Hansen, Jean-Pierre
1986-01-01
This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the theory of ""simple"" liquids. The new second edition has been rearranged and considerably expanded to give a balanced account both of basic theory and of the advances of the past decade. It presents the main ideas of modern liquid state theory in a way that is both pedagogical and self-contained. The book should be accessible to graduate students and research workers, both experimentalists and theorists, who have a good background in elementary mechanics.Key Features* Compares theoretical deductions with experimental r
Countable imaginary simple unidimensional theories
Shami, Ziv
2009-01-01
We prove that a countable simple unidimensional theory that eliminates hyperimaginaries is supersimple. This solves a problem of Shelah in the more general context of simple theories under weak assumptions.
A Simple Theory for Waterspouts.
Rennó, Nilton O.; Bluestein, Howard B.
2001-04-01
It is shown that the simple thermodynamic theory for dust devils, proposed by Rennó et al., also applies to waterspouts. The theory is based on the thermodynamics of heat engines and predicts the central pressure and the wind speed of these convective vortices. Moreover, it provides a simple physical interpretation of their general characteristics. In particular, the heat engine theory shows that convective vortices are more likely to form in the regions where the occurrence of the warmest and moistest updrafts and the coldest and driest downdrafts are supported by the local environment. These are the regions where both the heat input into the convective heat engine is maximum and the solenoidal generation of vorticity is the greatest. This explains why waterspouts are frequently observed near the boundaries between relatively warm and relatively cold waters. Moreover, since the work done by the convective heat engine is equal to the total heat input multiplied by the thermodynamic efficiency, the theory shows that another necessary condition for the formation of intense vortices is the presence of intense convection.
A simple theory of protein folding kinetics
Pande, Vijay S
2010-01-01
We present a simple model of protein folding dynamics that captures key qualitative elements recently seen in all-atom simulations. The goals of this theory are to serve as a simple formalism for gaining deeper insight into the physical properties seen in detailed simulations as well as to serve as a model to easily compare why these simulations suggest a different kinetic mechanism than previous simple models. Specifically, we find that non-native contacts play a key role in determining the mechanism, which can shift dramatically as the energetic strength of non-native interactions is changed. For protein-like non-native interactions, our model finds that the native state is a kinetic hub, connecting the strength of relevant interactions directly to the nature of folding kinetics.
A Small Deformation of a Simple Theory
Buican, Matthew
2016-01-01
We study an interesting relevant deformation of the simplest interacting N=2 SCFT---the original Argyres-Douglas (AD) theory. We argue that, although this deformation is not strictly speaking Banks-Zaks like (certain operator dimensions change macroscopically), there are senses in which it constitutes a mild deformation of the parent AD theory: the exact change in the "a" anomaly is small and is essentially saturated at one loop. Moreover, contributions from IR operators that have a simple description in the UV theory reproduce a particular limit of the IR index to a remarkably high order. These results lead us to conclude that the IR theory is an N=1 SCFT with the smallest-known "a" and "c" central charges for an interacting SCFT in four dimensions.
Theory of simple liquids with applications to soft matter
Hansen, Jean-Pierre
2013-01-01
Comprehensive coverage of topics in the theory of classical liquids Widely regarded as the standard text in its field, Theory of Simple Liquids gives an advanced but self-contained account of liquid state theory within the unifying framework provided by classical statistical mechanics. The structure of this revised and updated Fourth Edition is similar to that of the previous one but there are significant shifts in emphasis and much new material has been added. Major changes and Key Features in content include: Expansion of existing sections on simulation methods, liquid-vapour coexisten
A simple theory of Rijke tube oscillation
Maa Dah-You
2002-01-01
A simple theory of Rijke tube oscillation is presented based on mathematical realization of Rayleigh's qualitative explanation of the mechanism of Rijke tube. This is done by assuming a single point of high temperature in an otherwise uniform tube and the sound source produced when cold air flows passing this point. The wave equation thus obtained is then rigorously solved. It is found that the Rijke tube oscillation is a feedback system. There is no feedback nor oscillation when the hot spot is at a node or antinode in the tube. The mean flow is necessary for the oscillation, the particle velocity of which is proportional to the mean velocity, and the ratio is proportional to the gauze temperature when the later is low and the feedback does not affect much the magnitude of the particle velocity. When the temperature is high, the feedback increases rapidly and the particle velocity might grow to several or even tens of times of the mean velocity, and almost indefinitely when the heater temperature is high enough. Otherwise the growth is rather slow, when the mean flow or high temperature is first applied. The oscillations stop immediately when the mean flow is stopped. If the mean flow is controlled by a valve or a paddle at one end of the tube, an interesting sound is produced.
A simple procedure for rehybridization of nuclei analyzed previously by fish
Andréa Borduchi Carvalho-Salles
1999-06-01
Full Text Available We present a simple procedure for interphase fluorescence in situ rehybridization (FISH. This procedure was used to evaluate fresh prostate tumor from needle biopsy specimens. Digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes were hybridized onto nuclei which had been previously investigated by FISH using biotin-labeled DNA probes. This method makes it possible to reanalyze the same nuclei with different centromeric DNA probes and is useful in cases where a limited number of slides are available.O presente trabalho descreve um procedimento simples para reibridização in situ fluorescente em núcleos interfásicos de amostras frescas de tumores de próstata obtidas a partir de biopsias aspirativas. Sondas -centroméricas marcadas com digoxigenina foram hibridizadas em núcleos anteriormente avaliados com diferentes sondas marcadas com biotina. Esse método permitiu a análise da mesma célula com diferentes seqüências de DNA centroméricas, especialmente em casos com um número limitado de lâminas disponíveis.
Simple Type Theory as Framework for Combining Logics
Benzmueller, Christoph
2010-01-01
Simple type theory is suited as framework for combining classical and non-classical logics. This claim is based on the observation that various prominent logics, including (quantified) multimodal logics and intuitionistic logics, can be elegantly embedded in simple type theory. Furthermore, simple type theory is sufficiently expressive to model combinations of embedded logics and it has a well understood semantics. Off-the-shelf reasoning systems for simple type theory exist that can be uniformly employed for reasoning within and about combinations of logics.
Simple Recursion Relations for General Field Theories
Cheung, Clifford; Trnka, Jaroslav
2015-01-01
On-shell methods offer an alternative definition of quantum field theory at tree-level, replacing Feynman diagrams with recursion relations and interaction vertices with a handful of seed scattering amplitudes. In this paper we determine the simplest recursion relations needed to construct a general four-dimensional quantum field theory of massless particles. For this purpose we define a covering space of recursion relations which naturally generalizes all existing constructions, including those of BCFW and Risager. The validity of each recursion relation hinges on the large momentum behavior of an n-point scattering amplitude under an m-line momentum shift, which we determine solely from dimensional analysis, Lorentz invariance, and locality. We show that all amplitudes in a renormalizable theory are 5-line constructible. Amplitudes are 3-line constructible if an external particle carries spin or if the scalars in the theory carry equal charge under a global or gauge symmetry. Remarkably, this implies the 3-...
Testing theory in practice: a simple experiment
Terpstra, R.; Ferreira Pires, L.; Heerink, A.W.; Tretmans, G.J.; Brezocnik, Z.; Kapus, T.
1996-01-01
In this paper we discuss the experiences gained in conducting a simple testing experiment. The goal of this experiment is to apply the abstract, formal testing framework [8] in a practical setting, and to indicate the critical aspects in its application to realistic testing situations. For that purp
The Prototype Theory and the Simple Present Tense Teaching
袁昌玲; 杨唐峰
2016-01-01
The prototype theory has been widely applied to the language teaching. In this paper, the author analyzes the relations between different uses of the simple present tense from the perspective of the prototype theory, hoping to help students understand this tense better and promote the application of this theory to English tense teaching.
Theory of high pressure hydrogen, made simple
Magdau, Ioan B; Ackland, Graeme J
2015-01-01
Phase I of hydrogen has several peculiarities. Despite having a close-packed crystal structure, it is less dense than either the low temperature Phase II or the liquid phase. At high pressure, it transforms into either phase III or IV, depending on the temperature. Moreover, spectroscopy suggests that the quantum rotor behaviour disappears with pressurisation, without any apparent phase transition. Here we present a simple thermodynamic model for this behaviour based on packing atoms and molecules and discuss the thermodynamics of the phase boundaries. We also report first principles molecular dynamics calculations for a more detailed look at the same phase transitions.
A Simple Theory of Quantum Gravity
Horndeski, Gregory W
2015-01-01
A novel theory of Quantum Gravity is presented in which the real gravitons manifest themselves as holes in space. In general, these holes propagate at the speed of light through an expanding universe with boundary denoted by U, which is comprised of pulsating cells. These holes can form bound and semi-bound states. The geometry of U is non-Euclidean on a small scale, but there are indications that it can become Euclidean on a large scale. The motions of elementary particles through U are governed by probability 4 and 7-vectors, which are related to the momentum vectors in Minkowski space. The connection of this theory to Newtonian gravity is discussed, and an expression for the gravitational redshift of photons is derived which relates the redshift to the probability that a photon absorbs a virtual graviton. The theory also provides a possible explanation of dark matter and dark energy as gravitational phenomena, which do not require the introduction of any new particles. A quantum cosmology is presented in w...
General autocatalytic theory and simple model of financial markets
Thuy Anh, Chu; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai
2015-06-01
The concept of autocatalytic theory has become a powerful tool in understanding evolutionary processes in complex systems. A generalization of autocatalytic theory was assumed by considering that the initial element now is being some distribution instead of a constant value as in traditional theory. This initial condition leads to that the final element might have some distribution too. A simple physics model for financial markets is proposed, using this general autocatalytic theory. Some general behaviours of evolution process and risk moment of a financial market also are investigated in framework of this simple model.
Quantum Decision Theory in Simple Risky Choices.
Favre, Maroussia; Wittwer, Amrei; Heinimann, Hans Rudolf; Yukalov, Vyacheslav I; Sornette, Didier
2016-01-01
Quantum decision theory (QDT) is a recently developed theory of decision making based on the mathematics of Hilbert spaces, a framework known in physics for its application to quantum mechanics. This framework formalizes the concept of uncertainty and other effects that are particularly manifest in cognitive processes, which makes it well suited for the study of decision making. QDT describes a decision maker's choice as a stochastic event occurring with a probability that is the sum of an objective utility factor and a subjective attraction factor. QDT offers a prediction for the average effect of subjectivity on decision makers, the quarter law. We examine individual and aggregated (group) data, and find that the results are in good agreement with the quarter law at the level of groups. At the individual level, it appears that the quarter law could be refined in order to reflect individual characteristics. This article revisits the formalism of QDT along a concrete example and offers a practical guide to researchers who are interested in applying QDT to a dataset of binary lotteries in the domain of gains.
Quantum decision theory in simple risky choices
Favre, M; Heinimann, H R; Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D
2016-01-01
Quantum decision theory (QDT) is a novel theory of decision making based on the mathematics of Hilbert spaces, a framework known in physics for its application to quantum mechanics. This framework formalizes the concept of uncertainty and other effects that are particularly manifest in cognitive processes, which makes it well suited for the study of decision making. QDT describes a decision maker's choice as a stochastic event occurring with a probability that is the sum of an objective utility factor and a subjective attraction factor. QDT offers a prediction for the average effect of subjectivity on decision makers, the quarter law. We examine individual and aggregated (group) results, and find that our results are in good agreement with the quarter law at the level of groups. At the individual level, it appears that the quarter law could be refined in order to reflect individual characteristics. We examine gender differences in our sample in order to illustrate how QDT can be used to differentiate between ...
Small deformation of a simple N =2 superconformal theory
Buican, Matthew; Nishinaka, Takahiro
2016-12-01
We study an interesting relevant deformation of the simplest interacting N =2 superconformal field theory (SCFT)—the original Argyres-Douglas (AD) theory. We argue that, although this deformation is not strictly speaking Banks-Zaks-like (certain operator dimensions change macroscopically), there are senses in which it constitutes a mild deformation of the parent AD theory: the exact change in the a anomaly is small and is essentially saturated at one loop. Moreover, contributions from IR operators that have a simple description in the UV theory reproduce a particular limit of the IR index to a remarkably high order. These results lead us to conclude that the IR theory is an interacting N =1 SCFT with particularly small a and c central charges and that this theory sheds some interesting light on the spectrum of its AD parent. Our results also lead us to the conclusion that the theory spaces emanating from some of the simplest N =1 gauge theories may be richer than anticipated.
A Simple First-Principles Homogenization Theory for Chiral Metamaterials
Carlo Rizza
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We discuss a simple first-principles homogenization theory for describing, in the long-wavelength limit, the effective bianisotropic response of a periodic metamaterial composite without intrinsic chiral and magnetic inclusions. In the case where the dielectric contrast is low, we obtain a full analytical description which can be considered the extension of Landau-Lifshitz-Looyenga effective-medium formulation in the context of periodic metamaterials.
Quantum Critical Behaviour of Semi-Simple Gauge Theories
Esbensen, Jacob Kamuk; Ryttov, Thomas A.; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We study the perturbative phase diagram of semi-simple fermionic gauge theories resembling the Standard Model. We investigate an $SU(N)$ gauge theory with $M$ Dirac flavors where we gauge first an $SU(M)_L$ and then an $SU(2)_L \\subset SU(M)_L$ of the original global symmetry $SU(M)_L\\times SU......(M)_R \\times U(1) $ of the theory. To avoid gauge anomalies we add lepton-like particles. At the two-loops level an intriguing phase diagram appears. We uncover phases in which one, two or three fixed points exist and discuss the associated flows of the coupling constants. We discover a phase featuring...
Quantitative study of kinetic ballooning mode theory in simple geometry
Aleynikova, Ksenia; Zocco, Alessandro
2017-09-01
The theory of kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs) in a magnetically confined toroidal plasma is studied analytically and numerically by means of gyrokinetic simulations. A physics-based ordering for β (the ratio of kinetic to magnetic plasma pressure) with small asymptotic parameters is found. This allows us to derive several simplified limits of previously known theories. We introduce a variational approach which provides explicit dispersion relations in terms of integrals of quadratic forms constructed from numerical eigenfunctions. It is found that, for large pressure gradients, the growth rate and frequencies computed by gyrokinetic codes show excellent agreement with those evaluated by using a diamagnetic modification of ideal magnetohydrodynamic if geometric drifts are kept consistent with the equilibrium pressure gradient. For moderate pressure gradients, a new finite-β formulation of the KBM theory is proposed. Also in this case, a good agreement between numerical simulations and analytical theory is found.
A model theoretic Baire category theorem for simple theories
Shami, Ziv
2009-01-01
We define the class of $\\tilde\\tau_{low}^f$-sets. This is a class of type-definable sets defined in terms of forking by low formulas. We prove a model theoretic Baire category theorem for $\\tilde\\tau_{low}^f$-sets in a countable simple theory in which the extension property is first-order and show some of its applications. A typical application is the following. Let $T$ be a countable theory with the wnfcp (weak nonfinite cover property) and assume for every non-algebraic $a$ there exists a non-algebraic $a'\\acl(a)$ such that $SU(a')<\\omega$. Then there exists a weakly-minimal formula with parameters.
Dynamic Analysis of Modifications to Simple Plate Tectonic Theory
Paczkowski, Karen
A number of geological and geophysical observations suggest significant departures from simple, first-order plate tectonic theory. In this thesis we address the dynamic implications of some of these observations and propose generalized theories to explain their dynamics and conditions of formation. In Chapter 2, we develop a generalized theory and analytic model to predict the conditions under which large-volume removal of continental lithosphere can occur through the formation of drip instabilities. Using damage physics relevant for Earth, we find a large portion of the lithosphere may be mobilized and entrained into growing drip instabilities. For a critical amount of damage, the growth is accelerated sufficiently that large-volume drip instabilities may form within geologically feasible time frames. Our model suggests large-volume lithospheric drip instabilities may arise independently of tectonic settings through damage-assisted mobilization and entrainment of the highly viscous lithosphere. In Chapter 3, we develop a mechanical model independent of volcanism and thermal weakening to explain the initial formation and length scale of rifting and extension near convergent plate boundaries. We conduct a linear stability analysis of a simple viscous necking model, which includes the lithosphere's negative buoyancy, non-Newtonian rheology, and freely moving top surface, to determine which properties of the lithosphere govern the location of rifting. We find that the negative buoyancy of the lithosphere promotes the formation of rifting structures when simple Newtonian viscosities are present. However, localized weakening, introduced through a power law exponent, is required to generate realistic rifting length scales. Our model suggests that the initial location of rifting in the overriding plate at subduction zones is primarily due to the mechanical extension induced by rollback of the subducting slab. In Chapter 4, we propose a theory to explain the seismic
Quantum Critical Behaviour of Semi-Simple Gauge Theories
Esbensen, Jacob Kamuk; Sannino, Francesco
2015-01-01
We study the perturbative phase diagram of semi-simple fermionic gauge theories resembling the Standard Model. We investigate an $SU(N)$ gauge theory with $M$ Dirac flavors where we gauge first an $SU(M)_L$ and then an $SU(2)_L \\subset SU(M)_L$ of the original global symmetry $SU(M)_L\\times SU(M)_R \\times U(1) $ of the theory. To avoid gauge anomalies we add lepton-like particles. At the two-loops level an intriguing phase diagram appears. We uncover phases in which one, two or three fixed points exist and discuss the associated flows of the coupling constants. We discover a phase featuring complete asymptotic freedom and simultaneously an interacting infrared fixed point in both couplings. The analysis further reveals special renormalisation group trajectories along which one coupling displays asymptotic freedom and the other asymptotic safety, while both flowing in the infrared to an interacting fixed point. These are \\emph{safety free} trajectories. We briefly sketch out possible phenomenological implicati...
Nonequilibrium Anderson model made simple with density functional theory
Kurth, S.; Stefanucci, G.
2016-12-01
The single-impurity Anderson model is studied within the i-DFT framework, a recently proposed extension of density functional theory (DFT) for the description of electron transport in the steady state. i-DFT is designed to give both the steady current and density at the impurity, and it requires the knowledge of the exchange-correlation (xc) bias and on-site potential (gate). In this work we construct an approximation for both quantities which is accurate in a wide range of temperatures, gates, and biases, thus providing a simple and unifying framework to calculate the differential conductance at negligible computational cost in different regimes. Our results mark a substantial advance for DFT and may inform the construction of functionals applicable to other correlated systems.
Simple Space-Time Symmetries: Generalizing Conformal Field Theory
Mack, G; Mack, Gerhard; Riese, Mathias de
2004-01-01
We study simple space-time symmetry groups G which act on a space-time manifold M=G/H which admits a G-invariant global causal structure. We classify pairs (G,M) which share the following additional properties of conformal field theory: 1) The stability subgroup H of a point in M is the identity component of a parabolic subgroup of G, implying factorization H=MAN, where M generalizes Lorentz transformations, A dilatations, and N special conformal transformations. 2) special conformal transformations in N act trivially on tangent vectors to the space-time manifold M. The allowed simple Lie groups G are the universal coverings of SU(m,m), SO(2,D), Sp(l,R), SO*(4n) and E_7(-25) and H are particular maximal parabolic subgroups. All these groups G admit positive energy representations. It will also be shown that the classical conformal groups SO(2,D) are the only allowed groups which possess a time reflection automorphism; in all other cases space-time has an intrinsic chiral structure.
Simple preconditioning for time-dependent density functional perturbation theory
Lehtovaara, Lauri; Marques, Miguel A. L.
2011-07-01
By far, the most common use of time-dependent density functional theory is in the linear-reponse regime, where it provides information about electronic excitations. Ideally, the linear-response equations should be solved by a method that avoids the use of the unoccupied Kohn-Sham states — such as the Sternheimer method — as this reduces the complexity and increases the precision of the calculation. However, the Sternheimer equation becomes ill-conditioned near and indefinite above the first resonant frequency, seriously hindering the use of efficient iterative solution methods. To overcome this serious limitation, and to improve the general convergence properties of the iterative techniques, we propose a simple preconditioning strategy. In our method, the Sternheimer equation is solved directly as a linear equation using an iterative Krylov subspace method, i.e., no self-consistent cycle is required. Furthermore, the preconditioner uses the information of just a few unoccupied states and requires simple and minimal modifications to existing implementations. In this way, convergence can be reached faster and in a considerably wider frequency range than the traditional approach.
Automating Access Control Logics in Simple Type Theory with LEO-II (Techreport)
Benzmueller, Christoph
2009-01-01
Garg and Abadi recently proved that prominent access control logics can be translated in a sound and complete way into modal logic S4. We have previously outlined how normal multimodal logics, including monomodal logics K and S4, can be embedded in simple type theory (which is also known as higher-order logic) and we have demonstrated that the higher-order theorem prover LEO-II can automate reasoning in and about them. In this paper we combine these results and describe a sound and complete embedding of different access control logics in simple type theory. Employing this framework we show that the off the shelf theorem prover LEO-II can be applied to automate reasoning in prominent access control logics.
Very Simple Markov-Perfect Industry Dynamics : Theory
Abbring, Jaap; Campbell, J.R.; Tilly, J.; Yang, N.
2017-01-01
This paper develops a simple model of firm entry, competition, and exit in oligopolistic markets. It features toughness of competition, sunk entry costs, and market-level demand and cost shocks, but assumes that firms' expected payoffs are identical when entry and survival decisions are made. We
Further studies of a simple gyrotron equation: nonlinear theory
Shi Meixuan, E-mail: meixuan@cims.nyu.ed [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, NY 10012-1185 (United States)
2010-11-05
A nonlinear version of a standard system of gyrotron model equations is studied using asymptotic analysis and variational methods. The condition for obtaining a high-amplitude wave is achieved in the study. A simple method for obtaining the patterns and amplitude of the wave based on the given free-space wave-number pattern is shown.
Rendina, D; De Palma, D; De Filippo, G; De Pascale, F; Muscariello, R; Ippolito, R; Fazio, V; Fiengo, A; Benvenuto, D; Strazzullo, P; Galletti, F
2015-03-01
Simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are 2 frequent nonmalignant thyroid diseases. Tobacco smoking has detrimental effects on the endocrine system and in particular on thyroid function and morphology. The objective of this cross-sectional study, involving 1800 Caucasian adults from a geographical area with mild iodine deficiency, was to evaluate the relationship between tobacco smoking, smoking cessation, and the prevalence of simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid status was evaluated by ultrasonic exploration of the neck, measurement of FT3, FT4, TSH, antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, and urinary iodine excretion. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy of significant nodules was also performed. Smoking habits were evaluated by a specific questionnaire and the calculation of number of pack years. Both current and previous smokers showed an increased risk of simple nodular goiter compared to never smokers after adjustment for potential confounders and known goitrogen factors. Interestingly, the simple nodular goiter risk was similar for never smokers and for previous smokers declaring a time since cessation of smoking for more than 69 months. Smoking habit was not associated to an increased risk of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.Smoking appears to be an independent risk factor for simple nodular goiter but not for Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an area with mild iodine deficiency. A prolonged withdrawal of smoking dramatically reduces the risk of simple nodular goiter occurrence.
Further studies of a simple gyrotron equation: linear theory
Weitzner, Harold [New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences New York, NY 10012 (United States)
2009-07-03
A linearized version of a standard system of gyrotron model equations is studied. The linearization allows the inclusion of some effects of particle bunching. The normal modes of the linearized system are given. It is shown that bunching effects couple incoming and outgoing waves. The waves near resonance duplicate well-known results. Without bunching and with a simple background profile function integral representations of solutions are given and discussed.
Thermophysical properties of simple liquid metals: A brief review of theory
Stroud, David
1993-01-01
In this paper, we review the current theory of the thermophysical properties of simple liquid metals. The emphasis is on thermodynamic properties, but we also briefly discuss the nonequilibrium properties of liquid metals. We begin by defining a 'simple liquid metal' as one in which the valence electrons interact only weakly with the ionic cores, so that the interaction can be treated by perturbation theory. We then write down the equilibrium Hamiltonian of a liquid metal as a sum of five terms: the bare ion-ion interaction, the electron-electron interaction, the bare electron-ion interaction, and the kinetic energies of electrons and ions. Since the electron-ion interaction can be treated by perturbation, the electronic part contributes in two ways to the Helmholtz free energy: it gives a density-dependent term which is independent of the arrangement of ions, and it acts to screen the ion-ion interaction, giving rise to effective ion-ion pair potentials which are density-dependent, in general. After sketching the form of a typical pair potential, we briefly enumerate some methods for calculating the ionic distribution function and hence the Helmholtz free energy of the liquid: monte Carlo simulations, molecular dynamics simulations, and thermodynamic perturbation theory. The final result is a general expression for the Helmholtz free energy of the liquid metal. It can be used to calculate a wide range of thermodynamic properties of simple metal liquids, which we enumerate. They include not only a range of thermodynamic coefficients of both metals and alloys, but also many aspects of the phase diagram, including freezing curves of pure elements and phase diagrams of liquid alloys (including liquidus and solidus curves). We briefly mention some key discoveries resulting from previous applications of this method, and point out that the same methods work for other materials not normally considered to be liquid metals (such as colloidal suspensions, in which the
Evolution of species from Darwin theory: A simple model
Moret, M. A.; Pereira, H. B. B.; Monteiro, S. L.; Galeão, A. C.
2012-04-01
Evolution of species is a complex phenomenon. Some theoretical models take into account evolution of species, like the Bak-Sneppen model that obtain punctuated equilibrium from self-organized criticality and the Penna model for biological aging that consists in a bit-string model subjected to aging, reproduction and death. In this work we propose a simple model to study different scenarios used to simulate the evolution of species. This model is based on Darwin's ideas of evolution. The present findings show that punctuated equilibria and stasis seem to be obtained directly from the mutation, selection of parents and the genetic crossover, and are very close to the fossil data analysis.
A simple theory of motor protein kinetics and energetics. II.
Qian, H
2000-01-10
A three-state stochastic model of motor protein [Qian, Biophys. Chem. 67 (1997) pp. 263-267] is further developed to illustrate the relationship between the external load on an individual motor protein in aqueous solution with various ATP concentrations and its steady-state velocity. A wide variety of dynamic motor behavior are obtained from this simple model. For the particular case of free-load translocation being the most unfavorable step within the hydrolysis cycle, the load-velocity curve is quasi-linear, V/Vmax = (cF/Fmax-c)/(1-c), in contrast to the hyperbolic relationship proposed by A.V. Hill for macroscopic muscle. Significant deviation from the linearity is expected when the velocity is less than 10% of its maximal (free-load) value--a situation under which the processivity of motor diminishes and experimental observations are less certain. We then investigate the dependence of load-velocity curve on ATP (ADP) concentration. It is shown that the free load Vmax exhibits a Michaelis-Menten like behavior, and the isometric Fmax increases linearly with ln([ATP]/[ADP]). However, the quasi-linear region is independent of the ATP concentration, yielding an apparently ATP-independent maximal force below the true isometric force. Finally, the heat production as a function of ATP concentration and external load are calculated. In simple terms and solved with elementary algebra, the present model provides an integrated picture of biochemical kinetics and mechanical energetics of motor proteins.
A simple theory of back surface field /BSF/ solar cells
Von Roos, O.
1978-01-01
A theory of an n-p-p/+/ junction is developed, entirely based on Shockley's depletion layer approximation. Under the further assumption of uniform doping the electrical characteristics of solar cells as a function of all relevant parameters (cell thickness, diffusion lengths, etc.) can quickly be ascertained with a minimum of computer time. Two effects contribute to the superior performance of a BSF cell (n-p-p/+/ junction) as compared to an ordinary solar cell (n-p junction). The sharing of the applied voltage among the two junctions (the n-p and the p-p/+/ junction) decreases the dark current and the reflection of minority carriers by the builtin electron field of the p-p/+/ junction increases the short-circuit current. The theory predicts an increase in the open-circuit voltage (Voc) with a decrease in cell thickness. Although the short-circuit current decreases at the same time, the efficiency of the cell is virtually unaltered in going from a thickness of 200 microns to a thickness of 50 microns. The importance of this fact for space missions where large power-to-weight ratios are required is obvious.
Sourcing quality-of-life weights obtained from previous studies: theory and reality in Korea.
Bae, SeungJin; Bae, Eun Young; Lim, Sang Hee
2014-01-01
The quality-of-life weights obtained in previous studies are frequently used in cost-utility analyses. The purpose of this study is to describe how the values obtained in previous studies are incorporated into the industry submissions requesting listing at the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI), focusing on the issues discussed in theoretical studies and national guidelines. The industry submissions requesting listing at the Korean NHI from January 2007 until December 2009 were evaluated by two independent researchers at the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). Specifically, we observed the methods that were used to pool, predict joint health state utilities, and retain consistency within submissions in terms of the issues discussed in methodological research papers and recommendations from national guidelines. More than half of the submissions used QALY as an outcome measure, and most of these submissions were sourced from prior studies. Heterogeneous methodologies were frequently used within a submission, with the inconsistent use of upper and lower anchors being prevalent. Assumptions behind measuring joint health state utilities or pooling multiple values for single health states were omitted in all submissions. Most national guidelines were rather vague regarding how to predict joint health states, how to select the best available value, how to maintain consistency within a submission, and how to generalize values obtained from prior studies. Previously-generated values were commonly sourced, but this practice was frequently related to inconsistencies within and among submissions. Attention should be paid to the consistency and transparency of the value, especially if the value is sourced from prior studies.
Simple bond length dependence: A correspondence between reactive fluid theories
Dyer, Kippi M.; Perkyns, John S.; Pettitt, B. M.
2005-06-01
Two elementary models of reactive fluids are examined, the first being a standard construction assuming molecular dissociation at infinite separation; the second is an open mixture of nondissociative molecules and free atoms in which the densities of free atoms and molecules are coupled. An approximation to the density of molecules, to low order in site density, is derived in terms of the classical associating fluid theory variously described by Wertheim [J. Chem. Phys. 87, 7323 (1987)] and Stell [Physica A 231, 1 (1996)]. The results are derived for a fluid of dimerizing hard spheres, and predict dependence of the molecular density on the total site density, the hard sphere diameter, and the bond length of the dimer. The results for the two reactive models are shown to be qualitatively similar, and lead to equivalent predictions of the molecular density for the infinitely short and infinitely long bond lengths.
Simple perturbative renormalization scheme for supersymmetric gauge theories
Foda, O.E. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Dept. of Physics)
1983-06-30
We show that the manifestly supersymmetric and gauge-invariant results of Supersymmetric Dimensional renormalization (SDR) are reproduceable through a simple, and mathematically consistent perturbative renormalization technique, where regularization is attained via a map that deforms the momentum space Feynman integrands in a specific way. In particular, it introduces a multiplicative factor of ((p+q)/..delta..)/sup -/delta in each momentum-space loop integral, where p is the magnitude of the loop momentum, q is an arbitrary constant to be chosen as will be explained, thus compensating for loss of translation invariance in p, ..lambda.. is a renormalization mass, and delta is a suitable non-integer: the analog of epsilon in dimensional schemes. All Dirac algebra and integration are four-dimensional, and renormalization is achieved by subtracting poles in delta, followed by setting delta->O. The mathematical inconsistencies of SDR are evaded by construction, since the numbers of fermion and boson degrees of freedom remain unchanged but analytic continuation in the number of dimensions is bypassed. Thus, the technique is equally viable in component and in superfield formalisms, and all anomalies are realized. The origin of the chiral anomaly is that no choice of q satisfies both gauge and chiral Ward identities simultaneously.
Linking Simple Economic Theory Models and the Cointegrated Vector AutoRegressive Model
Møller, Niels Framroze
This paper attempts to clarify the connection between simple economic theory models and the approach of the Cointegrated Vector-Auto-Regressive model (CVAR). By considering (stylized) examples of simple static equilibrium models, it is illustrated in detail, how the theoretical model and its...
Digit Reversal in Children's Writing: A Simple Theory and Its Empirical Validation
Fischer, Jean-Paul
2013-01-01
This article presents a simple theory according to which the left-right reversal of single digits by 5- and 6-year-old children is mainly due to the application of an implicit right-writing or -orienting rule. A number of nontrivial predictions can be drawn from this theory. First, left-oriented digits (1, 2, 3, 7, and 9) will be reversed more…
Simple Left-Right Theory: Lepton Number Violation at the LHC
Perez, Pavel Fileviez; Ohmer, Sebastian
2016-01-01
We propose a simple left-right symmetric theory where the neutrino masses are generated at the quantum level. In this context the neutrinos are Majorana fermions and the model has the minimal degrees of freedom in the scalar sector needed for symmetry breaking and mass generation. We discuss the lepton number violating signatures with two charged leptons of different flavor and missing energy at the Large Hadron Collider in order to understand the testability of the theory.
Simple left-right theory: Lepton number violation at the LHC
Fileviez Perez, Pavel; Murgui, Clara; Ohmer, Sebastian
2016-09-01
We propose a simple left-right symmetric theory where the neutrino masses are generated at the quantum level. In this context the neutrinos are Majorana fermions and the model has the minimal degrees of freedom in the scalar sector needed for symmetry breaking and mass generation. We discuss the lepton number violating signatures with two charged leptons of different flavor and missing energy at the Large Hadron Collider in order to understand the testability of the theory.
Rakoczy, Hannes; Bergfeld, Delia; Schwarz, Ina; Fizke, Ella
2015-01-01
Existing evidence suggests that children, when they first pass standard theory-of-mind tasks, still fail to understand the essential aspectuality of beliefs and other propositional attitudes: such attitudes refer to objects only under specific aspects. Oedipus, for example, believes Yocaste (his mother) is beautiful, but this does not imply that he believes his mother is beautiful. In three experiments, 3- to 6-year-olds' (N = 119) understanding of aspectuality was tested with a novel, radically simplified task. In contrast to all previous findings, this task was as difficult as and highly correlated with a standard false belief task. This suggests that a conceptual capacity more unified than previously assumed emerges around ages 4-5, a full-fledged metarepresentational scheme of propositional attitudes.
Linking Simple Economic Theory Models and the Cointegrated Vector AutoRegressive Model
Møller, Niels Framroze
This paper attempts to clarify the connection between simple economic theory models and the approach of the Cointegrated Vector-Auto-Regressive model (CVAR). By considering (stylized) examples of simple static equilibrium models, it is illustrated in detail, how the theoretical model and its stru....... Further fundamental extensions and advances to more sophisticated theory models, such as those related to dynamics and expectations (in the structural relations) are left for future papers......This paper attempts to clarify the connection between simple economic theory models and the approach of the Cointegrated Vector-Auto-Regressive model (CVAR). By considering (stylized) examples of simple static equilibrium models, it is illustrated in detail, how the theoretical model and its......, it is demonstrated how other controversial hypotheses such as Rational Expectations can be formulated directly as restrictions on the CVAR-parameters. A simple example of a "Neoclassical synthetic" AS-AD model is also formulated. Finally, the partial- general equilibrium distinction is related to the CVAR as well...
Liu, Q.; Chen, L. R.
2005-06-01
A useful and simple method for studying the melting temperature T-m of ion compounds has been developed by using analyses originally due to diffusional force theory, incorporating Pandey's formulation and Harrison's potential function. The calculated values of T-m for a wide range of compounds of types IA-VII (alkali halide), IIA-VI (alkaline-earth chalcogenide), and IA-VI (alkali chalcogenide) are found to agree fairly well with experimental values for T-m and to be superior to results from previous approaches involving similar methods.
Quantum theory as a tool for the description of simple psychological phenomena
Vol, E D
2011-01-01
We propose the consistent statistical approach for the quantitative description of simple psychological phenomena using the methods of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS). Taking as the starting point the K. Lewin's psychological field theory we show that basic concepts of this theory can be naturally represented in the language of QTOS. In particular provided that all stimuli acting on psychological system (that is individual or group of interest) are known one can associate with these stimuli corresponding operators and after that to write down the equation for evolution of density matrix of the relevant open system which allows one to find probabilities of all possible behavior alternatives. Using the method proposed we consider in detail simple model describing such interesting psychological phenomena as cognitive dissonance and the impact of competition among group members on its unity.
The force distribution probability function for simple fluids by density functional theory.
Rickayzen, G; Heyes, D M
2013-02-28
Classical density functional theory (DFT) is used to derive a formula for the probability density distribution function, P(F), and probability distribution function, W(F), for simple fluids, where F is the net force on a particle. The final formula for P(F) ∝ exp(-AF(2)), where A depends on the fluid density, the temperature, and the Fourier transform of the pair potential. The form of the DFT theory used is only applicable to bounded potential fluids. When combined with the hypernetted chain closure of the Ornstein-Zernike equation, the DFT theory for W(F) agrees with molecular dynamics computer simulations for the Gaussian and bounded soft sphere at high density. The Gaussian form for P(F) is still accurate at lower densities (but not too low density) for the two potentials, but with a smaller value for the constant, A, than that predicted by the DFT theory.
A simple extension of contraction theory to study incremental stability properties
Jouffroy, Jerome
Contraction theory is a recent tool enabling to study the stability of nonlinear systems trajectories with respect to one another, and therefore belongs to the class of incremental stability methods. In this paper, we extend the original definition of contraction theory to incorporate...... in an explicit manner the control input of the considered system. Such an extension, called universal contraction, is quite analogous in spirit to the well-known Input-to-State Stability (ISS). It serves as a simple formulation of incremental ISS, external stability, and detectability in a differential setting....... The hierarchical combination result of contraction theory is restated in this framework, and a differential small-gain theorem is derived from results already available in Lyapunov theory....
Xiaomin Chen, Ramesh K. Agarwal
2014-01-01
Full Text Available It is well established that the power generated by a Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT is a function of the number of blades B, the tip speed ratio (blade tip speed/wind free-stream velocity and the lift to drag ratio (CL /CD of the airfoil sections of the blade. The previous studies have shown that Blade Element Momentum (BEM theory is capable of evaluating the steady-state performance of wind turbines, in particular it can provide a reasonably good estimate of generated power at a given wind speed. However in more realistic applications, wind turbine operating conditions change from time to time due to variations in wind velocity and the aerodynamic forces change to new steady-state values after the wake settles to a new equilibrium whenever changes in operating conditions occur. The goal of this paper is to modify the quasi-steady BEM theory by including a simple dynamic inflow model to capture the unsteady behavior of wind turbines on a larger time scale. The output power of the wind turbines is calculated using the improved BEM method incorporating the inflow model. The computations are performed for the original NREL Phase II and Phase III turbines and the Risoe turbine all employing the S809 airfoil section for the turbine blades. It is shown by a simple example that the improved BEM theory is capable of evaluating the wind turbine performance in practical situations where operating conditions often vary in time.
Towards a Sound Theory of Adaptation for the Simple Genetic Algorithm
Burjorjee, Keki
2007-01-01
The pace of progress in the fields of Evolutionary Computation and Machine Learning is currently limited -- in the former field, by the improbability of making advantageous extensions to evolutionary algorithms when their capacity for adaptation is poorly understood, and in the latter by the difficulty of finding effective semi-principled reductions of hard real-world problems to relatively simple optimization problems. In this paper we explain why a theory which can accurately explain the simple genetic algorithm's remarkable capacity for adaptation has the potential to address both these limitations. We describe what we believe to be the impediments -- historic and analytic -- to the discovery of such a theory and highlight the negative role that the building block hypothesis (BBH) has played. We argue based on experimental results that a fundamental limitation which is widely believed to constrain the SGA's adaptive ability (and is strongly implied by the BBH) is in fact illusionary and does not exist. The...
Pino, Maria Chiara; Mazza, Monica; Mariano, Melania; Peretti, Sara; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Masedu, Francesco; Valenti, Marco; Franco, Fabia
2017-01-01
Theory of mind (ToM) is impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of this study were to: (i) examine the developmental trajectories of ToM abilities in two different mentalizing tasks in children with ASD compared to TD children; and (ii) to assess if a ToM simple test known as eyes-test could predict performance on…
Zaitsevskii, Andréi V
2012-01-01
Interactions of Cn (element 112) atoms with small Au clusters are studied using accurate ab initio scalar relativistic coupled cluster method for correlation treatment and two-component relativistic density functional theory (RDFT) to account for spin-dependent relativistic effect. The results demonstrate the failure of RDFT with simple generalized-gradient and hybrid functionals in describing Cn--Au bonds in complex systems.
Pseudofinite groups with NIP theory and definability in finite simple groups
Macpherson, Dugald
2012-01-01
We show that any pseudofinite group with NIP theory and with a finite upper bound on the length of chains of centralisers is soluble-by-finite. In particular, any NIP rosy pseudofinite group is soluble-by-finite. This generalises, and shortens the proof of, an earlier result for stable pseudofinite groups. An example is given of an NIP pseudofinite group which is not soluble-by-finite. However, if C is a class of finite groups such that all infinite ultraproducts of members of C have NIP theory, then there is a bound on the index of the soluble radical of any member of C. We also survey some ways in which model theory gives information on families of finite simple groups, particularly concerning products of images of word maps.
A simple higher order shear deformation theory for mechanical behavior of laminated composite plates
Adim, Belkacem; Daouadji, Tahar Hassaine; Rabahi, Aberezak
2016-06-01
In the present study, the static, buckling, and free vibration of laminated composite plates is examined using a refined shear deformation theory and developed for a bending analysis of orthotropic laminated composite plates. These models take into account the parabolic distribution of transverse shear stresses and satisfy the condition of zero shear stresses on the top and bottom surfaces of the plates. The most interesting feature of this theory is that it allows for parabolic distributions of transverse shear stresses across the plate thickness and satisfies the conditions of zero shear stresses at the top and bottom surfaces of the plate without using shear correction factors. The number of independent unknowns in the present theory is four, as against five in other shear deformation theories. In the analysis, the equation of motion for simply supported thick laminated rectangular plates is obtained through the use of Hamilton's principle. The accuracy of the analysis presented is demonstrated by comparing the results with solutions derived from other higher order models and with data found in the literature. It can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and simple in solving the static, the buckling, and free vibration behaviors of laminated composite plates.
A simple and efficient dispersion correction to the Hartree-Fock theory.
Yoshida, Tatsusada; Mashima, Akira; Sasahara, Katsunori; Chuman, Hiroshi
2014-02-15
One of the most challenging problems in computational chemistry and in drug discovery is the accurate prediction of the binding energy between a ligand and a protein receptor. It is well known that the binding energy calculated with the Hartree-Fock molecular orbital theory (HF) lacks the dispersion interaction energy that significantly affects the accuracy of the total binding energy of a large molecular system. We propose a simple and efficient dispersion energy correction to the HF theory (HF-Dtq). The performance of HF-Dtq was compared with those of several recently proposed dispersion corrected density functional theory methods (DFT-Ds) as to the binding energies of 68 small non-covalent complexes. The overall performance of HF-Dtq was found to be nearly equivalent to that of more sophisticated B3LYP-D3. HF-Dtq will thus be a useful and powerful method for accurately predicting the binding energy between a ligand and a protein, albeit it is a simple correction procedure based on HF.
Relativistic transport theory for simple fluids at first order in the gradients: a stable picture
Sandoval-Villalbazo, A; García-Colin, L S
2008-01-01
In this paper we show how using a relativistic kinetic equation. The ensuing expression for the heat flux can be casted in the form required by Classical Irreversible Thermodynamics. Indeed, it is linearly related to the temperature and number density gradients and not to the acceleration as the so called first order in the gradients theories contend. Since the specific expressions for the transport coefficients are irrelevant for our purposes, the BGK form of the kinetic equation is used. Moreover, from the resulting hydrodynamic equations it is readily seen that no instabilities are present in the transverse hydrodynamic velocity mode of the simple relativistic fluid.
Analytic Tableaux for Simple Type Theory and its First-Order Fragment
Brown, Chad E
2010-01-01
We study simple type theory with primitive equality (STT) and its first-order fragment EFO, which restricts equality and quantification to base types but retains lambda abstraction and higher-order variables. As deductive system we employ a cut-free tableau calculus. We consider completeness, compactness, and existence of countable models. We prove these properties for STT with respect to Henkin models and for EFO with respect to standard models. We also show that the tableau system yields a decision procedure for three EFO fragments.
无
2000-01-01
A new easy method has been presented to calculate the variable intervals corresponding to the stable univariant curves and to discriminate the stabilities of invariant points. This method and the one reported previously constitute a simple and universal theory for the computer-plotting of the equilibrium phase diagrams of a multisystem sign function matrix (SFM) discrimination method. Its main steps are: determining the stable univariant scheme according to the derivative (or difference) of ΔrGm; grouping the univariant curves by comparisons of the mutual relations among them; determining the existing intervals of the variables for the stable curves by comparisons of coordinate values of the curves about the invariant point; determining the stabilities of invariant points by comparisons of relations between the common curves and the invariant points. This method is suitable for any kind of phase diagram of closed or open systems in a phase diagram "space" with either 2 or more than 2 dimensions.
Global-scale predictions of community and ecosystem properties from simple ecological theory.
Jennings, Simon; Mélin, Frédéric; Blanchard, Julia L; Forster, Rodney M; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Wilson, Rod W
2008-06-22
We show how theoretical developments in macroecology, life-history theory and food-web ecology can be combined to formulate a simple model for predicting the potential biomass, production, size and trophic structure of consumer communities. The strength of our approach is that it uses remote sensing data to predict properties of consumer communities in environments that are challenging and expensive to sample directly. An application of the model to the marine environment on a global scale, using primary production and temperature estimates from satellite remote sensing as inputs, suggests that the global biomass of marine animals more than 10(-5) g wet weight is 2.62 x 10(9)t (=8.16 gm(-2) ocean) and production is 1.00 x 10(10) tyr-1 (31.15 gm(-2)yr(-1)). Based on the life-history theory, we propose and apply an approximation for distinguishing the relative contributions of different animal groups. Fish biomass and production, for example, are estimated as 8.99 x 10(8)t (2.80 gm(-2)) and 7.91 x 108 t yr(-1) (2.46 gm(2)yr(-1)respectively, and 50% of fish biomass is shown to occur in 17% of the total ocean area (8.22 gm(-2)). The analyses show that emerging ecological theory can be synthesized to set baselines for assessing human and climate impacts on global scales.
Rakoczy, Hannes; Bergfeld, Delia; Schwarz, Ina; Fizke, Ella
2015-01-01
Existing evidence suggests that children, when they first pass standard theory-of-mind tasks, still fail to understand the essential aspectuality of beliefs and other propositional attitudes: such attitudes refer to objects only under specific aspects. Oedipus, for example, believes Yocaste (his mother) is beautiful, but this does not imply that…
Simple theories of dynamic stall that are helpful in interpreting computational results
Jumper, E. J.; Hugo, R. J.
1991-04-01
This paper briefly reviews the phenomena of dynamic stall and comments on some of the theoretical work performed to help understand why the phenomena occurs for two-dimensional flow past an airfoil undergoing a pitching motion. A first look at how these understandings might be extended to three-dimensional flow fields past finite-span wings is also presented. In particular, a simple theory is developed that provides a rationale for why the experimental results from studies of finite-span wings undergoing dynamic stall closely resemble the dynamic-stall results for two-dimensional airfoils, while steady-flow results from finite-span wing studies are so dissimilar from those for two-dimensional airfoils.
A Simple Analysis of English Proverb Translation under Functional Equivalence Theory
2015-01-01
English proverbs are fixed oral sayings widespread in English-speaking countries,expressing profound meanings in simple words.The content of English proverbs involves every aspect of social life of English-speaking countries,and the form presents the unique linguistic characteristics of English language. This paper explores the translation of English proverbs in the view of functional equivalence theory.%英语谚语是流传于英语国家的口头固定用语，用简单通俗的话来反映深刻的道理，内容涉及社会生活的各方面，富有独特的英语语言特点。本文将从功能对等理论视角浅析英语谚语的翻译。
Nilsson, Ingeborg; Townsend, Elizabeth
2014-01-01
The evolving theory of occupational justice links the concept to social justice and to concerns for a justice of difference: a justice that recognizes occupational rights to inclusive participation in everyday occupations for all persons in society, regardless of age, ability, gender, social class, or other differences. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to inspire and empower health professionals to build a theoretical bridge to practice with an occupational justice lens. Using illustrations from a study of leisure and the use of everyday technology in the lives of very old people in Northern Sweden, the authors argue that an occupational justice lens may inspire and empower health professionals to engage in critical dialogue on occupational justice; use global thinking about occupation, health, justice, and the environment; and combine population and individualized approaches. The authors propose that taking these initiatives to bridge theory and practice will energize health professionals to enable inclusive participation in everyday occupations in diverse contexts.
Untangling boulder dislodgement in storms and tsunamis: Is it possible with simple theories?
Weiss, R.; Diplas, P.
2015-03-01
Boulders can move during storms and tsunamis. It is difficult to find a simple method to distinguish boulders moved by tsunami waves from those moved during storms in the field. In this contribution, we explore boulder dislodgement by storm and tsunami waves by solving an adapted version of Newton's Second Law of Motion in polar coordinates and defining a critical position for boulder dislodgement. We find that the boulder dislodgement is not only a function of the causative wave, but also of the roughness in the vicinity of the boulder and the slope angle. We employ the amplitude of storm and tsunami waves to dislodge boulders of given masses to evaluate if boulder dislodgement in storms can be untangled from boulder transport in tsunamis. As the main result of our numerical experiments, we find a significant difference between storm and tsunami waves to dislodge the same boulder for large masses and large roughness values. This allows us to conclude that simple theories are applicable to answer the questions asked in the title, but we argue only if they contain a critical dislodgement condition like the one presented here.
Boundedly controlled topology foundations of algebraic topology and simple homotopy theory
Anderson, Douglas R
1988-01-01
Several recent investigations have focused attention on spaces and manifolds which are non-compact but where the problems studied have some kind of "control near infinity". This monograph introduces the category of spaces that are "boundedly controlled" over the (usually non-compact) metric space Z. It sets out to develop the algebraic and geometric tools needed to formulate and to prove boundedly controlled analogues of many of the standard results of algebraic topology and simple homotopy theory. One of the themes of the book is to show that in many cases the proof of a standard result can be easily adapted to prove the boundedly controlled analogue and to provide the details, often omitted in other treatments, of this adaptation. For this reason, the book does not require of the reader an extensive background. In the last chapter it is shown that special cases of the boundedly controlled Whitehead group are strongly related to lower K-theoretic groups, and the boundedly controlled theory is compared to Sie...
A simple mathematical model for anomalous diffusion via Fisher's information theory
Ubriaco, Marcelo R., E-mail: ubriaco@ltp.upr.clu.ed [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR 00931 (Puerto Rico)
2009-10-26
Starting with the relative entropy based on a previously proposed entropy function S{sub q}[p]=integraldxp(x)x(-lnp(x)){sup q}, we find the corresponding Fisher's information measure. After function redefinition we then maximize the Fisher information measure with respect to the new function and obtain a differential operator that reduces to a space coordinate second derivative in the q->1 limit. We then propose a simple differential equation for anomalous diffusion and show that its solutions are a generalization of the functions in the Barenblatt-Pattle solution. We find that the mean squared displacement, up to a q-dependent constant, has a time dependence according to
Adnan Elshafei, M.; Alraiess, Fuzy
2013-03-01
In the current work, a finite element formulation is developed for modeling and analysis of isotropic as well as orthotropic composite beams with distributed piezoelectric actuators subjected to both mechanical and electrical loads. The proposed model is developed based on a simple higher order shear deformation theory where the displacement field equations in the model account for a parabolic distribution of the shear strain and the nonlinearity of in-plane displacements across the thickness and subsequently the shear correction factor is not involved. The virtual displacement method is used to formulate the equations of motion of the structure system. The model is valid for both segmented and continuous piezoelectric elements, which can be either surface bonded or embedded in the laminated beams. A two-node element with four mechanical degrees of freedom in addition to one electrical degree of freedom for each node is used in the finite element formulation. The electric potential is considered as a function of the thickness and the length of the beam element. A MATLAB code is developed to compute the static deformation and free vibration parameters of the beams with distributed piezoelectric actuators. The obtained results from the proposed model are compared with the available analytical results and the finite element results of other researchers.
Further Simplification of the Simple Erosion Narrowing Score With Item Response Theory Methodology.
Oude Voshaar, Martijn A H; Schenk, Olga; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Vonkeman, Harald E; Bernelot Moens, Hein J; Boers, Maarten; van de Laar, Mart A F J
2016-08-01
To further simplify the simple erosion narrowing score (SENS) by removing scored areas that contribute the least to its measurement precision according to analysis based on item response theory (IRT) and to compare the measurement performance of the simplified version to the original. Baseline and 18-month data of the Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoide Artritis (COBRA) trial were modeled using longitudinal IRT methodology. Measurement precision was evaluated across different levels of structural damage. SENS was further simplified by omitting the least reliably scored areas. Discriminant validity of SENS and its simplification were studied by comparing their ability to differentiate between the COBRA and sulfasalazine arms. Responsiveness was studied by comparing standardized change scores between versions. SENS data showed good fit to the IRT model. Carpal and feet joints contributed the least statistical information to both erosion and joint space narrowing scores. Omitting the joints of the foot reduced measurement precision for the erosion score in cases with below-average levels of structural damage (relative efficiency compared with the original version ranged 35-59%). Omitting the carpal joints had minimal effect on precision (relative efficiency range 77-88%). Responsiveness of a simplified SENS without carpal joints closely approximated the original version (i.e., all Δ standardized change scores were ≤0.06). Discriminant validity was also similar between versions for both the erosion score (relative efficiency = 97%) and the SENS total score (relative efficiency = 84%). Our results show that the carpal joints may be omitted from the SENS without notable repercussion for its measurement performance. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
Krempl, Erhard; Hong, Bor Zen
1989-01-01
A macromechanics analysis is presented for the in-plane, anisotropic time-dependent behavior of metal matrix laminates. The small deformation, orthotropic viscoplasticity theory based on overstress represents lamina behavior in a modified simple laminate theory. Material functions and constants can be identified in principle from experiments with laminae. Orthotropic invariants can be repositories for tension-compression asymmetry and for linear elasticity in one direction while the other directions behave in a viscoplastic manner. Computer programs are generated and tested for either unidirectional or symmetric laminates under in-plane loading. Correlations with the experimental results on metal matrix composites are presented.
The fermion content of the Standard Model from a simple world-line theory
Mansfield, Paul, E-mail: P.R.W.Mansfield@durham.ac.uk
2015-04-09
We describe a simple model that automatically generates the sum over gauge group representations and chiralities of a single generation of fermions in the Standard Model, augmented by a sterile neutrino. The model is a modification of the world-line approach to chiral fermions.
COTRUMBĂ Mirela
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents how descriptive geometry contributes to the achievement of intersections of simple objects and isometric axonometric representation of these intersections. It also highlights the role of descriptive geometry on acquiring skills in Technical Drawing, in representation of objects intersection. All illustrations in this paper are made using Microsoft Office Word Drawing Toolbar and AutoCAD software.
The fermion content of the Standard Model from a simple world-line theory
Paul Mansfield
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We describe a simple model that automatically generates the sum over gauge group representations and chiralities of a single generation of fermions in the Standard Model, augmented by a sterile neutrino. The model is a modification of the world-line approach to chiral fermions.
Simple circuit theory and the solution of two electricity problems from the Victorian Age
Tort, Alexandre C
2008-01-01
Two problems from the Victorian Age, the subdivision of light and the determination of the leakage point in an undersea telegraphic cable are discussed and suggested as a concrete illustrations of the relationships between textbook physics and the real world. Ohm's law and simple algebra are the only tools we need to discuss them in the classroom.
Viridi, Sparisoma; Srigutomo, Wahyu; Susilawati, Anggie
2013-01-01
A simple viscometer consists of mineral water bottle and trink straw is used to predict vicosity of water. A model is derived from Bernoulli's principle and Poiseulli's law. Value about 1.14 cP is obtained for observation in room temperature. About 10 minutes of observation time is needed to get the data. Help of digital camera will produce better data. Keywords: equation of continuity, Bernoulli's equation, viscosity coefficient, Poiseulli flow.
Simple descriptors for proton-conducting perovskites from density functional theory
Bork, Nicolai Christian; Bonanos, Nikolaos; Rossmeisl, Jan
2010-01-01
series of (pseudo)cubic perovskites, ABO3, have been investigated using density functional theory calculations. The structures have been optimized and thermodynamic properties and activation energies for the relevant steps of the hydrogen/proton diffusion mechanism have been calculated using...
Stoessel, J.P.; Wolynes, P.G.
1989-01-01
With analogy to the ''highly accurate'' summation of cluster diagrams for hard sphere fluids a la Carnahan-Starling, we present a simple, real space free energy density functional for arbitrary potential systems, based on the generalization of the second virial coefficient to inhomogeneous systems which, when applied to hard sphere, soft-sphere, and Lennard-Jones freezing, yield melting characteristics in remarkable agreement with experiment. Implications for the liquid-glass transition in all three potential systems are also presented. 45 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Scalar mass stability bound in a simple Yukawa-theory from renormalization group equations
Jakovác, A.; Kaposvári, I.; Patkós, A.
2017-01-01
Functional renormalization group (FRG) equations are constructed for a simple Yukawa-model with discrete chiral symmetry, including also the effect of a nonzero composite fermion background beyond the conventional scalar condensate. The evolution of the effective potential of the model, generically depending on two invariants, is explored with the help of power series expansions. Systematic investigation of the effect of a class of irrelevant operators on the lower (stability) bound allows a non-perturbative extension of the maximal cutoff value consistent with any given mass of the scalar field.
EMC and the printed circuit board design theory and layout made simple
Montrose, Mark I
1999-01-01
"This reference text shows how and why RF energy is created within a printed circuit board, and the manner in which propagation occurs. With thorough explanations, this book enables engineers to grasp both the fundamentals of EMC theory and signal integrity, along with the mitigation process needed to prevent an EMC event while maintaining optimal functionality for low- and high-technology products. Mr. Montrose also shows the relationship between time and frequency domains, helping one meet mandatory compliance requirements."--Jacket.
Rincón, Elizabeth; Pérez, Patricia; Chamorro, Eduardo
2007-11-01
The local reactivity proclivities in a series of simple substituted nitrenes (N-X) and phosphinidenes (P-X) have been explored for the lowest-lying singlet and triplet electronic states within the framework of spin-polarized density functional theory (SP-DFT). Linear correlations have been found between both the global and local philicities for spin polarization and the vertical singlet-triplet energy gaps. The accumulation and depletion of the electron or spin density can be directly related to the electronegativity of the substituent atoms. The local analysis has been achieved on the basis of a recent implementation of condensed-to-site SP-DFT Fukui functions.
A simple class of non-geometric M-theory compactification backgrounds
Shahbazi, C S
2015-01-01
We study a particular class of supersymmetric M-theory eight-dimensional non-geometric compactification backgrounds to three-dimensional Minkowski space-time, proving that the global space of the non-geometric compactification is still a differentiable manifold, although with very different geometric and topological properties with respect to the corresponding standard M-theory compactification background: it is a compact complex manifold admitting a K\\"ahler covering with deck transformations acting by holomorphic homotheties with respect to the K\\"ahler metric. We show that this class of non-geometric compactifications evade the Maldacena-Nu\\~nez no-go theorem and thus do not require $\\alpha^{\\prime}$-corrections to allow for a non-trivial warp factor or four-form flux. We obtain an explicit compactification background on a complex Hopf four-fold that solves all the equations of motion of the theory. We also show that this class of non-geometric compactification backgrounds is equipped with a holomorphic pr...
胡家文; 殷辉安; 唐明林
2000-01-01
A new easy method has been presented to calculate the variable intervals corresponding to the stable univariant curves and to discriminate the stabilities of invariant points. This method and the one reported previously constitute a simple and universal theory for the computer-plotting of the equilibriumphase diagrams of a multisystem——sign function matrix (SFM) discrimination method. Its main steps are:determining the stable univariant scheme according to the derivative (or difference) of △rGm; grouping the univariant curves by comparisons of the mutual relations among them; determining the existing intervals of the variables for the stable curves by comparisons of coordinate values of the curves about the invariant point; determining the stabilities of invariant points by comparisons of relations between the common curves and the invariant points. This method is suitable for any kind of phase diagram of closed or open systems in a phase diagram "space" with either 2 or more than 2 dimensions.
Viscous flow in simple curved gaps. I - An asymptotic theory. II - Viscous stress and shape function
Fan, D.-N.; Tong, W.
1989-01-01
The present asymptotic theory for generalized incompressible two-dimensional steady flow in curved channels has been constructed in the limit when gas thickness approaches zero with its lateral dimensions fixed; successive asymptotic solution terms are analytically generated by quadratures. In the second part of this work, the curvature of the gap treated is arbitrary. It is established that each term in the series solution of velocity and pressure is the product of a scale factor and a universal shape functions. Various interaction modes between the volume rate-of-flow, curvature, and its variations, are identified and quantitatively characterized.
A simple introduction to the mixed finite element method theory and applications
Gatica, Gabriel N
2014-01-01
The main purpose of this book is to provide a simple and accessible introduction to the mixed finite element method as a fundamental tool to numerically solve a wide class of boundary value problems arising in physics and engineering sciences. The book is based on material that was taught in corresponding undergraduate and graduate courses at the Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion, Chile, during the last 7 years. As compared with several other classical books in the subject, the main features of the present one have to do, on one hand, with an attempt of presenting and explaining most of the details in the proofs and in the different applications. In particular several results and aspects of the corresponding analysis that are usually available only in papers or proceedings are included here.
Solubilities of Solutes in Ionic Liquids from a SimplePerturbed-Hard-Sphere Theory
Qin, Yuan; Prausnitz, John M.
2005-09-20
In recent years, several publications have provided solubilities of ordinary gases and liquids in ionic liquids. This work reports an initial attempt to correlate the experimental data using a perturbed-hard-sphere theory; the perturbation is based on well-known molecular physics when the solution is considered as a dielectric continuum. For this correlation, the most important input parameters are hard-sphere diameters of the solute and of the cation and anion that constitute the ionic liquid. In addition, the correlation uses the solvent density and the solute's polarizability and dipole and quadrupole moments, if any. Dispersion-energy parameters are obtained from global correlation of solubility data. Results are given for twenty solutes in several ionic liquids at normal temperatures; in addition, some results are given for gases in two molten salts at very high temperatures. Because the theory used here is much simplified, and because experimental uncertainties (especially for gaseous solutes) are often large, the accuracy of the correlation presented here is not high; in general, predicted solubilities (Henry's constants) agree with experiment to within roughly {+-} 70%. As more reliable experimental data become available, modifications in the characterizing parameters are likely to improve accuracy. Nevertheless, even in its present form, the correlation may be useful for solvent screening in engineering design.
A simple theory of back-surface-field /BSF/ solar cells
Von Roos, O.
1979-01-01
An earlier calculation of the I-V characteristics of solar cells contains a mistake. The current generated by light within the depletion layer is too large by a factor of 2. When this mistake is corrected, not only are all previous conclusions unchanged, but the agreement with experiment becomes better. Results are presented in graphical form of new computations which not only take account of the factor of 2, but also include more recent data on material parameters.
Diffusion of particles in simple fluids: A joint theory of kinetics and hydrodynamics
Zhao, Hanqing
2016-01-01
The particle diffusion in a fluid is a classical topic that dates back to more than one century ago. However, a full solution to this issue still lacks. In this work the velocity autocorrelation function and the diffusion constant are derived analytically, and the hydrodynamics effect on the particle diffusion is analyzed in detail. Unlike previous studies, the ring-collision effect is exhaustively considered in our treatment, and the hydrodynamics approach is extended to the whole time range. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations for the hard-disk fluid show that our analytical results are valid up to the density close to the crystallization point.
Jeong, Jong-Ho; Song, Joo-Young; Jo, Hyo-Gwon; Kim, Ji-Min; Yoon, Samuel-S; Park, Chul; Kim, Seunghyun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Lee, Bong Hyo; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Hee Young
2013-01-01
To help the clinicians prescribe acupoints easily and effectively, we developed one simple flow chart to select acupoints. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of flow chart to select acupoints in dogs. Total 102 dogs showing intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) (n = 12), vomiting (n = 11), diarrhea (n = 2), abdominal pain (n = 5), cough (n = 66), or epilepsy (n = 6) received acupuncture treatment according to the chart, and its outcomes were evaluated as regards clinical symptoms, duration, treatment numbers, and recovery time. Dogs (8/8) with IVDD from grades I to III recovered over periods of 5 days to 6 weeks after 1-12 treatments, while 1/4 dogs with grade IV recovered over 7 weeks after 15 treatments. Vomiting dogs with acute/subacute (n = 8) and chronic symptoms (n = 3) required about 1 and 7 treatments to recover fully, respectively. All dogs (n = 5) with abdominal pain showed fast relief within 24 hours after acupuncture. Two diarrhea cases recovered over 2-9 days after 1-2 treatments. Fifty-four of 66 coughing dogs were recovered by 1-2 treatments. And 5 of 6 epilepsy dogs under a regular acupuncture treatment had no epileptic episode during followup of 12 months. These results suggest that this flow chart can help the clinicians prescribe acupoints effectively.
Wild kernels for higher K-theory of division and semi-simple algebras
Quo Xue Jun
2003-01-01
Let SIGMA be a semi-simple algebra over a number field F. In this paper, we prove that for all n >= 0, the wild kernel WK sub n (SIGMA):Ker(K sub n (SIGMA) -> PI sub f sub i sub n sub i sub t sub e subupsilon K sub n (SIGMA subupsilon)) is contained in the torsion part of the image of the natural homomorphism K sub n (LAMBDA) -> K sub n (SIGMA), where LAMBDA is a maximal order in SIGMA. In particular, WK sub n (SIGMA) is finite. In the process, we prove that if LAMBDA is a maximal order in a central division algebra D over F, then the kernel of the reduction map K sub 2 sub n sub - sub 1 (LAMBDA) -> suppi sup subupsilon PI sub f sub i sub n sub i sub t sub e subupsilon K sub 2 sub n sub - sub 1 (d subupsilon) is finite. In paragraph 3 we investigate the connections between WK sub n (D) and div(K sub n (D)) and prove that divK sub 2 (SIGMA) is a subset of WK sub 2 (SIGMA); if the index of D is square free, then div(K sub 2 (D)) approx = div(K sub 2 (F)), WK sub 2 (F) approx = WK sub 2 (D) and vertical bar WK s...
Simple Acupoints Prescription Flow Chart Based on Meridian Theory: A Retrospective Study in 102 Dogs
Jong-Ho Jeong
2013-01-01
Full Text Available To help the clinicians prescribe acupoints easily and effectively, we developed one simple flow chart to select acupoints. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of flow chart to select acupoints in dogs. Total 102 dogs showing intervertebral disc disease (IVDD (n=12, vomiting (n=11, diarrhea (n=2, abdominal pain (n=5, cough (n=66, or epilepsy (n=6 received acupuncture treatment according to the chart, and its outcomes were evaluated as regards clinical symptoms, duration, treatment numbers, and recovery time. Dogs (8/8 with IVDD from grades I to III recovered over periods of 5 days to 6 weeks after 1–12 treatments, while 1/4 dogs with grade IV recovered over 7 weeks after 15 treatments. Vomiting dogs with acute/subacute (n=8 and chronic symptoms (n=3 required about 1 and 7 treatments to recover fully, respectively. All dogs (n=5 with abdominal pain showed fast relief within 24 hours after acupuncture. Two diarrhea cases recovered over 2–9 days after 1-2 treatments. Fifty-four of 66 coughing dogs were recovered by 1-2 treatments. And 5 of 6 epilepsy dogs under a regular acupuncture treatment had no epileptic episode during followup of 12 months. These results suggest that this flow chart can help the clinicians prescribe acupoints effectively.
A simple exposure-time theory for all time-nonlocal transport formulations and beyond.
Ginn, T. R.; Schreyer, L. G.
2016-12-01
-differential equations, and so on. Because the exposure-time approach is both simple and localized, it provides a promising platform for launching forays into non-Markovian and/or nonlinear processes and into upscaling age-dependent multicomponent reaction systems.
D'Ovidio, Maria Concetta
2013-01-01
In this manuscript, we consider the importance of hand hygiene as the chief measure of prevention and protection in the occupational context. In particular, we remember the physician who lived in the middle of the 19th century, Ignazio Semmelweis, genius but not understood creator of the theory for infection control, based on hand hygiene. Subsequent studies have clearly demonstrated the validity of Semmelweis' research, through scientific publications and the establishment of international guidelines, such as by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is important to remember the initial work and then, sharpen this tool, resulting in the adoption of simple, but effective behavioural practices, that should be spread by several means and tools of information, education and communication, addressed at all involved, for the reduction of exposure to the occupational biological risk.
Yoshida, Tatsusada; Hayashi, Takahisa; Mashima, Akira; Chuman, Hiroshi
2015-10-01
One of the most challenging problems in computer-aided drug discovery is the accurate prediction of the binding energy between a ligand and a protein. For accurate estimation of net binding energy ΔEbind in the framework of the Hartree-Fock (HF) theory, it is necessary to estimate two additional energy terms; the dispersion interaction energy (Edisp) and the basis set superposition error (BSSE). We previously reported a simple and efficient dispersion correction, Edisp, to the Hartree-Fock theory (HF-Dtq). In the present study, an approximation procedure for estimating BSSE proposed by Kruse and Grimme, a geometrical counterpoise correction (gCP), was incorporated into HF-Dtq (HF-Dtq-gCP). The relative weights of the Edisp (Dtq) and BSSE (gCP) terms were determined to reproduce ΔEbind calculated with CCSD(T)/CBS or /aug-cc-pVTZ (HF-Dtq-gCP (scaled)). The performance of HF-Dtq-gCP (scaled) was compared with that of B3LYP-D3(BJ)-bCP (dispersion corrected B3LYP with the Boys and Bernadi counterpoise correction (bCP)), by taking ΔEbind (CCSD(T)-bCP) of small non-covalent complexes as 'a golden standard'. As a critical test, HF-Dtq-gCP (scaled)/6-31G(d) and B3LYP-D3(BJ)-bCP/6-31G(d) were applied to the complex model for HIV-1 protease and its potent inhibitor, KNI-10033. The present results demonstrate that HF-Dtq-gCP (scaled) is a useful and powerful remedy for accurately and promptly predicting ΔEbind between a ligand and a protein, albeit it is a simple correction procedure.
Tropp, James
The first-order theory of a low-pass bird-cage resonator perturbed at a single capacitor [J. Tropp, J. Magn. Reson.82, 51 (1989)] is extended by explicit calculation to cover a low-pass bird cage perturbed arbitrarily at every reactance, provided that a first-order condition is satisfied. It is shown that the effect of arbitrary perturbation, i.e., the splitting of resonances and rotation of the polarization axes, can be exactly mimicked (in first order) by a pair of capacitors spaced by an azimuth of {π}/{4}. This result may be extended by symmetry arguments to the high-pass and simple band-pass bird cage. A method of correcting symmetry (abolishing the splitting of the useful eigenstates) is then derived, which provides near-perfect correction by the application of two capacitors, typically spaced {π}/{4} on the resonator azimuth. Experimental results are given for a low-pass bird-cage; and the correction procedure is verified and demonstrated in practical detail; and it is shown that the limit of the first-order theory is that the first of the two requisite correction capacitors should be within 7 or 8% of the nominal bird-cage capacitance. Practical examples of symmetry correction outside the first-order regime are also given.
Henríquez Rivera, Rafael G.; Zhang, Xiao; Graham, Michael D.
2016-10-01
A mechanistic model, derived from kinetic theory, is developed to describe segregation in confined multicomponent suspensions such as blood. It incorporates the two key phenomena arising in these systems at low Reynolds number: hydrodynamic pair collisions and hydrodynamic migration. Two flow profiles are considered: simple shear flow (plane Couette flow) and plane Poiseuille flow. The theory begins by writing the evolution of the number density of each component in the suspension as a master equation with contributions from migration and collisions. By making judicious approximations for the collisions, this system of integrodifferential equations is reduced to a set of drift-diffusion equations. We focus attention on the case of a binary suspension with a deformable primary component that completely dominates the collision dynamics in the system and a trace component that has no effect on the primary. The model captures the phenomena of depletion layer formation and margination observed in confined multicomponent suspensions of deformable particles. The depletion layer thickness of the primary component is predicted to follow a master curve relating it in a specific way to confinement ratio and volume fraction. Results from various sources (experiments, detailed simulations, master equation solutions) with different parameters (flexibility of different components in the suspension, viscosity ratio, confinement, among others) collapse onto the same curve. For sufficiently dilute suspensions the analytical form predicted by the drift-diffusion theory for this curve is in excellent agreement with results from these other sources with only one adjustable parameter. In a binary suspension, several regimes of segregation arise, depending on the value of a "margination parameter" M . Most importantly, in both Couette and Poiseuille flows there is a critical value of M below which a sharp "drainage transition" occurs: one component is completely depleted from the bulk
Giura, Stefano; Schoen, Martin
2014-08-01
We consider the phase behavior of a simple model of a liquid crystal by means of modified mean-field density-functional theory (MMF DFT) and Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical ensemble (GCEMC). The pairwise additive interactions between liquid-crystal molecules are modeled via a Lennard-Jones potential in which the attractive contribution depends on the orientation of the molecules. We derive the form of this orientation dependence through an expansion in terms of rotational invariants. Our MMF DFT predicts two topologically different phase diagrams. At weak to intermediate coupling of the orientation dependent attraction, there is a discontinuous isotropic-nematic liquid-liquid phase transition in addition to the gas-isotropic liquid one. In the limit of strong coupling, the gas-isotropic liquid critical point is suppressed in favor of a fluid- (gas- or isotropic-) nematic phase transition which is always discontinuous. By considering three representative isotherms in parallel GCEMC simulations, we confirm the general topology of the phase diagram predicted by MMF DFT at intermediate coupling strength. From the combined MMF DFT-GCEMC approach, we conclude that the isotropic-nematic phase transition is very weakly first order, thus confirming earlier computer simulation results for the same model [see M. Greschek and M. Schoen, Phys. Rev. E 83, 011704 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.011704].
Neugebauer, Johannes; Gritsenko, Oleg; Baerends, Evert Jan
2006-06-01
The failure of the time-dependent density-functional theory to describe long-range charge-transfer (CT) excitations correctly is a serious problem for calculations of electronic transitions in large systems, especially if they are composed of several weakly interacting units. The problem is particularly severe for molecules in solution, either modeled by periodic boundary calculations with large box sizes or by cluster calculations employing extended solvent shells. In the present study we describe the implementation and assessment of a simple physically motivated correction to the exchange-correlation kernel suggested in a previous study [O. Gritsenko and E. J. Baerends J. Chem. Phys. 121, 655 (2004)]. It introduces the required divergence in the kernel when the transition density goes to zero due to a large spatial distance between the "electron" (in the virtual orbital) and the "hole" (in the occupied orbital). A major benefit arises for solvated molecules, for which many CT excitations occur from solvent to solute or vice versa. In these cases, the correction of the exchange-correlation kernel can be used to automatically "clean up" the spectrum and significantly reduce the computational effort to determine low-lying transitions of the solute. This correction uses a phenomenological parameter, which is needed to identify a CT excitation in terms of the orbital density overlap of the occupied and virtual orbitals involved. Another quantity needed in this approach is the magnitude of the correction in the asymptotic limit. Although this can, in principle, be calculated rigorously for a given CT transition, we assess a simple approximation to it that can automatically be applied to a number of low-energy CT excitations without additional computational effort. We show that the method is robust and correctly shifts long-range CT excitations, while other excitations remain unaffected. We discuss problems arising from a strong delocalization of orbitals, which leads
Neugebauer, Johannes; Gritsenko, Oleg; Baerends, Evert Jan
2006-06-07
The failure of the time-dependent density-functional theory to describe long-range charge-transfer (CT) excitations correctly is a serious problem for calculations of electronic transitions in large systems, especially if they are composed of several weakly interacting units. The problem is particularly severe for molecules in solution, either modeled by periodic boundary calculations with large box sizes or by cluster calculations employing extended solvent shells. In the present study we describe the implementation and assessment of a simple physically motivated correction to the exchange-correlation kernel suggested in a previous study [O. Gritsenko and E. J. Baerends J. Chem. Phys. 121, 655 (2004)]. It introduces the required divergence in the kernel when the transition density goes to zero due to a large spatial distance between the "electron" (in the virtual orbital) and the "hole" (in the occupied orbital). A major benefit arises for solvated molecules, for which many CT excitations occur from solvent to solute or vice versa. In these cases, the correction of the exchange-correlation kernel can be used to automatically "clean up" the spectrum and significantly reduce the computational effort to determine low-lying transitions of the solute. This correction uses a phenomenological parameter, which is needed to identify a CT excitation in terms of the orbital density overlap of the occupied and virtual orbitals involved. Another quantity needed in this approach is the magnitude of the correction in the asymptotic limit. Although this can, in principle, be calculated rigorously for a given CT transition, we assess a simple approximation to it that can automatically be applied to a number of low-energy CT excitations without additional computational effort. We show that the method is robust and correctly shifts long-range CT excitations, while other excitations remain unaffected. We discuss problems arising from a strong delocalization of orbitals, which leads
A Literature Review of Previous Research on Textual Cohesion Theory%语篇衔接理论研究综述
杜晓文; 唐文杰
2011-01-01
由Halliday和Hasan所提出的语篇衔接理论涉及指称、替代、省略、连接和词汇衔接五大范畴。自二人合著的《英语中的衔接》一书出版以来，国内外学者围绕衔接和连贯进行了不同层次的研究，从不同角度、以不同方法对语篇衔接理论进行探讨，促使其得以不断发展和完善。%The English cohesion theory proposed by Halliday and Hasan consists of five categories, i.e. reference, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction and lexical cohesion. Since the landmark publication of Cohesion in English by Halliday and Hasan, many researches have been made in the field of cohesion and coherence. Scholars home and abroad discussed and studied cohesion from different perspectives and in different approaches, which contributes to the development and maturity of cohesion theory.
Huerta Bahena, Judith; Labastida Almendaro, Sonia; Cortez Arroyo, Héctor; Calva, Angel
2003-06-01
Invasive carcinoma found after simple hysterectomy for several causes is an increasing clinical condition. That situation results in the necessity for further therapy: re-operation or radiotherapy. The purpose of this review is to analyze our results with postoperative radiotherapy for these patients. In 1998, 59 patients were submitted to postoperative radiotherapy at the Oncology Hospital, Medical Cancer Center for invasive cervical cancer found after simple hysterectomy for several causes. All patients had postoperative radiotherapy, the dose depended of the magnitude of residual disease after surgery (range 10-80 Gy). After surgery 27 patients had gross residual disease; and no residual disease or microscopic disease was present in 32 patients. Three years overall survival rate was 59% for the whole group. With the results of the univariate analysis, prognostic factors found that significantly affect disease free survival were interval between hysterectomy and radiotherapy of more than 6 months, radiotherapy dose less than 50 Grays and histology. With multivariate analysis only presence of gross residual disease affect significantly disease free survival p = 0.0000. Postoperative radiotherapy results in patients with invasor cervical cancer incidentally found in hysterectomy specimens with minimal residual disease are excellent. However with the presence of more extensive residual disease the results in disease free survival are worse than those obtained in patients with similar stages who had not been treated with hysterectomy. A well established diagnostic procedure must be done in all patients candidates to simple hysterectomy.
Bevacqua, Daniele; Génard, Michel; Lescourret, Françoise
2012-01-01
In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae) trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots.
Bevacqua, Daniele; Génard, Michel; Lescourret, Françoise
2012-01-01
In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae) trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots. PMID:23300609
Daniele Bevacqua
Full Text Available In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots.
Speakman, John R; Selman, Colin
2011-04-01
Recent work on a small European cave salamander (Proteus anguinus) has revealed that it has exceptional longevity, yet it appears to have unexceptional defences against oxidative damage. This paper comes at the end of a string of other studies that are calling into question the free-radical damage theory of ageing. This theory rose to prominence in the 1990s as the dominant theory for why we age and die. Despite substantial correlative evidence to support it, studies in the last five years have raised doubts over its importance. In particular, these include studies of mice with the major antioxidant genes knocked out (both singly and in combination), which show the expected elevation in oxidative damage but no impact on lifespan. Combined, these findings raise fundamental questions over whether the free-radical damage theory remains useful for understanding the ageing process, and variation in lifespan and life histories.
Yu, Yang-Xin
2009-07-14
A novel weighted density functional theory (WDFT) for an inhomogeneous 12-6 Lennard-Jones fluid is proposed based on the modified fundamental measure theory for repulsive contribution, the mean-field approximation for attractive contribution, and the first-order mean-spherical approximation with a weighted density for correlation contribution. Extensive comparisons of the theoretical results with molecular simulation and experimental data indicate that the new WDFT yields accurate density profiles, adsorption isotherms, fluid-solid interfacial tensions, as well as disjoining potentials and pressures of simple gases such as argon, nitrogen, methane, ethane, and neon confined in slitlike pores or near graphitic solid surfaces. The present WDFT performs better than the nonlocal density functional theory, which is frequently used in the study of adsorption on porous materials. Since the proposed theory possesses a good dimensional crossover and is able to correctly reduce to two-dimensional case, it performs very well even in very narrow pores. In addition, the present WDFT reproduces very well the supercritical fluid-solid interfacial tensions, whereas the theory of Sweatman underestimates them at high bulk densities. The present WDFT predicts that the increase in the fluid-wall attraction may change the sign of the interfacial tension and hence may make the wall from "phobic" to "philic" with respect to the fluid. The new WDFT is computationally as simple and efficient as the mean-field theory and avoids the second-order direct correlation function as an input. It provides a universal way to construct the excess Helmholtz free-energy functional for inhomogeneous fluids such as Yukawa, square-well, and Sutherland fluids.
Frenkel, D.
2000-01-01
Kubo's paper on linear-response theory provided a unified language to describe a wide variety of transport phenomena, both quantum and classical, in a suitable "microscopic" language. The paper has been crucial for subsequent developments in numerical simulation.
L.-I. Lugo-Villeda
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Biped walking is a quite complex process that has been mastered only by human beings. Transferring this skill to a robot requires implementing advanced techniques in every aspect. To this end, a computational mechatronics platform was integrated to run the scheme for the analysis, synthesis and design to achieve planar biped walking. The result is an advanced computational tool that integrates advanced modeling and control as well as path planning techniques along with hardware-in-the-loop for perhaps the simplest biped robot. An experimental underactuated three-degree-of-freedom (two active and one passive active biped robot yields encouraging results; that is, achieving biped walking with this simple device requires adding a telescopic support leg. Considering a more complete dynamic model to take into account frictional and contact forces.
Lauer, J. Wesley; Willenbring, Jane
2010-11-01
A steady state analytical model is presented for reach-scale variation in the concentration of a decaying radioactive tracer associated with sediment particles that regularly pass through an off-channel floodplain. The floodplain is represented as a series of well-mixed sediment reservoirs that continually exchange sediment with the channel. The model allows for tributary input and valley-wide aggradation or degradation. Tracer concentration depends on the upstream boundary concentration, the tracer and sediment load, floodplain geometry, and the rates of in-floodplain tracer production and/or decay. The theory predicts relatively modest down-channel change in the concentration of long-lived isotopes but implies that significant change may occur for (1) tracers with a short-enough half-life (such as 14C) or (2) floodplains with sediment residence times that are large enough for cosmogenic production or meteoric fallout to increase tracer concentration in the down-valley direction. The profiles are shown to be strongly dependent on the grain size distributions of both the sediment load and the floodplain. The results imply that down-channel 14C profiles have the potential to constrain Holocene bed material loads in systems with sufficient storage. The theory concisely describes the general importance of a floodplain for modifying in situ produced cosmogenic tracer concentration and can also characterize floodplain importance for fallout radioisotopes (i.e., 10Be, 210Pb, or 7Be) or organic 14C.
Carlson, Harry W.
1985-01-01
The purpose here is to show how two linearized theory computer programs in combination may be used for the design of low speed wing flap systems capable of high levels of aerodynamic efficiency. A fundamental premise of the study is that high levels of aerodynamic performance for flap systems can be achieved only if the flow about the wing remains predominantly attached. Based on this premise, a wing design program is used to provide idealized attached flow camber surfaces from which candidate flap systems may be derived, and, in a following step, a wing evaluation program is used to provide estimates of the aerodynamic performance of the candidate systems. Design strategies and techniques that may be employed are illustrated through a series of examples. Applicability of the numerical methods to the analysis of a representative flap system (although not a system designed by the process described here) is demonstrated in a comparison with experimental data.
North, G. R.; Short, D. A.; Mengel, J. G.
1983-01-01
An analysis is undertaken of the properties of a one-level seasonal energy balance climate model having explicit, two-dimensional land-sea geography, where land and sea surfaces are strictly distinguished by the local thermal inertia employed and transport is governed by a smooth, latitude-dependent diffusion mechanism. Solutions of the seasonal cycle for the cases of both ice feedback exclusion and inclusion yield good agreements with real data, using minimal turning of the adjustable parameters. Discontinuous icecap growth is noted for both a solar constant that is lower by a few percent and a change of orbital elements to favor cool Northern Hemisphere summers. This discontinuous sensitivity is discussed in the context of the Milankovitch theory of the ice ages, and the associated branch structure is shown to be analogous to the 'small ice cap' instability of simpler models.
Louisnard, Olivier
2013-01-01
The bubbles involved in sonochemistry and other applications of cavitation oscillate inertially. A correct estimation of the wave attenuation in such bubbly media requires a realistic estimation of the power dissipated by the oscillation of each bubble, by thermal diffusion in the gas and viscous friction in the liquid. Both quantities and calculated numerically for a single inertial bubble driven at 20 kHz, and are found to be several orders of magnitude larger than the linear prediction. Viscous dissipation is found to be the predominant cause of energy loss for bubbles small enough. Then, the classical nonlinear Caflish equations describing the propagation of acoustic waves in a bubbly liquid are recast and simplified conveniently. The main harmonic part of the sound field is found to fulfill a nonlinear Helmholtz equation, where the imaginary part of the squared wave number is directly correlated with the energy lost by a single bubble. For low acoustic driving, linear theory is recovered, but for larger ...
Yoshida, Tatsusada; Hayashi, Takahisa; Mashima, Akira; Sasahara, Katsunori; Chuman, Hiroshi
2016-01-15
Accurate prediction of the intermolecular interaction energy (ΔEbind) has been a challenging and serious problem. Current in silico drug screening demands efficient and accurate evaluation of ΔEbind for ligands and their target proteins. It is desirable that ΔEbind including the dispersion interaction energy (Edisp) is calculated using a post-Hartree-Fock (HF) theory, such as the high-order coupled-cluster one, with a larger basis set. However, it remains computationally too expensive to apply such a one to large molecular systems. As another problem, it is necessary to consider the contribution of the basis set superposition error (BSSE) in calculation of ΔEbind. In Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2014 and 2015, we proposed simple and efficient corrections of dispersion and BSSE for the HF theory, which is not able to express the dispersion interaction energy correctly. The current Letter, as the final one in the series, aims to verify the HF theory enhanced by the dispersion correction (HF-Dtq) in the light of reproducibility of 'accurate' intermolecular ligand-protein interaction energy values, with comprehensive comparison with the MP2 and recently proposed various DFT-D theories. Taking ΔEbind calculated with the coupled-cluster theory coupled with a complete basis set as a reference, ΔEbind of over a hundred small sized noncovalent complexes as well as real ligand-protein complexes models was systematically examined in terms of accuracy and computational cost. The comprehensive comparison in the current work showed that HF-Dtq is a practical and reliable approach for in silico drug screening and quantitative structure-activity relationships.
Bates, R C; Frey, D D
1998-07-24
Chromatofocusing utilizes internally generate, retained pH gradients to focus proteins into narrow chromatographic bands. One of the characteristics of current chromatofocusing methods is that they use expensive polyampholyte buffers containing large numbers of ill-defined components in order to generate linear or quasi-linear pH gradients. In addition to being costly to use, polyampholyte buffers also tend to associate with proteins and often yield irreproducible gradient shapes. In order to avoid the various difficulties associated with the use of polyampholyte buffers, this study investigates the use of mixtures of simple buffering species to generate quasi-linear pH gradients on a weak-base ion-exchange column packing. The ability of these gradients to separate protein mixtures was also investigated. To optimize the conditions used, a computer simulation method using a local equilibrium model developed that predicts the shape of the pH gradient. Several experiments were performed that demonstrate the usefulness of the method and the accuracy of the model.
... Cultural Respect Language Access Talking to Your Doctor Research Underway Plain Language Clear & Simple What is Clear & Simple? Clear & Simple ... schedule? A: Pretesting need not be an elaborate, time-consuming research project and depends on: How quickly you work, ...
Braunstein, M.; Pack, R. T.
1992-05-01
A simple model for the photodissociation absorption spectra of bent symmetric triatomic molecules to the Wulf-Chappuis band system of ozone (10,000-22,000/cm) is applied to assign the electronic states and the diffuse vibrational bands involved. The conical intersection between the two lowest 1A-double prime states is treated in an approximate way, and the role of the lowest excited triplet states is explored. The results indicate that the Wulf band is probably due to the 3A2 state of ozone which gains intensity through spin-orbit coupling. The 1 1A-double prime (1A2) state gives rise to the featureless red wing of the Chappuis band. Most of the structure in the Chappuis band is reproduced in the model and is due to the 2 1A-double prime (1B1) state as was previously supposed.
Simple shear of deformable square objects
Treagus, Susan H.; Lan, Labao
2003-12-01
Finite element models of square objects in a contrasting matrix in simple shear show that the objects deform to a variety of shapes. For a range of viscosity contrasts, we catalogue the changing shapes and orientations of objects in progressive simple shear. At moderate simple shear ( γ=1.5), the shapes are virtually indistinguishable from those in equivalent pure shear models with the same bulk strain ( RS=4), examined in a previous study. In theory, differences would be expected, especially for very stiff objects or at very large strain. In all our simple shear models, relatively competent square objects become asymmetric barrel shapes with concave shortened edges, similar to some types of boudin. Incompetent objects develop shapes surprisingly similar to mica fish described in mylonites.
Graybill, George
2007-01-01
Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s
Simple Application of the Theory of Assimilation to the Advanced Geometry Teaching%同化论在高等几何教学中的简单应用
刘建国; 张宁; 王立杰
2001-01-01
本文对认知理论在教学中的应用作了初步探讨，并简单举例%In this article the author did research on the application of the theory of cognition to the teaching and gave simple examples to prove it
Central simple Poisson algebras
SU Yucai; XU Xiaoping
2004-01-01
Poisson algebras are fundamental algebraic structures in physics and symplectic geometry. However, the structure theory of Poisson algebras has not been well developed. In this paper, we determine the structure of the central simple Poisson algebras related to locally finite derivations, over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero.The Lie algebra structures of these Poisson algebras are in general not finitely-graded.
Shumilin, Nikolay; Shumilin, Vladimir; Shumilin, Alexander
2014-10-01
In paper the simple model for the definition of interrelation between integral characteristics of Hall thrusters with an anode layer is offered. Concrete calculations were made for one of most often used Hall thrusters - TAL-WSF/D-55. While analysing the received theoretical dependences an attempt of comparison with results of an experimental research of thruster TAL-WSF/D-55 was made. With this purpose experimental dependence of specific impulse of Hall thruster TAL-WSF/D-55 on working voltage in range from 150 up to 350 V resulted in was used. It appeared, that these data contain some serious mistake and there is no reference to original works in this paper. In present report this mistake is corrected using original works. It is shown, that the offered simple model gives results close to a reality both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Patria, S Y; Takeshima, Y; Suminaga, R; Nakamura, H; Iwasaki, R; Minagawa, T; Matsuo, M
1999-09-01
According to the translational reading frame theory, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients harbor out-of-frame deletion mutations in the dystrophin gene. We identified a Japanese DMD case who appeared to have an in-frame deletion of exons 46-54 that was disclosed by Southern blot analysis using a dystrophin cDNA as a probe. Analysis of dystrophin mRNA in skeletal muscle revealed the presence of an out-of-frame deletion of exons 46-53. In agreement with this result, the region encompassing exon 54 could be amplified from genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, re-analysis by Southern blot using an exon specific probe disclosed that a HindIII fragment containing exon 54 was present at aberrant size, leading to the incorrect conclusion that exon 54 had been deleted. Thus, this particular DMD case does not constitute an exception to the reading frame theory.
No Previous Public Services Required
Taylor, Kelley R.
2009-01-01
In 2007, the Supreme Court heard a case that involved the question of whether a school district could be required to reimburse parents who unilaterally placed their child in private school when the child had not previously received special education and related services in a public institution ("Board of Education v. Tom F."). The…
Brun-Battistini, D; Sandoval-Villalbazo, A
2016-01-01
Richard C. Tolman analyzed the relation between a temperature gradient and a gravitational field in an equilibrium situation. In 2012, Tolman\\textquoteright s law was generalized to a non-equilibrium situation for a simple dilute relativistic fluid. The result in that scenario, obtained by introducing the gravitational force through the molecular acceleration, couples the heat flux with the metric coefficients and the gradients of the state variables. In the present paper it is shown, by \\textquotedblleft suppressing\\textquotedblright{} the molecular acceleration in Boltzmann\\textquoteright s equation, that a gravitational field drives a heat flux. This procedure corresponds to the description of particle motion through geodesics, in which a Newtonian limit to the Schwarzschild metric is assumed. The effect vanishes in the non-relativistic regime, as evidenced by the direct evaluation of the corresponding limit.
Levy, Mel
2016-01-01
It is observed that the exact interacting ground-state electronic energy of interest may be obtained directly, in principle, as a simple sum of orbital energies when a universal density-dependent term is added to $w\\left(\\left[ \\rho \\right];\\mathbf{r} \\right)$, the familiar Hartree plus exchange-correlation component in the Kohn-Sham effective potential. The resultant shifted potential, $\\bar{w}\\left(\\left[ \\rho \\right];\\mathbf{r} \\right)$, actually changes less on average than $w\\left(\\left[ \\rho \\right];\\mathbf{r} \\right)$ when the density changes, including the fact that $\\bar{w}\\left(\\left[ \\rho \\right];\\mathbf{r} \\right)$ does not undergo a discontinuity when the number of electrons increases through an integer. Thus the approximation of $\\bar{w}\\left(\\left[ \\rho \\right];\\mathbf{r} \\right)$ represents an alternative direct approach for the approximation of the ground-state energy and density.
Powell, B J
2015-01-01
We review theories of phosphorescence in cyclometalated complexes. We focus primarily on pseudooctahedrally coordinated $t_{2g}^6$ metals (e.g., [Os(II)(bpy)$_3$]$^{2+}$, Ir(III)(ppy)$_3$ and Ir(III)(ptz)$_3$) as, for reasons that are explored in detail, these show particularly strong phosphorescence. We discuss both first principles approaches and semi-empirical models, e.g., ligand field theory. We show that together these provide a clear understanding of the photophysics and in particular the lowest energy triplet excitation, T$_1$. In order to build a good model relativistic effects need to be included. The role of spin-orbit coupling is well-known, but scalar relativistic effects are also large - and are therefore also introduced and discussed. No expertise in special relativity or relativistic quantum mechanics is assumed and a pedagogical introduction to these subjects is given. It is shown that, once both scalar relativistic effects and spin-orbit coupling are included, time dependent density function...
浅评列斐伏尔的异化理论%Simple comment on Henri Lefebvre＇s dissimilation theory
李朋来
2012-01-01
列斐伏尔通过解释马克思的异化观点来阐述自己的异化理论，他认为异化是全面的，无所不在，并进而揭示了异化的根源就在人的本质中，与生俱来，个人无法从中得以解脱。异化的消除就是“总体的人”的确立，要造出“总体的人”就要开展总体的行动。%Henri Lefebvre related his own dissimilation theory through explaining Marx＇s dissimilation theory. He thought dissimilation was general, and repealed the root of dissimilation had been included into the mankind essence since the birth of a man and the man himself can＇t relieve from it. The relief of dissimilation was the establishment of ＂a general man＂, and at the same time a general move must be taken.
BRST theory for continuous spin
Bengtsson, Anders K. H.
2013-10-01
Some puzzling aspects of higher spin field theory in Minkowski space-time, such as the tracelessness constraints and the search for an underlying physical principle, are discussed. A connecting idea might be provided by the recently much researched continuous spin representations of the Poincaré group. The Wigner equations, treated as first class constraints, yields to a four-constraint BRST formulation. The resulting field theory, generalizing free higher spin field theory, is one among a set of higher spin theories that can be related to previous work on unconstrained formulations. In particular, it is conjectured that the unconstrained higher spin theory of Francia and Sagnotti is a limit of a continuous spin theory. Furthermore, a simple analysis of the constraint structure reveals a hint of a physical rationale behind the trace constraints.
BRST Theory for Continuous Spin
Bengtsson, Anders K H
2013-01-01
Some puzzling aspects of higher spin field theory in Minkowski space-time, such as the tracelessness constraints and the search for an underlying physical principle, are discussed. A connecting idea might be provided by the recently much researched continuous spin representations of the Poincar\\'e group. The Wigner equations, treated as first class constraints, yields to a four-constraint BRST formulation. The resulting field theory, generalizing free higher spin field theory, is one among a set of higher spin theories that can be related to previous work on unconstrained formulations. In particular, it is conjectured that the unconstrained higher spin theory of Francia and Sagnotti is a limit of a continuous spin theory. Furthermore, a simple analysis of the constraint structure reveals a hint of a physical rationale behind the trace constraints.
Simple Algebras of Invariant Operators
Xiaorong Shen; J.D.H. Smith
2001-01-01
Comtrans algebras were introduced in as algebras with two trilinear operators, a commutator [x, y, z] and a translator , which satisfy certain identities. Previously known simple comtrans algebras arise from rectangular matrices, simple Lie algebras, spaces equipped with a bilinear form having trivial radical, spaces of hermitian operators over a field with a minimum polynomial x2+1. This paper is about generalizing the hermitian case to the so-called invariant case. The main result of this paper shows that the vector space of n-dimensional invariant operators furnishes some comtrans algebra structures, which are simple provided that certain Jordan and Lie algebras are simple.
Bretonnet, J. L.; Regnaut, C.
1985-04-01
We present the results of calculations of the static structure factor S(q) of liquid Al and Ga at the melting point. These calculations were motivated because many simple liquid metals exhibit structure anomalies taking the form of a shoulder on the main peak or even an asymmetry in the peak itself, while other liquid metals are correctly predicted by the standard models of liquid structure. Al and Ga have similar valence, electronic density, and size of their ionic radius; therefore, their pair potentials are somewhat similar. Despite this, their structure factors display most of the differences that can be observed among the variety of liquid metals. Starting from the Shaw optimized model potential [Phys. Rev. 174, 769 (1968)], a pair potential is constructed. A comparative examination of the electron-gas response function of Vashishta and Singwi [Phys. Rev. B 6, 875 (1972)] and of Ichimaru and Utsumi [Phys. Rev. B 24, 7385 (1981)] is carried out. Different depletion hole distributions are also used and full nonlocality is taken into account through effective masses. So S(q) is calculated by means of the optimized random-phase approximation. Particular attention is also devoted to the low-q region. By comparison with Monte Carlo computation, we show the limitation of various thermodynamic perturbation methods, such as the random-phase approximation or the soft-sphere model. The study of S(q) provides a stringent test of the model potential, where the electron-ion pseudopotential and the local-field correction are of prime importance, but where effective masses and depletion hole distribution may also have a role to play.
Ricardo de Sousa, J. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Neto, Minos A., E-mail: minos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Padilha, Igor T.; Salmon, Octavio D.R.; Viana, J. Roberto [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil)
2013-12-15
We have studied the anisotropic three-dimensional nearest-neighbor Ising model with competitive interactions in an uniform longitudinal magnetic field H. The model consists of ferromagnetic interactions J{sub z}=λ{sub 2}J{sub x} in the x(z) direction and antiferromagnetic interactions J{sub y}=λ{sub 1}J{sub x} in the y direction (Ising superantiferromagnet). For the particular case λ{sub 1}=λ{sub 2}=1 we obtain the phase diagram in the H−T plane, using the framework of the differential operator technique in the effective-field theory with finite cluster of N=4 spins (EFT-4). It was observed first- and second-order transitions in the low and high temperature limits, respectively, with the presence of a tricritical point and a reentrant behavior is observed at low temperature. The critical curve in the classical approach is also obtained and the results are compared.
Classification of simple current invariants
Gato-Rivera, Beatriz
1992-01-01
We summarize recent work on the classification of modular invariant partition functions that can be obtained with simple currents in theories with a center (Z_p)^k with p prime. New empirical results for other centers are also presented. Our observation that the total number of invariants is monodromy-independent for (Z_p)^k appears to be true in general as well. (Talk presented in the parallel session on string theory of the Lepton-Photon/EPS Conference, Geneva, 1991.)
Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy Performed after Previous Suprapubic Prostatectomy
Tsui, Johnson F.; Feuerstein, Michael; Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad
2016-01-01
Operative management of prostate cancer in a patient who has undergone previous open suprapubic simple prostatectomy poses a unique surgical challenge. Herein, we describe a case of intermediate risk prostate cancer in a man who had undergone simple prostatectomy ten years prior to presentation. The patient was found to have Gleason 7 prostate cancer on MRI fusion biopsy of the prostate for elevated PSA and underwent an uncomplicated robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. PMID:27882057
Theory, construction and operation of simple tensiometers.
Stannard, D.I.
1986-01-01
The tensiometer presented here in detail is suited to diverse on-site applications. Constructed from readily available, inexpensive parts, it can measure as much as 0.85 bar of tension. Design features include a flushing system for removal of entrapped air or mercury, and an easily maintained modular network of nylon manometers and water-supply tubes. -from Author
Simple Perturbation Example for Quantum Chemistry.
Goodfriend, P. L.
1985-01-01
Presents a simple example that illustrates various aspects of the Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation theory. The example is a particularly good one because it is straightforward and can be compared with both the exact solution and with experimental data. (JN)
New nanocrystalline materials: a previously unknown simple cubic phase in the SnS binary system.
Rabkin, Alexander; Samuha, Shmuel; Abutbul, Ran E; Ezersky, Vladimir; Meshi, Louisa; Golan, Yuval
2015-03-11
We report a new phase in the binary SnS system, obtained as highly symmetric nanotetrahedra. Due to the nanoscale size and minute amounts of these particles in the synthesis yield, the structure was exclusively solved using electron diffraction methods. The atomic model of the new phase (a = 11.7 Å, P2(1)3) was deduced and found to be associated with the rocksalt-type structure. Kramers-Kronig analysis predicted different optical and electronic properties for the new phase, as compared to α-SnS.
Rowen, Louis H
1991-01-01
This is an abridged edition of the author's previous two-volume work, Ring Theory, which concentrates on essential material for a general ring theory course while ommitting much of the material intended for ring theory specialists. It has been praised by reviewers:**""As a textbook for graduate students, Ring Theory joins the best....The experts will find several attractive and pleasant features in Ring Theory. The most noteworthy is the inclusion, usually in supplements and appendices, of many useful constructions which are hard to locate outside of the original sources....The audience of non
Long- term effects of previous experience determine nutrient discrimination abilities in birds
Spitzer Kathrin
2008-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Foraging behaviour is an essential ecological process linking different trophic levels. A central assumption of foraging theory is that food selection maximises the fitness of the consumer. It remains unknown, however, whether animals use innate or learned behaviour to discriminate food rewards. While many studies demonstrated that previous experience is a strong determinant of complex food choices such as diet mixing, the response to simple nutritional stimuli, such as sugar concentrations, is often believed to be innate. Results Here we show that previous experience determines the ability to track changes in sugar composition in same-aged individuals of a short-lived migratory songbird, the garden warbler (Sylvia borin. Although birds received identical foods for seven months prior to the experiment, wild-caught birds achieved higher sugar intake rates than hand-raised birds when confronted with alternative, differently coloured, novel food types. Hand-raised and wild birds did not differ in their initial colour selection or overall food intake, but wild birds were quicker to adjust food choice to varying sugar intake. Conclusion Over a period of at least seven months, broader previous experience translates into a higher plasticity of food choice leading to higher nutrient intake. Our results thus highlight the need to address previous long-term experience in foraging experiments. Furthermore, they show that hand-raised animals are often poor surrogates for testing the foraging behaviour of wild animals.
Andrews, George E
1994-01-01
Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl
J J Bull
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Quasispecies are clouds of genotypes that appear in a population at mutation-selection balance. This concept has recently attracted the attention of virologists, because many RNA viruses appear to generate high levels of genetic variation that may enhance the evolution of drug resistance and immune escape. The literature on these important evolutionary processes is, however, quite challenging. Here we use simple models to link mutation-selection balance theory to the most novel property of quasispecies: the error threshold-a mutation rate below which populations equilibrate in a traditional mutation-selection balance and above which the population experiences an error catastrophe, that is, the loss of the favored genotype through frequent deleterious mutations. These models show that a single fitness landscape may contain multiple, hierarchically organized error thresholds and that an error threshold is affected by the extent of back mutation and redundancy in the genotype-to-phenotype map. Importantly, an error threshold is distinct from an extinction threshold, which is the complete loss of the population through lethal mutations. Based on this framework, we argue that the lethal mutagenesis of a viral infection by mutation-inducing drugs is not a true error catastophe, but is an extinction catastrophe.
77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification
2012-11-23
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... digital submission of all data and certifications is available via HUD's secure Internet systems. However...: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0118. Form Numbers: HUD-2530 ....
Theories, models and urban realities. From New York to Kathmandu
Román Rodríguez González
2004-12-01
Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century, there are various social theories that speak of global changes in the history of human civilization. Urban models have been through obvious changes throughout the last century according to the important transformation that are pro-posed by previous general theories. Nevertheless global diversity contradicts the generaliza-tion of these theories and models. From our own simple observations and reflections we arrive at conclusions that distance themselves from the prevailing theory of our civilized world. New York, Delhi, Salvador de Bahia, Bruges, Paris, Cartagena de Indias or Kath-mandu still have more internal differences than similarities.
Theories, models and urban realities. From New York to Kathmandu
José Somoza Medina
2004-01-01
Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century, there are various social theories that speak of globalchanges in the history of human civilization. Urban models have been through obviouschanges throughout the last century according to the important transformation that are proposedby previous general theories. Nevertheless global diversity contradicts the generalizationof these theories and models. From our own simple observations and reflections wearrive at conclusions that distance themselves from the prevailing theory of our civilizedworld. New York, Delhi, Salvador de Bahia, Bruges, Paris, Cartagena de Indias or Kathmandustill have more internal differences than similarities.
Heeger, David J
2017-02-21
Most models of sensory processing in the brain have a feedforward architecture in which each stage comprises simple linear filtering operations and nonlinearities. Models of this form have been used to explain a wide range of neurophysiological and psychophysical data, and many recent successes in artificial intelligence (with deep convolutional neural nets) are based on this architecture. However, neocortex is not a feedforward architecture. This paper proposes a first step toward an alternative computational framework in which neural activity in each brain area depends on a combination of feedforward drive (bottom-up from the previous processing stage), feedback drive (top-down context from the next stage), and prior drive (expectation). The relative contributions of feedforward drive, feedback drive, and prior drive are controlled by a handful of state parameters, which I hypothesize correspond to neuromodulators and oscillatory activity. In some states, neural responses are dominated by the feedforward drive and the theory is identical to a conventional feedforward model, thereby preserving all of the desirable features of those models. In other states, the theory is a generative model that constructs a sensory representation from an abstract representation, like memory recall. In still other states, the theory combines prior expectation with sensory input, explores different possible perceptual interpretations of ambiguous sensory inputs, and predicts forward in time. The theory, therefore, offers an empirically testable framework for understanding how the cortex accomplishes inference, exploration, and prediction.
Simple Current Actions of Cyclic Groups
Varga, Tamas
2004-01-01
Permutation actions of simple currents on the primaries of a Rational Conformal Field Theory are considered in the framework of admissible weighted permutation actions. The solution of admissibility conditions is presented for cyclic quadratic groups: an irreducible WPA corresponds to each subgroup of the quadratic group. As a consequence, the primaries of a RCFT with an order n integral or half-integral spin simple current may be arranged into multiplets of length k^2 (where k is a divisor o...
Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia; Loffler syndrome; Eosinophilic pneumonia; Pneumonia - eosinophilic ... A rare complication of simple pulmonary eosinophilia is a severe type of pneumonia called acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia.
Nonstandard Methods in Measure Theory
Grigore Ciurea
2014-01-01
to the study of the extension of vector measures. Applications of our results lead to simple new proofs for theorems of classical measure theory. The novelty lies in the use of the principle of extension by continuity (for which we give a nonstandard proof to obtain in an unified way some notable theorems which have been obtained by Fox, Brooks, Ohba, Diestel, and others. The methods of proof are quite different from those used by previous authors, and most of them are realized by means of nonstandard analysis.
Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.
2010-01-01
Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…
Herald, Christine
2010-01-01
During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…
Simple Current Actions of Cyclic Groups
Varga, T
2004-01-01
Permutation actions of simple currents on the primaries of a Rational Conformal Field Theory are considered in the framework of admissible weighted permutation actions. The solution of admissibility conditions is presented for cyclic quadratic groups: an irreducible WPA corresponds to each subgroup of the quadratic group. As a consequence, the primaries of a RCFT with an order n integral or half-integral spin simple current may be arranged into multiplets of length k^2 (where k is a divisor of n) or 3k^2 if the spin of the simple current is half-integral and k is odd.
Simple Indolizidine and Quinolizidine Alkaloids.
Michael, Joseph P
2016-01-01
This review of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids (i.e., those in which the parent bicyclic systems are in general not embedded in polycyclic arrays) is an update of the previous coverage in Volume 55 of this series (2001). The present survey covers the literature from mid-1999 to the end of 2013; and in addition to aspects of the isolation, characterization, and biological activity of the alkaloids, much emphasis is placed on their total synthesis. A brief introduction to the topic is followed by an overview of relevant alkaloids from fungal and microbial sources, among them slaframine, cyclizidine, Steptomyces metabolites, and the pantocins. The important iminosugar alkaloids lentiginosine, steviamine, swainsonine, castanospermine, and related hydroxyindolizidines are dealt with in the subsequent section. The fourth and fifth sections cover metabolites from terrestrial plants. Pertinent plant alkaloids bearing alkyl, functionalized alkyl or alkenyl substituents include dendroprimine, anibamine, simple alkaloids belonging to the genera Prosopis, Elaeocarpus, Lycopodium, and Poranthera, and bicyclic alkaloids of the lupin family. Plant alkaloids bearing aryl or heteroaryl substituents include ipalbidine and analogs, secophenanthroindolizidine and secophenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids (among them septicine, julandine, and analogs), ficuseptine, lasubines, and other simple quinolizidines of the Lythraceae, the simple furyl-substituted Nuphar alkaloids, and a mixed quinolizidine-quinazoline alkaloid. The penultimate section of the review deals with the sizable group of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids isolated from, or detected in, ants, mites, and terrestrial amphibians, and includes an overview of the "dietary hypothesis" for the origin of the amphibian metabolites. The final section surveys relevant alkaloids from marine sources, and includes clathryimines and analogs, stellettamides, the clavepictines and pictamine, and bis
Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death
Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.
2013-01-01
Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to
张君; 邵素菊; 高希言
2013-01-01
目的:探讨针灸补脾泻胃法治疗单纯性肥胖症的理论依据.方法:从引起单纯性肥胖症的病因病机、脾胃的生理病理特点、中医对单纯肥胖的认识等方面来阐述针灸补脾泻胃法治疗单纯性肥胖症的理论依据.结果:补脾泻胃法治疗单纯性肥胖是通过不同的补泻方法来刺激特定的经络腧穴,以平衡阴阳、调理脏腑、运行气血、疏通经络,从而达到减肥、降脂的目的.结论:针灸治疗单纯性肥胖症可以采用补脾泻胃法.%Objective:To explore the theoretical basis for acupuncture invigorating the spleen stomach purging method for treatment of simple obesity. Methods:Theoretical basis of spleen stomach purging method of acupuncture for the treatment of simple obesity were explained from the aspects of the etiology and pathology caused by obesity, physiological and pathological characteristics of spleen and stomach, and Chinese medicine for the understanding of simple obesity. Results:The spleen and stomach purging method in the treatment of simple obesity, to stimulate the main and collateral channels acupoint specific by reinforcing and reducing method of different, with the balance of yin and yang, regulating zangfu,run blood,dredge main and collateral channel,so as to achieve weight loss purposes , lipid-lowering. Conclusion: Spleen stomach purging method of acupuncture for treatment of simple obesity.
... Information Kidney Disease Simple Kidney Cysts Related Topics Section Navigation Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Amyloidosis & ... for a Child with Kidney Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Failure Choosing a ...
Schnack, Dalton D.
In this lecture we will examine some simple examples of MHD equilibrium configurations. These will all be in cylindrical geometry. They form the basis for more complicated equilibrium states in toroidal geometry.
A simple method for complex eigenvalues
Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon, CNRS, UMR 6091, 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon, CNRS, UMR 6091, 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)
2004-11-05
A simple iterative method is described for finding the eigenvalues of a general square complex matrix. Several numerical examples involving complex symmetric matrices are treated. In particular, it is found that a naive matrix calculation without complex rotation produces resonant state energies in accord with those given by the recently introduced naive complex hypervirial perturbation theory. (letter to the editor)
From Complex to Simple: Interdisciplinary Stochastic Models
Mazilu, D. A.; Zamora, G.; Mazilu, I.
2012-01-01
We present two simple, one-dimensional, stochastic models that lead to a qualitative understanding of very complex systems from biology, nanoscience and social sciences. The first model explains the complicated dynamics of microtubules, stochastic cellular highways. Using the theory of random walks in one dimension, we find analytical expressions…
2011-10-01
Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.
Generalized Møller-Plesset Partitioning in Multiconfiguration Perturbation Theory.
Kobayashi, Masato; Szabados, Ágnes; Nakai, Hiromi; Surján, Péter R
2010-07-13
Two perturbation (PT) theories are developed starting from a multiconfiguration (MC) zero-order function. To span the configuration space, the theories employ biorthogonal vector sets introduced in the MCPT framework. At odds with previous formulations, the present construction operates with the full Fockian corresponding to a principal determinant, giving rise to a nondiagonal matrix of the zero-order resolvent. The theories provide a simple, generalized Møller-Plesset (MP) second-order correction to improve any reference function, corresponding either to a complete or incomplete model space. Computational demand of the procedure is determined by the iterative inversion of the Fockian, similarly to the single reference MP theory calculated in a localized basis. Relation of the theory to existing multireference (MR) PT formalisms is discussed. The performance of the present theories is assessed by adopting the antisymmetric product of strongly orthogonal geminal (APSG) wave functions as the reference function.
Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section
Akylbek Tussupkaliyev; Andrey Gayday; Bibigul Karimsakova; Saule Bermagambetova; Lunara Uteniyazova; Guldana Iztleuova; Gulkhanym Kusherbayeva; Meruyert Konakbayeva; Assylzada Merekeyeva; Zamira Imangaliyeva
2016-01-01
Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administra...
Vocabulary of CPH Theory and Modern Physics
Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed
2016-01-01
Wherefore CPH theory was presented? There are various theories in physics, but nature is unique. This is not nature's problem that we have various theories; nature obeys simple and unique law. So, we should improve our understanding of physical phenomena and unify theories. There is a compare bri...... of CPH Theory (Creative Particles of Higgs Theory) and modern physics in this vocabulary....
Vocabulary of CPH Theory and Modern Physics
Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed
2016-01-01
Wherefore CPH theory was presented? There are various theories in physics, but nature is unique. This is not nature's problem that we have various theories; nature obeys simple and unique law. So, we should improve our understanding of physical phenomena and unify theories. There is a compare brief...... of CPH Theory (Creative Particles of Higgs Theory) and modern physics in this vocabulary....
Nel, Louis
2016-01-01
This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...
Vocabulary of CPH Theory and Modern Physics
Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed
2016-01-01
Wherefore CPH theory was presented? There are various theories in physics, but nature is unique. This is not nature's problem that we have various theories; nature obeys simple and unique law. So, we should improve our understanding of physical phenomena and unify theories. There is a compare bri...... of CPH Theory (Creative Particles of Higgs Theory) and modern physics in this vocabulary.......Wherefore CPH theory was presented? There are various theories in physics, but nature is unique. This is not nature's problem that we have various theories; nature obeys simple and unique law. So, we should improve our understanding of physical phenomena and unify theories. There is a compare brief...
Cataract surgery in previously vitrectomized eyes.
Akinci, A; Batman, C; Zilelioglu, O
2008-05-01
To evaluate the results of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and phacoemulsification (PHACO) performed in previously vitrectomized eyes. In this retrospective study, 56 vitrectomized eyes that had ECCE and 60 vitrectomized eyes that had PHACO were included in the study group while 65 eyes that had PHACO in the control group. The evaluated parameters were the incidence of intra-operative and postoperative complications (IPC) and visual outcomes. Chi-squared, independent samples and paired samples tests were used for comparing the results. Deep anterior chamber (AC) was significantly more common in the PHACO group of vitrectomized eyes (PGVE) and observed in eyes that had undergone extensive vitreous removal (p ECCE group and the PGVE (p > 0.05). Some of the intra-operative conditions such as posterior synechiae, primary posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and postoperative complications such as retinal detachment (RD), PCO were significantly more common in vitrectomized eyes than the controls (p ECCE group and the PGVE (p > 0.05). Deep AC is more common in eyes with extensive vitreous removal during PHACO than ECCE. Decreasing the bottle height is advised in this case. Except for this, the results of ECCE and PHACO are similar in previously vitrectomized eyes. Posterior synechiaes, primary and postoperative PCO and RD are more common in vitrectomized eyes than the controls.
Winter, Rick
2013-01-01
Simple Guides give you Just the Facts Get up to speed with Skypefast! Simple Guides: get you started quickly. No extra clutter, no extra reading. Learn how to set up Skype, as well as how to add and set up all your friends, family, and other contacts. Find out about all the features of Skype, how to change views, set your status and conduct video and audio only calls. Learn about all the different things you can do to contact your friends and family on Skype for free, and start having fun!
Mazo, Gary
2011-01-01
If you have a Droid series smartphone - Droid, Droid X, Droid 2, or Droid 2 Global - and are eager to get the most out of your device, Droids Made Simple is perfect for you. Authors Martin Trautschold, Gary Mazo and Marziah Karch guide you through all of the features, tips, and tricks using their proven combination of clear instructions and detailed visuals. With hundreds of annotated screenshots and step-by-step directions, Droids Made Simple will transform you into a Droid expert, improving your productivity, and most importantly, helping you take advantage of all of the cool features that c
Katz, Abbott
2011-01-01
Get the most out of Excel 2010 with Excel 2010 Made Simple - learn the key features, understand what's new, and utilize dozens of time-saving tips and tricks to get your job done. Over 500 screen visuals and clear-cut instructions guide you through the features of Excel 2010, from formulas and charts to navigating around a worksheet and understanding Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and macros. Excel 2010 Made Simple takes a practical and highly effective approach to using Excel 2010, showing you the best way to complete your most common spreadsheet tasks. You'll learn how to input, format,
Alejandro Morales-Bayuelo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Molecular Quantum Similarity (MQS descriptors and Density Functional Theory (DFT based reactivity descriptors were studied for a series of 4-Acetylamino-2-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl-6-pyridylpyrimidines compounds used for Parkinson’s disease (PD treatment. The quantification of the steric and electronic effects was shown through scales of quantitative convergence; such scales allow us to establish a methodology to quantify the similarity from the local chemical reactivity (Fukui Functions point of view. This procedure provides new considerations in the local reactivity of the A2A Adenosine receptor antagonists in a disease of difficult control as PD. In addition, we present new considerations to the localized bonding theory and show a new methodology for quantum similarity on the Fukui Functions. Considering that the Fukui functions under a condensation scheme may have ambiguities in the (DFT context.
Simple Analytic Formula for the Stark Recurrence Spectrum
Flores-Rueda, Heric; Jensen, R. V.; Wright, J. D.; Morgan, T. J.
2001-05-01
Characterization of the structure of the recurrence spectrum in a strong electric field has attracted recent experimental and theoretical attention [1, 2]. Theoretical approaches have included a purely quantum mechanical explanation based on the regularities in the Stark photoabsorption spectrum, a semiquantal approach focusing on quantized energy levels and semiclassical ideas using closed orbit theory. In the present work we have used the results of our previous study [2] to find simple analytic formula that can be used to obtain the structure of the Stark recurrence spectrum. Both peak locations and amplitudes for Stark recurrences are found to be in good agreement when compared with experimental data for Rydberg Helium m = 1 states. Work supported by the National Science Foundation. [1] V. Kondratovich and J. Delos, Phys. Rev. A 57, 4604 (1998) [2] R. V. Jensen, H. Flores-Rueda, J. D. Wright, M. L. Keeler and T. J. Morgan, Phys. Rev. A 62, 53410 (2000)
Books average previous decade of economic misery.
R Alexander Bentley
Full Text Available For the 20(th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.
Obinutuzumab for previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Abraham, Jame; Stegner, Mark
2014-04-01
Obinutuzumab was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in late 2013 for use in combination with chlorambucil for the treatment of patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The approval was based on results of an open-label phase 3 trial that showed improved progression-free survival (PFS) with the combination of obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil compared with chlorambucil alone. Obinutuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets CD20 antigen expressed on the surface of pre B- and mature B-lymphocytes. After binding to CD20, obinutuzumab mediates B-cell lysis by engaging immune effector cells, directly activating intracellular death signaling pathways, and activating the complement cascade. Immune effector cell activities include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis.
Can previous learning alter future plasticity mechanisms?
Crestani, Ana Paula; Quillfeldt, Jorge Alberto
2016-02-01
The dynamic processes related to mnemonic plasticity have been extensively researched in the last decades. More recently, studies have attracted attention because they show an unusual plasticity mechanism that is independent of the receptor most usually related to first-time learning--that is, memory acquisition-the NMDA receptor. An interesting feature of this type of learning is that a previous experience may cause modifications in the plasticity mechanism of a subsequent learning, suggesting that prior experience in a very similar task triggers a memory acquisition process that does not depend on NMDARs. The intracellular molecular cascades necessary to assist the learning process seem to depend on the activation of hippocampal CP-AMPARs. Moreover, most of these studies were performed on hippocampus-dependent tasks, even though other brain areas, such as the basolateral amygdala, also display NMDAR-independent learning.
Books average previous decade of economic misery.
Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
2014-01-01
For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.
Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section
Akylbek Tussupkaliyev
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.
Eggen, Per-Odd
2009-01-01
This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…
Simple cryogenic infrared window
Hartemink, M.; Hartemink, M.; Godfried, H.P; Godfried, Herman
1991-01-01
A simple, cheap technique is reported that allows materials with both large and small thermal expansion coefficients to be mounted as windows in low temperature cryostats while at the same time avoiding thermal stresses. The construction may be thermally cycled many times with no change in its
Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively.
Lambert, Frank L.
2002-01-01
Suggests that qualitatively, entropy is simple. Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. (MM)
Beyond Simple Headquarters Configurations
Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher
-divisional importance and embeddedness effects are contingent on the overall complexity of the innovation project as signified by the size of the development network. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures and that we need to go beyond simple...
Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet
2015-01-01
This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…
Fernandes, A C; Morlat, T; Felizardo, M; Collar, J I; Puibasset, J; Waysand, G; Miley, H S; Ramos, A R; Girard, T A; Giuliani, F; Limagne, D; Marques, J G; Martins, R C; Oliveira, C
2006-01-01
We describe the fabrication and characterisation of the SIMPLE superheated droplet detector, a 10 g active mass device of C(2)ClF(5) in 1-3% weight concentrations currently employed in a direct search for spin-dependent astroparticle dark matter candidates.
Eggen, Per-Odd
2009-01-01
This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…
Bhattacharjee, Somendra M; Giacometti, Achille; Maritan, Amos
2013-12-18
We review various simple analytical theories for homopolymers within a unified framework. The common guideline of our approach is the Flory theory, and its various avatars, with the attempt at being reasonably self-contained. We expect this review to be useful as an introduction to the topic at the graduate student level.
Previous gastric bypass surgery complicating total thyroidectomy.
Alfonso, Bianca; Jacobson, Adam S; Alon, Eran E; Via, Michael A
2015-03-01
Hypocalcemia is a well-known complication of total thyroidectomy. Patients who have previously undergone gastric bypass surgery may be at increased risk of hypocalcemia due to gastrointestinal malabsorption, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and an underlying vitamin D deficiency. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent a total thyroidectomy for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Her history included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Following the thyroid surgery, she developed postoperative hypocalcemia that required large doses of oral calcium carbonate (7.5 g/day), oral calcitriol (up to 4 μg/day), intravenous calcium gluconate (2.0 g/day), calcium citrate (2.0 g/day), and ergocalciferol (50,000 IU/day). Her serum calcium levels remained normal on this regimen after hospital discharge despite persistent hypoparathyroidism. Bariatric surgery patients who undergo thyroid surgery require aggressive supplementation to maintain normal serum calcium levels. Preoperative supplementation with calcium and vitamin D is strongly recommended.
Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.
Weiss, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk
2011-02-15
Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.
Surgery of intracranial aneurysms previously treated endovascularly.
Tirakotai, Wuttipong; Sure, Ulrich; Yin, Yuhua; Benes, Ludwig; Schulte, Dirk Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Bertalanffy, Helmut
2007-11-01
To perform a retrospective study on the patients who underwent aneurysmal surgery following endovascular treatment. We performed a retrospective study on eight patients who underwent aneurysmal surgery following endovascular treatment (-attempts) with gugliemi detachable coils (GDCs). The indications for surgery, surgical techniques and clinical outcomes were analyzed. The indications for surgical treatment after GDC coiling of aneurysm were classified into three groups. First group: surgery of incompletely coiled aneurysms (n=4). Second group: surgery of mass effect on the neural structures due to coil compaction or rebleeding (n=2). Third group: surgery of vascular complications after endovascular procedure due to parent artery occlusion or thrombus propagation from aneurysm (n=2). Aneurysm obliterations could be performed in all cases confirmed by postoperative angiography. Six patients had an excellent outcome and returned to their profession. Patient's visual acuity was improved. One individual experienced right hemiparesis (grade IV/V) and hemihypesthesia. Microsurgical clipping is rarely necessary for previously coiled aneurysms. Surgical treatment is uncommonly required when an acute complication arises during endovascular treatment, or when there is a dynamic change of a residual aneurysm configuration over time that is considered to be insecure.
[Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].
Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa
2014-01-01
Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.
Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.
Michael Weiss
Full Text Available Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae, which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.
A previously undescribed pathway for pyrimidine catabolism.
Loh, Kevin D; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Markenscoff Papadimitriou, Eirene; Fong, Rebecca; Kim, Kwang-Seo; Parales, Rebecca; Zhou, Zhongrui; Inwood, William; Kustu, Sydney
2006-03-28
The b1012 operon of Escherichia coli K-12, which is composed of seven unidentified ORFs, is one of the most highly expressed operons under control of nitrogen regulatory protein C. Examination of strains with lesions in this operon on Biolog Phenotype MicroArray (PM3) plates and subsequent growth tests indicated that they failed to use uridine or uracil as the sole nitrogen source and that the parental strain could use them at room temperature but not at 37 degrees C. A strain carrying an ntrB(Con) mutation, which elevates transcription of genes under nitrogen regulatory protein C control, could also grow on thymidine as the sole nitrogen source, whereas strains with lesions in the b1012 operon could not. Growth-yield experiments indicated that both nitrogens of uridine and thymidine were available. Studies with [(14)C]uridine indicated that a three-carbon waste product from the pyrimidine ring was excreted. After trimethylsilylation and gas chromatography, the waste product was identified by mass spectrometry as 3-hydroxypropionic acid. In agreement with this finding, 2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionic acid was released from thymidine. Both the number of available nitrogens and the waste products distinguished the pathway encoded by the b1012 operon from pyrimidine catabolic pathways described previously. We propose that the genes of this operon be named rutA-G for pyrimidine utilization. The product of the divergently transcribed gene, b1013, is a tetracycline repressor family regulator that controls transcription of the b1012 operon negatively.
Watanabe, Shin
2004-01-01
1. Introduction This article is about Japanese question. It serves to complement a theory that I developed elsewhere (Watanabe (2002)). I review the previous research in section 2 as a starting point. ...
Fomin, Eduard
2016-09-01
The problem of the reconstruction of the order of sequence elements in de novo sequencing of linear and cyclic peptides is reduced to the known turnpike and beltway problems, the latter of which having no polynomial time algorithm in the general case. A new simple approach is proposed to solve both problems. It is based on sequential removal of redundancy from the inputs. For the error-free inputs that simulate mass spectra with accuracy to [Formula: see text] Da, the size of inputs decreases from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]. In this way, exhaustive search can be almost completely removed from the algorithms, and the number of steps to reconstruct a sequence is in direct ratio to the input size, [Formula: see text].
Kautz, Karlheinz
2012-01-01
can be achieved by utilizing the theory? We introduce key CAS concepts and describe an emergent method framework for understanding ISD. Extending existing research, our main contribution is twofold: We first show how CAS and CAS principles are advantageous for comprehending and organizing ISD...... in general, beyond any particular development approach chosen for the execution of a project such as agile development. Thereby, we contribute to a complexity theory of ISD. Second, we back up our argument with a coherent empirical account of contemporary ISD, and thus contribute with practical advice...
Simple model of photo acoustic system for greenhouse effect
Fukuhara, Akiko; Ogawa, Naohisa
2010-01-01
The simple theoretical basis for photo acoustic (PA) system for studying infrared absorption properties of greenhouse gases is constructed. The amplitude of sound observed in PA depends on the modulation frequency of light pulse. Its dependence can be explained by our simple model. According to this model, sound signal has higher harmonics. The theory and experiment are compared in third and fifth harmonics by spectrum analysis. The theory has the analogy with electric circuits. This analogy helps students for understanding the PA system.
Scarring for Quantum Maps with Simple Spectrum
Kelmer, Dubi
2008-01-01
We previously introduced a family of symplectic maps of the torus whose quantization exhibits scarring on invariant co-isotropic submanifolds. The purpose of this note is to show that in contrast to other examples, where failure of Quantum Unique Ergodicity is attributed to high multiplicities in the spectrum, for these examples the spectrum is (generically) simple.
Simple Waveforms, Simply Described
Baker, John G.
2008-01-01
Since the first Lazarus Project calculations, it has been frequently noted that binary black hole merger waveforms are 'simple.' In this talk we examine some of the simple features of coalescence and merger waveforms from a variety of binary configurations. We suggest an interpretation of the waveforms in terms of an implicit rotating source. This allows a coherent description, of both the inspiral waveforms, derivable from post-Newtonian(PN) calculations, and the numerically determined merger-ringdown. We focus particularly on similarities in the features of various Multipolar waveform components Generated by various systems. The late-time phase evolution of most L these waveform components are accurately described with a sinple analytic fit. We also discuss apparent relationships among phase and amplitude evolution. Taken together with PN information, the features we describe can provide an approximate analytic description full coalescence wavefoRms. complementary to other analytic waveforns approaches.
Information technology made simple
Carter, Roger
1991-01-01
Information Technology: Made Simple covers the full range of information technology topics, including more traditional subjects such as programming languages, data processing, and systems analysis. The book discusses information revolution, including topics about microchips, information processing operations, analog and digital systems, information processing system, and systems analysis. The text also describes computers, computer hardware, microprocessors, and microcomputers. The peripheral devices connected to the central processing unit; the main types of system software; application soft
Simple Finite Jordan Pseudoalgebras
Pavel Kolesnikov
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the structure of Jordan H-pseudoalgebras which are linearly finitely generated over a Hopf algebra H. There are two cases under consideration: H = U(h and H = U(h # C[Γ], where h is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over C, Γ is an arbitrary group acting on U(h by automorphisms. We construct an analogue of the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction for finite Jordan pseudoalgebras and describe all simple ones.
Simple Finite Jordan Pseudoalgebras
Kolesnikov, Pavel
2009-01-01
We consider the structure of Jordan H-pseudoalgebras which are linearly finitely generated over a Hopf algebra H. There are two cases under consideration: H = U(h) and H = U(h) # C[Γ], where h is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over C, Γ is an arbitrary group acting on U(h) by automorphisms. We construct an analogue of the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction for finite Jordan pseudoalgebras and describe all simple ones.
Modern mathematics made simple
Murphy, Patrick
1982-01-01
Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional
Gauge Theories of Vector Particles
Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.
1961-04-24
The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.
Precision physics of simple atomic systems
Smirnov, Valery
2003-01-01
Precision physics of simple atoms is a multidisciplinary area, involving atomic, laser, nuclear and particle physics and also metrology. This book will thus be of interest to a broad community of physicists and metrologists. Furthermore, since hydrogen (and other hydrogen-like atoms) is a model system for applying quantum theory, the book contains valuable material for students. The chapters provide in-depth reviews covering precision measurements, accurate calculations, fundamental constants, frequency standards, and tests of fundamental theory. The latest progress in each of these areas is also described for the specialist. The topics selected for this book are largely complementary to those of the earlier related volume, LNP 570.
Ingebrigtsen, Trond S.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2012-01-01
different ways: (1) chemically by the fact that the liquid’s properties are fully determined by interactions from the molecules within the FCS, (2) physically by the fact that there are isomorphs in the phase diagram, i.e., curves along which several properties like excess entropy, structure, and dynamics, are invariant in reduced units, and (3) mathematically by the fact that throughout the phase diagram the reduced-coordinate constant-potential-energy hypersurfaces define a one-parameter family of compact Riemannian manifolds. No proof is given that the chemical characterization follows from the strong correlation property, but we show that this FCS characterization is consistent with the existence of isomorphs in strongly correlating liquids’ phase diagram. Finally, we note that the FCS characterization of simple liquids calls into question the physical basis of standard perturbation theory, according to which the repulsive and attractive forces play fundamentally different roles for the physics of liquids.
Theory of time-resolved inelastic x-ray diffraction
Lorenz, Ulf; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm
2010-01-01
Starting from a general theory of time-resolved x-ray scattering, we derive a convenient expression for the diffraction signal based on a careful analysis of the relevant inelastic scattering processes. We demonstrate that the resulting inelastic limit applies to a wider variety of experimental...... conditions than similar, previously derived formulas, and it directly allows the application of selection rules when interpreting diffraction signals. Furthermore, we present a simple extension to systems simultaneously illuminated by x rays and a laser beam....
A Simple Analytic Solution for Tachyon Condensation
Erler, Theodore
2009-01-01
In this paper we present a new and simple analytic solution for tachyon condensation in open bosonic string field theory. Unlike the B_0 gauge solution, which requires a carefully regulated discrete sum of wedge states subtracted against a mysterious "phantom" counter term, this new solution involves a continuous integral of wedge states, and no regularization or phantom term is necessary. Moreover, we can evaluate the action and prove Sen's conjecture in a mere few lines of calculation.
Maximal temperature in a simple thermodynamical system
Dai, De-Chang
2016-01-01
Temperature in a simple thermodynamical system is not limited from above. It is also widely believed that it does not make sense talking about temperatures higher than the Planck temperature in the absence of the full theory of quantum gravity. Here, we demonstrate that there exist a maximal achievable temperature in a system where particles obey the laws of quantum mechanics and classical gravity before we reach the realm of quantum gravity. Namely, if two particles with a given center of mass energy come at the distance shorter than the Schwarzschild diameter apart, according to classical gravity they will form a black hole. It is possible to calculate that a simple thermodynamical system will be dominated by black holes at a critical temperature which is about three times lower than the Planck temperature. That represents the maximal achievable temperature in a simple thermodynamical system.
Rosendahl, Mads
2002-01-01
-like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data......Driving was introduced as a program transformation technique by Valentin Turchin in some papers around 1980. It was intended for the programming language REFAL and used in metasystem transitions based on super compilation. In this paper we present one version of driving for a more conventional lisp...
Applied mathematics made simple
Murphy, Patrick
1982-01-01
Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte
Wooldridge, Susan
2013-01-01
Data Processing: Made Simple, Second Edition presents discussions of a number of trends and developments in the world of commercial data processing. The book covers the rapid growth of micro- and mini-computers for both home and office use; word processing and the 'automated office'; the advent of distributed data processing; and the continued growth of database-oriented systems. The text also discusses modern digital computers; fundamental computer concepts; information and data processing requirements of commercial organizations; and the historical perspective of the computer industry. The
Simple Autonomous Chaotic Circuits
Piper, Jessica; Sprott, J.
2010-03-01
Over the last several decades, numerous electronic circuits exhibiting chaos have been proposed. Non-autonomous circuits with as few as two components have been developed. However, the operation of such circuits relies on the non-ideal behavior of the devices used, and therefore the circuit equations can be quite complex. In this paper, we present two simple autonomous chaotic circuits using only opamps and linear passive components. The circuits each use one opamp as a comparator, to provide a signum nonlinearity. The chaotic behavior is robust, and independent of nonlinearities in the passive components. Moreover, the circuit equations are among the algebraically simplest chaotic systems yet constructed.
Deane, Sharon
2003-01-01
ASP Made Simple provides a brief introduction to ASP for the person who favours self teaching and/or does not have expensive computing facilities to learn on. The book will demonstrate how the principles of ASP can be learned with an ordinary PC running Personal Web Server, MS Access and a general text editor like Notepad.After working through the material readers should be able to:* Write ASP scripts that can display changing information on a web browser* Request records from a remote database or add records to it* Check user names & passwords and take this knowledge forward, either for their
Simple piezoelectric translation device
Niedermann, Ph.; Emch, R.; Descouts, P.
1988-02-01
We describe a piezoelectric device which allows continuous movement and high-resolution micropositioning, without distance limitation. Both mechanical construction and the electronics for the device are very simple. The movement is obtained via a stick-slip mechanism, and steps as small as 10 nm are obtained. A displacement speed of 0.4 mm/s has been attained, and the device was capable of carrying several times its own weight, exerting a horizontal force, or climbing a plane inclined by 7°. Due to its compact construction, the device shows prospects for miniaturization.
Olsen, George H
1987-01-01
Electronics: Made Simple covers the fundamental principles, basic devices, characteristics, and application of electronic equipment.This book is divided into 15 chapters and begins with reviews of the properties and behavior of resistors, capacitors, inductors, and semiconductor devices. Considerable chapters deal with how these devices can be assembled into useful fundamental circuits such as amplifiers, oscillators and power supplies. These topics are followed by discussions of the importance of integrated circuits and the use of digital equipment and photocells in control and computing appa
Dimensional analysis made simple
Lira, Ignacio
2013-11-01
An inductive strategy is proposed for teaching dimensional analysis to second- or third-year students of physics, chemistry, or engineering. In this strategy, Buckingham's theorem is seen as a consequence and not as the starting point. In order to concentrate on the basics, the mathematics is kept as elementary as possible. Simple examples are suggested for classroom demonstrations of the power of the technique and others are put forward for homework or experimentation, but instructors are encouraged to produce examples of their own.
Bento, M C; Santos, N M C
2008-01-01
A simple model of quintessential inflation with the modified exponential potential $e^{-\\alpha \\phi} [A+(\\phi-\\phi_0)^2]$ is analyzed in the braneworld context. Considering reheating via instant preheating, we conclude that the model exhibits transient acceleration at late times for $0.96 \\lesssim A \\alpha^2 \\lesssim 1.26$ and $271 \\lesssim \\phi_0 \\alpha \\lesssim 273$, while permanent acceleration is obtained for $2.3\\times10^{-8} \\lesssim A \\alpha^2 \\lesssim 0.98$ and $255 \\lesssim \\phi_0 \\alpha \\lesssim 273$. The steep parameter $\\alpha$ is constrained to be in the range $5.3 \\lesssim \\alpha \\lesssim 10.8$.
Theoretical approaches to the glass transition in simple liquids
Chandan Dasgupta
2005-05-01
Theoretical approaches to the development of an understanding of the behaviour of simple supercooled liquids near the structural glass transition are reviewed and our work on this problem, based on the density functional theory of freezing and replicated liquid state theory, are summarized in this context. A few directions for further work on this problem are suggested.
Ling, Gilbert N; Ochsenfeld, Margaret M
2008-01-01
In 1889 Abderhalden reported his discovery that there is no (or as shown later, little) sodium ion (Na+) in human red blood cells even though these cells live in a medium rich in Na+. History shows that all major theories of the living cell are built around this basic phenomenon seen in all the living cells that have been carefully examined. One of these theories has been steadily evolving but is yet-to-be widely known. Named the association-induction hypothesis (AIH), it has been presented thus far in four books dated 1962, 1984, 1992 and 2001 respectively. In this theory, the low Na+ in living cells originates from (i) an above-normal molecule-to-molecule interaction among the bulk-phase cell water molecules, in consequence of (ii) their (self-propagating) polarization-orientation by the backbone NHCO groups of (fully-extended) cell protein(s), when (iii) the protein(s) involved is under the control of the electron-withdrawing cardinal adsorbent (EWC), ATP. A mature human red blood cell (rbc) has no nucleus, nor other organelle. 64% of the rbc is water; 35% belongs to a single protein, hemoglobin (Hb). This twofold simplicity allows the concoction of an ultra-simple model (USM) of the red blood cell's cytoplasmic protoplasm, which comprises almost entirely of hemoglobin, water, K+ and ATP. Only in the USM, the ATP has been replaced by an artificial but theoretically authentic EWC, H+ (given as HCl). To test the theory with the aid of the USM, we filled dialysis sacs with a 40% solution of pure (ferri-) hemoglobin followed by incubating the sacs till equilibrium in solutions containing different amounts of HCI (including zero) but a constant (low) concentration of NaCl. We then determined the equilibrium ratio of the Na+ concentration inside the sac over that in the solution outside and refer to this ratio as qNaCl. When no H+ was added, the qNaCl stayed at unity as predicted by the theory. More important (and also predicted by the theory,) when the right amount
Probabilistic simple sticker systems
Selvarajoo, Mathuri; Heng, Fong Wan; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod
2017-04-01
A model for DNA computing using the recombination behavior of DNA molecules, known as a sticker system, was introduced by by L. Kari, G. Paun, G. Rozenberg, A. Salomaa, and S. Yu in the paper entitled DNA computing, sticker systems and universality from the journal of Acta Informatica vol. 35, pp. 401-420 in the year 1998. A sticker system uses the Watson-Crick complementary feature of DNA molecules: starting from the incomplete double stranded sequences, and iteratively using sticking operations until a complete double stranded sequence is obtained. It is known that sticker systems with finite sets of axioms and sticker rules generate only regular languages. Hence, different types of restrictions have been considered to increase the computational power of sticker systems. Recently, a variant of restricted sticker systems, called probabilistic sticker systems, has been introduced [4]. In this variant, the probabilities are initially associated with the axioms, and the probability of a generated string is computed by multiplying the probabilities of all occurrences of the initial strings in the computation of the string. Strings for the language are selected according to some probabilistic requirements. In this paper, we study fundamental properties of probabilistic simple sticker systems. We prove that the probabilistic enhancement increases the computational power of simple sticker systems.
Schilstra, Maria J; Martin, Stephen R
2009-01-01
Stochastic simulations may be used to describe changes with time of a reaction system in a way that explicitly accounts for the fact that molecules show a significant degree of randomness in their dynamic behavior. The stochastic approach is almost invariably used when small numbers of molecules or molecular assemblies are involved because this randomness leads to significant deviations from the predictions of the conventional deterministic (or continuous) approach to the simulation of biochemical kinetics. Advances in computational methods over the three decades that have elapsed since the publication of Daniel Gillespie's seminal paper in 1977 (J. Phys. Chem. 81, 2340-2361) have allowed researchers to produce highly sophisticated models of complex biological systems. However, these models are frequently highly specific for the particular application and their description often involves mathematical treatments inaccessible to the nonspecialist. For anyone completely new to the field to apply such techniques in their own work might seem at first sight to be a rather intimidating prospect. However, the fundamental principles underlying the approach are in essence rather simple, and the aim of this article is to provide an entry point to the field for a newcomer. It focuses mainly on these general principles, both kinetic and computational, which tend to be not particularly well covered in specialist literature, and shows that interesting information may even be obtained using very simple operations in a conventional spreadsheet.
Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions
Marie-Louise H. Hansen
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.
Simple implementation of general dark energy models
Bloomfield, Jolyon K. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave #37241, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Pearson, Jonathan A., E-mail: jolyon@mit.edu, E-mail: jonathan.pearson@durham.ac.uk [Centre for Particle Theory, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
2014-03-01
We present a formalism for the numerical implementation of general theories of dark energy, combining the computational simplicity of the equation of state for perturbations approach with the generality of the effective field theory approach. An effective fluid description is employed, based on a general action describing single-scalar field models. The formalism is developed from first principles, and constructed keeping the goal of a simple implementation into CAMB in mind. Benefits of this approach include its straightforward implementation, the generality of the underlying theory, the fact that the evolved variables are physical quantities, and that model-independent phenomenological descriptions may be straightforwardly investigated. We hope this formulation will provide a powerful tool for the comparison of theoretical models of dark energy with observational data.
Molecular genetics made simple
Heba Sh. Kassem
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Genetics have undoubtedly become an integral part of biomedical science and clinical practice, with important implications in deciphering disease pathogenesis and progression, identifying diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as designing better targeted treatments. The exponential growth of our understanding of different genetic concepts is paralleled by a growing list of genetic terminology that can easily intimidate the unfamiliar reader. Rendering genetics incomprehensible to the clinician however, defeats the very essence of genetic research: its utilization for combating disease and improving quality of life. Herein we attempt to correct this notion by presenting the basic genetic concepts along with their usefulness in the cardiology clinic. Bringing genetics closer to the clinician will enable its harmonious incorporation into clinical care, thus not only restoring our perception of its simple and elegant nature, but importantly ensuring the maximal benefit for our patients.
Graham, Peter W.; /Stanford U., ITP; Horn, Bart; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Rajendran, Surjeet; /Johns Hopkins U. /Stanford U., ITP; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC
2011-12-14
We explore simple but novel bouncing solutions of general relativity that avoid singularities. These solutions require curvature k = +1, and are supported by a negative cosmological term and matter with -1 < w < -1 = 3. In the case of moderate bounces (where the ratio of the maximal scale factor a{sub +} to the minimal scale factor a{sub -} is {Omicron}(1)), the solutions are shown to be classically stable and cycle through an infinite set of bounces. For more extreme cases with large a{sub +} = a{sub -}, the solutions can still oscillate many times before classical instabilities take them out of the regime of validity of our approximations. In this regime, quantum particle production also leads eventually to a departure from the realm of validity of semiclassical general relativity, likely yielding a singular crunch. We briefly discuss possible applications of these models to realistic cosmology.
Somyot Plubtieng
2003-01-01
A module M is called a CS-module (or extending module [5]) if every submodule of M is essential in a direct summand of M. It is shown that (i) a simple ring R is right noetherian if and only if every cyclic singular right R-module is either a CS-module or a noetherian module; (ii) for a prime ring R, if every proper cyclic right R-module is a direct sum of a quasi-injective module and a finitely cogenerated module, then R is either semisimple artinian or a right Ore domain; and (iii) a prime ring R is right noetherian if and only if every cyclic right R-module is a direct sum of a quasi-injective module and a noetherian module.
Ahmet YILDIRIM
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Individuals in terms of the economy in which we live is one of the most important phenomenon of the century. This phenomenon present itself as the only determinant of people's lives by entering almost makes itself felt. The mo st obvious objective needs of the economy by triggering motive is to induce people to consume . Consumer culture pervades all aspects of the situation are people . Therefore, these people have the blessing of culture , beauty and value all in the name of w hatever is consumed. This is way out of the siege of moral and religious values we have is to go back again . Referred by local cultural and religious values, based on today increasingly come to the fore and the Muslim way of life appears to be close to th e plain / lean preferred by many people life has been a way of life. Even the simple life , a way of life in the Western world , a conception of life , a philosophy, a movement as it has become widely accepted. Here in determining the Muslim way of life Pr ophet. Prophet (sa lived the kind of life a very important model, sample, and determining which direction is known. Religious values, which is the carrier of the prophets, sent to the society they have always been examples and models. Because every aspect of human life, his life style and the surrounding area has a feature. We also value his life that he has unknowingly and without learning and skills and to understand it is not possible to live our religion . We also our presentation, we mainly of Islam o utlook on life and predicted life - style, including the Prophet of Islam 's (sa simple life to scrutinize and lifestyle issues related to reveal , in short Islam's how life has embraced and the Prophet. Prophet's will try to find answers to questions reg arding how to live.
Enderton, Herbert B
1977-01-01
This is an introductory undergraduate textbook in set theory. In mathematics these days, essentially everything is a set. Some knowledge of set theory is necessary part of the background everyone needs for further study of mathematics. It is also possible to study set theory for its own interest--it is a subject with intruiging results anout simple objects. This book starts with material that nobody can do without. There is no end to what can be learned of set theory, but here is a beginning.
Mandl, Franz
2010-01-01
Following on from the successful first (1984) and revised (1993) editions, this extended and revised text is designed as a short and simple introduction to quantum field theory for final year physics students and for postgraduate students beginning research in theoretical and experimental particle physics. The three main objectives of the book are to: Explain the basic physics and formalism of quantum field theory To make the reader proficient in theory calculations using Feynman diagrams To introduce the reader to gauge theories, which play a central role in elementary particle physic
Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed
2016-01-01
physical events. Emphasizing on these phenomena and presenting the relation between photon's energy and frequency, CPH Theory is to draw attention on the importance of constancy of speed in relation to the mass structure which will be scrutinized in reviewing relativistic Newton's second law. The results......There are various theories in physics, but nature is unique. This is not nature's problem that we have various theories; nature obeys simple and unique law. We should improve our theories. Universal constancy of the speed of light undergoes the question whether the limit on the light speed...
Dowler, Patrick; Bonnarel, François
2016-01-01
The Simple Image Access protocol (SIA) provides capabilities for the discovery, description, access, and retrieval of multi-dimensional image datasets, including 2-D images as well as datacubes of three or more dimensions. SIA data discovery is based on the ObsCore Data Model (ObsCoreDM), which primarily describes data products by the physical axes (spatial, spectral, time, and polarization). Image datasets with dimension greater than 2 are often referred to as datacubes, cube or image cube datasets and may be considered examples of hypercube or n-cube data. In this document the term "image" refers to general multi-dimensional datasets and is synonymous with these other terms unless the image dimensionality is otherwise specified. SIA provides capabilities for image discovery and access. Data discovery and metadata access (using ObsCoreDM) are defined here. The capabilities for drilling down to data files (and related resources) and services for remote access are defined elsewhere, but SIA also allows for dir...
Crane, Edward; Volkov, Stanislav; Wade, Andrew; Waters, Robert
2009-01-01
We study a generalized Polya urn model with two types of ball. If the drawn ball is red it is replaced together with a black ball, but if the drawn ball is black it is replaced and a red ball is thrown out of the urn. When only black balls remain, the roles of the colours are swapped and the process restarts. We prove that the resulting Markov chain is transient but that if we throw out a ball every time the colours swap, the process is positive-recurrent. We show that the embedded process obtained by observing the number of balls in the urn at the swapping times has a scaling limit that is essentially the square of a Bessel diffusion. We consider an oriented percolation model naturally associated with the urn process, and obtain detailed information about its structure, showing that the open subgraph is an infinite tree with a single end. We also study a natural continuous-time embedding of the urn process that demonstrates the relation to the simple harmonic oscillator; in this setting our transience result...
Oscillations of simple networks
Caputo, Jean-Guy; Simo, Elie
2011-01-01
To describe the flow of a miscible quantity on a network, we introduce the graph wave equation where the standard continuous Laplacian is replaced by the graph Laplacian. This is a natural description of an array of inductances and capacities, of fluid flow in a network of ducts and of a system of masses and springs. The structure of the graph influences strongly the dynamics which is naturally described using the basis of the eigenvectors. In particular, we show that if two outer nodes are connected to a common third node with the same coupling, then this coupling is an eigenvalue of the Laplacian. Assuming the graph is forced and damped at specific nodes, we derive the amplitude equations. These are analyzed for two simple non trivial networks: a tree and a graph with a cycle. Forcing the network at a resonant frequency reveals that damping can be ineffective if applied to the wrong node, leading to a disastrous resonance and destruction of the network. These results could be useful for complex physical net...
A Simple Accelerometer Calibrator
Salam, R. A.; Islamy, M. R. F.; Munir, M. M.; Latief, H.; Irsyam, M.; Khairurrijal
2016-08-01
High possibility of earthquake could lead to the high number of victims caused by it. It also can cause other hazards such as tsunami, landslide, etc. In that case it requires a system that can examine the earthquake occurrence. Some possible system to detect earthquake is by creating a vibration sensor system using accelerometer. However, the output of the system is usually put in the form of acceleration data. Therefore, a calibrator system for accelerometer to sense the vibration is needed. In this study, a simple accelerometer calibrator has been developed using 12 V DC motor, optocoupler, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and AVR 328 microcontroller as controller system. The system uses the Pulse Wave Modulation (PWM) form microcontroller to control the motor rotational speed as response to vibration frequency. The frequency of vibration was read by optocoupler and then those data was used as feedback to the system. The results show that the systems could control the rotational speed and the vibration frequencies in accordance with the defined PWM.
Strnad, Pavel; Guldiken, Nurdan; Helenius, Terhi O; Misiorek, Julia O; Nyström, Joel H; Lähdeniemi, Iris A K; Silvander, Jonas S G; Kuscuoglu, Deniz; Toivola, Diana M
2016-01-01
Simple epithelial keratins (SEKs) are the cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins of single-layered and glandular epithelial cells as found in the liver, pancreas, intestine, and lung. SEKs have broad cytoprotective functions, which are facilitated by dynamic posttranslational modifications and interaction with associated proteins. SEK filaments are composed of obligate heteropolymers of type II (K7, K8) and type I (K18-K20, K23) keratins. The multifaceted roles of SEKs are increasingly appreciated due to findings obtained from transgenic mouse models and human studies that identified SEK variants in several digestive diseases. Reorganization of the SEK network into aggregates called Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) is characteristic for specific liver disorders such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To spur further research on SEKs, we here review the methods and potential caveats of their isolation as well as possibilities to study them in cell culture. The existing transgenic SEK mouse models, their advantages and potential drawbacks are discussed. The tools to induce MDBs, ways of their visualization and quantification, as well as the possibilities to detect SEK variants in humans are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Routing of Physarum polycephalum "signals" using simple chemicals
de Lacy Costello, Ben; Adamatzky, Andrew I
2014-01-01
In previous work the chemotaxis toward simple organic chemicals was assessed. We utilize the knowledge gained from these chemotactic assays to route Physarum polycephalum "signals" at a series of junctions...
Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory
Drukker, Nadav [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Gomis, Jaume; Okuda, Takuda [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Teschner, Joerg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2009-10-15
We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S{sup 4} - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)
Imaging of Simple Defects in Austenitic Steel Welds Using a Simulated Ultrasonic Array
Connolly, G. D.; Lowe, M. J. S.; Rokhlin, S. I.; Temple, J. A. G.
2009-03-01
The use of ultrasonic arrays has increased dramatically within recent years due to their ability to perform multiple types of inspection and due to the fact that phased arrays allow the immediate production of images within the structure through post-processing of received signals. These arrays offer potential advantages to the inspection of austenitic steel welds where, for reasons of safety and economics, it is important to be able to detect and size any crack-like defects that may occur during service or may have occurred during welding. This paper outlines the theory behind the generation of images of simple planar defects within a previously developed weld model. Images generated using fundamental ray-tracing theory and from finite element simulations by selected inspection procedures will be shown and compared.
A simple solution to Archimedes' cattle problem
Nygrén, A. (Antti)
2001-01-01
Abstract A simple solution to the classical Archimedes' cattle problem is given. Unlike the previous ones, this is mainly based on elementary mathematics which, at least in principle, would have been available to the mathematicians of the classical era. The solution applies linear transformation and infinite descent in solving quadratic Diophantine equations in a manner which does not explicitly take advantage of continued fractions. The idea is to create a sequence of tran...
Chaganti, Prabhakar
2011-01-01
This focused book is an extracted LITE version of Packt's full: Amazon SimpleDB Developer Guide. It concentrates on getting a grounding in the value of SimpleDB, and shows how to set up an AWS account, enable a SimpleDB service for the account, and install and set up libraries for Java, PHP, and Python. If you are a developer wanting to get to grips with a primer into SimpleDB, then this book is for you. You do not need to know anything about SimpleDB to read and learn from this book, and no basic knowledge is strictly necessary.
A Twistor Approach to One-Loop Amplitudes in N=1 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory
Bedford, J; Spence, B; Travaglini, G; Bedford, James; Brandhuber, Andreas; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele
2004-01-01
We extend the twistor string theory inspired formalism introduced in hep-th/0407214 for calculating loop amplitudes in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory to the case of N=1 (and N=2) super Yang-Mills. Our approach yields a novel representation of the gauge theory amplitudes as dispersion integrals, which are surprisingly simple to evaluate. As an application we calculate one-loop maximally helicity violating (MHV) scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external legs. The result we obtain agrees precisely with the expressions for the N=1 MHV amplitudes derived previously by Bern, Dixon, Dunbar and Kosower using the cut-constructibility approach.
Silverstein, Eva; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2008-01-07
We present a framework for de Sitter model building in type IIA string theory, illustrated with specific examples. We find metastable dS minima of the potential for moduli obtained from a compactification on a product of two Nil three-manifolds (which have negative scalar curvature) combined with orientifolds, branes, fractional Chern-Simons forms, and fluxes. As a discrete quantum number is taken large, the curvature, field strengths, inverse volume, and four dimensional string coupling become parametrically small, and the de Sitter Hubble scale can be tuned parametrically smaller than the scales of the moduli, KK, and winding mode masses. A subtle point in the construction is that although the curvature remains consistently weak, the circle fibers of the nilmanifolds become very small in this limit (though this is avoided in illustrative solutions at modest values of the parameters). In the simplest version of the construction, the heaviest moduli masses are parametrically of the same order as the lightest KK and winding masses. However, we provide a method for separating these marginally overlapping scales, and more generally the underlying supersymmetry of the model protects against large corrections to the low-energy moduli potential.
Belangia, David Warren [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-04-09
A company just got notified there is a big external audit coming in 3 months. Getting ready for an audit can be challenging, scary, and full of surprises. This Gold Paper describes a typical audit from notification of the intent to audit through disposition of the final report including Best Practices, Opportunities for Improvement (OFI), and issues that must be fixed. Good preparation can improve the chances of success. Ensuring the auditors understand the environment and requirements is paramount to success. It helps the auditors understand that the enterprise really does think that security is important. Understanding and following a structured process ensures a smooth audit process. Ensuring follow-up on OFIs and issues in a structured fashion will also make the next audit easier. It is important to keep in mind that the auditors will use the previous report as a starting point. Now the only worry is the actual audit and subsequent report and how well the company has done.
Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed
2016-01-01
is the mechanism of increasing in the photon energy that causes increase in its frequency growth? So, in CPH theory (Creative particles of Higgs Theory), it has been attempted to scrutinize the interface between classical mechanics, relativity and quantum mechanics through a novel approach to the established......There are various theories in physics, but nature is unique. This is not nature's problem that we have various theories; nature obeys simple and unique law. We should improve our theories. Universal constancy of the speed of light undergoes the question whether the limit on the light speed...... physical events. Emphasizing on these phenomena and presenting the relation between photon's energy and frequency, CPH Theory is to draw attention on the importance of constancy of speed in relation to the mass structure which will be scrutinized in reviewing relativistic Newton's second law. The results...
Numerical studies of the ABJM theory for arbitrary N at arbitrary coupling constant
Hanada, Masanori; Honma, Yoshinori; Nishimura, Jun; Shiba, Shotaro; Yoshida, Yutaka
2012-01-01
We show that the ABJM theory, which is a N=6 superconformal U(N)\\times U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theory, can be studied for arbitrary N at arbitrary coupling constant by applying a simple Monte Carlo method to the matrix model that can be derived from the theory by using the localization technique. This opens up the possibility of probing the quantum aspects of M-theory and testing the AdS_4/CFT_3 duality at the quantum level. Here we calculate the free energy, and confirm the N^{3/2} scaling in the M-theory limit predicted from the gravity side. We also find that the previously proposed analytical formula needs to be corrected by an additional term at each order of the string coupling expansion. The method can be easily generalized to the calculations of BPS operators and to other theories that reduce to matrix models.
Exploring gravitational theories beyond Horndeski
Gleyzes, Jérôme; Piazza, Federico; Vernizzi, Filippo
2014-01-01
We have recently proposed a new class of gravitational scalar-tensor theories free from ghost instabilities. As they generalize Horndeski theories, or "generalized" galileons, we call them G$^3$. These theories possess a simple formulation when the time hypersurfaces are chosen to coincide with the uniform scalar field hypersurfaces. We confirm that they do not suffer from Ostrogradski instabilities by presenting the details of the Hamiltonian formulation. We examine the coupling between these theories and matter. Moreover, we investigate how they transform under a disformal redefinition of the metric. Remarkably, these theories are preserved by disformal transformations, which also allow subfamilies of G$^3$ to be mapped into Horndeski theories.
Miha Mazzini
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Voy a contarles una historia muy simple. Probablemente no les parecerá nada espe- cial y no quiero robarles tiempo, así que voy a tratar de hacerlo lo más rápido posible. Me inscribí en psicología porque eso hizo mi mejor amiga. Éramos compañeras desde jardín de infantes y siempre la seguí en todo. En tercer año de facultad conoció a su novio y continuó sus estudios en otro país; por primera vez no podía seguirla. Cuando rendí todos los exámenes, el profesor me preguntó si estaba interesada en hacer mi tesis sobre el perfil psicológico de los participantes de reality shows. Accedí para no tener que pensar en otro tema, aunque no veía mucho la televisión porque me pasaba las noches entre los libros de estudio. Enseguida me di cuenta de que, evidentemente, el profesor había firmado un contrato con la emisora: a él lo empleaban y y yo era la que iba a tener que trabajar, pero no me importaba. La tesis de licenciatura no es más que eso y hay que hacerla. Yo evaluaba los candidatos y elegía a los participantes que vivirían juntos duran- te algunos meses. Como hacían el programa con una licencia extranjera y ya sabían qué le interesaba a la audiencia, yo tenía preparados los rasgos de los perfiles psicológicos que en ese aislamiento colectivo no resultan bien. Tuve que elegir gente variada, pero dentro de la media; nunca nada verdaderamente especial. Cuando me gradué, tuve las noches libres: de pronto tenía mucho más tiempo y podía haber visto el programa, pero ya había terminado. Pero oí que había sido todo un éxito y que sobre todo a los chicos les había encantado el reality y los participantes elegidos.
Matrix Theory of Small Oscillations
Chavda, L. K.
1978-01-01
A complete matrix formulation of the theory of small oscillations is presented. Simple analytic solutions involving matrix functions are found which clearly exhibit the transients, the damping factors, the Breit-Wigner form for resonances, etc. (BB)
Simple model of stacking-fault energies
Stokbro, Kurt; Jacobsen, Lærke Wedel
1993-01-01
-density calculations of stacking-fault energies, and gives a simple way of understanding the calculated energy contributions from the different atomic layers in the stacking-fault region. The two parameters in the model describe the relative energy contributions of the s and d electrons in the noble and transition......A simple model for the energetics of stacking faults in fcc metals is constructed. The model contains third-nearest-neighbor pairwise interactions and a term involving the fourth moment of the electronic density of states. The model is in excellent agreement with recently published local...... metals, and thereby explain the pronounced differences in energetics in these two classes of metals. The model is discussed in the framework of the effective-medium theory where it is possible to find a functional form for the pair potential and relate the contribution associated with the fourth moment...
Rheology of simple shear flows of dense granular assemblies in different regimes
Chialvo, Sebastian; Sun, Jin; Sundaresan, Sankaran
2010-11-01
Using the discrete element method, simulations of simple shear flow of dense assemblies of frictional particles have been carried out over a range of shear rates and volume fractions in order to characterize the transition from quasistatic or inertial flow to intermediate flow. In agreement with previous results for frictionless spheres [1], the pressure and shear stress in the intermediate regime are found to approach asymptotic power law relations with shear rate; curiously, these asymptotes appear to be common to all intermediate flows regardless of the value of the particle friction coefficient. The scaling relations for stress for the inertial and quasistatic regimes are consistent with a recent extension of kinetic theory to dense inertial flows [2] and a simple model for quasistatic flows [3], respectively. For the case of steady, simple shear flow, the different regimes can be bridged readily: a harmonic weighting function blends the inertial regime to the intermediate asymptote, while a simple additive rule combines the quasistatic and intermediate regimes. [4pt] [1] T. Hatano, et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 76, 023001 (2007). [0pt] [2] J. Jenkins, and D. Berzi, Granular Matter 12, 151 (2010). [0pt] [3] J. Sun, and S. Sundaresan, J. Fluid Mech. (under review).
Effective field theory as a limit of R-matrix theory for light nuclear reactions
Hale, Gerald M.; Brown, Lowell S.; Paris, Mark W.
2014-01-01
We study the zero channel radius limit of Wigner's R-matrix theory for two cases and show that it corresponds to nonrelativistic effective quantum field theory. We begin with the simple problem of single-channel np elastic scattering in the 1S0 channel. The dependence of the R-matrix width g2 and level energy Eλ on the channel radius a for fixed scattering length a0 and effective range r0 is determined. It is shown that these quantities have a simple pole for a critical value of the channel radius, ap=ap(a0,r0). The 3H(d ,n)4He reaction cross section, analyzed with a two-channel effective field theory in the previous paper [Phys. Rev. C 89, 014622 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevC.89.014622], is then examined using a two-channel, single-level R-matrix parametrization. The resulting S matrix is shown to be identical in these two representations in the limit that R-matrix channel radii are taken to zero. This equivalence is established by giving the relationship between the low-energy constants of the effective field theory (couplings gc and mass m*) and the R-matrix parameters (reduced width amplitudes γc and level energy Eλ). An excellent three-parameter fit to the observed astrophysical factor S¯ is found for "unphysical" values of the reduced widths, γc2<0.
Effective field theory as a limit of R-matrix theory for light nuclear reactions
Hale, Gerald M; Paris, Mark W
2014-01-01
We study the zero channel radius limit of Wigner's R-matrix theory for two cases, and show that it corresponds to non-relativistic effective quantum field theory. We begin with the simple problem of single-channel n-p elastic scattering in the 1S0 channel. The dependence of the R matrix width and level energy on the channel radius, "a" for fixed scattering length a0 and effective range r0 is determined. It is shown that these quantities have a simple pole for a critical value of the channel radius. The 3H(d,n)4He reaction cross section, analyzed with a two-channel effective field theory in the previous paper, is then examined using a two-channel, single-level R-matrix parametrization. The resulting S matrix is shown to be identical in these two representations in the limit that R-matrix channel radii are taken to zero. This equivalence is established by giving the relationship between the low-energy constants of the effective field theory (couplings and mass) and the R-matrix parameters (reduced width amplitu...
Two Simple Models for Fracking
Norris, Jaren Quinn
Recent developments in fracking have enable the recovery of oil and gas from tight shale reservoirs. These developments have also made fracking one of the most controversial environmental issues in the United States. Despite the growing controversy surrounding fracking, there is relatively little publicly available research. This dissertation introduces two simple models for fracking that were developed using techniques from non-linear and statistical physics. The first model assumes that the volume of induced fractures must be equal to the volume of injected fluid. For simplicity, these fractures are assumed to form a spherically symmetric damage region around the borehole. The predicted volumes of water necessary to create a damage region with a given radius are in good agreement with reported values. The second model is a modification of invasion percolation which was previously introduced to model water flooding. The reservoir rock is represented by a regular lattice of local traps that contain oil and/or gas separated by rock barriers. The barriers are assumed to be highly heterogeneous and are assigned random strengths. Fluid is injected from a central site and the weakest rock barrier breaks allowing fluid to flow into the adjacent site. The process repeats with the weakest barrier breaking and fluid flowing to an adjacent site each time step. Extensive numerical simulations were carried out to obtain statistical properties of the growing fracture network. The network was found to be fractal with fractal dimensions differing slightly from the accepted values for traditional percolation. Additionally, the network follows Horton-Strahler and Tokunaga branching statistics which have been used to characterize river networks. As with other percolation models, the growth of the network occurs in bursts. These bursts follow a power-law size distribution similar to observed microseismic events. Reservoir stress anisotropy is incorporated into the model by assigning
The inaction approach to gauge theories
Pivovarov, Grigorii
2012-01-01
The inaction approach introduced previously for phi^4 is generalized to gauge theories. It combines the advantages of the effective field theory and causal approaches to quantum fields. Also, it suggests ways to generalizing gauge theories.
Wæver, Ole
2009-01-01
Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism and refle......Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism...... and reflectivism. Yet, ironically, there has been little attention to Waltz's very explicit and original arguments about the nature of theory. This article explores and explicates Waltz's theory of theory. Central attention is paid to his definition of theory as ‘a picture, mentally formed' and to the radical anti......-empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory...
Too Good to be True? Ideomotor Theory from a Computational Perspective.
Herbort, Oliver; Butz, Martin V
2012-01-01
In recent years, Ideomotor Theory has regained widespread attention and sparked the development of a number of theories on goal-directed behavior and learning. However, there are two issues with previous studies' use of Ideomotor Theory. Although Ideomotor Theory is seen as very general, it is often studied in settings that are considerably more simplistic than most natural situations. Moreover, Ideomotor Theory's claim that effect anticipations directly trigger actions and that action-effect learning is based on the formation of direct action-effect associations is hard to address empirically. We address these points from a computational perspective. A simple computational model of Ideomotor Theory was tested in tasks with different degrees of complexity. The model evaluation showed that Ideomotor Theory is a computationally feasible approach for understanding efficient action-effect learning for goal-directed behavior if the following preconditions are met: (1) The range of potential actions and effects has to be restricted. (2) Effects have to follow actions within a short time window. (3) Actions have to be simple and may not require sequencing. The first two preconditions also limit human performance and thus support Ideomotor Theory. The last precondition can be circumvented by extending the model with more complex, indirect action generation processes. In conclusion, we suggest that Ideomotor Theory offers a comprehensive framework to understand action-effect learning. However, we also suggest that additional processes may mediate the conversion of effect anticipations into actions in many situations.
A simple proof of Bell's inequality
Maccone, Lorenzo
2013-11-01
Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality; a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate over what exactly the Bell inequality means, because the hypotheses underlying the proof become transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.
Jaeger, Audrey J.; Dunstan, Stephany; Thornton, Courtney; Rockenbach, Alyssa B.; Gayles, Joy G.; Haley, Karen J.
2013-01-01
When making decisions that impact student learning, college educators often consider previous experiences, precedent, common sense, and advice from colleagues. But how often do they consider theory? At a recent state-level educators' meeting, the authors of this article asked 50 student affairs educators about the use of theory in their practice.…
Evaluating Conceptual Metaphor Theory
Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.
2011-01-01
A major revolution in the study of metaphor occurred 30 years ago with the introduction of "conceptual metaphor theory" (CMT). Unlike previous theories of metaphor and metaphorical meaning, CMT proposed that metaphor is not just an aspect of language, but a fundamental part of human thought. Indeed, most metaphorical language arises from…
Jaeger, Audrey J.; Dunstan, Stephany; Thornton, Courtney; Rockenbach, Alyssa B.; Gayles, Joy G.; Haley, Karen J.
2013-01-01
When making decisions that impact student learning, college educators often consider previous experiences, precedent, common sense, and advice from colleagues. But how often do they consider theory? At a recent state-level educators' meeting, the authors of this article asked 50 student affairs educators about the use of theory in their practice.…
Rewriting the Opportunity Theory
Korsgaard, Steffen T.
The aim of this paper is to further the discussion of opportunity theory by discussing its ontological and epistemological underpinnings, which have been neglected in previous discussions. The idea that opportunities have an objective component is critically examined drawing on insights from social...... constructionism. It is argued that opportunity theory needs to be rewritten....
Varzinczak, IJ
2010-02-01
Full Text Available revisit the semantics of action theory contraction proposed in previous work, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of distance between Kripke-models. Second we give algorithms for syntactical action theory contraction...
Rewriting the Opportunity Theory
Korsgaard, Steffen T.
The aim of this paper is to further the discussion of opportunity theory by discussing its ontological and epistemological underpinnings, which have been neglected in previous discussions. The idea that opportunities have an objective component is critically examined drawing on insights from social...... constructionism. It is argued that opportunity theory needs to be rewritten....
A simple optical system for interpreting coherence theory
Kelly, Damien P
2016-01-01
A new theoretical technique for understanding, analyzing and developing optical systems is presented. The approach is statistical in nature, where information about an object under investigation is discovered, by examining deviations from a known reference statistical distribution. A Fourier optics framework and a scalar description of the propagation of monochromatic light is initially assumed. An object (belonging to a known class of objects) is illuminated with a speckle field and the intensity of the resulting scattered optical field is detected at a series of spatial locations by point square law detectors. A new speckle field is generated (with a new diffuser) and the object is again illuminated and the intensities are again measured and noted. By making a large number of these statistical measurements - an ensemble averaging process (which in general can be a temporal or a spatial averaging process) - it is possible to determine the statistical relationship between the intensities detected in different...
Anorthosites: Classification, mythology, trivia, and a simple unified theory
Ashwal, Lewis D.
1988-01-01
An overview was presented of anorthosites. They were classified into six types: (1) Archean megacrystic, (2) Proterozoic massif-type, (3) stratiform, (4) oceanic, (5) inclusions, and (6) extraterrestrial. Some of the anorthosite mythology was discussed, such as the existence of a distinct, catastrophic anorthosite event in the late Proterozoic, the misconception that anorthosite is a major constituent of the lower continental crust, and the misconception that Archean anorthosites represent metamorphosed equivalents of mafic layered intrusions such as Bushveld or Stillwater. A general statement was offered about the origin of all anorthosites: They are cumulates of plagioclase from mantle-derived basaltic magmas.
Nonadditive hard-sphere fluid mixtures: A simple analytical theory
Fantoni, Riccardo; Santos, Andrés
2011-01-01
We construct a non-perturbative fully analytical approximation for the thermodynamics and the structure of nonadditive hard-sphere fluid mixtures. The method essentially lies in a heuristic extension of the Percus-Yevick solution for additive hard spheres. Extensive comparison with Monte Carlo simulation data shows a generally good agreement, especially in the case of like-like radial distribution functions.
Nonadditive hard-sphere fluid mixtures: a simple analytical theory.
Fantoni, Riccardo; Santos, Andrés
2011-10-01
We construct a nonperturbative fully analytical approximation for the thermodynamics and the structure of nonadditive hard-sphere fluid mixtures. The method essentially lies in a heuristic extension of the Percus-Yevick solution for additive hard spheres. Extensive comparison with Monte Carlo simulation data shows a generally good agreement, especially in the case of like-like radial distribution functions.
Simple improvements of a simple solution for inverting resolution
J.C. Bioch (Cor); P.R.J. van der Laag
1991-01-01
textabstractIn this paper we address some simple improvements of the algorithm of Rouveirol and Puget [1989] for inverting resolution. Their approach is based on automatic change of representation called flattening and unflattening of clauses in a logic program. This enables a simple implementation
Simple and three-valued simple coloring games
Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke
2016-01-01
In this paper minimum coloring games are considered. We characterize the class of conflict graphs inducing simple or three-valued simple minimum coloring games. We provide an upper bound on the number of maximum cliques of conflict graphs inducing such games. Moreover, a characterization of the core
Simple and Three-Valued Simple Minimum Coloring Games
Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke
2015-01-01
In this paper minimum coloring games are considered. We characterize the type of conflict graphs inducing simple or three-valued simple minimum coloring games. We provide an upper bound on the number of maximum cliques of conflict graphs inducing such games. Moreover, a characterization of the core
W.K. Nicholson; Jae Keol Park; M.F. Yousif
2002-01-01
A ring R is called right simple-injective if every R-linear map from a right ideal of R to R with simple image can be extended to R. It is shown that a right simple-injective ring R is quasi-Frobenius if R is right Goldie with essential right socle, or R is left perfect and the right annihilator of k ∈ R is finitely generated whenever kR or Rk is simple. This extends a result of Bjork.
Generalized Supersymmetric Perturbation Theory
B. G(o)n(ǖ)l
2004-01-01
@@ Using the basic ingredient of supersymmetry, a simple alternative approach is developed to perturbation theory in one-dimensional non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The formulae for the energy shifts and wavefunctions do not involve tedious calculations which appear in the available perturbation theories. The model applicable in the same form to both the ground state and excited bound states, unlike the recently introduced supersymmetric perturbation technique which, together with other approaches based on logarithmic perturbation theory, are involved within the more general framework of the present formalism.
Zhang, Zhimin; Tomlinson, John; Martin, Clyde
1994-01-01
In this work, the relationship between splines and the control theory has been analyzed. We show that spline functions can be constructed naturally from the control theory. By establishing a framework based on control theory, we provide a simple and systematic way to construct splines. We have constructed the traditional spline functions including the polynomial splines and the classical exponential spline. We have also discovered some new spline functions such as trigonometric splines and the combination of polynomial, exponential and trigonometric splines. The method proposed in this paper is easy to implement. Some numerical experiments are performed to investigate properties of different spline approximations.
[Introduction to grounded theory].
Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy
2012-02-01
Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.
Numerical Stochastic Perturbation Theory and Gradient Flow in {\\phi}^4 Theory
Brida, Mattia Dalla; Kennedy, Anthony D
2015-01-01
In this contribution we present an exploratory study of several novel methods for numerical stochastic perturbation theory. For the investigation we consider observables defined through the gradient flow in the simple {\\phi}^4 theory.
AN APPLICATION OF OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY.
The purpose of this article is to show that optimal control theory can be used to develop a control strategy for a practical system, namely a distillation column. The approach will be to model the complex system with a simple model, use optimal control theory to determine a control strategy for the simple model, and then apply the results to the original system. (Author)
Simple Distillation and Fractional Distillation
张萍
2004-01-01
A pure solvent can be separated from a solution by simple distillation. Distillation is the process of boiling a liquid and condensing the vapor. For example, pure water can be obtained from salt solution by distillation. The figure below shows the apparatus used for simple distillation in the laboratory.
Combinatorial structures to modeling simple games and applications
Molinero, Xavier
2017-09-01
We connect three different topics: combinatorial structures, game theory and chemistry. In particular, we establish the bases to represent some simple games, defined as influence games, and molecules, defined from atoms, by using combinatorial structures. First, we characterize simple games as influence games using influence graphs. It let us to modeling simple games as combinatorial structures (from the viewpoint of structures or graphs). Second, we formally define molecules as combinations of atoms. It let us to modeling molecules as combinatorial structures (from the viewpoint of combinations). It is open to generate such combinatorial structures using some specific techniques as genetic algorithms, (meta-)heuristics algorithms and parallel programming, among others.
Lipstein, Arthur E
2014-01-01
We formulate the theory of a 2-form gauge field on a Euclidean spacetime lattice. In this approach, the fundamental degrees of freedom live on the faces of the lattice, and the action can be constructed from the sum over Wilson surfaces associated with each fundamental cube of the lattice. If we take the gauge group to be $U(1)$, the theory reduces to the well-known abelian gerbe theory in the continuum limit. We also propose a very simple and natural non-abelian generalization with gauge group $U(N) \\times U(N)$, which gives rise to $U(N)$ Yang-Mills theory upon dimensional reduction. Formulating the theory on a lattice has several other advantages. In particular, it is possible to compute many observables, such as the expectation value of Wilson surfaces, analytically at strong coupling and numerically for any value of the coupling.
Constructor theory of probability.
Marletto, Chiara
2016-08-01
Unitary quantum theory, having no Born Rule, is non-probabilistic. Hence the notorious problem of reconciling it with the unpredictability and appearance of stochasticity in quantum measurements. Generalizing and improving upon the so-called 'decision-theoretic approach', I shall recast that problem in the recently proposed constructor theory of information-where quantum theory is represented as one of a class of superinformation theories, which are local, non-probabilistic theories conforming to certain constructor-theoretic conditions. I prove that the unpredictability of measurement outcomes (to which constructor theory gives an exact meaning) necessarily arises in superinformation theories. Then I explain how the appearance of stochasticity in (finitely many) repeated measurements can arise under superinformation theories. And I establish sufficient conditions for a superinformation theory to inform decisions (made under it) as if it were probabilistic, via a Deutsch-Wallace-type argument-thus defining a class of decision-supporting superinformation theories. This broadens the domain of applicability of that argument to cover constructor-theory compliant theories. In addition, in this version some of the argument's assumptions, previously construed as merely decision-theoretic, follow from physical properties expressed by constructor-theoretic principles.
Gauge Boson Mass Without a Higgs Field A Simple Model
Nicholson, A F; Nicholson, Angus F.; Kennedy, Dallas C.
1997-01-01
A simple, anomaly-free chiral gauge theory can be perturbatively quantized and renormalized in such a way as to generate fermion and gauge boson masses. This development exploits certain freedoms inherent in choosing the unperturbed Lagrangian and in the renormalization procedure. Apart from its intrinsic interest, such a mechanism might be employed in electroweak gauge theory to generate fermion and gauge boson masses without a Higgs sector.
Molecular implementation of simple logic programs
Ran, Tom; Kaplan, Shai; Shapiro, Ehud
2009-11-01
Autonomous programmable computing devices made of biomolecules could interact with a biological environment and be used in future biological and medical applications. Biomolecular implementations of finite automata and logic gates have already been developed. Here, we report an autonomous programmable molecular system based on the manipulation of DNA strands that is capable of performing simple logical deductions. Using molecular representations of facts such as Man(Socrates) and rules such as Mortal(X) system can answer molecular queries such as Mortal(Socrates)? (Is Socrates Mortal?) and Mortal(X)? (Who is Mortal?). This biomolecular computing system compares favourably with previous approaches in terms of expressive power, performance and precision. A compiler translates facts, rules and queries into their molecular representations and subsequently operates a robotic system that assembles the logical deductions and delivers the result. This prototype is the first simple programming language with a molecular-scale implementation.
Bergshoeff, Eric A; Penas, Victor A; Riccioni, Fabio
2016-01-01
We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O(D,D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O(D,D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for "exotic" dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.
Algebraic and stochastic coding theory
Kythe, Dave K
2012-01-01
Using a simple yet rigorous approach, Algebraic and Stochastic Coding Theory makes the subject of coding theory easy to understand for readers with a thorough knowledge of digital arithmetic, Boolean and modern algebra, and probability theory. It explains the underlying principles of coding theory and offers a clear, detailed description of each code. More advanced readers will appreciate its coverage of recent developments in coding theory and stochastic processes. After a brief review of coding history and Boolean algebra, the book introduces linear codes, including Hamming and Golay codes.
Too good to be true? Ideomotor Theory from a computational perspective
Oliver eHerbort
2012-11-01
Full Text Available In recent years, Ideomotor Theory has regained widespread attention and sparked the development of a number of theories on goal-directed behavior and learning. However, there are two issues with previous studies’ use of Ideomotor Theory. Although Ideomotor Theory is seen as very general, it is often studied in settings that are considerably more simplistic than most natural situations. Moreover, Ideomotor Theory’s claim that effect anticipations directly trigger actions and that action-effect learning is based on the formation of direct action-effect associations is hard to address empirically. We address these points from a computational perspective. A simple computational model of Ideomotor Theory was tested in tasks with different degrees of complexity. The model evaluation showed that Ideomotor Theory is a computationally feasible approach for understanding efficient action-effect learning for goal-directed behavior if the following preconditions are met: 1 The range of potential actions and effects has to be restricted. 2 Effects have to follow actions within a short time window. 3 Actions have to be simple and may not require sequencing. The first two preconditions also limit human performance and thus support Ideomotor Theory. The last precondition can be circumvented by extending the model with more complex, indirect action generation processes. In conclusion, we suggest that Ideomotor Theory offers a comprehensive framework to understand action-effect learning. However, we also suggest that additional processes may mediate the conversion of effect anticipations into actions in many situations.
无
2001-01-01
Over a field F of arbitrary characteristic, we define the associative and the Lie algebras of Weyl type on the same vector space A［D]=A［D] from any pair of a commutative associative algebra A with an identity element and the polynomial algebra ［D] of a commutative derivation subalgebra D of A. We prove that A[D], as a Lie algebra (modulo its center) or as an associative algebra, is simple if and only if A is D－simple and A［D] acts faithfully on A. Thus we obtain a lot of simple algebras.
Nekrasov, Nikita
2004-01-01
We present the evidence for the existence of the topological string analogue of M-theory, which we call Z-theory. The corners of Z-theory moduli space correspond to the Donaldson-Thomas theory, Kodaira-Spencer theory, Gromov-Witten theory, and Donaldson-Witten theory. We discuss the relations of Z-theory with Hitchin's gravities in six and seven dimensions, and make our own proposal, involving spinor generalization of Chern-Simons theory of three-forms. Based on the talk at Strings'04 in Paris.
Group theory Application to the physics of condensed matter
Dresselhauss, M S; Jorio, A
2007-01-01
Every process in physics is governed by selection rules that are the consequence of symmetry requirements. The beauty and strength of group theory resides in the transformation of many complex symmetry operations into a very simple linear algebra. This concise and class-tested book has been pedagogically tailored over 30 years MIT and 2 years at the University Federal of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil. The approach centers on the conviction that teaching group theory in close connection with applications helps students to learn, understand and use it for their own needs. For this reason, the theoretical background is confined to the first 4 introductory chapters (6-8 classroom hours). From there, each chapter develops new theory while introducing applications so that the students can best retain new concepts, build on concepts learned the previous week, and see interrelations between topics as presented. Essential problem sets between the chapters also aid the retention of the new material and for the consolid...
Kinetic theories for spin models for cooperative relaxation dynamics
Pitts, Steven Jerome
The facilitated kinetic Ising models with asymmetric spin flip constraints introduced by Jackle and co-workers [J. Jackle, S. Eisinger, Z. Phys. B 84, 115 (1991); J. Reiter, F. Mauch, J. Jackle, Physica A 184, 458 (1992)] exhibit complex relaxation behavior in their associated spin density time correlation functions. This includes the growth of relaxation times over many orders of magnitude when the thermodynamic control parameter is varied, and, in some cases, ergodic-nonergodic transitions. Relaxation equations for the time dependence of the spin density autocorrelation function for a set of these models are developed that relate this autocorrelation function to the irreducible memory function of Kawasaki [K. Kawasaki, Physica A 215, 61 (1995)] using a novel diagrammatic series approach. It is shown that the irreducible memory function in a theory of the relaxation of an autocorrelation function in a Markov model with detailed balance plays the same role as the part of the memory function approximated by a polynomial function of the autocorrelation function with positive coefficients in schematic simple mode coupling theories for supercooled liquids [W. Gotze, in Liquids, Freezing and the Glass Transition, D. Levesque, J. P. Hansen, J. Zinn-Justin eds., 287 (North Holland, New York, 1991)]. Sets of diagrams in the series for the irreducible memory function are summed which lead to approximations of this type. The behavior of these approximations is compared with known results from previous analytical calculations and from numerical simulations. For the simplest one dimensional model, relaxation equations that are closely related to schematic extended mode coupling theories [W. Gotze, ibid] are also derived using the diagrammatic series. Comparison of the results of these approximate theories with simulation data shows that these theories improve significantly on the results of the theories of the simple schematic mode coupling theory type. The potential
Dual little strings from F-theory and flop transitions
Hohenegger, Stefan; Iqbal, Amer; Rey, Soo-Jong
2017-07-01
A particular two-parameter class of little string theories can be described by M parallel M5-branes probing a transverse affine A N - 1 singularity. We previously discussed the duality between the theories labelled by ( N, M) and ( M, N). In this work, we propose that these two are in fact only part of a larger web of dual theories. We provide evidence that the theories labelled by ( N, M) and (NM/k,k) are dual to each other, where k = gcd( N, M). To argue for this duality, we use a geometric realization of these little string theories in terms of F-theory compactifications on toric, non-compact Calabi-Yau threefolds X N, M which have a double elliptic fibration structure. We show explicitly for a number of examples that X NM/ k, k is part of the extended moduli space of X N, M , i.e. the two are related through symmetry transformations and flop transitions. By working out the full duality map, we provide a simple check at the level of the free energy of little string theories.
Dual Little Strings from F-Theory and Flop Transitions
Hohenegger, Stefan; Rey, Soo-Jong
2016-01-01
A particular two-parameter class of little string theories can be described by $M$ parallel M5-branes probing a transverse affine $A_{N-1}$ singularity. We previously discussed the duality between the theories labelled by $(N,M)$ and $(M,N)$. In this work, we propose that these two are in fact only part of a larger web of dual theories. We provide evidence that the theories labelled by $(N,M)$ and $(\\tfrac{NM}{k},k)$ are dual to each other, where $k=\\text{gcd}(N,M)$. To argue for this duality, we use a geometric realization of these little string theories in terms of F-theory compactifications on toric, non-compact Calabi-Yau threefolds $X_{N,M}$ which have a double elliptic fibration structure. We show explicitly for a number of examples that $X_{NM/k,k}$ is part of the extended moduli space of $X_{N,M}$, i.e. the two are related through symmetry transformations and flop transitions. By working out the full duality map, we provide a simple check at the level of the free energy of the little string theories.
22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...
Henstridge, Martin C.; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Gusmão, Rui; Compton, Richard G.
2011-11-01
Two simple models of electrode surface inhomogeneity based on Marcus-Hush theory are considered; a distribution in formal potentials and a distribution in electron tunnelling distances. Cyclic voltammetry simulated using these models is compared with that simulated using Marcus-Hush theory for a flat, uniform and homogeneous electrode surface, with the two models of surface inhomogeneity yielding broadened peaks with decreased peak-currents. An edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode is covalently modified with ferrocene via 'click' chemistry and the resulting voltammetry compared with each of the three previously considered models. The distribution of formal potentials is seen to fit the experimental data most closely.
Simple Models Create Steep Learning Curves in Academic Design Studio
Hansen, Peter Lundsgaard; Dam, Torben; Le Goffic, Virginie Corinne
2014-01-01
theory positions normally regarded as mutually incompatible. The method is the result of years of ‘trial and error’ design studio teaching at the University of Copenhagen, triangulated with academic design theory research. Research based design studio teaching poses a fundamental pedagogical challenge......, as it must combine skill-based design practice with academic-explicated theories and methods. The vehicle in the development of the simple model method is overcoming the challenge of ensuring that a group of students with various backgrounds and cultures can produce specific and consistent design proposals...
The Structure of Simple Reminiscence.
Merriam, Sharan B.
1989-01-01
Attempted to better delineate nature of simple reminiscence (recall of past experiences). Used constant comparative method to analyze transcripts of older adults' reminiscences and found that the process consists of four elements: selection, immersion, withdrawal, and closure. (Author/NB)
The Simple Publishing Interface (SPI)
Ternier, Stefaan; Massart, David; Totschnig, Michael; Klerkx, Joris; Duval, Erik
2010-01-01
Ternier, S., Massart, D., Totschnig, M., Klerkx, J., & Duval, E. (2010). The Simple Publishing Interface (SPI). D-Lib Magazine, September/October 2010, Volume 16 Number 9/10, doi:10.1045/september2010-ternier
The Simple Publishing Interface (SPI)
Ternier, Stefaan; Massart, David; Totschnig, Michael; Klerkx, Joris; Duval, Erik
2010-01-01
Ternier, S., Massart, D., Totschnig, M., Klerkx, J., & Duval, E. (2010). The Simple Publishing Interface (SPI). D-Lib Magazine, September/October 2010, Volume 16 Number 9/10, doi:10.1045/september2010-ternier
A New Theory of Oscillating Flows
Vladimirov, Vladimir
2010-11-01
A new theory of viscous oscillatory flows has been developed. Our theory represents an adaptation of the Vishik-Lyusternik approach combined with the two-timing and averaging methods. We consider the high Re viscous incompressible flows driven by a vibrating boundary for the simple geometry of a half-space. From the physical viewpoint the considered boundary conditions may be seen as the tangential vibrations of material points of a plane stretchable membrane. The main result is the obtaining of the general, global, and uniformly valid asymptotic solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. These solutions satisfy general oscillating boundary conditions and three different settings of the scaling parameters (that correspond to the strong, moderate, and weak nonlinearities). We have derived that the streaming part of any solution is governed by either the full Navier-Stokes equations or Stokes' equations (both with the unit Re) as well as by the precisely derived effective boundary conditions. The examples of the spatially periodic vibrations of the boundary and the angular torsional vibrations of an infinite rigid disc have been considered. In the sharp contrast to all previous theories of oscillating flows (see e.g. Batchelor's "Introduction to fluid dynamics," formula 5.13.15) our solutions do not deal with any secular (infinitely growing with the inner normal coordinate) terms. This new approach may be seen as a revolutionary step in the field, since for the very first time it does not use the asymptotic matching procedures and the boundary layer theories.
A simple proof of Renner's exponential de Finetti theorem
Vidick, Thomas; Yuen, Henry
2016-01-01
We give a simple proof of the exponential de Finetti theorem due to Renner. Like Renner's proof, ours combines the post-selection de Finetti theorem, the Gentle Measurement lemma, and the Chernoff bound, but avoids virtually all calculations, including any use of the theory of types.
Simple suppression of radiation damping.
Khitrin, A K; Jerschow, Alexej
2012-12-01
Radiation damping is known to cause line-broadening and frequency shifts of strong resonances in NMR spectra. While several techniques exist for the suppression of these effects, many require specialized hardware, or are only compatible with the presence of few strong resonances. We describe a simple pulse sequence for radiation damping suppression in spectra with many strong resonances. The sequence can be used as-is to generate simple spectra or as a signal excitation part in more advanced experiments.
What constitutes a simple liquid?
Ingebrigtsen, Trond S.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2011-01-01
Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlation between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a property of the intermole...
Generalized Higher Gauge Theory
Ritter, Patricia; Schmidt, Lennart
2015-01-01
We study a generalization of higher gauge theory which makes use of generalized geometry and seems to be closely related to double field theory. The local kinematical data of this theory is captured by morphisms of graded manifolds between the canonical exact Courant Lie 2-algebroid $TM\\oplus T^*M$ over some manifold $M$ and a semistrict gauge Lie 2-algebra. We discuss generalized curvatures and their infinitesimal gauge transformations. Finite gauge transformation as well as global kinematical data are then obtained from principal 2-bundles over 2-spaces. As dynamical principle, we consider first the canonical Chern-Simons action for such a gauge theory. We then show that a previously proposed 3-Lie algebra model for the six-dimensional (2,0) theory is very naturally interpreted as a generalized higher gauge theory.
Simple Models Create Steep Learning Curves in Academic Design Studio
Hansen, Peter Lundsgaard; Dam, Torben; Le Goffic, Virginie Corinne
2014-01-01
This paper presents an easily adaptable, very learning-efficient and solution-oriented design studio method: ‘the simple model method’. On a practical level it solves well known problems that occur when teaching design studios. On a theoretical level it suggests a ‘third way’ of bridging design......, their supervisors and other actors. The simple model is a non-verbal agent. However, due to its simplicity it enables verbalization supporting a solution-focused design studio teaching strategy. The simple model method is presented through a specific design studio course undertaken at the University of Copenhagen...... theory positions normally regarded as mutually incompatible. The method is the result of years of ‘trial and error’ design studio teaching at the University of Copenhagen, triangulated with academic design theory research. Research based design studio teaching poses a fundamental pedagogical challenge...
Poroelastic Foams for Simple Fabrication of Complex Soft Robots.
Mac Murray, Benjamin C; An, Xintong; Robinson, Sanlin S; van Meerbeek, Ilse M; O'Brien, Kevin W; Zhao, Huichan; Shepherd, Robert F
2015-11-01
Open-celled, elastomeric foams allow the simple design of fully 3D pneumatic soft machines using common forming techniques. This is demonstrated through the fabrication of simple actuators and an entirely soft, functional fluid pump formed in the shape of the human heart. The device pumps at physiologically relevant frequencies and pressures and attains a flow rate higher than all previously reported soft pumps.
Vibrations of twisted cantilevered plates - Summary of previous and current studies
Leissa, A. W.; Macbain, J. C.; Kielb, R. E.
1984-01-01
This work summarizes a comprehensive study made of the free vibrations of twisted, cantilevered plates of rectangular planform. Numerous theoretical and experimental investigations previously made by others have resulted in frequency results which disagree considerably. To clarify the problem a joint industry/government/university research effort was initiated to obtain comprehensive theoretical and experimental results for models having useful ranges of aspect ratios, thickness ratios and twist angles. Theoretical data came from 19 independent computer analyses, including finite element, shell theory and beam theory idealizations. Two independent sets of experimental data were also obtained. The theoretical and experimental results are summarized and compared.
Cheng, H C; Wang, L T; Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Thaler, Jesse; Wang, Lian-Tao
2006-01-01
Using the language of theory space, i.e. moose models, we develop a unified framework for studying composite Higgs models at the LHC. This framework--denoted little M-theory--is conveniently described by a theoretically consistent three-site moose diagram which implements minimal flavor and isospin violation. By taking different limits of the couplings, one can interpolate between simple group-like and minimal moose-like models with and without T-parity. In this way, little M-theory reveals a large model space for composite Higgs theories. We argue that this framework is suitable as a starting point for a comprehensive study of composite Higgs scenarios. The rich collider phenomenology of this framework is briefly discussed.
Simple machines made simple a teacher resource manual
Andre, Ralph E St
1993-01-01
This book allows you to present scientific principles and simple mechanics through hands-on cooperative learning activities. Using inexpensive materials (e.g., tape, paper clips), students build simple machines-such as levers, pulleys, spring scales, gears, wheels and axles, windmills, and wedges-that demonstrate how things work. Activities have easy-to-locate materials lists, time requirements, and step-by-step directions (usually illustrated) on presentation. Ideas for bulletin boards, learning centers, and computer-assisted instruction are an added bonus.
Pain experience after simple tooth extraction.
Al-Khateeb, Taiseer Hussain; Alnahar, Amir
2008-05-01
To assess pain experience after simple uncomplicated tooth extraction and to see if there is a need to prescribe analgesic drugs after such a procedure. A random sample of patients presenting for tooth extraction at the Maxillofacial Unit, Jordan University of Science and Technology was included. A baseline assessment of previously experienced general and dental pains using numeric scales was done. Subsequently, tooth extractions were done and telephone interviews were made during evenings for a week. Pain intensity was assessed on a numeric scale, and use of analgesic drugs and pain quality were recorded. At the evening of extraction 81.8% of patients had pain. Female gender predominance in pain reporting was statistically significant on postextraction days 3 and 5. Chronically inflamed teeth caused the highest mean pain intensity scores and nonsmokers showed significantly higher mean pain intensity scores compared with smokers. Mild pain was experienced by most patients (38.6%) on the evening of extraction. It was found that 55.3% of participants (largely females) used analgesic drugs on the evening of extraction, and 6.8% of participants still used analgesic drugs on day 7 postextraction. There was a significant correlation between mean pain intensity score and previous dental injection pain. Patients, notably females, experienced pain of varying intensity after simple uncomplicated tooth extraction maximally at the evening of extraction; and greater than 50% of the patients used analgesic drugs. We recommend offering regular analgesic drugs during the first week after tooth extraction.
Putting Consistent Theories Together in Institutions
应明生
1995-01-01
The problem of putting consistent theories together in institutions is discussed.A general necessary condition for consistency of the resulting theory is carried out,and some sufficient conditions are given for diagrams of theories in which shapes are tree bundles or directed graphs.Moreover,some transformations from complicated cases to simple ones are established.
Stewart, Ian Nicholas
2015-01-01
Classical Algebra Complex Numbers Subfields and Subrings of the Complex Numbers Solving Equations Solution by RadicalsThe Fundamental Theorem of Algebra Polynomials Fundamental Theorem of Algebra ImplicationsFactorisation of Polynomials The Euclidean Algorithm Irreducibility Gauss's Lemma Eisenstein's Criterion Reduction Modulo p Zeros of PolynomialsField Extensions Field Extensions Rational Expressions Simple ExtensionsSimple Extensions Algebraic and Transcendental Extensions The Minimal Polynomial Simple Algebraic Extensions Classifying Simple ExtensionsThe Degree of an ExtensionDefinition o
Matrix field theory: Applications to superconductivity
Zhou, Lubo
In this thesis a systematic, functional matrix field theory is developed to describe both clean and disordered s-wave and d-wave superconductors and the quantum phase transitions associated with them. The thesis can be divided into three parts. The first part includes chapters 1 to 3. In chapter one a general physical introduction is given. In chapters two and three the theory is developed and used to compute the equation of state as well as the number-density susceptibility, spin-density susceptibility, the sound attenuation coefficient, and the electrical conductivity in both clean and disordered s-wave superconductors. The second part includes chapter four. In this chapter we use the theory to describe the disorder-induced metal - superconductor quantum phase transition. The key physical idea here is that in addition to the superconducting order-parameter fluctuations, there are also additional soft fermionic fluctuations that are important at the transition. We develop a local field theory for the coupled fields describing superconducting and soft fermionic fluctuations. Using simple renormalization group and scaling ideas, we exactly determine the critical behavior at this quantum phase transition. Our theory justifies previous approaches. The third part includes chapter five. In this chapter we study the analogous quantum phase transition in disordered d-wave superconductors. This theory should be related to high Tc superconductors. Surprisingly, we show that in both the underdoped and overdoped regions, the coupling of superconducting fluctuations to the soft disordered fermionic fluctuations is much weaker than that in the s-wave case. The net result is that the disordered quantum phase transition in this case is a strong coupling, or described by an infinite disordered fixed point, transition and cannot be described by the perturbative RG description that works so well in the s-wave case. The transition appears to be related to the one that occurs in
Futur "simple" et futur "proche" ("Simple" Future and "Immediate" Future).
Franckel, Jean-Jacques
1984-01-01
An analysis of the use of simple and immediate future tenses in French shows that the expression of time is controlled more by context and modals than by specifically temporal cues. The role of negation in this situation is discussed. (MSE)
Simple Resonance Hierarchy for Surmounting Quantum Uncertainty
Amoroso, Richard L.
2010-12-01
For a hundred years violation or surmounting the Quantum Uncertainty Principle has remained a Holy Grail of both theoretical and empirical physics. Utilizing an operationally completed form of Quantum Theory cast in a string theoretic Higher Dimensional (HD) form of Dirac covariant polarized vacuum with a complex Einstein energy dependent spacetime metric, M̂4±C4 with sufficient degrees of freedom to be causally free of the local quantum state, we present a simple empirical model for ontologically surmounting the phenomenology of uncertainty through a Sagnac Effect RF pulsed Laser Oscillated Vacuum Energy Resonance hierarchy cast within an extended form of a Wheeler-Feynman-Cramer Transactional Calabi-Yau mirror symmetric spacetime bachcloth.
Marino Beiras, Marcos
2001-01-01
We give an overview of the relations between matrix models and string theory, focusing on topological string theory and the Dijkgraaf--Vafa correspondence. We discuss applications of this correspondence and its generalizations to supersymmetric gauge theory, enumerative geometry and mirror symmetry. We also present a brief overview of matrix quantum mechanical models in superstring theory.
Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....
Complex Autocatalysis in Simple Chemistries.
Virgo, Nathaniel; Ikegami, Takashi; McGregor, Simon
2016-01-01
Life on Earth must originally have arisen from abiotic chemistry. Since the details of this chemistry are unknown, we wish to understand, in general, which types of chemistry can lead to complex, lifelike behavior. Here we show that even very simple chemistries in the thermodynamically reversible regime can self-organize to form complex autocatalytic cycles, with the catalytic effects emerging from the network structure. We demonstrate this with a very simple but thermodynamically reasonable artificial chemistry model. By suppressing the direct reaction from reactants to products, we obtain the simplest kind of autocatalytic cycle, resulting in exponential growth. When these simple first-order cycles are prevented from forming, the system achieves superexponential growth through more complex, higher-order autocatalytic cycles. This leads to nonlinear phenomena such as oscillations and bistability, the latter of which is of particular interest regarding the origins of life.
Leadership styles and theories.
Giltinane, Charlotte Louise
It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.
Varzinczak, Ivan
2008-01-01
Like any other logical theory, domain descriptions in reasoning about actions may evolve, and thus need revision methods to adequately accommodate new information about the behavior of actions. The present work is about changing action domain descriptions in propositional dynamic logic. Its contribution is threefold: first we revisit the semantics of action theory contraction that has been done in previous work, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of dis...
Narayanaswamy’s 1971 aging theory and material time
Dyre, Jeppe C.
2015-01-01
The Bochkov-Kuzovlev nonlinear fluctuation-dissipation theorem is used to derive Narayanaswamy’s phenomenological theory of physical aging, in which this highly nonlinear phenomenon is described by a linear material-time convolution integral. A characteristic property of the Narayanaswamy aging......; this is equivalent to the well-known triangular relation for time-autocorrelation functions of aging spin glasses [L. F. Cugliandolo and J. Kurchan, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 27, 5749 (1994)]. The unique-triangles property implies a simple geometric interpretation of out-of-equilibrium time-autocorrelation functions......, which extends to aging a previously proposed framework for such functions in equilibrium...
New solutions with accelerated expansion in string theory
Dodelson, Matthew; Dong, Xi; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo
2014-12-01
We present concrete solutions with accelerated expansion in string theory, requiring a small, tractable list of stress energy sources. We explain how this construction (and others in progress) evades previous no go theorems for simple accelerating solutions. Our solutions respect an approximate scaling symmetry and realize discrete sequences of values for the equation of state, including one with an accumulation point at w = -1 and another accumulating near w = -1 /3 from below. In another class of models, a density of defects generates scaling solutions with accelerated expansion. We briefly discuss potential applications to dark energy phenomenology, and to holography for cosmology.
Cognitive theories of addiction: Α narrative review.
Kouimtsidis, C
2010-01-01
Several theories have been developed in order to understand the phenomenon of addiction. From a science development perspective, it is important to examine theories with shared concepts within a common framework, generate and test new hypotheses. Thispaper reviews those theories and models that consider substance misuse as a decision making process involving conscious and unconscious cognitive processes including simple classical conditioning models, cue reactivity, expectancy theory, social learning theory, neuropsychologicalmodels and the new hierarchical PRIME theory. A synthetic approach has been used as to identify similarities and to promote the incremental value of the discussed theories.
Acupuncture Treatment of Simple Obesity
Wei Qunli; Liu Zhicheng
2005-01-01
In order to investigate the therapeutic effects of ear acupuncture, body acupuncture and the combined use of the two in the treatment of simple obesity, 195 cases of obesity were divided into three groups, in which different reinforcing and reducing methods were applied according to their symptoms and signs.The effects of body acupuncture and body plus ear acupuncture were obviously superior to that of ear acupuncture, and the combined use of ear acupuncture and body acupuncture was better than that of simple body acupuncture.
28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.
2010-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...
2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.
2010-01-01
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...
49 CFR 236.1031 - Previously approved PTC systems.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously approved PTC systems. 236.1031 Section... Train Control Systems § 236.1031 Previously approved PTC systems. (a) Any PTC system fully implemented and operational prior to March 16, 2010, may receive PTC System Certification if the applicable PTC...
Simple SO(10) GUT in five dimensions
Fukuyama, Takeshi; Okada, Nobuchika
2008-07-01
A simple supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theory (GUT) in five dimensions is considered. The fifth dimension is compactified on the S1/(Z2×Z2') orbifold possessing two inequivalent fixed points. In our setup, all matter and Higgs multiplets reside on one brane (PS brane) where the original SO(10) gauge group is broken down to the Pati-Salam (PS) gauge group, SU(4)c×SU(2)L×SU(2)R, by the orbifold boundary condition, while only the SO(10) gauge multiplet resides in the bulk. The further breaking of the PS symmetry to the standard model gauge group is realized by Higgs multiplets on the PS brane as usual in four-dimensional models. Proton decay is fully suppressed. In our simple setup, the gauge coupling unification is realized after incorporating threshold corrections of Kaluza-Klein modes. When supersymmetry is assumed to be broken on the other brane, supersymmetry breaking is transmitted to the PS brane through the gaugino mediation with the bulk gauge multiplet.
Pinter, Charles C
2014-01-01
Suitable for upper-level undergraduates, this accessible approach to set theory poses rigorous but simple arguments. Each definition is accompanied by commentary that motivates and explains new concepts. Starting with a repetition of the familiar arguments of elementary set theory, the level of abstract thinking gradually rises for a progressive increase in complexity.A historical introduction presents a brief account of the growth of set theory, with special emphasis on problems that led to the development of the various systems of axiomatic set theory. Subsequent chapters explore classes and
The Theory of Optimal Taxation
Sørensen, Peter Birch
The theory of optimal taxation has often been criticized for being of little practical policy relevance, due to a lack of robust theoretical results. This paper argues that recent advances in optimal tax theory has made that theory easier to apply and may help to explain some current trends...... in international tax policy. Covering the taxation of labour income and capital income as well as indirect taxation, the paper also illustrates how some of the key results in optimal tax theory may be derived in a simple, heuristic manner....
Introduction to electromagnetic theory
Owen, George E
2003-01-01
A direct, stimulating approach to electromagnetic theory, this text employs matrices and matrix methods for the simple development of broad theorems. The author uses vector representation throughout the book, with numerous applications of Poisson's equation and the Laplace equation (the latter occurring in both electronics and magnetic media). Contents include the electrostatics of point charges, distributions of charge, conductors and dielectrics, currents and circuits, and the Lorentz force and the magnetic field. Additional topics comprise the magnetic field of steady currents, induced ele
Varzinczak, Ivan
2008-01-01
Like any other logical theory, domain descriptions in reasoning about actions may evolve, and thus need revision methods to adequately accommodate new information about the behavior of actions. The present work is about changing action domain descriptions in propositional dynamic logic. Its contribution is threefold: first we revisit the semantics of action theory contraction that has been done in previous work, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of distance between Kripke-models. Second we give algorithms for syntactical action theory contraction and establish their correctness w.r.t. our semantics. Finally we state postulates for action theory contraction and assess the behavior of our operators w.r.t. them. Moreover, we also address the revision counterpart of action theory change, showing that it benefits from our semantics for contraction.
Phase Transitions of Simple Systems
Berry, Stephen
2008-01-01
This monograph develops a unified microscopic basis for phases and phase changes of bulk matter and small systems in terms of classical physics. The origins of such phase changes are derived from simple but physically relevant models of how transitions between rigid crystalline, glassy and fluid states occur, how phase equilibria arise, and how bulk properties evolve from those of small systems.
Simple and Realistic Data Generation
Pedersen, Kenneth Houkjær; Torp, Kristian; Wind, Rico
2006-01-01
This paper presents a generic, DBMS independent, and highly extensible relational data generation tool. The tool can efficiently generate realistic test data for OLTP, OLAP, and data streaming applications. The tool uses a graph model to direct the data generation. This model makes it very simple...
Simple Combinatorial Optimisation Cost Games
van Velzen, S.
2005-01-01
In this paper we introduce the class of simple combinatorial optimisation cost games, which are games associated to {0, 1}-matrices.A coalitional value of a combinatorial optimisation game is determined by solving an integer program associated with this matrix and the characteristic vector of the
Determining Salinity by Simple Means.
Schlenker, Richard M.
This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…
Simple mastectomy under local anaesthesia.
Dennison, A. R.; Watkins, R. M.; Ward, M. E.; Lee, E. C.
1985-01-01
Nine patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the breast underwent simple mastectomy under regional anaesthesia (1% lignocaine and 1:100,000 adrenaline). Preoperative sedation was provided by oral lorazepam. There were no technical problems, evidence of lignocaine toxicity or excessive operative blood loss and no wounds became infected. PMID:4037637
Contemporary physics in simple terms
Weisskopf, Victor Frederick
1973-01-01
With a view to emphasizing the basic principles involved, various topics in atomic and molecular physics are given a simple quantitative treatment using wave mechanics. Amongst the topics discussed are the size and energy of He, H and Ne atoms and Pauli's exclusion principle. Related subjects of discussion dealt with include binding energy of solids, lattice vibrations and the evaporation of solids.
Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.
2017-03-01
Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large.
Strong, Richard; Silver, Harvey; Perini, Matthew
1999-01-01
Like today's educators, Japanese haiku poets were caught between standards (like courtly love) and everyday realities. From this tension, they created a remarkable poetic form. Three examples from teachers' professional development work apply simple-and-deep principles to listening tasks, an assessment "deal," and curricular-standards…
A Simple Relativistic Bohr Atom
Terzis, Andreas F.
2008-01-01
A simple concise relativistic modification of the standard Bohr model for hydrogen-like atoms with circular orbits is presented. As the derivation requires basic knowledge of classical and relativistic mechanics, it can be taught in standard courses in modern physics and introductory quantum mechanics. In addition, it can be shown in a class that…
A Simple Relativistic Bohr Atom
Terzis, Andreas F.
2008-01-01
A simple concise relativistic modification of the standard Bohr model for hydrogen-like atoms with circular orbits is presented. As the derivation requires basic knowledge of classical and relativistic mechanics, it can be taught in standard courses in modern physics and introductory quantum mechanics. In addition, it can be shown in a class that…
Solving Simple Kinetics without Integrals
de la Pen~a, Lisandro Herna´ndez
2016-01-01
The solution of simple kinetic equations is analyzed without referencing any topic from differential equations or integral calculus. Guided by the physical meaning of the rate equation, a systematic procedure is used to generate an approximate solution that converges uniformly to the exact solution in the case of zero, first, and second order…
An Affect Control Theory of Technology
Shank, Daniel B.
2010-01-01
Affect control theory is a theory of interaction that takes into account cultural meanings. Affect control research has previously considered interaction with technology, but there remains a lack of theorizing about inclusion of technology within the theory. This paper lays a foundation for an affect control theory of technology by addressing key…
Uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery after previous severe postpartum cerebral angiopathy.
Rémi, Jan; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Fesl, Gunther; Rogenhofer, Nina; Straube, Andreas; Klein, Matthias
2011-09-01
Postpartum cerebral angiopathy (PCA) is a cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome developing shortly after delivery, without signs of preceding eclampsia. The risk for recurrence of PCA is unknown. Here, we report on a closely monitored, uneventful pregnancy of a woman with a previous severe episode of PCA. In summary, this case report demonstrates that PCA does not necessarily recur in following pregnancies, even after previous severe episodes.
Uncomplicated Pregnancy and Delivery after Previous Severe Postpartum Cerebral Angiopathy
Jan Rémi
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Postpartum cerebral angiopathy (PCA is a cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome developing shortly after delivery, without signs of preceding eclampsia. The risk for recurrence of PCA is unknown. Here, we report on a closely monitored, uneventful pregnancy of a woman with a previous severe episode of PCA. In summary, this case report demonstrates that PCA does not necessarily recur in following pregnancies, even after previous severe episodes.
What Do Social Theories of Aging Offer Counselors?
Atchley, Robert C.
1992-01-01
Responds to previous article by Fry (1992) on social theories of aging. Expresses wish that Fry had not included so many marginally useful or discredited theories and had instead concentrated on more careful treatment of remaining theories, particularly disengagement theory, continuity theory, and socioenvironmental theory. Also wonders about…
Hierarchical theory of quantum adiabatic evolution
Zhang, Qi; Gong, Jiangbin; Wu, Biao
2014-12-01
Quantum adiabatic evolution is a dynamical evolution of a quantum system under slow external driving. According to the quantum adiabatic theorem, no transitions occur between nondegenerate instantaneous energy eigenstates in such a dynamical evolution. However, this is true only when the driving rate is infinitesimally small. For a small nonzero driving rate, there are generally small transition probabilities between the energy eigenstates. We develop a classical mechanics framework to address the small deviations from the quantum adiabatic theorem order by order. A hierarchy of Hamiltonians is constructed iteratively with the zeroth-order Hamiltonian being determined by the original system Hamiltonian. The kth-order deviations are governed by a kth-order Hamiltonian, which depends on the time derivatives of the adiabatic parameters up to the kth-order. Two simple examples, the Landau-Zener model and a spin-1/2 particle in a rotating magnetic field, are used to illustrate our hierarchical theory. Our analysis also exposes a deep, previously unknown connection between classical adiabatic theory and quantum adiabatic theory.
Gauge equivalence of Tachyon solutions in the cubic Neveu—Schwarz string field theory
Aref'eva, I. Ya.; Gorbachev, R. V.
2010-11-01
We construct a simple analytic solution of the cubic Neveu—Schwarz (NS) string field theory including the GSO(-) sector. This solution is analogous to the Erler—Schnabl solution in the bosonic case and to the solution in the pure GSO(+) case previously proposed by one of us. We construct exact gauge transformations of the new solution to other known solutions for the NS string tachyon condensation. This gauge equivalence manifestly supports the previous observation that the Erler solution for the pure GSO(+) sector and our solution containing both the GSO(+) and the GSO(-) sectors have the same value of the action density.
Intersection Theory, Integrable Hierarchies and Topological Field Theory
Dijkgraaf, Robbert
1992-01-01
In these lecture notes we review the various relations between intersection theory on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces, integrable hierarchies of KdV type, matrix models, and topological quantum field theories. We explain in particular why matrix integrals of the type considered by Kontsevich naturally appear as tau-functions associated to minimal models. Our starting point is the extremely simple form of the string equation for the topological (p,1) models, where the so-called Baker-Akhi...
Johnstone, PT
2014-01-01
Focusing on topos theory's integration of geometric and logical ideas into the foundations of mathematics and theoretical computer science, this volume explores internal category theory, topologies and sheaves, geometric morphisms, other subjects. 1977 edition.
Simple fixed functional space maintainer.
Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir
2014-01-01
Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228.
OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY IN WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS CAESAREAN SECTION
Bellad Girija
2016-06-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Carefully selected cases of Vaginal Birth after Caesarean Section (VBAC is safe and successful. Even though options of elective caesarean section or a trial of labour are given to women with prior caesarean section, the risk is always present. In successful VBACs, morbidity is less compared to repeat caesarean section. That is why this study is conducted to determine the outcome of pregnancy in women with previous CS. OBJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the clinical course of labour in cases with previous caesarean section. 2. To study the perinatal outcome in cases with previous caesarean section either by vaginal delivery or repeat Caesarean section. 3. To study maternal morbidity in these cases. METHOD A retrospective analysis of medical records of 250 women with a previous caesarean section, who delivered in BIMS Hospital between May 2015 and July 2015 was carried out. Women with recurrent indications for caesarean section and those having nonrecurrent indications with any complicating factors in present pregnancy and women with previous two caesarean sections were not given trial for vaginal delivery. Those women with previous section for the non-recurrent indications were given trial for vaginal delivery. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Was done by Chi-square test. RESULT In 250 cases, 132 cases were given trial for vaginal delivery. In these, vaginal delivery was 61.3% and repeat section was 38%. There is an association between maternal morbidity and type of delivery. Birth weight was associated with the type of delivery. There is no association between neonatal outcome and type of delivery. CONCLUSION In carefully selected patients, appropriate timing and close supervision, trial of vaginal delivery in previous one caesarean section is safe and successful. Individual approach seems to be the best.
Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.
Ooi, Poh Veh
2011-01-01
Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.
Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.
Ooi, Poh Veh
2012-01-31
Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.
Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer
Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir
2015-01-01
ABSTRACT% Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature ...
Brodin, G., E-mail: gert.brodin@physics.umu.se [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Stenflo, L. [Department of Physics, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)
2017-03-18
Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.
Simple techniques can increase motivation
Smith, E.A.
1982-12-01
Productivity depends upon strong motivation. This article describes how the symptoms of weak motivation can be detected among engineers and other employees and what to do about it. Fortunately, most people want to be productive and respond to simple motivation building techniques. These techniques include establishing twoway communication between supervisor and subordinate, delegating authority on the basis of responsibility, effective organization of time, and the use of positive reinforcement (or rewards) and, when conditions merit it, negative reinforcement (or sanctions).
SIMPLE INNOVATION OF FINANCIAL ASSET
ZHANG Shunming
2001-01-01
This paper presents a simple two-period model of the innovationof financial asset by commission-revenue maximization exchange. The economic agents with meanvariance preferences take transaction costs in the process of trading the financial asset, the buying per-unit commission of the futures contract and the selling per-unit commission of the financial asset. The commission-revenue maximization exchange innovates financial asset.
Instant simple botting with PHP
Anderson, Shay Michael
2013-01-01
do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is a hands-on Starter guide that takes the reader from initialization to the coding and implementation of bot apps.Instant Simple Botting with PHP targets programmers of all levels who are familiar with common PHP functions and syntax, and who want to learn about bots and how to design and develop bots using objects.
SU; Yucai(
2001-01-01
［1］ Kawamoto, N., Generalizations of Witt algebras over a field of characteristic zero, Hiroshima Math. J., 1986, 16: 417.［2］ Osborn, J. M., New simple infinite－dimensional Lie algebras of characteristic 0, J. Alg., 1996, 185: 820.［3］ Dokovic, D. Z., Zhao, K., Derivations, isomorphisms, and second cohomology of generalized Witt algebras, Trans. of Amer. Math. Soc., 1998, 350(2): 643.［4］ Dokovic, D. Z., Zhao, K., Generalized Cartan type W Lie algebras in characteristic zero, J. Alg., 1997, 195: 170.［5］ Osborn, J. M., Zhao, K., Generalized Poisson bracket and Lie algebras of type H in characteristic 0, Math. Z., 1999, 230: 107.［6］ Osborn, J. M., Zhao, K., Generalized Cartan type K Lie algebras in characteristic 0, Comm. Alg., 1997, 25: 3325.［7］ Zhao, K., Isomorphisms between generalized Cartan type W Lie algebras in characteristic zero, Canadian J. Math., 1998, 50: 210.［8］ Passman, D. P., Simple Lie algebras of Witt type, J. Algebra, 1998, 206: 682.［9］ Jordan, D. A., On the simplicity of Lie algebras of derivations of commutative algebras, J. Alg., 2000, 206: 682.［10］ Xu, X., New generalized simple Lie algebras of Cartan type over a field with characteristic 0, J. Alg., 2000, 244: 23.［11］ Su, Y., Xu, X., Zhang, H., Derivation－simple algebras and the structures of Lie algebras of generalized Witt type, J. Alg., 2000, 233: 642.［12］ Dixmer, J., Enveloping Algebras, Amsterdam: North Holland, 1977.
FSM Model of a Simple Photovoltaic System
Martina Latkova
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper describes a simulation model of a simple photovoltaic system intended as a tool for testing the use of finite state machines for simulations representing a long-term operation of renewable energy sources. The mathematical model of the photovoltaic system is described first. Then it is used to build a finite state machine model that calculates a power output of the photovoltaic system for changing values of a solar irradiance and a temperature. Data measured on a real photovoltaic installation are used to verify modelâ€™s accuracy through its comparison with a previously created and verified Matlab model. The finite state machine model presented in this paper was created using Ptolemy II software.
A Simple Tubular Reactor Experiment.
Hudgins, Robert R.; Cayrol, Bertrand
1981-01-01
Using the hydrolysis of crystal violet dye by sodium hydroxide as an example, the theory, apparatus, and procedure for a laboratory demonstration of tubular reactor behavior are described. The reaction presented can occur at room temperature and features a color change to reinforce measured results. (WB)
Williams, Jeffrey
1994-01-01
Considers the recent flood of anthologies of literary criticism and theory as exemplifications of the confluence of pedagogical concerns, economics of publishing, and other historical factors. Looks specifically at how these anthologies present theory. Cites problems with their formatting theory and proposes alternative ways of organizing theory…
Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul
Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....
Exploring gravitational theories beyond Horndeski
Gleyzes, Jérôme; Langlois, David; Piazza, Federico; Vernizzi, Filippo
2015-02-01
We have recently proposed a new class of gravitational scalar-tensor theories free from Ostrogradski instabilities, in ref. [1]. As they generalize Horndeski theories, or "generalized" galileons, we call them G3. These theories possess a simple formulation when the time hypersurfaces are chosen to coincide with the uniform scalar field hypersurfaces. We confirm that they contain only three propagating degrees of freedom by presenting the details of the Hamiltonian formulation. We examine the coupling between these theories and matter. Moreover, we investigate how they transform under a disformal redefinition of the metric. Remarkably, these theories are preserved by disformal transformations that depend on the scalar field gradient, which also allow to map subfamilies of G3 into Horndeski theories.
Nielsen, Søren R. K.
The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...
Nielsen, Søren R. K.
The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration th...
Simple and Compact Expressions for Neutrino Oscillation Probabilities in Matter
Minakata, Hisakazu
2015-01-01
We reformulate perturbation theory for neutrino oscillations in matter with an expansion parameter related to the ratio of the solar to the atmospheric Delta m^2 scales. Unlike previous works, we use a renormalized basis in which certain first-order effects are taken into account in the zeroth-order Hamiltonian. Using this perturbation theory we derive extremely compact expressions for the neutrino oscillation probabilities in matter. We find, for example, that the $\
Primary Malignant Tumours of Bone Following Previous Malignancy
Patton, J. T.; Sommerville, S. M. M.; Grimer, R. J.
2008-01-01
Destructive bone lesions occurring in patients who have previously had a malignancy are generally assumed to be a metastasis from that malignancy. We reviewed 60 patients with a previous history of malignancy, who presented with a solitary bone lesion that was subsequently found to be a new and different primary sarcoma of bone. These second malignancies occurred in three distinct groups of patients: (1) patients with original tumours well known to be associated with second malignancies (5%); (2) patients whose second malignancies were likely to be due to the previous treatment of their primary malignancy (40%); (3) patients in whom there was no clearly defined association between malignancies (55%). The purpose of this study is to emphasise the necessity for caution in assuming the diagnosis of a metastasis when a solitary bone lesion is identified following a prior malignancy. Inappropriate biopsy and treatment of primary bone sarcomas compromises limb salvage surgery and can affect patient mortality. PMID:18414590
Primary Malignant Tumours of Bone Following Previous Malignancy
R. J. Grimer
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Destructive bone lesions occurring in patients who have previously had a malignancy are generally assumed to be a metastasis from that malignancy. We reviewed 60 patients with a previous history of malignancy, who presented with a solitary bone lesion that was subsequently found to be a new and different primary sarcoma of bone. These second malignancies occurred in three distinct groups of patients: (1 patients with original tumours well known to be associated with second malignancies (5%; (2 patients whose second malignancies were likely to be due to the previous treatment of their primary malignancy (40%; (3 patients in whom there was no clearly defined association between malignancies (55%. The purpose of this study is to emphasise the necessity for caution in assuming the diagnosis of a metastasis when a solitary bone lesion is identified following a prior malignancy. Inappropriate biopsy and treatment of primary bone sarcomas compromises limb salvage surgery and can affect patient mortality.
Erlotinib-induced rash spares previously irradiated skin
Lips, Irene M.; Vonk, Ernest J.A. [Radiotherapeutisch Instituut Stedendriehoek en Omstreken (RISO), Deventer (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Koster, Mariska E.Y. [Deventer Hospital (Netherlands). Dept. of Lung Diseases; Houwing, Ronald H. [Deventer Hospital (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology
2011-08-15
Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor prescribed to patients with locally advanced or metastasized non-small cell lung carcinoma after failure of at least one earlier chemotherapy treatment. Approximately 75% of the patients treated with erlotinib develop acneiform skin rashes. A patient treated with erlotinib 3 months after finishing concomitant treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is presented. Unexpectedly, the part of the skin that had been included in his previously radiotherapy field was completely spared from the erlotinib-induced acneiform skin rash. The exact mechanism of erlotinib-induced rash sparing in previously irradiated skin is unclear. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon needs to be explored further, because the number of patients being treated with a combination of both therapeutic modalities is increasing. The therapeutic effect of erlotinib in the area of the previously irradiated lesion should be assessed. (orig.)
Loring, FH
2014-01-01
Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec
Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul
2015-01-01
Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex ...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism.......Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...
Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul
Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex a...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism.......Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...
Harris, Tina
2015-04-29
Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.
Scattering theory of the Johnson spin transistor
Geux, Linda S.; Brataas, Arne; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.
1999-01-01
We discuss a simple, semiclassical scattering theory for spin-dependent transport in a many-terminal formulation, with special attention to the four terminal device of Johnson referred to as spin transistor
An introduction to the theory of groups
Alexandroff, Paul; Petersen, GM
2012-01-01
This introductory exposition of group theory by an eminent Russian mathematician is particularly suited to undergraduates. Includes a wealth of simple examples, primarily geometrical, and end-of-chapter exercises. 1959 edition.
Generalized Heisenberg theory of turbulence
Uberoi, M. S.; Narain, J. P.
1974-01-01
Solutions of the generalized theory are obtained which are consistent with the previous work on energy transfer measurements. They also agree with the measurements of turbulent energy spectrum for wave numbers in the universal equilibrium range.
Acute otitis media: a simple diagnosis, a simple treatment.
Chhetri, S S
2014-09-01
To assess the symptoms and signs of acute otitis media and efficiency of simple antibiotics like amoxicillin in its treatment in the primary health care setup. This is a prospective longitudinal study including 204 patients from different institutions. Patients were diagnosed as suffering from acute otitis media when presented with earache, fever, fullness and or otorrhea. Patients were divided into two equal groups on basis of the treatment they received, Group A received only symptomatic treatment while Group B were given Amoxicillin (40 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Acute otitis media was common in children under 15 years (64.7%). Patients presented with earache (100%), aural fullness (90.68%), fever (76.47%) associated with recent onset of upper respiratory tract infections (88.23%). In group A, improvement was noticed in 28.43% in 3 days while 35.29% in 7 days. In group B, improvement was noticed in 48.03% in day 3 while 86.27% in day 7. In countries where medical care is scarce, patients lost to follow up, it is wise to treat with simple antibiotics like amoxicillin in adequate dose than to treat only symptomatically. It prevents chronicity, early hearing impairments and reduces antibiotic resistance.
Simple field theoretical approach of Coulomb systems. Entropic effects
Di Caprio, D; Badiali, J P [Laboratory of Electrochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, University Paris 6, CNRS, ENSCP, BP 39, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Holovko, M [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Academy of Sciences, 1 Svientsitskii Str, 79011 Lviv (Ukraine)], E-mail: dung.di_caprio@upmc.fr
2009-05-29
We discuss a new simple field theory approach of Coulomb systems. Using a description in terms of fields, we introduce in a new way the statistical degrees of freedom in relation to the quantum mechanics. We show by a series of examples that these fundamental entropic effects can help account for physical phenomena in relation to Coulomb systems whether symmetric or asymmetric in valence. Overall, this gives a new understanding of these systems.
The Bayesian bridge between simple and universal kriging
Omre, H.; Halvorsen, K.B. (Norwegian Computing Center, Oslo (Norway))
1989-10-01
Kriging techniques are suited well for evaluation of continuous, spatial phenomena. Bayesian statistics are characterized by using prior qualified guesses on the model parameters. By merging kriging techniques and Bayesian theory, prior guesses may be used in a spatial setting. Partial knowledge of model parameters defines a continuum of models between what is named simple and universal kriging in geostatistical terminology. The Bayesian approach to kriging is developed and discussed, and a case study concerning depth conversion of seismic reflection times is presented.
A simple design of an artificial electromagnetic black hole
Lu, Wanli; Chen, Huanyang; Lin, Zhifang
2010-01-01
We study the properties of an artificial electromagnetic black hole for transverse magnetic modes rigorously. A multi-layered structure of such a black hole is then proposed as a reduced variety for easy experimental realizations. An actual design of composite materials based on the effective medium theory is given eventually with only five kinds of real isotropic materials. The finite element method confirms the functionality of such a simple design.
"Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?
Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others
This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…
Recovery of Previously Uncultured Bacterial Genera from Three Mediterranean Sponges
Versluis, Dennis; McPherson, Kyle; Passel, van Mark W.J.; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer
2017-01-01
Sponges often harbour a dense and diverse microbial community. Presently, a large discrepancy exists between the cultivable bacterial fraction from sponges and the community in its natural environment. Here, we aimed to acquire additional insights into cultivability of (previously uncultured)
49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.
2010-10-01
... permit. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 173.23, see the List of CFR Sections... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation §...
Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy
Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle;
2013-01-01
Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...
Time to pregnancy after a previous miscarriage in subfertile couples
T. Cox; J.W. van der Steeg; P. Steures; P.G.A. Hompes; F. van der Veen; M.J.C. Eijkemans; J.H. Schagen van Leeuwen; C. Renckens; P.M.M. Bossuyt; B.W.J. Mol
2010-01-01
Objective: To assess the time to spontaneous ongoing pregnancy after a previous miscarriage in subfertile couples. Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: The study was conducted in 38 fertility centers in the Netherlands. Patient(s): Subfertile couples who miscarried after completing their bas
Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy
Ryan, C.J.; Smith, M.R.; Bono, J. De; Molina, A.; Logothetis, C.J.; Souza, P. de; Fizazi, K.; Mainwaring, P.; Piulats, J.M.; Ng, S.; Carles, J.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Basch, E.; Small, E.J.; Saad, F.; Schrijvers, D.; Poppel, H. van; Mukherjee, S.D.; Suttmann, H.; Gerritsen, W.R.; Flaig, T.W.; George, D.J.; Yu, E.Y.; Efstathiou, E.; Pantuck, A.; Winquist, E.; Higano, C.S.; Taplin, M.E.; Park, Y.; Kheoh, T.; Griffin, T.; Scher, H.I.; Rathkopf, D.E.
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND: Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. METHODS: In this double-blind study, we
2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.
2010-01-01
... PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a... contains the information that was in Attachment C (non-profit organizations not subject to the Circular) to... agencies for non-profit organizations....
Study of cystic artery by arteriography. Importance of previous cholecystography
Machado, G.O.
An oral cholecystography previously to celiac and mesenteric arteriography is performed, in order to identify the cystic artery, in 42 patients with pancreatitis, according Seldinger technique. The cystic artery was identified in all the cases, the pattern being the outlet of the cystic artery from the right hepatic artery. Infusion pump and seriography were not used.
"Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?
Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others
This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…
Birth after previous cesarean delivery: short-term maternal outcomes.
Lydon-Rochelle, Mona T; Cahill, Alison G; Spong, Catherine Y
2010-08-01
An estimated 40% of the 1.3 million cesarean deliveries performed each year in the United States are repeat procedures. The appropriate clinical management approach for women with previous cesarean delivery remains challenging because options are limited. The risks and benefits of clinical management choices in the woman's health need to be quantified. Thus, we discuss the available published scientific data on (1) the short-term maternal outcomes of trial of labor after cesarean and elective repeat cesarean delivery, (2) the differences between outcomes for both, (3) the important factors that influence these outcomes, and (4) successful vs. unsuccessful vaginal birth after cesarean. For women with a previous cesarean delivery, a successful trial of labor offers several distinct, consistently reproducible advantages compared with elective repeat cesarean delivery, including fewer hysterectomies, fewer thromboembolic events, lower blood transfusion rates, and shorter hospital stay. However, when trial of labor after cesarean fails, emergency cesarean is associated with increased uterine rupture, hysterectomy, operative injury, blood transfusion, endometritis, and longer hospital stay. Care of women with a history of previous cesarean delivery involves a confluence of interactions between medical and nonmedical factors; however, the most important determinants of the short-term outcomes among these women are likely individualized counseling, accurate clinical diagnoses, and careful management during a trial of labor. We recommend a randomized controlled trial among women undergoing a TOLAC and a longitudinal cohort study among women with previous cesarean to evaluate adverse outcomes, with focused attention on both mother and the infant.
Simple Fully Automated Group Classification on Brain fMRI
Honorio, J.; Goldstein, R.; Honorio, J.; Samaras, D.; Tomasi, D.; Goldstein, R.Z.
2010-04-14
We propose a simple, well grounded classification technique which is suited for group classification on brain fMRI data sets that have high dimensionality, small number of subjects, high noise level, high subject variability, imperfect registration and capture subtle cognitive effects. We propose threshold-split region as a new feature selection method and majority voteas the classification technique. Our method does not require a predefined set of regions of interest. We use average acros ssessions, only one feature perexperimental condition, feature independence assumption, and simple classifiers. The seeming counter-intuitive approach of using a simple design is supported by signal processing and statistical theory. Experimental results in two block design data sets that capture brain function under distinct monetary rewards for cocaine addicted and control subjects, show that our method exhibits increased generalization accuracy compared to commonly used feature selection and classification techniques.
In vitro culture of previously uncultured oral bacterial phylotypes.
Thompson, Hayley; Rybalka, Alexandra; Moazzez, Rebecca; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Wade, William G
2015-12-01
Around a third of oral bacteria cannot be grown using conventional bacteriological culture media. Community profiling targeting 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomics methods have proved valuable in revealing the complexity of the oral bacterial community. Studies investigating the role of oral bacteria in health and disease require phenotypic characterizations that are possible only with live cultures. The aim of this study was to develop novel culture media and use an in vitro biofilm model to culture previously uncultured oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis were cultured on complex mucin-containing agar plates supplemented with proteose peptone (PPA), beef extract (BEA), or Gelysate (GA) as well as on fastidious anaerobe agar plus 5% horse blood (FAA). In vitro biofilms inoculated with the subgingival plaque samples and proteose peptone broth (PPB) as the growth medium were established using the Calgary biofilm device. Specific PCR primers were designed and validated for the previously uncultivated oral taxa Bacteroidetes bacteria HOT 365 and HOT 281, Lachnospiraceae bacteria HOT 100 and HOT 500, and Clostridiales bacterium HOT 093. All agar media were able to support the growth of 10 reference strains of oral bacteria. One previously uncultivated phylotype, Actinomyces sp. HOT 525, was cultivated on FAA. Of 93 previously uncultivated phylotypes found in the inocula, 26 were detected in in vitro-cultivated biofilms. Lachnospiraceae bacterium HOT 500 was successfully cultured from biofilm material harvested from PPA plates in coculture with Parvimonas micra or Veillonella dispar/parvula after colony hybridization-directed enrichment. The establishment of in vitro biofilms from oral inocula enables the cultivation of previously uncultured oral bacteria and provides source material for isolation in coculture.
Stringy horizons and generalized FZZ duality in perturbation theory
Giribet, Gaston
2017-02-01
We study scattering amplitudes in two-dimensional string theory on a black hole bakground. We start with a simple derivation of the Fateev-Zamolodchikov-Zamolodchikov (FZZ) duality, which associates correlation functions of the sine-Liouville integrable model on the Riemann sphere to tree-level string amplitudes on the Euclidean two-dimensional black hole. This derivation of FZZ duality is based on perturbation theory, and it relies on a trick originally due to Fateev, which involves duality relations between different Selberg type integrals. This enables us to rewrite the correlation functions of sine-Liouville theory in terms of a special set of correlators in the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) theory, and use this to perform further consistency checks of the recently conjectured Generalized FZZ (GFZZ) duality. In particular, we prove that n-point correlation functions in sine-Liouville theory involving n - 2 winding modes actually coincide with the correlation functions in the SL(2,R)/U(1) gauged WZW model that include n - 2 oscillator operators of the type described by Giveon, Itzhaki and Kutasov in reference [1]. This proves the GFZZ duality for the case of tree level maximally winding violating n-point amplitudes with arbitrary n. We also comment on the connection between GFZZ and other marginal deformations previously considered in the literature.
Simple waves in relativistic fluids.
Lyutikov, Maxim
2010-11-01
We consider the Riemann problem for relativistic flows of polytropic fluids and find relations for the flow characteristics. Evolution of physical quantities takes especially simple form for the case of cold magnetized plasmas. We find exact explicit analytical solutions for one-dimensional expansion of magnetized plasma into vacuum, valid for arbitrary magnetization. We also consider expansion into cold unmagnetized external medium both for stationary initial conditions and for initially moving plasma, as well as reflection of rarefaction wave from a wall. We also find self-similar structure of three-dimensional magnetized outflows into vacuum, valid close to the plasma-vacuum interface.
A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus
Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre
2016-03-01
A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.
Computer electronics made simple computerbooks
Bourdillon, J F B
1975-01-01
Computer Electronics: Made Simple Computerbooks presents the basics of computer electronics and explains how a microprocessor works. Various types of PROMs, static RAMs, dynamic RAMs, floppy disks, and hard disks are considered, along with microprocessor support devices made by Intel, Motorola and Zilog. Bit slice logic and some AMD bit slice products are also described. Comprised of 14 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the fundamentals of hardware design, followed by a discussion on the basic building blocks of hardware (NAND, NOR, AND, OR, NOT, XOR); tools and equipment that
Wrist arthrography: a simple method
Berna-Serna, Juan D.; Reus, Manuel; Alonso, Jose [Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital, Department of Radiology, El Palmar (Murcia) (Spain); Martinez, Francisco; Domenech-Ratto, Gines [University of Murcia, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Murcia (Spain)
2006-02-01
A technique of wrist arthrography is presented using an adhesive marker-plate with radiopaque coordinates to identify precisely sites for puncture arthrography of the wrist and to obviate the need for fluoroscopic guidance. Radiocarpal joint arthrography was performed successfully in all 24 cases, 14 in the cadaveric wrists and 10 in the live patients. The arthrographic procedure described in this study is simple, safe, and rapid, and has the advantage of precise localisation of the site for puncture without need for fluoroscopic guidance. (orig.)
Systems analysis made simple computerbooks
Antill, Lyn
1980-01-01
Systems Analysis: Made Simple Computerbooks introduces the essential elements of information systems analysis and design and teaches basic technical skills required for the tasks involved. The book covers the aspects to the design of an information system; information systems and the organization, including the types of information processing activity and computer-based information systems; the role of the systems analyst; and the human activity system. The text also discusses information modeling, socio-technical design, man-machine interface, and the database design. Software specification
Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation
STEVENS,MARK J.
2000-07-12
Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.
Trautschold, Martin
2011-01-01
With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience
Paradox of simple limiter control.
Hilker, Frank M; Westerhoff, Frank H
2006-05-01
Chaos control by simple limiters is an easy-to-implement and effective method of stabilizing irregular fluctuations. Here we show that applying limiter control to a state variable can significantly shift its mean value. In many situations, this is a countereffective as well as unexpected result, when the aim of control is also to restrict the dynamics. We discuss this effect on the basis of a model of population dynamics and conclude that it can have severe implications for the management of pest species and epidemic spread.
Controlling chaos with simple limiters
Corron; Pethel; Hopper
2000-04-24
New experimental results demonstrate that chaos control can be accomplished using controllers that are very simple relative to the system being controlled. Chaotic dynamics in a driven pendulum and a double scroll circuit are controlled using an adjustable, passive limiter-a weight for the pendulum and a diode for the circuit. For both experiments, multiple unstable periodic orbits are selectively controlled using minimal perturbations. These physical examples suggest that chaos control can be practically applied to a much wider array of important problems than initially thought possible.
Remarks on quiver gauge theories from open topological string theory
Carqueville, Nils
2009-01-01
We study effective quiver gauge theories arising from a stack of D3-branes on certain Calabi-Yau singularities. Our point of view is a first principle approach via open topological string theory. This means that we construct the natural A-infinity-structure of open string amplitudes in the associated D-brane category. Then we show that it precisely reproduces the results of the method of brane tilings, without having to resort to any effective field theory computations. In particular, we prove a general and simple formula for effective superpotentials.
Stochastic processes and filtering theory
Jazwinski, Andrew H
2007-01-01
This unified treatment of linear and nonlinear filtering theory presents material previously available only in journals, and in terms accessible to engineering students. Its sole prerequisites are advanced calculus, the theory of ordinary differential equations, and matrix analysis. Although theory is emphasized, the text discusses numerous practical applications as well.Taking the state-space approach to filtering, this text models dynamical systems by finite-dimensional Markov processes, outputs of stochastic difference, and differential equations. Starting with background material on probab
Liouville theory without an action
Pakman, Ari
2006-01-01
We show that the crossing symmetry of the four-point function in the Liouville conformal field theory on the sphere contains more information than what was hitherto considered. Under certain assumptions, it provides the special structure constants that were previously computed perturbatively and allows to solve the theory without using the Liouville interaction.
Michelson, J
2004-01-01
The Matrix Theory that has been proposed for various pp wave backgrounds is discussed. Particular emphasis is on the existence of novel nontrivial supersymmetric solutions of the Matrix Theory. These correspond to branes of various shapes (ellipsoidal, paraboloidal, and possibly hyperboloidal) that are unexpected from previous studies of branes in pp wave geometries.
[Intraosseous vascular access, a technic previously underestimated in France].
Oriot, D; Cardona, J; Berthier, M; Nasimi, A; Boussemart, T
1994-07-01
Intraosseous vascular access is a simple and very efficient technique for fluid and drug administration in any pediatric emergencies where the intravenous route is impossible or inadequate. Yet it remains unrecognized in France. Its pharmacokinetics is close to that of peripheral intravenous route, but it allows much greater infusion flow rates. In pediatric resuscitation it must be considered as the number one technique of intravascular access in infants, and rapidly as the first alternative after failure of attempt of intravenous route in children under 6. Provided that the technique is performed with careful asepsis, the risk of infectious complications is very low. However the intraosseous route must remain a transitory vascular access, and has to be stopped as soon as possible, its use never exceeding 24 hours.
Solitons and production of defects in flow-aligning nematic liquid crystals under simple shear flow
无
2002-01-01
The production of defects in flow-aligning nematic liquid crystals under simple shear flow is analyzed by linear stability analysis based on Leslie-Ericksen theory. It is pointed out that the equation of motion of the nematic director under simple shear flow conforms to the driven over-damped sine-Gordon equation and has a soliton solution of amplitude π. It has also been shown that the stationary state with the director uniformly oriented at a Leslie angle is only a metastable state and that the potential, which governs the motion of the director, has infinite numbers of stable stationary states. Therefore, the defects, appearing as a stable solitary solution, can be nucleated from a uniformly aligned flow-aligning type of nematic liquid crystal by shear flow. On the other hand, the bands with long axis parallel to the vorticity axis, appearing as an unstable solution, can be observed as transient patterns at low shear rate and low shear strain value. The theoretical predictions are compared with previous experimental observations.
Recent advances with generalized entropy theory of glass-formation in polymers
Freed, Karl
The generalized entropy theory (GET) of glass-formation in polymers is a combination of the lattice cluster theory (LCT) for the configurational entropy density with the Adam-Gibbs (AG) theory for the structural relaxation time. A greatly simplified form of the GET (whose expression for the free energy is roughly double that of Flory-Huggins theory) accurately reproduces the four characteristic temperatures of glass-formation (the onset, crossover, glass transition, and Kauzmann temperatures) of the full GET to within 4K for a series of models of polymers composed of semi-flexible chains having the structure of poly(n-alpha olefins). The theory is now simple enough to be used in courses in polymer physics. Although the successes of the GET provide a strong validation of the final form of the AG theory provided the configurational entropy is used, the physical basis of the AG theory has remained an enigma. Hence, we have developed a new, more general, statistical mechanical derivation of AG theory that explains the previously perplexing observations that the string-like elementary excitations have the mass and temperature dependence of systems undergoing equilibrium self-assembly. This work is supported by the (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award No. DE- SC0008631.
[Fatal amnioinfusion with previous choriocarcinoma in a parturient woman].
Hrgović, Z; Bukovic, D; Mrcela, M; Hrgović, I; Siebzehnrübl, E; Karelovic, D
2004-04-01
The case of 36-year-old tercipare is described who developed choriocharcinoma in a previous pregnancy. During the first term labour the patient developed cardiac arrest, so reanimation and sectio cesarea was performed. A male new-born was delivered in good condition, but even after intensive therapy and reanimation occurred death of parturient woman with picture of disseminate intravascular coagulopathia (DIK). On autopsy and on histology there was no sign of malignant disease, so it was not possible to connect previous choricarcinoma with amniotic fluid embolism. Maybe was place of choriocarcinoma "locus minoris resistentiae" which later resulted with failure in placentation what was hard to prove. On autopsy we found embolia of lung with a microthrombosis of terminal circulation with punctiformis bleeding in mucous, what stands for DIK.
Previous studies underestimate BMAA concentrations in cycad flour.
Cheng, Ran; Banack, Sandra Anne
2009-01-01
The traditional diet of the Chamorro people of Guam has high concentrations of the neurotoxin BMAA, beta-methyl-amino-L-alanine, in cycad tortillas and from animals that feed on cycad seeds. We measured BMAA concentration in washed cycad flour and compared different extraction methods used by previous researchers in order to determine how much BMAA may have been unaccounted for in prior research. Samples were analyzed with AQC precolumn derivatization using HPLC-FD detection and verified with UPLC-UV, UPLC-MS, and triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Although previous workers had studied only the free amino acid component of BMAA in washed cycad flour, we detected significant levels of protein-associated BMAA in washed cycad flour. These data support a link between ALS/PDC and exposure to BMAA.
Character theory of finite groups
Isaacs, I Martin
2006-01-01
Character theory is a powerful tool for understanding finite groups. In particular, the theory has been a key ingredient in the classification of finite simple groups. Characters are also of interest in their own right, and their properties are closely related to properties of the structure of the underlying group. The book begins by developing the module theory of complex group algebras. After the module-theoretic foundations are laid in the first chapter, the focus is primarily on characters. This enhances the accessibility of the material for students, which was a major consideration in the
Cutaneous responses to vaccinia in individuals with previous smallpox vaccination.
Simpson, Eric L; Hercher, Michelle; Hammarlund, Erika K; Lewis, Matthew W; Slifka, Mark K; Hanifin, Jon M
2007-09-01
The durability of immune responses to smallpox vaccine is a subject of considerable debate. We compared cutaneous vaccinia responses in patients vaccinated in the distant past with vaccine-naïve individuals using serial close-up photographs. The previously vaccinated group had a significantly reduced time course and milder cutaneous reactions. Vaccinated individuals appear to maintain clinically detectable immunity against vaccinia for at least 20 years after smallpox vaccination.
Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby
Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla
2014-01-01
Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...
Fontan completion in a patient with previous liver transplantation.
Haida, Hirofumi; Aeba, Ryo; Hoshino, Ken; Morikawa, Yasuhide
2014-10-01
We present the first case of a successful Fontan completion in a patient with previous liver transplantation. An infant with polysplenia syndrome with a functional single ventricle and biliary atresia had been surgically managed by pulmonary artery banding, Kasai operation and living donor liver transplantation. Subsequently, the patient successfully underwent bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt and total cavopulmonary connection with extracardiac conduit at 3 and 5 years of age, respectively.
Pleuritis due to Brevundimonas diminuta in a previously healthy man.
Lu, Binghuai; Shi, Yanli; Zhu, Fengxia; Xu, Xiaolin
2013-03-01
Brevundimonas diminuta is rarely associated with invasive infections. We report the case of a previously healthy young man with pleural effusion, in which B. diminuta was recovered but incorrectly identified as Kingella kingae when it was freshly isolated. Consequently, the misidentification resulted in initial treatment failure. The correct identification was achieved through further incubation, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and MS.
Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby
Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla
2014-01-01
Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...
Kraepelin and degeneration theory.
Hoff, Paul
2008-06-01
Emil Kraepelin's contribution to the clinical and scientific field of psychiatry is recognized world-wide. In recent years, however, there have been a number of critical remarks on his acceptance of degeneration theory in particular and on his political opinion in general, which was said to have carried "overtones of proto-fascism" by Michael Shepherd [28]. The present paper discusses the theoretical cornerstones of Kraepelinian psychiatry with regard to their relevance for Kraepelin's attitude towards degeneration theory. This theory had gained wide influence not only in scientific, but also in philosophical and political circles in the last decades of the nineteenth century. There is no doubt that Kraepelin, on the one hand, accepted and implemented degeneration theory into the debate on etiology and pathogenesis of mental disorders. On the other hand, it is not appropriate to draw a simple and direct line from early versions of degeneration theory to the crimes of psychiatrists and politicians during the rule of national socialism. What we need, is a differentiated view, since this will be the only scientific one. Much research needs to be done here in the future, and such research will surely have a significant impact not only on the historical field, but also on the continuous debate about psychiatry, neuroscience and neurophilosophy.
Previous violent events and mental health outcomes in Guatemala.
Puac-Polanco, Victor D; Lopez-Soto, Victor A; Kohn, Robert; Xie, Dawei; Richmond, Therese S; Branas, Charles C
2015-04-01
We analyzed a probability sample of Guatemalans to determine if a relationship exists between previous violent events and development of mental health outcomes in various sociodemographic groups, as well as during and after the Guatemalan Civil War. We used regression modeling, an interaction test, and complex survey design adjustments to estimate prevalences and test potential relationships between previous violent events and mental health. Many (20.6%) participants experienced at least 1 previous serious violent event. Witnessing someone severely injured or killed was the most common event. Depression was experienced by 4.2% of participants, with 6.5% experiencing anxiety, 6.4% an alcohol-related disorder, and 1.9% posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Persons who experienced violence during the war had 4.3 times the adjusted odds of alcohol-related disorders (P PTSD (P civil war and continues today has had a significant effect on the mental health of Guatemalans. However, mental health outcomes resulting from violent events decreased in the postwar period, suggesting a nation in recovery.
Subtalar Fusion Rate in Patients With Previous Ipsilateral Ankle Arthrodesis.
Zanolli, Diego H; Nunley, James A; Easley, Mark E
2015-09-01
Isolated subtalar arthrodesis is generally successful, with reported fusion rates of 84% to 100%. However, alteration of subtalar joint mechanics and talar body vasculature after ankle fusion may negatively influence subsequent ipsilateral subtalar joint fusion. Because there is very limited information on the subtalar fusion rate in patients with previous ipsilateral ankle fusion, the purpose of this study was to describe fusion rates in subtalar joint arthrodesis with and without preexisting ankle fusion in a large consecutive series of primary subtalar arthrodesis cases. All primary subtalar fusions performed between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. Thirteen of 151 consecutive cases were in patients with existing ipsilateral ankle fusions. All patients were evaluated for clinical and radiographic evidence of nonunion at follow-up, and fusion rates in the groups with and without previous ipsilateral ankle fusion were compared. Five nonunions occurred in the 13 cases with prior ipsilateral ankle arthrodesis, a 61.5% fusion rate. Twelve nonunions were identified in the 138 cases without prior ankle arthrodesis, a significantly higher fusion rate of 91.3% (P = .007). In our series, the subtalar fusion rate in patients with previous ipsilateral ankle arthrodesis was significantly lower than that for subtalar arthrodesis in the absence of ipsilateral ankle arthrodesis. Level III, retrospective comparative study. © The Author(s) 2015.
Previous Violent Events and Mental Health Outcomes in Guatemala
Puac-Polanco, Victor D.; Lopez-Soto, Victor A.; Kohn, Robert; Xie, Dawei; Richmond, Therese S.
2015-01-01
Objectives. We analyzed a probability sample of Guatemalans to determine if a relationship exists between previous violent events and development of mental health outcomes in various sociodemographic groups, as well as during and after the Guatemalan Civil War. Methods. We used regression modeling, an interaction test, and complex survey design adjustments to estimate prevalences and test potential relationships between previous violent events and mental health. Results. Many (20.6%) participants experienced at least 1 previous serious violent event. Witnessing someone severely injured or killed was the most common event. Depression was experienced by 4.2% of participants, with 6.5% experiencing anxiety, 6.4% an alcohol-related disorder, and 1.9% posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Persons who experienced violence during the war had 4.3 times the adjusted odds of alcohol-related disorders (P < .05) and 4.0 times the adjusted odds of PTSD (P < .05) compared with the postwar period. Women, indigenous Maya, and urban dwellers had greater odds of experiencing postviolence mental health outcomes. Conclusions. Violence that began during the civil war and continues today has had a significant effect on the mental health of Guatemalans. However, mental health outcomes resulting from violent events decreased in the postwar period, suggesting a nation in recovery. PMID:25713973
Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models
Tanaka, Kyoko K; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg
2015-01-01
We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a new prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by T...
Baby universes and string theory
Dijkgraaf, R.H.; Gopakumar, R.; Ooguri, H.; Vafa, C.
2006-01-01
The description of 4D BPS black holes in terms of branes wrapped on various cycles in a Calabi-Yau space gives us the opportunity to study various issues in quantum gravity in a definite way by means of the worldvolume theory of the branes. In the particular example discussed here, there is a simple
Disco Dancing and Kinetic Theory
Karakas, Mehmet
2010-01-01
This paper provides an example of an innovative science activity used in a science methods course for future elementary teachers at a small university in northeastern Turkey. The activity aims to help prospective elementary teachers understand kinetic-molecular theory in a simple way and to expose these preservice teachers to an innovative…
Jensen, Frank; Frost, Hans Staby; Thøgersen, Thomas Talund
2015-01-01
in 2010 and that the EU, Norway and the Faroe Islands reached a bargaining solution in 2014 cannot be explained by simple cooperative game theory. However, actual behavior during the mackerel crisis can be explained by opportunity costs, including alternative fishing possibilities and regulations, rather...
Plasticity Theory of Fillet Welds
Hansen, Thomas
2005-01-01
This paper deals with simple methods for calculation of fillet welds based on the theory of plasticity. In developing the solutions the lower-bound theorem is used. The welding material and parts of the base material are subdivided into triangular regions with homogeneous stress fields; thereby...
Characteristic Classes and Integrable Systems for Simple Lie Groups
Levin, A; Smirnov, A; Zotov, A
2010-01-01
This paper is a continuation of our previous paper \\cite{LOSZ}. For simple complex Lie groups with non-trivial center, i.e. classical simply-connected groups, $E_6$ and $E_7$ we consider elliptic Modified Calogero-Moser systems corresponding to the Higgs bundles with an arbitrary characteristic class. These systems are generalization of the classical Calogero-Moser (CM) systems related to a simple Lie groups and contain CM systems related to some (unbroken) subalgebras. For all algebras we construct a special basis, corresponding to non-trivial characteristic classes, the explicit forms of Lax operators and Hamiltonians.
Chang, CC
2012-01-01
Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko
Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick
2011-01-01
Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai
Mother Moose Generating Extra Dimensions from Simple Groups at Large N
Rothstein, I; Rothstein, Ira; Skiba, Witold
2002-01-01
We show that there exists a correspondence between four dimensional gauge theories with simple groups and higher dimensional gauge theories at large N. As an example, we show that a four dimensional {N}=2 supersymmetric SU(N) gauge theory, on the Higgs branch, has the same correlators as a five dimensional SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of large N provided the couplings are appropriately rescaled. We show that our results can be applied to the AdS/CFT correspondence to derive correlators of five or more dimensional gauge theories from solutions of five dimensional supergravity in the large t'Hooft coupling limit.
Roman, Steven
2006-01-01
Intended for graduate courses or for independent study, this book presents the basic theory of fields. The first part begins with a discussion of polynomials over a ring, the division algorithm, irreducibility, field extensions, and embeddings. The second part is devoted to Galois theory. The third part of the book treats the theory of binomials. The book concludes with a chapter on families of binomials - the Kummer theory. This new edition has been completely rewritten in order to improve the pedagogy and to make the text more accessible to graduate students. The exercises have also been im
Hashiguchi, Koichi
2009-01-01
This book details the mathematics and continuum mechanics necessary as a foundation of elastoplasticity theory. It explains physical backgrounds with illustrations and provides descriptions of detailed derivation processes..
Cox, David A
2012-01-01
Praise for the First Edition ". . .will certainly fascinate anyone interested in abstract algebra: a remarkable book!"—Monatshefte fur Mathematik Galois theory is one of the most established topics in mathematics, with historical roots that led to the development of many central concepts in modern algebra, including groups and fields. Covering classic applications of the theory, such as solvability by radicals, geometric constructions, and finite fields, Galois Theory, Second Edition delves into novel topics like Abel’s theory of Abelian equations, casus irreducibili, and the Galo
Dufwenberg, Martin
2011-03-01
Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Long-range boundary effects in simple fluids
Nieuwoudt, J. C.; Kirkpatrick, T. R.; Dorfman, J. R.
1984-01-01
We discuss long-range boundary effects in simple two- or three-dimensional fluids. These boundary effects are due to the existence of long-range correlations in nonequilibrium fluids and can be computed either by means of kinetic theory or phenomenological mode-coupling theories. In particular, we use kinetic theory to compute the stress tensor and heat flux vector for a fluid in a nonequilibrium steady state in a finite geometry and show that both the effective shear viscosity and effective heat conductivity have contributions due to the walls of the container that influence the behavior of the system far into the fluid. We also show that the mechanocaloric effect is present in the bulk of a three-dimensional fluid and that there are normal stresses in a fluid whenever the temperature gradient is nonzero.
A complex speciation-richness relationship in a simple neutral model.
Desjardins-Proulx, Philippe; Gravel, Dominique
2012-08-01
Speciation is the "elephant in the room" of community ecology. As the ultimate source of biodiversity, its integration in ecology's theoretical corpus is necessary to understand community assembly. Yet, speciation is often completely ignored or stripped of its spatial dimension. Recent approaches based on network theory have allowed ecologists to effectively model complex landscapes. In this study, we use this framework to model allopatric and parapatric speciation in networks of communities. We focus on the relationship between speciation, richness, and the spatial structure of communities. We find a strong opposition between speciation and local richness, with speciation being more common in isolated communities and local richness being higher in more connected communities. Unlike previous models, we also find a transition to a positive relationship between speciation and local richness when dispersal is low and the number of communities is small. We use several measures of centrality to characterize the effect of network structure on diversity. The degree, the simplest measure of centrality, is the best predictor of local richness and speciation, although it loses some of its predictive power as connectivity grows. Our framework shows how a simple neutral model can be combined with network theory to reveal complex relationships between speciation, richness, and the spatial organization of populations.
Backward bifurcations, turning points and rich dynamics in simple disease models.
Zhang, Wenjing; Wahl, Lindi M; Yu, Pei
2016-10-01
In this paper, dynamical systems theory and bifurcation theory are applied to investigate the rich dynamical behaviours observed in three simple disease models. The 2- and 3-dimensional models we investigate have arisen in previous investigations of epidemiology, in-host disease, and autoimmunity. These closely related models display interesting dynamical behaviors including bistability, recurrence, and regular oscillations, each of which has possible clinical or public health implications. In this contribution we elucidate the key role of backward bifurcations in the parameter regimes leading to the behaviors of interest. We demonstrate that backward bifurcations with varied positions of turning points facilitate the appearance of Hopf bifurcations, and the varied dynamical behaviors are then determined by the properties of the Hopf bifurcation(s), including their location and direction. A Maple program developed earlier is implemented to determine the stability of limit cycles bifurcating from the Hopf bifurcation. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate phenomena of interest such as bistability, recurrence and oscillation. We also discuss the physical motivations for the models and the clinical implications of the resulting dynamics.
Simple Algorithm Portfolio for SAT
Nikolic, Mladen; Janicic, Predrag
2011-01-01
The importance of algorithm portfolio techniques for SAT has long been noted, and a number of very successful systems have been devised, including the most successful one --- SATzilla. However, all these systems are quite complex (to understand, reimplement, or modify). In this paper we propose a new algorithm portfolio for SAT that is extremely simple, but in the same time so efficient that it outperforms SATzilla. For a new SAT instance to be solved, our portfolio finds its k-nearest neighbors from the training set and invokes a solver that performs the best at those instances. The main distinguishing feature of our algorithm portfolio is the locality of the selection procedure --- the selection of a SAT solver is based only on few instances similar to the input one.
Simple cyst of urinary bladder.
Bo, Yang
2014-07-01
Simple cysts are rare in the urinary bladder and can pose a diagnostic dilemma to both the urologist and the histopathologist. No case study was found in the database of Elsevier Science Direct, Spring-Link, or PubMed. We present two cases of subserous cyst in the bladder and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The cystic lesion at bladder dome was detected by radiologic examination and confirmed by cystoscopy. In case 1, transurethral resection was first performed which was followed by partial cystectomy; In case 2, the cyst was removed with the urachus using laparoscopic surgery. The patients recovered uneventfully and the histopathology showed cysts in subserous layer of urinary bladder. The bladder cyst should be distinguished from urachal tumor, and laparoscopic partial cystectomy is the preferred operative procedure.
Simple thermodynamics of jet engines
Patrício, Pedro; Tavares, José M.
2010-08-01
We use the first and second laws of thermodynamics to analyze the behavior of an ideal jet engine. Simple analytical expressions for the thermal efficiency, the overall efficiency, and the reduced thrust are derived. We show that the thermal efficiency depends only on the compression ratio r and on the velocity of the aircraft. The other two performance measures depend also on the ratio of the temperature at the turbine to the inlet temperature in the engine, T3/Ti. An analysis of these expressions shows that it is not possible to choose an optimal set of values of r and T3/Ti that maximize both the overall efficiency and thrust. We study how irreversibilities in the compressor and the turbine decrease the overall efficiency of jet engines and show that this effect is more pronounced for smaller T3/Ti.
Supernova Feedback Keeps Galaxies Simple
Chakraborti, Sayan
2011-01-01
Galaxies evolve continuously under the influence of self-gravity, rotation, accretion, mergers and feedback. The currently favored cold dark matter cosmological framework, suggests a hierarchical process of galaxy formation, wherein the present properties of galaxies are decided by their individual histories of being assembled from smaller pieces. However, recent studies have uncovered surprising correlations among the properties of galaxies, to the extent of forming a one-parameter set lying on a single fundamental line. It has been argued in the literature that such simplicity is hard to explain within the paradigm of hierarchical galaxy mergers. One of the puzzling results, is the simple linear correlation between the neutral hydrogen mass and the surface area, implying that widely different galaxies share very similar neutral hydrogen surface densities. In this work we show that self-regulated star formation, driven by the competition between gravitational instabilities and mechanical feedback from supern...
Invariant tensors for simple groups
De Azcarraga, J.A.; Macfarlane, A.J.; Mountain, A.J.; Perez Bueno, J.C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP)
1998-01-26
The forms of the invariant primitive tensors for the simple Lie algebras A{sub l}, B{sub l}, C{sub l} and D{sub l} are investigated. A new family of symmetric invariant tensors is introduced using the non-trivial cocycles for the Lie algebra cohomology. For the A{sub l} algebra it is explicitly shown that the generic forms of these tensors become zero except for the l primitive ones and that they give rise to the l primitive Casimir operators. Some recurrence and duality relations are given for the Lie algebra cocycles. Tables for the 3- and 5-cocycles for su(3) and su(4) are also provided. Finally, new relations involving the d and f su(n) tensors are given. (orig.). 34 refs.
Methadone radioimmunoassay: two simple methods
Robinson, K.; Smith, R.N. (Metropolitan Police Forensic Science Laboratory, London (UK))
1983-09-01
Two simple and economical radioimmunoassays for methadone in blood or urine are described. Haemolysis, decomposition, common anticoagulants and sodium fluoride do not affect the results. One assay used commercially-available (1-/sup 3/H)(-)-methadone hydrobromide as the label, while the other uses a radioiodinated conjugate of 4-dimethylamino-2,2-diphenylpentanoic acid and L-tyrosine methyl ester. A commercially-available antiserum is used in both assays. Normethadone and ..cap alpha..-methadol cross-react to a small extent with the antiserum while methadone metabolites, dextropropoxyphene, dipipanone and phenadoxone have negligible cross-reactivities. The 'cut-offs' of the two assays as described are 30 and 33 ng ml/sup -1/ for blood, and 24 and 21 ng ml/sup -1/ for urine. The assay using the radioiodinated conjugate can be made more sensitive if required by increasing the specific activity of the label.
Trautschold, Martin; Learning, MSL Made Simple
2010-01-01
The new iPad is sleek, powerful, and most importantly, it's much more than just a big iPhone. Your iPad is can be used for reading, surfing the web, emailing, watching TV/Movies, getting work done, and much more. And with the upcoming wave of iPad apps, the possibilities are endless. iPad X Made Simple clarifies all of the key features on the iPad, introduces what's new, and also reveals dozens of time-saving shortcuts and techniques. The book has over 1,000 screen shots that are carefully annotated with step-by-step instructions. * Clear instructions on how to set up and use the iPad * Illust
Microscopic Theory of Supercapacitors
Skinner, Brian Joseph
As new energy technologies are designed and implemented, there is a rising demand for improved energy storage devices. At present the most promising class of these devices is the electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC), also known as the supercapacitor. A number of recently created supercapacitors have been shown to produce remarkably large capacitance, but the microscopic mechanisms that underlie their operation remain largely mysterious. In this thesis we present an analytical, microscopic-level theory of supercapacitors, and we explain how such large capacitance can result. Specifically, we focus on four types of devices that have been shown to produce large capacitance. The first is a capacitor composed of a clean, low-temperature two-dimensional electron gas adjacent to a metal gate electrode. Recent experiments have shown that such a device can produce capacitance as much as 40% larger than that of a conventional plane capacitor. We show that this enhanced capacitance can be understood as the result of positional correlations between electrons and screening by the gate electrode in the form of image charges. Thus, the enhancement of the capacitance can be understood primarily as a classical, electrostatic phenomenon. Accounting for the quantum mechanical properties of the electron gas provides corrections to the classical theory, and these are discussed. We also present a detailed numerical calculation of the capacitance of the system based on a calculation of the system's ground state energy using the variational principle. The variational technique that we develop is broadly applicable, and we use it here to make an accurate comparison to experiment and to discuss quantitatively the behavior of the electrons' correlation function. The second device discussed in this thesis is a simple EDLC composed of an ionic liquid between two metal electrodes. We adopt a simple description of the ionic liquid and show that for realistic parameter values the capacitance
Simple mathematical models of gene regulatory dynamics
Mackey, Michael C; Tyran-Kamińska, Marta; Zeron, Eduardo S
2016-01-01
This is a short and self-contained introduction to the field of mathematical modeling of gene-networks in bacteria. As an entry point to the field, we focus on the analysis of simple gene-network dynamics. The notes commence with an introduction to the deterministic modeling of gene-networks, with extensive reference to applicable results coming from dynamical systems theory. The second part of the notes treats extensively several approaches to the study of gene-network dynamics in the presence of noise—either arising from low numbers of molecules involved, or due to noise external to the regulatory process. The third and final part of the notes gives a detailed treatment of three well studied and concrete examples of gene-network dynamics by considering the lactose operon, the tryptophan operon, and the lysis-lysogeny switch. The notes contain an index for easy location of particular topics as well as an extensive bibliography of the current literature. The target audience of these notes are mainly graduat...
HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY
R. Sh. Saitgareev
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies
Clinical Analysis of Placenta Previa Complicated with Previous Caesarean Section
Liang-kun Ma; Na Han; Jian-qiu Yang; Xu-ming Bian; Jun-tao Liu
2012-01-01
Objective To investigate the clinical features and treatment of placenta previa complicated with previous caesarean section.Methods The clinical data of 29 patients with placenta previa complicated with a previous caesarean section (RCS group) admitted in Peking Union Medical College Hospital during a period from 2003 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 243 patients with placenta previa without a previous caesarean section (FCS group) during the same period.Results There was no difference in the mean age (28.9±3.6 vs.28.1±4.5 years) and the average gravidity (2.35 ± 1.48 vs.2.21 ± 1.53) between RCS group and FCS group (all P＞0.05).The RCS group had more preterm births (24.1％ vs.13.2％),complete placenta previa (55.2％ vs.4.9％),placenta accreta (34.5％ vs.2.5％),more blood loss during caesarean section (1412±602 vs.648 ±265 mL),blood transfusion (51.7％ vs.4.9％),disseminated intravascular coagulation (13.8％ vs.2.1％),and obstetric hysterectomy ( 13.8 ％ vs.0.8 ％) than the F C S group (all P＜ 0.05).The preterm infant rate ( 30.0％ vs.13.0％),neonatal asphyxia rate (10.0％ vs.4.9％),and perinatal mortality rate (6.7％ vs.0.4％) of the RCS group were higher than those of the FCS group (all P＜0.05).Conclusions More patients had complete placenta previa and placenta accreta,postpartum hemorrhage,transfusion,uterine packing,obstetric hysterectomy,and perinatal morbidity in the placenta previa patients with previous caesarean section.The patient should be informed of the risk and unnecessary first cesarean sections should be avoided.
Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby
Keerthi Kocherla
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and monoamniotic twins who died at 14 weeks of gestation. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1172-1175
Moyamoya disease in a child with previous acute necrotizing encephalopathy
Kim, Taik-Kun; Cha, Sang Hoon; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Kim, Baek Hyun; Chung, Hwan Hoon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, 516 Kojan-Dong, Ansan City, Kyungki-Do 425-020 (Korea); Eun, Baik-Lin [Department of Pediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)
2003-09-01
A previously healthy 24-day-old boy presented with a 2-day history of fever and had a convulsion on the day of admission. MRI showed abnormal signal in the thalami, caudate nuclei and central white matter. Acute necrotising encephalopathy was diagnosed, other causes having been excluded after biochemical and haematological analysis of blood, urine and CSF. He recovered, but with spastic quadriparesis. At the age of 28 months, he suffered sudden deterioration of consciousness and motor weakness of his right limbs. MRI was consistent with an acute cerebrovascular accident. Angiography showed bilateral middle cerebral artery stenosis or frank occlusion with numerous lenticulostriate collateral vessels consistent with moyamoya disease. (orig.)
Simple models of firms emergence
Weisbuch, Gérard; Mangalagiu, Diana; Ben-Av, Radel; Solomon, Sorin
2008-09-01
We present a dynamical model of the emergence of firms as opposed to a flat labour market where entrepreneurs would recruit workers for each business opportunity. The model uses a preferential choice of partners based on previous collaborations experience. A sharp transition in the parameter space separates an ordered regime, where preferential links establish, from a disordered regime corresponding to a fast turnover of employees.
Semantic markup of sensor capabilities: how simple it too simple?
Rueda-Velasquez, C. A.; Janowicz, K.; Fredericks, J.
2016-12-01
Semantics plays a key role for the publication, retrieval, integration, and reuse of observational data across the geosciences. In most cases, one can safely assume that the providers of such data, e.g., individual scientists, understand the observation context in which their data are collected,e.g., the used observation procedure, the sampling strategy, the feature of interest being studied, and so forth. However, can we expect that the same is true for the technical details of the used sensors and especially the nuanced changes that can impact observations in often unpredictable ways? Should the burden of annotating the sensor capabilities, firmware, operation ranges, and so forth be really part of a scientist's responsibility? Ideally, semantic annotations should be provided by the parties that understand these details and have a vested interest in maintaining these data. With manufactures providing semantically-enabled metadata for their sensors and instruments, observations could more easily be annotated and thereby enriched using this information. Unfortunately, today's sensor ontologies and tool chains developed for the Semantic Web community require expertise beyond the knowledge and interest of most manufacturers. Consequently, knowledge engineers need to better understand the sweet spot between simple ontologies/vocabularies and sufficient expressivity as well as the tools required to enable manufacturers to share data about their sensors. Here, we report on the current results of EarthCube's X-Domes project that aims to address the questions outlined above.
Lifshitz solutions in supergravity and string theory
Gregory, Ruth; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Zavala, Ivonne
2010-01-01
We derive Lifshitz configurations in string theory for general dynamical exponents z \\geq 1. We begin by obtaining simple Li x Omega solutions to supergravities in diverse dimensions, with Omega a compact constant curvature manifold. Then we uplift the solutions to ten dimensions, providing configurations that correspond to warped compactifications in Type II string theory.
Electric Circuit Theory--Computer Illustrated Text.
Riches, Brian
1990-01-01
Discusses the use of a computer-illustrated text (CIT) with integrated software to teach electric circuit theory to college students. Examples of software use are given, including simple animation, graphical displays, and problem-solving programs. Issues affecting electric circuit theory instruction are also addressed, including mathematical…
Klein Topological Field Theories from Group Representations
Sergey A. Loktev
2011-07-01
Full Text Available We show that any complex (respectively real representation of finite group naturally generates a open-closed (respectively Klein topological field theory over complex numbers. We relate the 1-point correlator for the projective plane in this theory with the Frobenius-Schur indicator on the representation. We relate any complex simple Klein TFT to a real division ring.
Mathematical Theory of Peer-Instruction Dynamics
Nitta, Hideo
2010-01-01
A mathematical theory of peer instruction describing the increase of the normalized number of correct answers due to peer discussion is presented. A simple analytic expression is derived which agrees with class data. It is shown that our theory is connected to the mathematical learning models proposed by Pritchard et al. It is also shown that…
Manning, Phillip
2011-01-01
The study of quantum theory allowed twentieth-century scientists to examine the world in a new way, one that was filled with uncertainties and probabilities. Further study also led to the development of lasers, the atomic bomb, and the computer. This exciting new book clearly explains quantum theory and its everyday uses in our world.
Ion N.Chiuta
2009-05-01
Full Text Available The paper determines relations for shieldingeffectiveness relative to several variables, includingmetal type, metal properties, thickness, distance,frequency, etc. It starts by presenting some relationshipsregarding magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fieldsas a pertinent background to understanding and applyingfield theory. Since literature about electromagneticcompatibility is replete with discussions about Maxwellequations and field theory only a few aspects arepresented.
Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes
Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels
2017-01-01
PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...
Examining Neurocognitive Function in Previously Concussed Interscholastic Female Soccer Players.
Forbes, Cameron R; Glutting, Joseph J; Kaminski, Thomas W
2016-01-01
Awareness of sport-related concussions in soccer has gained recent attention in the medical community. Interestingly, purposeful heading-a unique yet strategic and inherent part of soccer-involves repeated subconcussive blows to the head. We divided 210 female interscholastic soccer players into control (CON [never concussed]) and experimental (EXP [previously concussed]) groups. We assessed neurocognitive performance using the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics computer program before and after the players' competitive season. Headers were recorded at all sanctioned matches. Data were analyzed using a series of one-way analyses of covariance and t tests. Both groups essentially played in the same number of games (EXP = 16.1 vs. CON = 16.1) and had an equal number of total headers (EXP = 24.9 vs. CON = 24.3). Additionally, headers per game were surprisingly low in both groups (1.4 in EXP vs. 1.3 in CON). Unexpectedly, there were no significant differences between the EXP and CON groups across all dependent variables measured (p > .05). This study suggests that although previously concussed players involve themselves in purposeful heading (i.e., subconcussive insults) throughout a competitive season, there appear to be no negative consequences on neuropsychological test performance or concussion-related symptoms. Additional research is needed to determine what may result during the course of a playing career.
Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow
Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.
1987-01-01
(1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.
Identification of previously unrecognized FAP in children with Gardner fibroma.
Vieira, Joana; Pinto, Carla; Afonso, Mariana; do Bom Sucesso, Maria; Lopes, Paula; Pinheiro, Manuela; Veiga, Isabel; Henrique, Rui; Teixeira, Manuel R
2015-05-01
Fibromatous soft tissue lesions, namely desmoid-type fibromatosis and Gardner fibroma, may occur sporadically or as a result of inherited predisposition (as part of familial adenomatous polyposis, FAP). Whereas desmoid-type fibromatosis often present β-catenin overexpression (by activating CTNNB1 somatic variants or APC biallelic inactivation), the pathogenetic mechanisms in Gardner fibroma are unknown. We characterized in detail Gardner fibromas diagnosed in two infants to evaluate their role as sentinel lesions of previously unrecognized FAP. In the first infant we found a 5q deletion including APC in the tumor and the novel APC variant c.4687dup in constitutional DNA. In the second infant we found the c.5826_5829del and c.1678A>T APC variants in constitutional and tumor DNA, respectively. None of the constitutional APC variants occurred de novo and both tumors showed nuclear staining for β-catenin and no CTNNB1 variants. We present the first comprehensive characterization of the pathogenetic mechanisms of Gardner fibroma, which may be a sentinel lesion of previously unrecognized FAP families.
Melanoma diagnosed in lesions previously treated by laser therapy.
Delker, Sarah; Livingstone, Elisabeth; Schimming, Tobias; Schadendorf, Dirk; Griewank, Klaus G
2017-01-01
Laser therapy has become a routine procedure in dermatological practice and is frequently also used for pigmented lesions. Few reports exist of melanomas diagnosed in lesions previously treated by laser therapy. Between 2007 and 2014, we identified 11 patients who presented to our department with a melanoma diagnosed in a region previously treated by laser therapy. The course of events until the diagnosis of melanoma was assessed as well as patient outcome including treatment for disease progression. No histological assessment had been performed prior to laser therapy in nine of 11 (82%) cases. Benign melanocytic lesions had been diagnosed by biopsy prior to laser therapy in the other two cases. Time from laser therapy to diagnosis of melanoma ranged from less than 1 to 10 years. Stage of disease at diagnosis varied from stage IA to IIIC. Four patients progressed to stage IV disease, of whom at least one died of melanoma. We conclude that laser treatment of pigmented lesions can complicate the diagnosis of melanoma and lead to diagnosis delay with potentially fatal consequences. Considering this risk, we believe laser therapy for pigmented lesions should either be avoided entirely or at a minimum performed only after prior histological assessment. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Liu, Baoding
2015-01-01
When no samples are available to estimate a probability distribution, we have to invite some domain experts to evaluate the belief degree that each event will happen. Perhaps some people think that the belief degree should be modeled by subjective probability or fuzzy set theory. However, it is usually inappropriate because both of them may lead to counterintuitive results in this case. In order to rationally deal with belief degrees, uncertainty theory was founded in 2007 and subsequently studied by many researchers. Nowadays, uncertainty theory has become a branch of axiomatic mathematics for modeling belief degrees. This is an introductory textbook on uncertainty theory, uncertain programming, uncertain statistics, uncertain risk analysis, uncertain reliability analysis, uncertain set, uncertain logic, uncertain inference, uncertain process, uncertain calculus, and uncertain differential equation. This textbook also shows applications of uncertainty theory to scheduling, logistics, networks, data mining, c...
Bjerg, Ole; Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas
2017-01-01
The paper is a contribution to current debates about conspiracy theories within philosophy and cultural studies. Wittgenstein’s understanding of language is invoked to analyse the epistemological effects of designating particular questions and explanations as a ‘conspiracy theory......’. It is demonstrated how such a designation relegates these questions and explanations beyond the realm of meaningful discourse. In addition, Agamben’s concept of sovereignty is applied to explore the political effects of using the concept of conspiracy theory. The exceptional epistemological status assigned...... to alleged conspiracy theories within our prevalent paradigms of knowledge and truth is compared to the exceptional legal status assigned to individuals accused of terrorism under the War on Terror. The paper concludes by discussing the relation between conspiracy theory and ‘the paranoid style...
Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří
1988-01-01
Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...
Hjørland, Birger
2009-01-01
Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...
Bjerg, Ole; Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas
2017-01-01
The paper is a contribution to current debates about conspiracy theories within philosophy and cultural studies. Wittgenstein’s understanding of language is invoked to analyse the epistemological effects of designating particular questions and explanations as a ‘conspiracy theory......’. It is demonstrated how such a designation relegates these questions and explanations beyond the realm of meaningful discourse. In addition, Agamben’s concept of sovereignty is applied to explore the political effects of using the concept of conspiracy theory. The exceptional epistemological status assigned...... to alleged conspiracy theories within our prevalent paradigms of knowledge and truth is compared to the exceptional legal status assigned to individuals accused of terrorism under the War on Terror. The paper concludes by discussing the relation between conspiracy theory and ‘the paranoid style...
Changing theories of change: strategic shifting in implicit theory endorsement.
Leith, Scott A; Ward, Cindy L P; Giacomin, Miranda; Landau, Enoch S; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Wilson, Anne E
2014-10-01
People differ in their implicit theories about the malleability of characteristics such as intelligence and personality. These relatively chronic theories can be experimentally altered, and can be affected by parent or teacher feedback. Little is known about whether people might selectively shift their implicit beliefs in response to salient situational goals. We predicted that, when motivated to reach a desired conclusion, people might subtly shift their implicit theories of change and stability to garner supporting evidence for their desired position. Any motivated context in which a particular lay theory would help people to reach a preferred directional conclusion could elicit shifts in theory endorsement. We examine a variety of motivated situational contexts across 7 studies, finding that people's theories of change shifted in line with goals to protect self and liked others and to cast aspersions on disliked others. Studies 1-3 demonstrate how people regulate their implicit theories to manage self-view by more strongly endorsing an incremental theory after threatening performance feedback or memories of failure. Studies 4-6 revealed that people regulate the implicit theories they hold about favored and reviled political candidates, endorsing an incremental theory to forgive preferred candidates for past gaffes but leaning toward an entity theory to ensure past failings "stick" to opponents. Finally, in Study 7, people who were most threatened by a previously convicted child sex offender (i.e., parents reading about the offender moving to their neighborhood) gravitated most to the entity view that others do not change. Although chronic implicit theories are undoubtedly meaningful, this research reveals a previously unexplored source of fluidity by highlighting the active role people play in managing their implicit theories in response to goals.
Immediacy bias in emotion perception: current emotions seem more intense than previous emotions.
Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela
2009-08-01
People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This immediacy bias in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional reactions to pictures (Studies 1 and 2), films (Studies 3 and 4), and descriptions of terrorist threats (Study 5). The immediacy bias may be partly caused by immediate emotion's salience, and by the greater availability of information about immediate compared with previous emotion. Consistent with emotional salience, when people experienced new emotions, they perceived previous emotions as less intense than they did initially (Studies 3 and 5)-a change in perception that did not occur when people did not experience a new immediate emotion (Study 2). Consistent with emotional availability, reminding people that information about emotions naturally decays from memory reduced the immediacy bias by making previous emotions seem more intense (Study 4). Discussed are implications for psychological theory and other judgments and behaviors.
Geometric scalar theory of gravity
Novello, M.; Bittencourt, E.; Goulart, E.; Salim, J.M.; Toniato, J.D. [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica ICRA - CBPF Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150 - 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro - Brazil (Brazil); Moschella, U., E-mail: novello@cbpf.br, E-mail: eduhsb@cbpf.br, E-mail: Ugo.Moschella@uninsubria.it, E-mail: egoulart@cbpf.br, E-mail: jsalim@cbpf.br, E-mail: toniato@cbpf.br [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria - Dipartamento di Fisica e Matematica Via Valleggio 11 - 22100 Como - Italy (Italy)
2013-06-01
We present a geometric scalar theory of gravity. Our proposal will be described using the ''background field method'' introduced by Gupta, Feynman, Deser and others as a field theory formulation of general relativity. We analyze previous criticisms against scalar gravity and show how the present proposal avoids these difficulties. This concerns not only the theoretical complaints but also those related to observations. In particular, we show that the widespread belief of the conjecture that the source of scalar gravity must be the trace of the energy-momentum tensor — which is one of the main difficulties to couple gravity with electromagnetic phenomenon in previous models — does not apply to our geometric scalar theory. From the very beginning this is not a special relativistic scalar gravity. The adjective ''geometric'' pinpoints its similarity with general relativity: this is a metric theory of gravity. Some consequences of this new scalar theory are explored.
Schomerus, Volker
2017-01-01
Since its conception in the 1960s, string theory has been hailed as one of the most promising routes we have to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity. This book provides a concise introduction to string theory explaining central concepts, mathematical tools and covering recent developments in physics including compactifications and gauge/string dualities. With string theory being a multidisciplinary field interfacing with high energy physics, mathematics and quantum field theory, this book is ideal for both students with no previous knowledge of the field and scholars from other disciplines who are looking for an introduction to basic concepts.
Random measures, theory and applications
Kallenberg, Olav
2017-01-01
Offering the first comprehensive treatment of the theory of random measures, this book has a very broad scope, ranging from basic properties of Poisson and related processes to the modern theories of convergence, stationarity, Palm measures, conditioning, and compensation. The three large final chapters focus on applications within the areas of stochastic geometry, excursion theory, and branching processes. Although this theory plays a fundamental role in most areas of modern probability, much of it, including the most basic material, has previously been available only in scores of journal articles. The book is primarily directed towards researchers and advanced graduate students in stochastic processes and related areas.
Superlattice band structure: New and simple energy quantification condition
Maiz, F., E-mail: fethimaiz@gmail.com [University of Cartage, Nabeul Engineering Preparatory Institute, Merazka, 8000 Nabeul (Tunisia); King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413 (Saudi Arabia)
2014-10-01
Assuming an approximated effective mass and using Bastard's boundary conditions, a simple method is used to calculate the subband structure for periodic semiconducting heterostructures. Our method consists to derive and solve the energy quantification condition (EQC), this is a simple real equation, composed of trigonometric and hyperbolic functions, and does not need any programming effort or sophistic machine to solve it. For less than ten wells heterostructures, we have derived and simplified the energy quantification conditions. The subband is build point by point; each point presents an energy level. Our simple energy quantification condition is used to calculate the subband structure of the GaAs/Ga{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5}As heterostructures, and build its subband point by point for 4 and 20 wells. Our finding shows a good agreement with previously published results.
Simple refutation of Joy Christian's simple refutation of Bell's simple theorem
Gill, Richard D
2012-01-01
I point out a simple algebraic error in Joy Christian's refutation of Bell's theorem. In substituting the result of multiplying some derived bivectors with one another by consultation of their multiplication table, he confuses the generic vectors which he used to define the table, with other specific vectors having a special role in the paper, which had been introduced earlier. The result should be expressed in terms of the derived bivectors which indeed do follow this multiplication table. When correcting this calculation, the result is not the singlet correlation any more. Moreover, curiously, his normalized correlations are independent of the number of measurements and certainly do not require letting n converge to infinity. On the other hand his unnormalized or raw correlations are identically equal to -1, independently of the number of measurements too. Correctly computed, his standardized correlations are the bivectors - a . b - a x b, and they find their origin entirely in his normalization or standard...
Stochastic population theories
Ludwig, Donald
1974-01-01
These notes serve as an introduction to stochastic theories which are useful in population biology; they are based on a course given at the Courant Institute, New York, in the Spring of 1974. In order to make the material. accessible to a wide audience, it is assumed that the reader has only a slight acquaintance with probability theory and differential equations. The more sophisticated topics, such as the qualitative behavior of nonlinear models, are approached through a succession of simpler problems. Emphasis is placed upon intuitive interpretations, rather than upon formal proofs. In most cases, the reader is referred elsewhere for a rigorous development. On the other hand, an attempt has been made to treat simple, useful models in some detail. Thus these notes complement the existing mathematical literature, and there appears to be little duplication of existing works. The authors are indebted to Miss Jeanette Figueroa for her beautiful and speedy typing of this work. The research was supported by the Na...
New results on averaging theory and applications
Cândido, Murilo R.; Llibre, Jaume
2016-08-01
The usual averaging theory reduces the computation of some periodic solutions of a system of ordinary differential equations, to find the simple zeros of an associated averaged function. When one of these zeros is not simple, i.e., the Jacobian of the averaged function in it is zero, the classical averaging theory does not provide information about the periodic solution associated to a non-simple zero. Here we provide sufficient conditions in order that the averaging theory can be applied also to non-simple zeros for studying their associated periodic solutions. Additionally, we do two applications of this new result for studying the zero-Hopf bifurcation in the Lorenz system and in the Fitzhugh-Nagumo system.
Surgical management of intracranial aneurysms previously treated with endovascular therapy
Kumar Rajiv
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Endovascular treatment with coils of cerebral aneurysm is being increasingly used for definitive treatment. An increasing number of patients are coming for surgical intervention either for recurrences, incomplete coil embolization or its complications. Our objective was to assess the surgical management in such patients. This was a retrospective analysis of the patients who were initially treated with endovascular embolization and later managed surgically with clipping either for unsuccessful coiling, recurrence of aneurysm or post-procedural complication, between 2003 and 2007. Anatomical results were excellent in all five patients, and all the aneurysms were totally excluded from the circulation. All patients had good recovery. None of the patients suffered any major intraoperative or postoperative complication. Neurosurgical management of intracranial aneurysms previously treated with endovascular therapy is an emerging challenge, but with proper patient selection and careful planning, this subset of aneurysms can be managed with good results.
Primary papillary thyroid carcinoma previously treated incompletely with radiofrequency ablation.
Kim, Hoon Yub; Ryu, Woo Sang; Woo, Sang Uk; Son, Gil Soo; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Jae Bok; Bae, Jeoung Won
2010-01-01
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) recently has been applied to benign thyroid nodules, mainly for the cosmetic reasons, and limited cases of local recurrences or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, in the high-risk reoperative condition or for the palliative purpose. But no report has been made on the RFA for primary thyroid cancer to date. We report on a patient with primary papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland who had undergone RFA before the cytological diagnosis of malignancy, later referred and treated with robotic surgery successfully. We can learn the following lessons from our case; (1) the RFA for operable primary thyroid malignancy should be avoided, because of the possibility of remnant viable cancer and undetectable nodal metastasis, and (2) robotic or endoscopic thyroid surgery may be a feasible operative method for benign or malignant thyroid nodules previously treated with RFA.
Primary papillary thyroid carcinoma previously treated incompletely with radiofrequency ablation
Kim Hoon
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation (RFA recently has been applied to benign thyroid nodules, mainly for the cosmetic reasons, and limited cases of local recurrences or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, in the high-risk reoperative condition or for the palliative purpose. But no report has been made on the RFA for primary thyroid cancer to date. We report on a patient with primary papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland who had undergone RFA before the cytological diagnosis of malignancy, later referred and treated with robotic surgery successfully. We can learn the following lessons from our case; (1 the RFA for operable primary thyroid malignancy should be avoided, because of the possibility of remnant viable cancer and undetectable nodal metastasis, and (2 robotic or endoscopic thyroid surgery may be a feasible operative method for benign or malignant thyroid nodules previously treated with RFA.
Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.
Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B
2013-07-30
Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.
Single antiplatelet therapy for patients with previous gastrointestinal bleeds.
Gellatly, Rochelle M; Ackman, Margaret L
2008-06-01
To determine whether aspirin plus a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is preferable, from a gastrointestinal bleed (GIB) risk perspective, to clopidogrel in patients who have experienced a GIB while on aspirin and who require single antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. A literature search was conducted using EMBASE (1980-January 2008), PubMed (1966-January 2008), Google, and a manual search of the reference lists using the search terms gastrointestinal bleed, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, peptic ulcer hemorrhage, ASA, aspirin, Plavix, clopidogrel, and PPI. The search, limited to human and English studies, yielded 110 returns. Randomized trials that compared aspirin with clopidogrel, involved patients who had previously experienced a GIB, and provided detailed information on the type and dose of drugs used were included. Studies were required to provide information on the recurrence of GIB. Two randomized trials were reviewed to assess the safety of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease with respect to previous GIB. These noninferiority trials compared aspirin plus a PPI with clopidogrel over 12 months following confirmed healing of an aspirin-induced ulcer. In both trials, the majority of the GIB recurrences were in the clopidogrel group (8.6% vs 0.7%; difference 7.9%; 95% CI 3.4 to 12.4; p = 0.001 and 13.6% vs 0%; difference 13.6%; 95% CI 6.3 to 20.9; p = 0.0019) and the difference in recurrence rates exceeded the a priori selected upper boundary. Findings reported in the limited literature available support that clopidogrel is not equivalent to the combination of aspirin plus a PPI in the patient population studied. Aspirin plus a PPI would be considered clinically superior and should be used in medically managed patients who require single antiplatelet therapy but have had a prior GIB while on aspirin. Further research regarding dual antiplatelet therapy and a PPI is required.
Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.
Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W
2003-03-01
The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.
FETOMATERNAL OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY WITH PREVIOUS CESAREAN SECTION
Nigamananda
2014-09-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to see the fetomaternal outcome of pregnancy with previous cesarean section. METHODS: This study was conducted in the department of OBGYN, BARC Hospital, Mumbai from October 2011 to September 2012, a period of one year. All the pregnant women with previous one cesarean section attending ANC clinic for confinement were included in the study group after giving consent. RESULTS: Out of total75 cases, a total of 23 patients (30.67% were given trial of labor. Out of 23 patients given trial of labor, 12 patients (52.17% had successful VBAC. Commonest indication for unsuccessful trial of labor undergoing repeat cesarean section was non-progress of labor (54.55% and failed IOL (36.67%. Out of 12 patients who had successful VBAC, 3 patients (25% had complication like episiotomy hematoma, perineal tear and cervical tear. No patients had major complications. In present study no baby had apgar score <7 at 1min and 5 min in VBAC group and elective LSCS group. CONCLUSION: The current study concludes that women with a prior cesarean are at increased risk for repeat cesarean section. Vigilance with respect to indication at primary cesarean delivery, proper counseling for trial of labor and proper antepartum and intrapartum monitoring of patients, are key to reducing the cesarean section rates. The antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum complications are more in repeat cesarean section cases. There is no doubt that a trial of labor is a relatively safe procedure, but it is not risk free. Therefore, patient evaluation prior to TOLAC, careful observation throughout labor in a well-equipped unit with around the clock services for emergency surgery and availability of expertise is the backbone for successful VBAC.
College Readiness -- A Simple Description
Jerome Dancis
2012-01-01
Full Text Available To survive academically the first year of college, students basically need the three Rs, Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic, albeit all on high school levels. No Statistics needed.Reading means reading with understanding the expository and descriptive text in science and social studies textbooks, not literature. This includes following written directions. Writing means writing a coherent summary of each chapter in the science and social studies textbooks, and relating the chapter to material previously studied. Arithmetic means Arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, percents, measurement and multi-step Arithmetic word problems, along with “generalized” Arithmetic, better known as Algebra.
Asymptotics of Simple Branching Populations
Huillet, Thierry; Kłopotowski, Andrzej; Porzio, Anna
1995-09-01
In this paper we study a simple deterministic tree structure: an initial individual generates a finite number of offspring, each of which has given integer valued lifetime, iterating the same procedure when dying. Three asymptotic distributions of this asynchronous deterministic branching procedure are considered: the generation distribution, the ability of individuals to generate offspring and the age distribution. Thermodynamic formalism is then developped to reveal the multifractal nature of the mass splitting associated to our process. On considère l'itération d'une structure déterministe arborescente selon laquelle un ancêtre engendre un nombre fini de descendants dont la durée de vie (à valeurs entières) est donnée. Dans un premier temps on s'intéresse aux trois distributions asymptotiques suivantes : répartition des générations, aptitude à engendrer des descendants et répartition selon l'âge. Ensuite nous développons le formalisme thermodynamique pour mettre en évidence le caractère multifractal de la scission d'une masse unitaire associée à cette arborescence.
Arnaud, J; Philippe, F; Arnaud, Jacques; Chusseau, Laurent; Philippe, Fabrice
2002-01-01
A simple urn model is presented that may describe heat engines employing as working agents spin-1/2 particles (e.g., electrons) or two-level atoms. In this model the cold reservoir is an urn located at altitude $\\epsilon_{c}$ that contains $N$ balls of total weight $n_{c}$. Likewise, the hot reservoir at altitude $\\epsilon_{h}$ contains $N$ balls of total weight $n_{h}$. A cycle consists of exchanging two randomly selected balls between the reservoirs. Elementary considerations show that the heat-engine efficiency (ratio of the average work performed divided by the average hot-reservoir energy consumption) is $\\eta=1-\\epsilon_{c}/\\epsilon_{h}$. The case where the two reservoirs have negative temperatures is symmetrical to the case where the two reservoirs have positive temperatures in the sense that heat engines become heat pumps and conversely. When the cold reservoir has positive temperature while the hot reservoir has negative temperature the maximum efficiency is unity. When many cold and hot sub-reservoi...
Strong reality of finite simple groups
Vdovin, E P
2010-01-01
The classification of finite simple strongly real groups is complete. It is easy to see that strong reality for every nonabelian finite simple group is equivalent to the fact that each element can be written as a product of two involutions. We thus obtain a solution to Problem 14.82 from the Kourovka notebook from the classification of finite simple strongly real groups.
Equilibrium theory for braided elastic filaments
van der Heijden, Gert
Motivated by supercoiling of DNA and other filamentous structures, we formulate a theory for equilibria of 2-braids, i.e., structures formed by two elastic rods winding around each other in continuous contact and subject to a local interstrand interaction. Unlike in previous work no assumption is made on the shape of the contact curve. Rather, this shape is found as part of the solution. The theory is developed in terms of a moving frame of directors attached to one of the strands with one of the directors pointing to the position of the other strand. The constant-distance constraint is automatically satisfied by the introduction of what we call braid strains. The price we pay is that the potential energy involves arclength derivatives of these strains, thus giving rise to a second-order variational problem. The Euler-Lagrange equations for this problem give balance equations for the overall braid force and moment referred to the moving frame as well as differential equations that can be interpreted as effective constitutive relations encoding the effect that the second strand has on the first as the braid deforms under the action of end loads. Simple analytical cases are discussed first and used as starting solutions in parameter continuation studies to compute classes of both open and closed (linked or knotted) braid solutions.
Supersymmetric gauged Double Field Theory: Systematic derivation by virtue of \\textit{Twist}
Cho, Wonyoung; Jeon, Imtak; Park, Jeong-Hyuck
2015-01-01
In a completely systematic and geometric way, we derive maximal and half-maximal supersymmetric gauged double field theories in lower than ten dimensions. To this end, we apply a simple twisting ansatz to the $D=10$ ungauged maximal and half-maximal supersymmetric double field theories constructed previously within the so-called semi-covariant formalism. The twisting ansatz may not satisfy the section condition. Nonetheless, all the features of the semi-covariant formalism, including its complete covariantizability, are still valid after the twist under alternative consistency conditions. The twist allows gaugings as supersymmetry preserving deformations of the $D=10$ untwisted theories after Scherk-Schwarz-type dimensional reductions. The maximal supersymmetric twist requires an extra condition to ensure both the Ramond-Ramond gauge symmetry and the $32$ supersymmetries unbroken.
Theory of quantum-circuit refrigeration by photon-assisted electron tunneling
Silveri, Matti; Grabert, Hermann; Masuda, Shumpei; Tan, Kuan Yen; Möttönen, Mikko
2017-09-01
We focus on a recently experimentally realized scenario of normal-metal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junctions coupled to a superconducting resonator. We develop a first-principles theory to describe the effect of photon-assisted electron tunneling on the quantum state of the resonator. Our results are in very good quantitative agreement with the previous experiments on refrigeration and heating of the resonator using the photon-assisted tunneling, thus providing a stringent verification of the developed theory. Importantly, our results provide simple analytical estimates of the voltage-tunable coupling strength and temperature of the thermal reservoir formed by the photon-assisted tunneling. Consequently, they are used to introduce optimization principles for initialization of quantum devices using such a quantum-circuit refrigerator. Thanks to the first-principles nature of our approach, extension of the theory to the full spectrum of quantum electric devices seems plausible.
Statistical mechanical theory for and simulations of charged fluids and water
Rodgers, Jocelyn Michelle
Treatment of electrostatic interactions in simulations remains a topic of current research. These interactions are present in most biomolecular simulations, and they remain an expensive part of the simulation. Herein we explore the application of local molecular field (LMF) theory to this problem. Local molecular field theory splits the Coulomb potential 1/r into short-ranged and long-ranged components. The short-ranged component may be treated explicitly in simulations and the long-ranged component is contained in a mean-field-like average external electrostatic potential. In this thesis, the derivations and approximations inherent in using the previously developed LMF theory are explored, and connections to classical electrostatics are made. Further the approach is justified for molecular systems. The application of LMF theory to several systems is explored. First, a simple system of uniformly charged walls with neutralizing counterions is treated via simulations using LMF theory. We then explore systems involving molecular water at ambient conditions. A simple approximation to LMF theory using only the short-ranged component of 1/r is quite powerful for bulk water. A full treatment using LMF theory extends the validity of such spherical truncations to nonuniform systems. This thesis studies the successful treatment of water confined between hydrophobic walls with and without an applied electric field---a system which is a classic example of the failings of spherical truncations in molecular simulations. Additional results exemplify the applicability of LMF simulations to more molecularly realistic simulations. Connection is also made between these simulations of confined water and a related theory of hydrophobicity due to Lum, Chandler, and Weeks (1999).
PE Metrics: Background, Testing Theory, and Methods
Zhu, Weimo; Rink, Judy; Placek, Judith H.; Graber, Kim C.; Fox, Connie; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Park, Youngsik; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Raynes, De
2011-01-01
New testing theories, concepts, and psychometric methods (e.g., item response theory, test equating, and item bank) developed during the past several decades have many advantages over previous theories and methods. In spite of their introduction to the field, they have not been fully accepted by physical educators. Further, the manner in which…
Bernardo, Jose M
2000-01-01
This highly acclaimed text, now available in paperback, provides a thorough account of key concepts and theoretical results, with particular emphasis on viewing statistical inference as a special case of decision theory. Information-theoretic concepts play a central role in the development of the theory, which provides, in particular, a detailed discussion of the problem of specification of so-called prior ignorance . The work is written from the authors s committed Bayesian perspective, but an overview of non-Bayesian theories is also provided, and each chapter contains a wide-ranging critica
Kathleen Holtz Deal
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Psychodynamic theory, a theory of personality originated by Sigmund Freud, has a long and complex history within social work and continues to be utilized by social workers. This article traces the theory’s development and explains key concepts with an emphasis on its current relational focus within object relations theory and self-psychology. Empirical support for theoretical concepts and the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapies is reviewed and critiqued. Future directions are discussed, including addressing cultural considerations, increasing research, and emphasizing a relational paradigm
Smith, Shelley
This paper came about within the context of a 13-month research project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, at the Center for Public Space Research at the Royal Academy of the Arts School of Architecture in Copenhagen, Denmark. This project has been funded by RealDania. The goals of the research...... project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, which forms the framework for this working paper, are: * To provide a basis from which to discuss the concept of public space in a contemporary architectural and urban context - specifically relating to theory and method * To broaden the discussion of the concept...
Lubliner, Jacob
2008-01-01
The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and
On the number of classes of conjugate Hall subgroups in finite simple groups
Revin, D O
2009-01-01
In this paper we find the number of conjugate $\\pi$-Hall subgroups in all finite almost simple groups. We also complete the classification of $\\pi$-Hall subgroups in finite simple groups and correct some mistakes from our previous paper.
Thermal isomerization of azobenzenes: on the performance of Eyring transition state theory
Rietze, Clemens; Titov, Evgenii; Lindner, Steven; Saalfrank, Peter
2017-08-01
The thermal Z\\to E (back-)isomerization of azobenzenes is a prototypical reaction occurring in molecular switches. It has been studied for decades, yet its kinetics is not fully understood. In this paper, quantum chemical calculations are performed to model the kinetics of an experimental benchmark system, where a modified azobenzene (AzoBiPyB) is embedded in a metal-organic framework (MOF). The molecule can be switched thermally from cis to trans, under solvent-free conditions. We critically test the validity of Eyring transition state theory for this reaction. As previously found for other azobenzenes (albeit in solution), good agreement between theory and experiment emerges for activation energies and activation free energies, already at a comparatively simple level of theory, B3LYP/6-31G* including dispersion corrections. However, theoretical Arrhenius prefactors and activation entropies are in qualitiative disagreement with experiment. Several factors are discussed that may have an influence on activation entropies, among them dynamical and geometric constraints (imposed by the MOF). For a simpler model—Z\\to E isomerization in azobenzene—a systematic test of quantum chemical methods from both density functional theory and wavefunction theory is carried out in the context of Eyring theory. Also, the effect of anharmonicities on activation entropies is discussed for this model system. Our work highlights capabilities and shortcomings of Eyring transition state theory and quantum chemical methods, when applied for the Z\\to E (back-)isomerization of azobenzenes under solvent-free conditions.
Theory of physical libration of the Moon with the liquid core: Forced librations
Barkin, Yu. V.; Barkin, M. Yu.
2016-11-01
For a two-layer model of the Moon that consists of a solid nonspherical mantle and an ellipsoidal homogeneous liquid core, a theory of forced librations under the effect of gravitational Earth's moments has been developed. The motion of the Moon over its orbit has been described by the high-accuracy theory of DE/LE-4 orbital motion. Tables have been constructed that present forced librations of the Moon caused by the second harmonic of its force function, in the neighborhood of its motion according to the generalized Cassini laws. Disturbances of the first-order with respect to dynamic compressions of the Moon and its core are obtained in analytical form for Andoyer variables and Poincare variables and for the projection of the angular velocity vector of Moon's mantle rotation and the Poincare coordinate system (relative to which core's liquid accomplishes simple motion) on its major central axes of inertia, as well as for the classical variables in the Moon libration theory, etc. Constructed tables of the forced librations theory give the amplitudes and periods of librations and combinations of arguments of the orbital motion theory that correspond to libration parameters. The interpretation of basic variations has been given and a comparison with the previous theories has been carried out, in particular with the modern empirical theory constructed based on the laser observation data.
A simple model of scientific progress - with examples
Scorzato, Luigi
2016-01-01
One of the main goals of scientific research is to provide a description of the empirical data which is as accurate and comprehensive as possible, while relying on as few and simple assumptions as possible. In this paper, I propose a definition of the notion of "few and simple assumptions" that is not affected by known problems. This leads to the introduction of a simple model of scientific progress that is based only on empirical accuracy and conciseness. An essential point in this task is the understanding of the role played by "measurability" in the formulation of a scientific theory. This is the key to prevent artificially concise formulations. The model is confronted here with many possible objections and with challenging cases of real progress. Although I cannot exclude that the model might have some limitations, it includes all the cases of genuine progress examined here, and no spurious one. In this model, I stress the role of the "state of the art", which is the collection of all the theories that ar...
Subnuclear globules in simple mucinous glands of the gastrointestinal tract
Holck, Susanne; Ingeholm, P.
2007-01-01
Pyloric and duodenal Brunner glands may be the site of a peculiar cytoplasmic change characterized by clear vacuoles or glassy eosinophilic globules, occupying a subnuclear position with displacement of the nuclei towards the lumenal surface. To our knowledge this previously documented,5,6 althou...... rarely described cellular phenomenon has not previously been recorded in extrapyloric/duodenal sites. During a 5-year period, we have noticed 3 such cases involving the simple gastrointestinal mucinous glands, 2 of which occurring in sites outsides the pylorus and duodenum....