Sample records for previous solution studies

  1. Previous studies underestimate BMAA concentrations in cycad flour.

    Cheng, Ran; Banack, Sandra Anne


    The traditional diet of the Chamorro people of Guam has high concentrations of the neurotoxin BMAA, beta-methyl-amino-L-alanine, in cycad tortillas and from animals that feed on cycad seeds. We measured BMAA concentration in washed cycad flour and compared different extraction methods used by previous researchers in order to determine how much BMAA may have been unaccounted for in prior research. Samples were analyzed with AQC precolumn derivatization using HPLC-FD detection and verified with UPLC-UV, UPLC-MS, and triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Although previous workers had studied only the free amino acid component of BMAA in washed cycad flour, we detected significant levels of protein-associated BMAA in washed cycad flour. These data support a link between ALS/PDC and exposure to BMAA.

  2. Study of cystic artery by arteriography. Importance of previous cholecystography

    Machado, G.O.

    An oral cholecystography previously to celiac and mesenteric arteriography is performed, in order to identify the cystic artery, in 42 patients with pancreatitis, according Seldinger technique. The cystic artery was identified in all the cases, the pattern being the outlet of the cystic artery from the right hepatic artery. Infusion pump and seriography were not used.

  3. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed


    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  4. Efficacy and tolerability of brinzolamide/brimonidine suspension and prostaglandin analogs in patients previously treated with dorzolamide/timolol solution and prostaglandin analogs

    Lo JS


    Full Text Available Jonathan S Lo,1 Pierre M Pang,2 Samuel C Lo3 1John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, 2MD-Pacific Eye Surgery Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, 3MD-Laser and Eye Surgery Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA Objective: Fixed combination glaucoma medication is increasingly used in glaucoma treatment. There is a lack of comparative study in the literature of non-beta blocker combination agents used adjunctively with a glaucoma agent in a different class. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of intraocular pressure (IOP control and tolerability of non-beta blocker combination suspension with prostaglandin analogs (PGA in patients with open angle glaucoma who were previously treated with beta blocker combination solution with PGA. Design: Open-label retrospective review of patient records. Patients and methods: This study looked at patients with open angle glaucoma taking dorzolamide/timolol solution with PGA that were switched to brinzolamide/brimonidine combination suspension with PGA. This study reviewed the charts of all patients who were at least 21 years old with a clinical diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension in at least one eye. Patients needed to have been treated with concomitant use of PGA and dorzolamide/timolol solution for at least one month. Patients using dorzolamide/timolol solution plus PGA with medication related ocular irritation were switched to brinzolamide/brimonidine suspension with the same PGA. Best-corrected visual acuity, ocular hyperemia grading, slit lamp biomicroscopy and Goldmann applanation tonometry measurements, and patient medication preferences were assessed at baseline, 1 month and 3 months. Results: Forty eyes with open angle glaucoma. The mean age of the patients was 68 and 60% were females. The IOP before the switch was 17.2 and 16.5 (P=0.70 following the switch at 3 months. We found a decreasing trend of ocular hyperemia (P=0.064 and strong preference (P

  5. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.


    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  6. Kinetics of copper electrodeposition onto Polypyrrole films previously synthesised onto iron in oxalic aqueous solution. Application to electrocatalysis

    Aitout, R. [Laboratoire de Recherche en Electrochimie et Corrosion, Departement de Genie des Procedes, Faculte des Sciences et des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Universite de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); Makhloufi, L. [Laboratoire de Recherche en Electrochimie et Corrosion, Departement de Genie des Procedes, Faculte des Sciences et des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Universite de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria)]. E-mail:; Saidani, B. [Laboratoire de Recherche en Electrochimie et Corrosion, Departement de Genie des Procedes, Faculte des Sciences et des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Universite de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria)


    Copper electrodeposition onto previously synthesised Polypyrrole (PPy) onto iron in oxalic medium has been investigated using polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This investigation was done at potential range where hydrogen evolution does not occur. The kinetics of this reaction was found to be under diffusion control and the diffusion coefficient of reactive species was found to be 6.4 {+-} 0.1 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to estimate the roughness variation of the electrode surface during copper electrodeposition. Scanning Electron Microscopy observation of Fe/PPy/Cu films provide strong evidence of the close relationship between deposit morphology and electrocatalytic activity.

  7. The impact of previous traumatic brain injury on health and functioning: a TRACK-TBI study.

    Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Spielman, Lisa; Singh, Ayushi; Gordon, Wayne A; Lingsma, Hester F; Maas, Andrew I R; Manley, Geoffrey T; Mukherjee, Pratik; Okonkwo, David O; Puccio, Ava M; Schnyer, David M; Valadka, Alex B; Yue, John K; Yuh, Esther L


    The idea that multiple traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have a cumulative detrimental effect on functioning is widely accepted. Most research supporting this idea comes from athlete samples, and it is not known whether remote history of previous TBI affects functioning after subsequent TBI in community-based samples. This study investigates whether a previous history of TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) is associated with worse health and functioning in a sample of individuals who require emergency department care for current TBI. Twenty-three percent of the 586 individuals with current TBI in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury study reported having sustained a previous TBI with LOC. Individuals with previous TBI were more likely to be unemployed (χ(2)=17.86; p=0.000), report a variety of chronic medical and psychiatric conditions (4.75≤χ(2)≥24.16; pTBI history. Those with a previous TBI had less-severe acute injuries, but experienced worse outcomes at 6-month follow-up. Results of a series of regression analyses controlling for demographics and acute injury severity indicated that individuals with previous TBI reported more mood symptoms, more postconcussive symptoms, lower life satisfaction, and had slower processing speed and poorer verbal learning, compared to those with no previous TBI history. These findings suggest that history of TBI with LOC may have important implications for health and psychological functioning after TBI in community-based samples.

  8. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (Pcesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  9. Experimental Design of a Polymeric Solution to Improve the Mobility Ratio in a Reservoir previous implementation of a pilot project of EOR

    Vanessa Cuenca


    Full Text Available This paper describes experimental formulations of polymeric solutions through lab evaluations with the objective of finding optimum solution concentration to fluid mobility in reservoirs as previous step before implementing a pilot project of enhanced oil recovery. The polymers, firstly, were selected based on the properties from fluids from reservoir. Two types of polymers were used TCC-330 and EOR909 and the experimental tests were: thermal stability, compatibility, adsorption, salinity, and displacement. The design with the best results was with polymer TCC-330 at 1,500 ppm concentration.

  10. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali


    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  11. Sourcing quality-of-life weights obtained from previous studies: theory and reality in Korea.

    Bae, SeungJin; Bae, Eun Young; Lim, Sang Hee


    The quality-of-life weights obtained in previous studies are frequently used in cost-utility analyses. The purpose of this study is to describe how the values obtained in previous studies are incorporated into the industry submissions requesting listing at the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI), focusing on the issues discussed in theoretical studies and national guidelines. The industry submissions requesting listing at the Korean NHI from January 2007 until December 2009 were evaluated by two independent researchers at the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). Specifically, we observed the methods that were used to pool, predict joint health state utilities, and retain consistency within submissions in terms of the issues discussed in methodological research papers and recommendations from national guidelines. More than half of the submissions used QALY as an outcome measure, and most of these submissions were sourced from prior studies. Heterogeneous methodologies were frequently used within a submission, with the inconsistent use of upper and lower anchors being prevalent. Assumptions behind measuring joint health state utilities or pooling multiple values for single health states were omitted in all submissions. Most national guidelines were rather vague regarding how to predict joint health states, how to select the best available value, how to maintain consistency within a submission, and how to generalize values obtained from prior studies. Previously-generated values were commonly sourced, but this practice was frequently related to inconsistencies within and among submissions. Attention should be paid to the consistency and transparency of the value, especially if the value is sourced from prior studies.

  12. Vibrations of twisted cantilevered plates - Summary of previous and current studies

    Leissa, A. W.; Macbain, J. C.; Kielb, R. E.


    This work summarizes a comprehensive study made of the free vibrations of twisted, cantilevered plates of rectangular planform. Numerous theoretical and experimental investigations previously made by others have resulted in frequency results which disagree considerably. To clarify the problem a joint industry/government/university research effort was initiated to obtain comprehensive theoretical and experimental results for models having useful ranges of aspect ratios, thickness ratios and twist angles. Theoretical data came from 19 independent computer analyses, including finite element, shell theory and beam theory idealizations. Two independent sets of experimental data were also obtained. The theoretical and experimental results are summarized and compared.


    Gurpreet Kaur


    Full Text Available Previous caesarean section sparks an area of controversy in Obstetrics. The management of women with previous caesarean section regarding the mode of delivery whether to opt for repeat caesarean section or vaginal delivery, is an area of debate. Very often the decision on management is not made on Principle of sound reasoning and many who choose the elective repeat caesarean section do so to circumvent the anxious moment that arise during conduct ion of labour. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To determine the maternal and fetal outcome in relation to type of delivery . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A 18 month prospective observational study was conducted where in 150 patients who had a term pregnancy with a history of prior LSCS were included after obtaining their consent for participation. The obstetric and fetal outcomes of these patients in the present pregnancy were analyzed by Z test. RESULTS: Out of the 150 subjects 78 ( 52% were in age group of 26 - 30 years, 106 ( 70.67% patients belonged to the urban population, 116 ( 77.33% were booked patie nts, 107 ( 71.33% were housewives, 122 ( 81.33% belonged to middle class and 22 ( 14.67% were from high socio economic status. 67 ( 44.67% were second gravid, 112 ( 74.67% were para 1. Out of total 134 patients 29 ( 21.64% had elective caesarean section and 5 ( 3 .73% patients came as emergency admission and underwent caesarean section. Out of 134 patients, with one previous caesarean section. 32 had spontaneous onset of labour. Out of which 20 ( 68.97% had vaginal delivery and 9 ( 31.03% had repeat caesarean section. 13 patients had augmentation, 11 ( 84.62% had vaginal delivery and 2 ( 15.38% had caesarean section. In 58 patients labour was induced 29 ( 50% had section. 14 patients out of 50 who had previous 2 caesarean section only 1 ( 7.69% patient had spontane ous onset of labour and had caesarean section. 3 ( 92.86% patients had elective caesarean section. There were only 2 patients with previous 3 caesarean

  14. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Moreno Victor


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  15. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50......-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured during pregnancy, postpartum, and at follow-up 5-11 years later. At follow-up, the women were also examined with a 75-g OGTT or an intravenous glucagon test. RESULTS: Twenty-seven (30%) of the women with previous GDM had abnormal glucose tolerance...... response) at all time points investigated; this was also found when only nonobese glucose-tolerant women were examined. Low insulin secretion during pregnancy together with a high fasting plasma glucose level at the diagnostic OGTT in pregnancy and hyperglycemia during the postpartum OGTT were predictive...

  16. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.


    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  17. Religious Identity in Iranian Society: A Systematic Review of Previous Studies (2001-2013


    literature on identity, evidence suggests that the role of religion in shaping individuals' and group's identity is widely ignored. However, a growing number of studies have begun to take into consideration the key role of religion (Arweck & Nesbitt 2010, King and Boyatzis 2004, Peek 2005. This article has attempted to review systematically previous research and conceptualizations on the religious identity based on national studies and surveys and academic dissertations.     Materials and Methods   As mentioned, the purpose of this study was to review the results of some influential researches in the field of religious identity. To get this purpose, one of the best known methods for reviewing previous studies, a systematic review, was applied. Systematic review deals with establishing and synthesizing of researches and evidences with focus on a specific question. This occurs through the organized, transparent, formal, clear and flexible procedures and processes. A systematic review of research is not limited to review the history and this overview and review can be used in different levels, fields and goals. During the first phase of the study, terms of "religious identity", "Islamic identity", "Iranian identity" and "religious identity" was searched at libraries and research centers and in databases such as Center for Scientific Information Database (SID, a database of Iranian journals and magazines (Magiran, Noor specialized journals database, and Science and Information Technology Institute (IrnaDoc. After reviewing the gathered documents and specifying its relationship with the object and purpose of the study, a total of 47 documents were selected. Documents based on the five major parameter were summarized and reviewed: 1-general information, 2-goals and research questions, 3-research methodology, 4-variables, 5-findings     Discussion of Results and Conclusion   Findings show that in the highest percentage (38.2% of researches, religious identity has been

  18. Phase II study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plus vinorelbine in breast cancer with previous anthracycline exposure.

    Martin, Miguel; García-Donas, Jesus; Casado, Antonio; de la Gándara, Isabel; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; García-Saenz, Jose-Angel; Ibáñez, Gabriel; Loboff, Belen; García-Ledo, Gemma; Moreno, Fernando; Grande, Enrique; Diaz-Rubio, Eduardo


    Thirty-five patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) entered a phase II study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin 35 mg/m2 intravenously (i.v.) on day 1 plus vinorelbine 30 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1 every 4 weeks. Patients were required to have measurable disease, previous chemotherapy with an anthracycline-containing regimen, and a normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Thirty-four patients were assessable for response and toxicity. The overall response rate (on an intent-to-treat basis) was 35% (12 of 34; 95% CI, 20%-54%). One complete response and 11 partial responses were noted. In addition, 14 patients (41%) had stable disease of > 4 months duration, and 7 patients (20.5%) had disease progression. The response rates to the combination when it was used as first- and second-line chemotherapy were 31% (4 of 13) and 38% (8 of 21), respectively. Median time to disease progression was 7 months (range, 1-35 months) and median overall survival was 13 months (range, 2 to > 62 months). Neutropenia was the most frequent toxicity (grade 4 in 44% of patients and 19% of cycles), but neutropenic fever was seen in only 3 cases. No septic deaths occurred. Nonhematologic grade 3 side effects included skin toxicity (palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, 6%) and mucositis (15%). Late alopecia was seen in 53% of patients (grade 1 in 41%, and grade 2 in 12%). The median LVEFs were 64% (range, 50%-81%) at baseline and 62% (range, 37%-70%) after treatment. Three patients presented an LVEF decrease to < 50%; however, no clinical heart failure was noted, and 2 of these patients recovered normal values after cessation of therapy. The combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and vinorelbine can be safely administered to patients with anthracycline-pretreated MBC and is active in this population.

  19. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D


    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation.

  20. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Aubourg, Santiago P.


    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  1. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats.

    Barrera-Ochoa, Sergi; Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto


    The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. One hundred forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis.

  2. Study on Electrospinning Silk Fibroin Solution

    LI Ni; QIN Xiao-hong; WANG Shan-yuan


    A new method of preparing silk fibroin (SF) solution used in the electerospinning was introduced in this paper. According to the method, SF was dissolved in the LiBr/CH2O2 solution directly at room temperature. The method was compared with the traditional method---SF was dissolved in CaCl2 ternary solution. The structure of SF films and the morphology of SF nanofibers were examined by attenuated total reflectance fourier transform intrared (ATR- FrlR) spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical polarizing microscope. The result of this study shows that the new method is a faster, more convenient and high efficient way to get the SF solution and the characteristics of SF fibet made by the new method is much betty.

  3. Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon: A Pre-registered Replication of Previous Studies

    White, Anne; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert


    Naming patterns of bilinguals have been found to converge and form a new intermediate language system from elements of both the bilinguals’ languages. This converged naming pattern differs from the monolingual naming patterns of both a bilingual’s languages. We conducted a pre-registered replication study of experiments addressing the question whether there is a convergence between a bilingual’s both lexicons. The replication used an enlarged set of stimuli of common household containers, providing generalizability, and more reliable representations of the semantic domain. Both an analysis at the group-level and at the individual level of the correlations between naming patterns reject the two-pattern hypothesis that poses that bilinguals use two monolingual-like naming patterns, one for each of their two languages. However, the results of the original study and the replication comply with the one-pattern hypothesis, which poses that bilinguals converge the naming patterns of their two languages and form a compromise. Since this convergence is only partial the naming pattern in bilinguals corresponds to a moderate version of the one-pattern hypothesis. These findings are further confirmed by a representation of the semantic domain in a multidimensional space and the finding of shorter distances between bilingual category centers than monolingual category centers in this multidimensional space both in the original and in the replication study. PMID:28167921

  4. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Byrd, John C; Flynn, Joseph M; Kipps, Thomas J; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Carlile, David J; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P


    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at as #NCT01414205.




    Full Text Available With the world - wide rising trend of caesarean delivery (CD, modern obstetric practice deals with a new group of mothers carrying reproductive performance upon a scarred uterus with obvious risk in feto - maternal outcome. AIMS: (1 To analyse the maternal & neonatal outcome in post - caesarean pregnancy. (2 To evaluate the factors influencing outcome in such cases. Design : Observational analytical study. MATERIALS & METHODS: The present study was carried out over two years (2010 - 11 taking consecutive 100 p ost - caesarean cases as admitted on my admission days & delivered in BR Singh Hospital. Data collection was done by interview technique along with hospital records. ANALYSIS USED: Percentage analysis was most often done. Categorical variables were compared with chi - square test; P value was calculated with 2012 Graphpad Software. Relative risk (RR & Odd ratio (OR were calculated with 1993 - 2012 Medcalc Software bvba (Version 12.3.0. All statistical tests were evaluated at the 0.05 significance level. RESULT S: Post - caesarean pregnancy rate was 26.02%. Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC incidence was 22% whereas VBAC success on trial of labour was 55%. VBAC gave best morbidity outcome (18.18% & 27.27%. But failed VBAC cases result more significant maternal morbidity (RR=3.97, P=0.0037 & NICU admission was also found highest in failed VBAC cases (38.89%. Maternal and neonatal morbidity were significantly high when scar integrity was lost; also significantly co - related with elderly mothers (>35 yrs., un - boo ked cases & non - admitted cases undergone repeat CD. CONCLUSIONS: Post - caesarean cases need meticulous antenatal check - up & mandatory institutional delivery with proper selection of mode of confinement to have a better maternal & neonatal outcome

  6. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    Makhlouf, Ali, E-mail:; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza


    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  7. Experimental bluetongue virus infection of sheep; effect of previous vaccination: clinical and immunologic studies.

    Mahrt, C R; Osburn, B I


    Clinical and immunologic responses of sheep to vaccination and subsequent bluetongue virus (BTV) challenge exposure were studied and compared with those of non-vaccinated sheep. Sheep were vaccinated with inactivated BTV administered with aluminum hydroxide and cimetidine or levamisole. After sheep were vaccinated, precipitating group-specific antibodies to BTV were detected, but serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies were not detected. Cellular immune responses (lymphocyte blastogenesis) to BTV were not detected. After virulent BTV challenge exposure, vaccinated and nonvaccinated sheep developed acute clinical disease of similar severity. Clinical signs included hyperemia and petechiae of oral mucosa and coronary bands of the feet, excess salivation, nasal discharge with crusting, ulceration of the muzzle, and edema of lips and intermandibular space. Marked increases in serum creatine kinase activity were associated with stiff gait, reluctance to move, and vomiting. Fever and leukopenia were detected in most of the challenge-exposed sheep. Viremia and neutralizing antibodies were detected in vaccinated and nonvaccinated sheep after challenge exposure. Bluetongue virus-specific reaginic antibodies were not detected in sera from any of the sheep when the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test was used.

  8. Phase III Randomized Study of Bendamustine Compared With Chlorambucil in Previously Untreated Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Wolfgang U. Knauf; Toshko Lissichkov; Ali Aldaoud; Anna Liberati; Javier Loscertales; Raoul Herbrecht; Gunnar Juliusson; Gerhard Postner; Liana Gercheva; Stefan Goranov; Martin Becker; Hans-Joerg Fricke; Francoise Huguet; Ilaria Del Giudice; Peter Klein; Lothar Tremmel; Karlheinz Merkle; Marco Montillo


    This randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of bendamustine and chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with advanced (Binet stage B or C...

  9. Effective Teaching and Learning Environments and Principal Self-Efficacy in Oklahoma: Replication of a Previous Study

    Berry, Kathryn


    The purpose of this study was to replicate a previous study by Smith et al. (2006) that explored principal self-efficacy beliefs for facilitating effective instructional environments at their schools. There has been limited research conducted on principal's self-efficacy, and the studies that have been completed on the topic have not been…

  10. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of delivery after a previous Cesarean section in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria: a prospective observational study.

    Ugwu, George O; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Onah, Hyacinth E; Egwuatu, Vincent E; Ezugwu, Frank O


    Obstetricians in developing countries appear generally reluctant to conduct vaginal delivery in women with a previous Cesarean because of lack of adequate facilities for optimal fetomaternal monitoring. To describe delivery outcomes among women with one previous Cesarean section at a tertiary hospital in Southeast Nigeria. This was a prospective observational study to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes of attempted vaginal birth after Cesarean sections (VBAC) following one previous Cesarean section. Analysis was done with SPSS statistical software version 17.0 for Windows using descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Two thousand six hundred and ten women delivered in the center during the study period, of whom 395 had one previous Cesarean section. A total of 370 women with one previous Cesarean section had nonrecurrent indications, of whom 355 consenting pregnant women with one previous Cesarean section were studied. A majority of the women (320/355, 90.1%) preferred to have vaginal delivery despite the one previous Cesarean section. However, only approximately 54% (190/355) were found suitable for trial of VBAC, out of whom 50% (95/190 had successful VBAC. Ninety-five women (50.0%) had failed attempt at VBAC and were delivered by emergency Cesarean section while 35 women (9.8%) had emergency Cesarean section for other obstetric indications (apart from failed VBAC). There was no case of uterine rupture or neonatal and maternal deaths recorded in any group. Apgar scores of less than 7 in the first minute were significantly more frequent amongst women who had vaginal delivery when compared to those who had elective repeat Cesarean section (P=0.03). Most women who had one previous Cesarean delivery chose to undergo trial of VBAC, although only about half were considered suitable for VBAC. The maternal and fetal outcomes of trial of VBAC in selected women with one previous Cesarean delivery for non-recurrent indications were good

  11. Estimating the effect of current, previous and never use of drugs in studies based on prescription registries

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;


    PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do not ca...... with Hazard Ratios ranging from 1.68 to 1.78 for current use compared to never use. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that it is possible to estimate the effect of never, current and previous use of HT on breast cancer using prescription data.......PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do...... not carry any information on the time of discontinuation of treatment.In this study, we investigated the amount of misclassification of exposure (never, current, previous use) to hormone therapy (HT) when the exposure variable was based on prescription data. Furthermore, we evaluated the significance...

  12. A mechanistic study of copper electropolishing in phosphoric acid solutions

    Mansson, Andrew

    The microelectronics industry is using copper as the interconnect material for microchips. A study of copper electropolishing is important for the process development of a new, low downforce approach, which is being developed to replace chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of the copper overburden. A promising technology is a combination of electropolishing with conventional CMP. Electropolishing of copper in phosphoric acid has been studied for, more than 70 years. Previous work has shown that the polishing rate, as measured by current density is directly related to the viscosity of the electrolyte. Also, the limiting species is water. In this study, a multidimensional design of experiments was performed to develop an in-depth model of copper electropolishing. Phosphoric acid was mixed with alcohols of different molecular weight and related viscosity to investigate how the solvents' properties affected polishing. The alcohols used were methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, butanol, ethylene glycol, and glycerol. The limiting current densities and electrochemical behavior of each solution was measured by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic experiments. Also, the kinematic viscosity and density were measured to determine the dynamic viscosity to investigate the relationship of current density and viscosity. Water, methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol solutions were also examined at 20°C to 60°C. Next, the relative percentage of dissociated phosphoric acid was measured by Raman spectroscopy for each polishing solution. Raman spectroscopy was also used to measure the relative dissociation of phosphoric acid inside the polishing film. Additionally, wafers were electropolished and electrochemical mechanically polished to investigate the effects of the different solvents, fluid flow, current, and potential. The results of these experiments have shown that the molecular mass and the ability of the solvent to dissociate phosphoric acid are the primary electrolyte properties that

  13. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Else-Marie eLøberg


    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  14. Measuring Dynamic and Kinetic Information in the Previously Inaccessible Supra-tc Window of Nanoseconds to Microseconds by Solution NMR Spectroscopy

    Donghan Lee


    Full Text Available Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool that has enabled experimentalists to characterize molecular dynamics and kinetics spanning a wide range of time-scales from picoseconds to days. This review focuses on addressing the previously inaccessible supra-τc window (defined as τc < supra-τc < 40 μs; in which τc is the overall tumbling time of a molecule from the perspective of local inter-nuclear vector dynamics extracted from residual dipolar couplings (RDCs and from the perspective of conformational exchange captured by relaxation dispersion measurements (RD. The goal of the first section is to present a detailed analysis of how to extract protein dynamics encoded in RDCs and how to relate this information to protein functionality within the previously inaccessible supra-τc window. In the second section, the current state of the art for RD is analyzed, as well as the considerable progress toward pushing the sensitivity of RD further into the supra-τc scale by up to a factor of two (motion up to 25 ms. From the data obtained with these techniques and methodology, the importance of the supra-τ c scale for protein function and molecular recognition is becoming increasingly clearer as the connection between motion on the supra-τc scale and protein functionality from the experimental side is further strengthened with results from molecular dynamics simulations.

  15. Factors Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcomes in New and Previously Treated TB Patients in Uzbekistan: A Five Year Countrywide Study.

    Jamshid Gadoev

    Full Text Available TB is one of the main health priorities in Uzbekistan and relatively high rates of unfavorable treatment outcomes have recently been reported. This requires closer analysis to explain the reasons and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Thus, by using countrywide data this study sought to determine trends in unfavorable outcomes (lost-to-follow-ups, deaths and treatment failures and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors.A countrywide retrospective cohort study of all new and previously treated TB patients registered in the National Tuberculosis programme between January 2006 and December 2010.Among 107,380 registered patients, 67% were adults, with smaller proportions of children (10%, adolescents (4% and elderly patients (19%. Sixty per cent were male, 66% lived in rural areas, 1% were HIV-infected and 1% had a history of imprisonment. Pulmonary TB (PTB was present in 77%, of which 43% were smear-positive and 53% were smear-negative. Overall, 83% of patients were successfully treated, 6% died, 6% were lost-to-follow-up, 3% failed treatment and 2% transferred out. Factors associated with death included being above 55 years of age, HIV-positive, sputum smear positive, previously treated, jobless and living in certain provinces. Factors associated with lost-to-follow-up were being male, previously treated, jobless, living in an urban area, and living in certain provinces. Having smear-positive PTB, being an adolescent, being urban population, being HIV-negative, previously treated, jobless and residing in particular provinces were associated with treatment failure.Overall, 83% treatment success rate was achieved. However, our study findings highlight the need to improve TB services for certain vulnerable groups and in specific areas of the country. They also emphasize the need to develop unified monitoring and evaluation tools for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB, and call for better TB

  16. Assessment of empathy in first-episode psychosis and meta-analytic comparison with previous studies in schizophrenia.

    Achim, Amelie M; Ouellet, Rosalie; Roy, Marc-André; Jackson, Philip L


    Empathy is a multidimensional construct that relies on affective and cognitive component processes. A few studies have reported impairments of both cognitive and affective empathy components in patients with schizophrenia. It is, however, not known whether these difficulties are already present at psychosis onset. The affective and cognitive components of empathy were thus assessed in 31 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 31 matched healthy controls using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Our results were then compared to previous studies of empathy in patients with more chronic schizophrenia via a meta-analysis. In addition, we also assessed the relationship between empathy ratings, Mentalizing performance and clinical symptoms. Contrary to what has been reported in people with more chronic schizophrenia, the IRI ratings did not significantly differ between FEP and controls in our study, though a trend was observed for the Personal distress scale. For the Perspective taking scale, our meta-analysis revealed a significantly lower effect size in this study with FEP patients relative to previous schizophrenia studies. In the FEP group, the IRI ratings were not related to positive, negative or general psychopathology symptoms, but a significant relationship emerged between the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Perspective taking (negative correlation). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the Empathic concern subscale and our theory of mind task. This study supports the idea that the cognitive component of empathy is less affected in patients with first-episode psychosis relative to patients with more chronic schizophrenia, and the impairments reported in previous reports with more chronic populations should be interpreted in light of a possible deterioration of this cognitive skill. The findings also provide some insight into the relationship between empathy and clinical symptoms such as social anxiety.

  17. Psychotic illness in first-time mothers with no previous psychiatric hospitalizations: a population-based study.

    Unnur Valdimarsdóttir


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychotic illness following childbirth is a relatively rare but severe condition with unexplained etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of maternal background characteristics and obstetric factors on the risk of postpartum psychosis, specifically among mothers with no previous psychiatric hospitalizations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated incidence rates and potential maternal and obstetric risk factors of psychoses after childbirth in a national cohort of women who were first-time mothers from 1983 through 2000 (n = 745,596. Proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate relative risks of psychoses during and after the first 90 d postpartum, among mothers without any previous psychiatric hospitalization and among all mothers. Within 90 d after delivery, 892 women (1.2 per 1,000 births; 4.84 per 1,000 person-years were hospitalized due to psychoses and 436 of these (0.6 per 1,000 births; 2.38 per 1,000 person-years had not previously been hospitalized for any psychiatric disorder. During follow-up after the 90 d postpartum period, the corresponding incidence rates per 1,000 person-years were reduced to 0.65 for all women and 0.49 for women not previously hospitalized. During (but not after the first 90 d postpartum the risk of psychoses among women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization was independently affected by: maternal age (35 y or older versus 19 y or younger; hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 4.7; high birth weight (> or = 4,500 g; hazard ratio 0.3, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.0; and diabetes (hazard ratio 0. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of psychotic illness peaks immediately following a first childbirth, and almost 50% of the cases are women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization. High maternal age increases the risk while diabetes and high birth weight are associated with reduced risk of first-onset psychoses, distinctly during the postpartum period.

  18. A modified CZ-1 preserving solution for organ transplantation:comparative study with UW preserving solution

    ZHENG Jun-hua; MIN Zhi-lian; LI Yu-li; ZHU You-hua; YE Ting-jun; LI Jian-qiu; PAN Tie-wen; DING Guo-shan; WANG Meng-long


    Background The University of Wisconsin colloid based preserving solution (UW solution) is the most efficient preserving solution for multiorgan transplantation. Unfortunately, unavailability of delayed organ preserving solutions hindered further progression of cardinal organ transplantation in China. In this study, we validated an organ preserving Changzheng Organ Preserving Solution (CZ-1 solution) and compared it with UW solution.Methods A series of studies were conducted on how and how long CZ-1 solution could preserve the kidneys, livers,hearts, lungs and pancreas of New Zealand rabbits and SD rats. Morphology of transplanted organs was studied by visible microscopy and electron microscopy; biochemical and physiological functions and the survival rate of the organs during prolonged cold storage were studied.Results There was no significant difference between CZ-1 and UW solutions in preserving the kidneys, livers, hearts or lungs of rabbits; kidneys, livers, intestinal mucosa or pancreases of SD rats or five deceased donors' testicles. In some aspects, such as preserving rabbits' hearts, rats' intestinal mucosa and pancreases, the effect of CZ-1 solution was superior to UW solution. CZ-1 could safely preserve kidneys for 72 hours, livers for 24 hours, hearts for 18 hours and lungs for 8 hours for SD rats. Twelve kidneys preserved in cold CZ-1 solution for 22-31 hours were transplanted successfully and the mean renal function recovery time was (3.83±1.68) days.Conclusions CZ-1 solution is as effective as UW solution for organ preservation. The development of CZ-1 solution not only reduces costs and improves preservation of organs, but also promotes future development of organ transplantation in China.

  19. Calorimetric studies of macromolecular aqueous solutions

    Blandamer, M.J; Cullis, P.M.; Engberts, J.B.F.N.


    Both titration and differential scanning microcalorimetric techniques are shown to yield important information concerning the properties of macromolecules in aqueous solution. Application of titration calorimetry is examined in me context of deaggregation of canonic micelles (e.g. hexadecyltrimethyl

  20. A multicenter phase II study of irinotecan in patients with advanced colorectal cancer previously treated with 5-fluorouracil.

    Méndez, Miguel; Salut, Antonieta; García-Girón, Carlos; Navalon, Marta; Diz, Pilar; García López, Maria José; España, Pilar; de la Torre, Ascensión; Martínez del Prado, Purificación; Duarte, Isabel; Pujol, Eduardo; Arizcun, Alberto; Cruz, Juan Jesús


    This multicenter, open-label, phase II study was performed to assess the efficacy and toxicity of irinotecan 350 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) previously treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The study enrolled 115 patients and a total of 558 cycles (median, 6 per patient) were administered. The overall objective response rate on an intent-to-treat basis was 18% (with 1 complete response and 20 partial responses), whereas 42 patients (37%) showed stable disease. Median time to progression was 4.8 months and median survival was 13.6 months. Grade 3/4 toxicities included delayed diarrhea (19.1%), nausea/vomiting (10.4%), and neutropenia (8.7%). There were 2 toxic deaths, 1 from delayed diarrhea and 1 from hemorrhage and grade 4 mucositis. In conclusion, the present study confirms the antitumor efficacy of irinotecan monotherapy in patients with CRC pretreated with 5-FU.

  1. Outcomes of induction of labour in women with previous caesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study using a population database.

    Sarah J Stock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that induction of labour (IOL around term reduces perinatal mortality and caesarean delivery rates when compared to expectant management of pregnancy (allowing the pregnancy to continue to await spontaneous labour or definitive indication for delivery. However, it is not clear whether IOL in women with a previous caesarean section confers the same benefits. The aim of this study was to describe outcomes of IOL at 39-41 weeks in women with one previous caesarean delivery and to compare outcomes of IOL or planned caesarean delivery to those of expectant management. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of singleton births greater than 39 weeks gestation, in women with one previous caesarean delivery, in Scotland, UK 1981-2007 (n = 46,176. Outcomes included mode of delivery, perinatal mortality, neonatal unit admission, postpartum hemorrhage and uterine rupture. 40.1% (2,969/7,401 of women who underwent IOL 39-41 weeks were ultimately delivered by caesarean. When compared to expectant management IOL was associated with lower odds of caesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] after IOL at 39 weeks of 0.81 [95% CI 0.71-0.91]. There was no significant effect on the odds of perinatal mortality but greater odds of neonatal unit admission (AOR after IOL at 39 weeks of 1.29 [95% CI 1.08-1.55]. In contrast, when compared with expectant management, elective repeat caesarean delivery was associated with lower perinatal mortality (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.23 [95% CI 0.07-0.75] and, depending on gestation, the same or lower neonatal unit admission (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.98 [0.90-1.07] at 40 weeks of 1.08 [0.94-1.23] and at 41 weeks of 0.77 [0.60-1.00]. CONCLUSIONS: A more liberal policy of IOL in women with previous caesarean delivery may reduce repeat caesarean delivery, but increases the risks of neonatal complications.

  2. Birth outcome in women with previously treated breast cancer--a population-based cohort study from Sweden.

    Kristina Dalberg


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on birth outcome and offspring health after the appearance of breast cancer are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse birth outcomes in women previously treated for invasive breast cancer compared with the general population of mothers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of all 2,870,932 singleton births registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry during 1973-2002, 331 first births following breast cancer surgery--with a mean time to pregnancy of 37 mo (range 7-163--were identified using linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Logistic regression analysis was used. The estimates were adjusted for maternal age, parity, and year of delivery. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to estimate infant health and mortality, delivery complications, the risk of preterm birth, and the rates of instrumental delivery and cesarean section. The large majority of births from women previously treated for breast cancer had no adverse events. However, births by women exposed to breast cancer were associated with an increased risk of delivery complications (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9, cesarean section (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7, very preterm birth (<32 wk (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.0, and low birth weight (<1500 g (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8. A tendency towards an increased risk of malformations among the infants was seen especially in the later time period (1988-2002 (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7. CONCLUSIONS: It is reassuring that births overall were without adverse events, but our findings indicate that pregnancies in previously treated breast cancer patients should possibly be regarded as higher risk pregnancies, with consequences for their surveillance and management.

  3. Does the previous diagnosis of arterial hypertension affect one´s daily life? Pró-Saúde Study

    Gilberto Senechal de Goffredo Filho


    Full Text Available In addition to damaging several target organs, arterial hypertension may negatively impact patients' activities of daily living. Biological and behavioral mechanisms underlying such limitations have yet to be clarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether having been previously told of a hypertension diagnosis is associated with the frequency and duration of temporary limitations in activities of daily living, and whether these relationships differ by gender, age, or socioeconomic position. We analyzed sectional data from 2,666 participants (56% women; 55% with high school or lower schooling at the baseline phase (1999 - 2001 of a longitudinal investigation of university employees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study, asking participants whether they had ever been diagnosed with hypertension by a health professional, if they had been unable to perform any activities of daily living due to a health problem in the previous 2 weeks, and for how many days that had occurred. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted for the overall study population and for age, gender, educational level, and per capita household income strata. Associations between hypertension diagnosis and temporary limitations were not observed in the overall study population and in gender, education and income strata. However, there were higher odds of temporary limitations among participants aged 55 years old or more with hypertension diagnosis (adjusted OR = 9.5; 95%CI 1.5 - 58.6, regardless of blood pressure levels and use of antihypertensive medication. Elderly people may keep an attitude of higher vigilance regarding conditions or events potentially worsening their health status.

  4. Predicting DUI recidivism of male drunken driving: a prospective study of the impact of alcohol markers and previous drunken driving.

    Portman, M; Penttilä, A; Haukka, J; Eriksson, P; Alho, H; Kuoppasalmi, K


    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the alcohol biomarkers CDT, GGT, the biomarker gamma-CDT index and previous drunken driving contributed significantly to the prediction of DUI recidivism. The subjects consisted of two different samples of drivers, viz. drivers who were found to have a positive breath alcohol concentration during random breath testing surveys (n=237), and drunken drivers who were apprehended during ordinary police work (n=193). The drunken driving events were monitored using a data-base both retrospectively and prospectively. It was found that the biomarker index, gamma-CDT, emerged as a notable predictor of recidivism in the group of random breath tested drivers. Measurement of gamma-CDT and its impact on DUI recidivism has not to our knowledge been applied to random breath tested drivers before. The apprehended drunken drivers, on the other hand, did not show a significant relationship between gamma-CDT and DUI recidivism. However, in both groups of drivers it was found that a previous conviction for drunken driving strongly predicted DUI recidivism. More attention should be paid by both physicians and the police to the high risk of recidivism among those convicted of drunken driving.

  5. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail:; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)


    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  6. Evaluation of questionnaire-based information on previous physical work loads. Stockholm MUSIC 1 Study Group. Musculoskeletal Intervention Center.

    Torgén, M; Winkel, J; Alfredsson, L; Kilbom, A


    The principal aim of the present study was to evaluate questionnaire-based information on past physical work loads (6-year recall). Effects of memory difficulties on reproducibility were evaluated for 82 subjects by comparing previously reported results on current work loads (test-retest procedure) with the same items recalled 6 years later. Validity was assessed by comparing self-reports in 1995, regarding work loads in 1989, with worksite measurements performed in 1989. Six-year reproducibility, calculated as weighted kappa coefficients (k(w)), varied between 0.36 and 0.86, with the highest values for proportion of the workday spent sitting and for perceived general exertion and the lowest values for trunk and neck flexion. The six-year reproducibility results were similar to previously reported test-retest results for these items; this finding indicates that memory difficulties was a minor problem. The validity of the questionnaire responses, expressed as rank correlations (r(s)) between the questionnaire responses and workplace measurements, varied between -0.16 and 0.78. The highest values were obtained for the items sitting and repetitive work, and the lowest and "unacceptable" values were for head rotation and neck flexion. Misclassification of exposure did not appear to be differential with regard to musculoskeletal symptom status, as judged by the calculated risk estimates. The validity of some of these self-administered questionnaire items appears sufficient for a crude assessment of physical work loads in the past in epidemiologic studies of the general population with predominantly low levels of exposure.

  7. Experimental study on correlation between sound velocity and solute molecular weight in polyethylene glycol solution

    YIN XiangYu; SONG Hao; ZHOU HuiJun


    In this study, ultrasound grating was used to measure the sound velocity in solutions of ethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol with molecular weights of 200, 600, 2000, and 10000. We found Parthasarathy empirical rule, that is, sound velocity is higher in the solution of larger molecules, is invalid in the case of polyethylene glycol solution. We tried to provide a tentative explanation using the Flory-Krigbaum's chained block cloud model.

  8. Experimental study on correlation between sound velocity and solute molecular weight in polyethylene glycol solution


    In this study,ultrasound grating was used to measure the sound velocity in solutions of ethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol with molecular weights of 200,600,2000,and 10000.We found Parthasarathy empirical rule,that is,sound velocity is higher in the solution of larger molecules,is invalid in the case of polyethylene glycol solution. We tried to provide a tentative explanation using the Flory-Krigbaum’s chained block cloud model.

  9. An AFM study of calcite dissolution in concentrated electrolyte solutions

    Ruiz Agudo, E.; Putnis, C. V.; Putnis, A.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.


    Calcite-solution interactions are of a paramount importance in a range of processes such as the removal of heavy metals, carbon dioxide sequestration, landscape modeling, weathering of building stone and biomineralization. Water in contact with minerals often carries significant amounts of solutes; additionally, their concentration may vary due to evaporation and condensation. It is well known that calcite dissolution is affected dramatically by the presence of such solutes. Here we present investigations on the dissolution of calcite in the presence of different electrolytes. Both bulk (batch reactors) experiments and nanoscale (in situ AFM) techniques are used to study the dissolution of calcite in a range of solutions containing alkaly cations balanced by halide anions. Previous works have indicated that the ionic strength has little influence in calcite dissolution rates measured from bulk experiments (Pokrovsky et al. 2005; Glendhill and Morse, 2004). Contrary to these results, our quantitative analyses of AFM observations show an enhancement of the calcite dissolution rate with increasing electrolyte concentration. Such an effect is concentration-dependent and it is most evident in concentrated solutions. AFM experiments have been carried out in a fluid cell using calcite cleavage surfaces in contact with solutions of simple salts of the alkaly metals and halides at different undersaturations with respect to calcite to try to specify the effect of the ionic strength on etch pit spreading rate and calcite dissolution rate. These results show that the presence of soluble salts may critically affect the weathering of carbonate rocks in nature as well as the decay of carbonate stone in built cultural heritage. References: Pokrosky, O.S.; Golubev, S.V.; Schott, J. Dissolution kinetics of calcite, dolomite and magnesite at 25°C and 0 to 50 atm pCO2. Chemical Geology, 2005, 217 (3-4) 239-255. Glendhill, D.K.; Morse, J.W. Dissolution kinetics of calcite in Na

  10. Alemtuzumab as rescue therapy in a cohort of 16 aggressive multiple sclerosis patients previously treated by Mitoxantrone: an observational study.

    Le Page, Emmanuelle; Deburghgraeve, Véronique; Lester, Marie-Antoinette; Cardiet, Isabelle; Leray, Emmanuelle; Edan, Gilles


    Our study aimed to describe safety and neurological impact of alemtuzumab as last-line rescue therapy in aggressive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, previously treated by Mitoxantrone (MITOX). Between June 2004 and October 2013, 13 patients received alemtuzumab at 20 mg/day and 3 at 12 mg/day for 5 days. EDSS, relapses, secondary progression were prospectively assessed 12 and 6 months before treatment, at baseline and every 3 months. Mean follow-up was 6.2 years [1-10]. Mean age at alemtuzumab start was 40 years [26-49] for 8 Secondary Progressive (SP) and 30 years [26-35] for 8 Relapsing-Remitting (RR) patients. MS duration was 13.7 (± 3) and 8.3 (± 4) years, respectively. During the 12 months before alemtuzumab, annual relapse rate was 0.75 and 3.14, respectively and the 16 patients accumulated 2-30 new gadolinium enhancing lesions. 4 patients (suboptimal responders) received alemtuzumab during MITOX and 12 patients 1-7.8 years after MITOX. Out of 8 SPMS, 2 were disease free up to last visit (4.7 and 8 years), 5 improved or stabilized but only transiently and 1 worsened. Out of 8 RRMS, 1 remained stable up to last visit (8.7 years) despite 1 relapse and active MRI at 18 months and 7 improved (1-4 point EDSS): 4 remained disease free up to last visit (12, 24, 38 months and 7 years), 2 were successfully retreated at 25 and 33 months and 1 worsened progressively 24 months after alemtuzumab. 2 patients developed Grave's disease and 1 hypothyroidism. Alemtuzumab controls aggressive RRMS despite previous use of MITOX.

  11. A phase I study of imatinib mesylate in combination with chlorambucil in previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.

    Hebb, Jonathan; Assouline, Sarit; Rousseau, Caroline; Desjardins, Pierre; Caplan, Stephen; Egorin, Merrill J; Amrein, Lilian; Aloyz, Raquel; Panasci, Lawrence


    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib, has the potential to indirectly inhibit DNA repair. This mechanism of action has been shown to mediate sensitization to chlorambucil in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To evaluate this effect in vivo, we performed a phase I study of chlorambucil combined with imatinib in relapsed CLL patients. The three dose levels studied included imatinib at 300, 400, or 600 mg/day. Imatinib was given on days 1-10, and chlorambucil (8 mg/m(2) daily) was given on days 3-7 of a 28-day cycle (up to 6 cycles). Eleven patients participated in this study. Low-grade gastrointestinal toxicities were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Forty-five percent of patients responded (two unconfirmed CRs and three PRs). Two responding patients were fludarabine refractory. The in vitro IC(50) of chlorambucil alone or in the presence of 5 μM imatinib in CLL lymphocytes correlated with the decrease in lymphocyte counts on day 15. Imatinib plasma concentrations achieved in patients were in the range of those effective in in vitro sensitization studies. The combination of chlorambucil and imatinib in patients with previously treated CLL was well tolerated and showed evidence of clinical efficacy. Based on our results, we recommend the 400 mg daily dose of imatinib on days 1-10 with 8 mg/m(3) chlorambucil on days 3-7 every 28 days as the phase II dose. This represents the first clinical trial examining the potential synergy between a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a conventional alkylating agent for the treatment of CLL.

  12. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Marthoenis Marthoenis


    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  13. Phase III randomized study of bendamustine compared with chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Knauf, Wolfgang U; Lissichkov, Toshko; Aldaoud, Ali; Liberati, Anna; Loscertales, Javier; Herbrecht, Raoul; Juliusson, Gunnar; Postner, Gerhard; Gercheva, Liana; Goranov, Stefan; Becker, Martin; Fricke, Hans-Joerg; Huguet, Francoise; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Klein, Peter; Tremmel, Lothar; Merkle, Karlheinz; Montillo, Marco


    This randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of bendamustine and chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with advanced (Binet stage B or C) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Patients (chlorambucil 0.8 mg/kg (Broca's normal weight) orally on days 1 and 15; treatment cycles were repeated every 4 weeks for a maximum of six cycles. The response to treatment was assessed according to National Cancer Institute Working Group criteria, and the final determination of response was made by a blinded independent review committee. A total of 319 patients were randomly assigned (162 bendamustine, 157 chlorambucil). Complete or partial responses were achieved in 110 (68%) of 162 bendamustine-treated and 48 (31%) of 157 chlorambucil-treated patients (P chlorambucil (31% v 2%). Median progression-free survival was 21.6 months with bendamustine and 8.3 months with chlorambucil (P chlorambucil (median, 21.8 v 8.0 months). Hematologic National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria grade 3 to 4 adverse events were more common with bendamustine than with chlorambucil (occurring in 40% v 19% of patients). Severe infections (grade 3 to 4) occurred in 8% of bendamustine-treated patients and 3% of chlorambucil-treated patients. Bendamustine offers significantly greater efficacy than chlorambucil, and a manageable toxicity profile, when used as first-line therapy in patients with advanced CLL.

  14. Integrating Sonography Training Into Undergraduate Medical Education: A Study of the Previous Exposure of One Institution's Incoming Residents.

    Day, James; Davis, Joshua; Riesenberg, Lee Ann; Heil, Daniel; Berg, Katherine; Davis, Robyn; Berg, Dale


    Sonography is a crucial and versatile tool within the field of medicine. Recent advancements in technology have led to increased use of point-of-care sonography. We designed a survey to assess prior point-of-care sonography training among incoming interns at an academic teaching hospital. In 2012 and 2013, we surveyed incoming interns (n = 154 and 145, respectively) regarding point-of-care sonography training received during medical school. The survey questions included formal didactic sessions, bedside instruction, and the use of simulation technology. One-fourth (26.3% in 2012 and 23.4% in 2013) of responding interns reported having never done an ultrasound scan at the bedside. In 2012 and 2013, 55.0% and 55.6% of respondents reported never having done an ultrasound scan in a simulation center, respectively. Interns agreed that sonography education should be provided during medical school. On average, interns disagreed with the statement that sonography should be taught in residency only. There was no significant difference in the sex or general previous experience with sonography across both intern classes. Point-of-care sonography is inconsistently taught in medical school. The interns in our study also thought that sonography education should begin in medical school, and sonography should be taught by using simulation and at the bedside. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Harold David McIntyre


    Full Text Available Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n=13 versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n=15. Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD were: Age  33±4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI 30.0±9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range}, increased by 60 (0–540 mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580 mins/week in the UC group (P=0.234. Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period.

  16. Risk factors and therapeutic coverage at 6 years in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the CASTUO study

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Lozano Mera, Luis; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Giménez Sáez, Fernando; Garcipérez de Vargas, Francisco Javier; Castellano Vázquez, José María; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel


    Objectives To determine the degree of risk factor control, the clinical symptoms and the therapeutic management of patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction. Methods Cross-sectional study at 6 years of a first episode of acute myocardial infarction between 2000 and 2009, admitted at a hospital in the region of Extremadura (Spain). Of 2177 patients with this diagnosis, 1365 remained alive and therefore were included in the study. Results We conducted a person-to-person survey in 666 (48.8%) individuals and telephone survey in 437 (31.9%) individuals. The former are analysed. 130 were female (19.5%). The mean age was 67.4 years and the median time since the event was 5.8 (IQR 3.6–8.2) years. Active smokers made up 13.8%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was ≥70 mg/dL: 82%, blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg (≥140/85 in diabetics): 49.8%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL: 26%, heart rate 50–59 bpm: 60.7%, and obesity: 45.9%. Patients reported presenting angina comprised 22.4% and those with dyspnoea, 29.3%. Drug coverage was: 88.0% antiplatelet drugs, 86.5% statins, 75.6% β-blockers and 65.8% blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. Patients receiving all four types of drugs made up 41.9%, with only 3.0% having jointly controlled cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate and glycaemia. Conclusions LDL cholesterol, heart rate and blood pressure were risk factors with less control. More than 1/5 of patients had angina and more than 1/4, dyspnoea. Risk factor control and the clinical condition were far from optimal, as was drug coverage, although to a lesser degree. PMID:27127637

  17. Critical mass studies of plutonium solutions

    Kruesi, F.E.; Erkman, J.O.; Lanning, D.D.


    The chain reacting conditions for plutonium nitrate in water solution have been examined experimentally for a variety of sizes of spheres and cylinders. The effects on the critical mass of the displacement of hydrogen and the addition of poisons to the fuel were measured in water tamped and bare reactors. In this report the data obtained in the investigation is presented graphically and in tables. Some preliminary analysis has been made yielding the results: (i) the absorption cross-section of Pu{sup 240} is 925 {plus_minus} 200 barns and (ii) the minimum critical mass of Pu{sup 239} in water is 510 grams at concentration of about 33 grams per liter.

  18. Radiolysis study of genistein in methanolic solution

    Jung, Hee Jin; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee


    The aim of the present work was to identify products obtained from genistein by ionizing radiation and to enhance the antioxidant properties of genistein through radiation-induced transformation. Genistein dissolved in methanol was irradiated γ-rays at a dose of 100 kGy. NMR and (HR) EI-MS spectroscopy were used to identify radiolysis products (GM1 and GM2). We proposed that rad CH 2OH may be implicated in the formation GM1 and GM2 during radiolysis of genistein in methanol. The genistein in methanol solution showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity after γ-irradiation. Then, the antioxidant activities of radiolysis products were evaluated and compared to those of genistein.

  19. Study of Demodex mites: Challenges and Solutions.

    Lacey, N; Russell-Hallinan, A; Powell, F C


    Demodex mites are the largest and most complex organisms of the skin microflora. How they interact with the innate and adaptive immune systems is unknown. Their potential to have a pathogenic role in the causation of human skin disorders causes continued speculation. With growing interest in the microflora of human skin and its relevance to cutaneous health, the role of Demodex mites needs to be better understood. The main challenges facing scientists investigating the role of these organisms and possible solutions are reviewed under the following headings: (1) Determining the mite population in skin, (2) Transporting, extracting and imaging live mites, (3) Maintaining mites viable ex vivo and (4) Establishing methods to determine the immune response to Demodex mites and their internal contents.

  20. A Review of Solution Chemistry Studies: Insights into Students' Conceptions

    Calyk, Muammer; Ayas, Alipa; Ebenezer, Jazlin V.


    This study has reviewed the last two decades of student conception research in solution chemistry pertaining to aims, methods of exploring students' conception, general knowledge claims, students' conceptions and difficulties, and conceptual change studies. The aims of solution chemistry studies have been to assess students' understanding level of…

  1. Persistence of cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous preeclampsia: a long-term follow-up study.

    Aykas, Fatma; Solak, Yalcin; Erden, Abdulsamet; Bulut, Kadir; Dogan, Selcuk; Sarli, Bahadr; Acmaz, Gokhan; Afsar, Baris; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Covic, Adrian; Sharma, Shailendra; Johnson, Richard J; Kanbay, Mehmet


    Preeclampsia is a cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factor, and lifestyle modifications are recommended. It was suggested that preeclampsia may increase the prevalence of various CV disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, hypertension, insulin resistance, microalbuminuria, and endothelial dysfunction, among others. Here, we investigate the role of serum uric acid in preeclampsia in the development of CV complications. This was an observational case-control study that compared women with history of preeclampsia (n = 25) with age-matched controls with uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 20) who were followed for at least 5 years. Measurements included clinical and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, ultrasound-measured flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), microalbuminuria, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and serum uric acid, as well as clinical and demographic features. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were compared in women with and without previous preeclampsia. At the time of index gestation, preeclamptic women had higher serum uric acid values (4.36 ± 0.61 vs 2.27 ± 0.38 mg/dL, P preeclampsia were more likely to have hypertension and had higher serum uric acid levels, higher microalbuminuria and CIMT levels, and lower FMD values than did the patients who did not have preeclampsia. The 2 groups were similar with regard to various ambulatory blood pressure parameters. Univariate associates of FMD were history of preeclampsia and the current hypertension status. Microalbuminuria correlated with gestational uric acid levels (coefficient of correlation of 0.40, P = 0.01 for FMD and coefficient of correlation of 0.37, P = 0.01 for CIMT, respectively). Preeclampsia might be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular risk factors at least 5 years after index pregnancy. Serum uric acid and microalbuminuria may be mechanistic mediators of heightened risk, along with impaired endothelial function in preeclampsia.

  2. Sitagliptin added to previously taken antidiabetic agents on insulin resistance and lipid profile: a 2-year study evaluation.

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Ragonesi, Pietro Dario; Fogari, Elena; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Bianchi, Lucio; Bonaventura, Aldo; Romano, Davide; Maffioli, Pamela


    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the positive effects of sitagliptin on glycemic control and insulin resistance were maintained also after 2 years of therapy and whether sitagliptin could be effective also in improving lipid profile. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 205 patients with type 2 diabetes in therapy with different antidiabetic drugs were randomized to add sitagliptin 100 mg once a day or placebo to their current therapy. We evaluated at the baseline and after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months the following parameters: body mass index, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (Tg). Sitagliptin, added to previously taken antidiabetic agents, proved to be effective in improving glycemic profile, reducing HbA1c by -17.5%, FPG by -12.7%, PPG by -20.5%. Regarding insulin resistance, sitagliptin decreased FPI by -8.3% and HOMA-IR by -20.0%, confirming that what have been already reported in short-term studies can be applied also after 2 years of treatment. Sitagliptin also reduced body weight by -4.3%. Our study also showed the positive effect of sitagliptin on lipid profile; in particular, sitagliptin decreased TC by -13.3%, LDL-C by -20.4%, and Tg by -32.3%, and also increased HDL-C by + 13.6%. Sitagliptin proved to be effective on glycemic profile and insulin resistance even after 2 years of therapy and to be effective in improving body weight and lipid profile. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  3. Central Arctic atmospheric summer conditions during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS: contrasting to previous expeditions

    M. Tjernström


    Full Text Available Understanding the rapidly changing climate in the Arctic is limited by a lack of understanding of underlying strong feedback mechanisms that are specific to the Arctic. Progress in this field can only be obtained by process-level observations; this is the motivation for intensive ice-breaker-based campaigns such as that described in this paper: the Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS. However, detailed field observations also have to be put in the context of the larger-scale meteorology, and short field campaigns have to be analysed within the context of the underlying climate state and temporal anomalies from this.

    To aid in the analysis of other parameters or processes observed during this campaign, this paper provides an overview of the synoptic-scale meteorology and its climatic anomaly during the ASCOS field deployment. It also provides a statistical analysis of key features during the campaign, such as some key meteorological variables, the vertical structure of the lower troposphere and clouds, and energy fluxes at the surface. In order to assess the representativity of the ASCOS results, we also compare these features to similar observations obtained during three earlier summer experiments in the Arctic Ocean, the AOE-96, SHEBA and AOE-2001 expeditions.

    We find that these expeditions share many key features of the summertime lower troposphere. Taking ASCOS and the previous expeditions together, a common picture emerges with a large amount of low-level cloud in a well-mixed shallow boundary layer, capped by a weak to moderately strong inversion where moisture, and sometimes also cloud top, penetrate into the lower parts of the inversion. Much of the boundary-layer mixing is due to cloud-top cooling and subsequent buoyant overturning of the cloud. The cloud layer may, or may not, be connected with surface processes depending on the depths of the cloud and surface-based boundary layers and on the relative strengths of

  4. Discussion on further studies to measure and evaluate fitness and motor performance for preschool children; summary and previous studies in Japan and future consideratin

    Murase, Tomohiko; Demura, Shinichi


    This article discusses and summarizes previous studies dealing with fitness and motor performance in preschool children from the viewpoint of measurement and evaluation, and determines topics for further studies. The studies reviewed in this article were mainly published in the “Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences” (edited by the Japan Society of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences), and the “Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine” (edite...

  5. Randomized, multicenter, phase 2 study (EVOLUTION) of combinations of bortezomib, dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, and lenalidomide in previously untreated multiple myeloma.

    Kumar, Shaji; Flinn, Ian; Richardson, Paul G; Hari, Parameswaran; Callander, Natalie; Noga, Stephen J; Stewart, A Keith; Turturro, Francesco; Rifkin, Robert; Wolf, Jeffrey; Estevam, Jose; Mulligan, George; Shi, Hongliang; Webb, Iain J; Rajkumar, S Vincent


    Combinations of bortezomib (V) and dexamethasone (D) with either lenalidomide (R) or cyclophosphamide (C) have shown significant efficacy. This randomized phase 2 trial evaluated VDC, VDR, and VDCR in previously untreated multiple myeloma (MM). Patients received V 1.3 mg/m2 (days 1, 4, 8, 11) and D 40 mg (days 1, 8, 15), with either C 500 mg/m2 (days 1, 8) and R 15 mg (days 1-14; VDCR), R 25 mg (days 1-14; VDR), C 500 mg/m2 (days 1, 8; VDC) or C 500 mg/m2 (days 1, 8, 15; VDC-mod) in 3-week cycles (maximum 8 cycles), followed by maintenance with V 1.3 mg/m2 (days 1, 8, 15, 22) for four 6-week cycles (all arms)≥very good partial response was seen in 58%, 51%, 41%, and 53% (complete response rate of 25%, 24%, 22%, and 47%) of patients (VDCR, VDR, VCD, and VCD-mod, respectively); the corresponding 1-year progression-free survival was 86%, 83%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. Common adverse events included hematologic toxicities, peripheral neuropathy, fatigue, and gastrointestinal disturbances. All regimens were highly active and well tolerated in previously untreated MM, and, based on this trial, VDR and VCD-mod are preferred for clinical practice and further comparative testing. No substantial advantage was noted with VDCR over the 3-drug combinations. This trial is registered at (NCT00507442).



    @@ A number of important methodological developments in high resolution NMR spectroscopy have led to significant increases in the size limitations that previously impeded solution structural studies of macromolecules. Specifically, isotope labeling and TROSY triple resonance spectroscopy has resulted in substantial sensitivity and resolution gain for applications to large molecular weight proteins.

  7. Patient acceptance and clinical impact of Bravo monitoring in patients with previous failed catheter-based studies.

    Sweis, R; Fox, M; Anggiansah, R; Anggiansah, A; Basavaraju, K; Canavan, R; Wong, T


    Standard pH monitoring is performed over 24 h with a naso-oesophageal catheter (C-pH). Limitations include naso-pharyngeal discomfort, nausea and social embarrassment resulting in reduced reflux-provoking activities. Recently a catheter-free pH-monitoring technique has become available. The tolerability and diagnostic yield of this system in patients who failed standard monitoring remain unknown. To examine the tolerability and diagnostic outcome of catheter-free pH-monitoring technique in patients who failed standard monitoring. Patients referred for C-pH and catheter-free pH monitoring completed a tolerability questionnaire. Acid exposure in the distal oesophagus and symptom index (SI) were reviewed. Over 4 years, 883/1751 (50%) of patients with typical reflux symptoms referred for C-pH were diagnosed with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) based on a pathological percentage time acid exposure (%time pH patients failed C-pH and, of these, 129 successfully completed 2-day catheter-free pH monitoring. Ninety-eight (76%) of these patients had a pathological percentage pH patients (P patients who had previously failed C-pH; catheter-free pH monitoring assists the definitive diagnosis of GERD in this group.

  8. A Study of the Relationship between Previous Exposure to Education and Practice-Teaching Performance at the University of Ife.

    Olatunji, S. A.


    A study to identify relationships between the amount of exposure students have to education (as a discipline) and their student teaching performances is reported. Students attending the University of Ife from 1973-1976 were studied. A positive relationship was discovered, but other factors need to be researched further. (MLW)

  9. Marine fouling community in the Eastern harbour of Alexandria, Egypt compared with four decades of previous studies



    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to compare the fouling communities between the years 1960 and 1999 in the Eastern harbour of Alexandria, Egypt and to study the main factors that may be controlling these communities. This comparison is based on monthly durations of panel immersion. By using roughened white polystyrene test panels (12.5x12.5 cm, monthly samples of marine fouling were collected from the harbour from October 1998 through September 1999. It is clear that a remarkable variation in number and diversity of fouling communities throughout the last four decades is evident. The minimum diversities were recorded during the studies of 1960 and 1970 (19 and 20 species respectively, while the maximum diversity (35 species was achieved during the 1991 study. Moreover, a small shift among the four dominant groups (Polychaeta, Cirripedia, Bryozoa and Amphipoda was noted during the four decades of the studies. The present comparison indicated that many factors may contribute to this variation, of which nutrient enrichment is the most important and the nature of the applied test panel is lees so.

  10. Study on Regeneration of MDEA Solution Using Membrane Distillation

    Cai Pei; Wang Shuli; Zhao Shuhua


    Treating acid gases contained in natural gas by MDEA is used widely.But the efficiency of regeneration of the MDEA solution limited the development of this technology.An optimal temperature is necessary for regeneration of the MDEA solution using membrane distillation.The experiment results showed that the regeneration rate of MDEA rose with an increasing temperature.But the rate increased slowly after the regeneration temperature arrived at a certain value.This study can confirm that regeneration of the MDEA solution using membrane distillation is feasible.This technology provides more advantages as compared to conventional regeneration process.

  11. Time Domain Reflectometric and spectroscopic studies on toluene + butyronitrile solution

    Karthick, N. K.; Arivazhagan, G.; Kumbharkhane, A. C.; Joshi, Y. S.; Kannan, P. P.


    The dielectric parameters of toluene + butyronitrile solution have been obtained by time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 30 GHz at 298 K. Spectroscopic (FTIR and 13C NMR) studies have also been carried out on the solution and the results of the studies show that neat butyronitrile is self-associative through C-H⋯N contacts and weak intermolecular forces of C-H⋯N and C-H⋯π type are operative in the solution. The obtained dielectric parameters such as Kirkwood correlation factor g, relaxation time τ etc. have been analyzed in view of these weak intermolecular forces. The weak non-covalent interactions between heteromolecules appear to have no influence on the ideality of ɛm vs X2 curve of the solution. Heteromolecular entities with weak intermolecular forces experience larger hindrance leading to longer relaxation time τ.

  12. A cross-sectional study of personality traits in women previously treated or untreated for alcohol use disorders

    Sundh Valter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationship between treatment-seeking for alcohol problems and personality traits could give useful insight in factors promoting or hindering treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUD. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between treatment-seeking for AUD, personality traits, and psychiatric co-morbidity in women. The study was based on pooled cross-sectional data from three population based samples and one clinical sample (n = 1,339. Comparisons were made between treated and untreated women with AUD, and between those with resolved and unresolved AUD. Results A stepwise logistic regression model showed that treatment-seeking for AUD was not associated with personality traits. Among women with lifetime AUD (n = 217, those who had been treated (n = 42 had significantly higher scores than untreated women (n = 175 on three personality traits of the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP; somatic anxiety, muscular tension, and guilt. Women with resolved AUD, who had received treatment (n = 23 had significantly higher scores on scales measuring somatic anxiety, psychic anxiety, muscular tension, irritability, and guilt than untreated women with resolved AUD. The latter group resembled women without AUD on most personality traits. There were no differences in occurrence of lifetime psychiatric disorders between the treated and the untreated women, whereas treated women with current AUD had increased risk of lifetime anxiety (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.1–8.7. Conclusion Treatment-seeking was not associated with personality traits in this study. Still, it can be concluded that women with resolved AUD who had received treatment had high scores on the KSP-scales measuring psychic and somatic anxiety, tension, irritability, and feelings of guilt. This suggests that personality assessment might be a useful tool in tailoring individual treatment programs for women with AUD. Future studies need to

  13. Polarimetry as a tool for the study of solutions of chiral solutes.

    Orlova, Anna V; Andrade, Renato R; da Silva, Clarissa O; Zinin, Alexander I; Kononov, Leonid O


    Optical rotation of aqueous solutions of D-levoglucosan was studied experimentally in the 0.03-4.0 mol L(-1) concentration range and a nonlinear concentration dependence of specific optical rotation (SR) was revealed. Discontinuities observed in the concentration plot of SR (at 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mol L(-1)) are well correlated with those found by static and dynamic light scattering and identify concentration ranges in which different solution domains (supramers) may exist. The average SR experimental value for a D-levoglucosan aqueous solution ([α]D(28) -58.5±8.7 deg dm(-1) cm(-3) g(-1)) was found to be in good agreement with values obtained by theoretical calculation (TD-DFT/GIAO) of SR for 15 different conformers revealed by conformational sampling at the PCM/B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level, which were shown to be strongly affected by the solvation microenvironment (0, 1, 2, and 3 explicit solvent molecules considered) due to local geometrical changes induced in the solute molecule. This exceptionally high sensitivity of SR makes polarimetry a unique method capable of sensing changes in the structure of supramers detected in this study. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Ultrafast infrared studies of complex ligand rearrangements in solution

    Payne, Christine K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The complete description of a chemical reaction in solution depends upon an understanding of the reactive molecule as well as its interactions with the surrounding solvent molecules. Using ultrafast infrared spectroscopy it is possible to observe both the solute-solvent interactions and the rearrangement steps which determine the overall course of a chemical reaction. The topics addressed in these studies focus on reaction mechanisms which require the rearrangement of complex ligands and the spectroscopic techniques necessary for the determination of these mechanisms. Ligand rearrangement is studied by considering two different reaction mechanisms for which the rearrangement of a complex ligand constitutes the most important step of the reaction. The first system concerns the rearrangement of a cyclopentadienyl ring as the response of an organometallic complex to a loss of electron density. This mechanism, commonly referred to as ''ring slip'', is frequently cited to explain reaction mechanisms. However, the ring slipped intermediate is too short-lived to be observed using conventional methods. Using a combination of ultrafast infrared spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations it has been shown that the intermediate exists, but does not form an eighteen-electron intermediate as suggested by traditional molecular orbital models. The second example examines the initial steps of alkyne polymerization. Group 6 (Cr, Mo, W) pentacarbonyl species are generated photolytically and used to catalyze the polymerization of unsaturated hydrocarbons through a series of coordination and rearrangement steps. Observing this reaction on the femto- to millisecond timescale indicates that the initial coordination of an alkyne solvent molecule to the metal center results in a stable intermediate that does not rearrange to form the polymer precursor. This suggests that polymerization requires the dissociation of additional carbonyl ligands before

  15. Ultrafast infrared studies of complex ligand rearrangements in solution

    Payne, Christine K.


    The complete description of a chemical reaction in solution depends upon an understanding of the reactive molecule as well as its interactions with the surrounding solvent molecules. Using ultrafast infrared spectroscopy it is possible to observe both the solute-solvent interactions and the rearrangement steps which determine the overall course of a chemical reaction. The topics addressed in these studies focus on reaction mechanisms which require the rearrangement of complex ligands and the spectroscopic techniques necessary for the determination of these mechanisms. Ligand rearrangement is studied by considering two different reaction mechanisms for which the rearrangement of a complex ligand constitutes the most important step of the reaction. The first system concerns the rearrangement of a cyclopentadienyl ring as the response of an organometallic complex to a loss of electron density. This mechanism, commonly referred to as ''ring slip'', is frequently cited to explain reaction mechanisms. However, the ring slipped intermediate is too short-lived to be observed using conventional methods. Using a combination of ultrafast infrared spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations it has been shown that the intermediate exists, but does not form an eighteen-electron intermediate as suggested by traditional molecular orbital models. The second example examines the initial steps of alkyne polymerization. Group 6 (Cr, Mo, W) pentacarbonyl species are generated photolytically and used to catalyze the polymerization of unsaturated hydrocarbons through a series of coordination and rearrangement steps. Observing this reaction on the femto- to millisecond timescale indicates that the initial coordination of an alkyne solvent molecule to the metal center results in a stable intermediate that does not rearrange to form the polymer precursor. This suggests that polymerization requires the dissociation of additional carbonyl ligands before

  16. Chemical Processes with Supercritical CO2 in Engineered Geologic Systems: Significance, Previous Study, and Path Forward (Invited)

    Xu, T.; Pruess, K.


    Chemical reactions with dissolved CO2 in the aqueous phase have long been considered in fundamental geosciences and practical applications. Recently, studies on geologic carbon sequestration and enhanced geothermal systems using CO2 as heat transmission fluid have brought new interests in chemical reaction processes directly with supercritical CO2 (scCO2, or gas phase). In the vicinity of a CO2 injection well, the aqueous fluid initially present in a geological formation would be quickly removed by dissolution (evaporation) into the flowing gas stream and by immiscible displacement by the scCO2, creating a gas phase dominant zone. In this zone, the water evaporation could cause formation dry-out and precipitation of salt near the injection well, reducing formation porosity, permeability, and injectivity. The scCO2 may directly attack well construction materials such as cement. Over time, the gas phase will tend to migrate upwards towards the caprock because the density of the scCO2 is lower than that of the aqueous phase. In the upper portions of the reservoir, the scCO2 will directly react with caprock minerals and alter the hydrological properties and mechanical strength. On the other hand, the scCO2 phase will maintain the dissolution into the aqueous phase, lowering pH, inducing mineral dissolution, complexing with dissolved cations, increasing CO2 solubility, increasing the density of the aqueous phase, and promoting “convective mixing”. Chemical processes are quite different in the scCO2 dominant geologic systems. The absence of an aqueous phase poses unique questions, as little is presently known about the chemistry of non-aqueous systems. Additional issues arise from the reactivity of water that is dissolved in the ScCO2 phase. In this presentation, the author will discuss the importance, state of the studies performed, and future research directions.

  17. Warfarin dosing after bariatric surgery: a retrospective study of 10 patients previously stable on chronic warfarin therapy.

    Schullo-Feulner, A M; Stoecker, Z; Brown, G A; Schneider, J; Jones, T A; Burnett, B


    Many changes associated with bariatric surgery have the potential to affect warfarin dosing; yet current literature includes little data describing this phenomenon. Investigating this relationship may allow for determination of post-bariatric surgery warfarin dosing using stable pre-operative dosing levels. A retrospective chart review was completed for 10 patients stabilized on chronic warfarin therapy who underwent bariatric surgery. Data collection consisted of the following: warfarin requirement in mg/week, time in target range (TTR), creatinine, liver function, diarrhoea, medication changes, diet, and signs of bleeding and/or thrombosis. Three study patients underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding procedures and seven patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The average (standard deviation) weekly warfarin dose required in the immediate post-operative interval was 64% (25%) of baseline dosing, corresponding to a TTR of 48%. At 6 months, patients required 85% (19%) of baseline weekly dosing, with TTR of 53.4%. At 1 year, dosing was 90% (16%) of baseline with TTR of 63.5%. Patients underwent medication changes as well as transient bouts of diarrhoea. Two patients suffered unspecified haemorrhages of the gastrointestinal tract (international normalized ratio [INR] = 2.3 and 9.8). This patient set demonstrated an initial drop in warfarin requirement, followed by escalating dosing trends that became more predictable as patients were farther out from procedure.


    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour


    Environmental remediation efforts that are underway at hundreds of contaminated sites in the United States will not be able to remediate large portions of those sites to conditions that would permit unrestricted access. Rather, large volumes of waste materials, contaminated soils and cleanup residuals will have to be isolated either in place or in new, often on-site, disposal cells with long term monitoring, maintenance and institutional control needs. The challenge continues to be to provide engineering systems and controls that can ensure the protection of public health and the environment over very long time horizons (hundreds to perhaps thousands of years) with minimal intervention. Effective long term management of legacy hazardous and nuclear waste requires an integrated approach that addresses both the engineered containment and control system itself and the institutional controls and other responsibilities that are needed. Decisions concerning system design, monitoring and maintenance, and the institutional controls that will be employed are best done through a "risk-nformed, performance-based" approach. Such an approach should incorporate an analysis of potential "failure" modes and consequences for all important system features, together with lessons learned from experience with systems already in place. The authors will present the preliminary results of a case study approach that included several sites where contamination isolation systems including institutional controls have been implemented. The results are being used together with failure trees and logic diagrams that have been developed for both the engineered barriers and the institutional controls. The use of these analytical tools to evaluate the potential for different levels of failure and associated consequences will be discussed. Of special interest is the robustness of different approaches to providing long-term protection through redundancy and defense in depth.

  19. Variations of the accessory nerve: anatomical study including previously undocumented findings-expanding our misunderstanding of this nerve.

    Tubbs, R Shane; Ajayi, Olaide O; Fries, Fabian N; Spinner, Robert J; Oskouian, Rod J


    The anatomy of the accessory nerve has been well described but continued new clinical and anatomical findings exemplify our lack of a full understanding of the course of this nerve. Therefore, this study aimed to expand on our knowledge of the course of the 11th cranial nerve via anatomical dissections. Fifty-six cadavers (112 sides) underwent dissection of the accessory nerve from its cranial and spinal origins to its emergence into the posterior cervical triangle. Immunohistochemistry was performed when appropriate. Our findings included two cases (1.8%) where the nerve was duplicated, one intracranially and one extracranially. One accessory nerve (0.9%) was found to enter its own dural compartment within the jugular foramen. The majority of sides (80%) were found to have a cranial root of the accessory nerve. Thirty-one sides (28%) had connections to cervical dorsal roots medially and three sides (2.7%) laterally. Medial connections were most common with the C1 nerve. Medial components of these dorsal root connections were all sensory in nature. However, lateral components were motor on two sides (1.8%). Nerves traveled anterior to the internal jugular vein on 88% of sides. One (0.9%) left side nerve joined an interneural anastomosis between the dorsal rootlets. Macroganglia were found on the spinal part of the intracranial nerve on 13% of sides. The lesser occipital nerve arose directly from the accessory nerve on two sides (1.8%) and communicated with the accessory nerve on 5.4% of sides. One side (0.9%) was found to communicate with the facial nerve with both nerves innervating the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Additional anatomical knowledge of the variants of the accessory nerve may benefit patient care when this nerve is pathologically involved.


    Maria de Hoyos Guajardo, Ph.D. Candidate, M.Sc., B.Eng.


    Full Text Available The theory that is presented below aims to conceptualise how a group of undergraduate students tackle non-routine mathematical problems during a problem-solving course. The aim of the course is to allow students to experience mathematics as a creative process and to reflect on their own experience. During the course, students are required to produce a written ‘rubric’ of their work, i.e., to document their thoughts as they occur as well as their emotionsduring the process. These ‘rubrics’ were used as the main source of data.Students’ problem-solving processes can be explained as a three-stage process that has been called ‘solutioning’. This process is presented in the six sections below. The first three refer to a common area of concern that can be called‘generating knowledge’. In this way, generating knowledge also includes issues related to ‘key ideas’ and ‘gaining understanding’. The third and the fourth sections refer to ‘generating’ and ‘validating a solution’, respectively. Finally, once solutions are generated and validated, students usually try to improve them further before presenting them as final results. Thus, the last section deals with‘improving a solution’. Although not all students go through all of the stages, it may be said that ‘solutioning’ considers students’ main concerns as they tackle non-routine mathematical problems.

  1. Crises Solutions for SMEs Case Study: ERP Cloud vs Classic Solution

    Gabriela GHEORGHE


    Full Text Available Information Technology has responded to the crisis by change and innovation. The phenomenon of cloud computing represents a huge chance for a country like Romania, as a technologically low economy has, from the start, a handicap. Cloud technologies redefine concepts such as saving time and money, flexibility, scalability and global access, transforming them into business advantages. This case study wishes to argument the software provider’s decision to change his strategy, choosing an “all inclusive” solution.

  2. Theoretical Study on Sulfur Dioxide Absorption with Citrate Solution

    薛娟琴; 洪涛; 王召启; 李林波


    The citrate absorption of SO2 is currently one of the most successful and economic methods to harness sulfur dioxide pollution.In order to theoretically elucidate the mechanism of SO2 absorption by citrate solution and provide theoretical instruction for experiments and industrial process, the theory of multi-buffer solution, combined with computer numerical calculation methods, was applied to study the distribution parameters of the components of the citrate solution in the process of SO2 absorption and the following results were obtained: (1) HCi2- and H2Ci- in the citrate solution played the dominant role in the absorption and desorption processes; (2) Through the calculation for the buffer capacity of citrate solution, it was found that the pH of the absorption and desorption solution should be in the range of 2~8, while at pH=4.5 the buffer capacity reached its maximum. Some valuable parameters were obtained, which are instructive to the ensuing experiments and industrial design.

  3. NMR Study of Hydroxyl-Substituted Macrocyclic Hexaamine in Solution

    Liang; Feng; Wu; Chengtai; 等


    The NMR methods (including 1H NMR, variable temperature method and the 2D COSY technique) were employed to study the conformation of 3,13-dihydroxyl-1,5,8,11,15,18-hexaazacyclicamine hexahydrobromide in aqueous solution. It was found that the ring is flexible.

  4. NMR Study of Hydroxyl-Substituted Macrocyclic Hexaamine in Solution

    Liang Feng; Wu Xiao-jun; Wu Cheng-tai


    The NMR methods (including 1H NMR, vari-able temperature method and the 2D COSY technique) were employed to study the conformation of 3,13-dihydroxyl-1,5,8,11,15,18-hexaazacyclicamine hexahydrobromide in aqueous solution. It was found that the ring is flexible.

  5. Optical manipulation and study of single gold nanoparticles in solution

    Ruijgrok, Paul Victor


    We combine optical trapping and far-field optical detection techniques in a novel approach to study single metal nanoparticles in solution. We demonstrate the first measurements of the acoustic vibrations of single gold nanoparticles optically trapped in water, and find evidence for intrinsic dampi

  6. A Solution to Study Different Homing Methods Using a PLC

    Mihai Rață


    Full Text Available In a positioning control with stepper motors it is very important to know zero location. For this purpose it is necessary a homing command. This paper presents a solution that allows the study of different methods implemented to find a home position (also called: zero point and to observe the differences between these methods.

  7. Study on the Surface Property of Surfactant Ionic Liquids Solutions

    Yan An GAO; Zhong Ni WANG; Jin ZHANG; Wan Guo HOU; Gan Zuo LI; Bu Xing HAN; Feng Feng Lü; Gao Yong ZHANG


    The surfactant TX-100 can be dissolved in ionic liquid bmimPF6 and decrease the surface tension of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (bmimPF6) solutions. Here,we confirmed that in this new system, the pure solvents need rearrangement at the air-water interface at the initial stage. The dynamic surface tension (DST) study shows that at the initial adsorption stage, the adsorption model of surfactant accords with the diffusion-controlled adsorption mechanism, and the dilute ionic liquids solutions is further close to the diffusion-controlled adsorption.

  8. Thermodynamic and statistical studies of supersaturated ternary solutions.

    Izmailov, A F; Myerson, A S


    The influence of chromium ions Cr3+ on properties of supersaturated aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 has been studied employing containerless electrodynamic levitation of single microdroplets of this solution with known concentration of Cr3+ ions. The water activity versus solute concentration was measured in three different sets of experiments corresponding to different initial concentrations of Cr3+ ions. Theoretical treatment of the experimental results obtained is developed employing the theory of supersaturated electrolyte solutions [Phys. Rev. E 52, 1325 (1995)]. This treatment has allowed the following two conclusions. First, spinodal concentration is a decreasing function of Cr3+ concentration. Second, solute clusters formed in the presence of Cr3+ ions demonstrate complex behavior with respect to binding water molecules: (a) at low and moderate supersaturations, they bind more water molecules than clusters formed in the absence of an impurity; and (b) at high supersaturations, they bind less water molecules than clusters formed in the absence of an impurity.

  9. Kinetic Uptake Studies of Powdered Materials in Solution

    Mohamed H. Mohamed


    Full Text Available Challenges exist for the study of time dependent sorption processes for heterogeneous systems, especially in the case of dispersed nanomaterials in solvents or solutions because they are not well suited to conventional batch kinetic experiments. In this study, a comparison of batch versus a one-pot setup in two variable configurations was evaluated for the study of uptake kinetics in heterogeneous (solid/solution systems: (i conventional batch method; (ii one-pot system with dispersed adsorbent in solution with a semi-permeable barrier (filter paper or dialysis tubing for in situ sampling; and (iii one-pot system with an adsorbent confined in a semi-permeable barrier (dialysis tubing or filter paper barrier with ex situ sampling. The sorbent systems evaluated herein include several cyclodextrin-based polyurethane materials with two types of phenolic dyes: p-nitrophenol and phenolphthalein. The one-pot kinetics method with in situ (Method ii or ex situ (Method iii sampling described herein offers significant advantages for the study of heterogeneous sorption kinetics of highly dispersed sorbent materials with particles sizes across a range of dimensions from the micron to nanometer scale. The method described herein will contribute positively to the development of advanced studies for heterogeneous sorption processes where an assessment of the relative uptake properties is required at different experimental conditions. The results of this study will be advantageous for the study of nanomaterials with significant benefits over batch kinetic studies for a wide range of heterogeneous sorption processes.

  10. Study of Asphaltene Solutions by Electrical Conductivity Measurements Conductivité électrique des solutions d'asphaltènes

    Behar E.


    Full Text Available The asphaltene interactions in model solutions were studied using a technique based on the electrical conductivity measurement. Interactions with n-heptane, resins, surfactants, water, phenol and NaCI were investigated. The conclusions drawn from this study confirmed previous opinions on aggregation mechanism of asphaltenes in solutions. They confirmed also the interpretation of asphaltene behaviour in terms of colloidal solution theories. Les interactions des asphaltènes avec leur environnement moléculaire dans des solutions modèles ont été étudiées par la mesure de la conductivité électrique de ces solutions. Les interactions avec le n-heptane, des résines, des tensioactifs, l'eau, le phénol et le chlorure de sodium ont été explorées. Les conclusions tirées de cette étude ont confirmé certaines hypothèses faites sur les mécanismes d'agrégation des asphaltènes en solution, en particulier dans le cadre de la théorie des solutions colloïdales.

  11. Effects of solute-solute interactions on protein stability studied using various counterions and dendrimers.

    Curtiss P Schneider

    Full Text Available Much work has been performed on understanding the effects of additives on protein thermodynamics and degradation kinetics, in particular addressing the Hofmeister series and other broad empirical phenomena. Little attention, however, has been paid to the effect of additive-additive interactions on proteins. Our group and others have recently shown that such interactions can actually govern protein events, such as aggregation. Here we use dendrimers, which have the advantage that both size and surface chemical groups can be changed and therein studied independently. Dendrimers are a relatively new and broad class of materials which have been demonstrated useful in biological and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery, perturbing amyloid formation, etc. Guanidinium modified dendrimers pose an interesting case given that guanidinium can form multiple attractive hydrogen bonds with either a protein surface or other components in solution, such as hydrogen bond accepting counterions. Here we present a study which shows that the behavior of such macromolecule species (modified PAMAM dendrimers is governed by intra-solvent interactions. Attractive guanidinium-anion interactions seem to cause clustering in solution, which inhibits cooperative binding to the protein surface but at the same time, significantly suppresses nonnative aggregation.

  12. Missing osteoconductive effect of a resorbable PEO/PBT copolymer in human bone defects: a clinically relevant pilot study with contrary results to previous animal studies.

    Roessler, M; Wilke, A; Griss, P; Kienapfel, H


    PEO/PBT 70/30 (POLYACTIVE(R) 70/30), a degradable porous copolymer with elastic properties, was found to be osteoconductive in many animal studies. The aim of this study was to determine the osteoconductive effect in a human paired control iliac defect model. In seven patients undergoing anterior spinal interbody fusion surgery, two bicortical iliac defects for autograft harvesting were created. The defect size was identical for both defects measuring about 40 x 15 mm (group I). One defect was filled with the degradable implants, whereas the remaining one was left untreated as a control. The defect site for treatment was chosen randomly. In three further patients, only one defect measuring about 40 x 35 mm was created (group II). All patients were examined clinically and radiologically by spiral-CT after 1, 6, 12, 24, and 52 weeks. Three-dimensional reconstructions as well as CT-volumetric measurements using 1 mm sections were used as evaluation methods. In group I, a two-tailed paired t-test showed that the treated defects had significantly less formation of new bone than the untreated ones (p < 0.05 after 12 weeks, p < 0.01 after 52 weeks). Also, in group II, not much bone ingrowth could be observed. The histological evaluation of one patient in group I revealed no bone within the pores, and a fibrous layer between bone and implant was always present. Therefore, PEO/PBT 70/30 cannot be recommended as a bone substitute for clinical use. Differences in bone regeneration between humans and certain animal species as well as inapplicable defect models in previous animal studies are discussed as possible reasons for the failure.

  13. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand


    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  14. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de


    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  15. Phase II study of reintroduction of oxaliplatin for advanced colorectal cancer in patients previously treated with oxaliplatin and irinotecan: RE-OPEN study

    Suenaga M


    Full Text Available Mitsukuni Suenaga,1 Nobuyuki Mizunuma,1 Satoshi Matsusaka,1 Eiji Shinozaki,1 Masato Ozaka,1 Mariko Ogura,1 Toshiharu Yamaguchi21Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The effectiveness of reintroducing oxaliplatin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapy has not been verified. We performed a single-arm, open-label, Phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of reintroducing oxaliplatin. Methods: Eligible patients had received prior chemotherapy including oxaliplatin and irinotecan that achieved a response or stable disease followed by confirmed disease progression ≥6 months previously during prior oxaliplatin-based therapy. The primary endpoint was the disease control rate (DCR after 12 weeks of treatment starting. The DCR was defined as the sum of patients with complete response, partial response, and stable disease. Results: Thirty-three patients were enrolled. The median age was 62 (range: 35–77 years and the male/female ratio was 19/14. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 in 84.8%. Fourteen primary tumors were in the colon and 19 were in the rectum. All patients received modified FOLFOX6 as the protocol treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment starting, the DCR was 39.4% (95% confidence interval 21.8–57.0 and the response rate (complete response and partial response was 6.1%. The median number of chemotherapy cycles was five and the median total dose of oxaliplatin was 425 mg/m2. Median progression-free survival time was 98 days and median overall survival was 300 days. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 allergic reactions was 28.1% and 3.1%, respectively. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 peripheral sensory neuropathy was 53.1% and 0%, respectively. There were no other severe adverse events and no treatment

  16. The comparative study on analytical solutions and numerical solutions of displacement in transversely isotropic rock mass

    Zhang, Zhizeng; Zhao, Zhao; Li, Yongtao


    This paper attempts to verify the correctness of the analytical displacement solution in transversely isotropic rock mass, and to determine the scope of its application. The analytical displacement solution of a circular tunnel in transversely isotropic rock mass was derived firstly. The analytical solution was compared with the numerical solution, which was carried out by FLAC3D software. The results show that the expression of the analytical displacement solution is correct, and the allowable engineering range is that the dip angle is less than 15 degrees.

  17. EXAFS studies of actinide ions in aqueous solution

    Karim, D P; Georgopoulos, P; Knapp, G S


    The applicability of the EXAFS technique in the study of actinide systems is discussed. Uranium L/sub III/-edge spectra obtained on an in-lab rotating anode EXAFS facility are presented and analyzed for crystalline UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/ and aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium ions. Methods for the extension of the technique to more dilute systems are discussed.

  18. ATLANTIC-DIP: prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus by International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.

    Noctor, Eoin; Crowe, Catherine; Carmody, Louise A; Kirwan, Breda; O'Dea, Angela; Glynn, Liam G; McGuire, Brian E; O'Shea, Paula M; Dunne, Fidelma P


    Women with previous gestational diabetes (GDM) are a high-risk group for future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. The new International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria significantly increase the number of women diagnosed with GDM. The long-term metabolic outcome in these women is unknown. We set out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using adult treatment panel-III criteria; and insulin resistance, using HOMA2-IR, in white European women with previous GDM. Using a cohort design, we invited women meeting IADPSG GDM criteria across four Irish antenatal centres between 2007 and 2010 to participate. Two hundred and sixty-five women with previous values meeting IADPSG criteria for GDM participated (44 % of the population eligible for participation). Mean age was 36.7 years (SD 5.0). These women were compared with a randomly selected control group of 378 women (mean age 37.6 years, SD 5.1) known to have normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy during the same period. A total of 25.3 % of women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM met metabolic syndrome criteria, compared to 6.6 % of women with NGT [at 2.6 (SD 1.0) vs. 3.3 years (SD 0.7) post-partum]. The prevalence of HOMA2-IR >1.8 was higher in women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM (33.6 vs. 9.1 % with NGT, p Women with previous GDM by IADPSG criteria demonstrate a greater than threefold prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to women with NGT in pregnancy. Efforts to prevent projected long-term consequences of this should focus on interventions both in the preconception and post-partum periods.

  19. Prevention and health promotion in undergraduate medical education: Preferences, attitudes and previous knowledge of medical students - a cross-sectional study

    Klement, Andreas; Bretschneider, Kristin; Lautenschläger, Christine; Stang, Andreas; Herrmann, Markus; Haerting, Johannes


    Objective: The interdisciplinary topic "prevention and health promotion" (Q10) was introduced into the medical training in Germany by the new medical licensing regulations in 2004. For the conception of an effective curriculum, it is helpful to know student preferences concerning teaching-formats, attitudes and self-estimated previous knowledge. Little is known concerning student perception of “prevention and health promotion” in Germany. Thus, this explorative cross-sectional study aims to p...

  20. Continous controversy about radiation oncologists' choice of treatment regimens for bone metatases: should we blame doctors, canser-related features, or design of previous clinical studies

    Nieder, Carsten; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid


    Recent studies from Italy, Japan and Norway have confirmed previous reports, which found that a large variety of palliative radiotherapy regimens are used for painful bone metastases. Routine use of single fraction treatment might or might not be the preferred institutional approach. It is not entirely clear why inter-physician and inter-institution differences continue to persist despite numerous randomized trials, meta-analyses and guidelines, which recommend against more costly and inconve...

  1. The impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health: a retrospective study up to 7-year follow-up.

    Quaranta, Alessandro; Assenza, Bartolomeo; D'Isidoro, Orlando; Profili, Fabia; Polimeni, Antonella; Vozza, Iole


    To evaluate the impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health in medium to long-term maintained patients. A retrospective evaluation of partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a regular supportive therapy was performed. Inclusion criteria were: medium to long-term periodontal and implant maintenance (at least 5 years), a minimum of 2 implants placed in each patient, absence of systemic diseases that may affect osseointegration. 30 implants in 15 patients were included in the study. Subjects were divided in smokers or non-smokers and between patients previously affected by periodontal disease and periodontally healthy. Peri-implant and periodontal parameters were assessed (PD,BoP, mPI). Microbiological samples were collected around implant and an adjacent tooth. Real- Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed. In all the three groups no differences in bacterial counts between dental and implant sites were observed. Non smoker, healthy patients: healthy clinical parameters, significant counts of spirochetes in isolated patients. Non smokers with previous periodontal disease: occasional positive BoP values, significant high counts of pathogenic bacteria. Smokers with previous periodontal disease: clinical signs of inflammation including deep pockets and slight bone resorption, significant counts of pathogenic bacteria. Over a follow-up of 5 to 7 years, it is possible to state that the absence of smoking habit and previous periodontal disease positively influences the peri-implant microbiological and clinical conditions in partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a strict regular supportive therapy.

  2. [Study of Fermi resonance by means of solution concentration variation].

    Jiang, Xiu-lan; Li, Dong-fei; Chen, Yuan-zheng; Zhou, Mi; Sun, Cheng-lin; Yang, Guang; Li, Zuo-wei; Gao, Shu-qin


    The values of Raman scattering coefficients of some molecules in which Fermi resonance occurs vary with solution concentration variation. We measured the Raman spectra of some solvents such as CCl4, CS2, C6H6, etc by changing the concentration of the solutions ranging from 10% to 100% in volume. As a result, the authors obtained the general law of Fermi resonance. We found some weak Fermi resonance phenomena as well that the two bands of Raman spectrum shift asymmetrically and that the fundamental of overtone is tuned by Fermi resonance and moves towards the same direction with the overtone simultaneously, which is same as the results Bier K. D. obtained by means of high-pressure technique. By means of this method, the authors demonstrated the conclusion that only the fundamental in combinations which has the same symmetry as the fundamental involved in Fermi resonance directly can its intensity variation influence the Fermi resonance. In this article, the authors present a new method to study Fermi resonance. This method is valuable in the identification and the assignment of spectral lines of solutions, the determination of molecular configuration of enzyme, the discrimination of isomer, as well as the influences on the molecular structures and properties caused by hydrogen bond.

  3. Role of previous hospitalization in clinically-significant MRSA infection among HIV-infected inpatients: results of a case-control study

    Festa Anna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected subjects have high incidence rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections, with both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant (MRSA strains. Possible explanations could include the high burden of colonization, the behavioral risk factors, and the frequent exposures to health care facilities of HIV-infected patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the risk factors for clinically- significant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to Infectious Diseases Units. Methods From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005, we conducted a retrospective case-control (1:2 study. We identified all the cases of CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to the National Institute for Infectious Diseases (INMI "Lazzaro Spallanzani" in the 4-year study period. A conditional logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for CS-MRSA infection. Results We found 27 CS-MRSA infections, i.e. 0.9 CS-MRSA infections per 100 HIV-infected individuals cared for in our Institute. At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CS-MRSA infection were cumulative hospital stay, invasive procedures in the previous year, and low CD4 cell count. Particularly, the risk for CS-MRSA increased by 14% per an increase of 5 days hospitalization in the previous year. Finally, we identified a low frequency of community-acquired MRSA infections (only 1 of 27; 3.7% among HIV-infected patients. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of the risk for CS-MRSA infection in the clinical management of HIV-infected patients, especially in those patients with a low CD4 cell count, longer previous hospital stay, and previous invasive procedures.

  4. Role of previous hospitalization in clinically-significant MRSA infection among HIV-infected inpatients: results of a case-control study

    Drapeau, Cecilia MJ; Angeletti, Claudio; Festa, Anna; Petrosillo, Nicola


    Background HIV-infected subjects have high incidence rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections, with both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. Possible explanations could include the high burden of colonization, the behavioral risk factors, and the frequent exposures to health care facilities of HIV-infected patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the risk factors for clinically- significant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CS-MRSA) infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to Infectious Diseases Units. Methods From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005, we conducted a retrospective case-control (1:2) study. We identified all the cases of CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to the National Institute for Infectious Diseases (INMI) "Lazzaro Spallanzani" in the 4-year study period. A conditional logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for CS-MRSA infection. Results We found 27 CS-MRSA infections, i.e. 0.9 CS-MRSA infections per 100 HIV-infected individuals cared for in our Institute. At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CS-MRSA infection were cumulative hospital stay, invasive procedures in the previous year, and low CD4 cell count. Particularly, the risk for CS-MRSA increased by 14% per an increase of 5 days hospitalization in the previous year. Finally, we identified a low frequency of community-acquired MRSA infections (only 1 of 27; 3.7%) among HIV-infected patients. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of the risk for CS-MRSA infection in the clinical management of HIV-infected patients, especially in those patients with a low CD4 cell count, longer previous hospital stay, and previous invasive procedures. PMID:17470274

  5. Stability study of docetaxel solution (0.9%, saline) using Non-PVC and PVC tubes for intravenous administration

    Park, Kang Hoon; Chung, Dong June


    Background Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) are added to poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC) infusion tubes as a plasticizer to ensure tube flexibility. In addition to previously reported disadvantages of DEHP, released DEHP molecules from PVC tubes can easily interact with surfactants in anticancer drug solutions (i.e., polysorbate 80 for Taxotere®-Inj) and reduce the solubility of docetaxel in aqueous solution during anticancer drug administration. Results In this study, we investigated the in vitro ...

  6. The corrosion of aluminum in dilute solutions: laboratory studies

    Draley, J.E.; Arendt, J.W.; English, G.C.; Story, E.F.; Wainscott, M.M.; Berger, R.W.


    After it had been decided that aluminum was to be used as a corrosion-resistant material with good heat transfer properties, it was desired to determine the operating conditions to be used in the water-cooled Handford plant in order to avoid danger of corrosion penetration of thin aluminum parts. The studies here reported were undertaken with the object of determining these conditions by investigating the effects of all the known variables which might influence the corrosion behavior of aluminum in a water-coolded plant at HEW. The addition of hydrogen peroxide to the testing solutions was the only effort made to simulate special conditions at the plant.

  7. The corrosion of aluminum in dilute solutions: laboratory studies

    Draley, J.E.; Arendt, J.W.; English, G.C.; Story, E.F.; Wainscott, M.M.; Berger, R.W.


    After it had been decided that aluminum was to be used as a corrosion-resistant material with good heat transfer properties, it was desired to determine the operating conditions to be used in the water-cooled Handford plant in order to avoid danger of corrosion penetration of thin aluminum parts. The studies here reported were undertaken with the object of determining these conditions by investigating the effects of all the known variables which might influence the corrosion behavior of aluminum in a water-coolded plant at HEW. The addition of hydrogen peroxide to the testing solutions was the only effort made to simulate special conditions at the plant.

  8. Self-assembly of Spherical Macroions in Solution: A Coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics Study

    Liu, Zhuonan; Liu, Tianbo; Tsige, Mesfin


    Macroions (such as polyoxometalates) in solution can form a stable hollow spherical super-molecular structure called blackberry when they have moderate surface charge density and size (1-10 nm). Depending on the surface charge density of macroions, the size of the blackberry can be from 20 to more than 100 nm. Other macroions such as dendrimers can also self-assemble into similar super-molecular structure in solution. Existing theories such as Debye-Hückel and DLVO theories cannot explain this phenomenon and we are not aware of any other theory that can explain this. Previous studies using all-atom Molecular Dynamics simulations have shown identical macroions forming oligomers mediated by counterions. Due to the limitations in all-atom simulation and available computational capabilities, these studies handled only small systems with simple macroions, leading to less conclusive but still relevant results on the self-assembly behavior. To overcome these limitations, in this work large-scale coarse-grained modeling of macroions in solution is used. In order to understand the origin of the attractive force that is responsible for the self-assembly of macroions, different types of macroions in different solution conditions are studied. This work was supported by NSF Grant DMR0847580.

  9. Phase II study of capecitabine as palliative treatment for patients with recurrent and metastatic squamous head and neck cancer after previous platinum-based treatment

    Martinez-Trufero, J; Isla, D; Adansa, J C; Irigoyen, A; Hitt, R; Gil-Arnaiz, I; Lambea, J; Lecumberri, M J; Cruz, J J


    Background: Platinum-based therapy (PBT) is the standard therapy for recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck cancer (HNC), but the incidence of recurrence remains high. This study evaluates the efficacy and tolerability of capecitabine as palliative monotherapy for recurrent HNC previously treated with PBT. Methods: Patients aged 18–75 years, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0–2, squamous HNC with locoregional and/or metastatic recurrence previously treated with PBT and adequate organ functions, were included. Capecitabine (1.250 mg m−2 BID) was administered on days 1–14 every 21 days for at least two cycles. Results: A total of 40 male patients with a median age of 58 years were analysed. All patients received a median number of four cycles of capecitabine (range: 1–9) and the median relative dose intensity was 91%. Seven patients were not evaluable for response. Overall response rate was 24.2%. Median time to progression and overall survival were 4.8 and 7.3 months, respectively. Haematological adverse events (AEs) grade 3/4 were reported in six patients. Most common grade 3/4 non-haematological AEs were asthenia (12.5%), palmar-plantar eritrodisestesia (10%), mucositis (10%), dysphagia (10%) and diarrhoea (7.5%). Conclusions: Capecitabine seems to be an active, feasible and well-tolerated mode of palliative treatment for advanced HNC patients who have previously received PBT schedules. PMID:20485287

  10. Risk for High Depressive Symptoms in Diagnosed and Previously Undetected Diabetes: 5-Year Follow-Up Results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    Icks, Andrea; Albers, Bernd; Haastert, Burkhard; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Pundt, Noreen; Slomiany, Uta; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kruse, Johannes; Kulzer, Bernd; Nowotny, Bettina; Herder, Christian; Giani, Guido; Moebus, Susanne


    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the risk for the development of high depressive symptoms in study participants with diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes mellitus compared to those without diabetes in a prospective population-based cohort study in Germany. Methods We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of high depressive symptoms in participants without high depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 3,633, 51.4% men, mean age (SD) 59.1 (7.6) years, 7.0% diagnosed diabetes, 5.3% previously undetected diabetes) from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes was assessed by self-report, medication, and blood glucose. High depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D. We calculated odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval, using multiple logistic regression analyses. Result Cumulative 5-year incidences (95% CI) of high depressive symptoms in participants with diagnosed, undetected, and without diabetes were 7.1 (4.2–10.9), 4.1 (1.8–8.0), and 6.5 (5.6–7.4), respectively. The age-sex-adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms was 1.22 (0.74–2.03) in participants with diagnosed compared to those without diabetes, and 1.00 (0.59–1.68) after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, education, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The age-sex adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms in participants with previously undetected diabetes compared to those without diabetes was 0.72; 0.35–1.48; and fully adjusted 0.62; 0.30–1.30. Conclusion We found no significant associations, maybe due to low power. However, our results are in line with a recent meta-analysis suggesting that risk of developing high depressive symptoms in patients with diagnosed diabetes may be moderately higher than in those without diabetes, and that comorbidity may explain in part this association. In participants with previously undetected diabetes, this first longitudinal study indicates that the risk is not

  11. Risk for high depressive symptoms in diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes: 5-year follow-up results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

    Andrea Icks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the risk for the development of high depressive symptoms in study participants with diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes mellitus compared to those without diabetes in a prospective population-based cohort study in Germany. METHODS: We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of high depressive symptoms in participants without high depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 3,633, 51.4% men, mean age (SD 59.1 (7.6 years, 7.0% diagnosed diabetes, 5.3% previously undetected diabetes from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes was assessed by self-report, medication, and blood glucose. High depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D. We calculated odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval, using multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULT: Cumulative 5-year incidences (95% CI of high depressive symptoms in participants with diagnosed, undetected, and without diabetes were 7.1 (4.2-10.9, 4.1 (1.8-8.0, and 6.5 (5.6-7.4, respectively. The age-sex-adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms was 1.22 (0.74-2.03 in participants with diagnosed compared to those without diabetes, and 1.00 (0.59-1.68 after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, education, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The age-sex adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms in participants with previously undetected diabetes compared to those without diabetes was 0.72; 0.35-1.48; and fully adjusted 0.62; 0.30-1.30. CONCLUSION: We found no significant associations, maybe due to low power. However, our results are in line with a recent meta-analysis suggesting that risk of developing high depressive symptoms in patients with diagnosed diabetes may be moderately higher than in those without diabetes, and that comorbidity may explain in part this association. In participants with previously undetected diabetes, this first longitudinal study indicates that the risk is not

  12. Shallow landslide susceptibility model for the Oria river basin, Gipuzkoa province (North of Spain). Application of the logistic regression and comparison with previous studies.

    Bornaetxea, Txomin; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Ormaetxea, Orbange


    In the Oria river basin (885 km2) shallow landslides are very frequent and they produce several roadblocks and damage in the infrastructure and properties, causing big economic loss every year. Considering that the zonification of the territory in different landslide susceptibility levels provides a useful tool for the territorial planning and natural risk management, this study has the objective of identifying the most prone landslide places applying an objective and reproducible methodology. To do so, a quantitative multivariate methodology, the logistic regression, has been used. Fieldwork landslide points and randomly selected stable points have been used along with Lithology, Land Use, Distance to the transport infrastructure, Altitude, Senoidal Slope and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) independent variables to carry out a landslide susceptibility map. The model has been validated by the prediction and success rate curves and their corresponding area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the result has been compared to those from two landslide susceptibility models, covering the study area previously applied in different scales, such as ELSUS1000 version 1 (2013) and Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gipuzkoa (2007). Validation results show an excellent prediction capacity of the proposed model (AUC 0,962), and comparisons highlight big differences with previous studies.

  13. Food intake during the previous 24 h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study

    Corrard François


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24 hours (bottle and spoon feeding, as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI, as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. Methods In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea + dyspnea + cough + expiratory sounds. Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders, breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2 was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. Results 24h FI ≥ 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 ≥ 95% [95% CI, 91–99]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI  Conclusion In practice, the measure of 24 h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study.

  14. Development of cardioplegic solution without potassium: experimental study in rat.

    Reichert, Karla; Carmo, Helison Rafael Pereira do; Lima, Fany; Torina, Anali Galluce; Vilarinho, Karlos Alexandre de Souza; Oliveira, Pedro Paulo Martins de; Silveira Filho, Lindemberg Mota; Severino, Elaine Soraya Barbosa de Oliveira; Petrucci, Orlando


    Myocardial preservation during open heart surgeries and harvesting for transplant are of great importance. The heart at the end of procedure has to resume its functions as soon as possible. All cardioplegic solutions are based on potassium for induction of cardioplegic arrest. To assess a cardioplegic solution with no potassium addition to the formula with two other commercially available cardioplegic solutions. The comparative assessment was based on cytotoxicity, adenosine triphosphate myocardial preservation, and caspase 3 activity. The tested solution (LIRM) uses low doses of sodium channel blocker (lidocaine), potassium channel opener (cromakalin), and actin/myosin cross bridge inhibitor (2,3-butanedione monoxime). Wistar rats underwent thoracotomy under mechanical ventilation and three different solutions were used for "in situ" perfusion for cardioplegic arrest induction: Custodiol (HTK), Braile (G/A), and LIRM solutions. After cardiac arrest, the hearts were excised and kept in cold storage for 4 hours. After this period, the hearts were assessed with optical light microscopy, myocardial ATP content and caspase 3 activity. All three solutions were evaluated for direct cytotoxicity with L929 and WEHI-164 cells. The ATP content was higher in the Custodiol group compared to two other solutions (P<0.05). The caspase activity was lower in the HTK group compared to LIRM and G/A solutions (P<0.01). The LIRM solution showed lower caspase activity compared to Braile solution (P<0.01). All solutions showed no cytotoxicity effect after 24 hours of cells exposure to cardioplegic solutions. Cardioplegia solutions without potassium are promised and aminoacid addition might be an interesting strategy. More evaluation is necessary for an optimal cardioplegic solution development.

  15. Development of cardioplegic solution without potassium: experimental study in rat

    Karla Reichert


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Myocardial preservation during open heart surgeries and harvesting for transplant are of great importance. The heart at the end of procedure has to resume its functions as soon as possible. All cardioplegic solutions are based on potassium for induction of cardioplegic arrest. OBJECTIVE: To assess a cardioplegic solution with no potassium addition to the formula with two other commercially available cardioplegic solutions. The comparative assessment was based on cytotoxicity, adenosine triphosphate myocardial preservation, and caspase 3 activity. The tested solution (LIRM uses low doses of sodium channel blocker (lidocaine, potassium channel opener (cromakalin, and actin/myosin cross bridge inhibitor (2,3-butanedione monoxime. METHODS: Wistar rats underwent thoracotomy under mechanical ventilation and three different solutions were used for "in situ" perfusion for cardioplegic arrest induction: Custodiol (HTK, Braile (G/A, and LIRM solutions. After cardiac arrest, the hearts were excised and kept in cold storage for 4 hours. After this period, the hearts were assessed with optical light microscopy, myocardial ATP content and caspase 3 activity. All three solutions were evaluated for direct cytotoxicity with L929 and WEHI-164 cells. RESULTS: The ATP content was higher in the Custodiol group compared to two other solutions (P<0.05. The caspase activity was lower in the HTK group compared to LIRM and G/A solutions (P<0.01. The LIRM solution showed lower caspase activity compared to Braile solution (P<0.01. All solutions showed no cytotoxicity effect after 24 hours of cells exposure to cardioplegic solutions. CONCLUSION: Cardioplegia solutions without potassium are promised and aminoacid addition might be an interesting strategy. More evaluation is necessary for an optimal cardioplegic solution development.

  16. AWS certified solutions architect official study guide associate exam

    Baron, Joe; Bixler, Tim; Gaut, Biff; Kelly, Kevin E; Senior, Sean; Stamper, John


    This is your opportunity to take the next step in your career by expanding and validating your skills on the AWS cloud. AWS has been the frontrunner in cloud computing products and services, and the AWS Certified Solutions Architect Official Study Guide for the Associate exam will get you fully prepared through expert content, and real-world knowledge, key exam essentials, chapter review questions, access to Sybex's interactive online learning environment, and much more. This official study guide, written by AWS experts, covers exam concepts, and provides key review on exam topics, including: * Mapping Multi-Tier Architectures to AWS Services, such as web/app servers, firewalls, caches and load balancers * Understanding managed RDBMS through AWS RDS (MySQL, Oracle, SQL Server, Postgres, Aurora) * Understanding Loose Coupling and Stateless Systems * Comparing Different Consistency Models in AWS Services * Understanding how AWS CloudFront can make your application more cost efficient, faster and secure * Implem...

  17. Study of a Novel Method for the Thermolysis of Solutes in Aqueous Solution Using a Low Temperature Bubble Column Evaporator.

    Shahid, Muhammad; Xue, Xinkai; Fan, Chao; Ninham, Barry W; Pashley, Richard M


    An enhanced thermal decomposition of chemical compounds in aqueous solution has been achieved at reduced solution temperatures. The technique exploits hitherto unrecognized properties of a bubble column evaporator (BCE). It offers better heat transfer efficiency than conventional heat transfer equipment. This is obtained via a continuous flow of hot, dry air bubbles of optimal (1-3 mm) size. Optimal bubble size is maintained by using the bubble coalescence inhibition property of some salts. This novel method is illustrated by a study of thermal decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) and potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) in aqueous solutions. The decomposition occurs at significantly lower temperatures than those needed in bulk solution. The process appears to work via the continuous production of hot (e.g., 150 °C) dry air bubbles, which do not heat the solution significantly but produce a transient hot surface layer around each rising bubble. This causes the thermal decomposition of the solute. The decomposition occurs due to the effective collision of the solute with the surface of the hot bubbles. The new process could, for example, be applied to the regeneration of the ammonium bicarbonate draw solution used in forward osmosis.

  18. Relationship between solution structure and phase behavior: a neutron scattering study of concentrated aqueous hexamethylenetetramine solutions.

    Burton, R C; Ferrari, E S; Davey, R J; Finney, J L; Bowron, D T


    The water-hexamethylenetetramine system displays features of significant interest in the context of phase equilibria in molecular materials. First, it is possible to crystallize two solid phases depending on temperature, both hexahydrate and anhydrous forms. Second, saturated aqueous solutions in equilibrium with these forms exhibit a negative dependence of solubility (retrograde) on temperature. In this contribution, neutron scattering experiments (with isotopic substitution) of concentrated aqueous hexamethylenetetramine solutions combined with empirical potential structure refinement (EPSR) were used to investigate the time-averaged atomistic details of this system. Through the derivation of radial distribution functions, quantitative details emerge of the solution coordination, its relationship to the nature of the solid phases, and of the underlying cause of the solubility behavior of this molecule.

  19. QENS study on thermal gelation in aqueous solution of methylcellulose

    Onoda-Yamamuro, N. [Department of Natural Sciences, College of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Hiki-gun, Saitama 350-0394 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Yamamuro, O. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Inamura, Y. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Nomura, H. [Department of Natural Sciences, College of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Hiki-gun, Saitama 350-0394 (Japan)


    Dynamics of water and methylcellulose (MC) molecules in MC aqueous solution has been studied by means of quasi-elastic neutron-scattering (QENS) measurements. The dynamic structure factor S(Q,E) of the MC aqueous solution was fitted well to the sum of Lorentzian and delta functions. The former is attributed to diffusive motion of water molecules and the latter to local vibrational motion of MC molecules. The self-diffusion coefficient of water molecules was obtained from the Q dependence of the half-width at half-maximum (HWHM) of the Lorentzian function, while the mean-square displacement of MC molecules from the Q dependence of the intensity of the delta term. Both the diffusion coefficient and the mean-square displacement gradually increased on heating and abruptly decreased around the thermal gelation temperature (around 320 K). The present results revealed that the microscopic motions of both water and MC molecules give rise to dynamic slowing down on thermal gelation.

  20. New terahertz dielectric spectroscopy for the study of aqueous solutions

    George, Deepu K.; Charkhesht, Ali; Vinh, N. Q., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)


    We present the development of a high precision, tunable far-infrared (terahertz) frequency-domain dielectric spectrometer for studying the dynamics of biomolecules in aqueous solutions in the gigahertz-to-terahertz frequency. As an important benchmark system, we report on the measurements of the absorption and refractive index for liquid water in the frequency range from 5 GHz to 1.12 THz (0.17–37.36 cm{sup −1} or 0.268–60 mm). The system provides a coherent radiation source with power up to 20 mW in the gigahertz-to-terahertz region. The dynamic range of our instrument reaches 10{sup 12} and the system achieves a spectral resolution of less than 100 Hz. The temperature of samples can be controlled precisely with error bars of ±0.02 °C from 0 °C to 90 °C. Given these attributes, our spectrometer provides unique capabilities for the accurate measurement of even very strongly absorbing materials such as aqueous solutions.

  1. New terahertz dielectric spectroscopy for the study aqueous solutions

    George, Deepu K; Vinh, N Q


    We present a development of a high precision, tunable far-infrared (terahertz) frequency-domain dielectric spectrometer for studying the dynamics of biomolecules in aqueous solutions in the gigahertz-to-terahertz frequency. As a first application we report on the measurement of the absorption and refractive index for liquid water in the frequency range from 5 GHz to 1.12 THz (0.17 to 37.36 cm-1 or 0.268 to 60 mm). The system provides a coherent radiation source with a power up to 20 mW in the gigahertz-to-terahertz region. The power signal-to-noise ratio of our instrument reaches 1015 and the system achieves a spectral resolution of less than 100 Hz. The temperature of samples can be controlled precisely with an error bars of 0.02 oC from above 0 oC to 90 oC. Given these attributes, our spectrometer provides unique capabilities for the accurate measurement of even very strongly absorbing materials such as aqueous solutions.

  2. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R


    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology.

  3. Study on the Existence and Uniqueness of Solution of Generalized Capillarity Problem

    Li Wei


    Full Text Available By using the perturbation theories on sums of ranges of nonlinear accretive mappings of Calvert and Gupta (1978, the abstract result on the existence and uniqueness of the solution in Lp(Ω of the generalized Capillarity equation with nonlinear Neumann boundary value conditions, where 2N/(N+1studied. The equation discussed in this paper and the methods here are a continuation of and a complement to the previous corresponding results. To obtain the results, some new techniques are used in this paper.

  4. Lanthanum-139 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of polyaminocarboxylate-lanthanum complexes in aqueous solution

    Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.; Dean Sherry, A.

    Several complexes of La(III) with aminocarboxylate and polyaminocarboxylate ligands in aqueous solution have been studied using 139La chemical-shift and linewidth measurements. The ligand-induced shifts of the 139La NMR resonance were found to depend, at least to first order, on additive substituent contributions, and were empirically related to the number and type of coordinated oxygen and nitrogen atoms. A previously proposed relationship between the number of coordinated carboxylate oxygen atoms and observed 139La shifts does not seem to hold for the polyaminocarboxylate complexes and we propose a new empirical relationship which allows an accurate prediction of the number and types of ligand donors in these systems. The 139La linewidths also provide qualitative information about the symmetry of each La 3+ chelate. The results show that 139La NMR can be a powerful technique for elucidating the structure and dynamics of lanthanide complexes in solution.

  5. Vitamin D deficiency in medical patients at a central hospital in Malawi: a comparison with TB patients from a previous study.

    Yamikani Mastala

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD in adult medical, non-tuberculous (non-TB patients. To investigate associations with VDD. To compare the results with a similar study in TB patients at the same hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample. SETTING: Central hospital in Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-TB patients (n = 157, inpatients and outpatients. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the prevalence of VDD. Potentially causal associations sought included nutritional status, in/outpatient status, HIV status, anti-retroviral therapy (ART and, by comparison with a previous study, a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D (≤75 nmol/L occurred in 47.8% (75/157 of patients, 16.6% (26/157 of whom had VDD (≤50 nmol/L. None had severe VDD (≤25 nmol/L. VDD was found in 22.8% (23/101 of in-patients and 5.4% (3/56 of out-patients. In univariable analysis in-patient status, ART use and low dietary vitamin D were significant predictors of VDD. VDD was less prevalent than in previously studied TB patients in the same hospital (68/161 = 42%. In multivariate analysis of the combined data set from both studies, having TB (OR 3.61, 95%CI 2.02-6.43 and being an in-patient (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.46-5.01 were significant independent predictors of VDD. CONCLUSIONS: About half of adult medical patients without TB have suboptimal vitamin D status, which is more common in in-patients. VDD is much more common in TB patients than non-TB patients, even when other variables are controlled for, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with TB.

  6. Hydrolysis-precipitation studies of aluminum (III) solutions. I. Titration of acidified aluminum nitrate solutions

    Vermeulen, A.C.; Geus, John W.; Stol, R.J.; Bruyn, P.L. de


    Acidified aluminum nitrate solutions were titrated with alkali (NaOH or KOH) over a temperature range of 24°C to 90°C. A homogeneous distribution of added base was achieved by: (i) in situ decomposition of urea (90°C); and (ii) a novel method involving injection through a capillary submerged in the

  7. Myocardial adaptation to high-intensity (interval) training in previously untrained men with a longitudinal cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study (Running Study and Heart Trial).

    Scharf, Michael; Schmid, Axel; Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon; May, Matthias S; Wuest, Wolfgang; Achenbach, Stephan; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael M


    To prospectively evaluate whether short-term high-intensity (interval) training (HI(I)T) induces detectable morphological cardiac changes in previously untrained men in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Eighty-four untrained volunteers were randomly assigned to a HI(I)T group (n=42; 44.1±4.7 years) or an inactive control group (n=42; 42.3±5.6 years). HI(I)T focused on interval runs (intensity: 95%-105% of individually calculated heart rate at the anaerobic threshold). Before and after 16 weeks, all subjects underwent physiological examination, stepwise treadmill test with blood lactate analysis, and contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (cine, tagging, and delayed enhancement). Indexed left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volume (LV, 77.1±8.5-83.9±8.6; RV, 80.5±8.5-86.6±8.1) and mass (LV, 58.2±6.4-63.4±8.1; RV, 14.8±1.7-16.1±2.1) significantly increased with HI(I)T. Changes in LV and RV morphological parameters with HI(I)T were highly correlated with an increase in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) and a decrease in blood lactate concentration at the anaerobic threshold. Mean LV and RV remodeling index of HI(I)T group did not alter with training (0.76 ±0.09 and 0.24±0.10 g/mL, respectively [P=0.97 and P=0.72]), indicating balanced cardiac adaptation. Myocardial circumferential strain decreased after HI(I)T within all 6 basal segments (anteroseptal, P=0.01 and anterolateral, PHeart Association, Inc.

  8. Biomechanical jumping differences among elite female handball players with and without previous anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a novel inertial sensor unit study.

    Setuain, Igor; Millor, Nora; González-Izal, Miriam; Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Gómez, Marisol; Alfaro-Adrián, Jesús; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Izquierdo, Mikel


    Persistent biomechanical and jumping capacity alterations have been observed among female athletes who have sustained anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine if biomechanical jumping differences persist among a cohort of elite female handball players with previous ACL reconstruction several years after return to top-level competition. In order to achieve this goal, a direct mechanics simplified analysis by using a single Inertial Sensor Unit (IU) was used. Twenty-one elite female (6 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed and 15 uninjured control players) handball players were recruited and evaluated 6.0 ± 3.5 years after surgical anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Bilateral and unilateral vertical jumps were performed to evaluate the functional performance and a single inertial sensor unit was employed in order to collect 3D acceleration and 3D orientation data. Previously ACL-reconstructed analysed athletes demonstrated significant (p reconstruction. Identification of the encountered deficits through the use of an IU devise could provide clinicians with a new reliable tool for movement analysis in a clinical setting.

  9. Electrochemical Studies of Lead Telluride Behavior in Acidic Nitrate Solutions

    Rudnik E.


    Full Text Available Electrochemistry of lead telluride stationary electrode was studied in nitric acid solutions of pH 1.5-3.0. E-pH diagram for Pb-Te-H2O system was calculated. Results of cyclic voltammetry of Pb, Te and PbTe were discussed in correlation with thermodynamic predictions. Anodic dissolution of PbTe electrode at potential approx. -100÷50 mV (SCE resulted in tellurium formation, while above 300 mV TeO2 was mainly produced. The latter could dissolve to HTeO+2 under acidic electrolyte, but it was inhibited by increased pH of the bath.

  10. AFM study of steel corrosion in aqueous solutions in concrete

    Díaz-Benito, B.


    Full Text Available Early corrosion stages are studied in carbon steel by means of a solution simulating that contained in concrete pores. Non-carbonated solution contains 5% NaCl. The atomic force microscopy (AFM technique is used to study material performance after different immersion times (up to 48 h. Obtained data are compared to electrochemical ones (corrosion potential and polarization resistance. Analysis of images and roughness evolution along time shows that steel initially tends to reach passivity, although the passive layer rapidly loses its protective character due to chloride attack.

    Este trabajo estudia los primeros estados de la corrosión de un acero al carbono en una disolución que simula la existente en los poros del hormigón, sin carbonatar, con un 5% de NaCl. Para ello, se ha empleado la técnica de microscopía de fuerza atómica (AFM, estudiando el comportamiento del material tras diferentes tiempos de inmersión, hasta 48 h, en la disolución. Estos datos se comparan con datos electroquímicos (potencial de corrosión y resistencia de polarización. El análisis de las imágenes y la evolución de la rugosidad con el tiempo muestran que el acero tiende inicialmente a pasivarse, pero la capa pasiva pierde rápidamente su carácter protector debido al ataque de los cloruros.

  11. A longitudinal study of relationships between previous academic achievement, emotional intelligence and personality traits with psychological health of medical students during stressful periods.

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Esa, Ab Rahman; Mat Pa, Mohamad Najib; Mey, See Ching; Aziz, Rosniza Abdul; Abdul Rahim, Ahmad Fuad


    There is considerable evidence that emotional intelligence, previous academic achievement (i.e. cumulative grade point average (GPA)) and personality are associated with success in various occupational settings. This study evaluated the relationships of these variables with psychological health of first year medical students during stressful periods. A 1-year prospective study was done with students accepted into the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Information on emotional intelligence, GPA and personality traits were obtained prior to admission. The validated Universiti Sains Malaysia Emotional Quotient Inventory and Universiti Sains Malaysia Personality Inventory were used to measure emotional intelligence and personality traits, respectively. Stress, anxiety and depression were measured by the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale during the end-of-course (time 1) and final (time 2) examinations. At the less stressful period (time 1), stress level was associated with agreeableness and the final GPA, anxiety level was associated with emotional control and emotional conscientiousness and depression level was associated with the final GPA and extraversion. At the more stressful period (time 2), neuroticism associated with stress level, anxiety level was associated with neuroticism and emotional expression, and depression level was associated with neuroticism. This study found that neuroticism was the strongest associated factor of psychological health of medical students during their most stressful testing period. Various personality traits, emotional intelligence and previous academic performance were associated factors of psychological health during a less stressful period. These data suggest that early identification of medical students who are vulnerable to the stressful environment of medical schools might help them maintain psychological well-being during medical training.

  12. Study on the Properties of TiN Coatings on Previously Ion-Implanted Pure Magnesium Surface by MEVVA Ion Implantation

    ZHOU Hai; CHEN Fei; WANG Jian-ping


    A metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) is used in ion implantation for substrate preparation before the deposition process which would ensure the improvement of mechanical properties of the coating.Ti ion is implanted into pure magnesium surface by MEVVA implanter operated with a modified cathode.Implanting energy is kept at 45 keV and dose is set at 3×1017 cm-2.TiN coatings are deposited by magnetically filtered vacuum-arc plasma source on unimplanted and previously implanted substrates.Microstructure and phase composition are analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The property of corrosion resistance of TiN coatings was studied by CS300P electrochemistry-corrosion workstation,and the main impact factor of the corrosion resistance was also analyzed.

  13. Phase II study of a 3-day schedule with topotecan and cisplatin in patients with previously untreated small cell lung cancer and extensive disease

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, Ulrik Niels; Jensen, Peter Buhl;


    and cisplatin are needed. The aim of this phase II study was to establish the response rate and response duration in chemo-naive patients with SCLC receiving a 3-day topotecan and cisplatin schedule. METHODS: Simons optimal two-stage design was used. Patients with previously untreated extensive disease SCLC......, adequate organ functions and performance status less than 3 were eligible. Topotecan (2.0 mg/m, intravenously) was administered on days 1 to 3 with cisplatin (50 mg/m, intravenously) on day 3 every 3 weeks for a total of six cycles. RESULTS: Forty-three patients received 219 cycles of chemotherapy. Median.......3-7.7), respectively. CONCLUSION: Three-day topotecan with cisplatin on day 3 is active and safe in extensive disease SCLC. An ongoing phase III randomized trial compares this combination to standard treatment Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...


    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen


    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  15. Clinical evaluation of balloon occlusion of the lower abdominal aorta in patients with placenta previa and previous cesarean section: A retrospective study on 43 cases.

    Chen, Manru; Xie, Lan


    This study investigated the efficacy of balloon occlusion of the lower abdominal aorta in cesarean section surgery for the patients with placenta previa and previous cesarean section. The patients who had placenta previa and underwent cesarean section (CS) were evaluated. The patients treated with CS to terminate the pregnancy were used as control group (23 cases); the patients treated with the preset abdominal aorta balloon before CS was taken as study group (20 cases). The investigated indicators included the intraoperative blood loss, blood loss within postoperative 24 h, the transfusion amount of red cell suspension (RCS), hospital stay, incidence rate of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), the asphyxia, premature delivery and the mortality of the newborns. The two groups are comparable. The intraoperative blood loss, blood loss within postoperative 24 h, the transfusion amount of RCS and the percentage of uterus resection in the study group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that in the control group. The percentage of uterine cavity filling with ribbon gauze in the study group was higher than the control group (P < 0.05). The balloon occlusion of lower abdominal aorta seems effective in reducing postpartum hemorrhage and the blood transfusion and decreasing the risk of hysterectomy without harming the newborns. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomarker-driven trial in metastatic pancreas cancer: feasibility in a multicenter study of saracatinib, an oral Src inhibitor, in previously treated pancreatic cancer.

    Arcaroli, John; Quackenbush, Kevin; Dasari, Arvind; Powell, Rebecca; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik-Choon; Foster, Nathan R; Picus, Joel; Wright, John; Nallapareddy, Sujatha; Erlichman, Charles; Hidalgo, Manuel; Messersmith, Wells A


    Src tyrosine kinases are overexpressed in pancreatic cancers, and the oral Src inhibitor saracatinib has shown antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreas cancer. We performed a CTEP-sponsored Phase II clinical trial of saracatinib in previously treated pancreas cancer patients, with a primary endpoint of 6-month survival. A Simon MinMax two-stage phase II design was used. Saracatinib (175 mg/day) was administered orally continuously in 28-day cycles. In the unselected portion of the study, 18 patients were evaluable. Only two (11%) patients survived for at least 6 months, and three 6-month survivors were required to move to second stage of study as originally designed. The study was amended as a biomarker-driven trial (leucine rich repeat containing protein 19 [LRRC19] > insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 [IGFBP2] "top scoring pairs" polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay, and PIK3CA mutant) based on preclinical data in a human pancreas tumor explant model. In the biomarker study, archival tumor tissue or fresh tumor biopsies were tested. Biomarker-positive patients were eligible for the study. Only one patient was PIK3CA mutant in a 3' untranslated region (UTR) portion of the gene. This patient was enrolled in the study and failed to meet the 6-month survival endpoint. As the frequency of biomarker-positive patients was very low (pancreatic cancer patients treated with a Src inhibitor based on a biomarker would improve 6-month survival, we demonstrate that testing pancreatic tumor samples for a biomarker-driven, multicenter study in metastatic pancreas cancer is feasible.

  17. Study on Technology Solutions of CEFR Steam Generator

    WU; Zhi-guang; YU; Hua-jin; LIAO; Zi-yu; ZHANG; Zhen-xing


    <正>The technology solutions of CFR1000 steam generator were researched which were compared and analyze with foreign fast reactor steam generator technology solutions. The comparative analysis included the integral/modular structure, the number of modules per loop, structure types, the

  18. Struggling with solutions : a case study of using organisation concepts

    Benders, Jos; Slomp, Jannes


    Engineers contribute to the constant flow of new tools and organisation concepts. These tend to be presented as solutions to existing organisational problems. These solutions may become problems themselves, however. We present a longitudinal case of how a truck manufacturer struggled with various si

  19. A Phase III Study of Durvalumab (MEDI4736) With or Without Tremelimumab for Previously Treated Patients With Advanced NSCLC: Rationale and Protocol Design of the ARCTIC Study.

    Planchard, David; Yokoi, Takashi; McCleod, Michael J; Fischer, Jürgen R; Kim, Young-Chul; Ballas, Marc; Shi, Kelvin; Soria, Jean-Charles


    Anti-programmed cell death-1 and anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) monotherapies have shown promising clinical activity in advanced, refractory non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but antitumor activity appears to be greater in patients with PD-L1(+) tumors compared with patients harboring PD-L1(-) tumors. Combining the anti-PD-L1 antibody durvalumab and the anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody tremelimumab offers the potential for antitumor activity in patients with advanced NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 tumor status. ARCTIC (NCT02352948) is a global, phase III, randomized, open-label multicenter study in patients with advanced NSCLC assessing the safety and clinical activity of durvalumab versus standard of care (SoC; erlotinib, gemcitabine, or vinorelbine) in patients with PD-L1(+) tumors (≥25% of tumor cells with membrane staining using VENTANA PD-L1 [SP263] CDx Assay) (Sub-study A) and the combination of durvalumab + tremelimumab or either agent as monotherapy versus SoC in patients with PD-L1(-) tumors (Sub-study B). Eligible patients are those with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC (Stage IIIB/IV), without epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activating mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements, who have received at least 2 prior systemic regimens, including 1 platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Co-primary endpoints are progression-free survival and overall survival. Secondary endpoints include the proportion of patients alive at 12 months, objective response rate, duration of response, progression-free survival at 6 and 12 months, safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and quality of life. The exploratory endpoints will assess potential biomarkers of treatment response. Recruitment started in January 2015 and is ongoing.

  20. QENS and NMR studies of 3-picoline-water solutions

    Almasy, L; Bokor, M; Cser, L; Tompa, K; Zanotti, J M; Jancso, G


    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements were performed on aqueous solutions of 3-picoline (3-methylpyridine) at room temperature. H-D substitution on both the solute and the water was used to separate the dynamics of the two species. The analysis of the translational diffusive motion at different concentrations shows that at high picoline content the diffusion coefficient of water decreases strongly and becomes similar to that of the solute, indicating strong coupling between the motions of the solute and the solvent. Activation energies characteristic of the dynamic behavior of the methyl group were determined from sup 1 H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements for H sub 2 O and D sub 2 O solutions of 3-picoline above 310 K. (orig.)

  1. Phase III study of 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) compared to epirubicin, cisplatin and 5FU (ECF) in previously untreated patients with advanced biliary cancer.

    Rao, S; Cunningham, D; Hawkins, R E; Hill, M E; Smith, D; Daniel, F; Ross, P J; Oates, J; Norman, A R


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether epirubicin, cisplatin and infused 5FU (ECF) improves overall survival (OS) compared to 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) in patients with previously untreated advanced biliary cancer in a prospective randomised study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive epirubicin, cisplatin and infused 5FU ECF or bolus 5FU etoposide and leucovorin (FELV). The primary end point was OS with secondary end points of objective response rate (ORR), failure-free survival (FFS), quality of life (QOL) and toxicity. In all, 54 patients were recruited with 27 randomly assigned to each arm. The median OS for ECF was 9.02 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.46-11.51) and FELV 12.03 months (95% CI: 9.3-14.7), P=0.2059. Objective response rates were similar for both arms: ECF 19.2% (95% CI: 6.55-39.3); FELV 15% (95% CI: 3.2-37.9), P=0.72. There was significantly increased grade 3/4 neutropenia with FELV vs ECF (53.8 vs 29.5%, respectively, P=0.020). Symptom resolution was impressive for both regimens. This is the largest reported randomised study to date in this setting. ECF did not improve OS compared to FELV, but was associated with less acute toxicity. These data suggest that chemotherapy can prolong OS and achieve good symptomatic relief in advanced biliary cancer.

  2. Plantar pressure in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with active foot ulceration, previous ulceration and no history of ulceration: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Malindu Eranga Fernando

    Full Text Available AIMS: Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. METHODS: Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP and pressure time integral (PTI were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310. RESULTS: Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290-0.811, p<0.001; and 0.762, 95% CI 0.303-1.221, p = 0.001, respectively. Sub-group analyses demonstrated no significant difference in MPP for those with neuropathy with active ulceration compared to those without ulcers. A significant difference in MPP was found for those with neuropathy with a past history of ulceration compared to those without ulcers; (0.467, 95% CI 0.181- 0.753, p = 0.001. Statistical heterogeneity between studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS: Plantar pressures appear to be significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic

  3. The influence of previous infections and antichlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity on functional outcome in ischemic stroke patients: results from the IN2 study.

    Consoli, Domenico; Vidale, Simone; Aguglia, Umberto; Bassi, Pietro; Cavallini, Anna; Consoli, Arturo; Galati, Franco; Guidetti, Donata; Micieli, Giuseppe; Neri, Giuseppe; Rasura, Maurizia; Sterzi, Roberto; Toni, Danilo; Inzitari, Domenico


    Although a growing attention is being paid to acute ischemic stroke patients, the correlation between clinical outcome and infectious events in this population has been poorly investigated. 749 ischemic stroke (mean age 71 years old, males 56%) patients were enrolled in this prospective case-control study by 11 Italian Stroke Units. Demographic data, vascular risk factors, previous infections and post-stroke infections (PSIs) were recorded. Blood samples were collected and the enzyme-linked immunoassay was chosen to measure Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG and IgA plasma antibodies (antibody titers were classified with specific cut-off levels: IgA > 1:16 and IgG > 1:64). Early poor outcome was defined as mRS score >2 at discharge, while poor outcome at 6-month follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Median NIHSS was 7, IgA and IgG antichlamydia pneumoniae seropositivities were observed in 308 (37.1%) and 207 (23.6%) patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed significant correlations between PSIs and NIHSS (RR: 1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.09; p < 0.001) and PSIs and IgA antichlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity (RR: 3.84; 95% CI 2.53-5.84; p < 0.001). Significant disability was associated with baseline NIHSS (RR: 1.32; 95% CI 1.16-1.50; p < 0.001), IgA (RR: 2.67; 95% CI 1.06-6.70; p = 0.035) and IgG antichlamydia (RR: 5.75; 95% CI 1.83-18.03; p = 0.003) seropositivity and atrial fibrillation (RR: 2.58; 95% CI 1.81-3.67; p < 0.001). While previous infections were not associated with functional outcome, antichlamydia antibodies play a negative role in ischemic stroke patients. Preventive strategies may reduce the stroke burden and improve the clinical outcome.

  4. Experimental Study of Preferential Solute Transportation During Dump Leaching

    YIN Sheng-hua; WU Ai-xiang


    The production of dump leaching of the Dexing Copper Mine was affected by a preferential solution flow. Formative mechanism of the preferential solution flow was investigated by analyzing the relationship between both dump permeability and surface tension and ore diameter. The preferential solution flow occurred in the fine ore area when the application rate was low. The preferential solution flow entered into the coarse ore area because the negative pore water pressure disappeared with an increase of the application rate. The preferential solute transportation experiment was conducted by selecting NaCl as mineral. Results of the experiment showed that the concentration of the outflow solution reduced over time. The concentration of the coarse ore area outflow solution was greater than that of the fine ore area. The process of NaCl leaching can be divided into two stages. NaCl was carried out directly by diffusion-convection during the first stage, so the leaching rate increased sharply. But in the second stage, only a small amount of NaCl dissolved in the immobile water. The leaching rate increased slowly because NaCl, dissolved in the immobile water, can only be leached by diffusion.

  5. A Retrospective Case-Control Study Evaluating the Role of Mifepristone for Induction of Labor in Women with Previous Cesarean Section.

    Sharma, Chanderdeep; Soni, Anjali; Soni, Pawan K; Verma, Suresh; Verma, Ashok; Gupta, Amit


    To investigate the role of "mifepristone" for induction of labor (IOL) in pregnant women with prior cesarean section (CS). In this retrospective study, all pregnant women with prior CS who received oral mifepristone (400 mg) for IOL (as per clear obstetric indications) [group 1] were compared with pregnant women with prior CS who had spontaneous onset of labor (SOL) [group 2], with respect to incidence of vaginal delivery, CS, duration of labor, and various maternal and fetal outcomes. During the study period, 72 women received mifepristone (group 1) for IOL and 346 had SOL (group 2). In group 1 after mifepristone administration, 40 (55.6 %) women had labor onset, and 24 (33.3 %) women had cervical ripening (Bishop Score ≥ 8) within 48 h. There were no statistically significant differences with respect to duration of labor (p value: 0.681), mode of delivery (i.e., normal delivery or CS-p value: 0.076 or 0.120, respectively), or maternal (blood loss or scar dehiscence/rupture uterus), or fetal outcomes (NICU admission) compared to women with previous CS with SOL (group 2). However, the need of oxytocin (p value 0.020) and dose of oxytocin requirement (p value 0.008) were more statistically significant in group 1. Mifepristone may be considered as an agent for IOL in women with prior CS.

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis


    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes.

  7. ACTG-HIV symptoms changes in patients switched to RPV/FTC/TDF due to previous intolerance to CART. Interim analysis of the PRO-STR study

    Daniel Podzamczer


    Full Text Available Introduction: Tolerability and convenience are crucial aspects for the long-term success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact in routine clinical practice of switching to the single tablet regimen (STR RPV/FTC/TDF in patients with intolerance to previous cART, in terms of patients’ well-being, assessed by several validated measures. Methods: Prospective, multicenter study. Adult HIV-infected patients with viral load under 1.000 copies/mL while receiving a stable ART for at least the last three months and switched to RPV/FTC/TDF due to intolerance of previous regimen, were included. Analyses were performed by ITT. Presence/magnitude of symptoms (ACTG-HIV Symptom Index, quality of life (EQ-5D, EUROQoL & MOS-HIV, adherence (SMAQ, preference of treatment and perceived ease of medication (ESTAR through 48 weeks were performed. Results: Interim analysis of 125 patients with 16 weeks of follow up was performed. 100 (80% were male, mean age 46 years. Mean CD4 at baseline was 629.5±307.29 and 123 (98.4% had viral load <50 copies/mL; 15% were HCV co-infected. Ninety two (73.6% patients switched from a NNRTI (84.8% from EFV/FTC/TDF and 33 (26.4% from a PI/r. The most frequent reasons for switching were psychiatric disorders (51.2%, CNS adverse events (40.8%, gastrointestinal (19.2% and metabolic disorders (19.2%. At the time of this analysis (week 16, four patients (3.2% discontinued treatment: one due to adverse events, two virologic failures and one with no data. A total of 104 patients (83.2% were virologically suppressed (<50 copies/mL. The average degree of discomfort in the ACTG-HIV Symptom Index significantly decreased from baseline (21±15.55 to week 4 (10.89±12.36 & week 16 (10.81±12.62, p<0.001. In all the patients, quality of life tools showed a significant benefit in well-being of the patients (Table 1. Adherence to therapy significantly and progressively increased (SMAQ from

  8. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    Schreinemachers Dina M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher level of spring wheat farming than in counties with lower levels of this crop. Spring wheat, one of the major field crops in these four states, was treated for 85% or more of its acreage with chlorophenoxy herbicides. In the current study NHANES III data were reviewed for associations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D exposure, one of the most frequently used chlorophenoxy herbicides, with risk factors that are linked to the pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes, such as dyslipidemia and impaired glucose metabolism. Methods To investigate the toxicity pattern of chlorophenoxy herbicides, effects of a previous 2,4-D exposure were assessed by comparing levels of lipids, glucose metabolism, and thyroid stimulating hormone in healthy adult NHANES III subjects with urinary 2,4-D above and below the level of detection, using linear regression analysis. The analyses were conducted for all available subjects and for two susceptible subpopulations characterized by high glycosylated hemoglobin (upper 50th percentile and low thyroxine (lower 50th percentile. Results Presence of urinary 2,4-D was associated with a decrease of HDL levels: 8.6% in the unadjusted data (p-value = 0.006, 4.8% in the adjusted data (p-value = 0.08, and 9% in the adjusted data for the susceptible subpopulation with low thyroxine (p-value = 0.02. An effect modification of the inverse triglycerides-HDL relation was observed in association with 2,4-D. Among subjects with low HDL, urinary 2,4-D was associated with increased levels of triglycerides, insulin, C-peptide, and thyroid stimulating hormone, especially in the susceptible subpopulations. In contrast, subjects with

  9. Late tamoxifen in patients previously operated for breast cancer without postoperative tamoxifen: 5-year results of a single institution randomised study

    Bidoli Ettore


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A population of breast cancer patients exists who, for various reasons, never received adjuvant post-operative tamoxifen (TAM. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of late TAM in these patients. Methods From 1997 to 2003, patients aged 35 to 75 years, operated more than 2 years previously for monolateral breast cancer without adjuvant TAM, with no signs of metastases and no contraindication to TAM were randomized to TAM 20 mg/day orally for 2 years or follow-up alone. Events were categorized as locoregional relapse, distant metastases, metachronous breast cancer, tumours other than breast cancer and death from any causes, whichever occurred first. The sample size (197 patients per arm, plus 10% allowance was based on the assumption of a 30% decrease in the number of events occurring at a rate of 5% annually in the 10 years following randomization. Four hundred and thirty-three patients were randomized in the study (TAM 217, follow-up 216. Patients characteristics (TAM/follow-up included: median age 55/55 years, median time from surgery 25/25 months (range, 25-288/25-294, in situ carcinoma 18/24, oestrogen receptor (ER positive in 75/68, negative in 70/57, unknown in 72/91 patients. Previous adjuvant treatment included chemotherapy in 131/120 and an LHRH analogue in 11/13 patients. Results Thirty-six patients prematurely discontinued TAM after a median of 1 month, mostly because of subjective intolerance. Eighty-three events (TAM 39, follow-up 44 occurred: locoregional relapse in 10/8, distant metastases in 14/16, metachronous breast cancer in 4/10, other tumours in 11/10 patients. Less ER-positive secondary breast cancers occurred in the TAM treated patients than in follow-up patients (1 vs 10, p = 0.005. Event-free survival was similar in both groups of patients. Conclusions This 5-year analysis revealed significantly less metachronous ER-positive breast cancers in the TAM treated patients. No other statistically

  10. Intracanal use of heated rinsing solutions: A pilot study.

    Sonntag, David; Raab, Wolfgang H-M; Martin, Evelyn; Keppel, Ralf


    The tissue-dissolving and bactericidal activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) can be increased by warming the NaOCl solution without concurrently increasing its toxicity. The present study was set up to determine if and to what extent a heated liquid reaches the apical region. A temperature sensor was introduced from the apical aspect into a human canine 22 mm in length prepared to size 40.04. At 37°C in the incubator the canal was irrigated with water 10 times each at temperatures of 10°C, 21°C, 45°C, 60°C, and 37°C (control group). The apical temperature curve was recorded with a one-second resolution from the time the irrigation started until at least 2 minutes after its end. None of the measurements yielded the same temperature in the apical region as that of the coronally introduced liquid. At 60°C, a maximum value of 52.2°C ± 1.39°C, and at 10°C, a minimum value of 16.09°C ± 0.39°C, was achieved apically. At 1 minute after the end of active rinse cycle, the temperature at the apical probe differed only 4.8°C to 0.9°C ± 1.41°C from the initial value (about 37°C). Only with the cold 10°C solution was the temperature difference higher, at 7.5°C ± 2.14°C. The benefit of heating irrigants accrues primarily during the period of active rinsing; immediately after the end of the rinsing cycle, body temperature is reached again. A positive aspect to be noted is that an irrigant stored at room temperature is quickly warmed to 37°C in the root canal by the temperature of the body.

  11. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail:; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.


    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  12. Evaluation of the Widal tube agglutination test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among children admitted to a rural hdospital in Tanzania and a comparison with previous studies

    Malahiyo Rajabu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of typhoid fever is confirmed by culture of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi. However, a more rapid, simpler, and cheaper diagnostic method would be very useful especially in developing countries. The Widal test is widely used in Africa but little information exists about its reliability. Methods We assessed the performance of the Widal tube agglutination test among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of various anti-TH and -TO titers using culture-confirmed typhoid fever cases as the "true positives" and all other febrile children with blood culture negative for S. typhi as the "true negatives." Results We found that 16 (1% of 1,680 children had culture-proven typhoid fever. A single anti-TH titer of 1:80 and higher was the optimal indicator of typhoid fever. This had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 98%, NPV of 100%, but PPV was only 26%. We compared our main findings with those from previous studies. Conclusion Among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children with a low prevalence of typhoid fever, a Widal titer of ≥ 1:80 performed well in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and NPV. However a test with improved PPV that is similarly easy to apply and cost-efficient is desirable.

  13. Effects of testosterone replacement therapy on nocturia and quality of life in men with hypogonadism: a subanalysis of a previous prospective randomized controlled study in Japan.

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Konaka, Hiroyuki; Koh, Eitetsu; Izumi, Koji; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Mizokami, Atsushi; Nakashima, Takao; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Namiki, Mikio


    We investigated the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on nocturia and general health among men with hypogonadism and nocturia. From our previous EARTH study population, 64 patients with a clinical diagnosis of nocturia (two or more times per one night) and hypogonadism, comprising the TRT group (n = 31) and controls (n = 33), were included in this analysis. The TRT group was administered 250 mg of testosterone enanthate as an intramuscular injection every 4 weeks for 6 months. All patients responded to the following questionnaires: International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS), Aging Male Symptoms (AMS) score and Short Form-36 health survey at baseline and 6-month visit. These categories were compared based on changes from baseline to the 6-month visit between TRT and control groups. At the 6-month visit, the TRT group had a significant decrease in IPSS question no. 7 and AMS question no. 4, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group. Additionally, role limitation because of health program, vitality and mental health domains were significantly improved in the TRT group. Six-month TRT may improve nocturia, sleep conditions and quality of life among men with hypogonadism and nocturia.

  14. Efficacy of confrontational counselling for smoking cessation in smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Huibers Marcus JH


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of spirometry for early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is still an issue of debate, particularly because of a lack of convincing evidence that spirometry has an added positive effect on smoking cessation. We hypothesise that early detection of COPD and confrontation with spirometry for smoking cessation may be effective when applying an approach we have termed "confrontational counselling"; a patient-centred approach which involves specific communication skills and elements of cognitive therapy. An important aspect is to confront the smoker with his/her airflow limitation during the counselling sessions. The primary objective of this study is to test the efficacy of confrontational counselling in comparison to regular health education and promotion for smoking cessation delivered by specialized respiratory nurses in current smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation. Methods/Design The study design is a randomized controlled trial comparing confrontational counselling delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (experimental group, health education and promotion delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (control group 1, and "care as usual" delivered by the GP (control group 2. Early detection of smokers with mild to moderate airflow limitation is achieved by means of a telephone interview in combination with spirometry. Due to a comparable baseline risk of airflow limitation and motivation to quit smoking, and because of the standardization of number, duration, and scheduling of counselling sessions between the experimental group and control group 1, the study enables to assess the "net" effect of confrontational counselling. The study has been ethically approved and registered. Discussion Ethical as well as methodological considerations of the study are discussed in this protocol. A

  15. Chemical Oxidative Polymerization of 2-Aminothiazole in Aqueous Solution: Synthesis, Characterization and Kinetics Study

    Hua Zou


    Full Text Available The chemical oxidative polymerization of 2-aminothiazole (AT was studied in aqueous solution using copper chloride (CuCl2 as an oxidant. The effect of varying the reaction temperature, reaction time and oxidant/monomer molar ratio on the polymer yield was investigated. The resulting poly(2-aminothiazoles (PATs were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, UV-vis, gel permeation chromatography, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and four-point probe electrical conductivity measurements. Compared with a previous study, PATs with higher yield (81% and better thermal stability could be synthesized. The chemical oxidative polymerization kinetics of AT were studied for the first time. The orders of the polymerization reaction with respect to monomer concentration and oxidant concentration were found to be 1.14 and 0.97, respectively, and the apparent activation energy of the polymerization reaction was determined to be 21.57 kJ/mol.

  16. Ground-water quality in Geauga County, Ohio; review of previous studies, status in 1999, and comparison of 1986 and 1999 data

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Darner, Robert A.


    Most residents in Geauga County, Ohio, rely on ground water as their primary source of drinking water. With population growing at a steady rate, the possibility that human activity will affect ground-water quality becomes considerable. This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Geauga County Planning Commission and Board of County Commissioners, to provide a brief synopsis of work previously done within the county, to assess the present (1999) ground-water quality, and to determine any changes in ground-water quality between 1986 and 1999. Previous studies of ground-water quality in the county have consistently reported that manganese and iron concentrations in ground water in Geauga County often exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL). Road salt and, less commonly, oil-field brines and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found in ground water at isolated locations. Nitrate has not been detected above the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter as N; however, nitrate has been found in some locations at levels that may indicate the effects of fertilizer application or effluent from septic systems. Between June 7 and July 1, 1999, USGS personnel collected a total of 31 water-quality samples from wells completed in glacial deposits, the Pottsville Formation, the Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. All samples were analyzed for VOCs, sulfide, dissolved organic carbon, major ions, trace elements, alkalinity, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Fourteen of the samples also were analyzed for tritium. Water-quality data were used to determine (1) suitability of water for drinking, (2) age of ground water, (3) stratigraphic variation in water quality, (4) controls on water quality, and (5) temporal variation in water quality. Water from 16 of the 31 samples exceeded the Geauga County General Health

  17. Distribution of interferon lambda-3 gene polymorphisms in Australian patients with previously untreated genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C: Analysis from the PREDICT and CHARIOT studies.

    Roberts, Stuart K; Mitchell, Joanne; Leung, Reynold; Booth, David; Bollipo, Steven; Ostapowicz, George; Sloss, Andrew; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Dore, Gregory J; Thompson, Alexander; Crawford, Darrell Hg; Sievert, William; Weltman, Martin; Cheng, Wendy; George, Jacob


    The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of interferon lambda-3 (IFN-λ3) gene polymorphisms in previously untreated Australian patients with genotype 1 (Gt1) chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and to compare the IFN-λ3 genotype frequency among the different ethnic populations. This was a prospective, multicenter, observational study undertaken by the Australian Liver Association Clinical Research Network. Eligible subjects had Gt1 CHC and were being considered for and/or undergoing treatment. IFN-λ3 single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped by the Applied Biosystems's Taqman single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assay. Between May 2012 and June 2012, 1132 patients were recruited from 38 treatment clinics across Australia. Also, 561 subjects from the CHARIOT (collaborative group hepatitis C study using high dose Pegasys RBV Induction dose in genotype one) study of high-dose interferon who had baseline serum available were retrospectively tested. The overall frequency of IFN-λ3 rs12979860 CC/CT/TT genotypes was 36%, 52%, and 12%, and that of rs8099917 TT/TG/GG genotypes was 54%, 41%, and 5%, respectively. The prevalence of the favorable IFN-λ3 rs12979860 CC and rs8099917 TT genotypes in Causcasians, Asians, Aboriginals, Maori/Pacific Islanders, and Mediterraneans was 32% and 52%, 80% and 86%, 33% and 63%, 77% and 88%, and 19% and 29%, respectively. Compared with Caucasians, the frequency of IFN-λ3 CC was significantly higher among Asians (P < 0.0001) and Maori/Pacific Islander subjects (P < 0.0001). The distribution of IFN-λ3 polymorphisms among untreated patients with Gt1 CHC in Australia appears similar to that reported from North America. The frequency of the favorable response alleles varies considerably according to ethnicity, being more common in self-reported Asians and Maori/Pacific Islanders than Caucasians, Aboriginals, and Mediterraneans. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty

  18. Study of accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    Hosoma, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works


    It is important for effective safeguarding of nuclear materials to establish a technique for accurate volume measurement of plutonium nitrate solution in accountancy tank. The volume of the solution can be estimated by two differential pressures between three dip-tubes, in which the air is purged by an compressor. One of the differential pressure corresponds to the density of the solution, and another corresponds to the surface level of the solution in the tank. The measurement of the differential pressure contains many uncertain errors, such as precision of pressure transducer, fluctuation of back-pressure, generation of bubbles at the front of the dip-tubes, non-uniformity of temperature and density of the solution, pressure drop in the dip-tube, and so on. The various excess pressures at the volume measurement are discussed and corrected by a reasonable method. High precision-differential pressure measurement system is developed with a quartz oscillation type transducer which converts a differential pressure to a digital signal. The developed system is used for inspection by the government and IAEA. (M. Suetake)

  19. Studies on the Solute Solvent Interaction of Nimesulide in Aqueous Solutions of Hydrotropic Agents at Different Temperatures

    Solanki, Chandravir S.; Sushree Tripathy; Minaketan Tripathy; Dash, Upendra N.


    The present study deals with experiments so as to highlight the solute (drug nimesulide) - solvent(water) interactions and related modifications in case of the presence of hydrotropic agents at different temperatures T(=298.15 to 313.15)K. Density and viscosity values of nimesulide have been determined in water in (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 2) mol dm-3 aqueous solutions of hydrotropic agents (sodium benzoate, sodium salicylate, sodium bromide and nicotinamide) at temperatures 298.15, 303...

  20. Fundamental Study of Absorption Cycle without Electric Solution Pump

    Tsujimori, Atsushi; Sato, Kazuo; Nakao, Kazushige; Ohgushi, Tetsuro; Katsuta, Masafumi

    The absorption refrigerant cycle has been used in Japan, as energy shortage problem is more and more serious and environmental protection is of increasing importance. This type of air conditioner and chiller consume less electric power input than the electric one. However, the absorption refrigerator of large cooling capacity consumes some electric power with the required facility. Then in this research, the absorption cycle without the electric solution pump is proposed using a capillary pump and the possibility of making this cycle running using LiBr solution as a working fluid is investigated. As a result, it was found that the absorption cycle could be reached using a capillary wick in the generator to circulate the refrigerant and kept the strong and weak solution low pressure.

  1. Assessing uncertainties in solute transport models: Upper Narew case study

    Osuch, M.; Romanowicz, R.; Napiórkowski, J. J.


    This paper evaluates uncertainties in two solute transport models based on tracer experiment data from the Upper River Narew. Data Based Mechanistic and transient storage models were applied to Rhodamine WT tracer observations. We focus on the analysis of uncertainty and the sensitivity of model predictions to varying physical parameters, such as dispersion and channel geometry. An advection-dispersion model with dead zones (Transient Storage model) adequately describes the transport of pollutants in a single channel river with multiple storage. The applied transient storage model is deterministic; it assumes that observations are free of errors and the model structure perfectly describes the process of transport of conservative pollutants. In order to take into account the model and observation errors, an uncertainty analysis is required. In this study we used a combination of the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation technique (GLUE) and the variance based Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA). The combination is straightforward as the same samples (Sobol samples) were generated for GLUE analysis and for sensitivity assessment. Additionally, the results of the sensitivity analysis were used to specify the best parameter ranges and their prior distributions for the evaluation of predictive model uncertainty using the GLUE methodology. Apart from predictions of pollutant transport trajectories, two ecological indicators were also studied (time over the threshold concentration and maximum concentration). In particular, a sensitivity analysis of the length of "over the threshold" period shows an interesting multi-modal dependence on model parameters. This behavior is a result of the direct influence of parameters on different parts of the dynamic response of the system. As an alternative to the transient storage model, a Data Based Mechanistic approach was tested. Here, the model is identified and the parameters are estimated from available time series data using

  2. Interactive Tutoring in Blended Studies: Hindrances and Solutions

    Asim Ismail Ilyas (Al-Titinchy


    Full Text Available This paper distinguishes between traditional teaching known as lecturing (the teacher centered approach; and tutoring (the contemporary technology-oriented interactive teaching/learning approach. It is based on the implementation of tutoring strategies of ‘blended studies’  at the Arab Open University. It investigates the application of modern interactive teaching/learning strategies, specifying some hindering factors in the AOU-Jordan Branch context. The factors include four variables: tutors, students, course material and assessment. The paper is based on qualitative research in terms of a real teaching/leaning context, using both observation and conversation with learners, besides the use of some quantitative data retrieved from a questionnaire in which learners’ views are sought regarding a number of relevant matters. A number of suggested solutions related to each of the hindering factors are presented, which if applied, may secure shifting the balance of the teaching/learning process to a more interactive technology-based tutoring level, which in turn will enhance learners’ opportunities for the attainment of better academic standards, and secure a higher degree of achievement of the shared educational goals of learners and the educational institution they study in.                                                                                                                                                       Keywords: blended studies, interactional teaching, lecturing, tutoring, course material, English language skills

  3. Salt Effect on Osmotic Pressure of Polyelectrolyte Solutions: Simulation Study

    Jan-Michael Y. Carrillo


    Full Text Available Abstract: We present results of the hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics simulations of the osmotic pressure of salt solutions of polyelectrolytes. In our simulations, we used a coarse-grained representation of polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions. During simulation runs, we alternate Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation steps. Monte Carlo steps were used to perform small ion exchange between simulation box containing salt ions (salt reservoir and simulation box with polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions (polyelectrolyte solution. This allowed us to model Donnan equilibrium and partitioning of salt and counterions across membrane impermeable to polyelectrolyte chains. Our simulations have shown that the main contribution to the system osmotic pressure is due to salt ions and osmotically active counterions. The fraction of the condensed (osmotically inactive counterions first increases with decreases in the solution ionic strength then it saturates. The reduced value of the system osmotic coefficient is a universal function of the ratio of the concentration of osmotically active counterions and salt concentration in salt reservoir. Simulation results are in a very good agreement with osmotic pressure measurements in sodium polystyrene sulfonate, DNA, polyacrylic acid, sodium polyanetholesulfonic acid, polyvinylbenzoic acid, and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride solutions.

  4. Study of the solution chemistry of element 104 - kurchatovium

    Szeglowski, Z.; Domanov, V.P.; Gleisberg, B.; Zvara, I.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR). Lab. of Nuclear Reactions); Bruchertseifer, H. (Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung, Leipzig (Germany, F.R.)); Guseva, L.J.; Tikhomirova, G.S. (AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Geokhimii i Analiticheskoj Khimii); Hussonnois, M. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire)


    A rapid method of continuous isolation of kurchatovium from the products of bombardment of a {sup 248}Cm target with {sup 18}O ions has been developed. The nuclear reaction products were transported a distance of 10 meters from the target to an apparatus for chemical separation by means of a KCl aerosol jet. The aerosol particulates carrying adsorbed radionuclides were dissolved in 0.2 M HF and the solution was passed through three ion exchange columns. In the first cationic column the transplutonium and some other elements generated directly in the bombardment were removed from the solution. In model experiments, the decontamination factors of the Zr(Hf) fraction from rare earths and transplutonium elements in various solutions were determined; values as high as 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 6} were achieved. In the next, anionic column kurchatovium was sorbed, while the last, cationic, column retained the decay products of Ku. The identification of {sup 261}Ku(T{sub 1/2}=65 s) was performed by observing its great-granddaughter {sup 253}Es (T{sub 1/2}=20 d), after the latter (together with {sup 253}Fm) had been desorbed from the third column. In a 24-hour experiment some 2000 Ku atoms were produced; they were detected with the efficiency as high as 25%. It has been shown for the first time that in HF solutions Ku forms stable anionic complexes which are sorbed on an anion-exchange resin, i.e., the element behaves similar to Zr and Hf, the members of the IVth group of the transition metals. The method opens up the possibility of obtaining quantitative data on the properties of Ku in solutions. (orig.).

  5. Optimizing nanodiscs and bicelles for solution NMR studies of two β-barrel membrane proteins

    Kucharska, Iga [University of Virginia, Center for Membrane Biology and Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics (United States); Edrington, Thomas C. [Monsanto Company (United States); Liang, Binyong; Tamm, Lukas K., E-mail: [University of Virginia, Center for Membrane Biology and Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics (United States)


    Solution NMR spectroscopy has become a robust method to determine structures and explore the dynamics of integral membrane proteins. The vast majority of previous studies on membrane proteins by solution NMR have been conducted in lipid micelles. Contrary to the lipids that form a lipid bilayer in biological membranes, micellar lipids typically contain only a single hydrocarbon chain or two chains that are too short to form a bilayer. Therefore, there is a need to explore alternative more bilayer-like media to mimic the natural environment of membrane proteins. Lipid bicelles and lipid nanodiscs have emerged as two alternative membrane mimetics that are compatible with solution NMR spectroscopy. Here, we have conducted a comprehensive comparison of the physical and spectroscopic behavior of two outer membrane proteins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, OprG and OprH, in lipid micelles, bicelles, and nanodiscs of five different sizes. Bicelles stabilized with a fraction of negatively charged lipids yielded spectra of almost comparable quality as in the best micellar solutions and the secondary structures were found to be almost indistinguishable in the two environments. Of the five nanodiscs tested, nanodiscs assembled from MSP1D1ΔH5 performed the best with both proteins in terms of sample stability and spectral resolution. Even in these optimal nanodiscs some broad signals from the membrane embedded barrel were severely overlapped with sharp signals from the flexible loops making their assignments difficult. A mutant OprH that had two of the flexible loops truncated yielded very promising spectra for further structural and dynamical analysis in MSP1D1ΔH5 nanodiscs.

  6. The influence of previous and concomitant leflunomide on the efficacy and safety of infliximab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; a longitudinal observational study.

    Flendrie, M.; Creemers, M.C.W.; Welsing, P.M.J.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of previous and concomitant leflunomide on the efficacy and safety of infliximab therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to compare it to infliximab in combination with other disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. METHODS: RA patients starting infliximab the

  7. Erlotinib dosing-to-rash: A phase II intrapatient dose escalation and pharmacologic study of erlotinib in previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    A. mita (Alain); K. Papadopoulos (K.); M.J.A. de Jonge (Maja); G. Schwartz (G.); J. Verweij (Jaap); A. Ricart (A.); Q.S.C. Chu (Q. S C); A.W. Tolcher (A. W.); L. Wood (Lori); S.W. McCarthy (Stanley); M. Hamilton; K.K. Iwata (Kenneth); B. Wacker; K. de Witte (Karel); E.K. Rowinsky (Eric Keith)


    textabstractBackground: To evaluate the anticancer activity of erlotinib in patients with previously treated, advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose dose is increased to that associated with a maximal level of tolerable skin toxicity (i.e., target rash (TR)); to characterise the pharmacok

  8. Phase I study of cisplatin, hyperthermia, and lapatinib in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a previously irradiated area

    E.V. Meerten (Esther Van); M. Franckena (Martine); E.A.C. Wiemer (Erik); L.V. Doorn (Lena Van); J. Kraan (Jaco); A.M. Westermann (Anneke); S. Sleijfer (Stefan)


    textabstractBackground. Patients with recurrent cervical cancer in a previously irradiated area might benefit from cisplatin combined with hyperthermia. Lapatinib inhibits the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2. Overexpression of EGFR and

  9. Impact of previous percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and/or stenting revascularization on outcomes after surgical revascularization : insights from the imagine study

    Chocron, Sidney; Baillot, Richard; Rouleau, Jean Lucien; Warnica, Wayne J.; Block, Pierre; Johnstone, David; Myers, Martin G.; Calciu, Cristina Dana; Nozza, Anna; Martineau, Pierre; van Gilst, Wiek H.


    Aim To determine the impact of previous coronary artery revascularization by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and/or stenting (PCI) on outcome after subsequent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods and results The ischaemia management with Accupril post-bypass Graft via Inhib

  10. Clinical evaluation of recombinant factor VIII preparation (Kogenate) in previously treated patients with hemophilia A: descriptive meta-analysis of post-marketing study data.

    Yoshioka, A; Fukutake, K; Takamatsu, J; Shirahata, A


    The safety and efficacy of Kogenate, a recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) preparation for the treatment of bleeding episodes, were studied in a 123-patient meta-analysis population of previously treated patients (PTPs), including 15 enrolled in the registration Phase III trial (PTP-I group), 93 from the post-marketing special investigation (PTP-II group), and 15 from short-term special investigations in surgery or tooth extraction (SI group). These patients (82 severe, 31 moderate, 9 mild, and 1 unknown), aged 11 months to 72 years, were enrolled in 28 centers in Japan. Blood samples taken at the baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after the introduction of Kogenate were evaluated for FVIII inhibitor antibodies, antibodies formed against trace proteins derived from the rFVIII production process, and for general changes in laboratory test results. Mean exposure to Kogenate was 1103 days in PTP-I, 86 days in PTP-II, 27 days in patients in surgery, and 2 days in patients with tooth extraction. Assessment of FVIII inhibitor activity was conducted in 115 of the 123 patients by means of the Bethesda assay. Twelve patients were found to have a low titer of FVIII inhibitor (0.5-3.0 BU/mL) prior to any administration of Kogenate, and 103 were inhibitor-negative at the baseline. Among this latter group, 3 patients (2.9%) tested inhibitor-positive, with titers ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 BU/mL, with 4 patients below 1.0 BU/mL. One patient in the 11 PTPs investigated (PTP-I) developed antibodies against baby hamster kidney protein and mouse immunoglobulin G, but these findings were transient and asymptomatic. Hemostasis was achieved (markedly effective or effective) in 3666 of the 3855 bleeding episodes (95.1%) observed in 108 patients. Only 1 infusion was necessary in 3790 (98.3%) of these episodes. These data indicate that Kogenate is safe and very effective for the treatment of bleeding in PTPs with hemophilia A.

  11. Exploring the Capability of Evaluating Technical Solutions: A Collaborative Study into the Primary Technology Classroom

    Björkholm, Eva


    Within the field of technology education, evaluating technical solutions is considered as an important topic. Research indicates that pupils have difficulties in evaluating technical solutions in terms of fitness for purpose, i.e. how effective a technical solution supports its intended function. By using the learning study, which is an iterative…

  12. Exploring the Capability of Evaluating Technical Solutions: A Collaborative Study into the Primary Technology Classroom

    Björkholm, Eva


    Within the field of technology education, evaluating technical solutions is considered as an important topic. Research indicates that pupils have difficulties in evaluating technical solutions in terms of fitness for purpose, i.e. how effective a technical solution supports its intended function. By using the learning study, which is an iterative…

  13. Microrheology of viscoelastic solutions studied by magnetic rotational spectroscopy

    Berret, Jean-François


    Magnetic rotational spectroscopy is based on the use of magnetic micron-size wires for viscosity measurements. Submitted to a rotational magnetic field with increasing frequency, the wires undergo a hydrodynamic instability between a synchronous and an asynchronous regime. From a comparison between predictions and experiments, the static shear viscosity and elastic modulus of wormlike micellar solutions are here determined. The values agree with the determination by cone-and-plate rheometry.

  14. Dynamic nuclear-polarization studies of paramagnetic species in solution

    Glad, W.E.


    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) was used to measure the electron spin lattice relaxation times, T/sub 1/, of transition metal ions in aqueous solution. Saturation which is induced in the electron spin system is transferred to the solvent proton spins by dipole-dipole interactions. The change in the polarization of the proton spins is much larger than it is in the electron spins. The change in proton polarization is easily measured by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). In one experimental arrangement the sample solution was continuously flowed through a microwave cavity to the NMR coil. The NMR was observed with a continuous wave NMR spectrometer. In a second arrangement the whole sample tube was moved from within the microwave cavity to the NMR coil in less than 40 ms by a blast of compressed air. The NMR was then observed with a pulse-Fourier-transform spectrometer. With the second arrangement a mean-square microwave magnetic field at the sample of more than 10 G/sup 2/ is obtainable with 14 W of microwave power. Measurements of DNP at 9 GHz were made on aqueous solutions of VO/sup 2 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/, Cr(CN)/sub 6//sup 3 -/, Cu/sup 2 +/ and Cu(ethylenediamine)/sub 2/(H/sub 2/0)/sub 2//sup 2 +/ ions from 3 to 60/sup 0/C. It was also possible to observe DNP on resolved proton resonances from mixed water-acetonitrile solutions of VO/sup 2 +/ and Cr(CN)/sub 6//sup 3 -/ ions.

  15. Experimental study of directional solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride solution

    Chen, C. F.; Chen, Falin


    Directional solidification experiments have been carried out using the analog casting system of NH4Cl-H2O solution by cooling it from below with a constant-temperature surface ranging from -31.5 C to +11.9 C. The NH4Cl concentration was 26 percent in all solutions, with a liquidus temperature of 15 C. It was found that finger convection occurred in the fluid region just above the mushy layer in all experiments. Plume convection with associated chimneys in the mush occurred in experiments with bottom temperatures as high as +11.0 C. However, when the bottom temperature was raised to +11.9 C, no plume convection was observed, although finger convection continued as usual. A method has been devised to determine the porosity of the mush by computed tomography. Using the mean value of the porosity across the mush layer and the permeability calculated by the Kozeny-Carman relationship, the critical solute Rayleigh number across the mush layer for onset of plume convection was estimated to be between 200 and 250.

  16. Benchmark Study of 3D Pore-scale Flow and Solute Transport Simulation Methods

    Scheibe, T. D.; Yang, X.; Mehmani, Y.; Perkins, W. A.; Pasquali, A.; Schoenherr, M.; Kim, K.; Perego, M.; Parks, M. L.; Trask, N.; Balhoff, M.; Richmond, M. C.; Geier, M.; Krafczyk, M.; Luo, L. S.; Tartakovsky, A. M.


    Multiple numerical approaches have been developed to simulate porous media fluid flow and solute transport at the pore scale. These include 1) methods that explicitly model the three-dimensional geometry of pore spaces and 2) methods that conceptualize the pore space as a topologically consistent set of stylized pore bodies and pore throats. In previous work we validated a model of the first type, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes employing standard finite volume method (FVM), against magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) measurements of pore-scale velocities. Here we expand that benchmark study to include additional models of the first type based on the immersed-boundary method (IMB), lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), as well as a model of the second type, a pore-network model (PNM). While the PNM approach is computationally much less demanding than direct numerical simulation methods, the effect of conceptualizing complex three-dimensional pore geometries in the manner of PNMs has not been fully determined. We apply all five approaches (FVM-based CFD, IMB, LBM, SPH and PNM) to simulate pore-scale velocity distributions and nonreactive solute transport, and intercompare the model results. Comparisons are drawn both in terms of macroscopic variables (e.g., permeability, solute breakthrough curves) and microscopic variables (e.g., local velocities and concentrations). Generally good agreement was achieved among the various approaches, but some differences were observed depending on the model context. The benchmark study was challenging because of variable capabilities of the codes, and inspired some code enhancements to allow consistent comparison of flow and transport simulations across the full suite of methods. This study provides support for confidence in a variety of pore-scale modeling methods, and motivates further development and application of pore-scale simulation methods.

  17. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    Rosanna Ghinai


    Full Text Available Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes.

  18. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    Ghinai, Rosanna; El-Duah, Philip; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Solomon, Anthony W; Bailey, Robin L; Agana, Nsiire; Mabey, David C W; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Marks, Michael


    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes.

  19. Mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with different insulin secretagogues compared with metformin in type 2 diabetes, with or without a previous myocardial infarction: a nationwide study

    Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Vaag, Allan


    % confidence intervals): 1.32 (1.24-1.40), glibenclamide: 1.19 (1.11-1.28), glipizide: 1.27 (1.17-1.38), and tolbutamide: 1.28 (1.17-1.39) were associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients without previous MI. The corresponding results for patients with previous MI were as follows: glimepiride: 1.......30 (1.11-1.44), glibenclamide: 1.47 (1.22-1.76), glipizide: 1.53 (1.23-1.89), and tolbutamide: 1.47 (1.17-1.84). Results for gliclazide [1.05 (0.94-1.16) and 0.90 (0.68-1.20)] and repaglinide and [0.97 (0.81-1.15) and 1.29 (0.86-1.94)] were not statistically different from metformin in both patients...... without and with previous MI, respectively. Results were similar for cardiovascular mortality and for the composite endpoint. Conclusion Monotherapy with the most used ISs, including glimepiride, glibenclamide, glipizide, and tolbutamide, seems to be associated with increased mortality and cardiovascular...

  20. Studies on the Solute Solvent Interaction of Nimesulide in Aqueous Solutions of Hydrotropic Agents at Different Temperatures

    Chandravir S. Solanki


    Full Text Available The present study deals with experiments so as to highlight the solute (drug nimesulide - solvent(water interactions and related modifications in case of the presence of hydrotropic agents at different temperatures T(=298.15 to 313.15K. Density and viscosity values of nimesulide have been determined in water in (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 2 mol dm-3 aqueous solutions of hydrotropic agents (sodium benzoate, sodium salicylate, sodium bromide and nicotinamide at temperatures 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K where as the solubility was studied at 308.15 K. From the density values, the limiting partial molar volumes and expansibilities have been calculated. The experimental viscosity values have been analyzed in terms of jones-dole equation and on the basis of transition theory for relative viscosity.

  1. NMR studies of proton exchange kinetics in aqueous formaldehyde solutions

    Rivlin, Michal; Eliav, Uzi; Navon, Gil


    Aqueous solutions of formaldehyde, formalin, are commonly used for tissue fixation and preservation. Treatment with formalin is known to shorten the tissue transverse relaxation time T2. Part of this shortening is due to the effect of formalin on the water T2. In the present work we show that the shortening of water T2 is a result of proton exchange between water and the major constituent of aqueous solutions of formaldehyde, methylene glycol. We report the observation of the signal of the hydroxyl protons of methylene glycol at 2 ppm to high frequency of the water signal that can be seen at low temperatures and at pH range of 6.0 ± 1.5 and, at conditions where it cannot be observed by the single pulse experiment, it can be detected indirectly through the water signal by the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) experiment. The above finding made it possible to obtain the exchange rate between the hydroxyl protons of the methylene glycol and water in aqueous formaldehyde solutions, either using the dispersion of the spin-lattice relaxation rate in the rotating frame (1/T1ρ) or, at the slow exchange regime, from the line width hydroxyl protons of methylene glycol. The exchange rate was ∼104 s-1 at pH 7.4 and 37 °C, the activation energy, 50.2 kJ/mol and its pH dependence at 1.1 °C was fitted to: k (s-1) = 520 + 6.5 × 107[H+] + 3.0 × 109[OH-].

  2. Insulin association in neutral solutions studied by light scattering

    Hvidt, S.


    Molecular weights and weight distributions of sulfated, Zn-free, and 2Zn insulins have been measured at pH 7.3 as a function of concentration from 0.1 to 2 mg/ml by use of a combination of light scattering, refractometry, and size-exclusion chromatography. Results show that sulfated insulin is mo...... absence. An average hydrodynamic radius of 5.6 nm, close to the crystallographic size of the insulin hexamer, was determined from dynamic light scattering of 2Zn insulin solutions....

  3. Ceramic Ultrafiltration of Marine Algal Solutions: A Comprehensive Study

    Dramas, Laure


    Algal bloom can significantly impact reverse osmosis desalination process and reduce the drinking water production. In 2008, a major bloom event forced several UAE reverse osmosis plants to stop their production, and in this context, a better understanding of UF membrane fouling caused by algal organic matter (AOM) is needed, in order to adjust the filtration conditions during algal bloom events. Polymeric MF/UF membranes are already widely used for RO pretreatment, but ceramic UF membranes can also be an alternative for the filtration of marine algal solutions. The fouling potential of the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea, sampled at different seasons, along with four algal monocultures grown in laboratory, and one mesocosm experiment in the Red Sea was investigated. Algal solutions induce a stronger and more irreversible fouling than terrestrial humic solution, toward ceramic membrane. During algal bloom events, this fouling is enhanced and becomes even more problematic at the decline phase of the bloom, for a similar initial DOC. Three main mechanisms are involved: the formation of a cake layer at the membrane surface; the penetration of the algal organic matter (AOM) in the pore network of the membrane; the strong adhesion of AOM with the membrane surface. The last mechanism is species-specific and metal-oxide specific. In order to understand the stronger ceramic UF fouling at the decline phase, AOM quality was analyzed every two days. During growth, AOM is getting enriched in High Molecular Weight (HMW) structures (> 200 kDa), which are mainly composed by proteins and polysaccharides, and these compounds seem to be responsible for the stronger fouling at decline phase. In order to prevent the fouling of ceramic membrane, coagulation-flocculation (CF) using ferric chloride was implemented prior to filtration. It permits a high removal of HMW compounds and greatly reduces the fouling potential of the algal solution. During brief algal bloom events, CF should be

  4. Efficient Solutions for New Homes Case Study: Savannah Gardens



    The Savannah Housing Department is leading sustainable and affordable housing development in Georgia. It partnered with Southface Energy Institute, a member of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Partnership for Home Innovation Building America research team, to seek cost-effective solutions for increasing the energy efficiency of the Savannah Housing Department’s standard single-family home plans in the Savannah Gardens Community. Based on engineering, cost, and constructability analyses, the combined research team chose to pilot two technologies to evaluate efficiency and comfort impacts for homeowners: a heat-pump water heater in an encapsulated attic and an insulated exterior wall sheathing.

  5. Study and Development of an OpenStack solution

    Jorba Brosa, Maria


    Estudi i desenvolupament d'una solució de virtualització amb Openstack. Es farà un especial èmfasi en la part de seguretat. Deployment of a solution based in OpenStack for the creation of an Infrastructure service cloud. Implementación de una solución basada en OpenStack para la creación de una infrastructura de servicios cloud. Implementació d'una solució basada en OpenStack per la creació d'una infrastructura de serveis cloud.

  6. Gamma Radiolysis Studies of Aqueous Solution of Brilliant Green Dye

    D. V. Parwate


    Full Text Available The effect of γ–radiation on colour intensity of aqueous solution of Brilliant Green has been investigated at two different concentrations. The degradation of Brilliant Green (BG has also been investigated in presence of suspended ZnO, by adding different amounts of ZnO. Simultaneously the conductance and pH of each solution system were measured before and after γ-irradiation. All the γ–irradiations were performed at a dose rate of 0.60 kGyhr-1 in GC-900. The maximum dose required for the complete degradation of the dye was found to be 0.39 kGy. G(-dye values were found to decrease with increase in gamma dose and were in the range 4.26 - 12.81. The conductance (7.6 - 25.3 μS and pH values increased marginally with dose for both the concentrations. The rate of decolouration was found to be high at lower doses and the efficiency of dye removal was higher at low concentration of the dye. This may be attributed to the presence of reaction by-products from the destruction of parent compound build up and compete for reaction intermediate species. The rate of reaction and rate constants were calculated and it was found that the degradation reaction follows first order kinetics. It was found that the decolouration percentage was more in dye systems in absence of ZnO.

  7. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    Lopez-Saura Pedro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC. Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination, 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction, and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052.

  8. Comparative study on the allergenicity of different Litopenaeus vannamei extract solutions

    Wu, Lisha; Lin, Haixin; Wang, Guoying; Lu, Zongchao; Chen, Guanzhi; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing


    Allergen extracts are widely used for allergy diagnosis and treatment. The application of shrimp extract is hampered due to the low protein concentration and the inconsistent allergenicity. Extracting solutions are considered to be the primary limiting factor of protein extraction from crustaceans. This study aimed to select an optimal solution for shrimp protein extraction by comparing the allergenicity of different shrimp extracts. The effect of 7 existing or modified extracting solutions were evaluated, including the glycerol-NaCl solution, the glycerol Cocaine's solution, the buffered saline solution, the Cocaine's solution, the Glucose leaching solution, 1 mol L-1 KCl solution, and 0.01 mol L-1 phosphate buffered saline solution with and without dithiothreitolor (DTT). The quantitative (protein concentration) and qualitative parameters (SDS-PAGE protein patterns and immuno-reactivity) were determined using the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting assay. Results showed that the 1 mol L-1 KCl solution with DTT was optimal for shrimp protein extraction, which yielded high concentration and allergenicity in the protein extract, including major and minor allergens. The 1 mol L-1 KCl solution with DDT is proposed for preparation of shrimp extract and associated allergy diagnosis, as well as potential applications for other crustaceans.

  9. Comparative Study on the Allergenicity of Different Litopenaeus vannamei Extract Solutions

    WU Lisha; LIN Haixin; WANG Guoying; LU Zongchao; CHEN Guanzhi; LIN Hong; LI Zhenxing


    Allergen extracts are widely used for allergy diagnosis and treatment. The application of shrimp extract is hampered due to the low protein concentration and the inconsistent allergenicity. Extracting solutions are considered to be the primary limiting factor of protein extraction from crustaceans. This study aimed to select an optimal solution for shrimp protein extraction by com-paring the allergenicity of different shrimp extracts. The effect of 7 existing or modified extracting solutions were evaluated, includ-ing the glycerol-NaCl solution, the glycerol Cocaine’s solution, the buffered saline solution, the Cocaine’s solution, the Glucose leaching solution, 1 mol L-1 KCl solution, and 0.01 mol L-1 phosphate buffered saline solution with and without dithiothreitolor (DTT). The quantitative (protein concentration) and qualitative parameters (SDS-PAGE protein patterns and immuno-reactivity) were deter-mined using the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting assay. Results showed that the 1 mol L-1 KCl solution with DTT was optimal for shrimp protein extraction, which yielded high con-centration and allergenicity in the protein extract, including major and minor allergens. The 1 mol L-1 KCl solution with DDT is pro-posed for preparation of shrimp extract and associated allergy diagnosis, as well as potential applications for other crustaceans.

  10. Experimental study on thermophoresis of colloids in aqueous surfactant solutions

    Dong, Ruo-Yu; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Chun; Cao, Bing-Yang


    Thermophoresis refers to the motion of particles under a temperature gradient and it is one of the particle manipulation techniques. Regarding the thermophoresis of particles in liquid media, however, many open questions still remain, especially the role of the interfacial effect. This work reports on a systematic experimental investigation of surfactant effects, especially the induced interfacial effect, on the thermophoresis of colloids in aqueous solutions via a microfluidic approach. Two kinds of commonly used surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), are selected and the results show that from relatively large concentrations, the two surfactants can greatly enhance the thermophilic mobilities. Specifically, it is found that the colloid-water interfaces modified with more polar end groups can potentially lead to a stronger thermophilic tendency. Due to the complex effects of surfactants, further theoretical model development is needed to quantitatively describe the dependence of thermophoresis on the interface characteristics.

  11. Study on the Leaching of Mercuric Oxide with Thiosulfate Solutions

    Chao Han


    Full Text Available Mercury is receiving more concern due to its high mobility and high toxicity to human health and the environment. Restrictive legislations and world-wide efforts have been made on mercury control, especially the release and disposal of mercury-contaminated wastes. This paper describes a novel technology for detoxifying mercury-containing solid wastes with thiosulfate salts. Various parameters which may potentially influence mercury extraction from mercuric oxide with the thiosulfate leaching system—including reagent concentration, solution pH, and temperature—have been examined. The experimental results show that virtually all mercuric oxide can rapidly dissolve into the thiosulfate leaching system under optimized experimental conditions, indicating that thiosulfate is an effective lixivant for recovering mercury from mercury-containing solid waste.

  12. Study of vapour pressure of lithium nitrate solutions in ethanol

    Verevkin, Sergey [Abteilung Physikalische Chemie, Institut fuer Chemie, Universitaet Rostock, Hermannstrasse, 14, D-18055 Rostock (Germany); Safarov, Javid [Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan)]. E-mail:; Bich, Eckard [Abteilung Physikalische Chemie, Institut fuer Chemie, Universitaet Rostock, Hermannstrasse, 14, D-18055 Rostock (Germany); Hassel, Egon [Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik, Fakultaet Maschinenbau und Schiffstechnik, Universitaet Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 2, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Heintz, Andreas [Abteilung Physikalische Chemie, Institut fuer Chemie, Universitaet Rostock, Hermannstrasse, 14, D-18055 Rostock (Germany)


    Vapour pressure p of (LiNO{sub 3} + C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) solutions at T = (298.15 to 323.15) K were measured, osmotic, activity coefficients ({phi}, {gamma}) and activity of solvent a {sub s} have been evaluated. The experiments were carried out in the molality range m = (0.19125 to 2.21552) mol . kg{sup -1}. The Antoine equation was used for the empirical description of the experimental vapour pressure results and the (Pitzer + Mayorga) model with inclusion of Archer's ionic strength dependence of the third virial coefficient for the calculated osmotic coefficients were used. The parameters of the Archer for the extended Pitzer model was used for the evaluation of activity coefficients.

  13. Electrical and magnetoresistivity studies in chemical solution deposited La

    Angappane, S.; Murugaraj, P.; Sethupathi, K.; Rangarajan, G.; Sastry, V. S.; Chakkaravarthi, A. Arul; Ramasamy, P.


    High quality magnetoresistive La{sub (1{minus}x)}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} thin films have been prepared by the chemical solution deposition technique. A solution of propionate precursors of lanthanum, calcium, and manganese in propionic acid was used for this purpose. Films of varying compositions (x varying from 0.1 to 0.4) were spin coated on to LaAlO{sub 3}(100) and SrTiO{sub 3}(100) substrates at room temperature and pyrolyzed in the temperature range 600{endash}850{degree}C. For fixed compositions, annealing at higher temperatures shifts the insulator{endash}metal transition temperature (T{sub I{endash}M}) to higher values accompanied by a reduction in the resistivity values. The T{sub I{endash}M} variation for different x values was found to be less pronounced in the compositions x=0.2, 0.3, and 0.4. Typical T{sub I{endash}M} values of 283 K and 290 K were obtained for La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} coated on LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} substrates, respectively, when annealed at 850{degree}C. The substrate effect was found to be more pronounced for the x value 0.1 which showed two peaks (one at 271 K and another at 122 K) in the {rho}-T curve. The roles of substrate mismatch, composition variation, and annealing temperatures are discussed. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  14. A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China.

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing


    Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future.

  15. Update of the pompe disease mutation database with 60 novel GAA sequence variants and additional studies on the functional effect of 34 previously reported variants.

    Kroos, Marian; Hoogeveen-Westerveld, Marianne; Michelakakis, Helen; Pomponio, Robert; Van der Ploeg, Ans; Halley, Dicky; Reuser, Arnold


    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal glycogen storage disorder, characterized by progressive muscle weakness. Deficiency of acid α-glucosidase (EC; can be caused by numerous pathogenic variants in the GAA gene. The Pompe Disease Mutation Database at aims to list all variants and their effect. This update reports on 94 variants. We examined 35 novel and 34 known mutations by site-directed mutagenesis and transient expression in COS-7 cells or HEK293T cells. Each of these mutations was given a severity rating using a previously published system, based on the level of acid α-glucosidase activity in medium and transfected cells and on the quantity and quality of the different molecular mass species in the posttranslational modification and transport of acid α-glucosidase. This approach enabled to classify 55 missense mutations as pathogenic and 13 as likely nonpathogenic. Based on their nature and the use of in silico analysis (Alamut® software), 12 of the additional 25 novel mutations were predicted to be pathogenic including 4 splicing mutations, 6 mutations leading to frameshift, and 2 point mutations causing stop codons. Seven of the additional mutations were considered nonpathogenic (4 silent and 3 occurring in intron regions), and 6 are still under investigation.

  16. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M


    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  17. Experimental study of terrestrial plant litter interaction with aqueous solutions

    Fraysse, F.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Meunier, J.-D.


    Quantification of silicon and calcium recycling by plants is hampered by the lack of physico-chemical data on reactivity of plant litter in soil environments. We applied a laboratory experimental approach for determining the silica and calcium release rates from litter of typical temperate and boreal plants: pine ( Pinus laricio), birch ( Betula pubescens), larch ( Larix gmelinii), elm ( Ulmus laevis Pall.), tree fern ( Dicksonia squarrosa), and horsetail (Equisetum arvense) in 0.01 M NaCl solutions, pH of 2-10 and temperature equals to 5, 25 and 40 °C. Open system, mixed-flow reactors equipped with dialysis compartment and batch reactors were used. Comparative measurements were performed on intact larch needles and samples grounded during different time, sterilized or not and with addition or not of sodium azide in order to account for the effect of surface to mass ratio and possible microbiological activity on the litter dissolution rates. Litter degradation results suggest that the silica release rate is independent on dissolved organic carbon release (cell breakdown) which implies the presence of phytoliths in a pure "inorganic" pool not complexed with organic matter. Calcium and DOC are released at the very first stage of litter dissolution while Si concentration increases gradually suggesting the presence of Ca and Si in two different pools. The dry-weight normalized dissolution rate at circum-neutral pH range (approx. 1-10 μmol/g DW/day) is 2 orders of magnitude higher than the rates of Si release from common soil minerals (kaolinite, smectite, illite). Minimal Ca release rates evaluated from batch and mixed-flow reactors are comparable with those of most reactive soil minerals such as calcite and apatite, and several orders of magnitude higher than the dissolution rates of major rock-forming silicates (feldspars, pyroxenes). The activation energy for Si liberation from plant litter is approx. 50 kJ/mol which is comparable with that of surface

  18. No Previous Public Services Required

    Taylor, Kelley R.


    In 2007, the Supreme Court heard a case that involved the question of whether a school district could be required to reimburse parents who unilaterally placed their child in private school when the child had not previously received special education and related services in a public institution ("Board of Education v. Tom F."). The…

  19. Providing Visions of a Different Life: Self-study Narrative Inquiry as an Instrument for Seeing Ourselves in Previously-Unimagined Places

    Carmen Shields


    Full Text Available In this paper, we share stories of coming to narrative self-study research in graduate studies, and the impact this choice has had on personal and professional directions in ways we could not have imagined when graduate studies were initially embarked upon. Central to self-study narrative inquiry is a focus on life experience as a tool for connection with our own storied pasts. There we find the roots of our present-day perspectives and actions that we can incorporate into our everyday meaning-making, using our emergent understanding to choose present and future possibilities in our relationships.

  20. Amphiphilic organic ion pairs in solution: a theoretical study.

    Pradines, Vincent; Poteau, Romuald; Pimienta, Veronique


    The macroscopic manifestation of hydrophobic interactions for amphiphilic organic ion pairs (tetraalkylammonium-anion) has been shown experimentally by measuring their association constants and their affinity with the organic phase. Beyond a certain size, there is a direct relation between association constants and chain lengths in tetraalkylammonium ions. We propose to cast a bridge between these results and geometrical properties considered at the level of a single ion pair by means of quantum chemistry calculations performed on model systems: trimethylalkylammonium-pentyl sulfate instead of tetraalkylammonium-dodecyl sulfate. Two limiting cases are considered: head-to-head configurations, which yield an optimal electrostatic interaction between polar heads, and parallel configurations with a balance between electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. All properties (geometries, complexation energies, and atomic charges) were obtained at the MP2 level of calculation, with water described by a continuum model (CPCM). Dispersion forces link hydrocarbon chains of tetraalkylammonium ions and pentyl sulfate, thus yielding (for the largest ion pairs) parallel configurations favored with respect to head-to-head geometries by solute-solvent electrostatic interactions. Given the small experimental association energies, we probe the accuracy limit of the MP2 and CPCM methods. However, clear trends are obtained as a function of chain length, which agree with the experimental observations. The calculated monotonic stabilization of ion pairs when the hydrocarbon chain increases in length is discussed in terms of electrostatic interactions (between ions and between ion pairs and water), dispersion forces, and cavitation energies.

  1. The change in motivating factors influencing commencement, adherence and retention to a supervised resistance training programme in previously sedentary post-menopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    Viljoen, Janet Erica; Christie, Candice Jo-Anne


    Understanding motivators for exercise participation in post-menopausal women may impact retention to exercise programmes and inform intervention trial designs. The purpose of this investigation was to assess self-reported motivational factors influencing adherence and retention to a 24-week progressive resistance training programme. Post-menopausal females (n = 34) were passively recruited to undertake a 24-week progressive resistance training protocol, in small-group sessions, on three non-consecutive days of the week. Attendance was recorded by the researcher. Qualitative reports were sourced from the sample for four phases of the study: pre-study (prior to week 1), recruitment (week 1), during study (weeks 2 - 24), and post-intervention (beyond week 24). Responses were categorised according to ten descriptors: specific health index improvement, education, flexibility of time, social contact, conscience (loyalty to the researcher), wellness, weight management, organisation parameters (pertaining to the study programme) and enjoyment of the exercises. Of the initial sample, 76.5% (n = 26) met the specified ≥80% attendance criterion. The primary findings were that motivation to volunteer for the study was driven by a perceived need for a structured exercise programme (50% of respondents). A commitment to the researcher was the primary motivator for continued adherence to the study for 50% of participants. Social contact with other participants was cited by 60% of the sample as the primary reason for adherence for the full duration of 24 weeks. A desire to maintain the "wellness" derived from the programme was cited by 60% as a reason for continuing an exercise routine post-study. This study identified that routine and supervision initially attract women to exercise programmes, while social cohesion of the group setting contributes to retention over time. Understanding the changing nature of motivating factors may contribute to better overall adherence

  2. Effects of a type I antifreeze protein (AFP) on the melting of frozen AFP and AFP+solute aqueous solutions studied by NMR microimaging experiment.

    Ba, Yong; Mao, Yougang; Galdino, Luiz; Günsen, Zorigoo


    The effects of a type I AFP on the bulk melting of frozen AFP solutions and frozen AFP+solute solutions were studied through an NMR microimaging experiment. The solutes studied include sodium chloride and glucose and the amino acids alanine, threonine, arginine, and aspartic acid. We found that the AFP is able to induce the bulk melting of the frozen AFP solutions at temperatures lower than 0 °C and can also keep the ice melted at higher temperatures in the AFP+solute solutions than those in the corresponding solute solutions. The latter shows that the ice phases were in super-heated states in the frozen AFP+solute solutions. We have tried to understand the first experimental phenomenon via the recent theoretical prediction that type I AFP can induce the local melting of ice upon adsorption to ice surfaces. The latter experimental phenomenon was explained with the hypothesis that the adsorption of AFP to ice surfaces introduces a less hydrophilic water-AFP-ice interfacial region, which repels the ionic/hydrophilic solutes. Thus, this interfacial region formed an intermediate chemical potential layer between the water phase and the ice phase, which prevented the transfer of water from the ice phase to the water phase. We have also attempted to understand the significance of the observed melting phenomena to the survival of organisms that express AFPs over cold winters.

  3. Picosecond laser photolysis studies of DMA DMPP in solution

    Miyasaka, Hiroshi; Itaya, Akira; Rotkiewicz, Krystyna; Rechthaler, Karl


    Picosecond transient absorption spectra of: 4-(4'- N,N-dimethylaminophenyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1,7-diphenyl-bis-pyrazolo-[3,4-b;4',3'-e]-pyridine (DMA-DMPP), 3,5-dimethyl-1,7-diphenyl-bis-pyrazolo-[3,4-b;4',3'-e]-pyridine (BPP) and 3,5-dimethyl-1,4,7-triphenyl-bis-pyrazolo-[3,4-b;4',3'-e]-pyridine (H-DMPP) were measured in solvents of different polarity. The results revealed the previously postulated change of the character of the fluorescing state from a primary excited, low polar state in non-polar solvents to a CT state in highly polar ones. Transient absorption spectra in the equilibrium fluorescent state of DMA-DMPP in polar solvents comprised the band ascribable to the cation radical of the DMA moiety. The charge transfer process is fastest in methanol and acetonitrile; in the former it is not controlled by a dynamic Stokes shift.

  4. A study of the electrode/solution interface during electrochemical reactions by digital holography



    Full Text Available Digital holography was used to study in situ the dynamic changes of the electrode/solution interface and the solution near the electrode during the anodic process of iron in a sulfuric acid solution. The effects of chloride, bromide and iodine ions on this process were also investigated. The magnetic field also has effects on the process. The effects are discussed in combination with SEM results.

  5. Proton hydration in aqueous solution: Fourier transform infrared studies of HDO spectra

    Śmiechowski, Maciej; Stangret, Janusz


    This paper attempts to elucidate the number and nature of the hydration spheres around the proton in an aqueous solution. This phenomenon was studied in aqueous solutions of selected acids by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of semiheavy water (HDO), isotopically diluted in H2O. The quantitative version of difference spectrum procedure was applied for the first time to investigate such systems. It allowed removal of bulk water contribution and separation of the spectra of solute-affected HDO. The obtained spectral data were confronted with ab initio calculated structures of small gas-phase and polarizable continuum model (PCM) solvated aqueous clusters, H+(H2O)n, n =2-8, in order to help in establishing the structural and energetic states of the consecutive hydration spheres of the hydrated proton. This was achieved by comparison of the calculated optimal geometries with the interatomic distances derived from HDO band positions. The structure of proton hydration shells outside the first hydration sphere essentially follows the model structure of other hydrated cations, previously revealed by affected HDO spectra. The first hydration sphere complex in diluted aqueous solutions was identified as an asymmetric variant of the regular Zundel cation [The Hydrogen Bond: Recent Developments in Theory and Experiments, edited by P. Schuster, G. Zundel, and C. Sandorfy (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976), Vol. II, p. 683], intermediate between the ideal Zundel and Eigen structures [E. Wicke et al., Z. Phys. Chem. Neue Folge 1, 340 (1954)]. Evidence was found for the existence of strong and short hydrogen bonds, with oxygen-oxygen distance derived from the experimental affected spectra equal 2.435Å on average and in the PCM calculations about 2.41-2.44Å. It was also evidenced for the first time that the proton possesses four well-defined hydration spheres, which were characterized in terms of hydrogen bonds' lengths and arrangements. Additionally, an outer

  6. A brief review of the estimated economic burden of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States: inflation-adjusted updates of previously published cost studies.

    Chesson, Harrell W; Gift, Thomas L; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Tao, Guoyu; Johnson, Ana P; Kent, Charlotte K


    We conducted a literature review of studies of the economic burden of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. The annual direct medical cost of sexually transmitted diseases (including human immunodeficiency virus) has been estimated to be $16.9 billion (range: $13.9-$23.0 billion) in 2010 US dollars.

  7. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study

    Forner, Lone; Hansen, Ole Hyldegaard; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack


    Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO...

  8. The safety and effectiveness of once daily detemir in patients with type 2 diabetes previously failing oral agents:the Chinese cohort from SOL-VETM observational study



    Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of initiating once-daily insulin detemir(Levemir) as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) who failed treatment of oral anti-diabetic drugs(OAD).Methods The present study was derived from the data of

  9. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve


    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  10. Role of micronized progesterone in prevention of preterm labour in women with previous history of one or more preterm births: a research study at a tertiary care hospital

    Rashmi Ahuja


    Conclusions: The study concluded that progesterone use was associated with 64.2% reduction in the incidence of preterm delivery (p=0.029.Antenatal administration of progesterone reduces the risk of preterm birth before 37 weeks and 34 weeks as well as the risk of a newborn being born with a birth weight of less than 2500 gms. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1176-1180

  11. Study on Absorption and Regeneration Performance of Novel Hybrid Solutions for CO2 Capture

    Gao Jie; Yin Jun; Zhu Feifei; Chen Xin; Tong Ming; Kang Wanzhong; Zhou Yanbo; Lu Jun


    Recently, a kind of hybrid solution MEA-methanol shows a better CO2 capture performance over aqueous MEA solution. However, the vaporization of methanol is the biggest disadvantage that hinders its application, so it is necessary to minimize the vaporization of methanol during both the absorption and regeneration processes. In this work, two kinds of hybrid solutions were studied and compared with aqueous MEA solution and MEA-methanol solution, including MEA/TEA/methanol solution and MEA/glycerol/methanol solution. The absorption property of MEA/glycerol/methanol solution is better than aqueous MEA solution within a certain period of time and the absorption property of MEA/TEA/methanol solution is too poor to be used in CO2 capture. By increasing the concentration of TEA and decreasing the concentration of MEA, the absorption rate, CO2 capture efifciency and absorption capacity all decreased. Upon adding glycerol, the cyclic capacity decreased and the generation temperature increased, and moreover, the density and viscosity also increased considerably. So after adding TEA and glycerol, the CO2 capture performance of MEA-methanol solvent cannot be improved.

  12. A Retrospective Study of Capecitabine/Temozolomide (CAPTEM Regimen in the Treatment of Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (pNETs after Failing Previous Therapy

    Muhammad Wasif Saif


    Full Text Available Context Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs are notoriously resistant to currently available chemotherapy agents.Preclinical data has suggested synergy between temozolomide and capecitabine. Objective To report a retrospective data on the efficacy and safety of capecitabine and temozolomide (CAPTEM regimen in patients with metastatic pancreaticneuroendocrine tumors (pNETs who have failed prior therapies. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 7 patientswith metastatic pNETs who had had progressive cancer prior to treatment despite therapy, including long-acting releaseoctreotide (60 mg/month, chemotherapy and hepatic chemoembolization. Capecitabine was administered at a flat dose of1,000 mg orally twice daily on days 1-14 and temozolomide 200 mg/m2 was given in two divided doses daily on days 10-14of a 28-day cycle. Tumor assessments were repeated every two cycles and serum tumor markers were measured every cycle. Response to treatment was assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST parameters, and toxicity was graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, version 3.0. Results Among 7 patients treated, three patients achieved a partial response, and two patients had stable disease. Totalresponse rate was 43%, and clinical benefit (responders and stable disease was 71%. Median duration of response was 8months (range: 4-12 months. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities included grade 3 thrombocytopenia in one patient and grade 3 fatigue in one patient. The most common toxicities were grade 1 and 2 neutropenia, grade 1 fatigue, grade 1 and 2 hand-foot syndrome. Conclusions Our retrospective study showed that modified CAPTEM regimen was well-tolerated and produced comparable response to historical data in neuroendocrine tumors, including pNETs. Our study is unique as it only included patients with pNETs. Further prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the combination of

  13. A gender-medicine post hoc analysis (MetaGeM project to test sex differences in previous observational studies in different diseases: methodology

    Colombo D


    Full Text Available Delia Colombo,1 Gilberto Bellia,1 Donatella Vassellatti,1 Emanuela Zagni,1 Simona Sgarbi,2 Sara Rizzoli21Novartis Farma, Origgio, 2MediData, Modena, ltaly Abstract: Only recently has medical research begun to understand the importance of taking sex into account, recognizing that symptoms and responses to medical treatment may be very different between males and females. However, the analyses provided by the pharmaceutical industry to regulatory authorities often do not present safety and efficacy data by sex. Novartis has started a gender-medicine project called MetaGeM, which includes nine observational studies sponsored by Novartis Farma, Italy; conducted in Italy between 2002 and 2013 in a range of different clinical areas. The MetaGeM project aims to analyze and describe by means of post hoc analyses and meta-analyses, clinical outcomes, therapeutic approaches, and safety data of these studies, by sex: PSYCHAE; GENDER ATTENTION in psoriasis; Synergy in psoriatic arthritis; ICEBERG in HBsAg carriers; SURF and CETRA in liver- and renal transplanted patients, respectively; DEEP in Parkinson's disease; and EVOLUTION and AXEPT in Alzheimer's disease. The present paper describes the methodology of the MetaGeM project.Keywords: gender-medicine, MetaGeM project, methodology

  14. A review of solutions for diagnostic accuracy studies with an imperfect or missing reference standard

    J.B. Reitsma; A.W.S. Rutjes; K.S. Khan; A. Coomarasamy; P.M. Bossuyt


    Objective: In diagnostic accuracy studies, the reference standard may be imperfect or not available in all patients. We systematically reviewed the proposed solutions for these situations and generated methodological guidance. Study Design and Setting: Review of methodological articles. Results: We

  15. Toxaphene in standard solutions and cleaned biota extract-results of the first QUASIMEME interlaboratory studies

    Boer, de J.; Oehme, M.; Smith, K.; Wells, D.E.


    Two interlaboratory studies on individual toxaphene congeners have been organised by the project Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe (QUASIMEME). Fifteen laboratories analysed two standard solutions in the first study and 13 laboratories analysed a standard

  16. Column studies for biosorption of dyes from aqueous solutions on ...

    Abstract. Biosorption is becoming a promising alternative to replace or ... biomass was immobilised in a polysulphone matrix in the form of spherical beads. In column studies, adsorption and elution tests were conducted for each dye and the ...

  17. Studies of solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes and their materials

    Hellerich, Emily [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    A hitherto unexplored approach is presented in which a small molecule is used as a host to polymer guests in solution-processed OLEDs. We find that the small molecule host results in much more efficient devices than the often-used alternative polymer host when used for the guests presented. It is likely that nano- and microstructural differences between the hosts contribute to the improvements, which highlights some interesting characteristics that can help to better understand the nature of these mixtures. A number of the guests used in this study were newly synthesized benzobisoxazole-based copolymers. New organic copolymers are presented that are based on the chemical structure of benzobisoxazoles, which have been shown in the past to have good electron transporting properties. The novel concept in this publication pertains to a change in the direction of polymerization, also known as the conjugation pathway, which we show increases the emission efficiency. This work highlights a unique and useful property of organic semiconducting materials in that they can be synthesized to create the desired characteristics. Earlier work is described that kick-started in our research group the use of small molecules in solution-processed OLEDs. Originally these devices were to be used in magnetoresistance studies, but the project took a different path when the devices were more efficient than expected. The efficient use of small molecules in solution-processed OLEDs is highlighted, which at the time was not often the case. Also, the important observation of the effect of solvent choice on the resultant film is emphasized, with discussion of the likely cause of these effects. Microcavity OLEDs are introduced in which the transparent anode ITO is replaced with semi-transparent thin silver, which creates an optical cavity within the devices. The goal was to expand a previous work that created an on-chip spectrometer covering wavelengths 493 to 639 nm. In this case, a spin

  18. A study of the presence of B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma (previously Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum, Rickettsia, and Babesia in Ixodes ricinus collected within the territory of Belluno, Italy.

    Piccolin, G; Benedetti, G; Doglioni, C; Lorenzato, C; Mancuso, S; Papa, N; Pitton, L; Ramon, M C; Zasio, C; Bertiato, G


    In the years 2000 and 2001, we sampled ticks in order to establish the distribution of Ixodes ricinus in the province of Belluno; 5987 tick samples from 244 sites throughout the province were gathered, by dragging for a 5-min period. In 40 sites, seasonal variations and cycle stages of the parasites were studied at monthly intervals from March to September. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to identify the tick-infected sites. Of 1931 individual ticks, 8.23% were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, 4.4% were positive for Ehrlichia, 1.6% were positive for Rickettsia, and 1.6% were positive for Babesia. The co-presence of Borrelia and Ehrlichia (1.2%) and Babesia (0.5%), Borrelia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia (0.1%) was also found.

  19. Performance of the new 2012 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica: comparison with the previous criteria in a single-centre study.

    Macchioni, Pierluigi; Boiardi, Luigi; Catanoso, Mariagrazia; Pazzola, Giulia; Salvarani, Carlo


    To compare the performance of published classification/diagnostic criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), including the new 2012 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, in a single-centre study. We studied all consecutive patients with new-onset PMR seen in our centre over 6 years, whose diagnosis was confirmed during a prospective 12-month follow-up period. Subjects were classified by each of the seven different criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were compared. Control population consisted of all consecutive patients aged ≥50 years seen in a 4-year period in our early arthritis clinic who had a 12-month confirmation of a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or other inflammatory articular diseases. Data were collected from 136 cases and 149 controls, including 94 patients with RA. The most sensitive criteria were the new 2012 EULAR/ACR classification criteria (92.6%). Adding ultrasound (US) specificity increased from 81.5% to 91.3% in total cases and from 79.7% to 89.9% in RA. Bird criteria had a sensitivity of 89.2% but the lowest specificity (40.2% in total cases and 72.5% in RA). Jones and Nobunaga criteria were the most specific criteria (96.7% and 97.8% in total cases and 98.6% and 99.5% in RA) but the less sensitive (63.1% and 58.2%) ones. Overall, discriminatory ability, as reflected by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was better for the 2012 US EULAR/ACR criteria (0.920 in total cases and 0.910 in RA). The new EULAR/ACR criteria in new-onset PMR patients perform best in discriminating PMR from RA and other inflammatory articular diseases. Ultrasound further increases the specificity of the criteria.

  20. Ludwig-Soret effect of non-ionic surfactant aqueous solution studied by beam deflection method

    Maeda, Kousaku; Kita, Rio; Shinyashiki, Naoki; Yagihara, Shin


    We have studied the thermal diffusion of non-ionic surfactant aqueous solutions by a beam deflection method. The thermal diffusion of pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E5) and hexaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E6) is studied in the concentration range of 1.0-99.0 wt% and in the temperature range of 20.0-35.0 °C. A stable temperature gradient is applied to the solution, where solute molecules shift to the cold side of the solution for lowconcentration samples. The concentration dependence of the Soret coefficient ST of the C12E6 aqueous solution shows a sign inversion behavior. At all concentrations, the developed concentration gradient is proportionally related to the applied temperature gradient. The results confirm that the magnitude of ST has no temperature gradient dependence under the studied experimental conditions.

  1. Phase II Study of Bortezomib as a Single Agent in Patients with Previously Untreated or Relapsed/Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia Ineligible for Intensive Therapy

    Chiara Sarlo


    Full Text Available We explored the safety and efficacy of bortezomib given as single agent in patients with untreated or relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML, unfit for conventional chemotherapy. Fourteen patients were treated with bortezomib 1.5 mg/m2 administered twice weekly for two weeks, every 3 weeks. Median age was 70 years (range 60–81 and the median number of cycles delivered was 2 (range 1–4. Of 13 evaluable patients, in 8 (61%, the administration of bortezomib resulted in an antileukemic effect as demonstrated by peripheral blood and/or bone marrow blast reduction. In 4 (50% of these 8, a decrease by 37% of transfusion requirement was also observed . Overall median survival was 4 months (range 0.25–10. Neurotoxicity was the most frequent adverse event with 7 of 13 (54% patients experiencing grades 3-4 peripheral neuropathy. Neurotoxicity led to treatment discontinuation in 4 (57% of 7. In conclusion, the observed anti-leukemic activity of bortezomib indicates that there is room for designing additional studies in which combination with other chemotherapeutic agents should be considered. Clinical registration no.: EUDRACT 2006-006923-38.

  2. Can a Repeated Sprint Ability Test Help Clear a Previously Injured Soccer Player for Fully Functional Return to Activity? A Pilot Study.

    Padulo, Johnny; Attene, Giuseppe; Ardigò, Luca P; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Maffulli, Nicola; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Dello Iacono, Antonio


    To investigate the effects of fatigue induced by a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test on the neuromuscular responses of soccer players with a recent history of lower limb injuries (CH) and a matched control group in good fitness condition (GH). This was a case-control study. Nine CH and 9 GH. Allocation to CH or GH. Each player was assessed for blood lactate concentration and jumping performance [squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ)] before/after RSA. Post-RSA rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was obtained. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to calculate RSA sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between CH and GH. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess reliability. No baseline differences were found for any variable. ΔSJ before/after RSA was -14 ± 2% and -5 ± 2% in CH and GH, respectively (P Repeated sprint ability is a simple, low-cost field test potentially able to assist in clinical decision making for return to sport.

  3. Prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet in refugees previously exposed to torture: a ten-year follow-up study

    Olsen, Dorthe Reff; Montgomery, Edith; Bøjholm, Søren


    exposed to torture in their home country were interviewed at a Danish rehabilitation clinic on average 8 years after their final release from confinement and re-interviewed 10 years later. Interviews focused on history of exposure to physical and mental torture and on pain in the head, back and feet...... prevalent at study. RESULTS: The mean number of times imprisoned was 2.5 and the mean cumulative duration of imprisonment 19.4 months. The most frequent physical torture method reported was beating (95.0%) and the main mental torture method deprivation (88.5%). Pain reported at follow-up was strongly...... associated with pain reported at baseline, and the prevalence of pain increased considerably (pain in the head, 47.5% at baseline and 58.3% at follow-up; back, 48.2% and 75.5%; feet, 23.7% and 63.3%). Predictor patterns at baseline and at follow-up had common traits, so that pain in the head and pain...

  4. Aqueous solutions of proline and NaCl studied by differential scanning calorimetry at subzero temperatures

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Jørgensen, Bo; Nielsen, Jette


    The hydration properties of proline are studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in aqueous solutions during freezing to -60 degrees C and subsequent heating to +20 degrees C. The concentration of proline in the freeze concentrated solution was estimated to approximately 50 wt% (w/w) in...

  5. 77 FR 48491 - Regulatory New Drug Review: Solutions for Study Data Exchange Standards; Notice of Meeting...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I Regulatory New Drug Review: Solutions for... Administration (FDA) is announcing a meeting entitled ``Regulatory New Drug Review: Solutions for Study...

  6. A Cross-Age Study on the Understanding of Chemical Solutions and Their Components

    Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa


    The aims of this study were considered under three headings. The first was to elicit misconceptions that students had about the terms "solute", "solvent" and "solution." The second was to understand how students' prior learning affected their misconceptions. The third was to determine if students were able to make a…

  7. Field-scale water flow and solute transport : Swap model concepts, parameter estimation and case studies

    Dam, van J.C.


    Water flow and solute transport in top soils are important elements in many environmental studies. The agro- and ecohydrological model SWAP (Soil-Water-Plant-Atmosphere) has been developed to simulate simultaneously water flow, solute transport, heat flow and crop growth at field scale level. The ma

  8. A study of the electrochemical behavior in tungsten and caustic solutions and platinum/iridium in chloride solutions, informal report

    Vitus, C.M.; Isaacs, H.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Schroeder, V. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). College of Engineering


    Platinum/iridium and tungsten wires were electronically etched in chloride and caustic solution, respectively, to produce tips with high aspect ratio. A direct relationship between the meniscus and the aspect ratio of etched tips was established. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that higher aspect ratios were obtained by changing the geometry of the meniscus during the etch either by an increase in the applied a.c. voltage or with the addition of a nonpolar layer above the electrolytic solution during the etching process. Above the breakdown voltage, two possible mechanisms appeared to control the etching process by expediting chemical dissolution: cavitation and sparking. Cavitation caused erosion due to the force of evolved gases against the electrode and sparking attacked the surface by vaporizing the metal. Sparking commenced on both wires near 24V. This voltage corresponded to a minimum in the plot of total etch time versus voltage. From light emission studies, sparking on Pt/Ir was associated with the ionization of Pt, Ir, Ca, and Cl. A compositional analysis of insoluble black particles produced during a.c. and d.c. etching of Pt/Ir revealed Pt and Ir as the major constituents of the product. The sparking process was shown to have a potential use in micromachining.

  9. Effects of dopaminergic replacement therapy on motor speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: longitudinal follow-up study on previously untreated patients.

    Rusz, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Klempíř, Jiří; Čmejla, Roman; Růžička, Evžen


    Although speech disorders represent an early and common manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD), little is known about their progression and relationship to dopaminergic replacement therapy. The aim of the current study was to examine longitudinal motor speech changes after the initiation of pharmacotherapy in PD. Fifteen newly-diagnosed, untreated PD patients and ten healthy controls of comparable age were investigated. PD patients were tested before the introduction of antiparkinsonian therapy and then twice within the following 6 years. Quantitative acoustic analyses of seven key speech dimensions of hypokinetic dysarthria were performed. At baseline, PD patients showed significantly altered speech including imprecise consonants, monopitch, inappropriate silences, decreased quality of voice, slow alternating motion rates, imprecise vowels and monoloudness. At follow-up assessment, preservation or slight improvement of speech performance was objectively observed in two-thirds of PD patients within the first 3-6 years of dopaminergic treatment, primarily associated with the improvement of stop consonant articulation. The extent of speech improvement correlated with L-dopa equivalent dose (r = 0.66, p = 0.008) as well as with reduction in principal motor manifestations based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (r = -0.61, p = 0.02), particularly reflecting treatment-related changes in bradykinesia but not in rigidity, tremor, or axial motor manifestations. While speech disorders are frequently present in drug-naive PD patients, they tend to improve or remain relatively stable after the initiation of dopaminergic treatment and appear to be related to the dopaminergic responsiveness of bradykinesia.

  10. Comparative study of Hg xCd 1-xTe films grown on CdTe thin films previously deposited from two different techniques

    Ali, A.; Abbas Shah, N.; Maqsood, A.


    High quality cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films were grown on glass substrates with two different techniques, two evaporation source (TES) and closed space sublimation (CSS). Further to the above mercury telluride (HgTe) was then deposited by using single source on both CdTe thin films for obtaining Hg xCd 1-xTe samples. The crystalline structure of the Hg xCd 1-xTe sample grown from CSS-CdTe showed the preferential (1 1 1) orientation with smoother and larger grain size than those of TES-CdTe. The optical transmission for TES-CdTe sample was above 90% in the 1000-1500 nm range whereas it was significantly below 80% for CSS-CdTe sample. The optical transmission for TES-Hg xCd 1-xTe and CSS-Hg xCd 1-xTe was ˜60%. The resistivity at room temperature of TES-CdTe and CSS-CdTe was ˜3.33×10 9 Ω cm and ˜2.20×10 8 Ω cm, respectively, while the resistivity of TES-Hg xCd 1-xTe and CSS-Hg xCd 1-xTe samples was ˜1.73 Ω cm and ˜5.34×10 5 Ω cm, respectively. The comparative study of ternary compound prepared with the above techniques has been carried out for the first time.

  11. A kinetic study of precipitation from supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions

    Kemenade, M.J.J.M. van; Bruyn, P.L. de

    The formation of three different crystalline calcium phosphates (DCPD, OCP, HAP) and an amorphous calcium phosphate was studied as a function of pH and supersaturation. Under the experimental conditions the formation of HAP is always found to be preceded by one or more precursors in a sequence that

  12. [The contamination under polymerase chain reaction studies: problems and solutions].

    Titov, V N; Ameliushkina, V A; Rozhkova, T A


    The study was carried out to determine risk factors of false positive and false negative results under polymerase chain reaction-analysis of clinical material. The samples with high viral load can be the source of false positive results. The contamination with nucleic acids can occur at any section of polymerase chain reaction analysis. The study data permitted to establish that the most sensitive stage is isolation and purification of nucleic acids especially under manual mode of operation. The detection of positive signal in most samples of one setting indicates total contamination. The cases when only several samples are polluted are special challenge. The presence of sample with high concentration of viral nucleic acid and several samples with low concentration in one setting means necessity of repeated analysis beginning with stage of isolation of nucleic acid. The analysis of curves of accumulation of products of amplification, their forms and positioning on chart is the obligatory stage of polymerase chain reaction study in real time regimen. These actions permit to exclude the readouts of false negative testing results to departments. The study conclusions are equipotent for polymerase chain reaction testing of any nucleic acid targets.

  13. Archiving primary data : Solutions for long-term studies

    Mills, James A.; Teplitsky, Celine; Arroyo, Beatriz; Charmantier, Anne; Becker, Peter. H.; Birkhead, Tim R.; Bize, Pierre; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Bonenfant, Christophe; Boutin, Stan; Bushuev, Andrey; Cam, Emmanuelle; Cockburn, Andrew; Cote, Steeve D.; Coulson, John C.; Daunt, Francis; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Doligez, Blandine; Drummond, Hugh; Espie, Richard H. M.; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Frentiu, Francesca; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Furness, Robert W.; Garant, Dany; Gauthier, Gilles; Grant, Peter R.; Griesser, Michael; Gustafsson, Lars; Hansson, Bengt; Harris, Michael P.; Jiguet, Frederic; Kjellander, Petter; Korpimaki, Erkki; Krebs, Charles J.; Lens, Luc; Linne, John D. C.; Low, Matthew; McAdam, Andrew; Margalida, Antoni; Merila, Juha; Moller, Anders P.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Nisbet, Ian C. T.; van Noordwijk, Arie J.; Oro, Daniel; Part, Tomas; Pelletier, Fanie; Potti, Jaime; Pujol, Benoit; Reale, Denis; Rockwel, Robert F.; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Roulin, Alexandre; Sedinger, James S.; Swenson, Jon E.; Thebaud, Christophe; Visser, Marcel E.; Wanless, Sarah; Westneat, David F.; Wilson, Alastair J.; Zedrosser, Andreas


    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (PIs) with lo

  14. Spectrofluorimetric study of the interaction of ciprofloxacin with amino acids in aqueous solution following solvatochromic studies

    Alizadeh, Kamal; Mobarrez, Mahsa; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    Complexation of a fluoroquinolone derivative (ciprofloxacin), L, and some amino acids has been studied using spectrofluorimetric method. Results indicated that ciprofloxacin have a greater tendency to form a 1:1 complex with aspartic acid and arginine than the other tested molecules. The fluorescence of ciprofloxacin exhibits quenching process while it has been titrated with these amino acids. Formation constant values (Kf) for complex formed between ciprofloxacin and amino acids were also calculated. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were studied too. Possible reasons for the observed stability sequence were discussed based on the structures proposed for the resulting complexes. Besides the solution studies, solvatochromic properties of the ciprofloxacin are discussed by studying its spectra in a selection of different solvents.

  15. Phase 2 study of tabalumab, a human anti-B-cell activating factor antibody, with bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma.

    Raje, Noopur S; Moreau, Philippe; Terpos, Evangelos; Benboubker, Lotfi; Grząśko, Norbert; Holstein, Sarah A; Oriol, Albert; Huang, Shang-Yi; Beksac, Meral; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Tai, Datchen F; Wooldridge, James E; Conti, Ilaria; Kaiser, Christopher J; Nguyen, Tuan S; Cronier, Damien M; Palumbo, Antonio


    In this double-blind, Phase 2 study, 220 patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive placebo (N = 72), tabalumab 100 mg (N = 74), or tabalumab 300 mg (N = 74), each in combination with dexamethasone 20 mg and subcutaneous bortezomib 1·3 mg/m(2) on a 21-day cycle. No significant intergroup differences were observed among primary (median progression-free survival [mPFS]) or secondary efficacy outcomes. The mPFS was 6·6, 7·5 and 7·6 months for the tabalumab 100, 300 mg and placebo groups, respectively (tabalumab 100 mg vs. placebo Hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1·13 [0·80-1·59], P = 0·480; tabalumab 300 mg vs. placebo HR [95% CI] = 1·03 [0·72-1·45], P = 0·884). The most commonly-reported treatment-emergent adverse events were thrombocytopenia (37%), fatigue (37%), diarrhoea (35%) and constipation (32%). Across treatments, patients with low baseline BAFF (also termed TNFSF13B) expression (n = 162) had significantly longer mPFS than those with high BAFF expression (n = 55), using the 75th percentile cut-off point (mPFS [95% CI] = 8·3 [7·0-9·3] months vs. 5·8 [3·7-6·6] months; HR [95% CI] = 1·59 [1·11-2·29], P = 0·015). Although generally well tolerated, PFS was not improved during treatment with tabalumab compared to placebo. A higher dose of 300 mg tabalumab did not improve efficacy compared to the 100 mg dose. Nonetheless, BAFF appears to have some prognostic value in patients with multiple myeloma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Intravenous C.E.R.A. maintains stable haemoglobin levels in patients on dialysis previously treated with darbepoetin alfa: results from STRIATA, a randomized phase III study

    Canaud, Bernard; Mingardi, Giulio; Braun, Johann; Aljama, Pedro; Kerr, Peter G.; Locatelli, Francesco; Villa, Giuseppe; Van Vlem, Bruno; McMahon, Alan W.; Kerloëguen, Cécile; Beyer, Ulrich


    Background. Extending the administration interval of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) represents an opportunity to improve the efficiency of anaemia management in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, effective haemoglobin (Hb) maintenance can be challenging with epoetin alfa and epoetin beta administered at extended intervals. C.E.R.A., a continuous erythropoietin receptor activator, has a unique pharmacologic profile and long half-life (∼130 h), allowing administration at extended intervals. Phase III results have demonstrated that C.E.R.A. administered once every 4 weeks effectively maintains stable Hb levels in patients with CKD on dialysis. Methods. STRIATA (Stabilizing haemoglobin TaRgets in dialysis following IV C.E.R.A. Treatment for Anaemia) was a multicentre, open-label randomized phase III study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous C.E.R.A. administered once every 2 weeks (Q2W) for Hb maintenance following direct conversion from darbepoetin alfa (DA). Adult patients on dialysis receiving stable intravenous DA once weekly (QW) or Q2W were randomized (1:1) to continue their current DA regimen (n = 156) or receive intravenous C.E.R.A. Q2W (n = 157) for 52 weeks. Doses were adjusted to maintain Hb levels within ± 1.0 g/dl of baseline and between 10.0 and 13.5 g/dl. The primary endpoint was the mean Hb change between baseline and the evaluation period (weeks 29–36). Results. Most patients (>80%) received DA QW before randomization. The mean (95% CI) difference between C.E.R.A. and DA in the primary endpoint was 0.18 g/dl (−0.05, 0.41), within a pre-defined non-inferiority limit. C.E.R.A. was clinically non-inferior to DA (P < 0.0001) in maintaining Hb levels. Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusions. Stable Hb levels were successfully maintained in patients on haemodialysis directly converted to Q2W intravenous C.E.R.A. from DA. PMID:18586762

  17. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    Ratib Osman


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT radiation therapy (RT for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Methods Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV was defined on 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (DMax of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, DMax was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal DMedian was 90 parameters. Results Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV was improved with RA (V95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%, when compared to IMRT (V95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%. The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V95% 88.9 ± 10.5% and better for the PTV (V95%85.6 ± 5.0%. The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3% and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%, when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%. CI90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm3 *105 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. Conclusion RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk.

  18. Comparative study of infrared wavefront sensing solutions for adaptive optics

    Plantet, C.; Fusco, T.; Guerineau, N.; Derelle, S.; Robert, C.


    The development of new low-noise infrared detectors, such as RAPID (CEA LETI/Sofradir) or SAPHIRA (Selex), has given the possibility to consider infrared wavefront sensing at low ux. We propose here a comparative study of near infrared (J and H bands) wavefront sensing concepts for mid and high orders estimation on a 8m- class telescope, relying on three existing wavefront sensors: the Shack-Hartmann sensor, the pyramid sensor and the quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometer. We consider several conceptual designs using the RAPID camera, making a trade-off between background flux, optical thickness and compatibility with a compact cryostat integration. We then study their sensitivity to noise in order to compare them in different practical scenarios. The pyramid provides the best performance, with a gain up to 0.5 magnitude, and has an advantageous setup.

  19. Study of Cellulose Interaction with Concentrated Solutions of Sulfuric Acid

    Michael Ioelovich


    The effect of the concentration of sulfuric acid (SA) and temperature on structure and properties of cellulose (MCC) had been studied. Investigations showed that solubility of the initial sample at the room temperature increased gradually in the range of the acid concentration from 50 to 60 wt.% SA. When SA concentration reached 65 wt.%, then MCC sample dissolved completely. Cellulose regenerated from 65 wt.% SA had an amorphized structure and was characterized by high enzymatic digestibility...

  20. Ultrafast studies of photodissociation in solution: Dissociation, recombination and relaxation

    King, Jason Christopher [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Photodissociation of M(CO)6 (M=Cr,Mo,W) and the formation of solvated M(CO)5•S complex was studied in cyclohexane; rate-limiting step is vibrational energy relaxation from the new bond to the solvent. For both M=Cr and Mo, the primary relaxation occurs in 18 ps; for Cr, there is an additional vibrational relaxation (150 ps time scale) of a CO group poorly coupled to other modes. Relaxation of M=W occurs in 42 ps; several possible mechanisms for the longer cooling are discussed. Vibrational relaxation is also investigated for I2- and IBr- in nonpolar and slightly polar solvents. Attempts were made to discover the mechanism for the fast energy transfer in nonpolar solvent. The longer time scale dynamics of I3- and IBr2- were also studied; both formed a metastable complex following photodissociation and 90-95% return to ground state in 100 ps, implying a barrier to recombination of 4.3 kcal/mol and a barrier to escape of ≥5.5 kcal/mol. The more complex photochemistry of M3(CO)12 (M=Fe,Ru) is also investigated, using visible and ultraviolet radiations, dissociation, geminate recombination, vibrational relaxation, and bridging structures and their reactions were studied. Attempts were made to extend ultrafast spectroscopy into the mid-infrared, but signal-to-noise was poor.

  1. Solution thermodynamics of rare-earth metal ions - physicochemical study-

    Amerkhanova, Sh K; Shlyapov, R M; Uali, A S [Buketov Karaganda state university, University str., 28, Karaganda, 100028 (Kazakhstan)], E-mail:


    The results of the studying of interactions in multicomponent systems 'polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) - rare-earth element ion - nitrate of sodium - water' are represented. It is established that for rubidium (I) ions temperature and ionic strength is render destroying action, and for yttrium (III) ions the influence of these factors has return character which is connected with features of an electronic structure of metal ion. It is revealed that a dominating role of non-electrostatic formation composed, hence, the formation of donor-acceptor connection of 'metal - ligand' occurs through atom of oxygen.

  2. Studies of the adsorptive decoloration of aqueous solutions by MDFSD

    Khaled Hartani


    Breakthrough plots were obtained beside the three isotherms. The breakthrough times were found as CV > MB > BG. These results were compatible to the adsorptivity estimated from the isotherms. It was found through this study that adsorption of CV followed pseudo-first order kinetics, the adsorption rate constant increases with increasing temperature, adsorbent concentration, MDFSD dose and pH. The adsorption equilibrium was shifted toward higher adsorption capacity by increasing the substrate concentration, temperature and pH. The adsorption data fit Freundlich, Langmuir, but attained a better correlation with the Langmuir model. Langmuir and freundlich constants, activation enthalpy of adsorption and the adsorption thermodynamic parameters were obtained.

  3. Ultrasonic study of pyridoxine solutions at different temperatures and concentrations

    Naik, Ritesh R.; Bawankar, S. V.; Tekade, P. V.; Mahodaya, Om A.


    In the present study ultrasonic velocity ( U), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) have been measured at frequency 1 MHz in the binary mixtures of pyridoxine hydrochloride with water in the concentration range (0.1 to 0.0125 M) at 303, 308, 313 K using multifrequency ultrasonic interferometer. The measured value of density, ultrasonic velocity, and viscosity have been used to estimate the acoustical parameters namely adiabatic compressibility (β a), relaxation time (τ), acoustic impedance ( z), free length ( L f), free volume ( V f), and internal pressure ( P i), Wada's constant to investigate the nature and strength of molecular interaction in the binary mixture of pyridoxine hydrochloride with water. The obtained result support the complex formation, molecular association by intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the binary liquid mixtures.

  4. Finding solutions through empowerment: a preliminary study of a solution-orientated approach to nursing in acute psychiatric settings.

    Stevenson, C; Jackson, S; Barker, P


    Acute inpatient care is not a therapeutic milieu, perhaps owing to the lack of nursing skills. Solution-focused therapy (SFT) has been successful in US inpatient facilities in relation to both objective and subjective 'measures'. This paper reports a study of SFT in a UK context, with the aim of developing a user-friendly SFT training course and assessing its impact on both nurses and clients, via a multifaceted, triangulated data collection design. Nurses' knowledge and clinical performance were assessed, as was the client's perspective. There was a significant difference in nurses' SFT knowledge after training and strong evidence of the model being used in practice during the course of training, although nursing documentation was not fully completed. Eighty-three per cent of nurses said that they would continue using the model, and clients found the SFT approach helpful. The findings match the US experience of using SFT.

  5. Numerical study of wave effects on groundwater flow and solute transport in a laboratory beach

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C.; Xia, Yuqiang; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Lin; Jackson, Nancy L.; Miller, Richard S.


    A numerical study was undertaken to investigate the effects of waves on groundwater flow and associated inland-released solute transport based on tracer experiments in a laboratory beach. The MARUN model was used to simulate the density-dependent groundwater flow and subsurface solute transport in the saturated and unsaturated regions of the beach subjected to waves. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software, Fluent, was used to simulate waves, which were the seaward boundary condition for MARUN. A no-wave case was also simulated for comparison. Simulation results matched the observed water table and concentration at numerous locations. The results revealed that waves generated seawater-groundwater circulations in the swash and surf zones of the beach, which induced a large seawater-groundwater exchange across the beach face. In comparison to the no-wave case, waves significantly increased the residence time and spreading of inland-applied solutes in the beach. Waves also altered solute pathways and shifted the solute discharge zone further seaward. Residence Time Maps (RTM) revealed that the wave-induced residence time of the inland-applied solutes was largest near the solute exit zone to the sea. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the change in the permeability in the beach altered solute transport properties in a nonlinear way. Due to the slow movement of solutes in the unsaturated zone, the mass of the solute in the unsaturated zone, which reached up to 10% of the total mass in some cases, constituted a continuous slow release of solutes to the saturated zone of the beach. This means of control was not addressed in prior studies.

  6. Review of previous geophysical and geological studies

    Levchenko, O.V; Neprochnov, Y.P.; Rao, D; Subrahmanyam, C; Murthy, K.S.R

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. X-Ray Solution Scattering Study of Four Escherichia coli Enzymes Involved in Stationary-Phase Metabolism.

    Dadinova, Liubov A; Shtykova, Eleonora V; Konarev, Petr V; Rodina, Elena V; Snalina, Natalia E; Vorobyeva, Natalia N; Kurilova, Svetlana A; Nazarova, Tatyana I; Jeffries, Cy M; Svergun, Dmitri I


    The structural analyses of four metabolic enzymes that maintain and regulate the stationary growth phase of Escherichia coli have been performed primarily drawing on the results obtained from solution small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and other structural techniques. The proteins are (i) class I fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FbaB); (ii) inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase); (iii) 5-keto-4-deoxyuronate isomerase (KduI); and (iv) glutamate decarboxylase (GadA). The enzyme FbaB, that until now had an unknown structure, is predicted to fold into a TIM-barrel motif that form globular protomers which SAXS experiments show associate into decameric assemblies. In agreement with previously reported crystal structures, PPase forms hexamers in solution that are similar to the previously reported X-ray crystal structure. Both KduI and GadA that are responsible for carbohydrate (pectin) metabolism and acid stress responses, respectively, form polydisperse mixtures consisting of different oligomeric states. Overall the SAXS experiments yield additional insights into shape and organization of these metabolic enzymes and further demonstrate the utility of hybrid methods, i.e., solution SAXS combined with X-ray crystallography, bioinformatics and predictive 3D-structural modeling, as tools to enrich structural studies. The results highlight the structural complexity that the protein components of metabolic networks may adopt which cannot be fully captured using individual structural biology techniques.

  8. X-Ray Solution Scattering Study of Four Escherichia coli Enzymes Involved in Stationary-Phase Metabolism.

    Liubov A Dadinova

    Full Text Available The structural analyses of four metabolic enzymes that maintain and regulate the stationary growth phase of Escherichia coli have been performed primarily drawing on the results obtained from solution small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and other structural techniques. The proteins are (i class I fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FbaB; (ii inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase; (iii 5-keto-4-deoxyuronate isomerase (KduI; and (iv glutamate decarboxylase (GadA. The enzyme FbaB, that until now had an unknown structure, is predicted to fold into a TIM-barrel motif that form globular protomers which SAXS experiments show associate into decameric assemblies. In agreement with previously reported crystal structures, PPase forms hexamers in solution that are similar to the previously reported X-ray crystal structure. Both KduI and GadA that are responsible for carbohydrate (pectin metabolism and acid stress responses, respectively, form polydisperse mixtures consisting of different oligomeric states. Overall the SAXS experiments yield additional insights into shape and organization of these metabolic enzymes and further demonstrate the utility of hybrid methods, i.e., solution SAXS combined with X-ray crystallography, bioinformatics and predictive 3D-structural modeling, as tools to enrich structural studies. The results highlight the structural complexity that the protein components of metabolic networks may adopt which cannot be fully captured using individual structural biology techniques.

  9. PILOT STUDY: CCQM-P32 pilot study. Anion calibration solutions

    Weber, Michael; Wüthrich, Jürg


    In the CCQM-P32 pilot study two gravimetrically prepared anion calibration solutions of chloride and phosphate each of about 1 g/kg mass fraction were investigated. The comparison was an activity of the Inorganic Analysis Working Group of CCQM in 2002 and was piloted by the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA). The following institutes participated in this study (in alphabetical order): BAM (Germany), CENAM (Mexico), EMPA (Switzerland), GUM (Poland), KRISS (South Korea), LNE (France), NIST (United States of America), NMIJ (Japan), NRCCRM (China), PTB (Germany), SMU (Slovakia). For the chloride calibration solution 11 participants provided 16 results by the following analytical techniques: coulometry (7), titrimetry (5) and ion chromatography (4). The phosphate amount content was determined by 9 NMIs and 11 results were reported. Phosphate ion chromatography was the most applied technique (4), followed by titrimetry (2), ICP-OES (2), gravimetry (1) and ion-exchange coulometry (1). All results were found within a range of +/-0.5% with respect to the gravimetric value. The variability (RSD) of the results is 0.13% for chloride and 0.26% for phosphate. The reported results of all participants are also graphically displayed in this report. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM Working Group on Inorganic Analysis, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  10. Spectral studies of safranin-O in different surfactant solutions.

    Göktürk, Sinem; Tunçay, Melda


    The interaction of Safranin-O (SO), a cationic dye, with various surfactants viz., anionics; Sodiumdodecylsulfate (SDS) and Sodiumdodecylsulfonate (SDSo), nonionics; polyoxyethylenesorbitanmonolaurate (Tween 20) and polyoxyethylenedodecylether (Brij 35), cationic; Dodecyltrimethylammoniumbromide (DTAB) and zwitterionic; Laurylsulfobetaine (LSB) was studied spectrophotometrically as a function of surfactant concentration ranging from premicellar to postmicellar region in aqueous media in the absence and presence of cosolvents. The binding constants (K(b)) and fraction of bound SO to micelles (f), were calculated by means of Benesi-Hildebrand Equation. The binding tendency of SO to micelles followed the order as; Tween 20>Brij 35>SDS>SDSo>LSB. The presence of cosolvents, such as Methanol, Dimethylformamide (DMFA) and 1,4 Dioxan (DX) at various volume percentages, increased the CMC of both SDS and Tween 20 and at a certain concentration totally inhibited the micellization. The binding of SO to micelles decreased as the concentration of the cosolvents increased. This inhibitory effect of cosolvents on binding of SO to micelles followed the order as; Methanol>DMFA>DX.

  11. Nanoparticles in dilute solution : A numerical study of rotational diffusion

    Evensen, Tom Richard


    This thesis is dedicated to Brownian dynamics simulations of rotational diffusion. A rotation dynamics engine has been implemented and tested. This engine will in the future be integrated as a part of a complete Brownian dynamics simulation tool. The special case, when translational motion can be ignored, has thoroughly been studied. Two choices of generalized coordinates describing angular orientation of the particles are used. The Euler angles, which constitute the classical choice, and the Cartesian components of the rotation vector, which was recently introduced as an alternative, are being compared with regards to computational efficiency. Results from both equilibrium and non-equilibrium simulations are presented. The consistency of two new algorithms is demonstrated on systems of free rigid particles with arbitrary surface topographies. The algorithms make use of only the principal values of the rotational mobility tensor, assuming the corresponding principal axes coincide with the body-fixed coordinate system. These three scalars contain all information about the particle surface topography relevant for rotational diffusion. The calculation of the mobility tensor can be performed in a pre-calculation step, which makes the algorithm itself highly efficient. Both choices of generalized coordinates correctly reproduce theoretical predictions, but we have found that the algorithm using the Cartesian components of the rotation vector as generalized coordinates outperform its counterpart using the Euler angles by up to a factor 1000 in extreme cases. The reason for this improvement is that the algorithm using the Cartesian components of the rotation vector is free of singularities. (Author). refs. figs

  12. Phases of polymer systems in solution studied via molecular dynamics

    Anderson, Joshua Allen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Polymers are amazingly versatile molecules with a tremendous range of applications. Our lives would be very different without them. There would be no multitudes of plastic encased electronic gizmos, no latex paint on the walls and no rubber tires, just to name a few of the many commonplace polymer materials. In fact, life as we know it wouldn’t exist without polymers as two of the most essential types of molecules central to cellular life, Proteins and DNA, are both polymers! [1] With their wide range of application to a variety of uses, polymers are still a very active field in basic research. Of particular current interest is the idea of combining polymers with inorganic particles to form novel composite materials. [2] As computers are becoming faster, they are becoming all the more powerful tools for modeling and simulating real systems. With recent advances in computing on graphics processing units (GPUs) [3–7], questions can now be answered via simulation that could not even be asked before. This thesis focuses on the use of computer simulations to model novel polymerinorganic composite systems in order to predict what possible phases can form and under what conditions. The goal is to provide some direction for future experiments and to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental physics involved. Along the way, there are some interesting and essential side-tracks in the areas of equilibrating complicated phases and accelerating the available computer power with GPU computing, both of which are necessary steps to enable the study of polymer nanocomposites.

  13. XAFS studies of metal-ligand interactions at organic surfaces and in solution

    Boyanov, Maxim I.

    X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) was used as a structural probe to determine the mechanism of metal adsorption to organic surfaces. Two specific systems were investigated, Pb adsorption to heneicosanoic acid Langmuir monolayers (CH3(CH2)19COOH), and Cd adsorption to isolated cell walls of the Bacillus subtilis bacterium. Although the study of these systems is important for quite different reasons, the goal in both is metal binding site speciation and structural characterization of the surface complex. The adsorption of aqueous Cd to B. subtilis was studied as a function of pH by fluorescence mode bulk XAFS. Samples were prepared at six pH values in the range 3.4 to 7.8, and the bacterial functional groups responsible for the adsorption were identified under each condition. Under the experimental Cd and bacterial concentrations, the spectroscopy results indicate that Cd binds predominantly to protonated phosphoryl ligands below pH 4.4, while at higher pH adsorption to carboxyl groups becomes increasingly important. At pH 7.8 we observe the activation of an additional binding site, which we tentatively ascribe to deprotonated phosphoryl ligands. A quantitative Cd speciation diagram for the pH range is presented. Grazing-incidence Pb L3 edge XAFS was used in situ to determine the adsorption complex structure in the Pb-Langmuir monolayer study. The results indicate covalent binding of the Pb cations to the carboxyl headgroups, and the observed Pb-Pb coordination suggests that the metal is adsorbed as a hydrolysis polymer, rather than as individual Pb 2+ ions. The data suggest a bidentate binding mechanism and a one Pb atom to one carboxyl headgroup binding stoichiometry. We discuss how this adsorption model can explain the peculiarities observed with Pb in previous metal-Langmuir monolayer studies. A systematic study of the metal local environment in aqueous solutions was conducted and used in the above analyses. Perchlorate and acetate salt

  14. A study of nonlinear radiation damping by matching analytic and numerical solutions

    Anderson, J. L.; Hobill, D. W.


    In the present use of a mixed analytic-numerical matching scheme to study a linear oscillator that is coupled to a nonlinear field, the approximate causal solution constructed in the radiation zone was matched to a finite-differencing scheme-derived numerical solution in the inner zone. The required agreement of the two solutions in the overlap region permitted the extension of the numerical scheme arbitrarily into the future. The late time behavior of the system in all studied cases was independent of initial conditions. The linearized 'monopole energy loss' formula breaks down in cases of either fast motions or strong nonlinearities.

  15. Thermodynamic Study of Hydrolysis Reactions in Aqueous Solution from Ab Initio Potential and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    S. Tolosa


    Full Text Available A procedure for the theoretical study of chemical reactions in solution by means of molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous solution at infinite dilution is described using ab initio solute-solvent potentials and TIP3P water model to describe the interactions. The procedure is applied to the study of neutral hydrolysis of various molecules (HCONH2, HNCO, HCNHNH2, and HCOOCH3 via concerted and water-assisted mechanisms. We used the solvent as a reaction coordinate and the free energy curves for the calculation of the properties related with the reaction mechanism, namely, reaction and activation energies.

  16. Moessbauer Spectroscopic Studies of {sup 237}Np in frozen nitric acid solution

    Nakada, M; Wang, J; Kitazawa, T; Takahashi, M; Takeda, M; Masaki, N M; Yamashita, T [Department of Materials Science, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI, present JAEA: Japan Atomic Energy Agency), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tsutsui, S, E-mail: [Advanced Science Research Center, JAERI, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)


    We applied Moessbauer spectroscopy to {sup 237}Np in nitric acid solutions to study chemical states. Sample solutions were adjusted to 50 mg/ml of Np(V) and Np(VI) concentration in 0.6 M nitric acid solutions. These solutions were put into original designed containers for samples and mounted to sample holders. The values of isomer shift (IS, relative to NpAl{sub 2}) of Np(V) and Np(VI) in 0.6 M nitric acid were -17.4(1) and -37.2(3) mm/s at about 10 K, respectively. It was found that Np(V) had 7 coordination number and Np(VI) had 8 in nitric acid solutions from values of IS.

  17. Dynamic characteristics of resonant gyroscopes study based on the Mathieu equation approximate solution

    Fan Shang-Chun; Li Yan; Guo Zhan-She; Li Jing; Zhuang Hai-Han


    Dynamic characteristics of the resonant gyroscope are studied based on the Mathieu equation approximate solution in this paper.The Mathieu equation is used to analyze the parametric resonant characteristics and the approximate output of the resonant gyroscope.The method of small parameter perturbation is used to analyze the approximate solution of the Mathieu equation.The theoretical analysis and the numerical simulations show that the approximate solution of the Mathieu equation is close to the dynamic output characteristics of the resonant gyroscope.The experimental analysis shows that the theoretical curve and the experimental data processing results coincide perfectly,which means that the approximate solution of the Mathieu equation can present the dynamic output characteristic of the resonant gyroscope.The theoretical approach and the experimental results of the Mathieu equation approximate solution are obtained,which provides a reference for the robust design of the resonant gyroscope.

  18. Experimental study on preferential solution flow during dump leaching of low-grade ores

    YIN Sheng-hua; WU Ai-xiang; SU Yong-ding; ZHANG Jie


    The phenomenon of preferential solution flow during dump leaching of low-grade ores was studied. The formative mechanism of preferential solution flow was investigated through analyzing the relationship between permeability and ore diameter,and the relationship between surface tension and ore diameter. The preferential solution flow happened within the fine ore area when the dump was unsaturated. And it could happen within the coarse ore area when the dump became saturated. The results of experiment show that the outflow of coarse ore area increases sharply with higher applied rate. The outflow of fine ore area is greater than that of coarse ore area when the applied rate is below 3.2 L/min, and the preferential solution flow happens in fine ore area. But the preferential solution flow happens in coarse ore area when the applied rate is higher than 3.2 L/min. The result of the experiment is consistent with the mechanism analyzing.

  19. Study of solid solution strengthening of alloying element with phase structure factors


    Using the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET), the phase structure factors, nA and nB, of the carbon-containing structural units with mass fraction of carbon (wC) below 0.8% and the mono-alloy structural units with wC at 0.2% in austenite and martensite are calculated. The solid solution strengthening brought by C-containing interstitial solid solution and alloy-substitutional solid solution in γ-Fe and α-Fe is discussed at electron structural level. The coefficient (s) of solid solution strengthening is advanced according to the bonding force between atoms. The study shows that when the criterion is applied to the carbonaceous or alloying element-containing solid solution the results of calculation will coincide with the experimental result very well.

  20. [Study on synergistic effect of bactericidal effect of chlorine dioxide solution by surfactant].

    Wang, Kuitao; Tian, Vuena; Gu, Na; Zhang, Congjing; Niu, Jiajing


    To study the effect of gemini fluorocarbon, sodium p-perfluorous nonenoxybenzene sulfonate and sodium dodecyl sulfate on the chlorine dioxide solution sterilization to object surface. Pure chlorine dioxide solution as the reference disinfectant, carrier quantitative bactericidal test and simulated test on-site were used to carry out laboratory observation according to The disinfection technical specifications (2002). Carrier quantitative bactericidal test showed that the addition dosage of gemini fluoronates, sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant and perfluorinated the nonene oxy benzene sulfonate in disinfectant solution were 60, 60 and 40 mg/L respectively, the killing log value of Staphylococcus aureus exposed to the disinfectant solution containing chlorine dioxide 50 mg/L for 10 mm were all more than 3; and the addition dosage of gemini fluorinates, sodium dodecyl sulfate and perfluorinated the nonene oxy benzene sulfonate in disinfectant solution were 60 mg/L, the killing log value of Escherichia coli exposed to the disinfectant solution containing chlorine dixoxide 20 mg/L for 10 min were all more than 3. The bactericidal effect of the mixture use of surfactant and chlorine dioxide was better than the single use of chlorine dioxide. The simulated test on-site showed that the killing log value of Escherichia coli exposed to the disinfectant solution containing perfluorinated the nonene oxy benzene sulfonate 40 mg/L and chlorine dioxide 20 mg/L for 15 min was more than 3. Surface active agent on germicidal efficacy of chlorine dioxide solution had synergistic action.

  1. Developing consensus-based policy solutions for medicines adherence for Europe: a delphi study

    Clyne Wendy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-adherence to prescribed medication is a pervasive problem that can incur serious effects on patients’ health outcomes and well-being, and the availability of resources in healthcare systems. This study aimed to develop practical consensus-based policy solutions to address medicines non-adherence for Europe. Methods A four-round Delphi study was conducted. The Delphi Expert Panel comprised 50 participants from 14 countries and was representative of: patient/carers organisations; healthcare providers and professionals; commissioners and policy makers; academics; and industry representatives. Participants engaged in the study remotely, anonymously and electronically. Participants were invited to respond to open questions about the causes, consequences and solutions to medicines non-adherence. Subsequent rounds refined responses, and sought ratings of the relative importance, and operational and political feasibility of each potential solution to medicines non-adherence. Feedback of individual and group responses was provided to participants after each round. Members of the Delphi Expert Panel and members of the research group participated in a consensus meeting upon completion of the Delphi study to discuss and further refine the proposed policy solutions. Results 43 separate policy solutions to medication non-adherence were agreed by the Panel. 25 policy solutions were prioritised based on composite scores for importance, and operational and political feasibility. Prioritised policy solutions focused on interventions for patients, training for healthcare professionals, and actions to support partnership between patients and healthcare professionals. Few solutions concerned actions by governments, healthcare commissioners, or interventions at the system level. Conclusions Consensus about practical actions necessary to address non-adherence to medicines has been developed for Europe. These actions are also applicable to

  2. Combined Low-Volume Polyethylene Glycol Solution Plus Stimulant Laxatives versus Standard-Volume Polyethylene Glycol Solution: A Prospective, Randomized Study of Colon Cleansing before Colonoscopy

    Lawrence C Hookey


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG for colon cleansing is often limited by the inability of patients to drink adequate portions of the 4 L solution. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a reduced volume of PEG combined with stimulant laxatives would be better tolerated and as or more effective than the standard dose.

  3. Influence of supersaturation on structure of sodium aluminate solutions with medium concentration: a solution X-ray diffraction study

    李洁; 陈启元; 尹周澜; 张平民; 李元高


    Influence of supersaturation on the structure of a series of freshly prepared supersaturated sodium aluminate solutions with medium concentration was investigated by solution X-ray diffraction. Experimental results show that the basic Al-containing species in all kinds of supersaturated solution is four-coordinated ions. Opposite to Al-O distance contracted in highly concentrated solution, a little expand of the Al-O distance from 1.75 to 1.85 occurs with increasing supersaturation, which is consistent with the occurrence of oligomeric aluminate species. Meanwhile, O-O distance in the first shell of H2O-H2O(OH) in supersaturated sodium aluminate solution is obviously longer than in hydroxide sodium solution and becomes longer and longer with increasing supersaturation. Na-O bond length is about 2.4 and changes little with supersaturation. The reason for Al-O bond expanding with supersaturation and its influence on the stability of solution was discussed.

  4. Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of frozen aqueous solutions of Fe3+ salts

    Mørup, Steen; Knudsen, J. E.; Nielsen, M. K.


    Frozen aqueous solutions (FAS) of Fe3+ salts have been investigated by use of Mössbauer spectroscopy in order to study the conditions for formation of glasses. A general discussion of spin–spin relaxation in glasses is given, and we discuss how changes in the spin–spin relaxation time can...... concentration of the solution increases. At low temperatures the crystallization terminates and the remaining liquid solidifies into a glass. During exposure at 200 K, the dilute samples change irreversibly. This is discussed in terms of a metastable phase diagram. The properties of frozen solutions with other...

  5. Variable temperature NMR studies on the conformations of tonalensin in solution

    Ortega, Alfredo; Maldonado, Emma; Díaz, Eduardo; Reynolds, William F.


    NMR studies on tonalensin 1, a diterpene containing a ten membered ring, made evident the presence of three conformational isomers in solution. At room temperature compound 1 exists as a mixture of the conformers 1A and 1B in a ratio 1:1 in a CDC1 3 solution and 1.5:1 in a Me 2CO-d 6/DMSO-d 6 solution. At lower temperatures a third conformer, 1C, was detected. It was responsible for the line broadening observed for 1A. Temperature dependent 2D NMR experiments have been employed to elucidate the automerization of compound 1.

  6. Solute movement in drained fen peat: a field tracer study in a Somerset (UK) wetland

    Baird, Andrew J.; Gaffney, Simon W.


    Little is known about solute transport in peats, despite the obvious importance of solute transport on eco-hydrological processes in both managed and natural peatlands. To address this lack of knowledge, we investigated solute transport processes in an agricultural fen peat using a conservative KBr tracer. The main aim of the study was to elucidate solute transport behaviour in general in this peat, with a more specific aim of investigating whether preferential or bypassing flow occurred. The tracer moved through the peat more rapidly than expected, and the pattern of movement showed clear evidence of plot-scale bypassing flow. The data also provide evidence that bypassing flow occurs in pores at smaller scales. The implications of this study for management of wetland pastures in the Somerset Moors in south-west England are discussed.

  7. Stability studies of lincomycin hydrochloride in aqueous solution and intravenous infusion fluids

    Czarniak P


    Full Text Available Petra Czarniak, Michael Boddy, Bruce Sunderland, Jeff D Hughes School of Pharmacy, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of Lincocin® (lincomycin hydrochloride in commonly used intravenous fluids at room temperature (25°C, at accelerated-degradation temperatures and in selected buffer solutions.Materials and methods: The stability of Lincocin® injection (containing lincomycin 600 mg/2 mL as the hydrochloride stored at 25°C±0.1°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann’s, 0.9% sodium chloride, 5% glucose, and 10% glucose solutions was investigated over 31 days. Forced degradation of Lincocin® in hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, and hydrogen peroxide was performed at 60°C. The effect of pH on the degradation rate of lincomycin hydrochloride stored at 80°C was determined.Results: Lincomycin hydrochloride was found to maintain its shelf life at 25°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann’s solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution, with less than 5% lincomycin degradation occurring in all intravenous solutions over a 31-day period. Lincomycin hydrochloride showed less rapid degradation at 60°C in acid than in basic solution, but degraded rapidly in hydrogen peroxide. At all pH values tested, lincomycin followed first-order kinetics. It had the greatest stability near pH 4 when stored at 80°C (calculated shelf life of 4.59 days, and was least stable at pH 2 (calculated shelf life of 0.38 days.Conclusion: Lincocin® injection was chemically found to have a shelf life of at least 31 days at 25°C when added to sodium lactate (Hartmann’s solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution. Solutions prepared at approximately pH 4 are likely to have optimum stability. Keywords: lincomycin, stability, pH, intravenous fluids, IV additives

  8. Studies of ionic liquid solutions by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Rodrigues, Fabio [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26.077, CEP 05513-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Gustavo M. do [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26.077, CEP 05513-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:; Santos, Paulo S. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26.077, CEP 05513-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Soft X-ray spectroscopies give specific information about the electronic structure around light elements. The high absorption of soft X-rays by almost every molecule, including air, requires studies under vacuum, which represents a great limitation. Solids with high vapor pressure and liquids are very difficult to be studied, making solution chemistry almost neglected. This work explores the use of ionic liquids, organic liquids with very low vapor pressure, as media to study chemical solutions using soft X-ray. N 1s spectra are reported of ionic liquid solutions of 1-methyl-3alkyl-imidazolium cation with different anions and chain lengths, and urea/choline chloride mixtures (a deep eutectic solvent) with several solutes including dyes (Janus Green B and Congo Red), synthetic polymers (polyaniline) and nitrate salts. While there are significant problems with the signal of the solvent, the results do show that it is possible to detect solute signals, and further to see spectral changes attributed to solvent-solute interactions.

  9. Comparative study of polypyrrole films electrosynthesized in alkaline and acid solutions

    Lehr, I.L. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Quinzani, O.V. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Saidman, S.B., E-mail: [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)


    The influence of the pH of electropolymerization solutions on the properties of polypyrrole films has been studied using potentiodynamic techniques and faradaic impedance spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IR and Raman spectroscopies, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were also used for products characterization. Results indicate that, contrary to what happen with the polymer electrogenerated in acid solutions, the films prepared in alkaline media are stable and present good electrochemical activity in basic solutions. Possible explanations for the observed differences are discussed and it is proposed that the pH of electropolymerization medium directly affects chains organization. Electrosynthesis in solutions of increased basicity results in a more compact and closed polymer structure.

  10. An Effective System to Produce Smoke Solutions from Dried Plant Tissue for Seed Germination Studies

    Janice Coons


    Full Text Available Premise of the study: An efficient and inexpensive system was developed to produce smoke solutions from plant material to research the influence of water-soluble compounds from smoke on seed germination. Methods and Results: Smoke solutions (300 mL per batch were produced by burning small quantities (100–200 g of dried plant material from a range of species in a bee smoker attached by a heater hose to a side-arm flask. The flask was attached to a vacuum water aspirator, to pull the smoke through the water. The entire apparatus was operated in a laboratory fume hood. Conclusions: Compared with other smoke solution preparation systems, the system described is easy to assemble and operate, inexpensive to build, and effective at producing smoke solutions from desired species in a small indoor space. Quantitative measurements can be made when using this system, allowing for replication of the process.

  11. The hydraulics of a straight bedrock channel: Insights from solute dispersion studies

    Richardson, Keith; Carling, Paul Anthony


    temporary storage zones for solute. The changes in bulk flow parameters observed at discharges in excess of Q2 indicate that a significant portion of the channel cross section is acting only as storage and is not contributing to the discharge of the channel. This can be explained by the presence of a central core flow decoupled from marginal slack water and from dead zones in the margins. The results show that the study reach behaves differently from channels from which dispersive fraction values have previously been reported for a range of discharges.

  12. Ionic Liquid-Solute Interactions Studied by 2D NOE NMR Spectroscopy.

    Khatun, Sufia; Castner, Edward W


    Intermolecular interactions between a Ru(2+)(bpy)3 solute and the anions and cations of four different ionic liquids (ILs) are investigated by 2D NMR nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) techniques, including {(1)H-(19)F} HOESY and {(1)H-(1)H} ROESY. Four ILs are studied, each having the same bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide anion in common. Two of the ILs have aliphatic 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cations, while the other two ILs have aromatic 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations. ILs with both shorter (butyl) and longer (octyl or decyl) cationic alkyl substituents are studied. NOE NMR results suggest that the local environment of IL anions and cations near the Ru(2+)(bpy)3 solute is rather different from the bulk IL structure. The solute-anion and solute-cation interactions are significantly different both for ILs with short vs long alkyl tails and for ILs with aliphatic vs aromatic cation polar head groups. In particular, the solute-anion interactions are observed to be about 3 times stronger for the cations with shorter alkyl tails relative to the ILs with longer alkyl tails. The Ru(2+)(bpy)3 solute interacts with both the polar head and the nonpolar tail groups of the 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation but only with the nonpolar tail groups of the 1-decyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation.

  13. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T.; Hadjinicolaou, Maria; Karahalios, George T.


    The present work is motivated by the fact that blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries is governed by large finite values of the Womersley number α and for such values of α there is not any analytical solution in the literature. The existing numerical solutions, although accurate, give limited information about the factors that affect the flow, whereas an analytical approach has an advantage in that it can provide physical insight to the flow mechanism. Having this in mind, we seek analytical solution to the equations of the fluid flow driven by a sinusoidal pressure gradient in a slightly curved pipe of circular cross section when the Womersley number varies from small finite to infinite values. Initially the equations of motion are expanded in terms of the curvature ratio δ and the resulting linearized equations are solved analytically in two ways. In the first, we match the solution for the main core to that for the Stokes boundary layer. This solution is valid for very large values of α. In the second, we derive a straightforward single solution valid to the entire flow region and for 8 ≤ α stresses and is compared to the analogous forms presented in other studies. The two solutions give identical results to each other regarding the axial flow but differ in the secondary flow and the circumferential wall stress, due to the approximations employed in the matched asymptotic expansion process. The results on the stream function from the second solution are in agreement with analogous results from other numerical solutions. The second solution predicts that the atherosclerotic plaques may develop in any location around the cross section of the aortic wall unlike to the prescribed locations predicted by the first solution. In addition, it gives circumferential wall stresses augmented by approximately 100% with respect to the matched asymptotic expansions, a factor that may contribute jointly with other pathological factors to the faster aging of the

  14. Cadmium(II) complex formation with selenourea and thiourea in solution: an XAS and 113Cd NMR study.

    Jalilehvand, Farideh; Amini, Zahra; Parmar, Karnjit


    The complexes formed in methanol solutions of Cd(CF(3)SO(3))(2) with selenourea (SeU) or thiourea (TU), for thiourea also in aqueous solution, were studied by combining (113)Cd NMR and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. At low temperature (~200 K), distinct (113)Cd NMR signals were observed, corresponding to CdL(n)(2+) species (n = 0-4, L = TU or SeU) in slow ligand exchange. Peak integrals were used to obtain the speciation in the methanol solutions, allowing stability constants to be estimated. For cadmium(II) complexes with thione (C═S) or selone (C═Se) groups coordinated in Cd(S/Se)O(5) or Cd(S/Se)(2)O(4) (O from MeOH or CF(3)SO(3)(-)) environments, the (113)Cd chemical shifts were quite similar, within 93-97 ppm and 189-193 ppm, respectively. However, the difference in the chemical shift for the Cd(SeU)(4)(2+) (578 pm) and Cd(TU)(4)(2+) (526 ppm) species, with CdSe(4) and CdS(4) coordination, respectively, shows less chemical shielding for the coordinated Se atoms than for S, in contrast to the common trend with increasing shielding in the following order: O > N > Se > S. In solutions dominated by mono- and tetra-thiourea/selenourea complexes, their coordination and bond distances could be evaluated by Cd K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. At ~200 K and high excess of thiourea, a minor amount (up to ~30%) of [Cd(TU)(5-6)](2+) species was detected by an upfield shift of the (113)Cd NMR signal (up to 423 ppm) and an amplitude reduction of the EXAFS oscillation. The amount was estimated by fitting linear combinations of simulated EXAFS spectra for [Cd(TU)(4)](2+) and [Cd(TU)(6)](2+) complexes. At room temperature, [Cd(TU)(4)](2+) was the highest complex formed, also in aqueous solution. Cd L(3)-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of cadmium(II) thiourea solutions in methanol were used to follow changes in the CdS(x)O(y) coordination. The correlations found from the current and previous studies between (113

  15. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.


    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  16. A study of diazonium couplings with aromatic nucleophiles both in solution and on a polymer surface

    Chng, Shuyun; Parker, Emily M.; Griffiths, Jon-Paul; Moloney, Mark G.; Wu, Linda Y. L.


    Diazonium coupling is a technique finding wider application to materials and biological science, for hybridization and linking processes, and for the construction of responsive surface functionality. For this reason, detailed examination of solution and surface processes was warranted, and results of such a study are reported here. The modification of polystyrene surfaces was examined as a model, and the process compared to a solution mimic using N,N-dimethylaniline. It was confirmed that solution and solid surface reactions proceed in a similar manner in terms of the chemical functionality generated, but with lower chemical efficiency and reaction times slower for the latter, in a reaction which was pH dependent. The solution process was shown to give only the trans-azo para- coupled products. Whilst there are clear similarities between the solution and surface chemistry, the efficiency of coupling at a surface is not necessarily replicated in the chemical yield of the mimicking solution processes, but nonetheless provides an alternative to other Click-type surface modifications. It should not be assumed that such couplings occur with quantitative efficiency at the surface.

  17. A calorimetric study of solute effects on the kinetic stability of a-amylase

    Olsen, Søren Nymand; Andersen, Kim Bruno; Øgendal, Lars Holm;


    In this study we evaluated the applications of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to Study solute effects on the kinetics of irreversible protein denaturation. More specifically, denaturation of Bacillus Halmapalus alpha-amylase (BHA) was initiated by addition of EDTA to the calorimetric cell...

  18. Study of Penetration Kinetics of Sodium Hydroxide Aqueous Solution into Wood Samples

    Lubomír Lapčík


    Full Text Available The kinetics of unidirectional penetration of NaOH aqueous solution into rectangular samples of wood oriented parallel to a stern axis were studied. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, European larch (Larix decidua, blackthorn (Prunus spinosa, white willow (Salix alba, and horse-chestnut wood (Aesculus hippocastanum were studied in this work. The time dependence of liquid incorporation was measured by the volumetric method as a change of total volume of coexisting liquid (NaOH/H2O phase. The total thickness of the swollen surface layer d and mean value of the apparent diffusion coefficient of aqueous NaOH solution at 22 °C were determined.

  19. Synchrotron SAXS Studies of Nanostructured Materials and Colloidal Solutions: A Review

    Craievich A.F.


    Full Text Available Structural characterisations using the SAXS technique in a number of nanoheterogeneous materials and liquid solutions are reviewed. The studied systems are protein (lysozyme/water solutions, colloidal ZnO particles/water sols, nanoporous NiO-based xerogels, hybrid organic-inorganic siloxane-PEG and PPG nanocomposites and PbTe semiconductor nanocrystals embedded in a glass matrix. These investigations also focus on the transformations of time-varying structures and on structural changes related to variations in temperature and composition. The reviewed investigations aim at explaining the unusual and often interesting properties of nanostructured materials and solutions. Most of the reported studies were carried out using the SAXS beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS, Campinas, Brazil.

  20. Solution Focused Financial Therapy: A Brief Report of a Pilot Study

    Kristy L. Archuleta


    Full Text Available The financial counseling, financial planning, and financial therapy fields are hampered by a conceptual and empirical paucity of clinical and experimental evidence-based research. In an attempt to decrease this gap in the literature, a pilot study was developed to test the implementation of a solution-focused financial therapy client intervention approach, in which solution-focused therapy techniques were applied in a financial counseling setting. This paper reports findings from a clinical intervention study of college students (N = 8 who presented a variety of financial issues related to budgeting, investing, and debt repayment problems. Data were gathered prior to the start of treatment, after treatment ended, and three months later. Participants’ psychological well-being and financial behaviors improved, while financial distress decreased. The solution-focused financial therapy approach used is discussed.

  1. Theoretical and Experimental Study of LiBH4-LiCl Solid Solution

    Torben R. Jensen


    Full Text Available Anion substitution is at present one of the pathways to destabilize metal borohydrides for solid state hydrogen storage. In this work, a solid solution of LiBH4 and LiCl is studied by density functional theory (DFT calculations, thermodynamic modeling, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. It is shown that Cl substitution has minor effects on thermodynamic stability of either the orthorhombic or the hexagonal phase of LiBH4. The transformation into the orthorhombic phase in LiBH4 shortly after annealing with LiCl is for the first time followed by infrared measurements. Our findings are in a good agreement with an experimental study of the LiBH4-LiCl solid solution structure and dynamics. This demonstrates the validity of the adopted combined theoretical (DFT calculations and experimental (vibrational spectroscopy approach, to investigate the solid solution formation of complex hydrides.

  2. On solute residence time in the storage zones of small streams - experimental study and scaling law

    Schmid, Bernhard


    Transient storage has a major influence on solute transport in streams, on biogeochemical cycling, water quality and on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The first part of the research reported here focuses on surface transient storage (STS) zones between groins along small streams. Such groins are used to protect banks, but also to increase habitat diversity and are, thus, not restricted to large rivers. Repeated tracer dilution experiments on the Mödlingbach, a small stream in Austria some 30 km south of Vienna, have been analyzed to determine the solute residence time between groins and to characterize the exchange processes between dead zones and main stream. Pairs of related breakthrough curves were measured in main stream and storage zones, resp., and used subsequently to estimate the solute residence time in the surface dead zones under study. Following previous work (Weitbrecht et al., 2008; Jackson et al., 2012) these residence times were, in turn, expressed as T = -W-.hD- k ?u hE (1) with W denoting groin length, u main stream flow velocity, hD mean water depth between the groins and hE depth at the interface dead zone - main stream. Coefficient k, finally, is thought to depend on a type of hydraulic radius, RD = W.L/(W+L), with L denoting the distance between the groins, measured in main flow direction. Using both the Mödlingbach STS zone data and the results of the aforementioned study (Weitbrecht et al., 2008) the following regression equation was derived (hS denotes main stream water depth): k = 0.00282? RD + 0.00802 hS (2) The second part of this research focuses on the dependency of solute residence time on flow rate, which is important for an improved understanding of longitudinal solute transport in streams and for the application of mathematical models. The scaling law proposed here is based on a physics-related theory combined with extensive data sets available form a decade of stream tracer experiments on the Mödlingbach stream

  3. The 1993 QUASIMEME laboratory-performance study: chlorobiphenyls in fish oil and standard solutions

    Wells, D.E.; Boer, de J.


    A laboratory-performance study has been undertaken to improve the measurement of chlorobiphenyls in marine biota as part of the QUASIMEME (EU - Measurement and Testing) project. Fifty-two laboratories were invited to participate, of which 47 returned data on nine congeners in iso-octane solution and

  4. Reentrant condensation of lysozyme: Implications for studying dynamics of lysozyme in aqueous solutions of lithium chloride

    Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL


    Recent studies have outlined the use of eutectic solution of lithium chloride in water to study microscopic dynamics of lysozyme in an aqueous solvent that is remarkably similar to pure water in many respects, yet allows experiments over a wide temperature range without the solvent crystallization. The eutectic point in (H2O)R(LiCl) system corresponds to R 7.3, and it is of interest to investigate whether less concentrated aqueous solutions of LiCl could be employed in low-temperature studies of a solvated protein. We have investigated a range of concentrations of lysozyme and LiCl in aqueous solutions to identify systems that do not show phase separation and avoid solvent crystallization on cooling down. Compared to the lysozyme concentration in solution, the concentration of LiCl in the aqueous solvent plays the major role in determining systems suitable for low-temperature studies. We have observed interesting and rich phase behavior reminiscent of reentrant condensation of proteins.

  5. Tautomeric transformations of piroxicam in solution: a combined experimental and theoretical study

    Ivanova, D; Deneva, V; Nedeltcheva, D


    Piroxicam tautomerism was studied in solution by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, NMR measurements and advanced chemometrics. It has been found that in ethanol and DMSO the enol-amide tautomer is present mainly as a sandwich type dimer. The addition of water leads to distortion of the aggregate...

  6. A Study of First-Year Chemistry Students' Understanding of Solution Concentration at the Tertiary Level

    de Berg, Kevin


    This paper reports on students' understanding of sugar concentration in aqueous solutions presented in two different modes: a visual submicroscopic mode for particles and a verbal mode referring to macroscopic amounts of sugar. One hundred and forty-five tertiary college students studying some form of first-year chemistry participated in the…

  7. In-situ IR spectroscopy to study anodic oxidation of Si(111) in KOH solution

    Philipsen, H.G.G.; Chazalviel, J.-N.; Allongue, P.; Ozanam, F.; Kelly, J.J.


    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study in-situ the anodic oxidation of n-type Si(111) in KOH solution. Changes in surface chemistry were followed during oxide growth. The results are considered on the basis of a model developed from electrochemical measurements.

  8. Experimental and modeling studies on the absorption of NO in aqueous ferrous EDTA solutions

    Gambardella, F; Alberts, MS; Winkelman, JGM; Heeres, EJ; Alberts, Michel S.; Heeres, H.J.


    This work describes an experimental and modeling study on an industrial relevant process (i.e., the absorption of NO in aqueous Fell(EDTA) solutions) to accurately determine the equilibrium constant of the reaction in the temperature range of 299-329 K. The experiments were carried out in a stirred

  9. A comparative study of iterative solutions to linear systems arising in quantum mechanics

    Jing, Yan-Fei; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Duan, Yong; Carpentieri, Bruno


    This study is mainly focused on iterative solutions with simple diagonal preconditioning to two complex-valued nonsymmetric systems of linear equations arising from a computational chemistry model problem proposed by Sherry Li of NERSC. Numerical experiments show the feasibility of iterative methods

  10. Solution scattering studies on a virus capsid protein as a building block for nanoscale assemblies

    Comellas Aragones, M.; Comellas-Aragones, Marta; Sikkema, Friso D.; Delaittre, Guillaume; Terry, Ann E.; King, Stephen M.; Visser, Dirk; Heenan, Richard K.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Feiters, Martin C.


    Self-assembled protein cages are versatile building blocks in the construction of biomolecular nanostructures. Because of the defined assembly behaviour the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) protein is often used for such applications. Here we report a detailed solution scattering study of the

  11. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Sodium Phosphate Solids and Solutions



    Solids and solutions of sodium phosphates with various chain lengths have been studied by using the techniques of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. A systematic study of the infrared spectra of the solid sodium phosphates has been conducted on the basis of the information available in the literatures to establish the assignments of the infrared vibrations of the different groups in the phosphate molecules. The infrared spectra of the solutions of sodium phosphates have been analyzed according to the infrared study on the relevant solids, in conjunction with the study of the phosphate species distribution in solution on the basis of the acid-base reaction equilibria. The results obtained have revealed the correlations between the infrared absorption spectra and the structure of the different P-O groups in different kinds of phosphates and are useful in the analysis of phosphate solids and solutions widely used in the various operations of mineral processing.

  12. A comparative study of iterative solutions to linear systems arising in quantum mechanics

    Jing, Yan-Fei; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Duan, Yong; Carpentieri, Bruno


    This study is mainly focused on iterative solutions with simple diagonal preconditioning to two complex-valued nonsymmetric systems of linear equations arising from a computational chemistry model problem proposed by Sherry Li of NERSC. Numerical experiments show the feasibility of iterative methods

  13. Microcavity arrays for X-ray diffraction studies of ordering phenomena in confined colloid solutions

    Diaz, A.; David, C.; Guo, H.; Keymeulen, H.; Pfeiffer, F.; Wegdam, G.; Weitkamp, T.; van der Veen, J.F.


    We present a way to fabricate high-aspect-ratio silicon microcavity arrays which can be used for the investigation of confinement-induced ordering phenomena within colloid solutions. In these studies, the microcavity arrays serve as containers for confinement of the colloid. X-ray diffraction measur

  14. A Site-specific Study of In-building Wireless Solutions

    Liu, Zhen; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; wigard, jeroen


    This paper studies the different ways of extending wireless coverage for high data rates and improving the data capacity in a building. The solutions considered include deployments of single or multiple small base stations, i.e. Picocell or Femtocell, and distributed antenna system, operated...

  15. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev; Andrey Gayday; Bibigul Karimsakova; Saule Bermagambetova; Lunara Uteniyazova; Guldana Iztleuova; Gulkhanym Kusherbayeva; Meruyert Konakbayeva; Assylzada Merekeyeva; Zamira Imangaliyeva


    Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administra...

  16. Study of cylindrically symmetric solutions in metric f(R) gravity with constant R

    Rincon-Ramirez, Monica Tatiana


    Solutions for cylindrically symmetric spacetimes in f(R) gravity are studied. As a first approach, R=constant is assumed. A solution was found such that it is equivalent to a result given by Azadi et al. for R=0 and a metric was found for R=constant different from zero. Comparison with the case of general relativity with cosmological constant is made and the metric constants are given in terms of \\Lambda. Overlap with arXiv:0810.4673 [gr-qc] by A. Azadi, D. Momeni and M. Nouri-Zonoz

  17. An Effective System to Produce Smoke Solutions from Dried Plant Tissue for Seed Germination Studies

    Janice Coons; Nancy Coutant; Barbara Lawrence; Daniel Finn; Stephanie Finn


    • Premise of the study: An efficient and inexpensive system was developed to produce smoke solutions from plant material to research the influence of water-soluble compounds from smoke on seed germination. • Methods and Results: Smoke solutions (300 mL per batch) were produced by burning small quantities (100–200 g) of dried plant material from a range of species in a bee smoker attached by a heater hose to a side-arm flask. The flask was attached to a vacuum water aspirator, to pull the smok...

  18. Rheological study of chitosan in solution;Estudo reologico de quitosana em solucao

    Silva, Italo Guimaraes Medeiros da; Alves, Keila dos Santos; Balaban, Rosangela de Carvalho, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    Chitosan is an abundant biopolymer with remarkable physicochemical and biological properties, usually employed in a wide range of applications. It acts as a cationic polyelectrolyte in aqueous acid solutions, leading to unique characteristics. In this work, chitosan was characterized by {sup 1}H NMR and its rheological behavior were studied as function of chitosan sample, shear rate, polymer concentration, ionic strength, time and temperature. In order to calculate rheological parameters and to understand the macromolecular dynamic in solution, the Otswald-de Waele model was fitted. (author)


    Valmir Martins Monteiro


    Full Text Available This work studies the microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties for different aluminium alloys (1100, 3104 and 8011 hot rolled sheets that were subjected to a solution heat treatment with distinct soaking times, in order to promote microstructural and mechanical changes on these alloys with solute fractions slightly above the maximum solubility limit. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM / Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy X-Ray (EDS, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and Hardness Tests were employed to observe the microstructural / compositional and mechanical evaluation. For the 1100 and 8011 alloys the more suitable soaking time occur between 1 and 2 hours, and for the 3104 alloy occurs between 2 and 3 hours.

  20. Dynamic flow method to study the CO2 loading capacity of amino acid salt solutions

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    Due to a number of advantages amino acid salt solutions have emerged as alternatives to the alkanolamine solvents for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. The use of amino acids in CO2 capture is a bio-mimetic process, as it is similar to CO2 binding by proteins in the blood......, such as hemoglobin. Amino acid salt solutions have the same amine functionality as alkanolamines, and are thus expected to behave similar towards CO2 in flue gas. Despite rising interest, few studies have been performed so far on amino acids as CO2 absorbents....

  1. Study and Analysis of an Intelligent Microgrid Energy Management Solution with Distributed Energy Sources

    Swaminathan Ganesan


    Full Text Available In this paper, a robust energy management solution which will facilitate the optimum and economic control of energy flows throughout a microgrid network is proposed. The increased penetration of renewable energy sources is highly intermittent in nature; the proposed solution demonstrates highly efficient energy management. This study enables precise management of power flows by forecasting of renewable energy generation, estimating the availability of energy at storage batteries, and invoking the appropriate mode of operation, based on the load demand to achieve efficient and economic operation. The predefined mode of operation is derived out of an expert rule set and schedules the load and distributed energy sources along with utility grid.


    Jun Fang; De-min Jia; Ji-cai Huang; Qun-hui Guo; Feng-lian Wu


    The reverse osmosis (RO) separation of aqueous organic solutions, such as alcohols, amines, aldehydes, acids,ketones, and esters etc., by PAA (polyacrylic acid)/PSF (polysulfone) composite membrane has been studied. It was found that the separation results for aliphatic alcohols, amines and aldehydes are satisfactory, the solute rejection (Ra) and the volume fluxes of solutions (Jr) for 1000 ppm ethanol, ethylamine and ethyl aldehyde are 66.2%, 61.0%, 84.0% and 0.90×alcohols, amines and aldehydes, and the Ra for n-amyl alcohol, n-butylamine and n-butyl aldehyde reached 94.3%, 88.6%and 96.0%, respectively. Satisfactory separation results (Ra>70%) for ketones, esters, phenols and polyols have been obtained with the PAA/PSF composite membrane. The effect of operating pressure on the properties of reverse osmosis has also been investigated. Analysis of experimental data with Spiegler-Kedem's transport model has been carried out and the membrane constants such as reflection coefficient σ, solute and hydraulic permeabilities ω and Lp for several organic solutes have been obtained.

  3. A Comparative Study of Solutions Concerning Thick Elastic Plates on Bi-modulus Foundation

    Ioana Vlad


    Full Text Available The classical bending theory of elastic plates is based upon the assumption that the internal moments are proportional to the curvatures of the median deformed surface. This theory does not include the effects of shear and normal pressure in the plate. The model of a bi-modulus foundation is a realistic generalization of the Winkler’s classical one and is widely used to represent the subgrade of railroad systems, airport lanes [1], [2]. The derived equation of elastic thick plates on bi-modulus foundation considers shear and normal stress as linear variable across the plate thickness. This paper presents numerical solutions for thick plate resting on bi-modulus subgrade. These solutions take into account the shear distortion, and they are compared to the solution obtained by Finite Element Analysis and with the Winkler’s model. Particular solutions for the rectangular plate of clamped boundary, for the hinged rectangular plate and for a semi-elliptical plate, are discussed. The numerical solutions consist of double power series and they were obtained based on the minimum of the total strain energy [1]. Parametric studies have been performed in order to emphasize the effects of the chosen foundation and that of the geometry.

  4. Quantitative Studies on PDMS-PDMS Interface Bonding with Piranha Solution and its Swelling Effect

    Choon-Lai Chiang


    Full Text Available In this paper, a low-cost yet effective method of irreversible bonding between two elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS interfaces using Piranha solution is investigated. Piranha solutions at a weight ratio of 3:1 using different acids and hydrogen peroxide were attempted. The average tensile strengths of the device bonded with concentrated sulfuric acid-based piranha solution and nitric acid-based piranha solution were found to be 200 ± 20 kPa and 100 ± 15 kPa respectively. A PDMS surface treated with Piranha Solution demonstrated an increase in hydrophilicity. In addition, relatively straightforward swelling studies of PDMS using a weight loss method with common organic solvents were also investigated. Experimental results show that hexane, toluene, ethyl acetate, n-propyl alcohol and acetone swell PDMS significantly over a duration of up to 1 h and above; PDMS samples reached a steady state of swelling only after 5 min of immersion in other solvents. This will enable researchers to develop devices for the future according to the interaction between the material and the solvents in contact.

  5. Self-assembled Structures of a Multifunctional, Structured Block Copolymer in Solution; A SANS Study

    Etampawala, Thusitha; Senanayake, Manjula; Osti, Naresh; He, Lilin; Heller, William; Perahia, Dvora


    The self-assembly of multi block copolymer in solutions is controlled by a delicate balance between inherent phase segregation due to incompatibility of the blocks and the interactions of the individual blocks with the solvent. We investigated the association of ABCBA penta-block copolymers, in solution using Small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The ABCBA penta-block comprises of centered randomly sulfonated polystyrene block to which rubbery polyisoprene is connected, terminated by blocks of polystyrene decorated with tertiary butyl group, kindly provided by Kraton LLC. The SANS studies have shown that the penta-block forms ellipsoidal core-shell structures with the sulfonated polystyrene in the core and Gaussian decaying chains of swollen polyisoprene and tertiary butyl polystyrene in the corona. The size of the micelle, the thickness of the corona and the aggregation number increased with increasing the solution concentration and temperature, while the solvent fraction in the core decreased. The dilute solutions promptly responded to thermal fluctuations. However, the temperature effects disappeared with increasing the solution concentration.

  6. Dynamic flow method to study the CO2 loading capacity of amino acid salt solutions

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    Due to a number of advantages amino acid salt solutions have emerged as alternatives to the alkanolamine solvents for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. The use of amino acids in CO2 capture is a bio-mimetic process, as it is similar to CO2 binding by proteins in the blood, such as hem......Due to a number of advantages amino acid salt solutions have emerged as alternatives to the alkanolamine solvents for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. The use of amino acids in CO2 capture is a bio-mimetic process, as it is similar to CO2 binding by proteins in the blood......, such as hemoglobin. Amino acid salt solutions have the same amine functionality as alkanolamines, and are thus expected to behave similar towards CO2 in flue gas. Despite rising interest, few studies have been performed so far on amino acids as CO2 absorbents....

  7. Studies of dissolution solutions of ruthenium metal, oxide and mixed compounds in nitric acid

    Mousset, F.; Eysseric, C.; Bedioui, F


    Ruthenium is one of the fission products generated by irradiated nuclear fuel. It is present throughout all the steps of nuclear fuel reprocessing-particularly during extraction-and requires special attention due to its complex chemistry and high {beta}{gamma} activity. An innovative electro-volatilization process is now being developed to take advantage of the volatility of RuO{sub 4} in order to eliminate it at the head end of the Purex process and thus reduce the number of extraction cycles. Although the process operates successfully with synthetic nitrato-RuNO{sup 3+} solutions, difficulties have been encountered in extrapolating it to real-like dissolution solutions. In order to better approximate the chemical forms of ruthenium found in fuel dissolution solutions, kinetic and speciation studies on dissolved species were undertaken with RuO{sub 2},xH{sub 2}O and Ru{sup 0} in nitric acid media. (authors)

  8. CEMS study of corrosion products formed by NaCl aqueous solution

    Nakanishi, A.


    Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to study corrosion products by NaCl aqueous solution. A drop of the solution is put on an iron foil and the foil is left at RT. During the evaporation of the solution, corrosion products are formed. Conversion electron Mössbauer spectra were taken at temperatures between 15 K and room temperature (RT). In the Mössbauer spectra a ferric doublet is observed at RT, but sextets are found at 15 K. These results show that the corrosion product mainly consists of γ - FeOOH and a small amount of β - FeOOH is noticed. As NaCl concentration increases, the corrosion layer becomes thick and β- FeOOH / γ - FeOOH ratio increases slightly. Consequently, it has been concluded that the produced amount of β- FeOOH increases more rapidly than that of γ - FeOOH with increasing NaCl concentration.

  9. Experiment study on water-rock interaction about gold activation and migration in different solutions


    The interactions on gold active and migratory quantities and rates between tuffaceous slate and solu-tions with different compositions were experimentally studied at 200 ℃, 20 MPa, in a high-pressure apparatus. After reaction, tuffaceous slate became light colored and soft, and its mass density reduced. The amount of gold extracted from tuffaceous slate ranges widely, from 0.027 to 0.234 μg/g. Chlorine solution may activate appreciable amount of gold, and the gold migratory rate is high enough, from 50.70% to 92.30%, which reveals that sulphur and chlorine work together in solutions to accelerate gold activation and migration, and to realize gold mineralization in favorable places.

  10. Small-angle neutron scattering study of structural evolution of different phases in protein solution

    V K Aswal; S Chodankar; J Kohlbrecher; R Vavrin; A G Wagh


    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the structural evolution of different phases in protein solution leading to crystallization, denaturation and gelation. The protein solution under crystallization mostly consists of monomers and dimers, and higher-mers are not observed as they are perhaps formed in very small numbers. The onset and the rate of crystallization strongly depend on the salt concentration. Protein denaturation on addition of surfactant occurs due to the formation of micelle-like clusters along the unfolded polypeptide chains of the protein. The structure of such protein{surfactant complex is found to be independent of the size of the micelles in their pure surfactant solutions. The structure of temperature-induced protein gels shows a fractal structure. Rheology of these gels shows a strong dependence on varying pH or protein concentration, whereas the structure of such gels is found to be similar.

  11. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part IV: A compilation of previous observations for valuation of simulation results from a columnar modelling study

    O. Hellmuth


    according to the parameterisation of the collision-controlled binary nucleation rate proposed by Weber et al. (1996, H2O vapour does not explicitly affect the particle formation. Since the H2SO4 concentration is overpredicted in the simulations presented in Paper III, the nucleation rates are too high compared to previous estimations. Therefore, the results are not directly comparable to measurements. Especially NPF events, where organics are suspected to play a key role, such as those observed at the boreal forest station in Hyytiälä (Southern Finland or at Hohenpeissenberg (mountain site in Southern Germany, can not be explained by employing simple sulphur/ammonia chemistry. However, some valuable hints regarding the role of CBL turbulence in NPF can be obtained. In the literature a number of observations on the link between turbulence and NPF can be found, whose burst patterns support a strong contribution of CBL turbulence to the NPF burst evolution simulated here. Observations, that do not correspond to the scenarios are discussed with respect to possible reasons for the differences between model and observation. The model simulations support some state-of-the-art hypotheses on the contribution of CBL turbulence to NPF. Considering the application of box models, the present study shows, that CBL turbulence, not explicitly considered in such models, can strongly affect the spatio-temporal NPF burst evolution. The columnar high-order model presented here is a helpful tool to elucidate gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions, especially the genesis of NPF bursts in the CBL. An advanced description of the cluster formation and condensation growth is required as well as a comprehensive verification/validation study using observed high-order moments. Further scenario simulations remain to be performed.

  12. Adsorption Study of Electric Arc Furnace Slag for the Removal of Manganese from Solution

    C. L. Beh


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Steel making slag from Electric Arc Furnace (EAF is an abundant by-product in Malaysia steel making industry. It has potential to be used for heavy metal removal from contaminated water or waste water. Approach: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristic and behavior of manganese removal by using EAF slag for efficient metal removal. The removal characteristics of manganese were investigated in term of sorption kinetics and isotherm. The batch adsorption kinetics and isotherm studies were carried out at 28°C and ten grams of EAF slag was added into 1 L manganese solution of various concentrations of 10, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 120 mg L-1. All these different mixtures were stirred and sampled at various desired times and centrifuged. The supernatant solutions were then collected for chemical analysis. Results: It was found that the EAF slag adsorption kinetics can be described well by the pseudo-2nd order kinetic model with fairly high correlation coefficients. The adsorption process obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum uptake of the manganese from the solution is 2.31 mg L-1 g-1 of EAF slag used. Conclusion: From the study, it was concluded that the EAF slag can be an efficient adsorbent to remove manganese from both the solution and waste water.

  13. A single-arm, investigator-initiated study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravitreal aflibercept injection in subjects with exudative age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab (ASSESS study: 12-month analysis

    Singh RP


    Full Text Available Rishi P Singh, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers, Fabiana Q Silva, Rumneek Bedi, Andrew P Schachat, Peter K Kaiser Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Summary statement: In subjects with active exudative age-related macular degeneration, treating with a fixed intravitreal aflibercept injection dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints from baseline.Purpose: Switching therapies in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD may offer an advantage for some patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI in subjects previously treated with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab.Methods: Subjects (n=26 were given monthly 2 mg of IAI for 3 months, followed by 2 mg once in every 2 months for up to 12 months. The mean absolute change from baseline in central subfield thickness (CST measured by optical coherence tomography and the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA early treatment in diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS letter score were obtained. Additionally, the percentage of subjects who gained or lost ≥15 letters of vision and the percentage of subjects who are 20/40 or better or 20/200 or worse were evaluated.Results: There was a mean decrease in CST of -50.3  µm (P<0.001 and a mean increase in ETDRS BCVA of +9.2 letters (P<0.001. Twenty-seven percent of subjects experienced a  ≥15-letter improvement in visual acuity, and no subject lost ≥3 lines of vision from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects were 20/40 or better, and 11.5% of subjects were 20/200 or worse at month 12.Conclusion: Fixed IAI dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints in subjects with active exudative AMD. Keywords: aflibercept, age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, vascular endothelial growth factors

  14. A study on removal of elemental mercury in flue gas using fenton solution

    Liu, Yangxian; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian; Pan, Jianfeng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Zhang, Yongchun [Jiangsu Province Special Equipment Safety Supervision Inspection Institute (Branch of Wuxi), Wuxi 214000 (China); Zhou, Jianfei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Zhang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)


    Highlights: • A novel technique on oxidation of Hg{sup 0} using Fenton was proposed. • The effects of several process parameters on Hg{sup 0} removal were studied. • Products and ·OH in solution were detected. • Reaction mechanism of Hg{sup 0} removal was studied. • Simultaneous removal of Hg{sup 0}, NO and SO{sub 2} was also studied. - Abstract: A novel technique on oxidation-separation of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas using Fenton solution in a bubbling reactor was proposed. The effects of several process parameters (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, Hg{sup 0} inlet concentration, Fe{sup 2+} concentration, solution temperature, solution pH, gas flow) and several flue gas components (NO, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, inorganic ions and particulate matters on Hg{sup 0} removal were studied. The results indicate that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, Fe{sup 2+} concentration, solution pH and gas flow have great effects on Hg{sup 0} removal. Solution temperature, Hg{sup 0}, NO, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations also have significant effects on Hg{sup 0} removal. However, Cl{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} concentrations only have slight effects on Hg{sup 0} removal. Furthermore, reaction mechanism of Hg{sup 0} removal and simultaneous removal process of Hg{sup 0}, NO and SO{sub 2} were also studied. Hg{sup 0} is removed by oxidation of ·OH and oxidation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The simultaneous removal efficiencies of 100% for SO{sub 2}, 100% for Hg{sup 0} and 88.3% for NO were obtained under optimal test conditions. The results demonstrated the feasibility of Hg{sup 0} removal and simultaneous removal of Hg{sup 0}, SO{sub 2} and NO using Fenton solution in a bubbling reactor.

  15. NMR Water Self-Diffusion and Relaxation Studies on Sodium Polyacrylate Solutions and Gels in Physiologic Ionic Solutions.

    Bai, Ruiliang; Basser, Peter J; Briber, Robert M; Horkay, Ferenc


    Water self-diffusion coefficients and longitudinal relaxation rates in sodium polyacrylate solutions and gels were measured by NMR, as a function of polymer content and structure in a physiological concentration range of monovalent and divalent cations, Ca(2+) and Na(+). Several physical models describing the self-diffusion of the solvent were applied and compared. A free-volume model was found to be in good agreement with the experimental results over a wide range of polymer concentrations. The longitudinal relaxation rate exhibited linear dependence on polymer concentration below a critical concentration and showed non-linear behavior at higher concentrations. Both the water self-diffusion and relaxation were less influenced by the polymer in the gel state than in the uncrosslinked polymer solutions. The effect of Na(+) on the mobility of water molecules was practically undetectable. By contrast, addition of Ca(2+) strongly increased the longitudinal relaxation rate while its effect on the self-diffusion coefficient was much less pronounced.

  16. Predicting consumer liking and preference based on emotional responses and sensory perception: A study with basic taste solutions.

    Samant, Shilpa S; Chapko, Matthew J; Seo, Han-Seok


    Traditional methods of sensory testing focus on capturing information about multisensory perceptions, but do not necessarily measure emotions elicited by these food and beverages. The objective of this study was to develop an optimum model of predicting overall liking (rating) and preference (choice) based on taste intensity and evoked emotions. One hundred and two participants (51 females) were asked to taste water, sucrose, citric acid, salt, and caffeine solutions. Their emotional responses toward each sample were measured by a combination of a self-reported emotion questionnaire (EsSense25), facial expressions, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. In addition, their perceived intensity and overall liking were measured. After a break, participants re-tasted the samples and ranked them according to their preference. The results showed that emotional responses measured using self-reported emotion questionnaire and facial expression analysis along with perceived taste intensity performed best to predict overall liking as well as preference, while ANS measures showed limited contribution. Contrary to some previous research, this study demonstrated that not only negative emotions, but also positive ones could help predict consumer liking and preference. In addition, since there were subtle differences in the prediction models of overall liking and preference, both aspects should be taken into account to understand consumer behavior. In conclusion, combination of evoked emotions along with sensory perception could help better understand consumer acceptance as well as preference toward basic taste solutions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Sucrose Solutions as Prospective Medium to Study the Vesicle Structure SAXS and SANS study

    Kiselev, M A; Kisselev, A M; Lombardo, D; Killany, M; Lesieur, S


    The possibility to use sucrose solutions as medium for X-ray and neutron small-angle scattering experiments has been explored for dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) vesicles and mixed DMPC/C_(12)E_(8) aggregates. The influence of sucrose concentration on phospholipid vesicles size and polydispersity has been investigated by complimentary X-ray and neutron scattering. Sucrose solutions decreased vesicle size and polydispersity and increased a contrast between phospholipid membrane and bulk solvent sufficiently for X-rays. 40% sucrose in H2O increased X-ray contrast by up to 10 times compared to pure H2O. The range of sucrose concentration 30%-40% created the best experimental conditions for the X-ray small-angle experiment with phospholipid vesicles.

  18. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer


    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  19. The Experimental Study of Safety and Efficacy in Using Bovis Calculus Pharmacopuncture Solution as Eye Drop

    Hyeongsik Seo


    Full Text Available Objectives : This experimental study was performed to investigate the safety and efficacy of Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution manufactured with freezing dryness method to use eye drop. To identify the use of it as eye drop, the eye irritation test of rabbits and the antibacterial test of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Candida albicans were performed. Methods : 1. The eye irritation test of this material was performed according to the Regulation of Korea Food & Drug Administration(2005. 10. 21, KFDA 2005-60. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was administered in the left eye of the rabbits, eye irritation of the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. 2. After administering Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution on bacterial species(Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Candida albicans which cause Keratitis, MIC(Minimum Inhibition Concentration and the size of inhibition zone were measured. Anti-bacterial potency was also measured using the size of inhibition zone. Results : 1. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was administered in the left eye of the rabbits, it was found that none of nine rabbits have abnormal signs and weight changes. 2. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, no eye irritation of the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. 3. There was no response to MIC on bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Candida albicans after Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated. Conclusions : The present study suggests that Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution is a nontoxic and non-irritant medicine, which does not cause eye irritation in

  20. Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies of amaranth dye biosorption from aqueous solution onto water hyacinth leaves.

    Guerrero-Coronilla, Imelda; Morales-Barrera, Liliana; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo


    The present study explored the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of amaranth (acid red 27) anionic dye (AD) biosorption to water hyacinth leaves (LEC). The effect of LEC particle size, contact time, solution pH, initial AD concentration and temperature on AD biosorption was studied in batch experiments. AD biosorption increased with rising contact time and initial AD concentration, and with decreasing LEC particle size and solution pH. Pseudo-second-order chemical reaction kinetics provided the best correlation for the experimental data. Isotherm studies showed that the biosorption of AD onto LEC closely follows the Langmuir isotherm, with a maximum biosorption capacity of about 70 mg g(-1). The thermodynamic parameters confirm that AD biosorption by LEC is non-spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Results indicate that LEC is a strong biosorbent capable of effective detoxification of AD-laden wastewaters.

  1. Patient preference with respect to QoL and reduction in opioid-induced constipation (OIC) after treatment with prolonged-release (PR) oxycodone/naloxone compared with previous analgesic therapy [PREFER study].

    van Dongen, V C P C; Vanelderen, P J L; Koopmans-Klein, G; van Megen, Y J B; Van Zundert, J; Huygen, F J P M


    The aim of this study was to assess patient preference in terms of quality of life (QoL), analgesia and bowel function for patients with moderate to severe chronic non-malignant pain, when treated with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR compared with the previous WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesic treatment . This was a 3-week open-label phase 3b study conducted in Belgium and the Netherlands, after 3 weeks patients could enter an extension phase. Patient preference with respect to QoL for oxycodone PR/naloxone PR treatment compared with previous WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesics was assessed. A patient was considered a responder with respect to QoL if this assessment was 'better' or 'much better' compared with previous WHO-step I or II analgesics at any time point. Response rate with respect to QoL was 59.2% (95% CI: 51.7-66.8%) for the Full Analysis (FA)-population, for the Per Protocol-population response rate was 71.7% (95% CI: 63.1-80.3%). Explorative analysis showed that response rate with respect to QoL was highest in constipated patients pretreated with WHO-step II analgesics (73.8%). Mean ± SD pain score in the FA-population at start was 74.7 ± 16.6 decreasing to 53.9 ± 24.3 after a median (range) treatment period of 173.5 (31-771) days. For constipated subjects the significant reduction in constipation [improvement of the Bowel Function Index (BFI)], was -24.8 points (95% CI: -17.1 to -32.5). BFI for non-constipated subjects remained well below 28.8. Adverse events with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR treatment were well-known opioid-related adverse events. This study shows that the studied patients previously treated with WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesics prefer treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR with respect to QoL. Moreover, the study shows that treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR significantly reduces OIC in constipated patients and that non-constipated patients do not develop OIC during treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR.

  2. A double blind study on the efficacy of local application of hemocoagulase solution in wound healing.

    Aslam, Sachin; Francis, P G; Rao, B H S; Ummar, M; Issac, J K; Nair, R B


    The present double blind study has been designed to evaluate the efficacy of local application of hemocoagulase solution as compared to a placebo in wound healing following dental extraction. A total of 20 patients who required dental extraction for orthodontic intervention were included. The hemocoagulase solution and a placebo were locally applied to the extraction sockets and the efficacy of the solution in terms of bleeding control, anti-inflammatory responses, its antiseptic properties and efficacy in wound healing were evaluated. The mean time required to achieve hemostasis was found to be 1.37 minutes in side A (test) and 2.33 minutes in side B (control) indicating that side A achieved faster hemostasis when compared to side B. At the 6th hour postoperatively, bleeding was not evident on either sides, and the amount of pain in side A was found to be less compared to side B. The number of RBCs, polymorphs, chronic inflammatory cells were not different in both the groups, whereas at 3rd postoperative day epithelial cells were greater in side A (test) compared to side B (control). Biopsy reports on the 12th postoperative day indicated that the number of fibroblasts, epithelial cells, collagen count was found to be greater in side A (test) compared to side B (control). The topical hemocoagulase solution may be advocated in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery, as a hemostatic agent and promoter of wound healing. However, further studies, with large number of cases and different clinical situations should be considered to authenticate the efficacy of this hemocoagulase solution in the practice of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Wound healing plays an important role in the success of any surgical procedure, such as extractions, and the hemocoagulase system may act as a hemostatic agent and a promoter of wound healing.

  3. Small-angle neutron scattering study of protein crowding in liquid and solid phases: lysozyme in aqueous solution, frozen solution, and carbohydrate powders.

    Curtis, Joseph E; Nanda, Hirsh; Khodadadi, Sheila; Cicerone, Marcus; Lee, Hyo Jin; McAuley, Arnold; Krueger, Susan


    The structure, interactions, and interprotein configurations of the protein lysozyme were studied in a variety of phases. These properties have been studied under a variety of solution conditions before, during, and after freezing and after freeze-drying in the presence of glucose and trehalose. Contrast variation experiments have also been performed to determine which features of the scattering in the frozen solutions are from the protein and which are from the ice structure. Data from lysozyme at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 mg/mL in solution and water ice with NaCl concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.4 mol/L are fit to model small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) intensity functions consisting of an ellipsoidal form factor and either a screened-Coulomb or hard-sphere structure factor. Parameters such as protein volume fraction and long dimension are followed as a function of temperature and salt concentration. The SANS results are compared to real space models of concentrated lysozyme solutions at the same volume fractions obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. A cartoon representation of the frozen lysozyme solution in 0 mol/L NaCl is presented based on the SANS and Monte Carlo results, along with those obtained from other complementary methods.

  4. Study on Properties of Microemulsion AEO-9/Butanol/Cyclohexane/Salt Aqueous Solution

    Qiu Guanming; Chen Yongjie; Tian Yiguang; Fang Li; Xiao Linjiu; Sun Yanbin


    The microemulsion AEO-9/butanol/cyclohexane/nitrate aqueous solution (or ammonium salt aqueous solution) was studied, which was used as 'micro-reactor' in preparing long afterglow phosphor materials SrAl2O4: Eu2+ ,Dy3+. The phase behavior of microemulsion was investigated. The radius of inner water droplet Rw and the change of standard free energy ΔG*o→i were obtained by means of dilution method and theoretical calculation. The result shows that with the increase of W/S, the area of microemulsion region decreases, Rw and ΔG*o→i increase and the microemulsion stability decreases. The structure change and formation area of microemulsion AEO-9/butanol/cyclohexane/nitrate aqueous solution ( or ammonium salt aqueous solution) were offered for the adoption of a synthesis method with newly high efficiency and utility. The particular size and its distribution theory gist, fluorescence life-span, and quenching concentration parameter data were expected. A new approach was explored for finding a new preparation method of rare earths afterglow materials and increasing luminescence intensity without crashing.

  5. Comparative study on ATR-FTIR calibration models for monitoring solution concentration in cooling crystallization

    Zhang, Fangkun; Liu, Tao; Wang, Xue Z.; Liu, Jingxiang; Jiang, Xiaobin


    In this paper calibration model building based on using an ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is investigated for in-situ measurement of the solution concentration during a cooling crystallization process. The cooling crystallization of L-glutamic Acid (LGA) as a case is studied here. It was found that using the metastable zone (MSZ) data for model calibration can guarantee the prediction accuracy for monitoring the operating window of cooling crystallization, compared to the usage of undersaturated zone (USZ) spectra for model building as traditionally practiced. Calibration experiments were made for LGA solution under different concentrations. Four candidate calibration models were established using different zone data for comparison, by using a multivariate partial least-squares (PLS) regression algorithm for the collected spectra together with the corresponding temperature values. Experiments under different process conditions including the changes of solution concentration and operating temperature were conducted. The results indicate that using the MSZ spectra for model calibration can give more accurate prediction of the solution concentration during the crystallization process, while maintaining accuracy in changing the operating temperature. The primary reason of prediction error was clarified as spectral nonlinearity for in-situ measurement between USZ and MSZ. In addition, an LGA cooling crystallization experiment was performed to verify the sensitivity of these calibration models for monitoring the crystal growth process.

  6. EXAFS study of the speciation of protactinium(V) in aqueous hydrofluoric acid solutions.

    De Sio, Stéphanie M; Wilson, Richard E


    The speciation of protactinium(V) in hydrofluoric acid (HF) solutions was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements were performed on an aqueous solution of 0.05 M protactinium(V) with various HF concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 27 M in order to probe the protactinium coordination sphere with respect to the identity and number of coordinating ligands. The resulting fits to the spectra suggest the presence of an eight-coordinate homoleptic fluoro complex in highly concentrated fluoride solutions (27 M), with equilibrium between seven- and eight-coordinate fluoro complexes at moderate acidities, and in more dilute solutions, results indicate that one water molecule is likely to replace a fluoride in the first coordination sphere, at a distance of 2.54-2.57 Å. Comparisons of this chemistry with group V metals, niobium and tantalum, are presented, and the potential implications for these results on the hydrolytic behavior of protactinium in aqueous systems are discussed.

  7. Study of the electrochemical oxidation mechanism of formaldehyde on gold electrode in alkaline solution

    Rui-Wen Yan; Bao-Kang Jin


    The oxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline solution was studied by in situ rapid-scan time-resolved IR spectroelectrochemistry (RS-TR-FTIRS) method.In the potential range between-0.7 V and 0.2 V,the gem-diol anions were oxidized (according to the 2765 cm-1 ofvH-o and 1034 cm-1 ofvco downward IR bands) and the formate ions appeared (according to the 1588,1357 cm-1 of the asymmetric and symmetricvoco and 1380 cm-1 ofδc-H upward IR bands) in aqueous solution.It was also confirmed that gem-diol anion was oxidized (according to the 2026,1034 cm-1 downward IR bands) to formate ions (according to the 1595,1357,1380 cm-1 upward IR bands) and water (according to the 3427 cm-1 ofvH-o upward IR band) in heavy water solution.The results illustrated that formaldehyde formed gem-diol anion in alkaline solution and was absorbed on the electrode surface; then gem-diol anion was oxidized to formate ions and water.

  8. [Basic Studies on the Stability of Flavored Oral Solutions of Rebamipide].

    Yajima, Ryo; Imaoka, Futa; Wako, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Yuko; Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Kizu, Junko; Katayama, Shiro


    Stomatitis frequently occurs during chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cancer. Because of its pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory activity and stimulatory effects on endogenous prostaglandin synthesis, rebamipide has been suggested as a potentially effective treatment against stomatitis. In the present study we tested the stability of oral rebamipide solutions prepared in our hospital pharmacy using sodium alginate as a thickener to increase retention of this agent in the oral cavity, and the addition of different flavoring mixtures intended for use in enteral diets to reduce the bitterness of rebamipide and sodium alginate. Samples of oral rebamipide solution prepared with 13 kinds of flavoring and sodium alginate were evaluated in terms of their appearance, redispersibility, pH, viscosity, and rebamipide content immediately after preparation and 1, 3, 7, and 10 days after storage at room temperature under ambient light or in a cool, dark place. After 10 days of storage, favorable stability was observed in four sample solutions supplemented with green apple, pineapple, yogurt, and tomato flavoring mixtures intended for use in Elental(®) diets. These oral solutions may have potential clinical application.

  9. Uranium removal from aqueous solution by coir pith: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    Parab, Harshala; Joshi, Shreeram; Shenoy, Niyoti; Verma, Rakesh; Lali, Arvind; Sudersanan, M


    Basic aspects of uranium adsorption by coir pith have been investigated by batch equilibration. The influence of different experimental parameters such as final solution pH, adsorbent dosage, sorption time, temperature and various concentrations of uranium on uptake were evaluated. Maximum uranium adsorption was observed in the pH range 4.0-6.0. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the adsorption equilibrium. The equilibrium data fitted well to both the equilibrium models in the studied concentration range of uranium (200-800 mg/l) and temperatures (305-336 K). The coir pith exhibited the highest uptake capacity for uranium at 317 K, at the final solution pH value of 4.3 and at the initial uranium concentration of 800 mg/l. The kinetics of the adsorption process followed a second-order adsorption. The adsorbent used proved to be suitable for removal of uranium from aqueous solutions. 0.2 N HCl was effective in uranium desorption. The results indicated that the naturally abundant coir pith of otherwise nuisance value exhibited considerable potential for application in removal of uranium from aqueous solution.

  10. Bioavailability study of dronabinol oral solution versus dronabinol capsules in healthy volunteers

    Parikh N


    Full Text Available Neha Parikh,1 William G Kramer,2 Varun Khurana,1 Christina Cognata Smith,1 Santosh Vetticaden,1 1INSYS Therapeutics, Inc., Chandler, AZ, USA; 2Kramer Consulting LLC, North Potomac, MD, USA Background: Dronabinol, a pharmaceutical Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was originally developed as an oral capsule. This study evaluated the bioavailability of a new formulation, dronabinol oral solution, versus a dronabinol capsule formulation. Methods: In an open-label, four-period, single-dose, crossover study, healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to one of two treatment sequences (T-R-T-R and R-T-R-T; T = dronabinol 4.25 mg oral solution and R = dronabinol 5 mg capsule under fasted conditions, with a minimum 7-day washout period between doses. Analyses were performed on venous blood samples drawn 15 minutes to 48 hours postdose, and dronabinol concentrations were assayed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Fifty-one of 52 individuals had pharmacokinetic data for analysis. The 90% confidence interval of the geometric mean ratio (oral solution/capsule for dronabinol was within the 80%–125% bioequivalence range for area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0–t and AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞. Maximum plasma concentration was also bioequivalent for the two dronabinol formulations. Intraindividual variability in AUC0–∞ was >60% lower for dronabinol oral solution 4.25 mg versus dronabinol capsule 5 mg. Plasma dronabinol concentrations were detected within 15 minutes postdose in 100% of patients when receiving oral solution and in <25% of patients when receiving capsules. Conclusion: Single-dose dronabinol oral solution 4.25 mg was bioequivalent to dronabinol capsule 5 mg under fasted conditions. Dronabinol oral solution formulation may provide an easy-to-swallow administration option with lower intraindividual variability as well as

  11. Kisah Sukses Inovasi Marketing from Commodity Becomes Solution (Studi Kasus Tentang PT Holcim Indonesia Tbk

    Handy Martinus


    million tons (still a surplus of about 5-7 million tons. The problem is, if the shortage is met from imports, it could damage the domestic cement industry. Therefore, to meet the interests of industry and consumers, the best way is the expansion of the new plant. And to support the expansion of the factory in the country, clearly requires a major investment. Based on the assumptions above, Holcim as a newbie in the national cement market, which previously bought cement Cibinong also takes part in the national market. Now, Holcim is not half-hearted continuously expanding its new factory in Tuban to increase the strength of its two plants that are already running. A series of innovations in marketing activities are carried out, ie not just treating cement as a commodity but rather providing a range of service solutions to users via the outlet solution that provides aid earthquake-resistant building design, material supply multi-brand, as well as a series of cooperation in the process of financing by establishing cooperation to the bank.

  12. Single cell performance studies on the FE/CR Redox Energy Storage System using mixed reactant solutions at elevated temperature

    Gahn, R. F.; Hagedorn, N. H.; Ling, J. S.


    Experimental studies in a 14.5 sq cm single cell system using mixed reactant solutions at 65 C are described. Systems were tested under isothermal conditions, i.e., reactants and the cell were at the same temperature. Charging and discharging performance were evaluated by measuring watt-hour and coulombic efficiencies, voltage-current relationships, hydrogen evolution and membrane resistivity. Watt-hour efficiencies ranged from 86 percent at 43 ma/sq cm to 75 percent at 129 ma/sq cm with corresponding coulombic efficiencies of 92 percent and 97 percent, respectively. Hydrogen evolution was less than 1 percent of the charge coulumbic capacity during charge-discharge cycling. Bismuth amd bismuth-lead catalyzed chromium electrodes maintained reversible performance and low hydrogen evolution under normal and adverse cycling conditions. Reblending of the anode and cathode solutions was successfully demonstrated to compensate for osmotic volume changes. Improved performance was obtained with mixed reactant systems in comparison to the unmixed reactant systems. Previously announced in STAR as N83-25042

  13. Simulation study on structure of water in aqueous solutions confined between graphene electrodes under very high applied electric field

    Leuty, Gary; Tsige, Mesfin; Talapatra, Saikat


    Arising from questions regarding electric double-layer capacitors utilizing graphene electrodes and aqueous electrolyte (KOH solution), atomistic MD simulations of electrolyte confined between graphene electrodes were performed to understand the behavior of electrolyte as a function of electric field strength and solution concentration, from pure water to 6M KOH. It was noted that the strength of the electric field had a demonstrable effect on the structure of pure water between the electrodes (as has previously been seen in highly confined multilayer water systems), creating regularly spaced channels and densely packed sheets of highly ordered molecules. We also saw a clear effect due to the presence of electrolyte ions and their separation from the water due to the action of the field; different field strengths appear to greatly alter the distribution of ions, which in turn affects the structure and ordering of the water. Time dependence in the strength of the electric field was also studied to determine what effect, if any, it has on induced structure. Authors gratefully acknowledge support from the ACS Petroleum Research Fund and the National Science Foundation.

  14. Experimental study of the bending elasticity of charged lipid bilayers in aqueous solutions with pH5

    Mitkova, D.; Stoyanova-Ivanova, A.; Ermakov, Yu A.; Vitkova, V.


    Exposure to high concentrations of contaminations due to air polluting gases, vapours and aerosols and possibly altering the normal pH in the body could lead to undesirable changes in the properties of biological cells. Here, we study experimentally the mechanical properties of synthetic phospholipid bilayers containing increasing molar fractions (up to 0.15) of charged lipid (synthetic phosphatidylserine) in aqueous solutions with controlled ionic strength and at pH 5, which is slightly lower than the physiological values of pH. Our observations in phase contrast and fluorescence testified to the coexistence of two phases in membranes for temperatures below 29°C. Micro-sized inhomogeneities in vesicle membranes were systematically observed at temperatures lower than 29°C and for molar fractions of phosphatidylserine in the bilayer higher than 0.1. For the quantitative determination of the membrane bending rigidity, we applied thermal fluctuation analysis of the shape of quasispherical lipid vesicles. As far as the liquid-crystalline state of the bilayer is a necessary condition for the application of the experimental method, only vesicles satisfying this requirement were processed for determination of their membrane bending rigidity. The value obtained for the bending modulus of bilayers with 0.15 molar content of charged lipid is about two times higher than the bending modulus of uncharged membranes in the same bathing solution. These findings are in qualitative agreement with our previous results for the bending rigidity of charged bilayers, measured by vesicle micromanipulation.

  15. Numerical study of Spherically Symmetric solutions on a Cosmological Dynamical Background using the BSSN Formalism

    Rekier, Jeremy; Fuzfa, Andre


    We present a fully relativistic numerical method for the study of cosmological problems in spherical symmetry. This involves using the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) formalism on a dynamical Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background. The regular and smooth numerical solution at the center of coordinates proceeds in a natural way by relying on the Partially Implicit Runge-Kutta (PIRK) algorithm described in Montero and Cordero-Carri\\'on [arXiv:1211.5930]. We generalize the usual radiative outer boundary condition to the case of a dynamical background. We show the stability and convergence properties of the method in the study of pure gauge dynamics on a de Sitter background and present a simple application to cosmology by reproducing the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) solution for the collapse of pressure-less matter.

  16. Extraction studies of cobalt (Ⅱ) and nickel (Ⅱ) from chloride solution using PC88A

    LUO Lin; WEI Jian-hong; WU Gen-yi; F. TOYOHISA; S. ATSUSHI


    Solvent extraction study of cobalt and nickel were carried out from a chloride solution with a high ratio of Co to Ni using the sodium salt of PC88A as extractant diluted in kerosene. The solution was generated in batches by leaching a tungsten super alloy scraps. The results show that extraction rate of metal ions increases with increase of aqueous phase pH value. The pH0.5 value difference of 1.40 with PC88A indicates the possible separation of cobalt and nickel. Increase of the concentration of the solvent can enhance the percentage extraction of both metal ions. Improvement of temperature is beneficial to extraction separation of cobalt and nickel. Extraction and stripping processes were also studied in a cross-current solvent extraction unit and the results were also given.

  17. Experimental Study of Interfacial Friction in NaBH{sub 4} Solution in Microchannel Dehydrogenation Reactor

    Choi, Seok Hyun; Hwang, Sueng Sik; Lee, Hee Joon [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) is considered as a secure metal hydride for hydrogen storage and supply. In this study, the interfacial friction of two-phase flow in the dehydrogenation of aqueous NaBH{sub 4} solution in a microchannel with a hydraulic diameter of 461 μm is investigated for designing a dehydrogenation chemical reactor flow passage. Because hydrogen gas is generated by the hydrolysis of NaBH{sub 4} in the presence of a ruthenium catalyst, two different flow phases (aqueous NaBH{sub 4} solution and hydrogen gas) exist in the channel. For experimental studies, a microchannel was fabricated on a silicon wafer substrate, and 100-nm ruthenium catalyst was deposited on three sides of the channel surface. A bubbly flow pattern was observed. The experimental results indicate that the two-phase multiplier increases linearly with the void fraction, which depends on the initial concentration, reaction rate, and flow residence time.

  18. Chemical responses of single yeast cells studied by fluorescence microspectroscopy under solution-flow conditions.

    Kogi, Osamu; Kim, Haeng-Boo; Kitamura, Noboru


    A microspectroscopy system combined with a fluid manifold was developed to manipulate and analyze "single" living cells. A sample buffer solution containing living cells was introduced into a flow cell set on a thermostated microscope stage and a few cells were allowed to attach to the bottom wall of the flow cell. With these living cells being attached to the wall, other floating cells were pumped out by flowing a buffer solution. These procedures made it possible to keep a few cells in the flow cell and to analyze single cells by fluorescence microspectroscopy. The technique was applied to study the time course of staining processes of single living yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells by using two types of a fluorescent probe. The present methodology was shown to be of primary importance for obtaining biochemical/physiological information on single living cells and also for studying cell-to-cell variations in several characteristics.

  19. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study

    Shi, Yuankai; Zhou, Caicun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dong; Song, Yong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Jifeng; Qin, Shukui; Xv, Nong; Zhou, Jianying; Zhang, Li; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Shucai; Luo, Rongcheng; Wang, Jie; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yinxiang; Ding, Lieming; Sun, Yan


    Background Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125mg tablet, three times per day). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety. Results From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9–6.6 m) and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1–7.9 m), respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA) according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127), diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127) and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127). Conclusions In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy. Trial Registration NCT02486354 PMID:26599904

  20. Does local endometrial injury in the nontransfer cycle improve the IVF-ET outcome in the subsequent cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF? A randomized controlled pilot study

    Sachin A Narvekar


    Full Text Available Background: Management of repeated implantation failure despite transfer of good-quality embryos still remains a dilemma for ART specialists. Scrapping of endometrium in the nontransfer cycle has been shown to improve the pregnancy rate in the subsequent IVF/ET cycle in recent studies. Aim: The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT was to determine whether endometrial injury caused by Pipelle sampling in the nontransfer cycle could improve the probability of pregnancy in the subsequent IVF cycle in patients who had previous failed IVF outcome. Setting: Tertiary assisted conception center. Design: Randomized controlled study. Materials and Methods: 100 eligible patients with previous failed IVF despite transfer of good-quality embryos were randomly allocated to the intervention group and control groups. In the intervention group, Pipelle endometrial sampling was done twice: One in the follicular phase and again in the luteal phase in the cycle preceding the embryo transfer cycle. Outcome Measure: The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. The secondary outcome measures were implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: The live birth rate was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to control group (22.4% and 9.8% P = 0.04. The clinical pregnancy rate in the intervention group was 32.7%, while that in the control group was 13.7%, which was also statistically significant ( P = 0.01. The implantation rate was significantly higher in the intervention group as compared to controls (13.07% vs 7.1% P = 0.04. Conclusions: Endometrial injury in nontransfer cycle improves the live birth rate,clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in the subsequent IVF-ET cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF cycles.

  1. Structural and photoluminescence studies of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion method

    Balamurugan, M., E-mail:; Silambarasan, M. [Centre for Photonics and Nanotechnology, Department of Science, Sona College of Technology, Salem – 636 005, Tamilnadu (India); Saravanan, S. [Centre for Photonics and Nanotechnology, Department of Science, Sona College of Technology, Salem – 636 005, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya - 466-8555 (Japan); Soga, Tetsuo [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya - 466-8555 (Japan)


    In this study titanium dioxide nanoparticle is prepared by simple solution combustion method. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the prepared titanium dioxide nanoparticles crystalline nature with tetragonal structure. Also it shows the nanoparticle is anatase and rutile mixed phase. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy image shows the nanostructure of particles in the size range about 50 nm. Room temperature photoluminescence shows intrinsic defects of oxygen vacancies.

  2. A numerical solution algorithm and its application to studies of pulsed light fields propagation

    Banakh, V. A.; Gerasimova, L. O.; Smalikho, I. N.; Falits, A. V.


    A new method for studies of pulsed laser beams propagation in a turbulent atmosphere was proposed. The algorithm of numerical simulation is based on the solution of wave parabolic equation for complex spectral amplitude of wave field using method of splitting into physical factors. Examples of the use of the algorithm in the case the propagation pulsed Laguerre-Gaussian beams of femtosecond duration in the turbulence atmosphere has been shown.

  3. Structural evaluation of phospholipid bicelles for solution-state studies of membrane-associated biomolecules.

    Glover, K J; Whiles, J A; Wu, G.; Yu, N.; Deems, R; Struppe, J O; Stark, R E; Komives, E. A.; Vold, R R


    Several complementary physical techniques have been used to characterize the aggregate structures formed in solutions containing dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC)/dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) at ratios of < or =0.5 and to establish their morphology and lipid organization as that of bicelles. (31)P NMR studies showed that the DMPC and DHPC components were highly segregated over a wide range of DMPC/DHPC ratios (q = 0.05-0.5) and temperatures (15 degrees C and 37 degrees C). Only at...

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous urea solutions: Study of dimer stability and solution structure, and calculation of the total nitrogen radial distribution function GN(r

    Boek, E.S.; Briels, W.J.


    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed in order to study the structure of two molal urea solutions in D2O. Several initial dimer configurations were considered for an adequate sampling of phase space. Eventually all of them appeared to be unstable, when system size and periodic boundary

  5. Four Thermochromic o-Hydroxy Schiff Bases of α-Aminodiphenylmethane: Solution and Solid State Study

    Marija Zbačnik


    Full Text Available More than a hundred years after the first studies of the photo- and thermochromism of o-hydroxy Schiff bases (imines, it is still an intriguing topic that fascinates several research groups around the world. The reasons for such behavior are still under investigation, and this work is a part of it. We report the solution-based and mechanochemical synthesis of four o-hydroxy imines derived from α-aminodiphenylmethane. The thermochromic properties were studied for the single crystal and polycrystalline samples of the imines. The supramolecular impact on the keto-enol tautomerism in the solid state was studied using SCXRD and NMR, while NMR spectroscopy was used for the solution state. All four imines are thermochromic, although the color changes of the single crystals are not as strong as of the polycrystalline samples. One of the imines shows negative thermochromism, and that one is in keto-amine tautomeric form, both in the solid state as in solution.

  6. NMR study of a membrane protein in detergent-free aqueous solution.

    Zoonens, Manuela; Catoire, Laurent J; Giusti, Fabrice; Popot, Jean-Luc


    One of the major obstacles to membrane protein (MP) structural studies is the destabilizing effect of detergents. Amphipols (APols) are short amphipathic polymers that can substitute for detergents to keep MPs water-soluble under mild conditions. In the present work, we have explored the feasibility of studying the structure of APol-complexed MPs by NMR. As a test MP, we chose the 171-residue transmembrane domain of outer MP A from Escherichia coli (tOmpA), whose x-ray and NMR structures in detergent are known. 2H,15N-labeled tOmpA was produced as inclusion bodies, refolded in detergent solution, trapped with APol A8-35, and the detergent removed by adsorption onto polystyrene beads. The resolution of transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy-heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectra of tOmpA/A8-35 complexes was found to be close to that of the best spectra obtained in detergent solutions. The dispersion of chemical shifts indicated that the protein had regained its native fold and retained it during the exchange of surfactants. MP-APol interactions were mapped by substituting hydrogenated for deuterated A8-35. The resulting dipolar broadening of amide proton linewidths was found to be limited to the beta-barrel region of tOmpA, indicating that A8-35 binds specifically to the hydrophobic transmembrane surface of the protein. The potential of this approach to MP studies by solution NMR is discussed.

  7. A Study of Substituted Aliphatic Sulphides on the Corrosion Behaviour of Zinc in Ammonium Chloride Solution

    R. Venckatesh


    Full Text Available Sulphur containing organic compounds decreases the corrosion rate by increasing the hydrogen over potential on zinc metal due to their electron donating groups. Their inhibiting effect was found to be associated with their adsorption on the active centers of the metal. The inhibition efficiencies of some aliphatic sulphides in ammonium chloride solution have been studied by weight loss studies, polarization and impedance measurements. The effect of substituent groups is correlated with their inhibition performance. These studies due to their relevance in Zn-Manganese dry batteries assume their importance.

  8. Cataract surgery in previously vitrectomized eyes.

    Akinci, A; Batman, C; Zilelioglu, O


    To evaluate the results of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and phacoemulsification (PHACO) performed in previously vitrectomized eyes. In this retrospective study, 56 vitrectomized eyes that had ECCE and 60 vitrectomized eyes that had PHACO were included in the study group while 65 eyes that had PHACO in the control group. The evaluated parameters were the incidence of intra-operative and postoperative complications (IPC) and visual outcomes. Chi-squared, independent samples and paired samples tests were used for comparing the results. Deep anterior chamber (AC) was significantly more common in the PHACO group of vitrectomized eyes (PGVE) and observed in eyes that had undergone extensive vitreous removal (p ECCE group and the PGVE (p > 0.05). Some of the intra-operative conditions such as posterior synechiae, primary posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and postoperative complications such as retinal detachment (RD), PCO were significantly more common in vitrectomized eyes than the controls (p ECCE group and the PGVE (p > 0.05). Deep AC is more common in eyes with extensive vitreous removal during PHACO than ECCE. Decreasing the bottle height is advised in this case. Except for this, the results of ECCE and PHACO are similar in previously vitrectomized eyes. Posterior synechiaes, primary and postoperative PCO and RD are more common in vitrectomized eyes than the controls.

  9. Comparative prospective study of two liver graft preservation solutions: University of Wisconsin and Celsior.

    Lopez-Andujar, Rafael; Deusa, Saulo; Montalvá, Eva; San Juan, Fernando; Moya, Angel; Pareja, Eugenia; DeJuan, Manuel; Berenguer, Marina; Prieto, Martín; Mir, Jose


    University of Wisconsin solution (UWS) is the gold standard for graft preservation. Celsior solution (CS) is a new solution not as yet widely used in liver grafts. The aim of this study was to compare the liver function of transplanted grafts stored in these 2 preservation solutions. The primary endpoints were the rates of primary nonfunction (PNF) and primary dysfunction (PDF). We performed a prospective and pseudorandomized study that included 196 patients (representing 104 and 92 livers preserved in UWS and CS, respectively) at La Fe University Hospital (Valencia, Spain) between March 2003 and May 2005. PNF and PDF rates, liver function laboratory parameters, postoperative bleeding, vascular and biliary complications, and patient and graft survival at 3 years were compared for the 2 groups. The 2 groups were similar in terms of donor variables, recipient variables, and surgical techniques. The PNF rates were 2.2% and 1.9% in the CS and UWS groups, respectively (P = not significant), and the PDF rates were 15.2% and 15.5% in the CS and UWS groups, respectively (P = not significant). There were no significant differences in the laboratory parameters for the 2 groups, except for alanine aminotransferase levels in month 3, which were lower in the CS group (P = 0.01). No significant differences were observed in terms of complications. Three-year patient and graft survival rates were as follows for years 1, 2, and 3: 83%, 80%, and 76% (patient) and 80%, 77%, and 73% (graft) for the UWS group and 83%, 77%, and 70% (patient) and 81%, 73%, and 67% (graft) for the CS group (P = not significant). In conclusion, this study shows that CS is as effective as UWS in liver preservation.

  10. Como novos conhecimentos podem ser construídos a partir dos conhecimentos prévios: um estudo de caso How new knowledge can be constructed from previous knowledge: a case study

    Francimar Martins Teixeira


    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata sobre o estudo de caso de como uma professora utiliza os conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes durante a abordagem de um novo conceito científico. Para tanto, foram realizadas filmagens de aulas de ciências durante a execução de uma sequência didática, a fim de investigar de que maneira os conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes eram tratados em sala de aula ao longo da abordagem do tema. A partir dos resultados encontrados, percebemos nas aulas observadas como a professora lidava com os conhecimentos dos estudantes. Identificamos que houve ocasiões em que ela os considerou e outras em que os desconsiderou. Apesar de ações antagônicas, tanto o fato de considerar quanto de desconsiderar parecem ter em comum a busca de manutenção de foco sob os conceitos, entendidos pela professora, como sendo os que devem ser objeto de atenção dos alunos.This article deals with a case study about how a teacher uses previous knowledge of students to approach a new concept. To this end, sciences classes were filmed during the execution of a didactic sequence, in order to investigate how previous knowledge of the students was treated in the classroom along the approach of the theme. From these results, we saw how the teacher dealt with previous knowledge of their students. We identified that there were occasions when she considered them and others in which she disregarded them. Although they are antagonistic actions, both the facts, to consider or to dismiss, have in common the search for keeping the focus on the concepts, defined by the teacher as those that should be the object of attention for the students.

  11. Immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of Nuwiq(®) (human-cl rhFVIII) in previously untreated patients with severe haemophilia A-Interim results from the NuProtect Study.

    Liesner, R J; Abashidze, M; Aleinikova, O; Altisent, C; Belletrutti, M J; Borel-Derlon, A; Carcao, M; Chambost, H; Chan, A K C; Dubey, L; Ducore, J; Fouzia, N A; Gattens, M; Gruel, Y; Guillet, B; Kavardakova, N; El Khorassani, M; Klukowska, A; Lambert, T; Lohade, S; Sigaud, M; Turea, V; Wu, J K M; Vdovin, V; Pavlova, A; Jansen, M; Belyanskaya, L; Walter, O; Knaub, S; Neufeld, E J


    Nuwiq(®) (Human-cl rhFVIII) is a fourth generation recombinant FVIII, produced in a human cell line, without chemical modification or protein fusion. No inhibitors developed in studies with Nuwiq(®) in 201 previously treated patients with haemophilia A (HA). The immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of Nuwiq(®) in previously untreated patients (PUPs) with severe HA are being assessed in the ongoing NuProtect study. The study, conducted across 38 centres worldwide, is evaluating 110 true PUPs of all ages and ethnicities enrolled for study up to 100 exposure days (EDs) or 5 years maximum. The primary objective is to assess the immunogenicity of Nuwiq(®) (inhibitor activity ≥0.6 BU) using the Nijmegen-modified Bethesda assay at a central laboratory. Data for 66 PUPs with ≥20 EDs from a preplanned interim analysis were analysed. High-titre (HT) inhibitors developed in 8 of 66 patients after a median of 11.5 EDs (range 6-24). Five patients developed low-titre inhibitors (4 transient). The cumulative incidence (95% confidence interval) was 12.8% (4.5%, 21.2%) for HT inhibitors and 20.8% (10.7%, 31.0%) for all inhibitors. During inhibitor-free periods, median annualized bleeding rates during prophylaxis were 0 for spontaneous bleeds and 2.40 for all bleeds. Efficacy was rated as "excellent" or "good" in treating 91.8% of bleeds. Efficacy of surgical prophylaxis was "excellent" or "good" for 8 (89%) procedures and "moderate" for 1 (11%). No tolerability concerns were evident. These interim data show a cumulative incidence of 12.8% for HT inhibitors and convincing efficacy and tolerability in PUPs treated with Nuwiq(®) . © 2017 The Authors. Haemophilia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Can previous learning alter future plasticity mechanisms?

    Crestani, Ana Paula; Quillfeldt, Jorge Alberto


    The dynamic processes related to mnemonic plasticity have been extensively researched in the last decades. More recently, studies have attracted attention because they show an unusual plasticity mechanism that is independent of the receptor most usually related to first-time learning--that is, memory acquisition-the NMDA receptor. An interesting feature of this type of learning is that a previous experience may cause modifications in the plasticity mechanism of a subsequent learning, suggesting that prior experience in a very similar task triggers a memory acquisition process that does not depend on NMDARs. The intracellular molecular cascades necessary to assist the learning process seem to depend on the activation of hippocampal CP-AMPARs. Moreover, most of these studies were performed on hippocampus-dependent tasks, even though other brain areas, such as the basolateral amygdala, also display NMDAR-independent learning.

  13. Structural study of nanocrystalline solid solution of Cu-Mo obtained by mechanical alloying

    Aguilar, C., E-mail: [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica y de Materiales, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avenida Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Instituto de Materiales y Procesos Termomecanicos, Universidad Austral de Chile, General Lagos 2086, Valdivia (Chile); Castro, F. [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Tecnicas de Gipuzkoa, Paseo de Manuel Lardizabal, N Degree-Sign 15 20018, San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez, V. [TEKMETALL, Metallurgical Solutions S.L., Paseo neinor, Iribar Kalea 5, F1. B. de Igara 20018, San Sebastian (Spain); Guzman, D. [Departamento de Ingenieria en Metalurgia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Atacama y Centro Regional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Sustentable de Atacama (CRIDESAT), Av. Copayapu 485, Copiapo (Chile); Cuevas, F. de las; Lozada, L.; Vielma, N. [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Tecnicas de Gipuzkoa, Paseo de Manuel Lardizabal, N Degree-Sign 15 20018, San Sebastian (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extension of solid solution in Cu-Mo system achieved by mechanical alloying. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray characterization of Cu-Mo system processed by mechanical alloying. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural study of nanocrystalline solid solution of Cu-Mo obtained by mechanical alloying. - Abstract: This work studied the structural evolution of Cu-xMo (x = 5 and 8 wt.%) alloys processed by mechanical alloying using x-ray diffraction profiles, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetric and microhardness. X-ray diffraction analysis was done using the modified Williamson-Hall and Warren-Averbach methods. These were used to determine structural properties, such as crystallite size, stacking fault probability and energy, dislocation density of metallic powder as a function of the amount of Mo and milling time. The main results obtained for both alloys were higher dislocation density and Vickers microhardness values were measured and crystallites sizes of around 10 nm were measured for both systems at 50 h of milling. Lattice defects increase the free energy and the free energy curves shift upwards, therefore the solubility limits change and Cu-Mo solid solution is formed.

  14. Experimental study of the effect of mica on pressure solution of single crystal calcite

    Karcz, Z.; Laronne, L.; Polizzotti, R. S.; Ertas, D.; Aharonov, E.


    Field and experimental studies suggest that clays and micas accelerate the rate of pressure solution in various geomaterials. It is not clear however whether the "clay effect" is purely mechanical (i.e., maintaining a thick conduit for fluids at the contact) or whether its surface chemistry plays a critical role. A case in point is the insoluble clay filling of stylolites, which are thought by some to be merely an inert byproduct of dissolution, or by others to be a necessary feature for the propagation of the seam. To study the effect of mica on carbonate pressure solution, the corner of a cleaved calcite single crystal rhomb was polished into a triangular face (edge length ~ 200micron) and pressed against either muscovite or quartz discs to yield a nominal stress of 10-20MPa. Immersing the contact in pre-saturated (with respect to microcrystalline calcite) solutions of distilled water or 0.25M NH4Cl caused axial shortening of the crystal. This axial strain was measured with a capacitance sensor (perimeter roughens. The second stage is distinguished by high axial strain rates (~40nm/h) and changes in the size and spatial position of isolated contacts (diameterfaces adjacent to it. At this point we see no significant difference between the calcite quartz and calcite muscovite experiments under similar load conditions.

  15. The Study of Influence of the Teslar Technology on Aqueous Solution of Some Biomolecules

    E. Andreev


    Full Text Available The possibility of recording physical changes in aqueos solutions caused by a unique field generated by the Teslar chip (TC inside a quartz wristwatch has been studied using holographic interferometry. We show that the refraction index of degassed pure distilled water and aqueous solutions of L-tyrosine and b-alanine affected by the TC does not change during the first 10 minutes of influence. In contrast, a 1% aqueous solution of plasma extracted from the blood of a patient with heart vascular disease changes the refractive index when affected by the TC. The characteristic time of reaction is about 102 seconds. Based on our prior research experience, we state that the response of the system studied to the TC's field is similar to that stipulated by the action of a constant magnetic field with the intensity of 1.1×10−3 T. Nevertheless, our team have unambiguously proved that the TC generates the inerton field, which is associated with a substructure of the matter waves (and, therefore, it does not relate to the electromagnetic nature. We could unambiguously prove that the TC generates the inerton field.

  16. Ocean acidification: Linking science to management solutions using the Great Barrier Reef as a case study.

    Albright, Rebecca; Anthony, Kenneth R N; Baird, Mark; Beeden, Roger; Byrne, Maria; Collier, Catherine; Dove, Sophie; Fabricius, Katharina; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Kelly, Ryan P; Lough, Janice; Mongin, Mathieu; Munday, Philip L; Pears, Rachel J; Russell, Bayden D; Tilbrook, Bronte; Abal, Eva


    Coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to ocean acidification. While our understanding of the potential impacts of ocean acidification on coral reef ecosystems is growing, gaps remain that limit our ability to translate scientific knowledge into management action. To guide solution-based research, we review the current knowledge of ocean acidification impacts on coral reefs alongside management needs and priorities. We use the world's largest continuous reef system, Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR), as a case study. We integrate scientific knowledge gained from a variety of approaches (e.g., laboratory studies, field observations, and ecosystem modelling) and scales (e.g., cell, organism, ecosystem) that underpin a systems-level understanding of how ocean acidification is likely to impact the GBR and associated goods and services. We then discuss local and regional management options that may be effective to help mitigate the effects of ocean acidification on the GBR, with likely application to other coral reef systems. We develop a research framework for linking solution-based ocean acidification research to practical management options. The framework assists in identifying effective and cost-efficient options for supporting ecosystem resilience. The framework enables on-the-ground OA management to be the focus, while not losing sight of CO2 mitigation as the ultimate solution.

  17. The study of influence of the Teslar technology on aqueous solution of some biomolecules

    Andreev, E; Krasnoholovets, V; 10.1155/2007/94286


    The possibility of recording physical changes in aqueos solutions caused by a unique field generated by the Teslar chip (TC) inside a quartz wristwatch has been studied using holographic interferometry. We show that the refraction index of degassed pure distilled water and aqueous solutions of L-tyrosine and b-alanine affected by the TC does not change during the first 10 minutes of influence. In contrast, a 1% aqueous solution of plasma extracted from the blood of a patient with heart-vascular disease changes the refractive index when affected by the TC. The characteristic time of reaction is about 100 s. Based on our prior research experience we state that the response of the system studied to the TC's field is similar to that stipulated by the action of a constant magnetic field with the intensity of 1.1 x 10^{-3} T. Nevertheless, our team could unambiguously prove that the TC generates the inerton field, which is associated with a substructure of the matter waves (and, therefore, it does not relate to the...

  18. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study of cesium adsorption onto nanocrystalline mordenite from high-salt solution.

    Lee, Keun-Young; Park, Minsung; Kim, Jimin; Oh, Maengkyo; Lee, Eil-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon


    In this study, the equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of cesium adsorption by nanocrystalline mordenite were investigated under cesium contamination with high-salt solution, simulating the case of an operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities or an accident during the processes. The adsorption rate constants were determined using a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The kinetic results strongly demonstrated that the cesium adsorption rate of nano mordenite is extremely fast, even in a high-salt solution, and much faster than that of micro mordenite. In the equilibrium study, the Langmuir isotherm model fit the cesium adsorption data of nano mordenite better than the Freundlich model, which suggests that cesium adsorption onto nano mordenite is a monolayer homogeneous adsorption process. The obtained thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption involved a very stable chemical reaction. In particular, the combination of rapid particle dispersion and rapid cesium adsorption of the nano mordenite in the solution resulted in a rapid and effective process for cesium removal without stirring, which may offer great advantages for low energy consumption and simple operation.

  19. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... digital submission of all data and certifications is available via HUD's secure Internet systems. However...: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0118. Form Numbers: HUD-2530 ....

  20. Experimental and quantum chemical studies on corrosion inhibition performance of fluconazole in hydrochloric acid solution

    P Malekmohammadi Nouri; M M Attar


    The corrosion inhibition effect of fluconazole (FLU) was investigated on steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution. Weight loss measurements and atomic force microscope analysis were utilized to investigate the corrosion inhibition properties and film formation behaviour of FLU. Quantum chemical approach was also used to calculate some electronic properties of the molecule in neutral and protonated form in order to find any correlation between the inhibition effect and molecular structure of FLU molecule. The results showed that FLU can act as a good corrosion inhibitor for steel in hydrochloric acid solution at different temperatures and it can inhibit steel corrosion up to 95%. The adsorption followed the Langmuir isotherm and the thermodynamic parameters were also determined and discussed. Quantum chemical studies showed that in adsorption process of FLU molecules, nitrogen and oxygen atoms and benzene ring act as active centres.

  1. Development of a stealth carrier system for structural studies of membrane proteins in solution

    Maric, Selma

    which can be used for SANS structural analysis of membrane proteins in solution. In combination with the D2O/H2O-based contrast variation method it is demonstrated that it is possible to prepare specifically deuterated analogues of the nanodisc, which give minimal contribution to the neutron scattering......Structural studies of membrane proteins remain a great experimental challenge. Functional reconstitution into artificial carriers that mimic the native bilayer environment allows for the handling of membrane proteins in solution and enables the use of small-angle scattering techniques for fast...... scaffolding protein. To obtain physiologically relevant deuterated phosphatidylcholine (PC) species with the required scattering length density a novel method for deuteration of PC was developed to separately control the deuteration levels of three different parts of the phospholipid molecule: the lipid head...

  2. The study of the antimicrobial activity of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles prepared using food stabilizers.

    Balandin, G V; Suvorov, O A; Shaburova, L N; Podkopaev, D O; Frolova, Yu V; Ermolaeva, G A


    The bactericidal effect of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles based on food stabilizers, gum arabic and chitosan, against bacterial cultures of microorganisms in food production is described. The antibacterial activity of nanotechnology products containing different amounts of stabilizing additives when applied to solid pH-neutral substrates is studied. For its evaluation a method making it possible to take into account the capability of nanoparticles to diffuse in solid media was applied. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of nanoparticles used against Erwinia herbicola, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina flava were found. A suggestion was made concerning the influence of the spatial structure of bacteria on the antibacterial activity of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles. The data concerning the antibacterial activity and minimal inhibiting concentrations of nanoparticles may be used for development of products suppressing activity of microorganisms hazardous for food production.


    CAONingning; YUYaoting; 等


    Cholesterol modified dextran(CHD) having self-aggrgation or self-assembly property was synthesized from cholesterol and 1,6-hexyldiisocyanate.The degree of substitution of cholesteryl moiety in dextran main line is 3-5 cholesterols the 100 glucose units.We have prepared water solution of CHD using probe type sonifier and N-Phenyl-a-naphthylamine(PNA) as a fluorescent probe to study CHD self-aggregate process.For each solution of two samples,we found that the maximum emission of PNA in CHD concentration.This change corresponds to the formation of micelle-like clusters self-aggregated by the cholesterol moiety once the CHD concentration.This change corresponds to the formation of micelle-like clusters self-aggregated by the cholesterol moiety once the CHD concentration exceeds 0.01mg/ml.

  4. Study of Bovine Serum Albumin Solubility in Aqueous Solutions by Intrinsic Viscosity Measurements

    Martin Alberto Masuelli


    Full Text Available The behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA in water is scarcely studied, and the thermodynamic properties arising from the experimental measurements have not been reported. Intrinsic viscosity measurements are very useful in assessing the interaction between the solute and solvent. This work discussed in a simple determination of the enthalpy of BSA in aqueous solution when the concentration ranges from 0.2 to 36.71% wt. and the temperature from 35 to 40°C. The relationship between the concentration and intrinsic viscosity is determined according to the method of Huggins. The temperature increase reduces the ratio between inherent viscosity and concentration (ηi/c. This is reflected in the Van't Hoff curve. Furthermore, this work proposes hydrodynamic cohesion value as an indicator of the degree of affinity of protein with water and thermodynamic implications in conformational changes.

  5. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by ion-exchange resin: column sorption-elution studies.

    Köse, T Ennil; Oztürk, Neşe


    A column sorption-elution study was carried out by using a strong base anion-exchange resin (Dowex 2 x 8) for the removal of boron from aqueous solutions. The breakthrough curve was obtained as a function of feed flow rate and the total and breakthrough capacity values of the resin were calculated. The boron on the resin was quantitatively eluted with 0.5M HCl solution at different flow rates. Three consecutive sorption-elution-washing-regeneration-washing cycles were applied to the resin in order to investigate the reusability of the ion-exchange resin. Total capacity values remained almost the same after three sorption-elution-regeneration cycles. The Thomas and the Yoon-Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic column parameters required for process design. The results proved that the models would describe the breakthrough curves well.

  6. Study of a Triazole Derivative as Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Phosphoric Acid Solution

    Lin Wang


    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition by a triazole derivative (PAMT on mild steel in phosphoric acid (H3PO4 solution has been investigated by weight loss and polarization methods. The experimental results reveal that the compound has a significant inhibiting effect on the corrosion of steel in H3PO4 solution. It also shows good corrosion inhibition at higher concentration of H3PO4. Potentiodynamic polarization studies have shown that the compound acts as a mixed-type inhibitor retarding the anodic and cathodic corrosion reactions with predominant effect on the cathodic reaction. The values of inhibition efficiency obtained from weight loss and polarization measurements are in good agreement. The adsorption of this compound is found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Some kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as apparent activation energy, frequency factor, and adsorption free energy have been calculated and discussed.

  7. Femtosecond study of exciton dynamics in polyfluorene statistical copolymers in solutions and thin films

    Zhang, Jin Z.; Kreger, Melissa A.; Klaerner, Gerrit; Kreyenschmidt, M.; Miller, Robert D.; Scott, J. Campbell


    The formation and decay dynamics of photogenerated excitons in polyfluorene statistical co-polymers in solutions and in thin films have been studied using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. In solution photoexcitation of the polymer generates primarily intrachain singlet excitons which are initially hot and then relax quickly (polaron pairs in films at low intensities. At high intensities, the possibility cannot be ruled out completely, especially in relation to the fast decay. If bound polaron pairs are formed as indicated by the fast decay, they must be generated as a result of interaction between excitons on different chains since they are absent at low power, an they must be created and then decay within about 1 ps.

  8. Kinetic study on hydrolysis of biomass (Ailanthus altissima chips) by using alkaline-glycerol solution

    Kucuk, M.M. [Yuzuncu Yil University, Van (Turkey). Educational Faculty; Demirbas, A. [Technical University of the Black Sea, Trabzon (Turkey). Educational Faculty


    This paper is about the kinetics of hydrolysis of biomass (Ailanthus altissima) using an aqueous alkaline-glycerol solution. The study was performed at four temperature levels (438, 458, 478 and 498 K) and for different times (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 hours). The solution concentration was constant (75 g glycerol, 25.0 g water, 10% NaOH and 10.0 g wood chips). After conversion has been determined, the fractional weight loss (-1/W{sub o}dW/dt) was found to be a function of the amount of wood residue (f(W)) and the reaction rate constant (k). The order of reaction (n) and activation energy (E{sub a}) were calculated. The results were, respectively, 1.32 x 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}, 1.16, and 19.5 kJ mol{sup -1}. (author)

  9. Study on the sound absorption mechanism in gradient water-soluble polymer solution

    WANG Yuansheng; YANG Xue; ZHU Jinhua; YAO Shuren


    Attention was paid to the study on the sound absorption mechanism of watersoluble polymer during dissolving. A specially designed water-soluble polymer coating was synthesized in our lab. The sound attenuation property was measured in sound tube. The results showed that the sound attenuation of the gradient polymer solution was larger than that of the uniform. Depending on the experimental result and the theory of sound wave propagation in layered medium, a mechanism of gradient water-soluble polymer solution was developed. This mechanism can be described as follows: a water-soluble polymer coating formed a concentration gradient layer when it was dissolved in water. This gradient layer led to multiple reflection and absorption of sound. Finally the sound energy was transferred into heat.

  10. Mechanistic study of fulvic acid assisted propranolol photodegradation in aqueous solution.

    Makunina, Maria P; Pozdnyakov, Ivan P; Chen, Yong; Grivin, Vyacheslav P; Bazhin, Nikolay M; Plyusnin, Victor F


    Laser flash (355 nm) and stationary (365 nm) photolysis were used to study the mechanisms of propranolol photolysis in the presence of fulvic acid in aqueous solutions. The FA-assisted photodegradation of propranolol was observed using UV-A irradiation (where propranolol is stable). Direct evidence indicated that the photodegradation resulted from the static quenching of the FA triplet state by propranolol via the electron transfer mechanism. The triplet state yield (ϕT≈0.6%) and the T-T absorption coefficient (ɛT(620 nm)≈5×10(4) M(-1) cm(-1)) were estimated for the first time by modeling the yields of the FA triplet state in the presence of propranolol. Thus, fulvic acid is a promising agent for accelerating propranolol photodegradation in aqueous solutions under UV-A light irradiation.

  11. Removal of trihalomethanes from aqueous solution through armchair carbon nanotubes: a molecular dynamics study.

    Azamat, Jafar; Khataee, Alireza; Joo, Sang Woo; Yin, Binfeng


    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) including CH3Cl, CH2Cl2 and CHCl3 from aqueous solutions by armchair carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under induced pressure. The studied system involved the armchair CNTs embedded between two graphene sheets with an aqueous solution of THMs in the simulation box. An external pressure was applied to the system along the z-axis of the simulation box. Six types of armchair CNTs with different diameter were used in this work, included (4,4), (5,5), (6,6), (7,7), (8,8) and (9,9) CNTs. The results of molecular dynamics simulation display that the armchair CNTs behave differently relative to THMs and water molecules. The permeation of THMs and water molecules through the armchair CNTs was dependent on the diameter of CNTs and the applied pressure.

  12. Study on CO{sub 2} absorption enhancement by adding active carbon particles into MEA solution

    Qian, Juan; Sun, Rui; Ma, Lian; Sun, Shaozeng [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering


    The chemical absorption of CO{sub 2} is generally recognized as the most efficient post-combustion technology of CO{sub 2} separation at present. A study on CO{sub 2} absorption enhancement by adding small particles of active carbon into MEA solution is investigated within a self-designed glass stirring tank. Experiments of different particle loadings and different particle sizes have been conducted. When active carbon particle concentration is fewer, compared to the absorption rate of CO{sub 2} gas absorbed by MEA aqueous solution, the role of active carbon adsorption CO{sub 2} gas is negligible. The enhancement efficiency of CO{sub 2} absorption could be improved by 10% to the upmost in this liquid-particle system.

  13. Effect of parenteral nutrition solutions on biofilm formation of coagulase-negative Staphylococci: An experimental study

    J. Sedef Göçmen


    Full Text Available Objectives: In our study we investigated the effects ofparenteral nutrition (PN solutions on Coagulase negativestaphylococci (CoNS biofilm production.Materials and methods: Thirty nine CoNS strains isolatedfrom hemocultures and a reference strain (ATCC 12228Staphylococcus epidermidis were included. Bacterial dilutionswere made in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB. The experimentalmediums were 1. Glucose, 2. Amino acid, 3. Lipid,4. Glucose+ Amino acid+ lipid, 5. Glucose+ Amino acid, 6.Glucose+ Lipid, 7. Amino acid+ Lipid, and 8. Control (TSB.Biofilm formation was evaluated by “quantitative microdilutionplaque test”. The values greater than cut off valueare considered as positive. Biofilm positivity was dividedinto 3 groups (mild, moderate and intensive and all otherstrains under cutoff value were accepted as negative. Thenumbers of biofilm positive strains derived from 1-7. mediumswere compared with each other, and with the resultsof control.Results: The three-component PN solution and two componentPN solutions containing glucose+ lipid and aminoacid+ lipid were found to increase the biofilm productionactivity of CoNS when compared to the control group.Slime positivity in medium 1 and 2 was lower than controlsignificantly, in medium 4, 6, and 7 slime positivity washigher considerably. The indifferent results were obtainedwithin the mediums 1, 2, 3 and within the mediums 4, 5, 6,and 7.Conclusions: In our study, it was found that, glucose, aminoacid and lipid solutions which were building structuresof PN decreased the biofilm production when used solitary.However use of the compounds increased the biofilmproduction. Therefore, we can conclude that PN solutionsgiven as mixtures in routine practice increase the risk ofcatheter infection. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(4: 505-509Key words: Catheter-related infections, biofilm, parenteralnutrition


    Satish A. Bhalerao


    Full Text Available The biosorption studies for effective removal of cadmium (II ions from aqueous solutions using orange rind (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, cost effective biosorbent, was carried out in batch system. FTIR analysis of biosorbent confirmed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl group which was responsible for biosorption of cadmium (II ions. The SEM represents porous structure with surface area. The effects of operational factors including solution pH, biosorbent dose, initial cadmium (II ions concentration, contact time and temperature were studied. The optimum solution pH for cadmium (II ions biosorption by biosorbent was 7.0 with the optimal removal 80.30 %. The biosorbent dose 5 mg/ml was enough for optimal removal of 65.15 %. The biosorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was achieved after 90 minutes of contact. The experimental equilibrium biosorption data were analysed by four widely used two-parameters Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Kaganer-Redushkevich (DKR and Temkin isotherm models. Langmuir isotherm model provided a better fit with the experimental data than Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Kaganer-Redushkevich (DKR isotherm models by high correlation coefficient value (R2 = 0.911. The maximum adsorption capacity determined from Langmuir isotherm was found to be 83.33 mg/g of biosorbent. Simple kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich equation and Weber and Morris intra-particle diffusion rate equation were employed to determine the adsorption mechanism. Results clearly indicates that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.998 was found to be correlate the experimental data strongest than other three kinetic models and this suggests that chemical adsorption process was more dominant. Thermodynamic study revealed that the biosorption process was spontaneous, endothermic and increasing randomness of the solid solution interfaces. Orange rind (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck was successfully used for the

  15. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian


    Background: In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include ‘one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. Method: This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Results: Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02–7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90

  16. Neutron diffraction studies on Ca1-BaZr4P6O24 solid solutions

    S N Achary; O D Jayakumar; S J Patwe; A B Shinde; P S R Krishna; S K Kulshreshtha; A K Tyagi


    Herein we report the results of detailed crystallographic studies of Ca1-BaZr4P6O24 compositions from combined Rietveld refinements of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data. All the studied compositions crystallize in rhombohedral lattice (space group R-3 No. 148). A continuous solid solution is concluded from the systematic variation of unit cell parameters. The variation of unit cell parameters with the composition indicates decreasing trend in parameter with increasing Ba2+ concentration contrast to an increasing trend in parameter.

  17. The Study of the Solution to a Generalized KdV-mKdV Equation

    Xiumei Lv


    Full Text Available A mathematical technique based on an auxiliary equation and the symbolic computation system Matlab is employed to investigate a generalized KdV-mKdV equation which possesses high-order nonlinear terms. Some new solutions including the Jacobi elliptic function solutions, the degenerated soliton-like solutions, and the triangle function solutions to the equation are obtained.

  18. Radiation chemical studies on thermosensitive N-isopropylacrylamide and its polymer in aqueous solutions.

    Acharya, Anjali; Mohan, Hari; Sabharwal, S


    The pulse radiolysis technique has been employed to determine the initiation and propagation rates of different transient species involved in the polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) in aqueous solutions. Polymerization by anionic mechanism has been observed to be faster than by the free-radical mechanism. The kinetic, spectroscopic and redox properties of the transient species formed upon reaction of primary radiolytic species of water radiolysis with NIPA have been evaluated. The one-electron oxidation potential for the formation of a radical cation is quite high (>2 V), but the one-electron reduction potential is low (in the range of -0.3 to -0.7 V). The radical anion of NIPA is able to undergo an electron-transfer reaction with MV(2+), and has a pK(a) value of 3.2. The tert-butyl alcohol radical was also able to initiate polymerization. Gamma radiation-induced polymerization studies showed that the reaction of H(.)/(.)OH/e(aq)(-)/tert-butyl alcohol radicals with NIPA results in a nearly equal yield of the gel fraction. The hydrogel is observed to have very little swelling below pH 3 and above pH 10. The linear polymer of NIPA formed by irradiating dilute aqueous solution is found to be a thermosensitive polymer with lower a critical solution temperature (LCST) of ~33 degrees C. The diameters of polymer molecules were 290 and 20 nm at temperature below and above LCST, respectively.

  19. Size-exclusion partitioning of neutral solutes in crosslinked polymer networks: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Maroto-Centeno, José Alberto [Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Linares, Universidad de Jaén, 23700 Linares, Jaén (Spain); Adroher-Benítez, Irene [Grupo de Física de Fluidos y Biocoloides, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)


    In this work, the size-exclusion partitioning of neutral solutes in crosslinked polymer networks has been studied through Monte Carlo simulations. Two models that provide user-friendly expressions to predict the partition coefficient have been tested over a wide range of volume fractions: Ogston's model (especially devised for fibrous media) and the pore model. The effects of crosslinking and bond stiffness have also been analyzed. Our results suggest that the fiber model can acceptably account for size-exclusion effects in crosslinked gels. Its predictions are good for large solutes if the fiber diameter is assumed to be the effective monomer diameter. For solutes sizes comparable to the monomer dimensions, a smaller fiber diameter must be used. Regarding the pore model, the partition coefficient is poorly predicted when the pore diameter is estimated as the distance between adjacent crosslinker molecules. On the other hand, our results prove that the pore sizes obtained from the pore model by fitting partitioning data of swollen gels are overestimated.

  20. Biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions using mushrooms: A comparative study

    Vimala, R., E-mail: [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Das, Nilanjana [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)


    Sorption capacity of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus platypus), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) were evaluated on biosorption of heavy metals, viz. cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. The optimum sorption conditions were studied for each metal separately. The desired pH of the aqueous solution was found to be 6.0 for the removal of cadmium (II) and 5.0 for removal of lead (II) for all the mushrooms. The percent removal of both the metals was found to increase with the increase in biosorbent dosage and contact time. The fitness of the biosorption data for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models was investigated. It was found that biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions onto the biomass of the three mushrooms were better suitable to Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption model. P. platypus showed the highest metal uptake potential for cadmium (q{sub max} 34.96 mg/g) whereas A. bisporus exhibited maximum potential for lead (q{sub max} 33.78 mg/g). Milky mushroom showed the lowest metal uptake capacity for both the metals. The present data confirms that mushrooms may be used as efficient biosorbent for the removal of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solution.

  1. Solution NMR study of the yeast cytochrome c peroxidase: cytochrome c interaction

    Volkov, Alexander N., E-mail:; Nuland, Nico A. J. van [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Jean Jeener NMR Centre, Structural Biology Brussels (Belgium)


    Here we present a solution NMR study of the complex between yeast cytochrome c (Cc) and cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP), a paradigm for understanding the biological electron transfer. Performed for the first time, the CcP-observed heteronuclear NMR experiments were used to probe the Cc binding in solution. Combining the Cc- and CcP-detected experiments, the binding interface on both proteins was mapped out, confirming that the X-ray structure of the complex is maintained in solution. Using NMR titrations and chemical shift perturbation analysis, we show that the interaction is independent of the CcP spin-state and is only weakly affected by the Cc redox state. Based on these findings, we argue that the complex of the ferrous Cc and the cyanide-bound CcP is a good mimic of the catalytically-active Cc-CcP compound I species. Finally, no chemical shift perturbations due to the Cc binding at the low-affinity CcP site were observed at low ionic strength. We discuss possible reasons for the absence of the effects and outline future research directions.

  2. Study of the separation of zirconium and hafnium from nitric solutions by solvent extraction

    Amaral, Janubia Cristina B.S.; Rocha, Laura R.T.; Morais, Carlos Antonio de, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, BH (Brazil)


    This paper describes the study of the separation of Zr and Hf in nitric and hydrochloric media by solvent extraction technique. As aqueous phase, solutions prepared from the Zr and Hf hydroxides and the liquor generated from the product of the alkaline fusion of the zircon were used. The content of Zr and Hf in these solutions were 15 g/L and 0.6 g/L Hf respectively, and its acidity was varied between 1.0 and 10 mol/L. The effect of the acid extractants (DEHPA, IONQUEST®801 and CYANEX®272), solvating extractants (TBP and CYANEX®923) and basic extractants (PRIMENE®JTM, ALAMINE®336 and ALIQUAT®336), all of them diluted in dodecane, was investigated. In the solutions of the basic extractants, 5.0% of tridecanol was added as a modifier agent. Among the extractants investigated, the TBP in a nitric medium showed the best performance in the separation of the Zr/Hf. For acid extractants a high extraction was observed, however, with low selectivity. With the basic extractants no metals extraction was observed under the conditions investigated. The best results were obtained with the liquor generated from the product of alkaline fusion of zircon at acidity 7.0 mol/L and nitrate concentration of 9.2 mol/L. Under these conditions an extraction percentage of 91.6% for Zr and of 12.1% for Hf and a separation factor of Zr/Hf of 79.3 was obtained. (author)

  3. Cold Dialysis Solution for Hemodialysis Patients With Fatigue: a Cross-over Study.

    Sajadi, Mahbobeh; Gholami, Zohreh; Hekmatpou, Davood; Soltani, Parvin; Haghverdi, Farshid


    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of cold dialysis on fatigue in hemodialysis patients. In a double-blinded cross-over clinical trial, 46 participants were recruited from a hemodialysis unit in Iran. The participants were allocated into 2 groups through simple random sampling method. Each group received 3 sessions of hemodialysis with a dialysis solution temperature of either 37°C 3 or 35.5°C during the first week and then with for another week with the other temperature.  The self-report Piper Fatigue Scale questionnaire was filled out by the participants. The Piper Fatigue Scale scores in the cold dialysis groups were significantly lower than those in the conventional dialysis solution temperature (P < .001). Reducing the temperature of hemodialysis solution brought a 31.3% reduction in the fatigue score. Cold dialysis can be used for all hemodialysis patients as a routine intervention, and in particular, it is recommended dialysis patients who have severe fatigue as a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic option.

  4. [Study of cytotoxicity of bioprosthetic heart valve material and its store solution].

    Cheng, S; Shi, Y; Liang, W; Li, W


    This study compared the cytotoxicities of bioprosthetic heart valve materials crosslinked by glutaraldehyde, stored in 4% formaldehyde or Hank's solution. Human embryonic pulmonary fibroblasts or L-929 cell culture in vitro were used. Cell proliferative inhibition index(CP II) was calculated for bioprosthetic heart valve materials using different store methods in different rinse periods(before, 10 days, 20 days, 30 days). The results demonstrate: (1) bioprosthetic heart valve materials stored in 4% formaldehyde or in Hank's solution both have significant cytotoxicity, and the longer the rinse time continues, the lower the cytotoxicity declines; (2) HEL cell is more sensitive than L-929 cell in detecting the cytotoxicity of toxic biomaterials but for weak toxic biomaterials the two cell lines are not significanth different; (3) formatldehyde solution increases the cytotoxicity of biomaterials stored in it, but the enhanced cytotoxicity can be easily relieved by rinse. The authors conclude that bioprosthetic heart valve materials have long term significant cytotoxicity and the biomaterial cytotoxicity test using human fibroblasts is more sensitive and precise than other tests.

  5. Development of a stealth carrier system for structural studies of membrane proteins in solution

    Maric, Selma

    Structural studies of membrane proteins remain a great experimental challenge. Functional reconstitution into artificial carriers that mimic the native bilayer environment allows for the handling of membrane proteins in solution and enables the use of small-angle scattering techniques for fast an......-resolution structural studes of many membrane proteins and their complexes in solution as the analysis of SANS data for this platform is greatly simplified and allows for the application of existing data analysis tools already available for soluble proteins...... and reliable structural analysis. The difficulty with this approach is that the carrier discs contribute to the measured scattering intensity in a highly non-trivial fashion, making subsequent data analysis challenging. This thesis presents the development of a specifically deuterated, stealth nanodisc system...... which can be used for SANS structural analysis of membrane proteins in solution. In combination with the D2O/H2O-based contrast variation method it is demonstrated that it is possible to prepare specifically deuterated analogues of the nanodisc, which give minimal contribution to the neutron scattering...

  6. Cosmological study of some S-brane solutions in M-theory

    Agudelo, J A; Idarraga, A


    Some years ago it was observed that it is possible to describe late-time cosmic acceleration in the SM2-brane solution with hyperbolic compactification model supplemented by cold dark matter. Here we present a cosmological description of this solution but when the geometry of the internal space is plane and spherical including dark matter in the phenomenological setting. Two different but equivalent methods are used, obtaining an $4-dim$ effective model by dimensional reduction and the direct solution of the $d-dim$ field equations respectively. The main objective is to complement the study of accelerating cosmologies from M/string theories, analyzing the time evolution of the model in the pure dark energy and dark energy including cold dark matter contexts, showing that only in some cases it is marginally possible to describe late time cosmic acceleration. Additionally, under certain considerations, the cosmological scenario is analyzed for the intersections SM2$\\bot$SM2 and SM2$\\bot$SM5, which give rise to ...

  7. Biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions using mushrooms: a comparative study.

    Vimala, R; Das, Nilanjana


    Sorption capacity of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus platypus), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) were evaluated on biosorption of heavy metals, viz. cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. The optimum sorption conditions were studied for each metal separately. The desired pH of the aqueous solution was found to be 6.0 for the removal of cadmium (II) and 5.0 for removal of lead (II) for all the mushrooms. The percent removal of both the metals was found to increase with the increase in biosorbent dosage and contact time. The fitness of the biosorption data for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models was investigated. It was found that biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions onto the biomass of the three mushrooms were better suitable to Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption model. P. platypus showed the highest metal uptake potential for cadmium (q(max) 34.96 mg/g) whereas A. bisporus exhibited maximum potential for lead (q(max) 33.78 mg/g). Milky mushroom showed the lowest metal uptake capacity for both the metals. The present data confirms that mushrooms may be used as efficient biosorbent for the removal of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solution.

  8. Study on the Application of Previously Fermented Juice in the Forage Silage%绿汁发酵液在饲草青贮中的应用研究



    绿汁发酵液作为一种天然、无毒的青贮添加剂加工简单,经济环保。本文根据近几年的研究,对绿汁发酵液的制作方法、作用机理以及应用进展等进行了综述。%This paper is about the previously fermented juice(PFJ) which has many advantages such as uncomplicated handing, economy and environmental protection as a natural and poisonless additive. Accord-ing to recent studies, this paper summarized the manufacturing methods, mechanism and application progress of PFJ.

  9. Kisah Sukses Inovasi Marketing from Commodity Becomes Solution (Studi Kasus Tentang PT Holcim Indonesia Tbk

    Handy Martinus


    Full Text Available Cement is a strategic commodity. Indonesia as a developing country continues, cement becomes something absolute. Particularly, in the next few years, infrastructure development continues announced. To it, we need to anticipate the occurrence of scarcity (shortage of cement to meet the needs in the country in the next couple years. Fears of a shortage of cement in the country are quite groundless. Currently installed production capacity of the national cement industry around 47.5 million tons per year, spreads over nine locations in Indonesia. Meanwhile, the average utilization rate of production capacity cement plant reaches between 80% -85% or about 38-40 million per year. Meanwhile, the current level of cement consumption reached about 33 million tons (still a surplus of about 5-7 million tons. The problem is, if the shortage is met from imports, it could damage the domestic cement industry. Therefore, to meet the interests of industry and consumers, the best way is the expansion of the new plant. And to support the expansion of the factory in the country, clearly requires a major investment. Based on the assumptions above, Holcim as a newbie in the national cement market, which previously bought cement Cibinong also takes part in the national market. Now, Holcim is not half-hearted continuously expanding its new factory in Tuban to increase the strength of its two plants that are already running. A series of innovations in marketing activities are carried out, ie not just treating cement as a commodity but rather providing a range of service solutions to users via the outlet solution that provides aid earthquake resistant building design, material supply multi-brand, as well as a series of cooperation in the process of financing by establishing cooperation to the bank.  

  10. The Three Dimensional Structure and Interaction Studies of HCV p7 in DHPC by Solution NMR

    Cook, Gabriel A.; Dawson, Lindsay A.; Tian, Ye; Opella, Stanley J.


    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) protein p7 plays an important role in the assembly and release of mature virus particles. This small 63-residue membrane protein has been shown to induce channel activity, which may contribute to its functions. p7 is highly conserved throughout the entire range of HCV genotypes, which contributes to making p7 a potential target for anti-viral drugs. The secondary structure of p7 from the J4 genotype and the tilt angles of the helices within bilayers have been previously characterized by NMR. Here we describe the three-dimensional structure of p7 in short chain phospholipid (DHPC) micelles, which provide a reasonably effective membrane-mimicking environment that is compatible with solution NMR experiments. Using a combination of chemical shifts and residual dipolar couplings we determined the structure of p7 using an implicit membrane potential combining both CS-Rosetta decoys and Xplor-NIH refinement. The final set of structures has a backbone RMSD of 2.18 Å. Molecular dynamic simulations in NAMD indicate that several side chain interactions might be taking place, and that these could affect the dynamics of the protein. In addition to probing the dynamics of p7, several drug-protein and protein-protein interactions were evaluated. Established channel-blocking compounds such as amantadine, hexamethylene amiloride (HMA), and long alkyl-chain iminosugar derivatives inhibit the ion channel activity of p7. It has also been shown that the protein interacts with the HCV non-structural protein 2 (NS2) at the endoplasmic reticulum, and that this interaction may be important for the infectivity of the virus. Changes in the chemical shift frequencies of solution NMR spectra identify the residues taking part in these interactions. PMID:23841474


    闫振亚; 张鸿庆


    The homogeneous balance method was improved and applied to two systems of nonlinear evolution equations. As a result, several families of exact analytic solutions are derived by some new ansatzs. These solutions contain Wang's and Zhang's results and other new types of analytical solutions, such as rational fraction solutions and periodic solutions. The way can also be applied to solve more nonlinear partial differential equations.


    R. Sh. Saitgareev


    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  13. 中原地区某村既往有偿献血人群艾滋病发病和死亡规律%Study on AIDS incidence and death in previous paid blood-donated population, central China

    朱新义; 崔兆麟; 黄祚军; 朱伯健; 汪宁


    Objective To study incidence and death among previous paid blood-donated AIDS sufferers.Methods A retrospective cohort study was adopted to study incidence and death of 373 previous paid blood-donated HIV sufferers and its effect factors.Results Previous paid blood-donated HIV infection was serious and the infection rate in blood-donated crowd was 35.87%(373/1040);the mean incubation period of AIDS was 8.87 years(95%CI:8.76-8.99,Kaplan-Meier method):the cumulative incidence of AIDS(10 years)was 92.23%(344/373),and the incidence of total sufferers was 11.64/100 person-year;the cumulative probability of survival of one-year,three-year,five-year AIDS sufferers was separately 94.48% (325/344),85.76%(295/344)and 83.14%(286/344),median survival time was over 5 years;the anti-virotic treatment days(960.29±486.38),infection age(33.39±9.08)disease age(41.98±8.88)had significant effects on AIDS sufferers' survival time/survival rate(x2=61.355,P=0.000;x2=6.555,P=0.010;x2=3.969,P=0.046).Conclusion The survival time of previous paid blood-donated HIV cases was longer,and their survival rate was hisher,remarkably higher than the UNAIDS'research findings.%目的 研究既往有偿献血人群获得性免疫缺陷综合征(acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,AIDS)发病和死亡规律.方法 采用回顾性队列研究方法,对373例既往有偿献血感染人类免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)者的发病、死亡规律及其影响因素进行研究.结果 既往有偿献血人群HIV感染率为35.87%(373/1040),AIDS平均潜伏期为8.87年(95%CI:8.76~8.99,Kaplan-Meier法);感染后10年累计发病率为92.23%(344/373),总人时发病率为11.64/100人年;艾滋病患者1年、3年、5年累计生存率分别为94.48%(325/344)、85.76%(295/344)和83.14%(286/344),中位生存时间超过5年;抗病毒治疗天数[(960.29±486.38)d]、感染年龄[(33.39±9.08)岁]和发病年龄[(41.98±8.88)岁]对艾滋病患者生存时间

  14. New Exact Explicit Nonlinear Wave Solutions for the Broer-Kaup Equation

    Zhenshu Wen


    Full Text Available We study the nonlinear wave solutions for the Broer-Kaup equation. Many exact explicit expressions of the nonlinear wave solutions for the equation are obtained by exploiting the bifurcation method and qualitative theory of dynamical systems. These solutions contain solitary wave solutions, singular solutions, periodic singular solutions, and kink-shaped solutions, most of which are new. Some previous results are extended.

  15. Corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel and electroplating steel in aqueous solution: AC impedance study and XPS

    Lebrini, M.; Fontaine, G. [Laboratoire des Procedes d' Elaboration des Revetements Fonctionnels, LSPES UMR CNRS 8008, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Gengembre, L. [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie du solide UMR 8181 Bat C3, USTL, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Traisnel, M. [Laboratoire des Procedes d' Elaboration des Revetements Fonctionnels, LSPES UMR CNRS 8008, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail:; Lerasle, O.; Genet, N. [TOTAL France, Centre de Recherche de Solaize, Chemin du canal, BP 22, F-69360 Solaize (France)


    The efficiency of a new triazole derivative, namely, 2-{l_brace}(2-hydroxyethyl)[(4-methyl-1H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl]amino{r_brace} ethanol (TTA) has been studied for corrosion inhibition of galvanized steel and electroplating steel in aqueous solution. Corrosion inhibition was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). These studies have shown that TTA was a very good inhibitor. Data obtained from EIS show a frequency distribution and therefore a modelling element with frequency dispersion behaviour, a constant phase element (CPE) has been used. The corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel and electroplating steel in aqueous solution was also investigated in the presence of 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (TTA unsubstituted) by EIS. These studies have shown that the ability of the molecule to adsorb on the steel surface was dependent on the group in triazole ring substituent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis with TTA shows that it chemisorbed on surface of galvanized steel and electroplating steel.

  16. Studies on nurse staffing and health care-associated infection: methodologic challenges and potential solutions.

    Shang, Jingjing; Stone, Patricia; Larson, Elaine


    Researchers have been studying hospital nurse staffing in relation to health care-associated infections (HAIs) for >2 decades, and the results have been mixed. We summarized published research examining these issues, critically analyzed the commonly used approaches, identified methodologic challenges, proposed potential solutions, and suggested the possible benefits of applying an electronic health record (EHR) system. A scoping review was conducted using MEDLINE and CINAHL from 1990 onward. Original research studies examining relationships between nurse staffing and HAIs in the hospital setting and published in peer-reviewed English-language journals were selected. A total of 125 articles and abstracts were identified, and 45 met inclusion criteria. Findings from these studies were mixed. The methodologic challenges identified included database selection, variable measurement, methods to link the nurse staffing and HAI data, and temporality. Administrative staffing data were often not precise or specific. The most common method to link staffing and HAI data did not assess the temporal relationship. We proposed using daily staffing information 2-4 days prior to HAI onset linked to individual patient HAI data. To assess the relationships between nurse staffing and HAIs, methodologic decisions are necessary based on what data are available and feasible to obtain. National efforts to promote an EHR may offer solutions for future studies by providing more comprehensive data on HAIs and nurse staffing. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Biosorption of Direct Red 81 from Aqueous Solutions by Chamomilla Plant

    M. Momen Heravi


    Full Text Available In this study, Chamomilla plant biomass used as a sorbent for biosorption of a textile dye, direct red 81, from an aqueous solution. The batch sorption was studied with respect to dye concentration, adsorbent dose and temperature. Also, kinetic and isotherm parameters were determined for biosorption of Direct red 81 by Chamomilla plant. The maximum biosorption capacity (qm of Direct red 81 10 mg g-1 was obtained at 25oC. The kinetic and isotherm studies indicated that the biosorption process obeys a pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models. In addition, various thermodynamic parameters, such as changes in Gibbs free energy (ΔG, enthalpy (ΔH and entropy (ΔS have been calculated. The biosorption process of Direct Red 81 dye onto activated carbon prepared from Chamomilla plant was found to be spontaneous and exothermic. The findings of this investigation suggest that this procces is a physical biosorption. The experimental studies indicated that Chamomilla plant had the potential to act as an alternative biosorbent to remove the Direct Red 81 dye from an aqueous solution.

  18. Ultrafast studies of organometallic photochemistry: The mechanism of carbon-hydrogen bond activation in solution

    Bromberg, S.E.


    When certain organometallic compounds are photoexcited in room temperature alkane solution, they are able to break or activate the C-H bonds of the solvent. Understanding this potentially practical reaction requires a detailed knowledge of the entire reaction mechanism. Because of the dynamic nature of chemical reactions, time-resolved spectroscopy is commonly employed to follow the important events that take place as reactants are converted to products. For the organometallic reactions examined here, the electronic/structural characteristics of the chemical systems along with the time scales for the key steps in the reaction make ultrafast UV/Vis and IR spectroscopy along with nanosecond Step-Scan FTIR spectroscopy the ideal techniques to use for this study. An initial study of the photophysics of (non-activating) model metal carbonyls centering on the photodissociation of M(CO){sub 6} (M = Cr, W, Mo) was carried out in alkane solutions using ultrafast IR spectroscopy. Next, picosecond UV/vis studies of the C-H bond activation reaction of Cp{sup *}M(CO){sub 2} (M = Rh, Ir), conducted in room temperature alkane solution, are described in an effort to investigate the origin of the low quantum yield for bond cleavage ({approximately}1%). To monitor the chemistry that takes place in the reaction after CO is lost, a system with higher quantum yield is required. The reaction of Tp{sup *}Rh(CO){sub 2} (Tp{sup *} = HB-Pz{sub 3}{sup *}, Pz{sup *} = 3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl) in alkanes has a quantum yield of {approximately}30%, making time resolved spectroscopic measurements possible. From ultrafast IR experiments, two subsequently formed intermediates were observed. The nature of these intermediates are discussed and the first comprehensive reaction mechanism for a photochemical C-H activating organometallic complex is presented.

  19. Gold cementation on copper in thiosulfate solution: Kinetic, electrochemical, and morphological studies

    Lee, Jaeheon


    Cyanidation has been used for more than a century for precious metal recovery and it is still in use today. Cyanide is a very toxic chemical and if not used appropriately will cause environmental problems. There is considerable attention devoted to the development of non-cyanide lixiviants for the process of gold and silver ores. Thiosulfate solution is one of the proposed alternatives to cyanide and gold cementation by copper has been suggested as a promising method for gold recovery from leaching solution. Copper powder and rotating disc electrode were used for the kinetic study. The rate of gold cementation on copper disc is proportional to the initial gold concentration and disc rotating speed. The cementation reaction exhibited two distinct kinetic regions, an initial slow rate followed by an enhanced rate. The activation energy of the reaction was 5.9 kJ/mol at low copper concentration and the reaction is mass transport controlled. With 30 ppm initial copper concentration, there was noticeable decrease in the reaction rate in high temperature range. EDS, XRD, and XPS analysis revealed that the deposits are a Au-Cu alloy instead of pure gold. The alloy composition ranged from Au 3Cu to AuCu3 depending on the initial Cu/Au mole ratio in solution and applied potential. Electrochemical studies were performed using rotating disc electrode and electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance. Evans' diagrams were constructed under various experimental conditions. Corrosion current increased with increasing gold concentration, disc rotating speed, as well as thiosulfate concentration. These results confirmed those obtained in the kinetic study. Corrosion potential measurements indicated that passivation onset time was changed by gold concentration, copper concentration and disc rotating speed. Gold(I)-thiosulfate reduction was found to occur at approximately -250 mV vs. SHE using EQCN. Copper adions on the gold surface contributed to the underpotential deposition of

  20. Phase I/II study of docetaxel combined with resminostat, an oral hydroxamic acid HDAC inhibitor, for advanced non-small cell lung cancer in patients previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

    Tambo, Yuichi; Hosomi, Yukio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Nogami, Naoyuki; Atagi, Shinji; Sasaki, Yasutsuna; Kato, Terufumi; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Seto, Takashi; Maemondo, Makoto; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Koyama, Ryo; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Okamura, Yuta; Nakamura, Osamu; Nishio, Makoto; Tamura, Tomohide


    Objectives To determine the recommended dose and efficacy/safety of docetaxel combined with resminostat (DR) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with previous platinum-based chemotherapy. Materials and Methods A multicenter, open-label, phase I/II study was performed in Japanese patients with stage IIIB/IV or recurrent NSCLC and prior platinum-based chemotherapy. The recommended phase II dose was determined using a standard 3 + 3 dose design in phase I part. Resminostat was escalated from 400 to 600 mg/day and docetaxel fixed at 75 mg/m(2). In phase II part, the patients were randomly assigned to docetaxel alone (75 mg/m(2)) or DR therapy. Docetaxel was administered on day 1 and resminostat on days 1-5 in the DR group. Treatment was repeated every 21 days until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Results A total of 117 patients (phase I part, 9; phase II part, 108) were enrolled. There was no dose-limiting toxicity in phase I part; the recommended dose for resminostat was 600 mg/day with 75 mg/m(2) of docetaxel. In phase II part, median PFS (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 4.2 (2.8-5.7) months with docetaxel group and 4.1 (1.5-5.4) months with DR group (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.354, 95% CI: 0.835-2.195; p = 0.209). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events significantly more common with DR group than docetaxel group were leukopenia, febrile neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anorexia. Conclusion In Japanese NSCLC patients previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, DR therapy did not improve PFS compared with docetaxel alone and increased toxicity.

  1. Study of Microwave Absorbing Performances of Nanometer Fe-Al Solid solution

    Xiaohui Wang; Xiaoping Liang; Shaobo Xin


    In this paper, Fe-Al solid solution was prepared by mechanical alloying technology, and Fe-Al powder was dispersed into unsaturated polyester (UP) with different contents as absorber to form mixture Fe-Al-UP. The results indicate that the alloying process is almost accomplished and most of the particles are nanometer. Meanwhile, the microwave absorbability of Fe-Al-UP samples in frequency from 0.3 MHz to 1.5 GHz was studied. The results indicate that the more the absorber, the better the absorbing property. The absorbing property of Fe-50Al-UP was slightly higher than Fe-28Al-UP.

  2. Application of {sup 57}Co emission Moessbauer spectroscopy to studying biocomplexes in frozen solutions

    Kamnev, A. A., E-mail: [Laboratory of Biochemistry of Plant-Bacterial Symbioses, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Kulikov, L. A.; Perfiliev, Yu. D. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry Techniques, Department of Radiochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Russian Federation); Antonyuk, L. P. [Laboratory of Biochemistry of Plant-Bacterial Symbioses, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Kuzmann, E.; Vertes, A. [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Research Group for Nuclear Techniques in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Nuclear Chemistry (Hungary)


    Emission Moessbauer spectroscopy with the {sup 57}Co isotope was used to study very dilute rapidly frozen aqueous solutions of cobalt(II) complexes with low-molecular-weight biomolecules (aromatic amino acids - anthranilic acid and L-tryptophan) and within a sophisticated biopolymer, bacterial glutamine synthetase, a key enzyme of nitrogen metabolism. The appearance of after-effects of the {sup 57}Co{sup {yields}57}Fe nuclear transformation as well as the coordination properties of the cation and the ligands in the complexes are discussed on the basis of their Moessbauer parameters.

  3. Review on Study on Major Social Issues and Solutions in Chinese Urbanization Process

    Liu; Jiayan; Li; Caige


    Study on Major Social Issues and Solutions in Chinese Urbanization ProcessAuthor:Li Qiang et al.Year:2009Publisher:Economic Science Press ISBN:9787505878570(360 pages,in Chinese)Since the late 1990s,China has entered a stage of rapid urbanization.Unlike the relatively slow urbanization process in European countries and America,China’s urbanization is characterized by a"burst"of urban expansion in a short time.Such a large-scale,rapid,and profound urbanization process has not only brought

  4. Application of 57Co emission Mössbauer spectroscopy to studying biocomplexes in frozen solutions

    Kamnev, A. A.; Kulikov, L. A.; Perfiliev, Yu. D.; Antonyuk, L. P.; Kuzmann, E.; Vértes, A.


    Emission Mössbauer spectroscopy with the 57Co isotope was used to study very dilute rapidly frozen aqueous solutions of cobalt(II) complexes with low-molecular-weight biomolecules (aromatic amino acids anthranilic acid and L-tryptophan) and within a sophisticated biopolymer, bacterial glutamine synthetase, a key enzyme of nitrogen metabolism. The appearance of after-effects of the 57Co→57Fe nuclear transformation as well as the coordination properties of the cation and the ligands in the complexes are discussed on the basis of their Mössbauer parameters.

  5. Comparative study of cryopreserved bone tissue and tissue preserved in a 98% glycerol solution

    GIOVANI, Arlete Mazzini Miranda; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Oliveira,Cláudia Regina GCM; Filippi,Renée Zon; Santos, Luiz Augusto U.; Maragni,Graziela G; Albhy,Thays Moreira


    OBJECTIVE: To compare the bone graft cryopreservation method (at -80ºC) with a preservation method using a 98% glycerol solution at room temperature (10ºC-35ºC), by testing the antibacterial and fungal effects of 98% glycerol and comparatively analyzing the observed histological changes resulting from the use of both methods. METHOD: This study was of 30 samples of trabecular bone tissue from 10 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Each femoral head provided 3 samples that were randomi...

  6. A multicenter study of neurocognition in children with hypertension: methods, challenges, and solutions.

    Lande, Marc B; Adams, Heather R; Kupferman, Juan C; Hooper, Stephen R; Szilagyi, Peter G; Batisky, Donald L


    Hypertensive adults demonstrate decreased performance on neurocognitive testing compared with that of normotensive controls. There is now emerging, preliminary evidence that children with hypertension also manifest neurocognitive differences when compared with normotensive controls, findings postulated to potentially represent early signs of hypertensive target organ damage to the brain. However, reports in children to date have been limited to database and single-center studies. We have established an ongoing, prospective, multicenter study of neurocognition in children with primary hypertension. This article outlines the study methods, with particular attention to the unique challenges in this area of clinical research. We highlight aspects of the study design that are specifically designed as solutions to these challenges.

  7. Study of diffusion in polymer solutions and networks by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Chehreghanianzabi, Yasaman

    Diffusion in polymer solutions and networks is a topic of vast importance in many fields related to medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery. Understanding diffusion in such environments is also essential for describing molecular transport through biological systems such as cells and tissues. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is single molecule spectroscopic technique that measures the fluctuations of fluorescent probes in a defined confocal volume and correlates them in time to give information on diffusion times, concentrations, and interactions as well as indirectly, on macromolecular structure or conformation. In the first project we used diffusivity data obtained by FCS to develop a novel homogenization theory model to accurately predict solute diffusivity in polymer solutions. We focused on a setting where diffusivity was hindered by obstruction only. By choosing experimental conditions that satisfied the model assumptions, we were able to validate the homogenization theory model. While testing diffusivity in various polymer solutions, we also observed an unexpected phenomenon--a dramatic decrease in diffusivity of small fluorophores in dilute solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG), which led to the second project. Here, we determined that the rapid drop was due to a complexation between the PEG and the fluorophore. We also determined that this complexation was highly specific and could be attributed to hydrogel bonding between the ether oxygen of PEG and the carboxylic hydrogen of the fluorophore. We then transitioned to a more complex hydrogel network environment, namely fluorophore diffusivity in various alginate hydrogels--varied by concentration and modifications with a cell adhesive ligand. Importantly, we were able to determine that while the fluorophore diffusivity was hindered due to electrostatic interactions, it was the same irrespective of the alginate concentration or modifications. The last part of this thesis was focused

  8. An approach using centrifugation for the extraction of the soil solution and its usefulness in studies of radionuclide speciation in soils - Approach using centrifugation for extraction of soil solution and its study for uranium speciation

    Medeiros, Adriana S. [CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, 70040-020, Brasilia, Brazil, Proc.BEX 1958/13-5 (Brazil); Lozano, J.C.; Prieto, C. [Universidad de Salamanca, 37008, Salamanca (Spain); Blanco Rodriguez, P.; Vera Tome, F. [Universidad de Extremadura, 06006, Badajoz (Spain)


    The centrifugation technique is tested as a methodology for extraction of soil solution, for further characterization, in order to elucidate its contribution to the speciation of radionuclides, particularly uranium, in radioactively contaminated soils, as well as the determination of its availability for vegetation. Centrifugation of a previously saturated soil core provides the soil solution with a specific origin inside the soil sample. In such way that the different soil solution origin, associate to the effective pressure applied to the soil core, will reflect different distribution coefficients which affect the radionuclide availability definition. Speciation of radionuclides in the soil solution can be also conditioned by this water origin. The development of this methodology relating to technical challenges faces materials suitable for the centrifugation process, both in terms of mechanical properties and chemical inertness. This paper reports the preparation of ceramic pellets of perlite produced with the intention of replacing glass pellets, used inserts in support to soils coupled with centrifuges. The characterization of porosity and the test of its chemical inertness and mechanical strength to the centrifugation process have been performed. Porosity characterization is required to control the saturation gradient, which conditions the flow of water from the soil. Its mechanical adequacy was tested by subjecting the pellets to the centrifugation process and assessing its integrity end. Chemical inertia was measured by placing the tablets in aqueous solutions of known composition and then evaluating the presence or absence of elements in this solution, after on time of contact between them. (authors)

  9. Solution Structure and Constrained Molecular Dynamics Study of Vitamin B12 Conjugates of the Anorectic Peptide PYY(3-36).

    Henry, Kelly E; Kerwood, Deborah J; Allis, Damian G; Workinger, Jayme L; Bonaccorso, Ron L; Holz, George G; Roth, Christian L; Zubieta, Jon; Doyle, Robert P


    Vitamin B12 -peptide conjugates have considerable therapeutic potential through improved pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic properties imparted on the peptide upon covalent attachment to vitamin B12 (B12 ). There remains a lack of structural studies investigating the effects of B12 conjugation on peptide secondary structure. Determining the solution structure of a B12 -peptide conjugate or conjugates and measuring functions of the conjugate(s) at the target peptide receptor may offer considerable insight concerning the future design of fully optimized conjugates. This methodology is especially useful in tandem with constrained molecular dynamics (MD) studies, such that predictions may be made about conjugates not yet synthesized. Focusing on two B12 conjugates of the anorectic peptide PYY(3-36), one of which was previously demonstrated to have improved food intake reduction compared with PYY(3-36), we performed NMR structural analyses and used the information to conduct MD simulations. The study provides rare structural insight into vitamin B12 conjugates and validates the fact that B12 can be conjugated to a peptide without markedly affecting peptide secondary structure.

  10. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev


    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  11. LCA to choose among alternative design solutions: the case study of a new Italian incineration line.

    Scipioni, A; Mazzi, A; Niero, M; Boatto, T


    At international level LCA is being increasingly used to objectively evaluate the performances of different Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management solutions. One of the more important waste management options concerns MSW incineration. LCA is usually applied to existing incineration plants. In this study LCA methodology was applied to a new Italian incineration line, to facilitate the prediction, during the design phase, of its potential environmental impacts in terms of damage to human health, ecosystem quality and consumption of resources. The aim of the study was to analyse three different design alternatives: an incineration system with dry flue gas cleaning (without- and with-energy recovery) and one with wet flue gas cleaning. The last two technological solutions both incorporating facilities for energy recovery were compared. From the results of the study, the system with energy recovery and dry flue gas cleaning revealed lower environmental impacts in relation to the ecosystem quality. As LCA results are greatly affected by uncertainties of different types, the second part of the work provides for an uncertainty analysis aimed at detecting the extent output data from life cycle analysis are influenced by uncertainty of input data, and employs both qualitative (pedigree matrix) and quantitative methods (Monte Carlo analysis).


    LIU Zhong-chun; YUE Xiang-an; HOU Ji-rui; ZHANG Li-juan


    The flow performances of water, white oil and Hydrolyzing Polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution in fused quartz channels and the effect of wettability on the microscale flows have been studied respectively in this paper. The adaptability of classical fluid mechanics in channels with different sizes has been discussed. The results show that water flows in channels of 2μm diameter also have few size effects and white oil flow accord with classical fluid mechanics theory in channels of 25μm diameter too, but polymer solution appears an obvious size effect as diameters of channels decrease to 16μm. The wettability does not produce any influences on the water or white oil flows in channels of 25μm or 50μm diameter. The experimental technology of microscale flows has been first applied for studying the flow performances of pores in low permeability reservoir. This study found a base for deep investigating the percolation mechanism in low permeability reservoirs.

  13. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R


    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Mode-coupling study on the dynamics of hydrophobic hydration II: Aqueous solutions of benzene and rare gases.

    Yamaguchi, T; Matsuoka, T; Koda, S


    The dynamic properties of both the solute and solvent of the aqueous solution of benzene, xenon and neon are calculated by the mode-coupling theory for molecular liquids based on the interaction-site model. The B-coefficients of the reorientational relaxation and the translational diffusion of the solvent are evaluated from their dependence on the concentration of the solute, and the reorientational relaxation time of water within the hydration shell is estimated based on the two-state model. The reorientational relaxation times of water in the bulk and within the hydration shell, that of solute, and the translational diffusion coefficients of solute and solvent, are calculated at 0-30 degrees C. The temperature dependence of these dynamic properties is in qualitative agreement with that of NMR experiment reported by Nakahara et al. (M. Nakahara, C. Wakai, Y. Yoshimoto and N. Matubayasi, J. Phys. Chem., 1996, 100, 1345-1349, ref. 36), although the agreement of the absolute values is not so good. The B-coefficients of the reorientational relaxation times for benzene, xenon and neon solution are correlated with the hydration number and the partial molar volume of the solute. The proportionality with the latter is better than that with the former. These results support the mechanism that the retardation of the mobility of water is caused by the cavity formation of the solute, as previously suggested by us (T. Yamaguchi, T. Matsuoka and S. Koda, J. Chem. Phys., 2004, 120, 7590-7601, ref. 34), rather than the conventional one that the rigid hydration structure formed around the hydrophobic solute reduces the mobility of water.

  15. The phase behavior study of human antibody solution using multi-scale modeling

    Sun, Gang; Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Benedek, George B.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V.


    Phase transformation in antibody solutions is of growing interest in both academia and the pharmaceutical industry. Recent experimental studies have shown that, as in near-spherical proteins, antibodies can undergo a liquid-liquid phase separation under conditions metastable with respect to crystallization. However, the phase diagram of the Y-shaped antibodies exhibits unique features that differ substantially from those of spherical proteins. Specifically, antibody solutions have an exceptionally low critical volume fraction (CVF) and a broader and more asymmetric liquid-liquid coexistence curve than those of spherical proteins. Using molecular dynamics simulation on a series of trimetric Y-shaped coarse-grained models, we investigate the phase behavior of antibody solutions and compare the results with the experimental phase diagram of human immunoglobulin G (IgG), one of the most common Y-shape typical of antibody molecules. With the fitted size of spheres, our simulation reproduces both the low CVF and the asymmetric shape of the experimental coexistence curve of IgG antibodies. The broadness of the coexistence curve can be attributed to the anisotropic nature of the inter-protein interaction. In addition, the repulsion between the inner parts of the spherical domains of IgG dramatically expands the coexistence region in the scaled phase diagram, while the hinge length has only a minor effect on the CVF and the overall shape of the coexistence curve. We thus propose a seven-site model with empirical parameters characterizing the exclusion volume and the hinge length of the IgG molecules, which provides a base for simulation studies of the phase behavior of IgG antibodies.

  16. An atomic force microscopy study of the crystal growth interface of solution grown potassium hydrogen phthalate

    Ester, G.R


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to study the (010) face of potassium hydrogen phthalate (KAP) crystals grown from aqueous solution. In order to achieve the necessary level of surface protection during removal from solution a novel protection method was developed. The surface was withdrawn from solution through a jet of compressed air. In order to be able to make the link between the defect structure of the crystal and the growth interface a detailed X-ray topographical analysis was performed. This showed the crystals to be of very low defect density. Furthermore the only dislocation observed in the (010) sector able to produce a step on the surface was characterised as having the <110> Burgers vector. Two growth mechanisms were observed to operate on the (010) face of KAP crystals studied using AFM. On most crystals, a spiral growth mechanism was observed. On a minority of crystals a two dimensional nucleation and growth mechanism occurred at the higher range of supersaturations (above 15%). In the case of a spiral mechanism it was generally noted that growth hillocks were dominated by a small number of non co-operating spiral sources. The spirals were all observed to be anisotropic and polygonised. The degree of polygonisation was found to vary as a function of supersaturation. The step spacing was found to have an inverse relation with the supersaturation, as predicted theoretically. From an inverse plot of step spacing against supersaturation it was possible to calculate the step edge free energies of both the fast and slower moving steps. These were 40 erg/cm{sup 2} and 8 erg/cm{sup 2} respectively. (author)

  17. Study on the Unfrozen Water Quantity of Maximally Freeze-Concentrated Solutions for Multicomponent Lyoprotectants.

    Xu, Mengjie; Chen, Guangming; Zhang, Cunhai; Zhang, Shaozhi


    The concentration of maximally freeze-concentrated solutions [Formula: see text] and the corresponding glass transition temperature [Formula: see text] and ante-melting temperature [Formula: see text] of lyoprotectant solutions, are critical parameters for developing lyophilization process. Usually, the lyoprotectant solutions are multicomponent solutions composed of electrolytes, sugars, proteins, polymers, and other chemicals. In this article, the Wg(') values of several multicomponent solutions including trehalose/NaCl, bovine serum albumin/NaCl, and hydroxyethyl starch/NaCl with water were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. A linear relationship between the unfrozen water fraction Wun and the initial solute concentrations Wi was found: Wun = ∑(ai·Wi), which suggested that in the multicomponent solutions each solute could hydrate a certain amount of water ai (g water/g solute) that could not be frozen. The hypothesis was compared with more literature data. For the same solute in different solutions, variation in the fitted coefficient ai is noticed and discussed. If a "universal" value ai for each solute is adopted, both [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for a multicomponent solution could be predicted if Couchman-Karasz equation is adopted for calculating glass transition temperature at the same time. The prediction discrepancies for [Formula: see text] with experimental data were less than 2°C. The finding is discussed about its molecular basis and applicability. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A model electronic Hamiltonian to study low-lying electronic states of [Fe(bpy)3]2+ in aqueous solution.

    Iuchi, Satoru


    A simple model electronic Hamiltonian to describe the potential energy surfaces of several low-lying d-d states of the [Fe(bpy)(3)](2+) complex is developed for use in molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies. On the basis of a method proposed previously for first-row transition metal ions in aqueous solution, the model Hamiltonian is constructed using density functional theory calculations for the lowest singlet and quintet states. MD simulations are then carried out for the two spin states in aqueous solution in order to examine the performance of the model Hamiltonian. The simulation results indicate that the present model electronic Hamiltonian reasonably describes the potential energy surfaces of the two spin states of the aqueous [Fe(bpy)(3)](2+) system, while retaining sufficient simplicity for application in simulation studies on excited state dynamics.

  19. Oxygenated machine perfusion preservation of predamaged kidneys with HTK and Belzer machine perfusion solution: An experimental study in pigs

    Manekeller, S.; Leuvenink, Henri; Sitzia, M.; Minor, T.


    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the recently proposed aerobic machine preservation with the noncolloidal HTK solution by comparison with the colloidal Belzer machine perfusion solution (MPS) after procurement of marginal kidneys from non-heart-beating donors. Kidneys were harveste

  20. Oxygenated machine perfusion preservation of predamaged kidneys with HTK and Belzer machine perfusion solution : An experimental study in pigs

    Manekeller, S; Leuvenink, H; Sitzia, M; Minor, T


    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the recently proposed aerobic machine preservation with the noncolloidal HTK solution by comparison with the colloidal Belzer machine perfusion solution (MPS) after procurement of marginal kidneys from non-heart-beating donors. Kidneys were harveste

  1. Surgery of intracranial aneurysms previously treated endovascularly.

    Tirakotai, Wuttipong; Sure, Ulrich; Yin, Yuhua; Benes, Ludwig; Schulte, Dirk Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Bertalanffy, Helmut


    To perform a retrospective study on the patients who underwent aneurysmal surgery following endovascular treatment. We performed a retrospective study on eight patients who underwent aneurysmal surgery following endovascular treatment (-attempts) with gugliemi detachable coils (GDCs). The indications for surgery, surgical techniques and clinical outcomes were analyzed. The indications for surgical treatment after GDC coiling of aneurysm were classified into three groups. First group: surgery of incompletely coiled aneurysms (n=4). Second group: surgery of mass effect on the neural structures due to coil compaction or rebleeding (n=2). Third group: surgery of vascular complications after endovascular procedure due to parent artery occlusion or thrombus propagation from aneurysm (n=2). Aneurysm obliterations could be performed in all cases confirmed by postoperative angiography. Six patients had an excellent outcome and returned to their profession. Patient's visual acuity was improved. One individual experienced right hemiparesis (grade IV/V) and hemihypesthesia. Microsurgical clipping is rarely necessary for previously coiled aneurysms. Surgical treatment is uncommonly required when an acute complication arises during endovascular treatment, or when there is a dynamic change of a residual aneurysm configuration over time that is considered to be insecure.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of recurrence risk guided care versus care as usual in women who suffered from early-onset preeclampsia including HELLP syndrome in their previous pregnancy (the PreCare study

    de Wit-Zuurendonk Laura D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome may have serious consequences for both mother and fetus. Women who have suffered from preeclampsia or the HELLP syndrome, have an increased risk of developing preeclampsia in a subsequent pregnancy. However, most women will develop no or only minor complications. In this study, we intend to determine cost-effectiveness of recurrence risk guided care versus care as usual in pregnant women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia. Methods/design We developed a prediction model to estimate the individual risk of recurrence of early-onset preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome. In a before-after study, pregnant women with preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome in their previous pregnancy receiving care as usual (before introduction of the prediction model will be compared with women receiving recurrence risk guided care (after introduction of the prediction model. Eligible and pregnant women will be recruited at six university hospitals and seven large non-university tertiary referral hospitals in the Netherlands. The primary outcome measure is the recurrence of early-onset preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome in women allocated to the regular monitoring group. For the economic evaluation, a modelling approach will be used. Costs and effects of recurrence risk guided care with those of care as usual will be compared by means of a decision model. Two incremental cost-effectiveness ratios will be calculated: 1 cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (mother unit of analysis and 2 cost per live born child (child unit of analysis. Discussion This is, to our knowledge, the first study that evaluates prospectively the efficacy of a multivariable prediction rule for recurrent hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Results of this study could either be integrated into the current guideline on Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy, or be used to develop a new guideline.

  3. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen


    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  4. Application of thermodynamic models to study micellar properties of sodium perfluoroalkyl carboxylates in aqueous solutions

    Gonzalez-Perez, Alfredo [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail:; Ruso, Juan M. [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Romero, Maria J. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Blanco, Elena [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Prieto, Gerardo [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sarmiento, Felix [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)


    Sodium perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (CnFONa) with n = 6, 9, 10 have been studied by conductivity measurements at different temperatures. The Krafft point was determined for C9FONa and C10FONa at the highest concentration studied by measuring the temperature dependence of the specific conductivity. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and the ionization degree of the micelle ({beta}) were estimated from conductivity vs. molality plots at different temperatures. Using these data and previous results on temperature dependence of cmc and {beta} of sodium perfluoroheptanoate and perfluorooctanoate, different models were applied to obtain the thermodynamic properties of micellization. The results are discussed in terms of alkyl chain length.

  5. Stability study of solution-processed zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors

    Zhang, Xue; Ndabakuranye, Jean Pierre; Kim, Dong Wook; Choi, Jong Sun; Park, Jaehoon


    In this study, the environmental dependence of the electrical stability of solution-processed n-channel zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) is reported. Under a prolonged negative gate bias stress, a negative shift in threshold voltage occurs in atmospheric air, whereas a negligible positive shift in threshold voltage occurs under vacuum. In the positive bias-stress experiments, a positive shift in threshold voltage was invariably observed both in atmospheric air and under vacuum. In this study, the negative gate-bias-stress-induced instability in atmospheric air is explained through an internal potential in the ZTO semiconductor, which can be generated owing to the interplay between H2O molecules and majority carrier electrons at the surface of the ZTO film. The positive bias-stress-induced instability is ascribed to electron-trapping phenomenon in and around the TFT channel region, which can be further augmented in the presence of air O2 molecules. These results suggest that the interaction between majority carriers and air molecules will have crucial implications for a reliable operation of solution-processed ZTO TFTs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Studies on the Removal of Cu(II from Aqueous Solutions using Modified Acacia nilotica Leaf

    Thilagavathy Palanisamy


    Full Text Available In this work, sustainable and biodegradable Acacia nilotica leaf (AN was chemically modified to remove Cu(II from aqueous solutions, which is considered a versatile approach to clean contaminated aquatic environments. Zinc chloride-modified Acacia nilotica leaf (ZAN was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and other physico-chemical parameters like pHZPC. The aim was to assess the efficiency and mechanism of adsorption on Acacia nilotica via isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Harkin-Jura, and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill, kinetic models, and thermodynamic parameters. To optimize the removal efficiency, parameters such as effect of initial concentration, effect of pH, dosage, initial concentration, and contact time were studied by batch and column methods. Desorption studies illustrated that about 73% of the metal ions could be removed using 0.2N HCl. The results of the present investigation indicated that ZAN has a high potential for the removal of Cu(II from aqueous solutions, and the resultant data can serve as a base line for designing treatment plants on an industrial scale.

  7. In vitro study of antimicrobial activity of irrigating solutions in the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis

    Luiz Fernando TOMAZINHO


    Full Text Available Facultative bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis, have been isolatedfrom pathologically involved root canals, being considered one of themost resistant species in the oral cavity one of the possible causes of failure of root canal treatment. The aim of this study was to assess, in vitro, the effectiveness of the several irrigating solutions in the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis. The disk-diffusion in agar test was utilized in this study. The bacteria utilized was Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and the irrigating solutions were NaOCl 0,5%, 1%, 2,5% and 5%; chlorhexidine 0,12% and 2%; EDTA 17% and H2O2 10 vol Chlorhexidine 2% and NaOCl 5% were the most effective irrigators and NaOCl 0,5%; EDTA 17% and H2O2 showed ineffectiveness in the elimination of this specie. These results suggest that the elimination of E. faecalis depends on the concentration and type of irrigator used.

  8. Study on radiation-induced oxide-reduction of actinoid ions in acid solution

    Ishigure, Kenkichi; Katsumura, Yosuke; Hiroishi, Daisuke [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] [and others


    Many studies have been made on the application of actinoid ion, especially UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} to change atomic valance but the mechanism of photoreduction has not yet been solved. In this study, the mechanism of photoreduction of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in acid solution was investigated. As functions of alcohol and acid concentrations, {phi}(U{sup IV}) was determined and photoreduction of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} was investigated as well as NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. As an increase of alcohol content (EtOH, MtOH, iso-PrOH), {phi}(U{sup IV}) increased to reach a plateau ({approx}0.6). In addition, {phi}(U{sup IV}) increased linearly with an increase of acid content and the value became smaller in the order, H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, HClO{sub 4} solution. Comparing with these results of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, photoreduction of NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+} was investigated. Only NpO{sub 2}{sup +} was produced as the final products, but not Np{sup IV} and NP{sup III}. Alcohol dependency of NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+} photoreduction was similar to that of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} system but the plateau level of {phi} (NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) was lower ({approx}0.15) than the latter. (M.N.)

  9. A Comparative Study of Anodized Titania Nanotube Architectures in Aqueous and Nonaqueous Solutions

    Sturgeon, Matthew R [ORNL; Lai, Peng [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL


    The unique and highly utilized properties of TiO2 nanotubes are a direct result of nanotube architecture. In order to create different engineered architectures, the effects of electrolyte solution, time, and temperature on the anodization of titanium foil were studied along with the resultant anodized titanium oxide (ATO) nanotube architectures encompassing nanotube length, pore diameter, wall thickness, smoothness, and ordered array structure. Titanium foil was anodized in three different electrolyte solutions: one aqueous (consisting of NH4F and (NH4)2SO4)) and two nonaqueous (glycerin or ethylene glycol, both containing NH4F) at varying temperatures and anodization times. Variation in anodization applied voltage, initial current, and effect of F- ion concentration on ATO nanotube architecture were also studied. Anodization in the aqueous electrolyte produced short, rough nanotube arrays, whereas anodization in organic electrolytes produced long, smooth nanotube arrays greater than 10 m in length. Anodization in glycerin at elevated temperatures for several hours presents the possibility of producing freely dispersed individual nanotubes.

  10. Study of the removal of paraquat from aqueous solution by biosorption onto Ayous (Triplochiton schleroxylon) sawdust

    Nanseu-Njiki, Charles Peguy; Dedzo, Gustave Kenne [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Ngameni, Emmanuel, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812 Yaounde (Cameroon)


    This study concerns the batch biosorption of paraquat on Ayous (Triplochiton schleroxylon) sawdust; the study centers on the evolution of biosorption parameters during the process. It appears that paraquat forms a monolayer on the sawdust surface as evidenced by the good correlation between the experimental data and the Langmuir model. The biosorption which is rather fast (the equilibrium was reached after ten minutes) follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and does not obey to the intra-particle diffusion model. According to the mathematical kinetic modeling, pore and surface mass transfer well describe the phenomenon. NaCl reduces the adsorption capacity of the material but has no significant effect on the kinetics. Alkaline solutions enhance the accumulation of the pollutant, the reverse being observed for acidic media. According to the thermodynamic data, this biosorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. From these results we concluded that the adsorption of the pollutant is mainly due to cation exchange as indicated by the adsorption energy determined by the Dubinin-Radushkevich model (E = 12.0736 kJ mol{sup -1}); some other interactions resulting from the affinity through organophilic interactions between paraquat and sawdust have also been pointed out. Desorption experiments conducted in HCl and HNO{sub 3} solutions confirmed the proposed mechanism.

  11. Thermodynamic study of the adsorption of chromium ions from aqueous solution on waste corn cobs material

    Rafael A. Fonseca-Correa


    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of a study obtaining activated carbon from corn cobs and determining its use as an adsorbent for the removal of Cr3+ from aqueous solutions. The finely ground precursor was subjected to pyrolysis at 600 and 900 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere and chemical activation with H2O2 and HNO3. The effects of pyrolysis conditions and activation method on the physicochemical properties of the materials obtained were tested. The samples were characterised chemically and texturally. Were obtained microporous activated carbons of well-developed surface area varying from 337 to 1213 m2/g and exhibited differences acid-base character of the surface. The results obtained shows that a suitable good option of the activation procedure for corncobs permits the production of economic adsorbents with high sorption capacity for Cr3+ from aqueous solutions. A detailed study of immersion calorimetry was performed with carbons prepared from corn cobs to establish possible relationships with these materials between the enthalpies of immersion and textural and chemical parameters.

  12. Quantitative study on exact reconstruction sampling condition by verifying solution uniqueness in limited-view CT.

    Yan, Bin; Zhang, Wenkun; Li, Lei; Zhang, Hanming; Wang, Linyuan


    In limited-view computed tomography reconstruction, iterative image reconstruction with sparsity-exploiting methods, such as total variation (TV) minimization, inspired by compressive sensing, potentially claims large reductions in sampling requirements. However, a quantitative notion of this claim is non-trivial because of the ill-defined reduction in sampling achieved by the sparsity-exploiting method. In this paper, exact reconstruction sampling condition for limited-view problem is studied by verifying the uniqueness of solution in TV minimization model. Uniqueness is tested by solving a convex optimization problem derived from the sufficient and necessary condition of solution uniqueness. Through this method, the sufficient sampling number of exact reconstruction is quantified for any fixed phantom and settled geometrical parameter in the limited-view problem. This paper provides a reference to quantify the sampling condition. Three phantoms are tested to study the sampling condition of limited view exact reconstruction in this paper. The experiment results show the quantified sampling number and indicate that an object would be accurately reconstructed as the scanning range becomes narrower by increasing sampling number. The increased samplings compensate for the deficiency of the projection angle. However, the lower bound of the scanning range corresponding to three different phantoms are presented, in which an exact reconstruction cannot be obtained once the projection angular is narrowed to this extent no matter how to increase sampling.

  13. Electrochemical degradation of beta-blockers. Studies on single and multicomponent synthetic aqueous solutions.

    Sirés, Ignasi; Oturan, Nihal; Oturan, Mehmet A


    As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the electrochemical decontamination of solutions containing beta-blockers, which are pharmaceutical pollutants with a high occurrence in natural waters. The oxidation ability of two pre-eminent, eco-friendly electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), namely anodic oxidation (AO) and electro-Fenton (EF), has been compared at lab-scale by carrying out bulk electrolyses at pH 3.0 at constant current using a carbon-felt cathode able to electrogenerate H(2)O(2) in situ. The studies of single component aqueous solutions were focused on atenolol as a model beta-blocker. The AO process was proven much more effective using a large surface area boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode than a Pt one, which was explained by the great amount of active hydroxyl radicals (BDD(OH)) and the minimization of their parasitic reactions. The EF process with a Pt anode and 0.2 mmol l(-1) Fe(2+) showed even higher performance, with fast destruction of atenolol following pseudo-first order kinetics and fast mineralization because the oxidation process in the bulk allows overcoming the mass transport limitations. The time course of the concentration of the aromatic and short-chain carboxylic acid intermediates demonstrated the progressive detoxification of the solutions. Almost 100% of the initial N content was accumulated as NH(4)(+). Multicomponent solutions containing atenolol, metoprolol, and propranolol, which usually occur together in the aquatic environment, were treated by EF using the Pt/carbon felt cell. A high mineralization rate was observed up to the overall total organic carbon (TOC) removal, which allowed reducing the energy consumption. The absolute rate constant for the reaction of each beta-blocker with OH was determined and the reactivity was found to increase in the order: atenolol (1.42 x 10(9) l mol(-1) s(-1)) < metoprolol (2.07 x 10(9) l mol(-1) s(-1)) < propranolol (3.36 x 10(9) l mol(-1) s(-1)).

  14. Ab initio studies of aspartic acid conformers in gas phase and in solution

    Chen, Mingliang; Lin, Zijing


    Systematic and extensive conformational searches of aspartic acid in gas phase and in solution have been performed. For the gaseous aspartic acid, a total of 1296 trial canonical structures and 216 trial zwitterionic structures were generated by allowing for all combinations of internal single-bond rotamers. All the trial structures were optimized at the B3LYP /6-311G* level and then subjected to further optimization at the B3LYP /6-311++G** level. A total of 139 canonical conformers were found, but no stable zwitterionic structure was found. The rotational constants, dipole moments, zero-point vibrational energies, harmonic frequencies, and vertical ionization energies of the canonical conformers were determined. Single-point energies were also calculated at the MP2/6-311++G** and CCSD /6-311++G** levels. The equilibrium distributions of the gaseous conformers at various temperatures were calculated. The proton affinity and gas phase basicity were calculated and the results are in excellent agreement with the experiments. The conformations in the solution were studied with different solvation models. The 216 trial zwitterionic structures were first optimized at the B3LYP /6-311G* level using the Onsager self-consistent reaction field model (SCRF) and then optimized at the B3LYP /6-311++G** level using the conductorlike polarized continuum model (CPCM) SCRF theory. A total of 22 zwitterions conformers were found. The gaseous canonical conformers were combined with the CPCM model and optimized at the B3LYP /6-311++G** level. The solvated zwitterionic and canonical structures were further examined by the discrete/SCRF model with one and two water molecules. The incremental solvation of the canonical and zwitterionic structures with up to six water molecules in gas phase was systematically examined. The studies show that combining aspartic acid with at least six water molecules in the gas phase or two water molecules and a SCRF solution model is required to provide

  15. A Raman spectroscopic study of arsenite and thioarsenite species in aqueous solution at 25°C

    Janecky David R


    Full Text Available The Raman spectra of thioarsenite and arsenite species in aqueous solution were obtained at room temperature. Solutions at constant ΣAs + ΣS of 0.1 and 0.5 mol kg-1 were prepared with various ΣS/ΣAs ratios (0.1–9.0 and pH values (~7–13.2. Our data suggest that the speciation of As under the conditions investigated is more complicated than previously thought. The Raman measurements offer evidence for at least six separate S-bearing As species whose principal bands are centered near 365, 385, 390, 400, 415 and 420 cm-1. The data suggest that at least two different species may give rise to bands at 385 cm-1, bringing the probable minimum number of species to seven. Several additional species are possible but could not be resolved definitively. In general, the relative proportions of these species are dependent on total As concentration, ΣS/ΣAs ratio and pH. At very low ΣS/ΣAs ratios we also observe Raman bands attributable to the dissociation products of H3AsO3(aq. Although we were unable to assign precise stoichiometries for the various thioarsenite species, we were able to map out general pH and ΣS/ΣAs conditions under which the various thioarsenite and arsenite species are predominant. This study provides a basis for more detailed Raman spectroscopic and other types of investigations of the nature of thioarsenite species.

  16. Solution preparation

    Seitz, M.G.


    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  17. Study of the nanobubble phase of aqueous NaCl solutions by dynamic light scattering

    Bunkin, N F; Shkirin, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Burkhanov, I S; Chaikov, L L [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomkova, A K [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Aqueous NaCl solutions with different concentrations have been investigated by dynamic scattering of laser radiation. It is experimentally shown that these solutions contain scattering particles with a wide size distribution in a range of ∼10 – 100 nm. The experimental results indirectly confirm the existence of quasi-stable gas nanobubbles in the bulk of aqueous ionic solutions. (light scattering)

  18. On Study of Solutions of Kac-van Moerbeke Lattice and Self-dual Network Equations

    XIE Fu-Ding; JI Min; GONG Ling


    The closed form of solutions of Kac-van Moerbeke lattice and self-dual network equations are considered . by proposing transformations based on Riccati equation, using symbolic computation. In contrast to the numerical computation of travelling wave solutions for differential difference equations, our method obtains exact solutions which have physical relevance.

  19. The cosmic no-hair conjecture: A study of the Nariai solutions

    Beyer, Florian


    In this talk, we investigate the cosmic no-hair conjecture for perturbed Nariai solutions within the class of Gowdy symmetric solutions of Einstein's field equations in vacuum with a positive cosmological constant. In particular, we are interested whether these perturbations allow to construct new cosmological black hole solutions.

  20. Effects of protonation on foaming properties of dodecyldimethylamine oxide solutions: a pH-study.

    Schellmann, Kathrin; Preisig, Natalie; Claesson, Per; Stubenrauch, Cosima


    The critical micelle concentration (cmc), the surface excess (Γ), as well as the micelle aggregation number (m) of the surfactant dodecyldimethylamine oxide (C12DMAO) have been reported to strongly depend on the pH-value of the aqueous surfactant solution. At high ionic strength, the cmc displays a minimum, while both Γ and m have a maximum at a pH-value close to the pKa of the surfactant. These experimental observations have been explained as being due to specific hydrogen bonds between the head groups, which are formed once the surfactant is partly or fully protonated. This investigation addresses the question of whether the pH also affects the foaming properties of C12DMAO solutions. To answer this question we measured the foamability and the foam stability of C12DMAO solutions at a fixed C12DMAO concentration of 5 cmc for five different pH-values, namely pH = 2, 3, 5, 8, and 10. We found that the foamability is hardly affected by the pH-value, while the foam stability strongly depends on the pH. As is the case for the above mentioned properties, the foam stability also displays an extremum in the studied pH-range, namely a maximum at pH = 5. We discuss our results in terms of the hydrogen bond hypothesis and show that this hypothesis indeed is in line with the observed trend for the foam stability. Moreover, we discuss that hydrogen bond formation may rationalize how the molecular structure of a surfactant affects foam stability.

  1. Study of the interaction of C60 fullerene with human serum albumin in aqueous solution

    Li, Song [Vanderbilt University; Zhao, Xiongce [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health; Mo, Yiming [ORNL; Cummings, Peter T [ORNL; Heller, William T [ORNL


    Concern about the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles, such as the prototypical nanomaterial C60 fullerene, continues to grow. While evidence continues to mount that C60 and its derivatives may pose health hazards, the specific molecular interactions of these particles with biological macromolecules require further investigation. To better understand the interaction of C60 with proteins, the protein human serum albumin (HSA) was studied in solution with C60 at C60:HSA molar ratios ranging from 1:2 to 4:1. HSA is the major protein component of blood plasma and plays a role in a variety of functions, such as the maintenance of blood pH and pressure. The C60-HSA interaction was probed by a combination of circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to understand C60-driven changes in the structure of HSA in solution. The CD spectroscopy demonstrates that the secondary structure of the protein decreases in -helical content in response to the presence of C60. Similarly, C60 produces subtle changes in the solution conformation of HSA, as evidenced by the SANS data and MD. The data do not indicate that C60 is causing a change in the oligomerization state of the protein. Taken together results demonstrate that C60 interacts with HSA, but it does not strongly perturb the structure of the protein by unfolding it or inducing aggregation, suggesting a mechanism for transporting C60 throughout the body to accumulate in various tissues.

  2. Solutions to the Optical Cascading Equations

    Lafortune, S; Menyuk, C R


    Group theoretical methods are used to study the equations describing by inverse scattering techniques. On the other hand, these equations do share some of the nice properties of soliton equations. Large families of explicit analytical solutions are obtained in terms of elliptic functions. In special cases, these periodic solutions reduce to localized ones, i.e., solitary waves. All previously known explicit solutions are recovered, and many additional ones are obtained

  3. Effect of Icodextrin Solution on the Preservation of Residual Renal Function in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Chang, Tae Ik; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hyung Jong; Kang, Ea Wha; Kim, Hyunwook; Chang, Jae Hyun; Kim, Dong Ki; Moon, Sung Jin; Yoon, Soo Young; Han, Seung Hyeok


    Although icodextrin solution has been highlighted in the fluid management compared to glucose-based solutions, proof of a beneficial effect of icodextrin solution on residual renal function (RRF) is lacking. We conducted a multicenter prospective randomized controlled open-label trial to investigate whether icodextrin solution can preserve RRF.One hundred patients with urine volume ≥750 mL/day from 8 centers in Korea were randomly assigned to receive 1 exchange of icodextrin solution for a ≥8 hour-dwell time and 2 exchanges of 1.5% glucose-based biocompatible neutral pH solution or 1 exchange of ≥2.5% and 2 exchanges of 1.5% glucose-based biocompatible solutions. Using mixed-effects general linear models, we analyzed changes in residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and daily urine volume at 1 year.Forty-nine patients were assigned to the icodextrin group and 51 to the glucose solution group. During follow-up, the slope of the decline in residual GFR was -0.170 mL/min/month/1.73 m² in the icodextrin group, while it was -0.155 mL/min/month/1.73 m² in the glucose solution group (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.06 to 0.10; P = 0.701). Daily urine volume decreased faster in the glucose solution group than in the icodextrin group (-31.02 vs -11.88 mL per month; 95% CI, -35.85 to -2.44; P = 0.025). Results were consistent when we analyzed using intention-to-treat and per protocol principles. There were no differences in fluid status, peritoneal ultrafiltration, and peritoneal transport between groups during follow-up.This study clearly showed that icodextrin solution preserves residual urine volume better than glucose solution.

  4. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol.

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Fauquet, Jordi; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Pàmias, Montserrat; Puntí, Joaquim; Querol, Mireia; Trepat, Esther


    The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government's Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new contributions in this transition from efficacy

  5. 机采血小板检测前过程质量控制的研究%A study on quality control of previous process of apheresis platelets detection

    杨图深; 朱业华; 陈亦明


    目的:探讨机采血小板检测前过程的质量控制。方法留取机采单份血小板、机采双份血小板样本各100份,以1∶1、1∶3及1∶7稀释度进行稀释,采用全自动血液细胞计数仪检测血小板计数。另采集机采血小板样本100份,室温下静置0、30、60、90、120 min ,以1∶3稀释后,检测其血小板计数。结果机采单份或双份血小板样本以1∶1与1∶3稀释后检测血小板计数的差异及1∶3与1∶7稀释后检测的差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。静置0、30 min检测的血小板计数与静置60、90、120 min的检测值的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论机采血小板检测前过程的质量控制对采集后的血小板计数十分重要。%Objective To study the quality control of previous process of apheresis platelets detection .Methods Single and double apheresis platelets each of 100 samples were collected and were diluted 1∶1 ,1∶3 and 1∶7 .Aautomatic Blood Cell Count-er was employed to detect the platelet count .Another 100 samples of apheresis platelets were collected and stand at room tempera-ture for 0 ,30 ,60 ,90 ,120 min ,After 1∶3 dilution ,the platelet counts were detected .Results Differences of platelet counts be-tween 1∶1 and 1∶3 dilution ,1∶3 and 1∶7 dilution of single or double apheresis platelets showed statistically significant differ-ences(P<0 .05) .Differences of platelet counts between standing for 0 ,30 min and standing for 60 ,90 ,120 min were found statis-tically significant(P<0 .05) .Conclusion Quality control of previous process of apheresis platelets detection is very important for platelet count after collection .

  6. Spectroscopic study of mimetite-vanadinite solid solution series - preliminary results

    Janicka, Urszula; Bajda, Tomasz; Topolska, Justyna; Manecki, Maciej


    Mimetite Pb5(AsO4)3Cl and vanadinite Pb5(VO4)3Cl are minerals from the Pb-apatites family which belong to the apatite supergroup. Most often they crystalize under hypergenic conditions, in oxidation zones of Pb ore deposits, where they form paragenesis with pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl. These minerals are used in the techniques of soils reclamation. Their crystal structure allows substituting of metal cations as well as of anionic complexes. Natural mimetite often contains admixture of phosphates and/or vanadates. Similarly, vanadinite contains admixtures of phosphates and/or arsenates. Among the lead apatites, properties of the minerals from pyromorphite-mimetite solid solution series are well known, while the knowledge about the mimetite-vanadinite series is incomplete. The aim of this research was synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of mimetite-vanadinite solid solution series. Mimetite, vanadinite and their solid solution were synthesized from aqueous solutions by dropwise mixing of Pb(NO3)2, Na3VO4, Na2HAsO4×7H2O and NaCl at 25 ºC and pH = 3.5. Products of the syntheses were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The precipitates formed in the syntheses were identified by the XRD method as mimetite, vanadinite and their solid solutions. Other crystalline phases were not present in synthetic precipitates within the detection limit of XRD. In the Mid-IR spectra of mimetite-vanadinite solid solutions series, bands characteristic for vibrations of As-O bonds of the AsO4 tetrahedra and vibrations of V-O bonds of the VO4 tetrahedra were observed. The band corresponding to stretching ν3vibrations of AsO4 and VO4 occured in the range 700-900 cm-1. In the Raman spectra, bands which are characteristic for vibrations of As-O bonds of the AsO4 tetrahedra and vibrations of V-O bonds of the VO4 tetrahedra were also observed. The bands attributed to vibrations in the AsO4 tetrahedra appeared at 880-740 cm

  7. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    Weiss, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk


    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.

  8. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    Michael Weiss

    Full Text Available Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae, which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.

  9. A previously undescribed pathway for pyrimidine catabolism.

    Loh, Kevin D; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Markenscoff Papadimitriou, Eirene; Fong, Rebecca; Kim, Kwang-Seo; Parales, Rebecca; Zhou, Zhongrui; Inwood, William; Kustu, Sydney


    The b1012 operon of Escherichia coli K-12, which is composed of seven unidentified ORFs, is one of the most highly expressed operons under control of nitrogen regulatory protein C. Examination of strains with lesions in this operon on Biolog Phenotype MicroArray (PM3) plates and subsequent growth tests indicated that they failed to use uridine or uracil as the sole nitrogen source and that the parental strain could use them at room temperature but not at 37 degrees C. A strain carrying an ntrB(Con) mutation, which elevates transcription of genes under nitrogen regulatory protein C control, could also grow on thymidine as the sole nitrogen source, whereas strains with lesions in the b1012 operon could not. Growth-yield experiments indicated that both nitrogens of uridine and thymidine were available. Studies with [(14)C]uridine indicated that a three-carbon waste product from the pyrimidine ring was excreted. After trimethylsilylation and gas chromatography, the waste product was identified by mass spectrometry as 3-hydroxypropionic acid. In agreement with this finding, 2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionic acid was released from thymidine. Both the number of available nitrogens and the waste products distinguished the pathway encoded by the b1012 operon from pyrimidine catabolic pathways described previously. We propose that the genes of this operon be named rutA-G for pyrimidine utilization. The product of the divergently transcribed gene, b1013, is a tetracycline repressor family regulator that controls transcription of the b1012 operon negatively.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of a new nanobased endodontic irrigation solution: In vitro study

    Leila Moghadas


    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to introduce a nanosilver particle based endodontic irrigation solution and to evaluate its antimicrobial efficacy in comparison to 5.25% NaOCl. Materials and Methods: In an in vitro experiment the effect of the new irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC: 29212 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, two most commonly isolated species of root canal space, was studied in different time intervals of 3, 5 and 15 minutes. Results: No growth of E. faecalis and S. aureus was observed in any of irrigant groups and any of different time intervals. Conclusion: These results indicate that the new irrigant is as effective as NaOCl in preventing the bacterial growth of common root canal bacteria.

  11. Reaction mechanism studies on isoquinoline with hydroxyl radical in aqueous solutions

    ZHU Dazhang; WANG Shilong; SUN Xiaoyu; NI Yarning; YAO Side


    The reaction mechanism between isoquinoline and .OH radical in aqueous dilute solutions under different conditions was studied by pulse radiolysis. The main chara-cteristic peaks in these transient absorption spectra were attributed and the growth-decay trends of several transient species were investigated. Under neutral or alkaline condi-tions, the reaction of-OH radical and isoquinoline produces OH-adducts with respective rate constants of 3.4 × 109 and 6.6× 109 mol-1.dm3·s-1 while under acidic conditions, the isoquinoline was firstly protonated and then -OH added to the benzene ring and produced protonated isoquinoline OH-adducts with a rate constant of 3.9× 109 mol-1.dm3·s-1.With a better understanding on radiolysis ofisoquinoline, this study is of help for its degradation and for environmental protection.

  12. Conformation of Randomly Sulfonated Pentablock Ionomers in Dilute Solution: Molecular Dynamic Simulation Study

    Aryal, Dipak; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.


    As part of our efforts to define the factors that control the structure and dynamics of structures ionic polymers, the conformation of a pentablock copolymer that consists of randomly sulfonated polystyrene, an ionomeric block, bound to poly-ethylene-r-propylene end caped by poly-t-butylstyrene has been studied in dilute solutions using molecular dynamic simulations. Multi-block copolymers offer a means to tailor several properties into one molecule, taking advantage of their rich phase diagram together with unique properties of specific blocks. We varied the solvent quality for the different blocks and followed the changes in conformation. The spatial configuration of the pentablock as well as the dynamics of the polymer was studied. We find that, independent on the solvent, the higher the sulfonation level, the lower Rg . The static and dynamic structure factors were calculated and compared in an implicit poor solvent, water and a common solvent. These data are compared with results obtained from neutron scattering.


    Maura P. Alves


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine viscosity curves prepared from whey protein concentrates (WPCs by the rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA and determine the optimal heat treatment time in order to obtain the maximum viscosity solutions at this stage. The WPCs produced from whey samples initially subjected to thermal treatment and microfiltration presented composition compatible with the international standards, with a significant difference (p<0.05 for fat concentration. Viscographic profiles indicated that WPCs produced from microfiltered whey had higher viscosities than those subjected to heat treatment. In addition, 10 min was determined to be the optimal length of time for heat treatment in order to maximise WPCs viscosity. These results indicate that WPC production can be designed for different food applications. Finally, a rapid viscosity analyzer was demonstrated to be an appropriate tool to study the application of whey proteins in food systems.


    Małgorzata Kida


    Full Text Available Removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs from various components of the environment is an important issue, which currently much attention is paid to. Conventional methods used for their elimination are often ineffective and require additional solutions. For this reason, studies are being conducted on the possibility of using advanced methods of oxidation, which also includes ultrasonic waves. The work includes an assessment of the applicability of the sonochemical method to the oxidation of dibutyl phthalate. Presents results of tests on the effectiveness of the ultrasonic field with a fixed frequency of 20 kHz. The effect of pH, sonication time and amplitude on the process of decomposition were investigated. To the isolation of analyte was used solid phase extraction (SPE. The degree of reduction of dibutyl phthalate was determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Preliminary studies have shown the efficacy of the use of ultrasound to remove of dibutyl phthalate.

  15. Solution NMR Studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteins for Antibiotic Target Discovery

    Do-Hee Kim


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which triggers severe pulmonary diseases. Recently, multidrug/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis strains have emerged and continue to threaten global health. Because of the development of drug-resistant tuberculosis, there is an urgent need for novel antibiotics to treat these drug-resistant bacteria. In light of the clinical importance of M. tuberculosis, 2067 structures of M. tuberculsosis proteins have been determined. Among them, 52 structures have been solved and studied using solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. The functional details based on structural analysis of M. tuberculosis using NMR can provide essential biochemical data for the development of novel antibiotic drugs. In this review, we introduce diverse structural and biochemical studies on M. tuberculosis proteins determined using NMR spectroscopy.

  16. Studying the validity of relativistic hydrodynamics with a new exact solution of the Boltzmann equation

    Denicol, Gabriel S; Martinez, Mauricio; Noronha, Jorge; Strickland, Michael


    We present an exact solution to the Boltzmann equation which describes a system undergoing boost-invariant longitudinal and azimuthally symmetric radial expansion for arbitrary shear viscosity to entropy density ratio. This new solution is constructed by considering the conformal map between Minkowski space and the direct product of three dimensional de Sitter space with a line. The resulting solution respects SO(3)_q x SO(1,1) x Z_2 symmetry. We compare the exact kinetic solution with exact solutions of the corresponding macroscopic equations with the same symmetry that were obtained from the kinetic theory in ideal and second-order viscous hydrodynamic approximations.

  17. Orientation and Relaxation of Polymer-clay Solutions Studied by Rheology and Small-angle Neutron Scattering

    Malwitz, M. M. [Louisiana State University; Butler, Paul D [ORNL; Porcar, L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Angelette, D. P. [Louisiana State University; Schmidt, G. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)


    The influence of shear on viscoelastic solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and clay [montmorillonite, i.e., Cloisite NA+ (CNA)] was investigated with rheology and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The steady-state viscosity and SANS were used to measure the shear-induced orientation and relaxation of the polymer and clay platelets. Anisotropic scattering patterns developed at much lower shear rates than in pure clay solutions. The scattering anisotropy saturated at low shear rates, and the CNA clay platelets aligned with the flow, with the surface normal parallel to the gradient direction. The cessation of shear led to partial and slow randomization of the CNA platelets, whereas extremely fast relaxation was observed for laponite (LRD) platelets. These PEO-CNA networklike solutions were compared with previously reported PEO-LRD networks, and the differences and similarities, with respect to the shear orientation, relaxation, and polymer-clay interactions, were examined.


    S. Yu. Martsevich


    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate drug therapy received by patients who had survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the framework of the AMI register (the “LIS” study and estimate this therapy influence on long-term outcomes of the disease. Material and methods. The total of 961 patients of 1133 enrolled in the “LIS” study , were discharged from hospital. 191 patients had died during follow-up. 632 patients (who had survived and consented to visit out-patient clinic underwent repeated examination (median of follow-up 1.6 [1.0; 2.4] years. Data about treatment before and during AMI were received from patient’s charts; data about treatment after AMI were obtained from out-patient medical records. Results. Before reference AMI only a small number of the patients received the main drug groups (antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, at that ACE inhibitors were prescribed more often than the others. Use of β-blockers and ACE inhibitors before reference AMI significantly improved long-term life prognosis [relative risk (RR 0.70 and 0.66, respectively]. Rate of the main drug groups prescribed in hospital was rather high with the exception of thrombolytics (less than 10%. Thrombolytics, β-blockers and antiplatelet agents prescribed in hospital significantly improved long-term life prognosis of patients (RR 0.42, 0.65 and 0.58 respectively. At the second visit (according to data of out-patient medical records rate of antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers and statins prescription exceeded 60%. Conclusion. Very low prevalence of adequate drug therapy preceding AMI determines high mortality rate among survived acute stage of myocardial infarction patients in long-term period.


    S. Yu. Martsevich


    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate drug therapy received by patients who had survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the framework of the AMI register (the “LIS” study and estimate this therapy influence on long-term outcomes of the disease. Material and methods. The total of 961 patients of 1133 enrolled in the “LIS” study , were discharged from hospital. 191 patients had died during follow-up. 632 patients (who had survived and consented to visit out-patient clinic underwent repeated examination (median of follow-up 1.6 [1.0; 2.4] years. Data about treatment before and during AMI were received from patient’s charts; data about treatment after AMI were obtained from out-patient medical records. Results. Before reference AMI only a small number of the patients received the main drug groups (antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, at that ACE inhibitors were prescribed more often than the others. Use of β-blockers and ACE inhibitors before reference AMI significantly improved long-term life prognosis [relative risk (RR 0.70 and 0.66, respectively]. Rate of the main drug groups prescribed in hospital was rather high with the exception of thrombolytics (less than 10%. Thrombolytics, β-blockers and antiplatelet agents prescribed in hospital significantly improved long-term life prognosis of patients (RR 0.42, 0.65 and 0.58 respectively. At the second visit (according to data of out-patient medical records rate of antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers and statins prescription exceeded 60%. Conclusion. Very low prevalence of adequate drug therapy preceding AMI determines high mortality rate among survived acute stage of myocardial infarction patients in long-term period.

  20. A Solution Study of Silica Condensation and Speciation With relevance to in vitro investigations of biosilicification

    Belton, David J.; Deschaume, Olivier; Patwardhan, Siddharth V.; Perry, Carole C.


    With both mild synthesis conditions, a high level of organisation and functionality, biosilicas constitute a source of wonder and inspiration for both materials scientists and biologists. In order to understand how such biomaterials are formed and to apply this knowledge to the generation of novel bioinspired materials, a detailed study of the materials, as formed under biologically relevant conditions, is required. In this contribution, data from a detailed study of silica speciation and condensation using a model bio-inspired silica precursor (silicon catechol complex, SCC) is presented. The silicon complex quickly and controllably dissociates under neutral pH conditions to well-defined, metastable solutions of orthosilicic acid. The formation of silicomolybdous (blue) complexes was used to monitor and study different stages of silicic acid condensation. In parallel, the rates of silicomolybdic (yellow) complex formation, with mathematical modelling of the species present was used to follow the solution speciation of polysilicic acids. The results obtained from the two assays correlate well and monomeric silicic acid, trimeric silicic acids and different classes of oligomeric polysilicic acids and silica nuclei can be identified and their periods of stability during the early stages of silica condensation measured. For experiments performed at a range of temperatures (273–323K) an activation energy of 77kJ·mol−1 was obtained for the formation of trimers. The activation energies for the forward and reverse condensation reactions for addition of monomers to polysilicic acids (273–293 ± 1K) were 55.0 and 58.6kJ·mol−1 respectively. For temperatures above 293K, these energies were reduced to 6.1 and 7.3 kJ·mol−1 indicating a probable change in the prevailing condensation mechanism. The impact of pH on the rates of condensation were measured. There was a direct correlation between the apparent third order rate constant for trimer formation and pH (4.7–6

  1. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of cesium adsorption on ceiling tiles from aqueous solutions

    Miah, Muhammed Yusuf [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Noakhali Science and Technology University (Bangladesh); Volchek, Konstantin, E-mail: [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kuang, Wenxing [SAIC Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Tezel, F. Handan [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)


    A series of experiments were performed to quantify the adsorption of cesium on ceiling tiles as a representative of urban construction materials. Adsorption was carried out from solutions to mimic wet environmental conditions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive {sup 137}Cs. The experiments were performed in the range of initial cesium concentrations of 0.114-23.9 mg L{sup -1} at room temperature (21 deg. C) around three weeks. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The quantity of adsorbed Cs was calculated by mass balance as a function of time. Two kinetic and three equilibrium models were employed to interpret the test results. Determination of kinetic parameters for adsorption was carried out using the first-order reaction model and the intra-particle diffusion model. Adsorption equilibrium was studied using Langmuir, Freundlich and three-parameter Langmuir-Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. A satisfactory correlation between the experimental and the predicted values was observed.

  2. A relativistic density functional study of uranyl hydrolysis and complexation by carboxylic acids in aqueous solution

    Ray, Rupashree Shyama


    In this work, the complexation of uranium in its most stable oxidation state VI in aqueous solution was studied computationally, within the framework of density functional (DF) theory. The thesis is divided into the following parts: Chapter 2 briefly summarizes the relevant general aspects of actinide chemistry and then focuses on actinide environmental chemistry. Experimental results on hydrolysis, actinide complexation by carboxylic acids, and humic substances are presented to establish a background for the subsequent discussion. Chapter 3 describes the computational method used in this work and the relevant features of the parallel quantum chemistry code PARAGAUSS employed. First, the most relevant basics of the applied density functional approach are presented focusing on relativistic effects. Then, the treatment of solvent effects, essential for an adequate modeling of actinide species in aqueous solution, will be introduced. At the end of this chapter, computational parameters and procedures will be summarized. Chapter 4 presents the computational results including a comparison to available experimental data. In the beginning, the mononuclear hydrolysis product of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, [UO{sub 2}OH]{sup +}, will be discussed. The second part deals with actinide complexation by carboxylate ligands. First of all the coordination number for uranylacetate will be discussed with respect to implications for the complexation of actinides by humic substances followed by the uranyl complexation of aromatic carboxylic acids in comparison to earlier results for aliphatic ones. In the end, the ternary uranyl-hydroxo-acetate are discussed, as models of uranyl humate complexation at ambient condition.

  3. Removal of Direct Red 23 from aqueous solution using corn stalks: Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies

    Fathi, M. R.; Asfaram, A.; Farhangi, A.


    The objective of this study was to assess the suitability and efficiency of corn stalk (CS) for the removal of diazo dye Direct Red 23 (DR23) from aqueous solutions. The effect of different variables in the batch method as a function of solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, CS amount, temperature, and so forth by the optimization method has been investigated. The color reduction was monitored by spectrophotometry at 503 nm before and after DR23 adsorption on the CS, and the removal percentage was calculated using the difference in absorbance. The sorption processes followed the pseudo second order in addition to intraparticle diffusion kinetics models with a good correlation coefficient with the overall entire adsorption of DR23 on adsorbent. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by four widely used isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R). It was found that adsorption of DR23 on CS well with the Freindlich isotherm model, implying monolayer coverage of dye molecules onto the surface of the adsorbent. More than 99% removal efficiency was obtained within 10 min at adsorbent dose of 0.2 g for initial dye concentration of 10-90 mg L-1 at pH 3. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibbs free energy, entropy, and enthalpy, of the ongoing adsorption process have been calculated. Judgment based on the obtained results of thermodynamic values shows the spontaneous and endothermic nature adsorption processes on adsorbent.

  4. The use of molecular dynamics for the study of solution properties of guar gum

    Laguna, M. Teresa R.; Tarazona, M. Pilar; Saiz, Enrique


    Size exclusion chromatography with dual detection, i.e., employing a refractive index, concentration sensitive, detector together with a multiangle light scattering detector which is sensitive to molecular size, has been applied to study the solution properties of guar gum in water with different concentrations of K2SO4 at 25 °C. The analysis of a single highly polydisperse sample is enough for obtaining calibration curves for molecular weight and radius of gyration and the scaling law coefficients. The influence of the ionic strength on the conformational properties of the polymer can also be analyzed. Moreover, unperturbed dimensions can be obtained by extrapolation of the values measured in a good solvent. The value of the characteristic ratio of the unperturbed dimensions thus obtained is Cn=0/nl2≈19±1. A theoretical analysis is also included. Thus, molecular dynamics procedures were employed to analyze the conformational properties of an oligomer of guar gum under different conditions; namely, standing alone in vacuo, in bulk solid state and in water solution, both with and without salt. These conformational properties were then employed to compute molecular dimensions of Monte Carlo generated chains with different lengths according to standard procedures of the matrix multiplication scheme, thus allowing the evaluation of both perturbed and unperturbed dimensions which are in very good agreement with the experimental values. Moreover our result permits the explanation of the discrepancies among experimental and theoretical values reported in the literature.

  5. Sorption studies on Cr (VI) removal from aqueous solution using cellulose grafted with acrylonitrile monomer.

    Hajeeth, T; Sudha, P N; Vijayalakshmi, K; Gomathi, T


    Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile on to cellulosic material derived from sisal fiber can be initiated effectively with ceric ammonium nitrate. The grafting conditions were optimized by changing the concentration of initiator and monomer. The change in crystallinity of the grafted polymeric samples was concluded from the XRD patterns. The prepared cellulose grafted acrylonitrile copolymer was used as an adsorbent to remove Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solutions. The efficiency of the adsorbent was identified from the variation in the percentage of adsorption with contact time, adsorbent dose and pH. From the observed results it was evident that the adsorption of metal ions increases with the increase in contact time and metal ion concentration. An optimum pH was found to be 5.0 for the removal of Cr (VI) from the aqueous solution. The results of the Langmuir, Freundlich, and pseudo first- and second-order studies revealed that the adsorption was found to fit well with Freundlich isotherm and follows pseudo second-order kinetics. From the above results, it was concluded that the cellulose-g-acrylonitrile copolymer was found to be an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous waste generated from industries.

  6. Kinetic studies of nitrate removal from aqueous solution using granular chitosan-Fe(III) complex.

    Hu, Qili; Chen, Nan; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Weiwu; Lv, Long


    In the present study, a granular chitosan-Fe(III) complex was prepared as a feasible adsorbent for the removal of nitrate from an aqueous solution. There was no significant change in terms of nitrate removal efficiency over a wide pH range of 3-11. Nitrate adsorption on the chitosan-Fe(III) complex followed the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model. In order to more accurately reflect adsorption and desorption behaviors at the solid/solution interface, kinetic model I and kinetic model II were proposed to simulate the interfacial process in a batch system. Nitrate adsorption on the chitosan-Fe(III) complex followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and kinetic model I. The proposed half-time could provide useful information for optimizing process design. Adsorption and desorption rate constants obtained from kinetic model I and kinetic model II were beneficial to understanding the interfacial process and the extent of adsorption reaction. Kinetic model I and kinetic model II implied that nitrate uptake exponentially approaches a limiting value.

  7. Fluorescence study on the aggregation of collagen molecules in acid solution influenced by hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.

    Ding, Cuicui; Zhang, Min; Li, Guoying


    The effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the aggregation of collagen molecules with collagen concentrations of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0mg/mL was studied by fluorescence techniques. On one hand, both the synchronous fluorescence spectra and fluorescence emission spectra showed that there was no change in the fluorescence intensity of collagen intrinsic fluorescence when 30% HPMC was added, while it decreased obviously when HPMC content ≥ 50%. From the two-dimensional fluorescence correlation analysis, it was indicated that collagen molecules in 0.25 and 0.5mg/mL collagen solutions were more sensitive to HPMC than those in 1.0mg/mL collagen solution. On the other hand, the pyrene fluorescence and the fluorescence anisotropy measurements indicated that HPMC inhibited the collagen aggregation for 0.25 and 0.5mg/mL collagen, but promoted it for 1.0mg/mL collagen. The atomic force microscopy images further confirmed the effect of HPMC on collagen with different initial states.

  8. Sorption of Pb2+ from Aqueous Solution unto Modified Rice Husk: Isotherms Studies

    A. O. Dada


    Full Text Available Investigation of the sorption potential of rice husk, an agricultural waste, as an adsorbent was carried out. The rice husk was modified with orthophosphoric acid and was used for adsorption of lead (II ions (Pb2+ from aqueous solution. Physicochemical properties of the modified rice husk were determined. Equilibrium sorption data were confirmed with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms. On the basis of adsorption isotherm graphs, R2 values were determined to be 0.995, 0.916, and 0.797 for Langmuir, Temkin, and Freundlich isotherms, respectively, indicating that the data fitted well into the adsorption isotherms, but Langmuir isotherm is a better model. The maximum monolayer coverage from Langmuir studies, Qmax=138.89 mg/g, Langmuir isotherm constant, KL=0.699 L/mg, and the separation factor, RL=1.41×10−2 at 100 mg/L of lead(II ions indicating that the sorption process, was favourable. The suitability of modified rice husk as an adsorbent for the removal of lead ions from aqueous solution and its potential for pollution control is established.

  9. The illusion of specific capture: surface and solution studies of suboptimal oligonucleotide hybridization


    Background Hybridization based assays and capture systems depend on the specificity of hybridization between a probe and its intended target. A common guideline in the construction of DNA microarrays, for instance, is that avoiding complementary stretches of more than 15 nucleic acids in a 50 or 60-mer probe will eliminate sequence specific cross-hybridization reactions. Here we present a study of the behavior of partially matched oligonucleotide pairs with complementary stretches starting well below this threshold complementarity length – in silico, in solution, and at the microarray surface. The modeled behavior of pairs of oligonucleotide probes and their targets suggests that even a complementary stretch of sequence 12 nt in length would give rise to specific cross-hybridization. We designed a set of binding partners to a 50-mer oligonucleotide containing complementary stretches from 6 nt to 21 nt in length. Results Solution melting experiments demonstrate that stable partial duplexes can form when only 12 bp of complementary sequence are present; surface hybridization experiments confirm that a signal close in magnitude to full-strength signal can be obtained from hybridization of a 12 bp duplex within a 50mer oligonucleotide. Conclusions Microarray and other molecular capture strategies that rely on a 15 nt lower complementarity bound for eliminating specific cross-hybridization may not be sufficiently conservative. PMID:23445545

  10. Association of Multi-Chain Pentablock Ionomers in Solutions: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    Aryal, Dipak; Perahia, Dvora; Etampawala, Thusitha; Grest, Gary


    Ionic block copolymers in solutions are of interest due to their fascinating ability to self-assemble into a variety of ordered microscopic structures such as ionic domains and hydrocarbon domains. These polymers show unique properties such as chemical and mechanical stability that arise from incompatibility between individual blocks, proton conductivity, ion transportability, and hydrophilicity. Using molecular dynamics simulations we have studied the association of multi-chain pentablock copolymers (A-B-C-B-A) in a 1:1 mixture of cyclohexane and heptane (mutual solvent), and in water at 300K and 500K. The center block consists of randomly sulfonated polystyrene connected to a flexible poly (ethylene-r-propylene) bridge and end caped with poly (t-butyl styrene). We found that the pentablock in mutual solvent forms micelles in solutions with the sulfonated polystyrene in the core and chains of swollen flexible poly (ethylene-r-propylene) and poly (t-butyl styrene) in the corona. In water, the micelle remains quasi-spherical with the ionic groups located on the outer surface at both temperatures. These results are good agreement with those obtained from small angle neutron scattering (SANS). DOE DE-FG02-12ER46843.

  11. Organics produced by irradiation of frozen and liquid HCN solutions: implications for chemical evolution studies.

    Colín-García, M; Negrón-Mendoza, A; Ramos-Bernal, S


    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), an important precursor of organic compounds, is widely present in extraterrestrial environments. HCN is also readily synthesized in prebiotic simulation experiments. To gain insight into the radiation chemistry of one of the most important and highly versatile constituents of cometary ices, we examined the behavior of over-irradiated frozen and liquid HCN solutions under ionizing radiation. The samples were exposed to gamma radiation at a dose range from 0 up to 419 kGy. Ultraviolet spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to follow the process. The analyses confirmed that gamma-ray irradiation of liquid HCN solutions generates several organic products. Many of them are essential to life; we verified the presence of carboxylic acids (some of them members of the Krebs cycle) as well as free amino acids and urea. These are the first studies to reveal the presence of these compounds in experiments performed at low temperatures and bulk irradiation. Organic material was produced even at low temperatures and low radiation doses. This work strongly supports the presumption that, as a parent molecule, HCN played a central essential role in the process of chemical evolution on early Earth, comets, and other extraterrestrial environments.

  12. Study on latent heat thermal energy storage using aqueous solution as PCM

    Hayashi, Yujiro; Kunimine, Kanji; Yamaguchi, Kunihiko


    The latent heat thermal storage where a aqueous solution was used as the phase change material(PCM), was studied. A cold medium was transported into a heat transfer tube in a shell and tube heat exchanger and the heat exchanging experiment with salt solutions of 0-15% concentrations in the shell was carried out. Translucent solidified layer appeared near the inlet area at the early stage and grew to radial and axial directions. The outside layer was a translucent coexisting solid pfase and liquid phase and inner cloudy layer was a eutectic ice solid phase. The PCM was cooled rapidly at the early stage, became the coexisted solid and liquid after 30 minites, and completed solidification, becoming the perfect solid after 100 minites. The exothermic process was composed of the initial releasing process of liquid sensible heat, following exthermic process by release of solidifying latent heat and the final releasing process of remaining sensible heat. The experimental results agreed qulitatively with the theoretical analysis. Because the liquid solidification proceeded with a temperature width, the axial solidification was mitgated, the exothermic rate was stabilized especially at high concentration and the heat exchanging performance was maintained for a long period. (7 figs, 6 refs)

  13. Thermodynamical Study of Alcoholic Solutions of Poly (ethylene glycol Diacrylate and Poly (ethylene glycol Dimethacrylate

    Manisha Gupta


    Full Text Available With the aim to study the behaviour of polymer solutions, density and ultrasonic velocity of binary mixtures of pentanol with polyethylene glycol diacrylate and polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate have been investigated at 293.15 K, 303.15 K and 313.15 K, under atmospheric pressure. Thermophysical parameters viz. intermolecular free length, internal pressure and pseudo-Grüneisen parameter have been calculated which infer about the interactions and structural changes on mixing pentanol with these polymers. Enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of activation for viscous flow at different concentrations of polymer solution have been reported. Excess molar volume, deviation in isentropic compressibility, deviation in ultrasonic velocity, excess acoustic impedance and excess molar enthalpy have been calculated and results have been correlated with Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. Density and ultrasonic velocity data have been fitted by third order polynomial equation.

  14. Study of research and development processes through Fuzzy Super FRM model and optimization solutions.

    Sârbu, Flavius Aurelian; Moga, Monika; Calefariu, Gavrilă; Boșcoianu, Mircea


    The aim of this study is to measure resources for R&D (research and development) at the regional level in Romania and also obtain primary data that will be important in making the right decisions to increase competitiveness and development based on an economic knowledge. As our motivation, we would like to emphasize that by the use of Super Fuzzy FRM model we want to determine the state of R&D processes at regional level using a mean different from the statistical survey, while by the two optimization methods we mean to provide optimization solutions for the R&D actions of the enterprises. Therefore to fulfill the above mentioned aim in this application-oriented paper we decided to use a questionnaire and for the interpretation of the results the Super Fuzzy FRM model, representing the main novelty of our paper, as this theory provides a formalism based on matrix calculus, which allows processing of large volumes of information and also delivers results difficult or impossible to see, through statistical processing. Furthermore another novelty of the paper represents the optimization solutions submitted in this work, given for the situation when the sales price is variable, and the quantity sold is constant in time and for the reverse situation.

  15. Study of Research and Development Processes through Fuzzy Super FRM Model and Optimization Solutions

    Flavius Aurelian Sârbu


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to measure resources for R&D (research and development at the regional level in Romania and also obtain primary data that will be important in making the right decisions to increase competitiveness and development based on an economic knowledge. As our motivation, we would like to emphasize that by the use of Super Fuzzy FRM model we want to determine the state of R&D processes at regional level using a mean different from the statistical survey, while by the two optimization methods we mean to provide optimization solutions for the R&D actions of the enterprises. Therefore to fulfill the above mentioned aim in this application-oriented paper we decided to use a questionnaire and for the interpretation of the results the Super Fuzzy FRM model, representing the main novelty of our paper, as this theory provides a formalism based on matrix calculus, which allows processing of large volumes of information and also delivers results difficult or impossible to see, through statistical processing. Furthermore another novelty of the paper represents the optimization solutions submitted in this work, given for the situation when the sales price is variable, and the quantity sold is constant in time and for the reverse situation.

  16. Organics Produced by Irradiation of Frozen and Liquid HCN Solutions: Implications for Chemical Evolution Studies

    Colín-García, M.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.


    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), an important precursor of organic compounds, is widely present in extraterrestrial environments. HCN is also readily synthesized in prebiotic simulation experiments. To gain insight into the radiation chemistry of one of the most important and highly versatile constituents of cometary ices, we examined the behavior of over-irradiated frozen and liquid HCN solutions under ionizing radiation. The samples were exposed to gamma radiation at a dose range from 0 up to 419 kGy. Ultraviolet spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to follow the process. The analyses confirmed that gamma-ray irradiation of liquid HCN solutions generates several organic products. Many of them are essential to life; we verified the presence of carboxylic acids (some of them members of the Krebs cycle) as well as free amino acids and urea. These are the first studies to reveal the presence of these compounds in experiments performed at low temperatures and bulk irradiation. Organic material was produced even at low temperatures and low radiation doses. This work strongly supports the presumption that, as a parent molecule, HCN played a central essential role in the process of chemical evolution on early Earth, comets, and other extraterrestrial environments.

  17. The aggregation behavior of native collagen in dilute solution studied by intrinsic fluorescence and external probing

    Wu, Kun; Liu, Wentao; Li, Guoying


    The aggregation behavior of type I collagen in acid solutions with the concentrations covering a range of 0.06-1.50 mg/mL was studied utilizing both of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the phenylalanine and tyrosine residues and the external probing of 1,8-anilinonaphthalene sulfonate (ANS). FRET at 0.30 mg/mL showed the distance among collagen monomers was within 10 nm without the obvious aggregates formed. The predominance of tyrosine fluorescence in FRET in the range of 0.45-0.75 mg/mL identified the existence of collagen aggregates companied with the formation of hydrophobic microdomains revealed by the change of the fluorescence of ANS. The blue-shift of tyrosine fluorescence from 303 to 293 nm for 0.90-1.50 mg/mL dedicated the formation of high order aggregates. The results from the two-phase diagrams of the intrinsic fluorescence for the guanidine hydrochloride-induced unfolding of collagen confirmed these conclusions. By the two-dimensional correlation analysis for the intrinsic fluorescence of collagen solutions of 0.45, 0.75 and 1.05 mg/mL, the probable characteristic fluorescence peaks for the interactions of proline-aromatic (CH ˜ π) among the collagen molecules were found at 298 and 316 nm.

  18. Dissolution study of thorium-uranium oxides in aqueous triflic acid solutions

    Bulemela, E.; Bergeron, A.; Stoddard, T. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories - CNL, 286 Plant Rd., Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)


    The dissolution of sintered mixed oxides of thorium with uranium in various concentrations of trifluoromethanesulfonic (triflic) acid solutions was investigated under reflux conditions to evaluate the suitability of the method. Various fragment sizes (1.00 mm < x < 7.30 mm) of sintered (Th,U)O{sub 2} and simulated high-burnup nuclear fuel (SIMFUEL) were almost completely dissolved in a few hours, which implies that triflic acid could be used as an alternative to the common dissolution method, involving nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid mixture. The influence of acid concentration, composition of the solids, and reaction time on the dissolution yield of Th and U ions was studied using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The dissolution rate was found to depend upon the triflic acid concentration and size of the solid fragments, with near complete dissolution for the smallest fragments occurring in boiling 87% w/w triflic acid. The formation of Th and U ions in solution appears to occur at the same rate as the triflic acid simultaneously reacts with the constituent oxides as evidenced by the results of a constant U/Th concentration ratio with the progress of the dissolution. (authors)

  19. Removal of Chromium from Aqueous Solution Using Modified Pomegranate Peel:Mechanistic and Thermodynamic Studies

    Tariq S. Najim


    Full Text Available Modified pomegranate peel (MPGP and formaldehyde modified pomegranate peel (FMPGP were prepared and used as adsorbent for removal of Cr(VI ions from aqueous solution using batch process. The temperature variation study of adsorption on both adsorbents revealed that the adsorption process is endothermic, from the positive values of ∆H˚. These values lie in the range of physisorption. The negative values of ∆G˚ show the adsorption is favorable and spontaneous. On the other hand, these negative values increases with increase in temperature on both adsorbents, which indicate that the adsorption is preferable at higher temperatures. ∆S˚ values showed that the process is accompanied by increase in disorder and randomness at the solid solution interface due to the reorientation of water molecules and Cr(VI ions around the adsorbent surface. The endothermic nature of the adsorption was also confirmed from the positive values of activation energy, Ea, the low values of Ea confirm the physisorption mechanism of adsorption. The sticking probability, S*, of Cr(VI ion on surface of both adsorbents showed that the adsorption is preferable due to low values of S* (0< S* < 1 , but S* values are lower for FMPGP indicating that the adsorption on FMPGP is more preferable .

  20. Mechanistic study of carvacrol processing and stabilization as glassy solid solution and microcapsule.

    Tackenberg, Markus W; Geisthövel, Carola; Marmann, Andreas; Schuchmann, Heike P; Kleinebudde, Peter; Thommes, Markus


    Essential oils and other liquid active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are frequently microencapsulated to improve shelf life, handling, and for tailoring release. A glassy solid solution (GSS), a single-phase system, where the excipient is plasticized by the API, could be an alternative formulation system. Thus this study focuses on the investigation of two formulation strategies using carvacrol as a model compound, namely a microcapsule (MC) and a glassy solid solution (GSS). Applying the solubility parameter approach, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was chosen as a suitable matrix material for a GSS system, whereas maltodextrin and sucrose served as excipients for a microcapsule (MC) system. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the excipients' glass transition temperatures and the melting point of carvacrol verified plasticizing properties of carvacrol on PVP. Batch mixing processes, as preliminary experiments for future extrusion processes, were performed to prepare GSSs and MCs with various amounts of carvacrol, followed by crushing and sieving. Maximally 4.5% carvacrol was encapsulated in the carbohydrate material, whereas up to 16.3% were stabilized as GSS, which is an outstanding amount. However, grinding of the samples led to a loss of up to 30% of carvacrol.

  1. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of BAX326, a novel recombinant factor IX: a prospective, controlled, multicentre phase I/III study in previously treated patients with severe (FIX level <1%) or moderately severe (FIX level ≤2%) haemophilia B.

    Windyga, J; Lissitchkov, T; Stasyshyn, O; Mamonov, V; Rusen, L; Lamas, J L; Oh, M-S; Chapman, M; Fritsch, S; Pavlova, B G; Wong, W-Y; Abbuehl, B E


    BAX326 is a recombinant factor IX (rFIX; nonacog gamma) manufactured without the addition of any materials of human or animal origin, and with two viral inactivation steps (solvent/detergent treatment and 15 nm nanofiltration). The aim of this prospective trial was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, haemostatic efficacy and safety of BAX326 in previously treated patients aged 12-65 years with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B. BAX326 was safe and well tolerated in all 73 treated subjects; adverse events considered related to treatment (2.7% incidence, all non-serious) were transient and mild, and no hypersensitivity reactions, inhibitor formation or thrombotic events were observed. Pharmacokinetic (PK) equivalence (n = 28) between BAX326 and a licensed rFIX was confirmed in terms of the ratio of geometric mean AUC(0-72) h per dose. Twice-weekly prophylaxis [mean duration 6.2 (±0.7) months; 1.8 (±0.1) infusions per week, 49.5 (±4.8) IU kg(-1) per infusion] was effective in preventing bleeding episodes, with a significantly lower (79%, P < 0.001) annualized bleed rate (4.2) compared to an on-demand treatment in a historical control group (20.0); 24 of 56 subjects on prophylaxis (43%) did not bleed throughout the study observation period. Of 249 total acute bleeds, 211 (84.7%) were controlled with one to two infusions of BAX326. Haemostatic efficacy at resolution of bleed was rated excellent or good in 96.0% of all treated bleeding episodes. The results of this study indicate that BAX326 is safe and efficacious in treating bleeds and routine prophylaxis in patients aged 12 years and older with haemophilia B.

  2. Study of pH Stability of R-Salbutamol Sulfate Aerosol Solution and Its Antiasthmatic Effects in Guinea Pigs.

    Liu, Qing; Li, Qingrui; Han, Ting; Hu, Tingting; Zhang, Xuemei; Hu, Junhua; Hu, Hui; Tan, Wen


    Currently, all commercial available nebulized salbutamol in China is in its racemic form. It is known that only R-salbutamol (eutomer) has therapeutic effects, while S-salbutamol (distomer) may exacerbate asthma after chronic use. Therefore, it is an unmet clinical need to develop R-salbutamol as a nebulized product that is more convenient for young and old patients. In our study, a stable aerosol solution of R-salbutamol sulfate was established, and its antiasthmatic effects were confirmed. The decomposition rate and racemization effect of the R-salbutamol sulfate solution were evaluated over a pH range from 1 to 10 (except pH=7, 8) at 60°C. The aerodynamic particle size of the R-salbutamol sulfate solution and commercial RS-salbutamol sulfate solution were both tested in vitro by Next-Generation Impactor (NGI) in 5°C. Laser diffractometer was used to characterize the droplet-size distribution (DSD) of both solutions. We next conducted an in vivo animal study to document the antiasthmatic effect of R-salbutamol aerosol sulfate solution and determine the relationship to RS-salbutamol. The results showed that the R-salbutamol sulfate solution was more stable at pH 6. In vitro comparison studies indicated that there was no distribution difference between R-salbutamol sulfate solution and the commercial RS-salbutamol solution. The animal results showed that R-salbutamol was more potent than RS-salbutamol against the same dose of histamine challenge. Unlike commercial RS-salbutamol, which was acidified to a pH of 3.5 to extend bench life but may cause bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients, the neutralized R-salbutamol solution was more suitable for clinic use.

  3. A study of Reactive Red 198 adsorption on iron filings from aqueous solutions.

    Azhdarpoor, Abooalfazl; Nikmanesh, Roya; Khademi, Fahime


    In recent years, reactive dyes have been widely used in textile industries with particular efficiency. They dyes are often toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic. Improper treatment and non-scientific disposal of dyed wastewater from these industries into water sources has created many environmental problems and concerns around the world. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the efficiency of iron filings in adsorption of Reactive Red 198 from aqueous solutions. This study was conducted using an experimental method at the laboratory scale. In this study, the effects of operating parameters such as pH (1-11), initial dye concentration (40-400 mg/L), contact time (5-120 min) and iron dose (0.1-1 g) with a mesh ofDye concentration was determined using a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 520 nm. The results indicated that maximum adsorption capacity of the dye in question was obtained at pH 3, contact time of 60 min and adsorbent dose of 1 g. At initial dye concentration of 100 and 200 mg/L, by increasing the dose of waste iron from 0.1 to 1 g, the removal percentage increased from approximately 76.89% to 97.28% and from 22.64% to 68.03%, respectively. At pH 3, contact time of 5 min and constant waste iron dose of 0.8 g, the dye removal efficiency was 85.34%. By increasing the contact time to 120 min, the removal efficiency increased to 99.2%. Welding iron waste as an inexpensive and available adsorbent has an optimum ability for adsorption of Reactive Red 198 from aqueous solutions.

  4. Generation of micro- and nano-droplets containing immiscible solutions in view of optical studies

    Nastasa, V.; Karapantsios, T.; Samaras, K.; Dafnopatidou, E.; Pradines, V.; Miller, R.; Pascu, M. L.


    The multiple resistances to treatment, developed by bacteria and malignant tumors require finding alternatives to the existing medicines and treatment procedures. One of them is strengthening the effects of cytostatics by improving the delivery method. Such a method is represented by the use of medicines as micro/nano-droplets. This method can reduce the substance consumption by generating drug micro-droplets incorporated in substances that can favour a faster localization, than the classical mode of medicine administration, to the tumor tissues. This paper contains the results concerning the generation and study of micro/nano-droplets and the generation of micro-droplets with an inner core (medicine) and a thin layer covering it. We have measured the surface tension at water/air interface and water/oil interface for a medicine (Vancomycin) and we have generated and measured droplets of medicine containing a layer of Vitamin A by using a double capillary system. The micro/nano-droplets may be produced by mixing of two immiscible solutions in particular conditions (high rotating speed and/or high pressure difference). For this we have studied the generation of emulsions of vitamin A diluted in sunflower oil and a solution of a surfactant Tween 80 in distilled water. The concentration of surfactant in water was typically 4*10-5M. We have studied in a batch stirred tank system the dependence of the droplet dimensions in emulsion, function of the mixing rotation speed, agitation time and components ratio. The droplet diameters were measured using a Malvern light scattering instrument type Mastersizer Hydro 2000M. We have obtained droplets with diameters smaller than 100 nm; the diameters distribution exhibited a peak at 65 nm.

  5. Biosorption Study of Ni(II on Apple Peel Granola from Aqueous Solution

    Mohammad Hossien Salmani Nodoushan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Nickel is found in varies industrial processes such as electroplating, leather tanning, cement preservations, paints and pigments, textile, steel fabrication and canning industries. It is proved that Ni(II has several health hazards such as carcinogenic. The aim of this study was the evaluation of Ni(IIadsorption on Apple peel granola from aqueous solution. Material and Methods: This study was done in laboratory scale and batch condition. In this study, the effects adsorbent dose, contact time and pH were investigated on the removal of nickel by batch process. The Apple peels granola prepared in lab conditions, and sieved by standard sieves of 60-100 mesh. The nickel concentration in standard and unknown samples was measured by AA spectrophotometer. For understanding of the adsorption process, the experimental data were analyzed with some isotherm and kinetic models. Results: The maximum removal at was found in pH= 7. The nickel removal efficiency decreased from 50.1 to 25% by increasing adsorbent dosage. By increasing of pH from 3 to 7, the removal efficiency increased from 19.8% to 35.0% at 30 min contact time. The adsorption isotherm and Kinetic analysis of our results showed that the results well fitted by the Frundlich isotherm model (R2= 0.909 and pseudo-first-order kinetic model (R2= 0.926. Conclusion: the results showed that Apple peel granola is able to absorb the nickel from aqueous solutions and removal efficiency was more in pH=7. Preparing of Apple peel granola adsorbent is simple, cheap and its application is in priority because of its porous structure in comparison with other natural adsorbents.

  6. FT-Raman study of quinine aqueous solutions with varying pH: 2D correlation study

    Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra


    Quinine (C 20H 24N 2O 2) is one of the best known, for its antimalarial activity, Cinchona alkaloid. In the current study 2D correlation method was applied to analyze FT-Raman spectra of quinine aqueous solutions with varying pH, which was regarded as an external perturbation. Protonation appears to be the main cause leading to the emergence of cross peaks in the synchronous and asynchronous correlation maps. One should know that protonation process is an important step associated with quinine antimalarial activity. Methoxy group manifests its presence by creation of the respective correlation peaks and seems to be significant for quinine mode of action.

  7. Shock Wave Solutions for Some Nonlinear Flow Models Arising in the Study of a Non-Newtonian Third Grade Fluid

    Taha Aziz


    Full Text Available This study is based upon constructing a new class of closed-form shock wave solutions for some nonlinear problems arising in the study of a third grade fluid model. The Lie symmetry reduction technique has been employed to reduce the governing nonlinear partial differential equations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The reduced equations are then solved analytically, and the shock wave solutions are constructed. The conditions on the physical parameters of the flow problems also fall out naturally in the process of the derivation of the solutions.

  8. The Study of Dissolution Kinetics of K2SO4 Crystal in Aqueous Ethanol Solutions with a Statistical Rate Theory

    刘畅; 冯新; 吉晓燕; 陈栋梁; 魏涛; 陆小华


    Dissolution kinetics of K2SO4 crystal in aqueous ethanol solutions was studied on-line with ion selective electrode. The concentration of K2SO4 was calculated from the determined electromotive force in which the activity coefficient of components in the liquid phase was calculated with the Pitzer equation. Dissolution kinetic parameters in the modified statistical rate theory were regressed. The correlation results show that dissolution rate of K2SO4 is slower in aqueous ethanol solutions than that in aqueous solutions. The two most important reasons are as follows: (1) The solubility of K2SO4 in aqueous ethanol solutions is lower than that in aqueous solutions, which causes a decrease of the driving force of mass transfer. (2) The process of surface reaction of K2SO4 became slower due to the addition of ethanol, so that the whole process is mainly dominated by the surface reaction instead of mass transfer.

  9. Efficacy and safety of the combination paclitaxel/carboplatin in patients with previously treated advanced ovarian carcinoma: a multicenter French Groupe des Investigateurs Nationaux pour l'Etude des Cancers Ovariens phase II study.

    Pujade-Lauraine, E; Guastalla, J P; Weber, B; Curé, H; Orfeuvre, H; Mousseau, M; Vincent, P; Diéras, V; Tubiana-Mathieu, N; Jacquin, J P; Mignot, L; Leduc, B; Paraïso, D; Viens, P


    The French Groupe des Investigateurs Nationaux pour l'Etude des Cancers Ovariens (GINECO) conducted a multicenter phase II study of carboplatin and paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of this combination in pretreated advanced ovarian cancer. Patients with progressive ovarian carcinoma during or after platinum-based chemotherapy received paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 intravenously over 3 hours followed by intravenous carboplatin over 30 minutes every 4 weeks. The dose of carboplatin was calculated using a projected area under the concentration-time curve of 5 mg/mL x min. Of the 50 patients entered, 50 were evaluable for toxicity and 42 for response. There were eight complete and 10 partial responses, for an overall response rate of 43% (95% confidence interval, 28% to 56%). Overall response rates in platinum refractory patients and in those with early (> or = 3 and or = 12 months) relapse was 28%, 33%, and 71%, respectively. Median response duration, progression-free survival, and overall survivals were 8, 6, and 14 months, respectively. The most frequent and severe toxicity was myelosuppression. Grades 3 and 4 neutropenia occurred in 30% and 23% of cycles, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered in 6%. Only one case of neutropenic fever was observed. Grades 3 and 4 thrombocytopenia occurred in 3% and 1% of cycles, respectively. Alopecia and moderate nausea or vomiting were frequent. Transitory peripheral neuropathy was present in 45% of patients but was severe in only one patient. One early death was observed due to progressive disease and possibly to therapy. The combination of paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 as a 3-hour infusion and carboplatin dosed to an area under the concentration-time curve of 5 is an effective therapy in patients previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy and may be administered safely to outpatients who relapse after one or two lines of chemotherapy.

  10. Characterization of ambient aerosols in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 campaign with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry Part II: overview of the results at the CENICA supersite and comparison to previous studies

    Salcedo, D.; Dzepina, K.; Onasch, T. B.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Y.; Jimenez, J. L.


    An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed at the CENICA Supersite during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field study from 31 March-4 May 2003. The AMS provides real time information on mass concentration and composition of the non-refractory species in particulate matter less than 1 µm (NR-PM1) with high time and size-resolution. Measurements of Black Carbon (BC) using an aethalometer, and estimated soil concentrations from Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of impactor substrates are also presented and combined with the AMS in order to include refractory material and estimate the total PM2.5 mass concentration at CENICA during this campaign. In Mexico City, the organic fraction of the estimated PM2.5 at CENICA represents 54.6% of the mass, with the rest consisting of inorganic compounds (mainly ammonium nitrate and sulfate/ammonium salts), BC, and soil. Inorganic compounds represent 27.5% of PM2.5; BC mass concentration is about 11%; while soil represents about 6.9%. The NR species and BC have diurnal cycles that can be qualitatively interpreted as the interplay of direct emissions, photochemical production in the atmosphere followed by condensation and gas-to-particle partitioning, boundary layer dynamics, and/or advection. Bi- and trimodal size distributions are observed for the AMS species, with a small combustion (likely traffic) organic particle mode and an accumulation mode that contains mainly organic and secondary inorganic compounds. The AMS and BC mass concentrations, size distributions, and diurnal cycles are found to be qualitatively similar to those from most previous field measurements in Mexico City.

  11. Struvite Precipitation and Phosphorous Removal from Urine Synthetic Solution: Reaction Kinetic Study

    Marwa Saied Shalaby


    Full Text Available Phosphorus, like oil, is a non-renewable resource that must be harvested from finite resources in the earth’s crust. An essential element for life, phosphorus is becoming increasingly scarce, contaminated, and difficult to extract. Struvite or magnesium ammonium phosphate (MgNH4PO4.6H2O is a white, crystalline phosphate mineral that can be used as a bio-available fertilizer. The main objective of this research is to indicate the most important operating parameters affecting struvite precipitation by means of chemical reaction kinetics. The present study explores struvite precipitation by chemical method under different starting molar ratios, pH and SSR. It is shown that an increase of starting Mg: PO4: NH4 with respect to magnesium (1.6:1:1 strongly influences the growth rate of struvite and so the efficiency of the phosphate removal. This was attributed to the effect of magnesium on the struvite solubility product and on the reached supersaturation Super Saturation Ratio at optimum starting molar ratio and pH. It was also shown, by using chemical precipitation method that the determined Super Saturation Ratio (SSR values of struvite, at 8, 8.5, 9, 9.5 and 10 are 1.314, 4.29, 8.89, 9.87 and 14.89 respectively are close to those presented in the literature for different origins of wastewater streams. The results show that SSR , pH, and starting molar ratio strongly influences the kinetics of precipitation and so phosphorous removal to reach 93% removal percent , 5.95 mg/lit as a minimum PO4 remained in solution, and 7.9 gm precipitated struvite from feed synthetic solution of 750 ml . The product was subjected to chemical analysis by means of EDIX-FTIR, SEM and XRD showing conformity with published literature. First-order kinetics was found to be sufficient to describe the rate data. The rates increased with increasing pH and so SSR and the apparent rate constants for the reaction were determined. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved

  12. OCT Study of Optical Clearing of Muscle Tissue in vitro with 40% Glucose Solution

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Kozintseva, M. D.; Tuchin, V. V.


    The technique of -optical clearing of biological tissues- is aimed at improving the quality of visualization of structures hidden deep in tissue. In this study, we measured the diffusion coefficient of glucose in bovine skeletal muscle tissue by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in vitro and determined changes that took place in the imaging contrast of muscle fibers, the optical depth of coherent probing, and detection under the influence of aqueous 40% solution of glucose. It was shown that, within 90 min, when the depth of coherent probing increased by 14%, the contrast of OCT images increased fourfold and the depth of coherent detection of structural elements of the tissue increased by 2.4 times. The diffusion coefficient of glucose in the muscle tissue was (2.98 ± 0.94) × 10-6 cm2/s.

  13. Comparative study of fusion algorithms and implementation of new efficient solution

    Besrour, Amine; Snoussi, Hichem; Siala, Mohamed; Abdelkefi, Fatma


    High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging has been the subject of significant researches over the past years, the goal of acquiring the best cinema-quality HDR images of fast-moving scenes using an efficient merging algorithm has not yet been achieved. In fact, through the years, many efficient algorithms have been implemented and developed. However, they are not yet efficient since they don't treat all the situations and they have not enough speed to ensure fast HDR image reconstitution. In this paper, we will present a full comparative analyze and study of the available fusion algorithms. Also, we will implement our personal algorithm which can be more optimized and faster than the existed ones. We will also present our investigated algorithm that has the advantage to be more optimized than the existing ones. This merging algorithm is related to our hardware solution allowing us to obtain four pictures with different exposures.

  14. Physics and engineering studies on the MITICA accelerator: comparison among possible design solutions

    Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Pilan, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.


    Consorzio RFX in Padova is currently using a comprehensive set of numerical and analytical codes, for the physics and engineering design of the SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement) experiments, planned to be built at Consorzio RFX. This paper presents a set of studies on different possible geometries for the MITICA accelerator, with the objective to compare different design concepts and choose the most suitable one (or ones) to be further developed and possibly adopted in the experiment. Different design solutions have been discussed and compared, taking into account their advantages and drawbacks by both the physics and engineering points of view.

  15. Comparison of human pulp tissue dissolution capacities of different irrigating solutions: An in vitro study

    Atul Jain


    Full Text Available Background: Organic tissue dissolution is considered as one of the most important and desirable property of endodontic irrigant, any soft tissue remnant, harboring bacteria, left in the canal after endodontic therapy may be the cause of failure. Aim: The present study aimed at assessing and comparing the human pulp dissolution (thereby eliminating the bacteria capacity of some potential endodontic irrigants viz., sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl (2.5% and 5.25%, chlorine dioxide (5% and peracetic acid (5%. Materials and Methods: Forty human pulp specimens from extracted premolars were taken and weighed. They were immersed in test solution for 30 min, dried on filter paper and weighed again. The percentage weight loss was calculated and statistically analyzed. Conclusion: It can be concluded that NaOCl showed the best tissue dissolution capacity, followed by 5% peracetic acid.

  16. Computational Approach for Studying Optical Properties of DNA Systems in Solution

    Nørby, Morten Steen; Svendsen, Casper Steinmann; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard


    In this paper we present a study of the methodological aspects regarding calculations of optical properties for DNA systems in solution. Our computational approach will be built upon a fully polarizable QM/MM/Continuum model within a damped linear response theory framework. In this approach...... the environment is given a highly advanced description in terms of the electrostatic potential through the polarizable embedding model. Furthermore, bulk solvent effects are included in an efficient manner through a conductor-like screening model. With the aim of reducing the computational cost we develop a set...... of averaged partial charges and distributed isotropic dipole-dipole polarizabilities for DNA suitable for describing the classical region in ground-state and excited-state calculations. Calculations of the UV-spectrum of the 2-aminopurine optical probe embedded in a DNA double helical structure are presented...

  17. Offering solutions of sustainable urban tourism by the use of SWOT model, case study Isfahan city

    Monireh Roustazadeh Sheikh Yousefi


    Full Text Available Tourism phenomenon has been spread world wildtoday. It's because of technological innovation development and overallcapitalism expansion in current age. Tourism in this situation has caused humanbeing relocation and mobility and in worldwide level, has created concept ofrelationship with other cultures in different locations, as socio-geographicalphenomenon. In this case cities includes important scientific, recreational,sport, shrine, historical, culture, medical, centers, etc., in addition to thiscases, also utilities natural attraction, etc., can play vole as touristic cityin the center of the country. in this research discursive- analysis method hasbeen used for collecting data and proceed to identify tourism potentials ,abilities, limitations and inadequacy of Isfahan by documental and librarydeliberations and field studies, SWOT model has been used for analyzing data.Then, offering solutions for sustainable urban development and eventuallymovement toward tourism development have been emphasized on.

  18. Red/blue shifting hydrogen bonds in acetonitrile-dimethyl sulphoxide solutions: FTIR and theoretical studies

    Kannan, P. P.; Karthick, N. K.; Mahendraprabu, A.; Shanmugam, R.; Elangovan, A.; Arivazhagan, G.


    FTIR spectra of neat acetonitrile (AN), dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and their binary solutions at various mole fractions have been recorded at room temperature. Theoretical calculations have also been carried out on acetonitrile (monomer, dimer), dimethyl sulphoxide (monomer, dimer) and AN - DMSO complex molecules. 1:2 (AN:DMSO) and 2:1 complexation through the red shifting (AN) C - H ⋯ O = S(DMSO) and blue shifting (DMSO) C - H ⋯ N ≡ C(AN) hydrogen bonds has been identified. The experimental and theoretical studies favour the presence of both the monomer and dimer in liquid AN, but only closed dimers in DMSO. The dipole-dipole interactions existed in AN and DMSO dimers disappear in the complex molecules. Partial π bond between S and O atoms, and three lone pair of electrons on oxygen atom of DMSO have been noticed theoretically.

  19. Small-angle x-ray scattering study of polymer structure: Carbosilane dendrimers in hexane solution

    Shtykova, E. V.; Feigin, L. A.; Volkov, V. V.; Malakhova, Yu. N.; Streltsov, D. R.; Buzin, A. I.; Chvalun, S. N.; Katarzhanova, E. Yu.; Ignatieva, G. M.; Muzafarov, A. M.


    The three-dimensional organization of monodisperse hyper-branched macromolecules of regular structure—carbosilane dendrimers of zero, third, and sixth generations—has been studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in solution. The use of modern methods of SAXS data interpretation, including ab initio modeling, has made it possible to determine the internal architecture of the dendrimers in dependence of the generation number and the number of cyclosiloxane end groups (forming the shell of dendritic macromolecules) and show dendrimers to be spherical. The structural results give grounds to consider carbosilane dendrimers promising objects for forming crystals with subsequent structural analysis and determining their structure with high resolution, as well as for designing new materials to be used in various dendrimer-based technological applications.

  20. Electrochemical Studies of Adsorption of Paraquat onto Ca10(PO46(OH2 from Aqueous Solution

    Moulay Abderrahim EL MHAMMEDI


    Full Text Available Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. It has had a tarnished reputation because of its acute oral toxicity and ill-health associated with operators - particularly in the plantation sectors of many developing countries. Paraquat binds rapidly and tightly to clay materials in soils, and when adsorbed it is biologically inactive. It also binds to humus and other organic material: this results in no, or very low soil residues or leaching into water sources. This article presents a studies of kinetic of adsorption onto hydroxyapatite phosphocalcique Ca10(PO46(OH2 (HAP from aqueous solution. Measurements are performed by electrochemical methods using the cyclic voltammetric, chronoamperometry and square wave voltammetry at carbon paste electrode (CPE.