging. • Both workplace and home charging are critical for providing vehicle-to-grid-related benefits. • Increasing charging intelligence reduces stationary energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huaiyu Shao
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Mg-based materials have been investigated as hydrogen storage materials, especially for possible onboard storage in fuel cell vehicles for decades. Recently, with the development of large-scale fuel cell technologies, the development of Mg-based materials as stationary storage to supply hydrogen to fuel-cell components and provide electricity and heat is becoming increasingly promising. In this work, numerical analysis of heat balance management for stationary solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC systems combined with MgH2 materials based on a carbon-neutral design concept was performed. Waste heat from the SOFC is supplied to hydrogen desorption as endothermic heat for the MgH2 materials. The net efficiency of this model achieves 82% lower heating value (LHV, and the efficiency of electrical power output becomes 68.6% in minimizing heat output per total energy output when all available heat of waste gas and system is supplied to warm up the storage. For the development of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials, various nano-processing techniques have been widely applied to synthesize Mg-based materials with small particle and crystallite sizes, resulting in good hydrogen storage kinetics, but poor thermal conductivity. Here, three kinds of Mg-based materials were investigated and compared: 325 mesh Mg powers, 300 nm Mg nanoparticles synthesized by hydrogen plasma metal reaction, and Mg50Co50 metastable alloy with body-centered cubic structure. Based on the overall performances of hydrogen capacity, absorption kinetics and thermal conductivity of the materials, the Mg nanoparticle sample by plasma synthesis is the most promising material for this potential application. The findings in this paper may shed light on a new energy conversion and utilization technology on MgH2-SOFC combined concept.
Removing carbon dioxide from a stationary source through co ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Thomas
experiment on absorption of CO2 is conducted to determine the effect of flow rate of the gas sample, ..... lead to flooding thus it has to be variable of interest in the design of the mass ... medical uses, cosmetic uses, as a cleaning agent and as.
2010-07-01
... Reconstructed 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE >500 HP and New and Reconstructed 4SLB Stationary RICE â¥250 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP Emissions 2a Table 2a to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63... 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE >500 HP and New and Reconstructed 4SLB Stationary RICE...
Microstructural Evolution of NiCrBSi Coatings Fabricated by Stationary Local Induction Cladding
Chen, Xuliang; Qin, Xunpeng; Gao, Kai; Zhu, Zhenhua; Huang, Feng
2018-05-01
The development of induction cladding has been restricted by the complicated geometric characteristics of workpieces and the large heat-affected zone in the cladded workpieces. In this paper, three-dimensional continual local induction cladding (3D-CLIC) was proposed as a potential process to clad coating over a substrate with curved surface, and a stationary local induction cladding (SLIC) experiment was conducted as an exploratory study of 3D-CLIC. The microstructures and microhardness in the coatings were measured by SEM, EDS, XRD and microsclerometer, respectively. The results indicate that the coating is metallurgically bonded with the substrate without any defects. A compositional gradient exists in the diffusion transfer belt (DTB), and it decreases with the increase in induction heating time. The coating is mainly composed of (Fe, Ni), CrB, M7C3, Ni3B, Ni3Si and M23C6 (M = Cr, Ni, Fe). Among the carbides, M7C3 presents several morphologies and M23C6 is always attached to the DTB. A special phenomenon of texture was found in the SLIC coatings. The preferred orientation in (200) crystal plane or the restrained orientation in (111) (200) crystal plane becomes more obvious as the scanning speed increases. The maximum average microhardness is 721 HV when the coating is heated for 5 s. The wear loss of different samples increases with increasing induction heating time. The longer heating time would result in higher dilution in the SLIC coatings due to the complete mixing with the substrate, thus leading to the decrease in microhardness and wear loss.
Statistical downscaling of rainfall: a non-stationary and multi-resolution approach
Rashid, Md. Mamunur; Beecham, Simon; Chowdhury, Rezaul Kabir
2016-05-01
A novel downscaling technique is proposed in this study whereby the original rainfall and reanalysis variables are first decomposed by wavelet transforms and rainfall is modelled using the semi-parametric additive model formulation of Generalized Additive Model in Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). The flexibility of the GAMLSS model makes it feasible as a framework for non-stationary modelling. Decomposition of a rainfall series into different components is useful to separate the scale-dependent properties of the rainfall as this varies both temporally and spatially. The study was conducted at the Onkaparinga river catchment in South Australia. The model was calibrated over the period 1960 to 1990 and validated over the period 1991 to 2010. The model reproduced the monthly variability and statistics of the observed rainfall well with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values of 0.66 and 0.65 for the calibration and validation periods, respectively. It also reproduced well the seasonal rainfall over the calibration (NSE = 0.37) and validation (NSE = 0.69) periods for all seasons. The proposed model was better than the tradition modelling approach (application of GAMLSS to the original rainfall series without decomposition) at reproducing the time-frequency properties of the observed rainfall, and yet it still preserved the statistics produced by the traditional modelling approach. When downscaling models were developed with general circulation model (GCM) historical output datasets, the proposed wavelet-based downscaling model outperformed the traditional downscaling model in terms of reproducing monthly rainfall for both the calibration and validation periods.
Haemophilus ducreyi Hfq contributes to virulence gene regulation as cells enter stationary phase.
Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Labandeira-Rey, Maria; Zhang, Xinjun; Fortney, Kate R; Ellinger, Sheila; Zwickl, Beth; Baker, Beth; Liu, Yunlong; Janowicz, Diane M; Katz, Barry P; Brautigam, Chad A; Munson, Robert S; Hansen, Eric J; Spinola, Stanley M
2014-02-11
To adapt to stresses encountered in stationary phase, Gram-negative bacteria utilize the alternative sigma factor RpoS. However, some species lack RpoS; thus, it is unclear how stationary-phase adaptation is regulated in these organisms. Here we defined the growth-phase-dependent transcriptomes of Haemophilus ducreyi, which lacks an RpoS homolog. Compared to mid-log-phase organisms, cells harvested from the stationary phase upregulated genes encoding several virulence determinants and a homolog of hfq. Insertional inactivation of hfq altered the expression of ~16% of the H. ducreyi genes. Importantly, there were a significant overlap and an inverse correlation in the transcript levels of genes differentially expressed in the hfq inactivation mutant relative to its parent and the genes differentially expressed in stationary phase relative to mid-log phase in the parent. Inactivation of hfq downregulated genes in the flp-tad and lspB-lspA2 operons, which encode several virulence determinants. To comply with FDA guidelines for human inoculation experiments, an unmarked hfq deletion mutant was constructed and was fully attenuated for virulence in humans. Inactivation or deletion of hfq downregulated Flp1 and impaired the ability of H. ducreyi to form microcolonies, downregulated DsrA and rendered H. ducreyi serum susceptible, and downregulated LspB and LspA2, which allow H. ducreyi to resist phagocytosis. We propose that, in the absence of an RpoS homolog, Hfq serves as a major contributor of H. ducreyi stationary-phase and virulence gene regulation. The contribution of Hfq to stationary-phase gene regulation may have broad implications for other organisms that lack an RpoS homolog. Pathogenic bacteria encounter a wide range of stresses in their hosts, including nutrient limitation; the ability to sense and respond to such stresses is crucial for bacterial pathogens to successfully establish an infection. Gram-negative bacteria frequently utilize the alternative sigma
The Proteome and Lipidome of Thermococcus kodakarensis across the Stationary Phase.
Gagen, Emma J; Yoshinaga, Marcos Y; Garcia Prado, Franka; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Thomm, Michael
2016-01-01
The majority of cells in nature probably exist in a stationary-phase-like state, due to nutrient limitation in most environments. Studies on bacteria and yeast reveal morphological and physiological changes throughout the stationary phase, which lead to an increased ability to survive prolonged nutrient limitation. However, there is little information on archaeal stationary phase responses. We investigated protein- and lipid-level changes in Thermococcus kodakarensis with extended time in the stationary phase. Adaptations to time in stationary phase included increased proportion of membrane lipids with a tetraether backbone, synthesis of proteins that ensure translational fidelity, specific regulation of ABC transporters (upregulation of some, downregulation of others), and upregulation of proteins involved in coenzyme production. Given that the biological mechanism of tetraether synthesis is unknown, we also considered whether any of the protein-level changes in T. kodakarensis might shed light on the production of tetraether lipids across the same period. A putative carbon-nitrogen hydrolase, a TldE (a protease in Escherichia coli) homologue, and a membrane bound hydrogenase complex subunit were candidates for possible involvement in tetraether-related reactions, while upregulation of adenosylcobalamin synthesis proteins might lend support to a possible radical mechanism as a trigger for tetraether synthesis.
The Proteome and Lipidome of Thermococcus kodakarensis across the Stationary Phase
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emma J. Gagen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The majority of cells in nature probably exist in a stationary-phase-like state, due to nutrient limitation in most environments. Studies on bacteria and yeast reveal morphological and physiological changes throughout the stationary phase, which lead to an increased ability to survive prolonged nutrient limitation. However, there is little information on archaeal stationary phase responses. We investigated protein- and lipid-level changes in Thermococcus kodakarensis with extended time in the stationary phase. Adaptations to time in stationary phase included increased proportion of membrane lipids with a tetraether backbone, synthesis of proteins that ensure translational fidelity, specific regulation of ABC transporters (upregulation of some, downregulation of others, and upregulation of proteins involved in coenzyme production. Given that the biological mechanism of tetraether synthesis is unknown, we also considered whether any of the protein-level changes in T. kodakarensis might shed light on the production of tetraether lipids across the same period. A putative carbon-nitrogen hydrolase, a TldE (a protease in Escherichia coli homologue, and a membrane bound hydrogenase complex subunit were candidates for possible involvement in tetraether-related reactions, while upregulation of adenosylcobalamin synthesis proteins might lend support to a possible radical mechanism as a trigger for tetraether synthesis.
Collaborative Area Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Networks with Stationary and Mobile Nodes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Theofanis P. Lambrou
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Monitoring a large area with stationary sensor networks requires a very large number of nodes which with current technology implies a prohibitive cost. The motivation of this work is to develop an architecture where a set of mobile sensors will collaborate with the stationary sensors in order to reliably detect and locate an event. The main idea of this collaborative architecture is that the mobile sensors should sample the areas that are least covered (monitored by the stationary sensors. Furthermore, when stationary sensors have a “suspicion” that an event may have occurred, they report it to a mobile sensor that can move closer to the suspected area and can confirm whether the event has occurred or not. An important component of the proposed architecture is that the mobile nodes autonomously decide their path based on local information (their own beliefs and measurements as well as information collected from the stationary sensors in a neighborhood around them. We believe that this approach is appropriate in the context of wireless sensor networks since it is not feasible to have an accurate global view of the state of the environment.
Bagheri, Mohsen; Taheri, Mohammadreza; Farhadpour, Mohsen; Rezadoost, Hassan; Ghassempour, Alireza; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y
2017-08-18
The separation of a mixture containing five major opium alkaloids, namely morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine and papaverine has been investigated in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode using five different stationary phases: bare silica, zwitterion, aminopropyl, diol and cyanopropyl. In order to propose the appropriate column for separation and purification, retention behaviors of the five natural opioids have been studied on mentioned HILIC stationary phases. The mechanism of separation in diverse HILIC media, based on the formation of water-rich layer on surface of the HILIC stationary phases and the physicochemical properties of opium alkaloids, such as pKa (acidic pK) and the octanol-water distribution coefficient (log Do/w) are discussed. Chromatographic responses including modified limit of detection LOD m , signal to noise ratio (S/N) m , and defined modified R Sm have considered for suggestion of the suitable column for quantitative/qualitative and preparative purposes. According to the obtained results, diol stationary phase is best suited for analytical chromatography, whereas bare silica and zwitterionic stationary phases are appropriate for preparative applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Selectivity of some basic solutes on a poly(methyltetradecylsiloxane)-silica stationary phase.
Borges, Endler M; Collins, Carol H
2011-11-01
Complex analyses of polar compounds, especially basic ones, require more selective stationary phases. The present paper describes a stationary phase prepared by thermal immobilization of poly(methyltetradecylsiloxane) onto chromatographic silica (PMTDS-SiO(2)). This stationary phase presents hydrophobic and ion-exchange interactions that confer both high retention and unique selectivities for basic solutes. The influence of ion-exchange interactions is confirmed by the increase in retention factors of basic solutes when the mobile-phase pH changes from acidic to neutral and by the decrease in retention factors when the mobile-phase pH changes from neutral to alkaline. The ion-exchange properties of the stationary phase are enriched in neutral mobile phase (pH 7-7.5) using soft Lewis bases such as tricine and tris as buffers but are suppressed in both acidic (pH 2.5-6) and highly alkaline mobile phases (pH≤10). Increasing both temperature and flow rate permits more rapid separations while maintaining the selectivity. The stability of the stationary phase is evaluated with acid, neutral and alkaline mobile phases. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaudhuri, A. [B.K.C. College, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India); Chaudhuri, S. [University of Burdwan, Department of Physics, Burdwan (India)
2017-11-15
In the paper, magnetostatic solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations are generated from the gravitational two-soliton solutions of a stationary mass. Using the soliton technique of Belinskii and Zakharov (Sov Phys JETP 48:985, 1978, Sov Phys JETP 50:1, 1979), we construct diagonal two-soliton solutions of Einstein's gravitational field equations for an axially symmetric stationary space-time and investigate some properties of the generated stationary gravitational metric. Magnetostatic solutions corresponding to the generated stationary gravitational solutions are then constructed using the transformation technique of Das and Chaudhuri (Pramana J Phys 40:277, 1993). The mass and the dipole moment of the source are evaluated. In our analysis we make use of a second transformation (Chaudhuri in Pramana J Phys 58:449, 2002), probably for the first time in the literature, to generate magnetostatic solutions from the stationary gravitational two-soliton solutions which give us simple and straightforward expressions for the mass and the magnetic dipole moment. (orig.)
Measurement of Non-Stationary Characteristics of a Landfall Typhoon at the Jiangyin Bridge Site
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuhui He
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The wind-sensitive long-span suspension bridge is a vital element in land transportation. Understanding the wind characteristics at the bridge site is thus of great significance to the wind- resistant analysis of such a flexible structure. In this study, a strong wind event from a landfall typhoon called Soudelor recorded at the Jiangyin Bridge site with the anemometer is taken as the research object. As inherent time-varying trends are frequently captured in typhoon events, the wind characteristics of Soudelor are analyzed in a non-stationary perspective. The time-varying mean is first extracted with the wavelet-based self-adaptive method. Then, the non-stationary turbulent wind characteristics, e.g.; turbulence intensity, gust factor, turbulence integral scale, and power spectral density, are investigated and compared with the results from the stationary analysis. The comparison highlights the importance of non-stationary considerations of typhoon events, and a transition from stationarity to non-stationarity for the analysis of wind effects. The analytical results could help enrich the database of non-stationary wind characteristics, and are expected to provide references for the wind-resistant analysis of engineering structures in similar areas.
Measurement of Non-Stationary Characteristics of a Landfall Typhoon at the Jiangyin Bridge Site.
He, Xuhui; Qin, Hongxi; Tao, Tianyou; Liu, Wenshuo; Wang, Hao
2017-09-22
The wind-sensitive long-span suspension bridge is a vital element in land transportation. Understanding the wind characteristics at the bridge site is thus of great significance to the wind- resistant analysis of such a flexible structure. In this study, a strong wind event from a landfall typhoon called Soudelor recorded at the Jiangyin Bridge site with the anemometer is taken as the research object. As inherent time-varying trends are frequently captured in typhoon events, the wind characteristics of Soudelor are analyzed in a non-stationary perspective. The time-varying mean is first extracted with the wavelet-based self-adaptive method. Then, the non-stationary turbulent wind characteristics, e.g.; turbulence intensity, gust factor, turbulence integral scale, and power spectral density, are investigated and compared with the results from the stationary analysis. The comparison highlights the importance of non-stationary considerations of typhoon events, and a transition from stationarity to non-stationarity for the analysis of wind effects. The analytical results could help enrich the database of non-stationary wind characteristics, and are expected to provide references for the wind-resistant analysis of engineering structures in similar areas.
A Two-Dimensional Solar Tracking Stationary Guidance Method Based on Feature-Based Time Series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keke Zhang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The amount of satellite energy acquired has a direct impact on operational capacities of the satellite. As for practical high functional density microsatellites, solar tracking guidance design of solar panels plays an extremely important role. Targeted at stationary tracking problems incurred in a new system that utilizes panels mounted in the two-dimensional turntable to acquire energies to the greatest extent, a two-dimensional solar tracking stationary guidance method based on feature-based time series was proposed under the constraint of limited satellite attitude coupling control capability. By analyzing solar vector variation characteristics within an orbit period and solar vector changes within the whole life cycle, such a method could be adopted to establish a two-dimensional solar tracking guidance model based on the feature-based time series to realize automatic switching of feature-based time series and stationary guidance under the circumstance of different β angles and the maximum angular velocity control, which was applicable to near-earth orbits of all orbital inclination. It was employed to design a two-dimensional solar tracking stationary guidance system, and a mathematical simulation for guidance performance was carried out in diverse conditions under the background of in-orbit application. The simulation results show that the solar tracking accuracy of two-dimensional stationary guidance reaches 10∘ and below under the integrated constraints, which meet engineering application requirements.
Comparison between moving and stationary transmitter systems in induction logging
Poddar, M.; Caleb Dhanasekaran, P.; Prabhakar Rao, K.
1985-09-01
In a general treatment of the theory of induction logging, an exact integral representation has been obtained for the mutual impedance between a vertical dipole transmitter and a coaxial dipole receiver in a three layered earth. Based on this representation, a computer model has been devised using the traditional Slingram system of induction logging and the comparatively new Turam system, ignoring borehole effects. The model results indicate that due to its much larger response, the Turam system is in general preferable to the Slingram in mineral and groundwater investigations where formation conductivity much less than 1 S/m is generally encountered. However, if the surrounding media are conductive (more than 0.1 S/m), the Turam system suffers from large amplitude attenuation and phase rotation of the primary field caused by the conductive surrounding, and is less useful than the Slingram system which does not so suffer, unless the target bed is shallow. Because it is a more complex function of system parameters than the corresponding Slingram log, a Turam log can be conveniently interpreted only by the modern inverse method using a fast algorithm for the forward solution and a high speed digital computer.
Graphene Conductance Uniformity Mapping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter
2012-01-01
We demonstrate a combination of micro four-point probe (M4PP) and non-contact terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements for centimeter scale quantitative mapping of the sheet conductance of large area chemical vapor deposited graphene films. Dual configuration M4PP measurements......, demonstrated on graphene for the first time, provide valuable statistical insight into the influence of microscale defects on the conductance, while THz-TDS has potential as a fast, non-contact metrology method for mapping of the spatially averaged nanoscopic conductance on wafer-scale graphene with scan times......, dominating the microscale conductance of the investigated graphene film....
Electrically conductive cellulose composite
Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan
2010-05-04
An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.
49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...
28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.
2010-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act and...
75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:
2010-12-07
... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...
No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider
Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.
2005-09-01
In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.
Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.
Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio
2009-04-01
The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.
Neuillé, Marion; El Shamieh, Said; Orhan, Elise; Michiels, Christelle; Antonio, Aline; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Condroyer, Christel; Bujakowska, Kinga; Poch, Olivier; Sahel, José-Alain; Audo, Isabelle; Zeitz, Christina
2014-01-01
Mutations in LRIT3, coding for a Leucine-Rich Repeat, immunoglobulin-like and transmembrane domains 3 protein lead to autosomal recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB). The role of the corresponding protein in the ON-bipolar cell signaling cascade remains to be elucidated. Here we genetically and functionally characterize a commercially available Lrit3 knock-out mouse, a model to study the function and the pathogenic mechanism of LRIT3. We confirm that the insertion of a Bgeo/Puro cassette in the knock-out allele introduces a premature stop codon, which presumably codes for a non-functional protein. The mouse line does not harbor other mutations present in common laboratory mouse strains or in other known cCSNB genes. Lrit3 mutant mice exhibit a so-called no b-wave (nob) phenotype with lacking or severely reduced b-wave amplitudes in the scotopic and photopic electroretinogram (ERG), respectively. Optomotor tests reveal strongly decreased optomotor responses in scotopic conditions. No obvious fundus auto-fluorescence or histological retinal structure abnormalities are observed. However, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) reveals thinned inner nuclear layer and part of the retina containing inner plexiform layer, ganglion cell layer and nerve fiber layer in these mice. To our knowledge, this is the first time that SD-OCT technology is used to characterize an animal model for CSNB. This phenotype is noted at 6 weeks and at 6 months. The stationary nob phenotype of mice lacking Lrit3, which we named nob6, confirms the findings previously reported in patients carrying LRIT3 mutations and is similar to other cCSNB mouse models. This novel mouse model will be useful for investigating the pathogenic mechanism(s) associated with LRIT3 mutations and clarifying the role of LRIT3 in the ON-bipolar cell signaling cascade.
Lrit3 deficient mouse (nob6: a novel model of complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marion Neuillé
Full Text Available Mutations in LRIT3, coding for a Leucine-Rich Repeat, immunoglobulin-like and transmembrane domains 3 protein lead to autosomal recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB. The role of the corresponding protein in the ON-bipolar cell signaling cascade remains to be elucidated. Here we genetically and functionally characterize a commercially available Lrit3 knock-out mouse, a model to study the function and the pathogenic mechanism of LRIT3. We confirm that the insertion of a Bgeo/Puro cassette in the knock-out allele introduces a premature stop codon, which presumably codes for a non-functional protein. The mouse line does not harbor other mutations present in common laboratory mouse strains or in other known cCSNB genes. Lrit3 mutant mice exhibit a so-called no b-wave (nob phenotype with lacking or severely reduced b-wave amplitudes in the scotopic and photopic electroretinogram (ERG, respectively. Optomotor tests reveal strongly decreased optomotor responses in scotopic conditions. No obvious fundus auto-fluorescence or histological retinal structure abnormalities are observed. However, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT reveals thinned inner nuclear layer and part of the retina containing inner plexiform layer, ganglion cell layer and nerve fiber layer in these mice. To our knowledge, this is the first time that SD-OCT technology is used to characterize an animal model for CSNB. This phenotype is noted at 6 weeks and at 6 months. The stationary nob phenotype of mice lacking Lrit3, which we named nob6, confirms the findings previously reported in patients carrying LRIT3 mutations and is similar to other cCSNB mouse models. This novel mouse model will be useful for investigating the pathogenic mechanism(s associated with LRIT3 mutations and clarifying the role of LRIT3 in the ON-bipolar cell signaling cascade.
Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.
2017-01-01
The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz