WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous reform efforts

  1. An evaluation of the 2003 tax reform effort in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck Rogério L. F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an assessment of the tax-reform effort launched by the newly elected Lula government in 2003. It analyzes how the envisaged reform had to be changed and scaled down, in the wake of strong political resistance, after a failed attempt to develop a consensual proposal, fully supported by state-governors. The main effective changes are then evaluated. Challenges ahead are discussed at the end.

  2. The British parliament: An effort towards the constitutional reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Irena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The British Parliament is the eldest representative assembly which inspired the development of most European parliamentary systems. This institution provides a framework for the Westminster model of democracy. The Parliament structure is based on bicameralism, including two chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The two-chamber structure is an integral part of the British parliamentary system. During the last century, many reforms took place regarding the modernization of Parliament. Thus, the number of members of the House of Lord has been reduced in order to ensure more efficiency in the working procedures. However, the House of Commons is still 'the dominant House' given its capacity to recruit a political majority which is eligible to control the Cabinet. During the 20th century, several waves of reforms engulfed the traditional English parliamentarism and its 'unwritten' constitution. Although the reforms have yielded some results, they have not yet produced a constitution in the formal sense. The partially reformed Parliament has not lost the traditional supremacy it was initially vested under the original postulates of the parliamentary sovereignty doctrine. The great constitutional reform in the UK, initiated in 1997, has encompassed not only Parliament but also a vast array of other areas ranging from the state power organization to human rights. In this process, the British Parliament should exercise a dual function: as a subject of reform ('reformer', as well as an object of reform ('the reformed'. Undoubtedly, the United Kingdom has been facing one of the largest waves of constitutional reforms in its long history, which will sooner or later lead to a constitutional codification in the state whose system is still predominantly based on the historical and 'unwritten' constitution.

  3. The Implementation of Police Reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Analysing UN and EU Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Padurariu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the role of the main international actors involved in the implementation of police reform in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina, notably that of the UN and the EU. Despite considerable efforts and resources deployed over 17 years, the implementation of police reform remains an ‘unfinished business’ that demonstrates the slow pace of implementing rule of law reforms in Bosnia’s post-conflict setting, yet, in the long-term, remains vital for Bosnia’s stability and post-conflict reconstruction process. Starting with a presentation of the status of the police before and after the conflict, UN reforms (1995–2002 are first discussed in order to set the stage for an analysis of the role of the EU in the implementation of police reform. Here, particular emphasis is placed on the institution-building actions of the EU police mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina deployed on the ground for almost a decade (2003-June 2012. The article concludes with an overall assessment of UN and EU efforts in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina, including the remaining challenges encountered by the EU on the ground, as the current leader to police reform implementation efforts. More generally, the article highlights that for police reform to succeed in the long-term, from 2012-onwards, the EU should pay particular attention to the political level, where most of the stumbling blocks for the implementation of police reform lie.

  4. New Orleans's Unique School Reform Effort and Its Potential Implications for Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    Four years following the decimation of the New Orleans Public Schools by Hurricane Katrina the city has been described as the center of a unique urban public school reform effort. This effort is a combination of events that transpired just before the storm and those that have occurred as a result of it. In particular some claim that the emerging…

  5. Implementation Issues in Federal Reform Efforts in Education: The United States and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Paige

    Multiple data sources are used in this study of educational change in the United States and Australia. The author considers political issues that may affect the implementation of educational reform efforts at the federal level, such as homogeneity versus heterogeneity, centralization versus decentralization, constitutional responsibility for…

  6. Equitable science education in urban middle schools: Do reform efforts make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Peter W.; Butler Kahle, Jane; Scantlebury, Kathryn; Davies, Darleen

    2001-12-01

    A central commitment of current reforms in science education is that all students, regardless of culture, gender, race, and/ or socioeconomic status, are capable of understanding and doing science. The study Bridging the Gap: Equity in Systemic Reform assessed equity in systemic reform using a nested research design that drew on both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. As part of the study, case studies were conducted in two urban middle schools in large Ohio cities. The purpose of the case studies was to identify factors affecting equity in urban science education reform. Data were analyzed using Kahle's (1998) equity metric. That model allowed us to assess progress toward equity using a range of research-based indicators grouped into three categories critical for equitable education: access to, retention in, and achievement in quality science education. In addition, a fourth category was defined for systemic indicators of equity. Analyses indicated that the culture and climate of the case study schools differentially affected their progress toward equitable reform in science education.

  7. The Promise of a Literacy Reform Effort in the Upper Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, Sharon; Amendum, Steven; Pasquarella, Adrian; Strong, John Z.; McKenna, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    We compared year-long gains in fluency and comprehension in grades 3-5 in 3 treatment and 4 comparison schools. Treatment schools implemented a comprehensive school reform (CSR) program called Bookworms. The program employed challenging text and emphasized high text volume, aggressive vocabulary and knowledge building, and contextualized strategy…

  8. Civic Capacity in Educational Reform Efforts: Emerging and Established Regimes in Rust Belt Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Dana L.; Frick, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Using urban regime theory, the article examines two Rust Belt cities that tried to break the cycle of social reproduction in their communities by reforming their schools. The article contributes to the development of urban regime theory by comparing an "emerging" regime to an "established" regime. The comparison highlights the interdependent…

  9. Impact of a school district's science reform effort on the achievement and attitudes of third- and fourth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shymansky, James A.; Yore, Larry D.; Anderson, John O.

    2004-10-01

    This article is about one school district's effort to reform its elementary science curriculum through a program of professional development called Science, Parents, Activities and Literature (Science PALs). The differential exposure of the district's K-6 teachers to Science PALs and differences in how well teachers implemented Science PALs-type inquiry strategies allowed us to conduct a quasi-experimental study of the impact of Science PALs on student achievement and attitudes. We measured achievement with an instrument based on items taken from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS; International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, [1997]) and selected attitudes about science with the Student Perceptions of Classroom Climate (SPOCC; Yore et al., [1998]), an instrument that we designed. Our analyses of student attitude scores as a function of years of teacher participation in Science PALs and supervisor's rating of a teacher's implementation of the project's instructional approaches showed a significant overall positive impact on student attitudes toward school science. Student TIMSS scores on multiple-choice items or constructed-response items did not improve significantly when analyzed by the number of years a student's teacher was involved in the Science PALs effort or by the supervisor's rating of that implementation. We found no significant differences in attitude or achievement scores among students taught by a series of teachers rated high, medium, or low in quality of implementation by the district's science supervisor. We discuss possible explanations for the lack of clear and positive connections between Science PALs and student performance in light of the increased focus on accountability in reform projects.

  10. Reform in Secondary Education: The Continuing Efforts to Reform Secondary Education, and a Modest Proposal. Curriculum Bulletin Vol. XXXII, No. 340.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Galen

    The author begins by examining the functions of the school and the basic principles governing the provision of education in the American democracy as a way of providing a framework for analyzing proposals for the reform of secondary education. He then examines proposals for reform. His major focus is on ten proposals made by agencies,…

  11. Substantiating the need to apply a sociocultural lens to the preparation of teachers in an effort to achieve science reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Mara

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative, sociocultural study examines how teacher preparation programs may have deliberate impact on science reform by unearthing the complex layers of diversity inherent in the contextual reality of education. This study was conducted in one of the largest school districts in the Southeastern United States, serving a predominately Hispanic population comprising 65 % of its student body, followed by African Americans at 24 %. The representative subjects utilized for this study were elementary education undergraduate students and later a percentage of the same subjects, as practicing teachers in the field. All subjects were exposed to inquiry based methodology in science teaching as part of their undergraduate studies with emphasis on the learning cycle, facilitation of student voice and exposure to the nature of science. The goal of science education was emphasized to students as purposeful in promoting scientific literacy. This study is framed by sociocultural theory grounded in a social constructivist paradigm with the understanding that science learning takes place within social and collaborative processes leading to internalization and greater sense of self-efficacy. The study examines the perception of education students' beliefs about scientists as well as reflections on their own learning of science as elementary students themselves. As present practicing teachers, perspectives from their position in the field were obtained via interviews. Interviews served to elicit reflections on present practice as related to previous perceptions, in order to analyze whether these were pervasive in framing practice as well as self-perceptions related to science. A lack of change of these perceptions may underscore the importance of an emphasis on issues of gender, culture and social factors within teacher preparation, specific to science teaching and learning. Cognizance of such factors are believed to support internalization and hence greater understanding of

  12. High School Principal Transformational Leadership Behaviors and Teacher Extra Effort during Educational Reform: The Mediating Role of Teacher Agency Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, John Eric

    2013-01-01

    Transformational leadership has been shown to affect organizational commitment, capacity development, and performance. However, these relationships have received very little attention in schools, especially high schools in the United States that are experiencing educational reform initiatives under No Child Left Behind. Using a sample of 1403 high…

  13. Teachers' Perceptions of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy and the Impact on Leadership Preparation: Lessons for Future Reform Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mette, Ian M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Lisa; Hvidston, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of one school's teacher-driven professional development effort to address culturally responsive teaching practices in a large district in a Midwestern state. During the 2011-2012 school year, a team of teachers and principals began a three-year long effort to provide job-embedded professional…

  14. Competition through regulation - efforts aimed at reform in the European and German gas industries: Appropriate, feasible and consistent with the economic facts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaue, S.

    1994-01-01

    At the forefront of the ongoing debate in Europe on the political, economic and legal aspects of energy supplies are considerations for introducing a new regulatory framework, especially the general third-party access (TPA) regime for grid energies. Most advocates of such reform claim that it is needed for the sake of more competition in the energy sector. However, they do not set out from economic facts and seek a solution to the problems. Instead, the solution is laid down as the target, to which the economic facts are subordinated. Blind activism inspired by theoretical motives and without regard for the consequences must be avoided. Otherwise there is a danger of the new framework being unsuitable for really bringing about any movement, be it in the intended direction or towards the envisaged goal. The introduction of general TPA can only be successful if there are certain structures and market trends. Do such structures and market trends exist in the European and German gas industries? In answering this question, it is necessary to proceed from the economic conditions, on which both a general and an economical/legal assessment of reform efforts should actually be based. Reference is therefore made to Jonathan P. Stern, who gathered in facts and whose evaluations are taken into account here. (orig.)

  15. Preventing Teen Pregnancy: Coordinating Community Efforts. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight.

    The Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations of the House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform and Oversight met to consider the causes of and solutions to teen pregnancy and the role of community organizations in prevention efforts. Opening remarks by Representative Christopher Shays were followed by statements…

  16. Efforts to reform medicaid in a time of fiscal stress: are we merely shuffling chairs on the deck of the titanic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEldowney, Rene; Jenkins, Carol L

    2005-01-01

    With states facing their worst financial crisis since World War II, Medicaid programs across the nation are facing a period of significant stress. Medicaid expenditures are a major part of most states' budgets, which make them an important target when policy makers and legislators are faced with budget deficits. This study compares programs across states and identifies major reform trends being used by state officials as they try to balance the needs of their Medicaid recipients with the realities of budget shortfalls. Our research illustrates that the short-term view prevails: many states have relied heavily on one time funding sources, such as tobacco settlement monies in conjunction with traditional cost controlling mechanisms (e.g., freezing provider reimbursement rates, reducing program eligibility levels, requiring prior authorization for services) as their means of addressing the current crisis.

  17. Acquisition Reform: "This, Too, Shall Pass..?"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Munechika, Curtis

    1997-01-01

    .... Will this effort too, come, and go? This paper attempts to answer this question by comparing the past efforts in implementing acquisition reform to today today's efforts using the backdrop of current organizational change theories...

  18. Public Administration reforms and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on administrative reforms during the past thirty years indicates that reform efforts of countries differ. The Anglo Saxon states were at the forefront of the New Public Management movement while countries on mainland Europe were more hesitant and moved further towards the Neo-Weberian state. Academics have tried to explain different reform efforts within countries by looking at political, historical and cultural issues, values and economic factors to name just a few. Three hypotheses are put forward to explain reform efforts in different states. This research involves analysing the implementation of two different reform trends, New Public Management and the Neo-Weberian tradition. The analysis indicates that countries vary in their commitment to reform rather than in the emphasis on either New Public Management or the Neo-Weberian State. Decentralization, clear objectives and consultation with communities and experts are closely related to national reform efforts. However, Iceland does distinguish itself from Europe and the Nordic countries. The analysis reveals that although decentralization is high in the Icelandic system, autonomy of agencies does not have a strong relation to a varied use of administrative instruments. The second part of the article focuses on the results and achievements of reform programmes. The achievement of reform programmes are examined in relation to theories of bounded rationality, street level bureaucracy (bottom up and consensus decision making. Three hypotheses are presented and tested to explain what causes reforms programmes to be successful in some countries and not in others. The analysis reveals that countries are more likely to succeed if bounded rationality is applied with careful preparation and when stakeholders are consulted.

  19. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telecom Reform: Principles, Policies and Regulatory Practices, provides a comprehensive and definitive review and assessment of the unfolding telecom reform process, and its implications for information society development. It is an invaluable resource and authoritative reference on telecom reform...... and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience......, as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom...

  20. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  1. Effortful echolalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T

    1998-02-01

    We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.

  2. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  3. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  4. The English and Swedish health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennerster, H; Matsaganis, M

    1994-01-01

    England and Sweden have two of the most advanced systems of universal access to health care in the world. Both have begun major reforms based on similar principles. Universal access and finance from taxation are retained, but a measure of competition between providers of health care is introduced. The reforms therefore show a movement toward the kind of approach advocated by some in the United States. This article traces the origins and early results of the two countries' reform efforts.

  5. Pedagogical experiment of the first rector of the Ural state mining institute P.P. Von Weymarn as an effort to reform the higher education institution in 1917-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Г. Валиев

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on sources recently discovered and included in the database of scientific publications, the article analyzes the pedagogical activity of the scientist-chemist, the first rector and founder of the Ural Mining Institute in Ekaterinburg Petr Petrovich von Weymarn, whose name is now almost forgotten. The article shows that this activity can be evaluated as a pedagogical experiment on reformation of the higher education institution system, which could have been adopted in Russia if Bolsheviks lost the Civil War. Pedagogical activity of von Weymarn has a theoretical basis that he developed under the influence of Wilhelm Ostwald, the Nobel Prize winner in chemistry and the idealist philosopher, as well as the example of the Petrograd (Petersburg Mining Institute, which for von Weymarn was not only an alma mater but an example of a reformist attitudes toward the scientific and pedagogical process in higher education.The article gives a detailed analysis of the currently available philosophical and pedagogical essays of P.P. von Weymarn, known as «Essays on the Energy of Culture», as well as the practical application of these theoretical works on the basis of the Ural Mining Institute in Ekaterinburg and in Vladivostok.With the advent of Soviet power, von Weymarn's pedagogical experiment was forcibly interrupted, and he became «persona non-grata» in the Soviet Union, but now his name is being restored. Unfortunately, he is known either as a chemist or as the founder and first rector of the current Ural State Mining University, but not as a teacher who offered his view of reforming the higher school system. This article fills this gap, revealing not only the work of von Weymarn, but also describing the difficult period of changing the old scientific school system, which could have taken a completely different development path.

  6. The Reform of Qatar University. Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini, Joy S.; Bikson, Tora K.; Neu, C. Richard; DeSisto, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the State of Qatar engaged the RAND-Qatar Policy Institute to assist Qatar University, the nation's first and only public higher education institution, with reform of its major administrative and academic structures, policies, and practices. This monograph summarizes that reform effort, which formally lasted from October 2003 through…

  7. An Analysis of Missile Systems Cost Growth and Implementation of Acquisition Reform Initiatives Using a Hybrid Adjusted Cost Growth Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abate, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    ...) data with a hybrid adjusted cost growth (ACG) model. In addition, an analysis of acquisition reform initiatives during the treatment period was conducted to determine if reform efforts impacted missile system cost growth. A pre-reform...

  8. Reform despite politics? The political economy of power sector reform in Fiji, 1996–2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to reform the electricity sector in developing countries have achieved mixed results, despite the implementation of similar reforms in many developed countries, and concerted effort by donors to transfer reform models. In many cases, political obstacles have prevented full and effective implementation of donor-promoted reforms. This paper examines the political economy of power sector reform in Fiji from 1996 to 2013. Reform has been pursued with political motives in a context of clientelism. Policy inconsistency and reversal is explained by the political instability of ethnic-based politics in Fiji. Modest success has been achieved in recent years despite these challenges, with Fiji now considered a model of power sector reform for other Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific. The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed. The way in which political motives have driven and shaped reform efforts also highlights the need for studies of power sector reform to direct greater attention toward political drivers behind reform. - Highlights: • This is the first study of power sector reform in Fiji or other Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific. • The clientelist nature of politics in Fiji is found to have both driven and shaped reform efforts. • There has been modest success in recent years despite these obstacles, with Fiji now considered a model for other SIDS. • The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed

  9. Reform and Backlash to Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole

    Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor s...

  10. WORLD BANK: Status of Grievance Process Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    In June 1998, in response, to concerns about the fairness of its employee grievance process and as part of a broader effort to reform its human resource policies, the World Bank appointed an internal...

  11. Validity Theory: Reform Policies, Accountability Testing, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    2016-01-01

    Educational policies such as Race to the Top in the USA affirm a central role for testing systems in government-driven reform efforts. Such reform policies are often referred to as the global education reform movement (GERM). Changes observed with the GERM style of testing demand socially engaged validity theories that include consequential…

  12. High temperature ceramic-tubed reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph J.; Rosenberg, Robert A.; McDonough, Lane J.

    1990-03-01

    The overall objective of the HiPHES project is to develop an advanced high-pressure heat exchanger for a convective steam/methane reformer. The HiPHES steam/methane reformer is a convective, shell and tube type, catalytic reactor. The use of ceramic tubes will allow reaction temperature higher than the current state-of-the-art outlet temperatures of about 1600 F using metal tubes. Higher reaction temperatures increase feedstock conversion to synthesis gas and reduce energy requirements compared to currently available radiant-box type reformers using metal tubes. Reforming of natural gas is the principal method used to produce synthesis gas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide, H2 and CO) which is used to produce hydrogen (for refinery upgrading), methanol, as well as several other important materials. The HiPHES reformer development is an extension of Stone and Webster's efforts to develop a metal-tubed convective reformer integrated with a gas turbine cycle.

  13. Arbitration Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Stepurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.73:341.63Subject. This informational article highlights recent changes to the Russian legislation on arbitration.Purpose. To highlight the most important aspects of arbitration law reform, and examines the effects they will have on the development of arbitration in RussiaMethodology. The author uses a formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The author distinguishes the difference between constantly acting arbitration courts and arbitration courts ad hoc. The special status of a number of arbitration institutions (the ICAC and MAC at the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, is contrary to the constitutional principle of equality under the law. A major achievement of the new legislation on arbitration courts is expanding the range arbitrarily disputes.Conclusions. The new legislation more clearly prescribed the interaction of arbitration and state courts, including requiring the latter to promote the arbitrators, acting under the regulations of the permanent arbitration institutions in obtaining evidence.In addition, the reform of the arbitration law have left aside the problem of improving the quality of judicial control over arbitration decisions.The arbitration law will still be able to improve the arbitration, to enhance its credibility and attractiveness for the participants of civil turnover.

  14. Globalization, statist political economy, and unsuccessful education reform in South Korea, 1993-2003.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Su Kim

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between globalization and national education reforms, especially those of educational systems. Instead of exploring the much debated issues of how globalization affects national educational systems and how the nations react by what kinds of systemic education reform, however, it focuses on what such a method often leaves out, viz., the internal conditions of a nation that facilitates or hampers reform efforts. Taking South Korea as an example, it explores that country's unique national context which restricts and even inhibits education reforms. Especially noted here is the established "statist" political economy in education. In the paper's analysis, although South Korea's statist political economy has made a substantial contribution to economic and educational development, it is now considered increasingly unviable as globalization progresses. Nevertheless, the internal conditions, resultant from the previous statist policies, set limits on policy makers' efforts to alter the existing educational system. The analysis suggests that a fuller assessment of globalization's impact upon national educational systems or their reforms requires a perspective which is broad enough to encompass not only the concepts and/or theories of globalization and nation states but also the power relations and ideological setup of individual nations.

  15. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan

    2014-01-01

    . In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural......The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs...... benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct...

  16. School as Community, Community as School: Examining Principal Leadership for Urban School Reform and Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Terrance L.

    2018-01-01

    For decades, reform has been a persistent issue in urban schools. Research suggests that urban school reforms that are connected to equitable community development efforts are more sustainable, and that principals play a pivot role in leading such efforts. Yet, limited research has explored how urban school principals connect school reform with…

  17. State-Level Reforms That Support College-Level Program Changes in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, R. Edward; Morrissey, Sharon; Fouts, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the concurrent reforms occurring in North Carolina--both campus-level changes focused on such issues as developing structured programs of study and state-level reforms aimed at supporting the campus efforts.

  18. Russia and China: The Impact of Reform and the Prospect of Democracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amerling, Leah

    2002-01-01

    ...: the impact of reform efforts on economic performance and the prospect for democracy. China's domestic modernization centered on economic reform, whereas Russia's deliberately included both political and economic dimensions...

  19. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  20. Constitutional reform as process

    OpenAIRE

    Schultze, Rainer-Olaf (Prof.)

    2000-01-01

    Constitutional reform as process. - In: The politics of constitutional reform in North America / Rainer-Olaf Schultze ... (eds.). - Opladen : Leske + Budrich, 2000. - S. 11-31. - (Politikwissenschaftliche paperbacks ; 30)

  1. Reforming Organizational Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Walle, Steven

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with regard to organizational structures. It provides readers a fairly comprehensive overview of the key reforms that have taken place in Western public sectors. Structural reforms in the public sector show ...

  2. Health system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolon, Ken

    2009-06-01

    A vote on reforming the nation's health care system seems likely this summer as President Obama makes good on a campaign pledge. Although the Democratic leadership in Congress appears ready to push through reform legislation before the next election, TMA and AMA leaders say very little is known about what that "reform" likely will look like.

  3. Electricity reform abroad and US investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. TAX REFORM AND NONCOMPLIANCE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Iswahyudi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Indonesia’s tax reforms of 2000 and 2008/2009 on taxpayers’ noncompliance. Noncompliance is defined as the difference between the Value Added Tax (VAT liability and the actual revenue. Data are mainly collected from the World Input-Output Database and Indonesia’s Central Board of Statistics. The methodology uses one of the ‘top-down’ approaches, in which national accounts figures are employed to arrive at an estimation of the VAT liability. It is found that compliance deteriorated when reform efforts were incomplete – that is when the reforms suffered from decelerations, setbacks or reversals. This paper contributes to the literature by providing a framework for analyzing the impact of tax reform on taxpayer’s compliance behavior.

  5. Social Justice and Resisting Neoliberal Education Reform in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to reform public education along free-market, corporate-styled models have swept across many nations. In the USA these reforms have included an intense focus on the use of high-stakes, standardized tests to quantify students, teachers, and schools for market comparisons, the deprofessionalization of teaching, and the establishment of…

  6. Turning Lightning into Electricity: Organizing Parents for Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Families are the primary clients of public schools, but they are one of many constituencies who have a say in how schools actually operate. In all the technocratic fervor around "education reform"--the broad effort to implement standards and accountability, reform teacher tenure and evaluation, and increase parental choice--it is easy to…

  7. Critical Race Feminism and the Complex Challenges of Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers-McKee, Cherese D.; Hytten, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the past several decades, there has been an abundance of research about school reform, particularly in schools predominated by students of color and students experiencing poverty. Critics acknowledge that many reform efforts have failed and comprehensive solutions to school change remain elusive. In this article, we provide an overview…

  8. Market screening of natural gas reformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Themsen, J.; Pagh Nielsen, M.; Knudsen Kaer, S.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents results from the project: Market screening of natural gas reformers. The project objective was to screen the natural gas reformers available on the international market. The technology is developing rapidly, and the results from this project will assist in determining the focus for the future Danish activities and in setting up ambitious and realistic targets. The reformer screening is partly based on AAU and Dantherm's experiences from previous studies, and the screening has been further extended with a number of activities, including seminars and contact with some of the most interesting suppliers. (BA)

  9. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small......This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark...... for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other well known tariff reform rules, as e.g. the proportional and the concertina rules. We develop the properties of this tariff reform, characterize the sources of the potential welfare gains from tariff reform, use it to establish conditions under which some...

  10. Indirect Monetary Policy Reforms and Output Growth in Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRRE). The efforts in repositioning these banks through the current banking reforms (recapitalization and consolidation) the paper notes are a right step in the right direction. Keywords: Indirect monetary policy, Granger – causality, output growth

  11. Education Reform Sparks Teacher Protest in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    The current tumult in the Mexican education arena has deep roots in politics and tradition, but it is latter-day global competition and international measures of student performance that are driving reform efforts. Teacher strikes and demonstrations are not new in Mexico, but issues raised by today's protesting teachers represent a combination of…

  12. Can We Pay for Current Education Reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2012-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the United States has been engaged in education reform efforts designed to dramatically boost student performance and close achievement gaps linked to poverty and ethnicity. Can schools afford those education ambitions? Most educators have their doubts. The author believes educators can improve student learning even when…

  13. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  14. Russian electricity reform. Emerging challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Russian Government is pursuing a strategy of very high economic growth, with the objective of doubling gross domestic product in ten years. It recognises the central role the electricity sector has to play to achieve this target and has embarked on a highly ambitious program of electricity reform. If it is to succeed, the reform program will have to create market structures, market rules and a regulatory framework that will foster competitive wholesale and retail electricity markets. At the same time, it will have to deal with sensitive social issues related to tariff rebalancing and the removal of cross subsidies. Only competitive markets based on transparent prices that reflect costs can deliver the efficient, reliable and internationally competitive performance needed to meet the government's economic targets. Such markets are essential to attract new investment that will be required to ensure security of electricity supply after 2010. This book focuses on key aspects of the proposed reform that could have an important bearing on its success. It also raises concerns as to the pace of reform in related areas, such as the need for complementary reforms in the Russian natural gas sector. The IEA commends the Russian Government on its efforts to embrace this electricity reform - a key element critical to meeting the challenges ahead in terms of its economic growth and energy security. 17 figs., 10 tabs., 3 maps.

  15. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  16.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi......-directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear...

  17. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  18. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  19. Adopting reform-based pedagogy in post-secondary microbiology education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Jeffery W.

    Current emphasis on improving student learning and retention in post-secondary science education can potentially motivate veteran faculty to reconsider what is often a traditional, instructor-centered instructional model. Alternative models that foster a student-centered classroom environment are more aligned with research on how students learn. These models often incorporate active-learning opportunities that engage students in ways that passively taking notes in an instructor-centered classroom cannot. Although evidence is mounting that active-learning is an effective strategy for improving student learning and attitude, university professors, without formal pedagogical knowledge and training, can face uncertainty about where to start and how to implement these strategies. The research presented here was conducted in two parts under the same context during one semester of a post-secondary microbiology course. First, a quantitative study was conducted to compare collaborative and individual completion of a reform-based instructional strategy that utilized a student-centered, active-learning component. Students were evaluated on learning, critical thinking, and epistemological beliefs about biology. Results indicated no significant differences between treatment groups. Interestingly, the impact of active-learning implementations had positive effects on students' epistemological beliefs. This was a finding contradicting previous research in which epistemological beliefs became more novice-like in science majors enrolled in courses without an active-learning component. Study two represents one case in which a professor with a traditional instructional model became motivated to pursue instructional change in his introductory microbiology course. A single-case qualitative study was conducted to document the professor's initial effort at instructional reform. Results indicated that his utilization and understanding of reform-based instructional strategies improved over

  20. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report IV, Volume 7 provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to the Oxygen Plant (Plant 15) and Naphtha Hydrotreating and Reforming (Plant 18). The Oxygen Plant (Plant 15) utilizes low-pressure air separation to manufacture the oxygen required in Gasification and Purification (Plant 12). The Oxygen Plant also supplies nitrogen as needed by the H-COAL process. Naphtha Hydrotreating and Reforming (Plant 18) upgrades the raw H-COAL naphtha. The following information is provided for both plants described in this volume: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and process flow diagrams; an equipment list including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components (Oxygen Plant only); and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  1. The prospects for national health insurance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, J R; Palley, H A

    1991-01-01

    This article explores the unequal access to health care in the context of efforts by the American Medical Association (AMA) and its allies to maintain a market-maximizing health care system. The coalition between the AMA and its traditional allies is breaking down, in part, because of converging developments creating an atmosphere which may be more conducive to national health care reform and the development of a reformed health care delivery system that will be accessible, adequate, and equitable in meeting the health care and related social service needs of the American people.

  2. School Reform Unplugged: The Bensenville New American School Project, 1991-93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirel, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    This examination of the New American Schools Development Corporation initiative in Bensenville (Illinois) details the controversy over the reform effort and argues that factors such as school governance, local control, and school finance played major roles in determining program outcomes. The importance of political influences in reform efforts is…

  3. Jump-Starting Educational Reform. Implementing British Columbia's Comprehensive School Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Paul

    An educational reform effort to implement a comprehensive school act in British Columbia (Canada) is analyzed with a focus on some sociotechnical and political aspects. An overview of the content, background, and implementation of the reform effort is followed by identification of seven contradictions inherent in the plan. Contradictions are as…

  4. Reforming Organizational Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with

  5. Reforming science: methodological and cultural reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2012-03-01

    Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture.

  6. Reforming Romanian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, S.

    1993-01-01

    Success in reforming energy sector depends on the implementation of the programme of economic reform agreed in February 1993. The difficulty of the negotiations between the International Monetary Fund and the Romanian government reflects the wider difficulties faced by the economy as a whole. They can be blamed in part on the legacy of uneconomic and inflexible industrial development and in part on opposition from interest groups which stand to lose from reform. Nonetheless, in spite of hesitant approach, the government does appear committed to the economic reform necessary to establish a market-oriented economy. But as the danger of a financial crisis engendered by the inadequately supported short-term borrowing of foreign exchange becomes urgent, the question is whether economic reform can be now implemented fast enough to protect economic enterprises and saving from a debt crisis. The scope for further delay in implementing the 1993 economic reform programme is fast disappearing. Procrastination should not be allowed to threaten the success of the reforms achieved in the energy and other sectors of the economy. 8 refs., 2 figs

  7. New York City's Children First: Lessons in School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Under Mayor Michael Bloomberg, New York City's education system embarked on a massive change effort, known as Children First, that produced significant results: new and better school options for families, more college-ready graduates, and renewed public confidence in New York City's schools. New York City's reform effort has also produced…

  8. The Challenges of Educational Reform in Modern-Day Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jane; Lammert, Jill

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine a nationwide effort of educational reform in Peru. Specifically, the authors take a close look at the nation's efforts to change secondary education through the implementation of a 2-year postsecondary learning opportunity called the "bachillerato." First, the authors briefly present the…

  9. Catalytic reforming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  10. International Aspects of Nigeria's Economic Reforms | Iyoha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to draw a relationship between Nigeria's previous failed economic reforms and external influences from international financial institutions, which had constantly resulted in chronic economic misfortunes. Now that homegrown economic programmes are currently being undertaken in Africa through ...

  11. Estimation of inspection effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, M.F.; Wincek, M.A.

    1979-06-01

    An overview of IAEA inspection activities is presented, and the problem of evaluating the effectiveness of an inspection is discussed. Two models are described - an effort model and an effectiveness model. The effort model breaks the IAEA's inspection effort into components; the amount of effort required for each component is estimated; and the total effort is determined by summing the effort for each component. The effectiveness model quantifies the effectiveness of inspections in terms of probabilities of detection and quantities of material to be detected, if diverted over a specific period. The method is applied to a 200 metric ton per year low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication facility. A description of the model plant is presented, a safeguards approach is outlined, and sampling plans are calculated. The required inspection effort is estimated and the results are compared to IAEA estimates. Some other applications of the method are discussed briefly. Examples are presented which demonstrate how the method might be useful in formulating guidelines for inspection planning and in establishing technical criteria for safeguards implementation

  12. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  13. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  14. Ubuntu and the quest for land reform in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Holtzhausen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I ask the question how we can relate ubuntu to South African land reform from a practical-theological point of view. I will look at researchers� efforts to understand ubuntu and how these efforts do and do not integrate into the conversation around land reform.Referring to land reform, I will focus on two private narratives as opposed to dominant public narratives. An in-depth discussion on legislation and research on perspectives of land ownership therefore falls outside of the ambit of this article. In conclusion, I will argue that the relationship between a landowner and his or her dispossessed coworkers can be the fertile soil which ubuntu requires to find sustainable local answers to land reform.

  15. School Climate and Leadership: Levers for School Improvement Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lois

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study considers which aspects of school climate support or inhibit student achievement as each aspect relates to school leadership and school reform efforts. Due to the increased responsibility and accountability which schools face during these challenging times, school climate and the role of the school principal formed the basis…

  16. Social Security Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuschler, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    .... In recent years, reform ideas have ranged from relatively minor changes to the current pay-as-you-go social insurance system to a redesigned program based on personal savings and investments modeled after IRAs and 401(k...

  17. Dual Enrollment, Structural Reform, and the Completion Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Melinda Mechur

    2015-01-01

    This chapter contextualizes and extends the previous chapters by addressing the intertwined issues of structural systems reform and college completion, as well as the role dual enrollment can play in ensuring equitable postsecondary outcomes for underrepresented students.

  18. Railway Reform in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J. H.; Nash, C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to consider the current situation of Chinese Railways, the progress of reforms to date, and possible future developments. The first section describes the current problems of Chinese Railways, as a vast organisation subject to strong central control, facing enormous and rapidly growing demands which it is unable to satisfy. The progress of reform in Chinese Railways to date, and in particular the Economic Contract Responsibility System instituted in the lat...

  19. A Photo Essay of a Failed Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Zweig, David

    2016-01-01

    In mid-1975, Deng Xiaoping, with Mao’s blessing, initiated reforms that targeted the negative consequences of the Cultural Revolution. To bolster Deng’s effort, Mao endowed him with penultimate authority over the Party, government, and military. However, in late October, Mao turned on Deng, and within five months, Mao and the radicals toppled Deng from power. As a foreign student at Peking University, David Zweig observed and photographed four key points in this historic struggle: (1) the ini...

  20. Dysfunction and Educational Reform in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Llorent Bedmar, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Since 1956, the year in Morocco achieved independence, until now, the school system has been the subject of many discussions and controversies in the most varied areas of the country. We provide data on the educational situation. We analyze the reforms from a critical perspective, ending with final proposals. We concluded by acknowledging the efforts made in recent years in the Moroccan education sector, although there is still a considerable number of clearly important aspects of improvement.

  1. Good governance and budget reform in Lesotho Public Hospitals: performance, root causes and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Taryn; Bicknell, William J

    2014-09-01

    Lesotho has been implementing financial management reforms, including performance-based budgeting (PBB) since 2005 in an effort to increase accountability, transparency and effectiveness in governance, yet little is known about how these efforts are affecting the health sector. Supported by several development partners and $24 million in external resources, the PBB reform is intended to strengthen government capacity to manage aid funds directly and to target assistance to pressing social priorities. This study designed and tested a methodology for measuring implementation progress for PBB reform in the hospital sector in Lesotho. We found that despite some efforts on the national level to promote and support reform implementation, staff at the hospital level were largely unaware of the purpose of the reform and had made almost no progress in transforming institutions and systems to fully realize reform goals. Problems can be traced to a complex reform design, inadequate personnel and capacity to implement, professional boundaries between financial and clinical personnel and weak leadership. The Lesotho reform experience suggests that less complex designs for budget reform, better adapted to the context and realities of health sectors in developing countries, may be needed to improve governance. It also highlights the importance of measuring reform implementation at the sectoral level. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in full-time vocational education and had no significant effects on part-time vocational education or participation in other types of work-related courses, though there appears to be considerable heterogeneity across states with respect to the strictness of educational policy and the strength of work incentives under welfare reform. In addition, we find evidence of heterogeneous effects by prior educational attainment. We find no evidence that the previously-observed negative effects of welfare reform on formal education (including college enrollment), which we replicated in this study, have been offset by increases in vocational education and training. PMID:22125356

  3. Health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  4. Health care reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušič Dorjan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  5. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Many cases highlight the need for responsible management in regards to transparency of organisations and involvement of stakeholders in decisions that will impact citizens, patients, customers and/or clients. Often these cases take an outside-in approach as they illustrate why it is essential...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...

  6. A survey of previous and current industry-wide efforts regarding burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Sandia has examined the matter of burnup credit from the perspective of physics, logistics, risk, and economics. A limited survey of the nuclear industry has been conducted to get a feeling for the actual application of burnup credit. Based on this survey, it can be concluded that the suppliers of spent fuel storage and transport casks are in general agreement that burnup credit offers the potential for improvements in cask efficiency without increasing the risk of accidental criticality. The actual improvement is design-specific but limited applications have demonstrated that capacity increases in the neighborhood of 20 percent are not unrealistic. A number of these vendors acknowledge that burnup credit has not been reduced to practice in cask applications and suggest that operational considerations may be more important to regulatory acceptance than to the physics. Nevertheless, the importance of burnup credit to the nuclear industry as a cask design and analysis tool has been confirmed by this survey

  7. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  8. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report IV, Volume 3, provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to H-COAL Recycle Slurry Preparation (Plant 5), H-COAL Recycle Hydrogen Compression (Plant 6), and H-COAL Distillate Separation (Plant 17). H-COAL Recycle Slurry Preparation (Plant 5) receives a slurry stream from H-COAL Primary Separation (Plant 4), and then pumps the slurry through hydrocyclones, producing two slurry streams. One, dilute in solids is recycled back to the reactor. The other, concentrated in solids, is further processed to recover liquid products and is then transferred to Gasification and Purification (Plant 12). H-COAL Recycle Hydrogen Compression (Plant 6) compresses and recycles back to the reactor system hydrogen-rich vapor from H-COAL Primary Separation (Plant 4). This recycling maintains a hydrogen partial pressure and gas flow through the reactor vessel. H-COAL Distillate Separation (Plant 17) processes products from H-COAL Primary Separation (Plant 4) and H-COAL Recycle Slurry Preparation to produce light naphtha for the Gas Plant (Plant 7), middle and heavy distillates for tank farms, and heavy naphtha for Naphtha Hydrotreating and Reforming (Plant 18). The following information is included for each of the three plants: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, heat and material balance (if applicable), and a process flow diagram; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  9. Reforming Technical and Technological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Review of technical and technological educational reform in Brazil, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sweden shows that reform takes time to complete effectively, long-term approaches are needed, and reform is linked to industrial development, regional cooperation, and decentralized decision making. (SK)

  10. Health sector reform in Argentina: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter

    2005-04-01

    In November 2002 the World Bank published a report on the Argentine health sector. The report accurately portrays the complexity and severity of the problems facing the health care system. It stresses that these problems are not purely a product of the country's economic collapse, noting that the system has suffered from long-standing structural problems and inefficiencies. Curiously, the report makes no mention of the leading role played by the World Bank in health reform efforts during the 1990s. This paper demonstrates that these reforms did much to worsen pre-existing weaknesses of the sector. The paper criticises the content of the reform agenda and the manner in which it was produced, arguing that these were reforms in which considerations of public health were less significant than conformity to the wider model of neo-liberal social and economic development prevailing at the time. It also highlights problems of implementing the reform agenda, which reduced the coherency of the reforms. The paper goes on to examine the impact of the crisis, noting links with the preceding reforms. It identifies a number of insights and lessons of potential value to other countries which are pursuing similar policies.

  11. Prisons and Sentencing Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current themes in sentencing and prison policy. The eight articles of this special issue discuss selective incapacitation, prison bed allocation models, computer-scored classification systems, race and gender relations, commutation, parole, and a historical review of sentencing reform. (JAC)

  12. Comments on regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented

  13. Comments on regulatory reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented.

  14. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...

  15. Welfare Reform and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  16. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  17. Competition and PUHCA reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the national energy policy legislation being developed with respect to Public Utilities Holding Company Act issues. The topics of the article include the proposals to encourage competition among electric power producers, those involved in the process, qualifying facilities, independent power producers, competition and efficiency, and the outlook for reform

  18. Stewardship as a Means to Create Organizational Reform: A View into Minnesota 4-H Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuza, Jennifer A.; Freeman, Dorothy M.; Bremseth, Tamara J.; Doering, Shirley A.; Quinlan, Robert B.; Morreim, Patricia A.; Deidrick, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Minnesota 4-H Youth Development (MN 4-H) used stewardship as a means to create organizational reform to address the public use of the 4-H name and emblem in terms of risk management, real estate and equipment, and finances. A task force implemented a participatory process with colleagues and stakeholders to build and implement the reform effort.…

  19. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  20. The "Hollywoodization" of Education Reform in "Won't Back Down"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, Christian Z.; Witte, Shelbie; Jennings Davis, Jennifer; Ward, Peggy; Flammang, Brandon; Gerhardson, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    What happens when forces attempting to privatize education create and produce a Hollywood film with an education reform plot line? This essay explores "Won't Back Down" through cultural studies and progressive education lenses in an effort to unveil misrepresentations of education and education reform. Drawing on scholarship in these…

  1. Symbolic Politics and Institutional Boundaries in Curriculum Reform: The Case of National Sectarian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Gordon B.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many colleges and universities have set out to reform or revisit their general education curricula. These efforts often have failed to achieve the comprehensive change that reformers originally had envisioned. Using the example of one case, this paper explores how institutionalized organizational elements and politics can shape…

  2. 78 FR 30324 - Secretarial Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... improvement. The management consultant will also be assessing past trust reform efforts and capturing current... consultant will be attending the upcoming Indian Trust Commission's meeting in Oklahoma City and will be... Indian Trust Administration and Reform AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  3. Public behavioral health care reform in North Carolina: will we get it right this time around?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Marvin; Morrissey, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    North Carolina seeks to provide affordable and high-quality care for people with mental health, developmental disabilities and substance abuse conditions by reforming its behavioral health care system. This article presents an overview of current efforts to achieve that goal and discusses the challenges that must be overcome if reform is to be effective.

  4. Improving Schools through Networks: A New Approach to Urban School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Malloy, Courtney L.; Chau, Derrick; Polhemus, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    Data from an evaluation of the Annenberg Challenge in Los Angeles, a reform effort that experimented with school networks as a vehicle for improving schools, revealed that when school networks created structures that decentralized power and distributed organizational resources throughout the network, they also enhanced school capacity for reform.…

  5. A Model for Rural School Consolidation: Making Sense of the Inevitable Result of School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Craig; Chance, Edward W.; Steinhoff, Carl

    Passage in 1989 of Oklahoma's education reform bill, H.B. 1017, provided encouragement and financial rewards for use of consolidation as a reform strategy, but this approach is often met with anxiety and hostility from stakeholders. In an effort to identify strategies that facilitate consolidation, semistructured interviews were conducted with the…

  6. Comprehensive Reform for Urban High Schools: A Talent Development Approach. Sociology of Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legters, Nettie E.; Balfanz, Robert; Jordan, Will J.; McPartland, James M.

    This book offers an alternative to current reform efforts, the talent development approach, detailing organizational, curricular, and instructional strategies that provide practitioners with a blueprint for whole school reform. The book presents the story of what happened in urban high schools when this approach was implemented. There are eight…

  7. Reforming Investor–State Dispute Settlement: A (Comparative and International) Constitutional Law Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schill, S.W.

    As a result of the steep increase in investment arbitrations, and the problems this has brought to the fore, many reform efforts in international investment law focus on changes to investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS). Reform proposals, however, diverge widely (ranging from exiting the system

  8. Placing Math Reform: Locating Latino English Learners in Math Classrooms and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbstein, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how place matters in public school reform efforts intended to promote more equitable opportunities and outcomes. Qualitative case studies of three California middle schools' eighth grade math reforms and the resulting opportunities for Latino English learners are presented, using the conceptual frameworks of critical human…

  9. The 'reformation' of counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Lotter

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the Reformation took place some four hundred years ago, one area in which reformation is really needed today is the counselling of people. Since Wilhelm Wundt started the “study of the mind” in 1879, William James and Sigmund Freud followed and secular psychology gradually has developed to take the “front seat”; hence moving Biblical counselling, which has been practised since the times of the New Testament, to the “back burner”. This development had been going on for the greater part of the 20th century, up to the publication of Competent to Counsel by Jay E. Adams in 1970. In the model for counselling suggested by Adams, the principles of the Reformation of the sixteenth century, Soli Deo Gloria, Soli Scriptura, Soli Fidei, Sola Gratia, etc. were again implemented in assisting and counselling people with personal and interpersonal problems. The epistomological and anthropological approach of secular psychology differs radically from that of Biblical principles, thus necessitating a new “reformation” of counselling. Within this new form counselling, inter alia, implies the following: the Word of God has its rightful place, sin has to be taken seriously and the work of the Holy Spirit should be recognised. In this article it is proposed that the “reformation” of counselling was started by scholars with a Biblical Reformational approach and that this method of counselling followed the parameters of the Reformation of the sixteenth century. This “reformation” developed into a new direction in counselling and still continues today with fascinating new frontiers opening up for Biblical counselling.

  10. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  11. Administrative Reform in Romania and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Călin HINŢEA; Sorin Dan ŞANDOR; Veronica JUNJAN

    2002-01-01

    The issue of public administration reform is an old one for the professional literature. It has always been at the basis of a significant theoretical debate that started with the idea of compatibility between the concepts of “public administration” and “reform”. Central and Eastern European countries have been faced with the acute need of reform after the crash of communist regimes and painful disclosure of the inefficiency of previous bureaucratic models.

  12. Pending reforms: challenges to governabilty in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Fleury

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available After President Lula’s two terms of office, the election of Dilma Rousseff generated all kinds of different expectations, whether because of the candidate’s lack of a political career within the Workers’ Party (PT, or because of her rather uncharismatic personality and poor propensity towards political negotiations with the allied parties that favoured the governability of the previous term of office. The country she has inherited is in a much better situation than the one inherited by the first PT government, with a stabilised economy and inflation under control. The sustainable policies for reducing poverty have generated conditions that encourage the enlargement of the middle class which, together with the creation of popular credit mechanisms, have served to halt the effects of the world crisis and have generated enormous expectations of social mobility. This scenario, together with the country’s increasingly recognised presence as an important international actor, provides unprecedented possibilities for the advancement of the “development with social inclusion” project. Nevertheless, certain reforms still need to be implemented that could threaten governability: political reform, federative agreement and tax reform, as well as social reforms.

  13. Literality and Cognitive Effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacruz, Isabel; Carl, Michael; Yamada, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a notion of pause-word ratio computed using ranges of pause lengths rather than lower cutoffs for pause lengths. Standard pause-word ratios are indicators of cognitive effort during different translation modalities.The pause range version allows for the study of how different types...... remoteness. We use data from the CRITT TPR database, comparing translation and post-editing from English to Japanese and from English to Spanish, and study the interaction of pause-word ratio for short pauses ranging between 300 and 500ms with syntactic remoteness, measured by the CrossS feature, semantic...... remoteness, measured by HTra, and syntactic and semantic remoteness, measured by Literality....

  14. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  15. Mapping telemedicine efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being addressed using telemedicine systems? Methods: All data was surveyed from the "Telemedicinsk Landkort", a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. Results......Objectives: The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies......: The results of this study suggest that a growing number of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations existed in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. Conclusions: The results...

  16. The Effects of the Washington Education Reform on School and Classroom Practice, 1999-2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stechner, Brian

    2001-01-01

    .... One way that these efforts differ from earlier reforms is that they involve the adoption of content and student performance standards--explicit benchmarks of what students should know and be able...

  17. Reforming process. Reformierungsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, C.S.

    1982-05-19

    A naphta fraction is subjected to a catalytic reforming process in several series-connected reactors. The first reactor is equipped with a moving catalyst bed containing not more the 30% of volume of the total catalyst amount. The other reactors are designed as packed-bed systems. The content of coke deposited on the catalyst of the first reactor owing to the reforming process is maintained at below 1% of weight. This is effected by periodic removal of a proportion of the contaminated catalyst from the bottom part of the bed, by its regeneration and re-feeding to the top part of the bed. This results in prolonged service life of the catalyst and simultaneous improvement of the anti-knock value of the product.

  18. Elementary Social Studies: Trite, Disjointed, and in Need of Reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplass, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Elementary social studies has used the same scope and sequence for more than a half century despite significant changes in society. Efforts to reform the curriculum are adversely impacted by inertia, tradition, the culture wars, traditional state autonomy in setting curriculum, publishers, and competition between disciplines for space within the…

  19. Will Mayor De Blasio Turn Back the School Reform Clock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    While heads were spinning, policy watchers seemed genuinely perplexed by New York City's Mayor de Blasio's education opinions. De Blasio opposed many of Bloomberg's reform efforts despite the achievement gains realized by the nation's largest school district during the last 12 years. Yet on close reading, de Blasio's nine-page education plan…

  20. Educational Development and Reformation in Malaysia: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rahimah Haji

    1998-01-01

    Discusses educational development in Malaysia, focusing on curriculum changes, issues, and future perspectives. Discusses the development of values education, its importance in the curriculum, and the government's efforts to mold a united nation with Malaysian values. Current reforms target tertiary education. The school curriculum has not been…

  1. Environmental fiscal reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Chaturvedi; Manjeet S. Saluja; Abhijit Banerjee; Rachna Arora

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR) and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of imp...

  2. Implementing Security Sector Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-04

    ownership and genuine reform. His experience in Diyala Province indicated that the most effective means of pursuing transition and transformation among...that I have no solution to the security situation in Afghanistan, or to the questions of violence, crime, insurrection, or militias vs . army vs ...than to merge those interests into a greater whole. Franchising of problems or solutions is often the result. In Afghanistan, problems and

  3. La reforma del procedimiento de reforma constitucional en España // The reform of the the Spanish constitutional reform procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Vera Santos

    2016-08-01

    the kitchen. 1. Title X of the Spanish Constitution of 1978. 1.1. Constitutional reform initiative and its temporal limits (arts. 166 and 169. 1.2. The reform procedure under article 167. 1.3. The reform procedure under article 168. 2. Possible and desirable reforms or how the sleep of reason can produce monsters, although it should not. 2.1. Previous reflections. 2.2. Regarding the initiative in both procedures. 2.3. Regarding the considerations set out in article 167.2. 2.4. Regarding the stipulations set out in article 168. 3. Provided proposals.

  4. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  5. Optimal green tax reforms yielding double dividend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Esther; Perez, Rafaela; Ruiz, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    In an stylized endogenous growth economy with a negative externality created by CO2 emissions and in which abatement activities are made by private firms, we find a wide range of dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend without any need to assume a complex production structure or tax system, or a variety of externalities in production. As a remarkable finding, we obtain certain scenarios in which increasing the emissions tax up to the Pigouvian level and removing completely the income tax is dynamically feasible and, also, it is the second-best reform. Hence, as a difference to previous literature, in these scenarios the first-best tax mix is implementable, allowing for the elimination of both environmental and non-environmental inefficiencies. Our result arises because of the consideration of public debt issuing and the management of the government budget balance with an intertemporal perspective. The result is obtained for an intermediate range of environmental bearing in preferences, the valid range being contingent on the pre-existing income tax rate. The type of tax reform that we propose could also be implemented for different energy taxes. - Highlights: → We use an endogenous growth model with a negative externality from CO2 emissions. → Abatement activities are made by private firms to reduce payment of emissions taxes. → We find dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend result. → Our result arises thanks to the inclusion of public debt issuing as a financing device. → The type of tax reform proposed can be implemented for other energy taxes.

  6. Equity in health and health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, S M

    1999-01-01

    In planning healthcare reforms increasing attention has been focused on the issue of equity. Inequities in the provision of healthcare exist even in relatively egalitarian societies. Poverty is still one of the major contributors to ill health and there are many powerful influences in society that continue to thwart the goal of a maximally equitable system for the provision of healthcare. The principles of equity in a healthcare system have been well articulated in recent years. It is incumbent on healthcare professionals who understand the issues to join the efforts towards a more humane and equitable healthcare system in their societies.

  7. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981

  8. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  9. Catalytic autothermal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumpelt, M.; Krause, T.; Kopasz, J.; Carter, D.; Ahmed, S.

    2002-01-01

    Fuel cell development has seen remarkable progress in the past decade because of an increasing need to improve energy efficiency as well as to address concerns about the environmental consequences of using fossil fuel for producing electricity and for propulsion of vehicles[1]. The lack of an infrastructure for producing and distributing H(sub 2) has led to a research effort to develop on-board fuel processing technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H(sub 2)[2]. The primary focus is on reforming gasoline, because a production and distribution infrastructure for gasoline already exists to supply internal combustion engines[3]. Existing reforming technology for the production of H(sub 2) from hydrocarbon feedstocks used in large-scale manufacturing processes, such as ammonia synthesis, is cost prohibitive when scaled down to the size of the fuel processor required for transportation applications (50-80 kWe) nor is it designed to meet the varying power demands and frequent shutoffs and restarts that will be experienced during normal drive cycles. To meet the performance targets required of a fuel processor for transportation applications will require new reforming reactor technology developed to meet the volume, weight, cost, and operational characteristics for transportation applications and the development of new reforming catalysts that exhibit a higher activity and better thermal and mechanical stability than reforming catalysts currently used in the production of H(sub 2) for large-scale manufacturing processes

  10. Effects of Physician Payment Reform on Provision of Home Dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kevin F.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Patients with end-stage renal disease can receive dialysis at home or in-center. In 2004 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services reformed physician payment for in-center hemodialysis care from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service model, augmenting physician payment for frequent in-center visits. We evaluated whether payment reform influenced dialysis modality assignment. Study Design Cohort study of patients starting dialysis in the US in the three years before and after payment reform. Methods We conducted difference-in-difference analyses comparing patients with Traditional Medicare coverage (who were affected by the policy) to others with Medicare Advantage (who were unaffected by the policy). We also examined whether the policy had a more pronounced influence on dialysis modality assignment in areas with lower costs of traveling to dialysis facilities. Results Patients with Traditional Medicare coverage experienced a 0.7% (95% CI 0.2%–1.1%; p=0.003) reduction in the absolute probability of home dialysis use following payment reform compared to patients with Medicare Advantage. Patients living in areas with larger dialysis facilities (where payment reform made in-center hemodialysis comparatively more lucrative for physicians) experienced a 0.9% (95% CI 0.5%–1.4%; ppayment model for dialysis care resulted in fewer patients receiving home dialysis. This area of policy failure highlights the importance of considering unintended consequences of future physician payment reform efforts. PMID:27355909

  11. Economic Reforms and Constitutional Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo; Xiaokai Yang

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic reforms and constitutional transition, which has been neglected by many transition economists. It is argued that assessment of reform performance might be very misleading if it is not recognized that economic reforms are just a small part of large scale of constitutional transition. Rivalry and competition between states and between political forces within each country are the driving forces for constitutional transition. We use Russia...

  12. Security Sector Reform in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Abazi, Enika; Bumci, Aldo; Hide, Enri; Rakipi, Albert

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper analyses security sector reform (SSR) in Albania. In all its enterprises in reforming the security sector,Albania is assisted by different initiatives and projects that provide expertise and financial support. To assesswhether reforms improved the overall security environment (national and human) of the country, it is necessaryto measure the effectiveness of the various initiatives and projects. This is gauged by how well the initiatives andprojects achieved...

  13. Education Reform in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dowson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.

  14. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  15. Understanding chest radiographic anatomy with MDCT reformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, A.R. [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ko, J.P., E-mail: jane.ko@nyumc.or [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Chest radiograph interpretation requires an understanding of the mediastinal reflections and anatomical structures. Computed tomography (CT) improves the learning of three-dimensional (3D) anatomy, and more recently multidetector CT (MDCT) technology has enabled the creation of high-quality reformations in varying projections. Multiplanar reformations (MPRs) of varying thickness in the coronal and sagittal projections can be created for direct correlation with findings on frontal and lateral chest radiographs, respectively. MPRs enable simultaneous visualization of the craniocaudal extent of thoracic structures while providing the anatomic detail that has been previously illustrated using cadaveric specimens. Emphasis will be placed on improving knowledge of mediastinal anatomy and reflections including edges, lines, and stripes that are visible on chest radiographs.

  16. Effects of physician payment reform on provision of home dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kevin F; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Chertow, Glenn M; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2016-06-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease can receive dialysis at home or in-center. In 2004, CMS reformed physician payment for in-center hemodialysis care from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service model, augmenting physician payment for frequent in-center visits. We evaluated whether payment reform influenced dialysis modality assignment. Cohort study of patients starting dialysis in the United States in the 3 years before and the 3 years after payment reform. We conducted difference-in-difference analyses comparing patients with traditional Medicare coverage (who were affected by the policy) to others with Medicare Advantage (who were unaffected by the policy). We also examined whether the policy had a more pronounced influence on dialysis modality assignment in areas with lower costs of traveling to dialysis facilities. Patients with traditional Medicare coverage experienced a 0.7% (95% CI, 0.2%-1.1%; P = .003) reduction in the absolute probability of home dialysis use following payment reform compared with patients with Medicare Advantage. Patients living in areas with larger dialysis facilities (where payment reform made in-center hemodialysis comparatively more lucrative for physicians) experienced a 0.9% (95% CI, 0.5%-1.4%; P home dialysis use following payment reform compared with patients living in areas with smaller facilities (where payment reform made in-center hemodialysis comparatively less lucrative for physicians). The transition from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service payment model for in-center hemodialysis care resulted in fewer patients receiving home dialysis. This area of policy failure highlights the importance of considering unintended consequences of future physician payment reform efforts.

  17. The Effort Paradox: Effort Is Both Costly and Valued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzlicht, Michael; Shenhav, Amitai; Olivola, Christopher Y

    2018-04-01

    According to prominent models in cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and economics, effort (be it physical or mental) is costly: when given a choice, humans and non-human animals alike tend to avoid effort. Here, we suggest that the opposite is also true and review extensive evidence that effort can also add value. Not only can the same outcomes be more rewarding if we apply more (not less) effort, sometimes we select options precisely because they require effort. Given the increasing recognition of effort's role in motivation, cognitive control, and value-based decision-making, considering this neglected side of effort will not only improve formal computational models, but also provide clues about how to promote sustained mental effort across time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reform Drivers and Reform Obstacles in Natural Resource Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gezelius, Stig S.; Raakjær, Jesper; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The ability to transform historical learning into institutional reform is a key to success in the management of common pool natural resources. Based on a model of institutional inertia and a comparative analysis of Northeast Atlantic fisheries management from 1945 to the present....... Institutional inertia entails that large-scale management reform tends to be crisis driven....

  19. Turkish electricity reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdadioglu, Necmiddin [Department of Public Finance, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Odyakmaz, Necmi [E.ON Holding, Armada Business Centre, 06520 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    Turkish electricity reform has progressed slowly due to internal resistance against privatisation, and gained momentum after Electricity Market Law of 2001, prepared in line with EU Energy Acquis and established required institutional and legal framework. Although the eligibility threshold has reached 39% market opening rate, the dominant position of public both as owner and decision-maker is still the major problem in the sector. Currently Turkey is self-sufficient in electricity, but likely to face shortages in 10 years if the growing demand is not met by either speeding the liberalisation process, or joining the South East Europe Electricity Market. (author)

  20. Environmental fiscal reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaturvedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of implementing EFR measures in India are also discussed, including inadequate analysis, policy framework and institutional capacity, as well as conflict with poverty reduction and building political support.

  1. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

    2012-10-16

    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  2. America Y2K: The Obsolescence of Educational Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Dorn

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The passing of the deadline for fulfillment of the national education goals in the United States (the beginning of 2000 reflects the frequently hyperbolic statements of objectives and the manic pace of school reform efforts over the past two decades. The domination by schools of child and family life has combined with a longstanding reliance on schools to solve social problems to make school reform a politically opportune as well as visible issue. Thus, even if the phrasing of national education goals in the U.S. changes to reflect the passing of the nominal deadline, those pressures will remain.

  3. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reforming Social Policy presents an overview of social policy reforms currently ... It shows how some experimental approaches to reform have worked in different ... and students in development studies and social sciences; policymakers and ...

  4. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  5. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  6. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  7. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  8. Pension Reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent.

  9. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  10. Common morality and moral reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, K A

    2009-01-01

    The idea of moral reform requires that morality be more than a description of what people do value, for there has to be some measure against which to assess progress. Otherwise, any change is not reform, but simply difference. Therefore, I discuss moral reform in relation to two prescriptive approaches to common morality, which I distinguish as the foundational and the pragmatic. A foundational approach to common morality (e.g., Bernard Gert's) suggests that there is no reform of morality, but of beliefs, values, customs, and practices so as to conform with an unchanging, foundational morality. If, however, there were revision in its foundation (e.g., in rationality), then reform in morality itself would be possible. On a pragmatic view, on the other hand, common morality is relative to human flourishing, and its justification consists in its effectiveness in promoting flourishing. Morality is dependent on what in fact does promote human flourishing and therefore, could be reformed. However, a pragmatic approach, which appears more open to the possibility of moral reform, would need a more robust account of norms by which reform is measured.

  11. The Danish Regulatory Reform of Telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark......An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark...

  12. Implementing Comprehensive Reform: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the challenges and practical barriers community colleges face when implementing comprehensive reform, exploring how reforms are leading to some improvements but not often scaled improvements.

  13. An Empirical Study of Industrial Engineering and Management Curriculum Reform in Fostering Students' Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Kuang; Jiang, Bernard C.; Hsu, Kuang-Yiao

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of a creativity-fostering program in industrial engineering and management (IE&M) curriculum reform. Fostering creativity in students has become a crucial issue in industrial engineering education. In a survey of previous studies, we found few on IE&M curriculum reform. In…

  14. It's Our School Too: Youth Activism as Educational Reform, 1951-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajunwa, Kelechi

    2011-01-01

    Activism has the potential for reform (Howard, 1976). Unlike previous studies on high school activism this study places a primary focus on underground newspapers and argues that underground newspapers allowed high school students to function as activists as well as educational reformers. In order to make this argument, this study examined over 150…

  15. Complicating the Rhetoric: How Racial Construction Confounds Market-Based Reformers' Civil Rights Invocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Reformers today maintain the use of civil rights rhetoric when advocating for policies that address educational inequity. While continuing the legacy of earlier civil rights activists, the leaders invoking this rhetoric and the educational platforms they promote differ greatly from previous decades. Not only does this new crop of reformers differ…

  16. Unpacking Resistance to Change within-School Reform Programmes with a Social Justice Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynds, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Previous research in the area of resistance has inadequately described opposition to change within-school reform initiatives with a social justice orientation. A lack of attention to, and agreement on, the nature and causes of resistance may explain why so many equity-minded educational reforms fail to be sustained. This article highlights various…

  17. Developments in Structuring of Reformed Theology : The Synopsis Purioris Theologiae as Example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Belt, Hendrik; Selderhuis, Herman J.; Waschke, Ernst-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The Synopsis Purioris Theologiae (1625), an influential handbook of Reformed dogmatics, began as a cycle of disputations. A comparison of it with the cycles that were held previously in Leiden reveals some shifts in the structure of Reformed dogmatics. After introducing the Synopsis, this paper

  18. One Step Hydrogen Generation Through Sorption Enhanced Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, Jeff [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2017-08-03

    One-step hydrogen generation, using Sorption Enhanced Reforming (SER) technology, is an innovative means of providing critical energy and environmental improvements to US manufacturing processes. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a Compact Hydrogen Generator (CHG) process, based on SER technology, which successfully integrates previously independent process steps, achieves superior energy efficiency by lowering reaction temperatures, and provides pathways to doubling energy productivity with less environmental pollution. GTI’s prior CHG process development efforts have culminated in an operational pilot plant. During the initial pilot testing, GTI identified two operating risks- 1) catalyst coating with calcium aluminate compounds, 2) limited solids handling of the sorbent. Under this contract GTI evaluated alternative materials (one catalyst and two sorbents) to mitigate both risks. The alternate catalyst met performance targets and did not experience coating with calcium aluminate compounds of any kind. The alternate sorbent materials demonstrated viable operation, with one material enabling a three-fold increase in sorbent flow. The testing also demonstrated operation at 90% of its rated capacity. Lastly, a carbon dioxide co-production study was performed to assess the advantage of the solid phase separation of carbon dioxide- inherent in the CHG process. Approximately 70% lower capital cost is achievable compared to SMR-based hydrogen production with CO2 capture, as well as improved operating costs.

  19. Hydrogen production by steam reforming methanol for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amphlett, J.C.; Creber, K.A.M.; Davis, J.M.; Mann, R.F.; Peppley, B.A.; Stokes, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Catalytic steam reforming of methanol has been studied as a means of generating hydrogen for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. A semi-empirical model of the kinetics of the catalytic steam reforming of methanol over Cu O/Zn O/Al 2 O 3 catalyst has been developed. This model is able to predict the performance of the reformer with respect to the various parameters important in developing an integrated reformer-polymer fuel cell system. A set of sample calculations of reformer temperature and CO production are given. The impact of the performance of the reformer catalyst on the design of the overall fuel cell power system is discussed. The selectivity of the catalyst to minimize CO content in the fuel gas is shown to be more critical than was previously believed. 4 figs., 4 tabs., 11 refs

  20. UKRAINIAN PEASANTRY AS AN OBJECT OF AGRARIAN REFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Krivchik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. The article attempts to analyze the agrarian policy of the modern Ukrainian State in the context of its human factor. It demonstrates the effects of agrarian reforms on social sphere of Ukrainian countryside. Methodology. The author uses the following methods: dialectical – in the depiction of the controversial nature of agrarian reforms; retrospective – in determination of the main stages of agrarian transformations inUkraine; comparative – in revealing common and different features in the agrarian policy of theUSSR and modernUkraine.The scientific novelty is in the substantiation of the natural unity of economic and social policies in agriculture, the use of a variety of historical sources for this purpose. Conclusions. While conducting agrarian reform, started in the early 1990s, and continued up to the present time, only economic factors are taken into consideration. At the same time, human factor, and the interests of the peasantry, in particular, were ignored and not taken into account, despite the declarations and promises of politicians. Peasants were removed from the determination of objectives, directions and methods of the agrarian reform. They acted solely as an object and not the subject of the reform. In this sense, the methods for carrying out agrarian reforms in an independent and democraticUkraine do not differ much from the methods of the Bolshevik leadership. Thus, as it is shown in the article, the consequences of the agrarian reform can be equally dangerous for Ukrainian peasants. The peasants will lose their land forever and become laborers on the land inherited from previous generations. While carrying out a large-scale reform of the agrarian sector, it mustn’t be allowed for oligarchs to take countryside, land and agriculture into their hands. The regulations of sale and purchase of the land must be so that the Ukrainian peasant will remain the main contractor.

  1. Tobephobia Experienced by Teachers in Secondary Schools: An Exploratory Study Focusing on Curriculum Reform in the Nelson Mandela Metropole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.

    2011-01-01

    Because of its history from apartheid to democracy, the aspiration to reform schools is a recurrent theme in South African education. Efforts to reform education in schools based on the outcomes-based education (OBE) curriculum approach created major challenges for policy makers in South Africa. The purpose of this exploratory research was…

  2. Inside the Black Box of School Reform: Explaining the How and Why of Change at "Getting Results" Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Dennis; Saunders, William M.; Goldenberg, Claude

    2007-01-01

    This article reports key findings from a process-focused external evaluation that compared a subset of "Getting Results" project schools and comparison schools in order to understand the dynamics of school-wide reform efforts at these primary schools. Findings shed light on the "black box" of school reform and illuminate the…

  3. Board Governance: Transformational Approaches Under Healthcare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastocki, Deborah K

    2015-01-01

    Previous successes of healthcare organizations and effective governance practices in the pre-reform environment are not predictive of future success. Healthcare has been through numerous phases of growth and development using tried-and-true strategies. The challenge is that our toolbox does not contain what is needed to build the future healthcare delivery systems required in the post-reform world. Healthcare has had a parochial focus at the local level, with some broadening of horizons at the state and national levels. But healthcare delivery is now a global issue that requires a totally different perspective, and many countries are confronting similar issues. US healthcare reform initiatives have far-reaching implications. Compounding the reform dynamics are the simultaneously occurring, gamechanging accelerants such as enabling information technologies and mobile health, new providers of healthcare, increased consumer demands, and limited healthcare dollars, to name a few. Operating in this turbulent environment requires transformational board, executive, and physician leadership because traditional ways of planning for incremental change and attempting to time those adjustments can prove disastrous. Creating the legacy healthcare system for tomorrow requires governing boards and executive leadership to act today as they would in the desired future system. Boards need to create a culture that fosters.innovation with a tolerance for risk and some failure. To provide effective governance, boards must essentially develop new skills, expertise, and ways of thinking. The rapid rate of change requires board members to possess certain capabilities, including the ability to deal with ambiguity and uncertainty while demonstrating flexibility and adaptability, all with a driving commitment to metrics and results. This requires development plans for both individual members and the overall board. In short, the board needs to function differently, particularly regarding the

  4. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  5. Learning from the best: Overcoming barriers to reforms-based elementary science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchi, Heather May

    This study explored the characteristics of elementary science teachers who employ reforms-based practices. Particular attention was paid to the consistency of teachers' practices and their beliefs, the impact of professional development experiences on practices, and how teachers mitigated barriers to reforms-based instruction. Understanding how successful elementary science teachers develop fills a gap in the science reforms literature. Participants included 7 upper elementary science teachers from six different schools. All schools were located within two suburban school districts in the south-Atlantic United States and data was collected during the spring of 2008. Data collection included use of the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to evaluate the level of reforms-based instruction, as well as 35 hours of classroom observation field notes and 21 hours of audio-taped teacher interviews. The variety of data sources allowed for triangulation of evidence. The RTOP was analyzed using descriptive statistics and classroom observations and interview data were analyzed using Erickson's (1986) guidelines for analytic induction. Findings indicated (a) reforms-based elementary science teaching was attainable, (b) beliefs and practices were consistent and both reflected reforms-based philosophies and practices, (c) formal professional development experiences were limited and did not foster reforms-based practices, (d) informal professional development pursued by teachers had a positive impact on practices, (e) barriers to reforms-based instruction were present but mitigated by strong beliefs and practical strategies like curriculum integration. These findings suggest that there are common, salient characteristics of reforms-based teachers' beliefs, practices, and professional development experiences. These commonalities contribute to an understanding of how reforms-based teachers develop, and inform efforts to move all elementary teachers in the direction of

  6. Abortion law in Nepal: the road to reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Shyam

    2004-11-01

    In 2002 Nepal's parliament passed a liberal abortion law, after nearly three decades of reform efforts. This paper reviews the history of the movement for reform and the combination of factors that contributed to its success. These include sustained advocacy for reform; the dissemination of knowledge, information and evidence; adoption of the reform agenda by the public sector and its leadership in involving other stakeholders; the existence of work for safe motherhood as the context in which the initiative could gain support; an active women's rights movement and support from international and multilateral organisations; sustained involvement of local NGOs, civil society and professional organisations; the involvement of journalists and the media; the absence of significant opposition; courageous government officials and an enabling democratic political system. The overriding rationale for reforming the abortion law in Nepal has been to ensure safe motherhood and women's rights. The first government abortion services officially began in March 2004 at the Maternity Hospital in Kathmandu; services will be expanded gradually to other public and private hospitals and private clinics in the coming years.

  7. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  8. Service Delivery with More Districts in Uganda : Fiscal Challenges and Opportunities for Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Ugandan decentralization efforts of the 1990s represented an unusually authentic and powerful local government reform, compared to similar efforts pursued in many other low-income countries. However, over time the changing interests of the central agencies, dissatisfaction with service outcomes, and the overall dynamics of the country's governance resulted in the adoption of a number of re...

  9. On being African and Reformed? Towards an African Reformed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-17

    Jun 17, 2014 ... It is furthermore our contention that the notion of culture and African worldviews was always perceived negatively ..... dean of the South East Asia Graduate School of Theology. He later .... Another Reformed church for Indian.

  10. on the accra document, reformed theology and reformed ecclesiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-14

    Dec 14, 2009 ... Many churches and ecumenical bodies have already responded, in diverse ways ..... and contains a number of practical commitments and appeals. (par. ..... rhetorical power and emotion that it seemingly has for Reformed.

  11. Strategic Planning and Public management Reform: The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin Emilian HINȚEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning is an excellent tool that local governments can (and should use in order to deal effi ciently with change, which means that planning is an important aspect of public sector reform, arguably one of the defi ning elements of the public policy landscape for the past three decades (Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2011. Our main objective with this research is twofold: to analyze why and how local public administration uses strategic planning as a managerial tool for managing change (reform, and to identify whether the planning efforts display a specifi c reform pattern. We employed a quantitative methodology – online survey – to collect data on the strategic planning process at the local level in Romania, with a specifi c framework for the strategic profi le (Hinţea, 2015 and another three dimension model – NPM, NWS, NPG1 – for the reform component (Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2011. Our analysis indicates that over 70% of strategic planning efforts are done because it is a mandatory condition for accessing EU funds. Major issues concern implementation, monitoring and evaluation with only around a third of organizations having a formal body responsible for this. Although the process has mixed characteristics, NWS type elements are more common/preferred, while NPM seem least common/preferred by local authorities

  12. Education for a New Era: Stakeholders’ Perception of Qatari Education Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Ellili-Cherif

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of a qualitative research study that explores principal, teacher, and parent perceptions with regard to Qatar’s education reform, Education for a New Era (EFNE launched in 2004. The study focuses on the effects of the reform on each group, their perceived advantages and disadvantages of the reform, and the challenges they face in the implementation of EFNE. Data for this study was collected through an open-ended questionnaire. The results point to the positive effects of EFNE on improving instruction, principals' leadership style, and learner attitude to education. These stakeholders believe that the reform is too ambitious and sometimes unrealistic. The three groups also report challenges that revolve around the amount of extra effort and work it requires from them, the continuous reform changes, and the threats to the local culture and language. Discussion and conclusions are provided regarding EFNE.

  13. Absent alternatives and insider interests in postcrisis financial reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, D.; Stellinga, B.

    2010-01-01

    The credit crisis that began in the summer of 2007 has fundamentally challenged much financial regulation and the political institutions that produced it. Measured against the criticisms that have been brought forth against previous financial governance, the extent of governments’ overall reform

  14. Radiant non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.

    2017-10-31

    A radiant, non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot exhaust gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned adjacent to the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot exhaust gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned outside of flue gas flow path for a relatively large residence time.

  15. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  16. Multidisciplinary Efforts Driving Translational Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tony Y.

    2014-01-01

    This themed issue summarizes significant efforts aimed at using “biological language” to discern between “friends” and “foes” in the context of theranostics for true clinical application. It is expected that the success of theranostics depends on multidisciplinary efforts, combined to expedite our understanding of host responses to “customized” theranostic agents and formulating individualized therapies. PMID:25285169

  17. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  18. Contract Reform Self Assessment Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this self assessment is to report on the Department of Energy's progress in implementing the Contract Reform initiative launched in February 1994 and to discuss remaining challenges...

  19. Applications of solar reforming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  20. Financial reform lessons and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Caprio Jr, Gerard; Atiyas, Izak; Hanson, James

    1993-01-01

    The argument in favor of gradual - but sustained - financial reform is based on two factors. First, the development of borrower net worth will determine the health of the real and, ultimately, the financial sector. Thus, speeding up reforms when borrower net worth is subject to positive shocks - or slowing them when it is subject to negative shocks - appears sensible and appears to have worked better in practice. Second, the initial conditions of the banking sector - not just its net worth bu...

  1. Misrecognition and science education reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2012-09-01

    In this forum, I expand upon Teo and Osborne's discussion of teacher agency and curriculum reform. I take up and build upon their analysis to further examine one teacher's frustration in enacting an inquiry-based curriculum and his resulting accommodation of an AP curriculum. In this way I introduce the concept of misrecognition (Bourdieu and Passeron 1977) to open up new ways of thinking about science inquiry and school reform.

  2. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Wofford-Thornburgh: a turning point for health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarski, C

    1992-01-01

    The November 5 special election in Pennsylvania pitting appointed Senator Harris Wofford against former U.S. Attorney General Richard Thornburgh was a turning point in the national debate over health reform. Under the glare of media spotlights, Wofford mounted a come-from-behind victory over the heavily favored Thornburgh by trumpeting "national health insurance." Since Wofford's victory, President Bush has rethought his previous indifference to health reform and promised to announce a comprehensive plan in January, more than a year ahead of schedule.

  4. Mathematics Teacher Identity in the Context of Mathematics Reform: Elementary Teacher Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONMathematics Teacher Identity in the Context of Mathematics Reform:Elementary Teacher Experiences ByJennifer SunDoctor of Philosophy in EducationUniversity of California, Irvine, 2017Associate Professor Elizabeth A. van Es, ChairReform efforts and changes in mathematics education have brought on a shift towards a new vision of mathematics teaching in the United States. In light of recent accountability standards, the focus on teacher learning within the context of m...

  5. Doha Round Baggage: Implications for Economic Reforms in Pakistan and other Southern Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Naheed Zia Khan

    2007-01-01

    This study is based on the premisethat agriculture remains the key issue in all reform efforts of Pakistanand the Doha Round of trade talks has strategic significance for the second round of the country’s farm sector reforms. It is argued that although there are differences among the individual developing countries, the majority have a comparative advantage in agricultural production and removing farmsector export subsidies and trade-distorting, domestic subsidies is their common concern. Evi...

  6. Reforming health care in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Császi, L; Kullberg, P

    1985-01-01

    Over the past two decades Hungary has initiated a series of social and economic reforms which have emphasized decentralization of control and the reintroduction of market mechanisms into the socialized economy. These reforms both reflect and reinforce a changing social structure, in particular the growing influence of upper class special interest groups. Market reforms are an expression of concurrent ideological shifts in Hungarian society. We examined the political significance of three recent proposals to reform health services against the backdrop of broader social and economic changes taking place. The first proposes a bureaucratic reorganization, the second, patient co-payments, and the third, a voucher system. The problems each proposal identifies, as well as the constituency each represents, reveal a trend toward consolidation of class structure in Hungary. Only one of these proposals has any potential to democratize the control and management of the heath care system. Moreover, despite a governmental push toward decentralization, two of these proposals would actually increase centralized bureaucratic control. Two of the reforms incorporate market logic into their arguments, an indication that the philosophical premises of capitalism are re-emerging as an important component of the Hungarian world-view. In Hungary, as well as in other countries, social analysis of proposed health care reforms can effectively illuminate the social and political dynamics of the larger society.

  7. Payment Reform Meets Pharmacy Practice and Education Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trygstad, Troy

    2017-01-01

    The pharmacy profession has for the greater part of four decades been associated with dispensing activities and product reimbursement. This has hindered the ability of pharmacists to evolve their roles in their respective sites of care. Payment reform efforts that create an outcomes marketplace offer an opportunity for professional transformation. ©2017 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  8. China’s Military Reforms: An Optimistic Take

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    unveiled the long-anticipated organizational reforms in a series of major announcements beginning on December 31, 2015, when it subor- dinated the...the PLA away from the dominance of army-centric thinking and leadership. It also empha- sizes the contributions of other services, and, along with...accelerating efforts to transform it into a leaner force more capable of carrying out joint combat op- erations and MOOTW. Optimizing Organizational

  9. Reforming the European Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ezra Bigio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An unbridled globalization based on a simple premise about earnings and profit may be detrimental to the livelihood of many thousands of individuals. The greed and utter selfishness that result from the adherence to this sort of business practice are the two things that generate more unemployment, misery and degradation than most other characteristics of the human species. These considerations present the challenge for Western societies and call for the implementation of other principles, standards and procedures, such as cooperation, cohesion, development objectives and social responsibility. In the first part of the paper this approach is tested in the case of the EU-US foreign exchange relationships. The second part of the paper raises more general and fundamental issues. While adhering to the Schumpeter-type innovation environment, it aims to introduce the social dimension ahead of the immediate competitiveness and, therefore, argues for the fundamental reform of the catechism of the capitalist manager. The EU, due to its advanced integration, is relatively well-equipped to move towards the new economic system.  

  10. Student memories: Insights for science reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillie, Jane Hall

    The purpose of this study was to examine the recollections pre-service teachers majoring in elementary education have of their science experiences during their elementary years and to explore the recollections in the context of science education reform efforts. At the beginning of science methods course work, pre-service elementary teachers reflected on their memories of their own elementary education experiences. Themes from 102 reflective essays collected in two settings and time periods were identified and compared. The themes remained consistent over both settings and time frames studied and fall into three general categories: curriculum and instruction, teacher traits, and student traits. The pre-service teachers expressed difficulty in recalling elementary science experiences and attributed their limited memories to what they perceived as a low priority of science content in the elementary curriculum. Teaching strategies played a prominent role in the memories reported. Hands-on and active learning strategies produced positive memories, while lectures, reading textbooks, and completing worksheets resulted in more negative memories. Furthermore, pre-service teacher essays often failed to connect the learning activities with concept development or understanding. Pre-service teachers were split nearly equally between those who liked and those who disliked elementary science. The attributes of elementary teachers received the least attention in the categories and focused primarily on passion for teaching science. Implications for science reform leaders, teacher education preparation programs, and school administrators and curriculum directors are identified.

  11. Introducing CSR - The Missing Ingredient in the Land Reform Recipe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk J Kloppers

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In reaction to the unequal land ownership brought about by decades of apartheid, the first democratically elected government embarked on an extensive land reform programme - a programme consisting of the three constitutionally protected pillars: restitution, redistribution and tenure reform. The aim of this programme is not only to provide for restitution to persons who lost their land as a result of racially based measures, but also provide previously disadvantaged South Africans with access to land in order to address the unequal land ownership. This research focuses on the restitution and redistribution pillars of the land reform programme. The progress made in terms of both these sub-programmes has been disappointing. With reference to redistribution the government has set the target to redistribute 30% of white owned commercial agricultural land to black persons by 2014. To date, less than 10% of this target has been achieved and all indications are that the overwhelming majority of land which has been redistributed is not being used productively or have fallen into a state of total neglect. The state of the redistributed land can be attributed to a variety of causes, with the main cause being the government's inability to provide proper post-settlement support to land reform beneficiaries. Against this background it is clear that alternative options have to be identified in order to improve the result of land reform. This article identifies corporate social responsibility (CSR as one of the missing ingredients in the recipe for a successful land reform programme. The article introduces CSR and discusses the business case for CSR; identifies its benefits; considers its possible limitations; and examines the major drivers behind the notion. From the discussion of these topics it will become evident that an assumption of social responsibility by businesses in especially the agricultural sector might contribute to an improved land reform

  12. Perspectives: parity--prelude to a fifth cycle of reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Howard H

    2002-09-01

    Based on 2000 Carl Taube Lecture at the NIMH Mental Health Economics Meeting. This perspective article examines the relationship between a policy of parity in financing mental health services and the future of reform in service delivery. Applying theories of static and dynamic efficiency to an understanding of parity and the evolution of mental health services, drawing upon Burton Weisbrod s concept of the health care quadrilemma . Each of four cycles of reform in mental health services have contended with issues of static and dynamic efficiency. Each cycle was associated with static efficiency in the management and financing of services, and each was associated with a set of new treatment technologies intended to improve dynamic efficiency. Each reform proved ultimately unsuccessful primarily because of the failure of the treatment technologies to prevent future patient chronicity or to achieve sustained recovery. Recent advances in treatment technology and management of care can permit an unprecedented level of efficiency consistent with a policy of improved access to mainstream health and social welfare resources, including insurance coverage. This policy of so-called financing parity can improve current mental health service delivery, but it may also portend a future fifth cycle of reform. If new technologies continue to advance as full technologies - simple to deliver and producing true recovery - and mainstream resources are made available, then the specialty mental health services may contract dramatically in favor of effective care and treatment of mental illness in primary care and other mainstream settings. Predicting the future of health care is speculative, but it may be easier using the Weisbrod formulation to understand the process of mental health reform. Over-reliance on administrative techniques for building static efficiency and false optimism about dynamic efficiency from new technology have stymied previous reforms. All the same, a fifth cycle

  13. Effort rights-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...... populations and providing TACs or TAEs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and there are trade-offs between the two approaches. In a narrow economic sense, catch rights are superior because of the type of incentives created, but once the costs of research to improve stock assessments...

  14. Catalytic autothermal reforming increases fuel cell flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G. E.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the autothermal reforming (ATR) of n-hexane, n-tetradecane, benzene and benzene solutions of naphthalene. The tests were run at atmospheric pressure and at moderately high reactant preheat temperatures in the 800-900 K range. Carbon formation lines were determined for paraffinic and aromatic liquids. Profiles were determined for axial bed temperature and composition. Space velocity efforts were assessed, and the locations and types of carbon were recorded. Significant reactive differences between hydrocarbons were identified. Carbon formation characteristics were hydrocarbon specific. The differing behavior of paraffinic and aromatic fuels with respect to their carbon formation may be important in explaining the narrow range of carbon-free operating conditions found in the ATR of number two fuel oil.

  15. Pandemic Influenza: Domestic Preparedness Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lister, Sarah A

    2005-01-01

    .... Though influenza pandemics occur with some regularity, and the United States has been involved in specific planning efforts since the early 1990s, the H5N1 situation has created a sense of urgency...

  16. Internal reforming characteristics of cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell using yttria stabilized zirconia fed with partially reformed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momma, Akihiko; Takano, Kiyonami; Tanaka, Yohei; Negishi, Akira; Kato, Ken; Nozaki, Ken; Kato, Tohru [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono Tsukuba Ibaraki, 305-8568 (Japan); Ichigi, Takenori; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Ryu, Takashi [Application Development Project, Corporate R and D, NGK Insulators, Ltd., 2-56 Suda-cho Mizuho-ku Nagoya-shi Aichi, 467-8530 (Japan)

    2009-08-01

    In order to investigate the internal reforming characteristics in a cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using YSZ as the electrolyte, the concentration profiles of the gaseous species along the gas flow direction in the anode were measured. Partially reformed methane using a pre-reformer kept at a constant temperature is supplied to the center of the cell which is operated with a seal-less structure at the gas outlet. The anode gas is sucked in via silica capillaries to the initially evacuated gas tanks. The process is simultaneously carried out using five sampling ports. The sampled gas is analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Most of the measurements are made at the cell temperature (T{sub cell}) of 750 C and at various temperatures of the pre-reformer (T{sub ref}) with various fuel utilizations (U{sub f}) of the cell. The composition of the fuel at the inlet of the anode was confirmed to be almost the same as that theoretically calculated assuming equilibrium at the temperature of the pre-reformer. The effect of internal reforming in the anode is clearly observed as a steady decrease in the methane concentration along the flow axis. The effect of the water-gas shift reaction is also observed as a decrease in the CO{sub 2} concentration and an increase of CO concentration around the gas inlet region, as the water-gas shift reaction inversely proceeds when T{sub cell} is higher than T{sub ref}. The diffusion of nitrogen from the seal-less outermost edge is observed, and the diffusion is confirmed to be more significant as U{sub f} decreases. The observations are compared with the results obtained by the SOFC supported by lanthanum gallate electrolyte. With respect to the internal reforming performance, the cell investigated here is found to be more effective when compared to the previously reported electrolyte supported cell. (author)

  17. Internal reforming characteristics of cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell using yttria stabilized zirconia fed with partially reformed methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momma, Akihiko; Takano, Kiyonami; Tanaka, Yohei; Negishi, Akira; Kato, Ken; Nozaki, Ken; Kato, Tohru; Ichigi, Takenori; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Ryu, Takashi

    In order to investigate the internal reforming characteristics in a cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using YSZ as the electrolyte, the concentration profiles of the gaseous species along the gas flow direction in the anode were measured. Partially reformed methane using a pre-reformer kept at a constant temperature is supplied to the center of the cell which is operated with a seal-less structure at the gas outlet. The anode gas is sucked in via silica capillaries to the initially evacuated gas tanks. The process is simultaneously carried out using five sampling ports. The sampled gas is analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Most of the measurements are made at the cell temperature (T cell) of 750 °C and at various temperatures of the pre-reformer (T ref) with various fuel utilizations (U f) of the cell. The composition of the fuel at the inlet of the anode was confirmed to be almost the same as that theoretically calculated assuming equilibrium at the temperature of the pre-reformer. The effect of internal reforming in the anode is clearly observed as a steady decrease in the methane concentration along the flow axis. The effect of the water-gas shift reaction is also observed as a decrease in the CO 2 concentration and an increase of CO concentration around the gas inlet region, as the water-gas shift reaction inversely proceeds when T cell is higher than T ref. The diffusion of nitrogen from the seal-less outermost edge is observed, and the diffusion is confirmed to be more significant as U f decreases. The observations are compared with the results obtained by the SOFC supported by lanthanum gallate electrolyte. With respect to the internal reforming performance, the cell investigated here is found to be more effective when compared to the previously reported electrolyte supported cell.

  18. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Drews, Christopher; Lantow, Birger

    2018-01-01

    Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation re...

  19. Reforming a giant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, F.C. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the introduction of a quality culture into an organization whose structure has never previously included this concept. The author reports on the four fronts which must be considered in the implementation of quality principles

  20. Reforming Preschools and Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Murnane, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learning of these skills. We first review strategies used in the past to improve K-12 schooling-including investing more money, introducing more accountability, and putting in place new governance structures (eg, charter schools)-and show why these strategies have been relatively ineffective. Drawing on the research literature and case studies, we then describe education reform strategies for prekindergarten programs and for elementary, middle, and high schools that may help meet these challenges. All of the initiatives described in our case studies provide ample opportunities for teachers and school leaders to improve their skills through coaching and other professional development activities; incorporate sensible systems of accountability, including requiring teachers to open their classrooms to the scrutiny of colleagues and school leaders and to work with their colleagues to improve their teaching practices; and incorporate high academic standards, such as those described in the Common Core State Standards. By focusing directly on improving teaching and promoting learning, these successful initiatives have boosted the achievement of low-income children. They show that it is indeed possible to make a real difference in the life chances of low-income children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In the arc of history: AIHA and the movement to reform the Toxic Substances Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Michael P. Wilson of UC Berkeley delivered his keynote address before the general assembly of the American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exhibition (AIHce) in Portland, Oregon, in May 2011. Here, Dr. Wilson again discusses the political and economic drivers of occupational disease in the United States and proposes a role for AIHA in helping to highlight and resolve them. He proposes that until these underlying drivers are acknowledged and ameliorated, the toll of occupational disease will persist, despite the hard work of industrial hygienists in the workplace. Among these drivers, Dr. Wilson points to the decline of labor rights and unionization; economic inequality; economic insecurity; political resistance to public health protections for workers, notably the OSHA and NIOSH programs; and weaknesses in the Federal Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA). Of these, Dr. Wilson calls on the AIHA to participate in the historic effort to rewrite TSCA. He points to weaknesses in TSCA that have produced a chemicals market dominated by the function, price, and performance of chemicals, with little attention given to their health and environmental effects. Under these conditions, he argues, hazardous chemicals have remained economically competitive, and innovation in inherently safer chemicals-in green chemistry-has been held back by a lack of market transparency and public accountability in the industry. TSCA reform has the potential to shift the market toward green chemistry, with long-term implications for occupational disease prevention, industrial investment, and renewed energy in the industrial hygiene profession. Dr. Wilson proposes that, like previous legislative changes in the United States, TSCA reform is likely to occur in response to myriad social pressures, which include the emergence of the European Union's REACH regulation; recent chemicals policy actions in 18 U.S. states; growing support from downstream businesses; increasing public awareness

  2. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  3. Phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies. Consequences of the 2003 CAP reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Erwin; Hofreither, Markus F. [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Feistmantelstrasse 4, 1180 Vienna (Austria); Sinabell, Franz [Austrian Institute of Economic Research Vienna (WIFO), PO Box 91, 1103 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-01-15

    Subsidies linked to production have been classified as environmentally harmful by the OECD. A core element of the EU 2003 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform is to decouple income support from production. This paper estimates the environmental consequences of this policy reform. An agricultural sector model using a modified version of the positive mathematical programming method depicts the complex natural, structural, and political relationships of Austrian farming. Changes in management measures can be analyzed with respect to their environmental effects by using appropriate indicators. Simulation results show that the 2003 CAP reform will reduce the average cost of production, and may improve environmental conditions regarding soil, water, and greenhouse gases when compared to a scenario without reform. Thus, the new CAP is likely to bring about outcomes which the previous reform (Agenda 2000) promised but did not deliver. (author)

  4. Renaissance and reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. van der Walt

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available I do hope that you are going to have the deepest appreciation for my contribution, because it really represents an attempt at the im­possible. To force a whale into a sardine tin is no mean feat, and here one is expected to force four whales(Renaissance, Humanism, the Stoa and Calvin into the same tin. The titanic effort assumes even more heroic proportions when one considers that I have exactly ten minutes at my disposal in which to commit this academic crime.

  5. Maximum effort in the minimum-effort game

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Normann, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 249-259 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : minimum-effort game * coordination game * experiments * social capital Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010

  6. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  7. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  8. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Drews

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation regarding the technical aspects of BPMS migration. The framework provides questions for BPMS comparison and an effort evaluation schema. The applicability of the framework is evaluated based on a simplified BPMS migration scenario.

  9. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  10. Arktisk Reform i Ukraines Skygge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon

    2015-01-01

    USA overtager formandskabet for Arktisk Råd ved udenrigsministermødet d. 24.-25. april 2015. Der er behov for nødvendige reformer af Rådets struktur, men Ukraine-konflikten gør det vanskeligt at nå de ambitiøse mål.......USA overtager formandskabet for Arktisk Råd ved udenrigsministermødet d. 24.-25. april 2015. Der er behov for nødvendige reformer af Rådets struktur, men Ukraine-konflikten gør det vanskeligt at nå de ambitiøse mål....

  11. Florence Nightingale and healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudzma, Elizabeth Connelly

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the work of Florence Nightingale in light of her collaboration with William Farr, the eminent medical statistician. Nightingale's epidemiological investigations supported by Farr illustrated that attention to environmental cleanliness was an important factor in preventing spread of disease. Nightingale channeled her investigations to support hospital reforms and the need for an educated nurse who could provide better management of the hospital environment. Statistical support and solicited criticism allowed Nightingale to argue more forcefully for her reforms.

  12. The Economic Effects of Comprehensive Tax Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study analyzes the major economic effects of several tax reform plans and finds that much uncertainty surrounds the likelihood and magnitude of the economic gains from tax reform...

  13. TAX-REFORM - DREAMING ABOUT TOUGH REALITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKAM, F

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses four papers concerned with tax reform. It is concluded that tax reform has had a rather limited impact on behaviour so far but that governments should press ahead with gradual improvement and not expect dramatic results.

  14. INSTITUTIONAL THEORY OF ECONOMIC REFORMS: BASIC IMPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeevich SUKHAREV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of institutional economic theory to explain various kinds of economic reforms (changes on the basis of theoretical ideas about the dysfunction of institutions and systems are investigated. A number of classifications of reforms and dysfunctions is introduced and kinds of institutional efficiency of economic systems are defined. Qualitative regularities of various reforms of the twentieth century in different countries are generalized. A number of criteria of effective institutional reforms, capable to lower the depth and the scale of dysfunctions of the functioning economic subsystems is formed. System approach to the analysis of economic systems reforming with underlining the importance of reform “management” factor which defines productivity of economic development is elaborated. Life cycle of institution and economic system in the process of its reforming is presented and correction of J. Hellmann’s model, describing the reforming logic of economy is made.

  15. On being African and Reformed? Towards an African Reformed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, the notions of being African and Reformed are interrogated. The research notes that these notions are rarely used in the same vein. It is admitted that notions tend to pick up different meanings as they evolve, so these notions are especially seen in that light. The theological hegemony, which in the South African ...

  16. Reform and efficiency of state-owned forest enterprises in Northeast China as “social firms”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han Xue; Gregory E. Frey; Geng Yude; Frederick W. Cubbage; Zhang Zhaohui

    2018-01-01

    State-owned forest enterprises (SOFEs) in northeast China have experienced past economic loss andenvironmental degradation, causing government to seek reforms. Measurement of technical efficiencyallows us to evaluate overall trends and how reforms affect production of social and environmental goods.Previous assessments have used small samples, short time...

  17. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido

    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which

  18. Political Parties, Clientelism, and Bureaucratic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Cesi; Keefer, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of public administration reform is well-known: politicians often have little interest in the efficient implementation of government policy. Using new data from 439 World Bank public sector reform loans in 109 countries, we demonstrate that such reforms are significantly less likely to succeed in the presence of non-programmatic political parties. Earlier research uses evidence from a small group of countries to conclude that clientelistic politicians resist reforms that restrict...

  19. Conservation and aid: designing more effective investments in natural resource governance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Fred

    2009-10-01

    Biodiversity conservation outcomes are closely related to the rules and institutions governing resource use. Creating local incentives for conservation through more secure resource tenure is central to conservation outcomes on private and communal lands, where the preponderance of biodiversity occurs. Conservation efforts in sub-Saharan Africa are therefore centrally concerned with governance dynamics and institutional reform processes, such as the decentralization of property rights, and how best to achieve such reforms. Traditional mechanisms for financing conservation efforts in Africa rely heavily on funds channeled through multilateral and bilateral aid agencies. The history of development aid highlights a range of constraints these aid agencies face in terms of working toward more effective resource governance arrangements and promoting reforms. Government aid agencies possess incentives for promoting large-scale and short-term projects that maximize expenditure volumes and tend to define issues in technical rather than political terms. The history of development aid suggests that these and other characteristics of aid agencies impedes their ability to influence governance reform processes and that aid funding may discourage the adoption of reforms. Greater emphasis in African conservation financing needs to be placed on flexible, small-scale investments aligned to local interests and constituencies that prioritize innovation, learning, and experimentation. Additionally, more research is required that explores the linkages between conservation funding, donor decision-making processes, and governance reforms.

  20. Reforming the road freight transportation system using systems thinking: An investigation of Coronial inquests in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnam, Sharon; Goode, Natassia; Salmon, Paul; Stevenson, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Road freight transport is considered to be one of the most dangerous industries in Australia, accounting for over 30% of all work fatalities. Whilst system reform (i.e., change to policy and practice) is needed, it is not clear what this reform should be, or what approaches should be used to drive it. This article argues that road freight transportation reform should be underpinned by a systems thinking approach. Efforts to understand crash causation should be focused beyond the driver and identify contributing factors at other levels with the road freight system. Accordingly, we present the findings from a study that examined whether Australian Coronial investigations into road freight crashes reflect support appropriate system reform. Content analysis was used to identify the contributing factors and interrelations implicated in the road freight crashes described in publicly available Australian Coroner's inquest reports from the last 10 years (2004-2014; n=21). The results found evidence to suggest that the Coronial inquests provide some understanding of the complex system of factors influencing road freight transportation crashes in Australia. However, there was a lack of evidence to suggest an understanding of system-based reform based on the identification of reductionist-focused recommendations. It is concluded that researchers and practitioners (ie., government and industry) need to work together to develop prevention efforts focused on system reforms. Systems thinking based data collection and analysis frameworks are urgently required to help develop this understanding in road freight transportation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Community Organizing as an Education Reform Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renee, Michelle; McAlister, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Community organizing for school reform offers an urgently needed alternative to traditional approaches to school change. Many current reforms fail to thrive due to lack of trust, understanding, or cultural relevance to the community being targeted. The high turnover of reformers (superintendents, principals, or outside organizations) in high-need…

  2. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  3. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriations, direct payment of a Credit Risk Premium by the Applicant or a non-Federal infrastructure partner... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act...

  4. Turning around Maple Shade Middle School: A Principal's Initial Reform Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonowicz, Michael J.; Levy, Melissa K.

    2009-01-01

    This case was written for use in courses dealing with school administration, specifically those related to organizational change, school improvement/turnaround, and the principalship. It explores a veteran principal's first year as a "turnaround specialist" in a low-performing middle school, where she works with a sense of urgency to achieve an…

  5. 75 FR 69096 - Public Meetings of National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Reform Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... its programs and answer any questions and listen to comments from them on how its programs can be more... policy alternatives is being developed and will be analyzed using the evaluation criteria. The resulting recommendations will be reported to FEMA leadership. The purpose of the public meetings is to describe, update...

  6. 75 FR 71136 - Public Meetings of National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Reform Effort; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... answer any questions and listen to comments from them on how its programs can be more efficient and... is being developed and will be analyzed using the evaluation criteria. The resulting recommendations will be reported to FEMA leadership. The purpose of the public meetings is to describe, update, and...

  7. Pinnacle: The Army’s Effort to Reform Its Accession Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    Philip Kotler emphasizes the importance of market conditions on organization design and strategy. According to Kotler , “Companies need to give the... principles also address the importance of selecting effective sales representatives. According to Kotler , “At the heart of a successful salesforce...Leadership, interview by author, December 6, 2010. 68 Philip Kotler , Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control

  8. Mexico's "ley de narcomenudeo" drug policy reform and the international drug control regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Werb, Daniel; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-11-14

    It has been over half a century since the landmark Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted, for the first time unifying international drug policy under a single treaty aimed at limiting use, manufacture, trade, possession, and trafficking of opiates, cannabis, and other narcotics. Since then, other international drug policy measures have been adopted, largely emphasizing enforcement-based approaches to reducing drug supply and use. Recently, in response to concerns that the historic focus on criminalization and enforcement has had limited effectiveness, international drug policies have begun to undergo a paradigm shift as countries seek to enact their own reforms to partially depenalize or deregulate personal drug use and possession. This includes Mexico, which in 2009 enacted national drug policy reform partially decriminalizing possession of small quantities of narcotics for personal consumption while also requiring drug treatment for repeat offenders. As countries move forward with their own reform models, critical assessment of their legal compatibility and effectiveness is necessary. In this commentary we conduct a critical assessment of the compatibility of Mexico's reform policy to the international drug policy regime and describe its role in the current evolving drug policy environment. We argue that Mexico's reform is consistent with flexibilities allowed under international drug treaty instruments and related commentaries. We also advocate that drug policy reforms and future governance efforts should be based on empirical evidence, emphasize harm reduction practices, and integrate evidence-based evaluation and implementation of drug reform measures.

  9. Cultural Narcissism and Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Scholars have described American culture in recent decades as narcissistic, manifested by displays of self-absorption tantamount to a pathological syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions. An education reform movement that is highly critical of public schools, teachers, and students has simultaneously emerged, espousing a…

  10. The Brazilian electrical system reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.F.; Dahl, C.

    1999-01-01

    Although the Brazilian electrical system has been a public monopoly, the threat of electricity shortages from a lack of investment triggered a comprehensive reform. In 1993 the government began a series of laws, decrees and regulations reforming the tariff policy, allowing privatization of utilities, foreign investments and independent power producers, and creating an independent transmission grid and a new electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL). The new regulatory framework is not completely defined but the proposed model intends to transform bulk electricity supply into a competitive market similar to that adopted in England. Our objective is to evaluate whether the proposed reform will succeed in attracting the required private capital, will allow an unregulated wholesale electricity market and will require a strict regulatory framework. The reform has been quite successful in privatizing the distribution companies but is allowing monopolistic rents, and has failed until now to attract private investments to expand generation capacity. The risk of blackouts has increased, and the proposed wholesale electricity market may not be appropriate because of barriers to constructing new hydroelectric units, now 90% of the system. Therefore, a new regulatory framework and a strong regulatory agency with a well-defined tariff policy should have preceded the privatization. (author)

  11. Agrarian Reform and Rural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Margaret R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the plight of the world's poor, which was discussed at The World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development in July, 1979. Urban bias is attributed to the failure of rural development. More participation of rural people is needed. Progress is being made. Examples of literary programs in Iraq and the Sudan are included.…

  12. Free-Market School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1997-01-01

    In Uxbridge, Massachusetts, a small working-class mill town, free-market reform rhetoric has become reality. The tiny district has adopted controversial changes, such as giving vouchers to parents of Title I students, reimbursing home-schooling parents, lengthening the school day and year, adopting flexible scheduling, allowing credit for Internet…

  13. Law Reform and Child Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Cormacain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this Editorial Ronan Cormacain (Editor-in-Chief, ISLRev, Institute of Advanced Legal Studies welcomes you to the third issue of the IALS Student Law Review. He explains the background to this special edition focusing on Law Reform and Child Protection and introduces the articles featured in this issue of the journal.

  14. Education Reform: A Managerial Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharach, Samuel B.; Conley, Sharon C.

    1986-01-01

    Education reform has wrongly focused on teacher motivation and rewards, when the organizational system itself is at fault. Research shows that effective school management hinges on increased individual discretion and decision-making opportunities for teachers and less controlling behavior by administrators. Ten characteristics of effective…

  15. EIA: Educational Reform or Repression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Dianne S.

    A recent study (Cook, 1989) involving 58 randomly selected South Carolina elementary schools indicated that none of these schools could be characterized as having an "open climate." This paper suggests that this situation may have its origins in the educational reform movement of the 1980s, first ignited by the publication of "A…

  16. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  17. Reforming the Russian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, Mayra Rodriguez

    1999-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview; Russian energy markets; Evolution of the power sector; The electricity market; Regulation and proposed reforms; Politics in the power sector; Economics of the power sector; Regional differences; Foreign involvement; Valuation and company management; Conclusions. (Author)

  18. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  19. Implementing health care reform: implications for performance of public hospitals in central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyazewal, Tsegahun; Matlakala, Mokgadi C

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the way health care reforms have succeeded or failed thus far would help policy makers cater continued reform efforts in the future and provides insight into possible levels of improvement in the health care system. This work aims to assess and describe the implications of health care reform on the performance of public hospitals in central Ethiopia. A facility-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in five public hospitals with different operational characteristics that have been implementing health care reform in central Ethiopia. The reform documents were reviewed to assess the nature and targets of the reform for interpretive analysis. Adopting dimensions of health system performance as the theoretical framework, a self-administered questionnaire was developed. Consenting health care professionals who have been involved in the reform from inception to implementation filled the questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was measured to ensure internal consistency of the instrument. Descriptive statistics, weighted median score, χ 2 , and Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for data analysis. s Despite implementation of the reform, the health care system in public hospitals was still fragmented as confirmed by 50% of respondents. Limited effects were reported in favour of quality (48%), access (50%), efficiency (51%), sustainability (53%), and equity (61%) of care, while poor effects were reported in patient-provider (41%) and provider-management (32%) interactions. Though there was substantial gain in infrastructure and workspace, stewardship of health care resources was less benefited. The predominant hindrances of the reform were the working environment (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-4.47), financial resources (aOR = 3.54, 95%CI = 1.97-6.33), management (aOR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.15-4.47), and information technology system (aOR = 3.15, 95% CI = 1.57-6.32). s The Ethiopian

  20. Intended Consequences: Challenging White Teachers' Habitus and Its Influence in Urban Schools Implementing an Arts-Based Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollen, Susan; Otto, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Reform efforts like the urban, arts-based initiative Project ARTS are designed to provide intentional, equitable methods of improving students' learning, yet few urban educators have been sufficiently trained to recognize differences in habitus between themselves and their students. For equitable reform to occur teachers must understand their…

  1. The Implementation and Impact of Evidence-Based Mathematics Reforms in High-Poverty Middle Schools: A Multi-Site, Multi-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; Mac Iver, Douglas J.; Byrnes, Vaughan

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the first 4 years of an effort to develop comprehensive and sustainable mathematics education reforms in high poverty middle schools. In four related analyses, we examine the levels of implementation achieved and impact of the reforms on various measures of achievement in the first 3 schools to implement the Talent…

  2. Reforming technology for syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.

    1997-01-01

    Methane forming reactions using either steam or CO 2 have been known to industry for a long time. These endothermic reactions require the investment of a relatively large amount of energy. German researchers, in the 1970's, conceived and developed the idea to use this reaction and the reverse methanation reaction in a closed loop for the transportation and distribution of nuclear heat. The idea was also adopted for use with solar energy as a heat source. Utilizing solar energy as the heat source, the Weismann Institute of Science has fabricated, installed and operated a complete loop capable of the conversion and transportation of over 400 kW of heat. This system can be operated with a wide range of CO 2 /H 2 O/CH 4 feed mixtures. Steam reforming is the common reforming reaction in the ''open loop'' mode for the purpose of synthesis gas production. This is accomplished with a large excess of steam on a nickel catalyst. However, it has only recently been recognized that there is also a substantial market for CO 2 reforming. The CO 2 /CH 4 mixture in various proportions exists in many places and has, so far, not been used efficiently. The sources for this mixture are biogas produced in anaerobic digestion processes and gas resources such as the NATUNA gas field in Indonesia, and many others. Therefore, the system of CO 2 /CH 4 deserves more attention. Commercial catalysts used for steam reforming based on nickel are not suitable for this system. Therefore, other catalysts based on Rhodium and Ruthenium have been developed and some performance data is presented in this paper. Also presented is a conceptual schematic layout of a CO 2 reforming plant and matching methanator. A computer code for a detailed design of the entire loop in a commercial size system has been prepared where optimized operational conditions as well as equipment parameters can be determined. (author). 3 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Institutional and Regulatory Economics of Electricity Market Reforms: the Evidence from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bipulendu

    Nepal that led to limited compliance with formal rules, by contrast, limited the success of power sector reforms there. Efforts to reform the electricity sector in South Asia undertaken by governments with the assistance of development agencies such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank have focused to a large extent on getting the content of electricity market reform measures such as unbundling, privatization, and establishment of a power market right. The analysis in this dissertation suggests that such measures will be more successful in places with relatively robust formal rule based systems. Countries that are planning to carry out significant reforms in the electricity sector will benefit from the explicit consideration of the informal norms, habits and customs of the actors that will be affected by the reforms.

  4. Communicating with the business community. A hospital launches two outreach efforts to educate community leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, C; Schieffer, T

    1994-10-01

    Several years ago the management of Saint Francis Medical Center in Peoria, IL, decided that, with healthcare issues becoming increasingly complex, the hospital needed to find ways to share information with its community. Saint Francis's outreach effort began in 1991 with the launching of a Leadership Roundtable. Under its auspices, local leaders in business, finance, government, education, religion, and the media gather once a month to hear hospital staff members outline some aspect of healthcare or healthcare reform. A question-and-answer period follows. In 1993 James Moore, a Saint Francis administrator, began writing a monthly column on healthcare reform for a business publication that serves central Illinois. Moore's column explains to businesspeople how various healthcare reform proposals could affect them. With the column, as with the Leadership Roundtable, Saint Francis has strengthened its communication with the community.

  5. THE NECESSITY AND JUSTIFICATION OF REFORMS OF PUBLIC CORPORATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Zoran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present business environment, negative opinion on the work of the public sector prevails. According to the public opinion, one gets the impression that it is necessary to privatize the public corporations as soon as possible and this way get rid of this kind of ballast. Having in mind the negative effects of previous transitional period, it is necessary to approach this issue cautiously, so the process of the reforms would give optimal social benefits.

  6. Reforming the reform: the Greek National Health System in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tountas, Yannis; Karnaki, Panagiota; Pavi, Elpida

    2002-10-01

    The National Health System (ESY) in Greece, which was established in 1983, is in a state of continuous crisis. This situation is caused mainly by the system's problematic administration, low productivity and inadequate Primary Health Care. These have led the re-elected PASOK government to introduce by the end of 2000 a radical reform of the health system. The 200 reform measures announced by the new Minister of Health and Welfare include changes aiming at: the decentralization of the ESY, the creation of a unified financing system for the social insurance funds, a new management structure in public hospitals, the organization of a Primary Health System in urban areas, and the strengthening of Public Health and Health Promotion. These changes are presented and discussed in this paper.

  7. Power and process: The politics of electricity sector reform in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Christopher David

    In 2007, Uganda had one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world. Given the influence of multilateral and bilateral agencies in Uganda; the strong international reputation and domestic influence of its President; the country's historic achievements in public sector and economic reform; and the intimate connection between economic performance, social well-being and access to electricity, the problems with Uganda's electricity sector have proven deeply frustrating and, indeed, puzzling. Following increased scholarly attention to the relationship between political change, policymaking, and public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa and the developing world generally, this thesis examines the multilevel politics of Uganda's electricity sector reform process. This study contends that explanations for Uganda's electricity sector reform problems generally, and hydroelectric dam construction efforts specifically, must move beyond technical and financial factors. Problems in this sector have also been the result of a model of reform (promoted by the World Bank) that failed adequately to account for the character of political change. Indeed, the model of reform that was promoted and implemented was risky and it was deeply antagonistic to domestic and international civil society organizations. In addition, it was presented as a linear, technical, apolitical exercise. Finally the model was inconsistent with key principles the Bank itself, and public policy literature generally, suggest are needed for success. Based on this analysis, the thesis contends that policymaking and reform must be understood as deeply political processes, which not only define access to services, but also participation in, and exclusion from, national debates. Future approaches to reform and policymaking must anticipate the complex, multilevel, non-linear character of 'second-generation' policy issues like electricity, and the political and institutional capacity needed to increase

  8. Outlook on Student Retention in Higher Education University Reforms in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoulal Mansouri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available High student attrition rates at university have become one of the most challenging issues in higher education worldwide in the last five decades. Moroccan universities are no exception. At-risk students drop out of studies for a plethora of reasons, and the attrition rate is increasing despite the efforts made in education reforms carried out since 1999. This article reviews the most important components of the higher education reforms that have been adopted in Moroccan higher education in their endeavor to enhance student retention in university. These components are chronologically reviewed, first in the National Charter of Education and Training (NCET launched in 1999, second in the Emergency Plan conducted in 2009-2012, and finally in the latest Strategic Vision of Reform 2015-2030. It is concluded that more efforts are necessary to strike a balance between quantity and quality in terms of student retention in university education.

  9. Voluntary versus Enforced Team Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Keser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a model where each of two players chooses between remuneration based on either private or team effort. Although at least one of the players has the equilibrium strategy to choose private remuneration, we frequently observe both players to choose team remuneration in a series of laboratory experiments. This allows for high cooperation payoffs but also provides individual free-riding incentives. Due to significant cooperation, we observe that, in team remuneration, participants make higher profits than in private remuneration. We also observe that, when participants are not given the option of private remuneration, they cooperate significantly less.

  10. Integration of gender-transformative interventions into health professional education reform for the 21st century: implications of an expert review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance; Ng, Crystal; Pacqué-Margolis, Sara; Frymus, Diana

    2016-04-12

    Gender discrimination and inequality in health professional education (HPE) affect students and faculty and hinder production of the robust health workforces needed to meet health and development goals, yet HPE reformers pay scant attention to these gender barriers. Gender equality must be a core value and professional practice competency for all actors in HPE and health employment systems. Peer-review and non-peer-review literature previously identified in a review of the literature identified interventions to counter gender discrimination and inequality in HPE and tertiary education systems in North America and the Caribbean; West, East, and Southern Africa; Asia; the Middle East and North Africa; Europe; Australia; and South America. An assessment considered 51 interventions addressing sexual harassment (18), caregiver discrimination (27), and gender equality (6). Reviewers with expertise in gender and health system strengthening rated and ranked interventions according to six gender-transformative criteria. Thirteen interventions were considered to have transformational potential to address gender-related obstacles to entry, retention, career progression, and graduation in HPE, when implemented in core sets of interventions. The review identified one set with potential to counter sexual harassment in HPE and two sets to counter caregiver discrimination. Gender centers and equal employment opportunity units are structural interventions that can address multiple forms of gender discrimination and inequality. The paper's broad aim is to encourage HPE leaders to make gender-transformative reforms in the current way of doing business and commit to themselves to countering gender discrimination and inequality. Interventions to counter gender discrimination should be seen as integral parts of institutional and instructional reforms and essential investments to scale up quality HPE and recruit and retain health workers in the systems that educate and employ them

  11. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  12. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Titus, P.; Rogoff, P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mangra, D.; Smith, M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  13. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  14. Curriculum reform and the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    A neo-liberal discourse in the 2000s has been prevalent not only in international and Danish educational policy contexts, but also within a specific area, namely the education of adult immigrants in Denmark. With the adoption of a new law in 2003 high-stakes testing, standards, new market economy...... in Denmark. Based on studies of curriculum reform and research about headmasters’ and teachers’ attitudes the article addresses paradoxes rising in the wake of the neo-liberal education policy. Despite the intention of high-stakes testing to increase adult migrants’ language and employment related....... Teachers furthermore find the new working conditions stressing. It is discussed whether a neo-liberal discourse in adult teaching is ‘dumping down’ the intentions of curriculum and education reform....

  15. Curriculum reform and the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    A neo-liberal discourse in the 2000s has been prevalent not only in international and Danish educational policy contexts, but also within a specific area, namely the education of adult immigrants in Denmark. With the adoption of a new law in 2003 high-stakes testing, standards, new market economy...... in Denmark. Based on studies of curriculum reform and research about headmasters’ and teachers’ attitudes the article addresses paradoxes rising in the wake of the neo-liberal education policy. Despite the intention of high-stakes testing to increase adult migrants’ language and employment related....... Teachers furthermore find the new working conditions stressing. It is discussed whether a neo-liberal discourse in adult teaching is ‘dumping down’ the intentions of curriculum and education reform....

  16. A Place Called Home: Educational Reform in a Concord, Massachusetts School, 1897-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the role of place in the reform efforts of two teachers who established Miss White's Home School in Concord, Massachusetts (USA). Flora and Mary White rebelled against the prevailing industrial model of instruction in tax-supported schools where they taught. As a solution, they moved to Concord--a nonconformist town with a…

  17. Mathematics Teacher Identity in the Context of Mathematics Reform: Elementary Teacher Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Reform efforts and changes in mathematics education have brought on a shift towards a new vision of mathematics teaching in the United States. In light of recent accountability standards, the focus on teacher learning within the context of mathematics professional development is even more pressing. Prior research on teacher learning in the context…

  18. Organizational Factors and the Implementation of Family to Family: Contextual Elements of Systems Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Thomas M.; Crampton, David S.; Knight, Nelson; Paine-Wells, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In efforts to reform the child welfare system, agency leaders must involve staff at all levels; yet, little research has been done to determine which organizational factors encourage or inhibit staff engagement. Employees from an urban child welfare agency were invited to complete a survey regarding organizational effectiveness and its influence…

  19. Planning for Reform-Based Science: Case Studies of Two Urban Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva

    2018-01-01

    The intent of national efforts to frame science education standards is to promote students' development of scientific practices and conceptual understanding for their future role as scientifically literate citizens (NRC 2012). A guiding principle of science education reform is that all students receive equitable opportunities to engage in rigorous…

  20. 77 FR 5528 - National Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... and work plan, and reviewing past trust reform and FACA committee efforts. A final agenda will be... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary National Commission on Indian Trust... Office of the Secretary is announcing that the National Commission on Indian Trust Administration and...

  1. Outlook on Student Retention in Higher Education University Reforms in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Zoulal; Moumine, Mohamed El Amine

    2017-01-01

    High student attrition rates at university have become one of the most challenging issues in higher education worldwide in the last five decades. Moroccan universities are no exception. At-risk students drop out of studies for a plethora of reasons, and the attrition rate is increasing despite the efforts made in education reforms carried out…

  2. Turnaround, Transformational, or Transactional Leadership: An Ethical Dilemma in School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mette, Ian M.; Scribner, Jay P.

    2014-01-01

    This case was written for school leaders, specifically building-level principals and central office administrators attempting to implement school turnaround reform efforts. Often, leaders who embark on this type of organizational change work in intense environments that produce high levels of pressure to demonstrate improvement in student…

  3. Failing at College Football Reform: The Jan Kemp Trial at the University of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the history of college football, there have been efforts to reform the system and stop improprieties, yet conflict between gaining academic and athletic prowess at colleges remained a central theme. In the 1980s, the Jan Kemp trial involving the University of Georgia demonstrated this clash between revenue-generating athletics and…

  4. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  5. Plasma catalytic reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Alexeev, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Baikov Inst. of Metallurgy

    1998-08-01

    Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

  6. The Consequences of Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hohenthal, Michael

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the effects of tax reforms for an economy in a welfare state. I do this by a macroeconomic model, which includes not only households, firms and a government but also a monopoly labour union. The households are of two types, workers and entrepreneurs. The workers are employed by the firms, which are owned by the entrepreneurs. This paper shows that decreasing labour taxation and increasing consumption taxation would have a number of positive effects. These include incr...

  7. The california electricity reform debacle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaccard, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, California launched a dramatic reform of its electricity sector, vertically de-integrating its major utilities and establishing a competitive generation market, with separate entities responsible for grid control and power exchange. After two uneventful years, wholesale prices rose dramatically in the summer of 2000 and have remained high into 2001. An imbalance between the high wholesale prices and frozen retail rates caused a financial crisis for the electric utilities and power shortages have been a chronic threat. Several factors contributed to this crisis: capacity has not expanded in step with demand either in California or its larger trading region; extreme weather and poorly timed plant outages further increased demand and decreased supply; market design flaws allowed significant suppliers to influence the market while frozen retail rates limited the demand response that would have mitigated the supply-demand imbalance. State and federal agencies have taken corrective action but the situation may remain critical for some time. Longer term solutions involve recognizing the special characteristics of electricity in designing marking reform. Because electricity supply and demand must be instantaneously balanced at all times, market reform must ensure that someone has the responsibility and effective tools to ensure that this occurs, in spite of unforeseen circumstances, and to prevent the exercise of market power. Because a competitive commodity market must work in concert with a monopoly delivery system, someone must be responsible and have the means to develop and operate the grid in ways that are amenable to effective competition. Finally, reform design must ensure that the cyclical investment and price patterns of normal commodity markets are minimized in the electricity market and that when they do occur, market volatility does not compromise reliability and price stability for those who value these highly and would pay a premium for them

  8. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter

  9. Power sector reforms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans L; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-07-01

    India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.

  10. Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Financial Sector Reforms on Savings Mobilization in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enobong Udoh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether Nigeria witnessed considerable savings mobilization amidst financial sector reforms from 2007 to 2015 using the estimation method of Autoregressive Distributed Lag. Unlike previous papers in this area that mostly focused on interest rates liberalization thesis, this paper goes deeper by looking at financial reforms across money, capital and foreign exchange markets. The estimation results show that there are still structural rigidities in the money, foreign exchange and equity markets nexus. In that, the following variables that proxy financial sector reforms namely treasury bill yield, interest rate spread, market capitalization ratio and currency in circulation ratio (which proxy technological modernization of payment systems all went against a priori expectation. However, financial reforms had one success story in credit/loans advances to private/public sectors (financial deepening which posted its correct economic sign. In sum, except for the financial deepening variable it can be safely concluded that financial reforms in Nigeria is yet to positively impact savings mobilization. The regulatory and reform authorities must show effectiveness in reforms implementation.

  11. Termination of prehospital resuscitative efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline; Binderup, Lars Grassmé

    2017-01-01

    -and-death decision-making in the patient's medical records is required. We suggest that a template be implemented in the prehospital medical records describing the basis for any ethical decisions. This template should contain information regarding the persons involved in the deliberations and notes on ethical......BACKGROUND: Discussions on ethical aspects of life-and-death decisions within the hospital are often made in plenary. The prehospital physician, however, may be faced with ethical dilemmas in life-and-death decisions when time-critical decisions to initiate or refrain from resuscitative efforts...... need to be taken without the possibility to discuss matters with colleagues. Little is known whether these considerations regarding ethical issues in crucial life-and-death decisions are documented prehospitally. This is a review of the ethical considerations documented in the prehospital medical...

  12. Health sector reforms and human resources for health in Uganda and Bangladesh: mechanisms of effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kielmann Tara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the expanding literature on how reforms may affect health workers and which reactions they may provoke, little research has been conducted on the mechanisms of effect through which health sector reforms either promote or discourage health worker performance. This paper seeks to trace these mechanisms and examines the contextual framework of reform objectives in Uganda and Bangladesh, and health workers' responses to the changes in their working environments by taking a 'realistic evaluation' approach. Methods The study findings were generated by triangulating both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis among policy technocrats, health managers and groups of health providers. Quantitative surveys were conducted with over 700 individual health workers in both Bangladesh and Uganda and supplemented with qualitative data obtained from focus group discussions and key interviews with professional cadres, health managers and key institutions involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of the reforms of interest. Results The reforms in both countries affected the workforce through various mechanisms. In Bangladesh, the effects of the unification efforts resulted in a power struggle and general mistrust between the two former workforce tracts, family planning and health. However positive effects of the reforms were felt regarding the changes in payment schemes. Ugandan findings show how the workforce responded to a strong and rapidly implemented system of decentralisation where the power of new local authorities was influenced by resource constraints and nepotism in recruitment. On the other hand, closer ties to local authorities provided the opportunity to gain insight into the operational constraints originating from higher levels that health staff were dealing with. Conclusion Findings from the study suggest that a reform planners should use the proposed dynamic responses model to

  13. Labor market reforms and wage inequality in Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyeon-Kyeong; Skott, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Temporary workers make up a sizeable part of the labor force in many countries and typically receive wages that are significantly lower than their permanent counterparts. This paper uses an efficiency wage model to explain the wage gap between temporary and permanent workers. High......-performing temporary workers may gain promotion to permanent status, and a high wage to permanent workers therefore serves a dual purpose: it affects the effort of both permanent and temporary workers. Applying the model to the Korean experience, we discuss the effects of the labor market reforms in 1998 on inequality....

  14. The Knowledge Society and the Reform of Creative Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Emanuela DASCĂLU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with how major top-down reforms in the Romanian higher education system have affected and will continue to affect student writing and have forever challenged and changed teachers’ and students’ traditional roles. The reform of student writing in Romania is initially due to the implementation in the Romanian education system of the Bologna Declaration of 2002 and continues ever stronger due to the extraordinary new Education Law passed by the Romanian Ministry of Education, Research and Innovation in 2011. One of the initial outcomes of the adherence of the Romanian education system to Bologna Declaration was that, while previously to this change Romanian universities demanded very little undergraduate writing especially the original, research-oriented one and, thus, grades relied heavily on the results of the traditional sit-down final examinations, most courses now in the Romanian higher education system include student essay writing and other types of writing and systematic teacher feedback. Creative writing has started to appear here and there, too in the university curriculum especially at private universities. As a result of Romania’s adherence to Bologna Declaration of 2002, Portfolio Assessment, which demands extended writing, has been also introduced in Romania, both at state universities and private ones. As a result of the new 2011 Education Law, even more emphasis will be placed on writing, research, competences and abilities, included practical ones, and creativity at all levels of education, higher education included therefore. The article presents some results from an evaluation of the educational reforms in Romania, mostly of the initial reforms following Romania’s adherence to Bologna Declaration of 2002, but the study considers some of the reforms that follow from the newly passed Romanian Education Law. Mainly the following questions are addressed in this research study (1 Why did the initial reforms

  15. Budget reform in Ukraine and the OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchko Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the fiscal reforms in Ukraine and the OECD countries. It has been proved that the main areas which should undergo changes are the tax reform, regulatory reform and restructuring policies to encourage entrepreneurship, reform of social protection and social security, reform of social sphere constituents, administrative reform, reform of the army and law enforcement, administrative and territorial reform. According to the analysis results, there has been drawn the conclusion about the need to introduce in Ukraine the successful experience of the OECD countries in implementing budget reforms.

  16. Tariffs and subsidies in Zimbabwe's reforming electricity industry: steering a utility through turbulent times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangwengwende, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    In 1991, the Government of Zimbabwe adopted a public enterprise reform strategy as part of a World Bank driven Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (ESAP). For the electricity sector, the Government adopted a two-pronged programme of reform - a performance improvement programme (PIP) for the national utility, the Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA), and a legal and regulatory reform programme for the electricity sector in general. Ten years later, significant success has been achieved in improving the utility's performance in technical operations and customer service. However, there has been very little progress on the legal and regulatory front. This has adversely affected the utility's financial performance, as well as frustrating the Government's efforts in attracting private sector investment. The centrality of the tariff question reflects the importance of the customer or end-user to the power sector reform process. This article outlines the power sector reform experiences in Zimbabwe with special focus on the tariff question. The paper suggests, from the perspective of a utility executive, reasons for the mixed results at ZESA, and lessons for other countries in the region undertaking similar reforms. (Author)

  17. "An army of reformed drunkards and clergymen": the medicalization of habitual drunkenness, 1857-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavigny, Katherine A

    2014-07-01

    Historians have recognized that men with drinking problems were not simply the passive subjects of medical reform and urban social control in Gilded Age and Progressive Era America but also actively shaped the partial medicalization of habitual drunkenness. The role played by evangelical religion in constituting their agency and in the historical process of medicalization has not been adequately explored, however. A post-Civil War evangelical reform culture supported institutions that treated inebriates along voluntary, religious lines and lionized former drunkards who publicly promoted a spiritual cure for habitual drunkenness. This article documents the historical development and characteristic practices of this reform culture, the voluntarist treatment institutions associated with it, and the hostile reaction that developed among medical reformers who sought to treat intemperance as a disease called inebriety. Those physicians' attempts to promote therapeutic coercion for inebriates as medical orthodoxy and to deprive voluntarist institutions of public recognition failed, as did their efforts to characterize reformed drunkards who endorsed voluntary cures as suffering from delusions arising from their disease. Instead, evangelical traditions continued to empower reformed drunkards to publicize their own views on their malady which laid the groundwork for continued public interest in alcoholics' personal narratives in the twentieth century. Meanwhile, institutions that accommodated inebriates' voluntarist preferences proliferated after 1890, marginalizing the medical inebriety movement and its coercive therapeutics. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Development of ATSR (Auto Thermal Steam Reformer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, J.; Yoshino, Y.; Kuwabara, T.; Fujisima, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Maruko, S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Auto-thermal reformers are used popularly for fuel cell vehicle because they are compact and can start up quickly. On the other hand, steam reformers are used for stationary fuel cell power plant because they are good thermal efficiency. While, there are many cases using the auto- thermal reformer for stationary use with expectation of cost reduction in USA, as well. However, they are still insufficient for its durability, compactness and cost. We have been developing the new type of fuel processing system that is auto-thermal steam reformer (ATSR), which is hybrid of a conventional steam reformer (STR) and a conventional auto-thermal reformer (ATR). In this study, some proto-type of ATSR for field test were designed, tried manufacturing and tested performance and durability. And we have tried to operate with fuel cell stack to evaluate the system interface performance, that is, operability and controllability. (author)

  19. Autonomy and Accountability in Standards-Based Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Watson

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss the effects of one urban school district's efforts to increase the autonomy and accountability of schools and teams of teachers through a standards-based reform known as team- based schooling. Team-based schooling is designed to devolve decision-making authority down to the school level by increasing teachers' autonomy to make decisions. Increased accountability is enacted in the form of a state-level standards-based initiative. Based on our evaluation over a two-year period involving extensive fieldwork and quantitative analysis, we describe the ways that teachers, teams and school administrators responded to the implementation of team-based schooling. What are the effects of increasing school-level autonomy and accountability in the context of standards- based reform? Our analysis highlights several issues: the "lived reality" of teaming as it interacts with the existing culture within schools, the ways that teachers respond to the pressures created by increased internal and external accountability, and the effects of resource constraints on the effectiveness of implementation. We conclude by using our findings to consider more broadly the trade-off between increased autonomy and accountability on which standards-based reforms like team-based schooling are based.

  20. Sustainable Administrative Reform Movements Policy in Joko Widodo's Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogi Suprayogi Sugandi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Joko Widodo (Jokowi is a leader that is widely expected to transform Indonesia into a better country. Hopes and wishes were rising when he was elected as the president of Indonesia. This paper will describe various innovations undertaken before and after his presidential inauguration as well as the assorted innovations made in reforming the administration of his cabinet. As the president of Indonesia, Joko Widodo is required to realize the aspirations of the people in freeing the government from corruption, collusion, and nepotism. The management of ministerial and non-ministerial institutions becomes the very first crucial issue undertaken by Joko Widodo. This led to a polemic in regards to reducing or increasing the number of institutions, as the Jokowi administration actually increased the amount. In Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's administration, several policies were made systematically and based on legislations that had been approved by the lagislature. Joko Widodo's administration in more partial in nature. The administrative reform program that is highly anticipated is the continuation of the Public Service Act. This law is a step forward from the administrative reform program that aims at the creation of good governance. Changes is career path, salary system, pension and benefits for civil servants, performance-based staffing are various efforts of sustainability carried out by Joko Widodo's administration.

  1. Inclusion or Exclusion? Local Ownership and Security Sector Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Donais

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamics of security sector reform (SSR, a term used to refer to efforts made to reform the security structures of states emerging from conflict or authoritarianism. While "local ownership" is increasingly viewed as a necessary element of any sustainable SSR strategy, there remains a significant gap between international policy and practice in this area. In practice, the SSR agenda continues to be driven largely by international actors, with minimal input, let alone ownership, on the part of either governments or civil society within reforming states. Indeed, the notion of local ownership has come to serve as much as a disciplining mechanism as a tool to overcome exclusion in the making and execution of security policy, and the effectiveness and sustainability of SSR programming have suffered as a result. In light of this, the paper will explore both the potential for, and the limits of, rehabilitating the notion of local ownership to enable more participatory forms of SSR, and argues that any practical local ownership strategy requires a dual policy of negotiating with state actors and engaging with non-state actors.

  2. Have Chinese water pricing reforms reduced urban residential water demand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Fang, K. H.; Baerenklau, K. A.

    2017-06-01

    China continues to deal with severe levels of water scarcity and water pollution. To help address this situation, the Chinese central government initiated urban water pricing reforms in 2002 that emphasized the adoption of increasing block rate (IBR) price structures in place of existing uniform rate structures. By combining urban water use records with microlevel data from the Chinese Urban Household Survey, this research investigates the effectiveness of this national policy reform. Specifically, we compare household water consumption in 28 cities that adopted IBR pricing structures during 2002-2009, with that of 110 cities that had not yet done so. Based on difference-in-differences models, our results show that the policy reform reduced annual residential water demand by 3-4% in the short run and 5% in the longer run. These relatively modest reductions are consistent with the generous nature of the IBR pricing structures that Chinese cities have typically chosen to implement. Our results imply that more efforts are needed to address China's persistent urban water scarcity challenges.

  3. Local court reforms and ‘global’ law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mohr

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study considers court reform programmes sponsored by the IMF and World Bank in Indonesia and Venezuela. It aims to broaden the frame of reference of ‘globalisation’ in law beyond the two traditional sites of human rights and trade. Drawing on a tradition of legal pluralism, it investigates the various sources of ‘global’ or universalising pressures on the law. The sources and impacts of these efforts may derive from and benefit or disadvantage specific groups in various locations. They will also promote or inhibit particular political, social or economic projects. The study concludes that various constituencies and impulses to reform refer to different versions of the ‘universal’ for their conception of right and legitimacy. These are neither inherently local nor unambiguously global. Local religious or egalitarian movements may refer to universal religious or political values just as interests in fair commercial dealing can call on international legal norms. In contrast to the local sites where law is performed, these universal sites exist in a multitude of indigenous, religious, political and legal imagined communities, each of which may be invoked in attempts to reform local practice.

  4. Finding Meaningful Roles for Scientists in science Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brenda

    Successful efforts to achieve reform in science education require the active and purposeful engagement of professional scientists. Working as partners with teachers, school administrators, science educators, parents, and other stakeholders, scientists can make important contributions to the improvement of science teaching and learning in pre-college classrooms. The world of a practicing university, corporate, or government scientist may seem far removed from that of students in an elementary classroom. However, the science knowledge and understanding of all future scientists and scientifically literate citizens begin with their introduction to scientific concepts and phenomena in childhood and the early grades. Science education is the responsibility of the entire scientific community and is not solely the responsibility of teachers and other professional educators. Scientists can serve many roles in science education reform including the following: (1) Science Content Resource, (2) Career Role Model, (3) Interpreter of Science (4) Validator for the Importance of Learning Science and Mathematics, (5) Champion of Real World Connections and Value of Science, (6) Experience and Access to Funding Sources, (7) Link for Community and Business Support, (8) Political Supporter. Special programs have been developed to assist scientists and engineers to be effective partners and advocates of science education reform. We will discuss the rationale, organization, and results of some of these partnership development programs.

  5. Development and test evaluation of duplex steam reformer tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.C.; Meyer, D.J.; Pflasterer, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    For HTR applications involving a steam reformer (SR), it is uncertain whether an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is required. There are several system configurations that could be developed for the application of nuclear heat using the steam reformer reaction. The considerations (advantages vs. disadvantages) for each of the system configurations are summarized. The approach that technically and economically appears to be the most attractive, in studies conducted by General Electric, combines the SR process heat exchanger and the IHX in a single component using a duplex tube. A central question concerning the duplex tube concept is whether the design would provide adequate leak monitoring capability and significant reduction in tritium and hydrogen diffusion, while introducing only a small increase in overall temperature difference from the helium to the process gas. A cooperative GE-KFA effort was undertaken to develop, fabricate, test, and evaluate a duplex steam reformer tube. GE was responsible for the development and fabrication of the tube, and KFA was responsible for testing the tube in the EVA I facility at Juelich. Both GE and KFA are evaluating the thermochemical and metallurgical test data. Actual fabrication of the tube was performed by Foster-Wheeler in accordance with the GE design. This paper reviews the highlights of the fabrication development and preliminary evaluation of the test data

  6. Energy reforms in central and eastern Europe - status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendow, K [United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1992-01-01

    By the end of the winter 1991/92, the energy situation in central and eastern Europe had further deteriorated. Despite a significant fall in industrial demand, supply shortages occurred, pollution continued and safety problems remained potentially high. Top-down legislative and institutional reforms met with conflicting policies and structures. Energy trade declined and traditional trade patterns disintegrated. Western assistance had increased but had little impact on actual energy supplies, efficiency, pollution or safety as it was aimed at supporting structural reforms and securing a stable macro-economic famework. Also private sector investments while growing remained limited. Legislation on foreign investments, demonopolization and concessions, and energy policies were either still under debate or undergoing the first tests of their practicability and appeal. As 1992 unfolds the energy reform process appears at a critical stage. Its final success would seem to depend on a further special effort on the part of all concerned and on prioritisation. As the various initiatives depend on each other, their international co-ordination becomes a separate issue. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Review of Judicial Reforms in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Dubgyur, Lungten

    2004-01-01

    This essay highlights the anomalies of judicial reforms in Bhutan. It presents a historical perspective of Bhutanese judicial reforms and addresses recent developments. It discusses court performance and experiences and approaches adopted in making the courts efficient. Much of the reform initiatives emanate from the throne. His Majesty the King has always advocated an efficient judicial system for the Kingdom. In obedience to the Royal Commands, the judicial system and judicial process in Bh...

  8. Improving the Business Trade Licensing Reform Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gamser, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This case study of Kenyan business trade licensing shows that red-tape costs can be cut if reform is championed strongly and there is a strong case in terms of costs and benefits. The reform of business registration, trade licensing and other business entry procedures is a cost effective and progressive way to promote indigenous private sector development. But, reform needs more than good cost-benefit analysis and legal drafting; it also requires building constituencies and continuous advocacy.

  9. Interest Groups and Trade Reform in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Sanchez-Mier

    2005-01-01

    Mexico experienced widespread economic reform in the last two decades. From being a protectionist economy with a policy of import substitution, it has turned into an export-oriented open economy. Why was protectionism a stable policy, and how was it overturned by a reform that went against entrenched interests? I apply a game theoretic model of political influence and economic reform to answer these questions using data to calculate the payoffs for the relevant interest groups. In the underly...

  10. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present pa...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....

  11. Education Reform and Equal Opportunity in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Okada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been concerns that equality of educational opportunity has been lost and that this is leading to the stratification of Japanese society through the widening of income differentials, in a 'gap society'. In such a disparity society, secure full- time jobs are increasingly becoming limited to those who graduate from prestigious universities, and entry into those institutions is becoming connected more clearly with family income and investments. Parental attitudes towards their children taking extra lessons after school, going to cram schools, getting into university, and getting into a relatively highly-ranked university have influenced educational costs. This article examines the historical formation of the concept of equality of opportunity, which has been applied to the educational policy in Japan, particularly from the end of World War II to the new millennium. This paper also expands on the existing literature on educational policies in contemporary Japan by examining how the current educational reform efforts have affected equality of educational opportunity among children from different family backgrounds.

  12. Plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol: influence of air activation rate and reforming temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya.; Fedirchuk, I.I.; Demchina, V.P.; Bortyshevsky, V.A.; Korzh, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the study of the influence that air activation rate and reforming temperature have on the gaseous products composition and conversion efficiency during the plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol. The analysis of product composition showed that the conversion efficiency of ethanol has a maximum in the studied range of reforming temperatures. Researched system provided high reforming efficiency and high hydrogen energy yield at the lower temperatures than traditional conversion technologies

  13. Carrots, Sticks, and the Bully Pulpit: Lessons from a Half-Century of Federal Efforts to Improve America's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M., Ed.; Kelly, Andrew P., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This timely book brings together a remarkable group of authors who examine the federal role in education policy and reform during the past fifty years. As Frederick M. Hess and Andrew P. Kelly note in their introduction, the book represents a determined effort to move beyond familiar and predictable debates and instead to focus on a number of…

  14. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  15. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  16. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  17. Tax reform in the Lula government: continuity and fiscal injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrine Brami-Celentano

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tax reform proposed by the Lula government in 2003, quickly approved by Congress, remained at the limits of the proposals of the previous government of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso and his Social Democratic party (PSDB, inspired by neoliberal ideology. The small advances in reducing regressivity, such as exemptions for basic consumer products, have not altered the role of the tax structure in the concentration of wealth, with a predominance of indirect taxes and their regressive effects. Taxation has deserved little attention in the broad debate about social policies in Brazil, which concentrates on the allocation of public expenses and the efficiency of spending, without proper attention to the role of the tax structure in the concentration of income and wealth in the country. The article presents the regressive profile of the Brazilian tax structure, preserved by the reform of 2003 and discusses the neoliberal agenda that guides the initiatives of the Lula government in this field.

  18. [Limitation of the therapeutic effort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreros, B; Palacios, G; Pacho, E

    2012-03-01

    The limitation of the therapeutic effort (LTE) consists in not applying extraordinary or disproportionate measures for therapeutic purposes that are proposed for a patient with poor life prognosis and/or poor quality of life. There are two types. The first is to not initiate certain measures or to withdraw them when they are established. A decision of the LTE should be based on some rigorous criteria, so that we make the following proposal. First, it is necessary to know the most relevant details of the case to make a decision: the preferences of the patient, the preferences of the family when pertinent, the prognosis (severity), the quality of life and distribution of the limited resources. After, the decision should be made. In this phase, participatory deliberation should be established to clarify the end of the intervention. Finally, if it is decided to perform an LTE, it should be decided how to do it. Special procedures, disproportionate measures, that are useless and vain should not be initiated for the therapeutic objective designed (withdraw them if they have been established). When it has been decided to treat a condition (interim measures), the treatment should be maintained. This complex phase may need stratification of he measures. Finally, the necessary palliative measures should be established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Pension reform in the European periphery: the role of EU reform advocacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepan, M.; Anderson, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: This paper analyzes the impact of international reform advocacy on national pension reforms. We analyze European Union (EU) reform advocacy in two EU member states: Greece and Hungary. Although the EU has articulated a fairly coherent template for sustainable pensions, its use of soft

  20. Mental health service delivery following health system reform in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-González, Mauricio; González, Gerardo; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2003-12-01

    change in the pattern of mental health service delivery from a reliance on costly inpatient care to more efficient outpatient services. Health reform in Colombia improved access to health services for the general medical services, but not for specialized mental health services. Although the primary goal of the health reform was to provide universal medical coverage, by not including mental health services in the standardized benefits package, inequities in the delivery of mental health services appear to have been perpetuated or even exacerbated. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE AND POLICY FORMULATION: If health reform in Colombia and elsewhere is to provide universal coverage and adequate access to comprehensive health care, mental health services must be added to the standardized package of health benefits and efforts to develop accessible and effective mental health treatment at the primary care level should continue. Mental health services research in Colombia should focus future studies on the differential impact of health reform on access to mental health services across regions, and between urban and rural areas.

  1. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  2. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  3. China struggles to reform giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Paul

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the struggle to reform the Chinese oil industry. Topics discussed include the defending of state monopolies, the capital injections required by the three main national oil companies, the bidding of the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) for oilfields in Kazakhstan resulting in the need for large investment, and CNPC's failure to meet its spending commitments in the Middle East. Expenditure on exploration, the funding of gas development, and the plans of the China Petroleum Corporation (Sinopec) to raise funds overseas are discussed, and competition problems are considered. (UK)

  4. Steam reforming of light oxygenates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Resasco, Daniel E; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of ethanol, acetic acid, acetone, acetol, 1-propanol, and propanal has been investigated over Ni/MgAl2O4 at temperatures between 400 and 700 degrees C and at a steam-to-carbon-ratio (S/C) of 6. The yield of H-2 and conversion increased with temperature, while the yield of by-...... of CH4. Significant deactivation of the catalyst was observed for all of the compounds and was mainly due to carbon formation. The carbon formation was highest for alcohols due to a high formation of olefins, which are potent coke precursors....

  5. Outlook on Student Retention in Higher Education University Reforms in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Zoulal Mansouri; Mohamed El Amine Moumine

    2017-01-01

    High student attrition rates at university have become one of the most challenging issues in higher education worldwide in the last five decades. Moroccan universities are no exception. At-risk students drop out of studies for a plethora of reasons, and the attrition rate is increasing despite the efforts made in education reforms carried out since 1999. This article reviews the most important components of the higher education reforms that have been adopted in Moroccan higher education in th...

  6. The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomen, A T

    1997-01-01

    "On September 30, 1996, President Clinton signed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (1996 Act), Pub. L. No. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009. After an intense lobbying effort by the business community, most provisions relating to legal immigration were omitted from the final bill. Instead, the 1996 Act focuses on illegal immigration reform and includes some of the toughest measures ever taken against illegal immigration." Aspects considered include border enforcement, penalities against alien smuggling and document fraud, deportation and exclusion proceedings, employer sanctions, welfare provisions, and changes to existing refugee and asylum procedures. excerpt

  7. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  8. Welfare implication of reforming energy consumption subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, Michèle; Mirzapour, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Reforming energy consumption subsidies, in particular for fossil fuels, has been frequently referred to as a quick-win policy to enhance environmental mitigation. In addition, the removal of such subsidies may release a sizeable portion of a country's national budget for use on more productive targets. One of the most recognized challenges of such reform is “selling” the new energy prices to citizens, particularly those with a more fragile purchasing power. Several empirical and technical studies have prescribed that the reform might be supported by a direct compensation mechanism in order to ensure feasibility. This is what was done during the recent energy subsidy reform in Iran. However, the compensation mechanism implemented in Iran's reform was successful at the beginning, but did not proceed as expected. This has raised questions about the feasibility and sustainability of the direct compensation mechanism, and even of the reform policy itself. In this paper, we consider a stylized model where direct compensation is the instrument proposed to restore consumers’ utility against increased energy prices. We find that, when prices of Other Goods are affected by the announced reform policy, the feasibility of a subsidy reform critically depends on the value of certain parameters: the initial subsidization rate, the share of energy in the consumers’ bundle, and the energy portion of price of Other Goods. - Highlights: • A model of energy subsidy reform with direct compensation is proposed. • Feasibility of the reform is related to three key parameters. • An illustrative example using data from the recent Iranian reform is discussed.

  9. Working towards Justice, Security Sector Reform and Better ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... on security sector reform, constitutional reform, governance of diversity and critical dialogues in MENA societies. ... Reform will take time and one of the tests for those involved in this process is exercising patience and .... Related articles ...

  10. Land reform in Russia in 1990-2000-ies, or how land reform was "reformed" during the departmental reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsukova Svetlana, Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of the land reform in Russia's recent history. Analysis of land reform, which started in 1990, shows what actions and what logic led the land sector in the state in which it was at the finish line of the quarter-century reform marathon. The reform process was not linear, it highlighted the steps differing objectives and strategies to achieve them. Land reform is presented as a struggle of different political forces, which were reflected in the redistribution of functions between agencies in lobbying for appointment to senior positions promoted various commands. The authors conclude about the gradual displacement of state regulation of land relations, the deliberate destruction of the land management as a basis for the development of land resources.

  11. Penal reform in Africa: The case of prison chaplaincy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham K. Akih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Penal reform is a challenge across the world. In Africa, those who are incarcerated are especially vulnerable and often deprived of basic human rights. Prison conditions are generally dire, resources are limited, and at times undue force is used to control inmates. The public attitude towards offenders is also not encouraging. Reform efforts include finding alternative ways of sentencing such as community service, making use of halfway houses and reducing sentences. These efforts have not yet yielded the desired results. The four principles of retribution, deterrence, incapacitation and rehabilitation guide penal practice in Africa. Retribution and rehabilitation stand in tension. Deterrence and incapacitation aim at forcing inmates to conform to the social order. The article argues that prison chaplaincy can make a valuable contribution to restoring the dignity and humanity of those who are incarcerated. Chaplaincy can contribute to improving attitudes and practices in the penal system and society. In addition to the social objective of rehabilitation, prison ministry can, on a spiritual level, also facilitate repentance, forgiveness and reconciliation. The aim is the holistic restoration of human beings.

  12. Telecommunications Reform in Nigeria: The Marketing Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Telecommunications Reform in Nigeria: The Marketing Challenges. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... This paper discusses the telecommunications reforms process, the role of the regulatory body (Nigeria Commission, the current state of the telecommunication sector and the marketing challenges in ...

  13. Energy Analysis in Combined Reforming of Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined (steam and CO2 reforming is one of the methods to produce syngas for different applications. An energy requirement analysis of steam reforming to dry reforming with intermediate steps of steam reduction and equivalent CO2 addition to the feed fuel for syngas generation has been done to identify condition for optimum process operation. Thermodynamic equilibrium data for combined reforming was generated for temperature range of 400–1000°C at 1 bar pressure and combined oxidant (CO2 + H2O stream to propane (fuel ratio of 3, 6, and 9 by employing the Gibbs free energy minimization algorithm of HSC Chemistry software 5.1. Total energy requirement including preheating and reaction enthalpy calculations were done using the equilibrium product composition. Carbon and methane formation was significantly reduced in combined reforming than pure dry reforming, while the energy requirements were lower than pure steam reforming. Temperatures of minimum energy requirement were found in the data analysis of combined reforming which were optimum for the process.

  14. Quality Reforms in Danish Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine

    2012-01-01

    . This reform strategy represents a shift from the welfare state modernisation program of the 1980s, which built mainly on economic strategies of cost-efficiency and New Public Management (NPM) princi-ples, including contract management and performance management. Recent reforms have instead attempted...

  15. JP8 Reformation for Combat Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-07

    phase (fuel), and a gas phase (hydrogen) at elevated pressures. • Trickle - bed configuration is difficult to model and scale down—not practical for...gases output from HDS reactor are used to fuel the reformer. Current Technology Status: •Integrated desulfurization/reforming system successfully

  16. Latin American USOMs Seminar on Agrarian Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This report of seminar proceedings discusses land reform policies and programs and their place in the economic development of Latin America. It analyzes experiences and current situations in Latin America, the United States, and elsewhere which shed light on the problems and possibilities of agrarian reform. An appraisal of existing physical,…

  17. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...

  18. Steam Reformer With Fibrous Catalytic Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed steam-reforming reactor derives heat from internal combustion on fibrous catalyst. Supplies of fuel and air to combustor controlled to meet demand for heat for steam-reforming reaction. Enables use of less expensive reactor-tube material by limiting temperature to value safe for material yet not so low as to reduce reactor efficiency.

  19. Relatorio: Reforma universitaria (Report: University Reform).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a report by 11 experts invited by the Ministry of Education and Culture to give their views on Brazilian university reforms. The introduction to the report states the principles underlying the proposals for reform adapted to the current social transformation in Brazil.…

  20. Public Pension Plan Reform: The Legal Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    There is significant interest in reforming retirement plans for public school employees, particularly in light of current market conditions. This article presents an overview of the various types of state regulation of public pension plans that affect possibilities for reform. Nearly all of the various approaches to public pension plan protection…

  1. After Access: Canadian Education and Copyright Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Michael

    2006-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of the Internet in the 1990s, the Canadian government developed a well-regarded strategy for addressing the emerging issues posed by the "information highway." The strategy featured legal reforms to address privacy and e-commerce, administrative reforms for the government online initiative, and connectivity…

  2. CAP Reform and the Doha Development Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, P.; Faber, G.

    2004-01-01

    The CAP reforms that the EU accepted in June 2003 will partially decouple direct income payments to farmers from production and make these payments conditional on cross-compliance. The reforms are driven by enlargement of EU membership, budgetary constraints, mounting pressures from diverse animal

  3. Malaysian water sector reform : policy and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    One of the measures that can help developing countries in meeting Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals – halving the number of people without access to water and adequate sanitation by 2015 – is through a water sector reform. In this research the Malaysian water sector reform is

  4. Teacher Evaluation Reform: Focus, Feedback, and Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2016-01-01

    How are teachers experiencing the more rigorous teacher evaluation systems that many states have mandated in recent years? Donaldson, who has studied teacher evaluation reform over the past eight years, shares insights from a study of 14 Connecticut districts that have implemented the state's 2012 teacher evaluation reforms. In surveys and…

  5. Customs Valuation Reform in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Clarete, Ramon L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper documents the adoption of transaction valuation reform in the Philippines and assesses its impact on collection, customs administration cost, and business transaction cost. Philippine customs authorities and critics of the reform have been concerned that giving up the use of published official customs values would lower customs collection. On the contrary, this research shows the use of transaction values expanded customs revenues.

  6. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Book cover Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Directeur(s):. Daniel Morales-Gómez, Necla Tschirgi, and Jennifer L. Moher. Maison(s) d'édition: IDRC. 1 janvier 1999. ISBN :.

  7. Leadership, Responsibility, and Reform in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1993-01-01

    Regards leadership as central to the success of the reform movement in science education. Defines leadership and introduces a model of leadership modified from the one developed by Edwin Locke and his associates. Provides an overview of the essential qualities of leadership occurring in science education. Discusses reforming science education and…

  8. Saudi Arabia between conservatism, accomodation and reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Aarts, P.; Wagemakers, J.; Kanie, M.; Geel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the countries in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia seems to have remained immovable since the beginning of the Arab Spring. What does conservatism mean, are reforms possible, and what is the pace of change? The clever mix of conservatism, reform and accommodation are the characteristic features

  9. Distributed Leadership for ICT Reform in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…

  10. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  11. Hydrogen-rich gas production from waste plastics by pyrolysis and low-temperature steam reforming over a ruthenium catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namioka, Tomoaki; Saito, Atsushi; Inoue, Yukiharu; Park, Yeongsu; Min, Tai-jin; Roh, Seon-ah; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Operating conditions for low-temperature pyrolysis and steam reforming of plastics over a ruthenium catalyst were investigated. In the range studied, the highest gas and lowest coke fractions for polystyrene (PS) with a 60 g h -1 scale, continuous-feed, two-stage gasifier were obtained with a pyrolyzer temperature of 673 K, steam reforming temperature of 903 K, and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 0.10 g-sample g-catalyst -1 h -1 . These operating conditions are consistent with optimum conditions reported previously for polypropylene. Our results indicate that at around 903 K, the activity of the ruthenium catalyst was high enough to minimize the difference between the rates of the steam reforming reactions of the pyrolysates from polystyrene and polypropylene. The proposed system thus has the flexibility to compensate for differences in chemical structures of municipal waste plastics. In addition, the steam reforming temperature was about 200 K lower than the temperature used in a conventional Ni-catalyzed process for the production of hydrogen. Low-temperature steam reforming allows for lower thermal input to the steam reformer, which results in an increase in thermal efficiency in the proposed process employing a Ru catalyst. Because low-temperature steam reforming can be also expected to reduce thermal degradation rates of the catalyst, the pyrolysis-steam reforming process with a Ru catalyst has the potential for use in small-scale production of hydrogen-rich gas from waste plastics that can be used for power generation.

  12. Environmental consequences of electricity sector reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    1999-01-01

    Worldwide, the electricity industry is in the process of undergoing fundamental transitions. The reform process typically involves one or more of the following changes: commercialisation, privatisation, unbundling/restructuring and introduction of competition. The environmental impacts of these changes pull in different directions. There is concern that restructured electricity markets may not always incorporate adequately the environmental impacts of electricity resource development and consumption decisions. However, the electricity sector reform process also offers an opportunity to promote positive environmental changes: because the sector is already in flux, it may be easier to address environmental issues. The paper gives an overview of power sector reform in six countries where reforms have already been implemented, and concludes that reform measures will have to be accompanied by competitively neutral regulations in order to stimulate investment in environmentally sound technologies, including renewable and energy efficient technologies. (author)

  13. Large-scale renewable energy project barriers: Environmental impact assessment streamlining efforts in Japan and the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) procedures have been identified as a major barrier to renewable energy (RE) development with regards to large-scale projects (LS-RE). However EIA laws have also been neglected by many decision-makers who have been underestimating its impact on RE development and the stifling potential they possess. As a consequence, apart from acknowledging the shortcomings of the systems currently in place, few governments momentarily have concrete plans to reform their EIA laws. By looking at recent EIA streamlining efforts in two industrialized regions that underwent major transformations in their energy sectors, this paper attempts to assess how such reform efforts can act as a means to support the balancing of environmental protection and climate change mitigation with socio-economic challenges. Thereby this paper fills this intellectual void by identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the Japanese EIA law by contrasting it with the recently revised EIA Directive of the European Union (EU). This enables the identification of the regulatory provisions that impact RE development the most and the determination of how structured EIA law reforms would affect domestic RE project development. The main focus lies on the evaluation of regulatory streamlining efforts in the Japanese and EU contexts through the application of a mixed-methods approach, consisting of in-depth literary and legal reviews, followed by a comparative analysis and a series of semi-structured interviews. Highlighting several legal inconsistencies in combination with the views of EIA professionals, academics and law- and policymakers, allowed for a more comprehensive assessment of what streamlining elements of the reformed EU EIA Directive and the proposed Japanese EIA framework modifications could either promote or stifle further RE deployment. - Highlights: •Performs an in-depth review of EIA reforms in OECD territories •First paper to compare Japan and the European

  14. ‘Vive la grande famille des médias tunisiens’ Media reform, authoritarian resilience and societal responses in Tunisia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Rikke Hostrup; Cavatorta, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The concept of authoritarian upgrading introduced by Heydemann significantly contributes to explain how Arab authoritarian rulers have been able to maintain their grip on power while introducing a number of liberal reforms. The media reform in Tunisia has been widely interpreted indeed...... the notion that the reform is exclusively about authoritarian upgrading. Perhaps unwittingly, the reform has permitted the arrival on the media scene of new social voices and actors that never had the opportunity to discuss taboo topics and this transforms public debate. While political discussions were...... excluded and political pluralism absent, the new private media managed to challenge previously prevailing notions of national unity and homogeneity....

  15. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?; Iran: reforme, revolution ou resignation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  16. COOPERATION AND TRUST IN THE CONTEXT OF DECENTRALIZATION REFORMS IN RURAL TANZANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharia S. Masanyiwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of decentralization reforms on cooperation andtrust at the village level in Tanzania, using a gender perspective. The paper drawson survey and qualitative data from ten villages intwo rural districts. The findingsshow that the reforms have revitalized 'formal’ cooperative efforts and socialnetworks and groups aimed at improving public services and poverty reduction.Citizen’s participation in decision-making processes and users’ satisfaction withpublic services are significantly related to socialand political trust, in whichgender plays a role as well. There is a two-way interface between trust and decent-ralization reforms. ‘Good’ decentralization outcomes generate trust while ‘bad’outcomes decrease trust.

  17. Demise of the standard model for power sector reform and the emergence of hybrid power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratwick, Katharine Nawaal; Eberhard, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Following earlier reforms in the power sectors of industrialized countries and emerging markets (e.g. Chile), developing countries were encouraged to unbundle their electricity industries and to introduce competition and private sector participation. This paper highlights the developments that led to how power sector reform came to be defined as a standard model and theoretical framework in its own right, and how the model was used prescriptively in many developing countries. However, we also show that, after more than 15 years of reform efforts, this new industry model has not fully taken root in most developing countries. Finally, we identify and characterize the emergence of new hybrid power markets, which pose fresh performance and investment challenges

  18. 25 Years оf Economic Reforms: Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Minakir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the origins of economic reforms in modern Russia over the period of 25 years. It is shown that by 1991 consequences of unreasoned decisions and hasty actions have reached their culmination point and both political and economic attempts to realize the concept of 'convergence', to implant democracy in totalitarianism and the market in a centralized system of management have failed. At the same time it was impossible for the country's regions to maintain the inter-industry contractual communications and that had destroyed the 'center - regions' relations which had developed over the previous decades. The study and discussion of issues of the last 25 years of reform in Russia are proposed as the main theme for the journal 'Spatial Economics' in the year 2017. The goal of such studies and discussions should be to achieve a systemic i'pression about sources, trends, successes and failures of reforms, as only on this basis the initial model of the Russian socio-economic transformation can be developed. The researcher presumes that this model reviews each region as the most important element of the general system of knowledge and the resource and institutional policy constructed on its basis

  19. [Impact of the funding reform of teaching hospitals in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, M S C; Silva, A C M; Lins, M P E; Fiszman, R

    2009-06-01

    To assess the impact of funding reform on the productivity of teaching hospitals. Based on the Information System of Federal University Hospitals of Brazil, 2003 and 2006 efficiency and productivity were measured using frontier methods with a linear programming technique, data envelopment analysis, and input-oriented variable returns to scale model. The Malmquist index was calculated to detect changes during the study period: 'technical efficiency change,' or the relative variation of the efficiency of each unit; and 'technological change' after frontier shift. There was 51% mean budget increase and improvement of technical efficiency of teaching hospitals (previously 11, 17 hospitals reached the empirical efficiency frontier) but the same was not seen for the technology frontier. Data envelopment analysis set benchmark scores for each inefficient unit (before and after reform) and there was a positive correlation between technical efficiency and teaching intensity and dedication. The reform promoted management improvements but there is a need of further follow-up to assess the effectiveness of funding changes.

  20. Weeping in the Playtime of Others: The Obama Administration's Failed Reform of ICE Family Detention Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Schriro

    2017-05-01

    The paper concludes with a discussion of reasons for the rapid reversal of its previous reforms and provides recommendations to achieve a civil, civil system of immigration enforcement for families and all others, which means nothing less than the transformation of the immigrant detention system from a criminal to a civil paradigm, consistent with the population and legal authorities.[1] The need for such an effort is all the more urgent in light of executive actions taken in the early days of the Trump administration and their initial outcomes. Among those thwarting admissions are  orders to Customs and Border Protection (CBP and US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS to seal the US borders, shun refugees fleeing from war-torn regions until “extreme vetting” measures are put into place, and reassess others who have already been issued visas.  Additional orders issued to ICE expanded and expedited the removal of persons whose conduct could result in charges or convictions as well as those with criminal charges or convictions, resulting in a 38 percent increase in arrests by ICE agents within the first 100 days of the Trump administration (Dickerson 2017b; Duara 2017.         [1] For further discussion of the concept of a civil, civil system of immigration enforcement, see Schriro (2009.

  1. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  2. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  3. Optimal Effort in Consumer Choice : Theory and Experimental Evidence for Binary Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2001-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model of optimal effort in consumer choice.The model extends previous consumer choice models in that the consumer not only chooses a product, but also decides how much effort to apply to a given choice problem.The model yields a unique optimal level of effort, which

  4. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success.

  5. Behavioral health and health care reform models: patient-centered medical home, health home, and accountable care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient-Centered Medical Home, the Health Home initiative within Medicaid, and the Accountable Care Organization. To incorporate behavioral health into health reform, policymakers and practitioners may consider embedding in the reform efforts explicit tools-accountability measures and payment designs-to improve access to and quality of care for patients with behavioral health needs.

  6. Japan reforms its nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)

  7. Electricity sector reform in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadou, Ekaterini N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an outlook of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece which is heavily dependent on indigenous lignite firing generation, while being located in the periphery of the EU internal electricity and gas markets. Competition through enhancing electricity trade in the region is limited to date, as the establishment of an internal market in South East Europe also progresses slowly. Development of competition through gas-firing generation by new entrants has been the priority adopted by State and Regulator's policies. However, the gas supply market in Greece and in the region still lags behind. (author)

  8. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  9. Las reformas neoliberales del sector de la salud: déficit gerencial y alienación del recurso humano en América Latina Neoliberal health sector reforms in Latin America: unprepared managers and unhappy workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ugalde

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the neoliberal health sector reforms that have taken place in Latin America, the preparation of health care workers for the reforms, the reforms' impacts on the workers, and the consequences that the reforms have had on efficiency and quality in the health sector. The piece also looks at the process of formulating and implementing the reforms. The piece utilizes secondary sources and in-depth interviews with health sector managers in Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Mexico. Neoliberal reforms have not solved the human resources problems that health sector evaluations and academic studies had identified as the leading causes of health system inefficiency and low-quality services that existed before the reforms. The reforms worsened the situation by putting new pressures on health personnel, in terms of both the lack of necessary training to face the challenges that came with the reforms and efforts to take away from workers the rights and benefits that they had gained during years of struggles by unions, and to replace them with temporary contracts, reduced job security, and lower benefits. The secrecy with which the reforms were developed and applied made workers even more unified. In response, unions opposed the reforms, and in some countries they were able to delay the reforms. The neoliberal reforms have not improved the efficiency or quality of health systems in Latin America despite the resources that have been invested. Nor have the neoliberal reforms supported specific changes that have been applied in the public sector and that have demonstrated their ability to solve important health problems. These specific changes have produced better results than the neoliberal reforms, and at a lower cost.

  10. Extended professional development for systemic curriculum reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubitskey, Mary Elizabeth

    Education standards call for adopting inquiry science instruction. Successful adoption requires professional development (PD) to support teachers, increasing the need for research on PD. This dissertation examines the question: What is the influence of high quality, curriculum aligned, long-term group workshops and related practice on teacher learning? I focus on the following subquestions: (1) What is the influence of high quality, curriculum aligned, long-term, group workshops on teacher knowledge and beliefs? (2) What is the impact of the workshops on teacher practice? (3) What is the influence of practice on student response? (4) What is the impact of practice and student response on teacher knowledge and beliefs? I focus on an instance of PD nested within a long-term systemic change initiative, tracing eleven science teachers' learning from workshops and associated enactments. The data included pre and post-unit interviews (n=22), two post-workshop interviews (n=17), workshop observations (n=2), classroom observations (n=24) and student work (n=351). I used mixed-methods analysis. Quantitative analysis measured teacher learning by comparing pre and post-unit interview ratings. Qualitative components included two case study approaches: logic model technique and cross-case synthesis, examining teacher learning within and across teachers. The findings suggested a teacher-learning model incorporating PD, teacher knowledge, beliefs, practice and student response. PD impacts teachers' knowledge by providing teachers with new knowledge, adapting previous knowledge, or convincing them to value existing knowledge they chose not to use. The workshops can influence beliefs, providing teachers with confidence and motivation to adopt the practice. Beliefs can mediate how knowledge manifested itself in practice that, in turn, impacts students' response. Student response influences the teachers' beliefs, either reinforcing or motivating change. This teacher-learning model

  11. Power sector reform in Maharashtra, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totare, Ninad P.; Pandit, Shubha

    2010-01-01

    In early 1990 the power sector in India required an initial set of reforms due to the scarcity of financial resources and its deteriorating technical and commercial efficiency. The Indian power sector is now going through a second stage of reforms in which restructuring of electric supply utilities has taken place. The Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB) initiated reforms in 2005 by dividing the state electricity board into four separate companies. In this paper, the situations that led to the reform of the MSEB and the scope of the work required for an action plan initiated by the state electricity distribution company in the context of the proposed Key Performance Index are discussed. The post-reform status of the distribution company is analyzed with selected key parameters. The study also analyzes the electricity supply model implemented and the effect of a multi-year tariff plan as one of the key milestones of the tariff structure. The various new projects implemented by the distribution company to improve consumer services and the reform experiences of the other states are discussed, along with the future scope of the present reform process. (author)

  12. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  13. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  14. Administrative reform in the Venezuelan Ministry of Education: A case analysis of the 1970's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. Mark

    1984-06-01

    Democracy arrived in Venezuela in 1958, and reforming the rigid, centralized and unrepresentative institutions of government subsequently assumed a high priority. This article, based on data gathered in Venezuela several times over a twelve-year period by means of a standard field research methodology, represents a longitudinal case study of efforts through the 70's to generate administrative reform in the Ministry of Education. Specifically, the reform proposed to decentralize and regionalize the organization and management of education in order to promote regional socio-economic development. The study describes and discusses political and organizational factors which disrupted and frustrated the reform process, including: (1) lack of political continuity and maturity; (2) lack of appropriate structures within the system and of real desire on the part of ministry officials to initiate an effective delegation of powers and responsibilities; (3) lack of adequate mechanisms for gathering, processing and distributing information; and (4) lack of sufficient personnel within the ministry with the training and sustained experience to manage complex programs. As in many other countries, the ideals of the reform in Venezuela outstripped the political and human realities of the situation there. Comparative research is now needed to enable other nations to learn from this experience.

  15. BUILDING AN EU MEMBER STATE THROUGH DEMOCRACY PROMOTION: THE CASE OF CROATIA'S PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Grimm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution studies the process of building an EU member state through democracy promotion in the case of Croatia with a special focus on two reform initiatives in the field of Public Administration Reform (PAR. Croatia’s experience is representative of intense efforts of the international community to overcome the consequences of violent state dissolution and civil war. The EU in particular has assisted post-conflict democratization with diplomatic initiatives, the provision of aid, and political conditionality. The Croatian political elite showed great willingness to implement democratic reforms, while at the same time remaining critical of what they viewed as ‘too much’ external interference in domestic state affairs. Based on 30 interviews with Croatian officials, Croatian civil society actors, members of the EU delegation and other representatives of the International donor community, we empirically assess progress and setbacks in Croatia’s public administration reform and explain why some reform initiatives have been successfully implemented while others are still pending.

  16. Planning for Reform-Based Science: Case Studies of Two Urban Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva

    2018-02-01

    The intent of national efforts to frame science education standards is to promote students' development of scientific practices and conceptual understanding for their future role as scientifically literate citizens (NRC 2012). A guiding principle of science education reform is that all students receive equitable opportunities to engage in rigorous science learning. Yet, implementation of science education reform depends on teachers' instructional decisions. In urban schools serving students primarily from poor, diverse communities, teachers typically face obstacles in providing reform-based science due to limited resources and accountability pressures, as well as a culture of teacher-directed pedagogy, and deficit views of students. The purpose of this qualitative research was to study two white, fourth grade teachers from high-poverty urban schools, who were identified as transforming their science teaching and to investigate how their beliefs, knowledge bases, and resources shaped their planning for reform-based science. Using the Shavelson and Stern's decision model for teacher planning to analyze evidence gathered from interviews, documents, planning meetings, and lesson observations, the findings indicated their planning for scientific practices was influenced by the type and extent of professional development each received, each teacher's beliefs about their students and their background, and the mission and learning environment each teacher envisioned for the reform to serve their students. The results provided specific insights into factors that impacted their planning in high-poverty urban schools and indicated considerations for those in similar contexts to promote teachers' planning for equitable science learning opportunities by all students.

  17. Dissociating variability and effort as determinants of coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian O'Sullivan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available When coordinating movements, the nervous system often has to decide how to distribute work across a number of redundant effectors. Here, we show that humans solve this problem by trying to minimize both the variability of motor output and the effort involved. In previous studies that investigated the temporal shape of movements, these two selective pressures, despite having very different theoretical implications, could not be distinguished; because noise in the motor system increases with the motor commands, minimization of effort or variability leads to very similar predictions. When multiple effectors with different noise and effort characteristics have to be combined, however, these two cost terms can be dissociated. Here, we measure the importance of variability and effort in coordination by studying how humans share force production between two fingers. To capture variability, we identified the coefficient of variation of the index and little fingers. For effort, we used the sum of squared forces and the sum of squared forces normalized by the maximum strength of each effector. These terms were then used to predict the optimal force distribution for a task in which participants had to produce a target total force of 4-16 N, by pressing onto two isometric transducers using different combinations of fingers. By comparing the predicted distribution across fingers to the actual distribution chosen by participants, we were able to estimate the relative importance of variability and effort of 1:7, with the unnormalized effort being most important. Our results indicate that the nervous system uses multi-effector redundancy to minimize both the variability of the produced output and effort, although effort costs clearly outweighed variability costs.

  18. Reform Proposals for Replenishing Retirement Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2008-2009 economic crisis dealt a serious blow to Canadians’ retirement savings. While markets have since partially recovered, the ratio of Canadians’ household net-worth relative to disposable income still remains below where it was in 2007. So much wealth that workers had accumulated to prepare for retirement has been wiped away, while the years since 2008 that might have otherwise been spent compounding retirement savings have been spent, instead, on trying to recover losses in a low-interest-rate environment that has limited returns. With large waves of older workers approaching retirement age, and these future retirees projected to live longer than previous cohorts, Canada now faces the very realistic scenario that a significant number of people will reach retirement age without the funds they will need to provide a comfortable post-working-life income. Canadian policy-makers may not have the ability to restore that destroyed wealth. And with most governments already struggling to resolve serious deficits, the situation is not likely to be ameliorated with anything that requires additional spending, or that could reduce tax revenues. But there are policy reforms available that can help at least in better preparing the coming waves of retirees for a financially secure retirement. The reforms need not be far-reaching to have a meaningful impact. And they need not be costly, either. They can include a modest expansion of the Canada Pension Plan (CPP to allow larger contributions — shared by employers and employees, or covered entirely by employees — that would, in turn, allow retiring workers to draw a larger maximum pension, rather than having to rely on the guaranteed income supplement (GIS. CPP contributions could also be made deductible from taxable income, like RRSP investments, to encourage workers to maximize contributions. To minimize an increase in payroll taxes, the eligibility age for CPP benefits could be increased to

  19. Concertina Reforms with International Capital Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    We show that the standard concertina result for tariff reforms -i.e. loweringthe highest tariff increases welfare - no longer holds in general if we allow for international capital mobility. The result can break down if the good whose tariff is lowered is not capital intensive. If the concertina...... reform lowers welfare it lowers market access as well, thereby compromising a second goal that is typically connected with trade liberalisation.JEL-Classification: F11, F13, F15Key words: Trade Policy Reform, International Factor Mobility, Welfare, MarketAccess...

  20. Economic democracy and financial reform in Vanuatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    This article identifies the rationale and trajectory of finance sector reform as part of the donor-sponsored Comprehensive Reform Program (CRP) in Vanuatu and provides an analysis of the problems associated with the lack of affordable credit for sectors of the population that do not fulfill...... commercial lending criteria. The article relies on financial hegemony theory in order to explain Vanuatu's role within larger international financial structures and rationale for reform. The discussion shows that foreign banking institutions are not interested in broadening credit access to poorer sections...

  1. New Reforms to the Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Dai, Candice; Duchâtel, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    Based on:– Li Ling, “Successful reform of the health system hangs on two key elements,” Zhongguo jingyingbao (China Management News), 18 April 2009.– Li Hongmei, Li Xiaohong, Wang Junping, “Ten experts comment on the new reform of the health system: Providing better and cheaper access to medical care,” Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), 15 April 2009.– Yao Qi, “The new reform of the health system must first and foremost compensate for the shortcomings in the local hospitals,” Yangcheng wanbao (Ya...

  2. What does it mean to be Reformed? An answer from a worldview perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. van der Walt

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to determine – from a worldview perspective – the hallmark of being Reformed. As an introduction a few current, unsatisfactory efforts at revealing the genius of the Reformed faith are mentioned. The main section of the article provides, firstly, a typology of five basic, recurring worldviews during the past 2000 years of Christianity. Among them only the Reformational worldview is not plagued by an inherent dualism. Secondly, the differences among these worldviews are illustrated by way of their concrete, practical implications for real-life issues. In the third place, the dualistic Christian worldviews are critically evaluated in the light of the Biblical revelation of inter alia its message about the kingdom of God. In conclusion the distinctive character of being Reformed is described, both negatively (as the rejection of dualistic worldviews, and positively (as the rediscovery of an integral, holistic worldview, inspired by the Biblical idea of the kingdom of God. Such a worldview should always be practised in humility and never lead to triumphalism, because we often do not apply it consistently and especially because our fallible human efforts may not be identified with the coming of God’s kingdom.

  3. Application of flexible micro temperature sensor in oxidative steam reforming by a methanol micro reformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Shen, Chia-Chieh; Yeh, Chuin-Tih; Chang, Chi-Chung; Lo, Yi-Man

    2011-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM), with the relevant parameters optimized as well.

  4. Application of Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor in Oxidative Steam Reforming by a Methanol Micro Reformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Man Lo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM, with the relevant parameters optimized as well.

  5. Normative Beliefs, Discursive Claims, and Implementation of Reform-Based Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, William R.; Riley Lloyd, Mary E.; Howell, Malia R.; Peters, John

    2016-01-01

    Reform-based science instruction is guided by teachers' normative beliefs. Discursive claims are how teachers say they teach science. Previous research has studied the change in teachers' beliefs and how beliefs influence intended practice and action in the classroom. Few studies have connected what teachers believe, how they say they teach, and…

  6. A Co-Construction Perspective on Organizational Change and Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehan, Hugh; Hubbard, Lea; Datnow, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    In their earlier work, the authors explained how the co-construction perspective has been heuristic in the study of organizational change and educational reform, often providing more nuanced analyses and findings than "technical-rational" models that dominated the field previously (Datnow, Hubbard, & Mehan, 2002). In framing organizational change…

  7. Reformate tolerant electrocatalysts in solid polymer fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, S J; Gunner, A G; Thompsett, D; Hards, G A

    1998-12-31

    The aim of the project was to evaluate a series of platinum group metal catalysts which had previously been identified from a wide range of areas related to carbon monoxide (CO) activation, and to demonstrate superior intrinsic reformate tolerance to current platinum/ruthenium technology as anode catalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC). (author)

  8. Does the Energy Sector Reform Call for Reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the course of the energy sector reforms in Europe so far, its objectives, achievements, issues, and dilemmas. In particular, long term and security aspects of energy supply of Europe are analyzed. In addition to the legislative changes regarding the open energy market regulation, and primarily the changes, concerning electricity and natural gas markets, the past period saw dynamic changes of institutional framework such as: increasing members of the European Union, increased number of countries aspiring to the EU (candidate countries and potential candidates), changes in other European countries out of which Russia is the most significant energy producer. The paper analyzes the issue of responsibility between state - regulator - system operator - trader - energy buyer. In Europe, it is more a complex question because the system of responsibility includes the institution of the European Union. Therefore, the relations between EU - state - regulator - system operator - trader - energy buyer are especially important. The paper looks in to the issue of energy company integrations, creation of energy mega-undertakings and their influence on further market development. The question of monopolies now appears in s new form. The conclusions suggest possible measures for institutional influence on energy market development, especially in the network energy systems, which may have a positive impact on system security and stability and markets development and their long term sustainability.(author)

  9. Medical society engagement in contentious policy reform: the Ethiopian Society for Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ESOG) and Ethiopia's 2005 reform of its Penal Code on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Sarah Jane

    2018-05-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the three leading causes of maternal mortality in low-income countries; however, few countries have reformed their laws to permit safer, legal abortion, and professional medical associations have not tended to spearhead this type of reform. Support from a professional association typically carries more weight than does that from an individual medical professional. However, theory predicts and the empirical record largely reveals that medical associations shy from engagement in conflictual policymaking such as on abortion, except when professional autonomy or income is at stake. Using interviews with 10 obstetrician-gynaecologists and 44 other leaders familiar with Ethiopia's reproductive health policy context, as well as other primary and secondary sources, this research examines why, counter to theoretical expectations from the sociology of medical professions literature and experience elsewhere, the Ethiopian Society of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (ESOG) actively supported reform of national law on abortion. ESOG leadership participation was motivated by both individual and ESOG's organizational commitments to reducing maternal mortality and also by professional training and work experience. Further, typical constraints on medical society involvement in policymaking were relaxed or removed, including those related to ESOG's organizational structure and history, and to political environment. Findings do not contradict theory positing medical society avoidance of socially conflictual health policymaking, but rather identify how the expected restrictions were less present in Ethiopia, facilitating medical society participation. Results can inform efforts to encourage medical society participation in policy reform to improve women's health elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. Reforming STEM Undergraduate Education: What's a Faculty Member to Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, J.

    2011-12-01

    Efforts to improve undergraduate STEM education lie at the forefront of many national educational policies. The recent National Academies of Science study of discipline-based educational research (DBER)is typical of such efforts. Most of the initiatives to improve student learning in STEM focus on the the student or the instructor in the classroom (Austin, 2011). This focus is consistent with the work by Seymour & Hewitt (1997), which found that poor teaching in STEM adversely affects learning and retention in the major. Professional development efforts focus on helping the individual STEM faculty member to figure out what to do to improve student learning. Substantial research (Austin, 2011) shows that the origin of many learning problems lies beyond the control of the instructor or the individual classroom. In these circumstances what is a STEM faculty member to do? This paper explores answers to this question. The first step is to define the nature of the problem. Is it related to classroom teaching and learning such as knowledge, skills, and interest in the major? If so then what environmental factors affect strategic alternatives, including type of course, instructor characteristics, and prior teaching experience (Fairweather & Rhoads, 1995)? Does good disciplinary-based research on the learning problem exist? If so then how can the research results be translated into practice? If not then does good research from other disciplines exist? If relevant evidenced-based research does not exist at all then how can STEM instructors learn to evaluate key learning outcomes and find ways to ameliorate problems? Despite appearances not all STEM teaching and learning problems are classroom-based. Some problems derive from curricula, others from faculty work-related issues such as rewards and work load. Any classroom reform effort must reflect accurately the system in which the teaching and learning take place. Understanding these systemic interactions improves the ability

  11. The Political Context of School Finance Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmiller, Richard A.; Geske, Terry G.

    1976-01-01

    Reports the results of a case study of the political decision-making process in Wisconsin through which control over educational finance reform was exercised between January, 1972, and August, 1973. (Author)

  12. Sources of Funding for Education Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    1986-01-01

    Outlines the trends in educational funding patterns needed to enact educational reform. Local property taxes, state revenues, and federal aid continue to provide the bulk of financing. Includes two tables. (MD)

  13. Education management process implementation of reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kondratyeva

    2013-12-01

    In the dissertation research looks at the problem of the study. This article contains material research and evaluate different points of view on the issue of a systematic approach using educational management in the implementation of reforms.

  14. 76 FR 42625 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...] International Settlements Policy Reform AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Federal Communications Commission proposes to remove the International Settlements... proposes to remove the International Settlements Policy (ISP) from all U.S. international routes except...

  15. Carbonaceous deposits on naptha reforming catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redwan, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    Carbonaceous deposits on naphtha reforming catalysts play a decisive role in limiting process performance. The deposits negatively after catalyst activity, selectivity and the production cycle of a semi regenerative reformer. The magnitude of negative effect of those deposits is directly proportional to their amounts and complexity. Investigations on used reforming catalysts samples reveal that the amount and type (complexity of the chemical nature) of carbonaceous deposits are directly proportional to the catalysts life on stream and the severity of operating conditions. In addition, the combustibility behavior of carbonaceous deposits on the catalyst samples taken from different reformers are found to be different. Optimal carbon removal, for in situ catalyst regeneration, requires the specific conditions be developed, based on the results of well designed and properly performed investigations of the amount and type of carbonaceous deposits. (author)

  16. Land Reform and Conflict Resolution in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieswiadomy, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ... to change the overall high concentration of landownership, This thesis examines to what effect, if any, a redistributive land reform policy implemented amid the ongoing rural conflict would have on its resolution...

  17. Public Consultation toward Ethiopia's Family Law Reform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandefrot Belay

    A comprehensive and open public consultation was conducted during the revision ... in Ethiopia which are expected to guide any legal reform process so that the ... law, the way in which public consultation forums were organized, and the ...

  18. The Reformed tradition as public theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyani S. Vellem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a South African perspective of a Black African reflection on the publicity of Reformed faith. Whilst the notion of public theology is fairly new, the article argues, it is important to define the ‘public’ of the type of public theology to which Reformed faith and tradition could be linked. As a confessional tradition, Reformed faith is intrinsically public, the article demonstrates. The publicity of this tradition is however ambivalent and tainted. I attempt to show this by discussing two important tenets of the Reformed Tradition: sola scriptura and sola fide, within the festering wounds of Black African colonialism, apartheid and the hegemony of the neoliberal paradigm in the 21st century.

  19. Reform and privatisations transform investment scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielmas, Maria.

    1993-01-01

    Macroeconomic reforms in the countries of Latin America, including the privatization of state-owned industries, are opening the way for new injections of both domestic and foreign capital in the region's oil and gas sector. (Author)

  20. Police reform from the bottom up

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and practitioners across the usual North-South divide. Few police ... colleagues in the North. ... The introduction sets out the ... descriptive overview of key reforms in American policing. ... departments to illustrate the scope for involving officers ...

  1. Globalisation, Economic Reforms and Democracy in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... Strategy (NEEDS) and trade and financial liberalisations ...... The reforms started with the Nigerian Enterprises Promotion Decrees (1972, ..... product prices and utility tariffs, a freeze on wages and salaries in the public sector,.

  2. Who defines the need for fishery reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Raakjær, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    -making process as reform according to this ‘grand reform’ discourse was blocked by a combination of small-scale fishers’ informal networks and the power of the parliamentary majority. After a parliamentary shift in power the new government implemented the ‘grand reform’ gradually whilst new patterns...... of participation and exclusion emerged. In this process, the identities of the participating participants were reinterpreted to fit the new patterns of influence and participation. The article argues that fishery reform does not necessarily start with the collective recognition of a problem in marine resource use...... and a power-neutral process of institutional learning. Instead, it argues that fishery reform is likely to be the ‘reform of somebody’ and that this ‘somebody’ is itself a changing identity....

  3. Motivation and effort in individuals with social anhedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Julie M; Treadway, Michael T; Blanchard, Jack J

    2015-06-01

    It has been proposed that anhedonia may, in part, reflect difficulties in reward processing and effortful decision making. The current study aimed to replicate previous findings of effortful decision making deficits associated with elevated anhedonia and expand upon these findings by investigating whether these decision making deficits are specific to elevated social anhedonia or are also associated with elevated positive schizotypy characteristics. The current study compared controls (n=40) to individuals elevated on social anhedonia (n=30), and individuals elevated on perceptual aberration/magical ideation (n=30) on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Across groups, participants chose a higher proportion of hard tasks with increasing probability of reward and reward magnitude, demonstrating sensitivity to probability and reward values. Contrary to our expectations, when the probability of reward was most uncertain (50% probability), at low and medium reward values, the social anhedonia group demonstrated more effortful decision making than either individuals high in positive schizotypy or controls. The positive schizotypy group only differed from controls (making less effortful choices than controls) when reward probability was lowest (12%) and the magnitude of reward was the smallest. Our results suggest that social anhedonia is related to intact motivation and effort for monetary rewards, but that individuals with this characteristic display a unique and perhaps inefficient pattern of effort allocation when the probability of reward is most uncertain. Future research is needed to better understand effortful decision making and the processing of reward across a range of individual difference characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. How "Doing Business" jeopardizes institutional reform

    OpenAIRE

    Arruñada, Benito

    2008-01-01

    Simplifying business formalization and eliminating outdated formalities is often a good way of improving the institutional environment for firms. Unfortunately, the World Bank’s "Doing Business" project is harming such policies by promoting a reform agenda that gives them priority even in countries lacking functional business registers, so that the reformed registers keep producing valueless information, but faster. Its methodology also promotes biased measurements that impede proper consider...

  5. Reforms for competitive markets in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Nadeem; Ahmed, Vaqar; Shahid, Sana

    2011-01-01

    While Pakistan has taken several steps to promote competition in its markets, further reforms are required in improving domestic commerce, agricultural markets and industries. With increasing risks and cost of doing business due to deteriorating law and order situation as well as massive energy shortages, Pakistan needs to compensate its entrepreneurs and investors by enhancing its investment and business climate. By adopting certain administrative and legal reforms, Pakistan can considerably...

  6. Reform in Turkish Elementary Mathematics Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    BABADOĞAN, Cem; OLKUN, Sinan

    2006-01-01

    Disappointed from such major international studies as TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS andsome internal indicators such as national university entrance examination, the Turkish Ministry ofNational Education initiated a massive reform movement in education. These reforms includedeveloping new curricula for both elementary and secondary education and developing teachercompetencies. The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of the elementary schoolmathematics curriculum, which is a part of the ref...

  7. Progress in Nuclear Safety Reform of TEPCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, A.

    2016-01-01

    On March 29, 2014, TEPCO issued the Nuclear Safety Reform Plan describing the background cause of our Fukushima Nuclear Accident and our plan to challenge organizational and cultural change to avoid recurrence of such a tragic accident and to pursue the excellence in safety. This report will reflect that background cause with some specific examples and introduce how we are currently implementing this reform plan.

  8. Testing and school reform in Danish education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine; Hamre, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will focus on shared characteristics of the Danish national standardized testing in public school and the ideals of being a student according to the Danish School Reform of 2014. In the chapter we argue that both kinds of materials (documents regarding the newly implemented national ...... and that this intermingles with the explicated intentions of the Danish school reform as a more profound educational intervention....

  9. An Asian perspective on global financial reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Peter J.; Pontines, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the likely impact on Asian economies and financial institutions of various recent global financial reforms, including Basel III capital adequacy and liquidity rules. Part one reviews the lessons of the global financial crisis (GFC) of 2007–09 and their relevance for Asian economies. Part two describes the major regulatory reforms that have been announced and possible concerns about their impacts on emerging economies. Part three reviews the ...

  10. IMF and Economic Reform in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    relevant to actors and entities with a broader, and more microeconomic, focus such as national policymakers and the World Bank. It is in choices among competing projects and programs that trial and error is most likely to be necessary. Nevertheless, reforms of the IMF such as the “streamlining initiative......” should start from a good understanding of the reasons for adherence to policy orthodoxy. We discuss underlying institutional and organizational reasons for policy rigidity and consider some suggested reforms....

  11. Arbiters of Effectiveness and Efficiency: The Frames and Strategies of Management Consulting Firms in US Higher Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of public colleges and universities in the United States have hired management consulting firms to help develop strategies aimed at increasing institutional effectiveness and efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to explore the frames and strategies of consultants in US public higher education reform efforts. Drawing upon a…

  12. Kindergarten Teacher Buy-In for Standards-Based Reforms: A Dynamic Interplay between Professional Identity and Perceptions of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jennifer O.; Russell, Jennifer Lin; Wanless, Shannon B.

    2018-01-01

    Political and societal pressures are influencing kindergarten teachers and their classroom practices on a national level. Teachers' receptivity to reforms depends to a large degree on their buy-in to the change effort. Drawing on analyses of interviews with kindergarten teachers across school and districts, this study examined teacher buy-in to an…

  13. Performance Measures for Teachers and Teacher Education: Corporate Education Reform Opens the Door to New Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts to change the teaching profession and teacher preparation include a number of innovations to use portfolio assessment, value added measures (VAM), accountability metrics and other corporate education reform ideas. These approaches may provoke considerable potential legal consequences. Traditional constitutional and civil rights…

  14. Investigating the Longitudinal Impact of a Successful Reform in General Chemistry on Student Enrollment and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable effort in chemistry education research has been dedicated to developing and evaluating reform pedagogies designed to improve student success in general chemistry. Policy recommendations propose adoption of these techniques as a means to increase the number of science graduates, however there is the potential that the impact of these…

  15. Pocket money and child effort at school

    OpenAIRE

    François-Charles Wolff; Christine Barnet-Verzat

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between the provision of parental pocket and the level of effort undertaken by the child at school. Under altruism, an increased amount of parental transfer should reduce the child's effort. Our empirical analysis is based on a French data set including about 1,400 parent-child pairs. We find that children do not undertake less effort when their parents are more generous.

  16. Tax reform Ukraine: implementation mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Lebedzevіch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the main shortcomings of the existing domestic tax systems, which were the main reasons for the need for its reform in the context of integration into the European Community. Determined the first stage of reforming tax systems Ukraine, which is associated with the adoption of the Law of Ukraine «On Amendments to the Tax Code of Ukraine and laws of Ukraine». The main provisions of this legal act, revealing the essence of the mechanism for implementing tax reform. Analyzed the mechanism of implementation of tax reform by analyzing the major innovations of the Tax Code of Ukraine and their comparison with the tax «standards» that operated the implementation of tax reform 2015. Thesis there is determined a number of tax loopholes and nedoopratsyuvan conducted tax reform and their implications for payers of taxes and duties, and the need for further research and improvement. The experience of European countries towards the introduction of electronic filing and processing of tax returns.

  17. Transitions in state public health law: comparative analysis of state public health law reform following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2009-03-01

    Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health.

  18. Exploring the role of curriculum materials to support teachers in science education reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rebecca M.

    2001-07-01

    For curriculum materials to succeed in promoting large-scale science education reform, teacher learning must be supported. Materials were designed to reflect desired reforms and to be educative by including detailed lesson descriptions that addressed necessary content, pedagogy, and pedagogical content knowledge for teachers. The goal of this research was to describe how such materials contributed to classroom practices. As part of an urban systemic reform effort, four middle school teachers' initial enactment of an inquiry-based science unit on force and motion were videotaped. Enactments focused on five lesson sequences containing experiences with phenomena, investigation, technology use, or artifact development. Each sequence spanned three to five days across the 10-week unit. For each lesson sequence, intended and actual enactment were compared using ratings of (1) accuracy and completeness of science ideas presented, (2) amount student learning opportunities, similarity of learning opportunities with those intended, and quality of adaptations , and (3) amount of instructional supports offered, appropriateness of instructional supports and source of ideas for instructional supports. Ratings indicated two teachers' enactments were consistent with intentions and two teachers' enactments were not. The first two were in school contexts supportive of the reform. They purposefully used the materials to guide enactment, which tended to be consistent with standards-based reform. They provided students opportunities to use technology tools, design investigations, and discuss ideas. However, enactment ratings were less reflective of curriculum intent when challenges were greatest, such as when teachers attempted to present challenging science ideas, respond to students' ideas, structure investigations, guide small-group discussions, or make adaptations. Moreover, enactment ratings were less consistent in parts of lessons where materials did not include lesson specific

  19. Incentive Design and Mis-Allocated Effort

    OpenAIRE

    Schnedler, Wendelin

    2013-01-01

    Incentives often distort behavior: they induce agents to exert effort but this effort is not employed optimally. This paper proposes a theory of incentive design allowing for such distorted behavior. At the heart of the theory is a trade-off between getting the agent to exert effort and ensuring that this effort is used well. The theory covers various moral-hazard models, ranging from traditional single-task to multi-task models. It also provides -for the first time- a formalization and proof...

  20. Developing Mathematical Knowledge Through Class Discussion: One Teacher's Struggles in Implementing Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Rebecca S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine the experience of one secondary mathematics teacher during his efforts to facilitate mathematical discussions in a secondary algebra class. Class discussions and interviews were documented and analyzed to investigate the patterns of discussion, the teacher's role in facilitating discussion, and the struggles encountered by the teacher through his attempts to enact reform-oriented strategies. The investigation focused on the teacher's vision for ...

  1. Progress in China’s Banking Sector Reform; Has Bank Behavior Changed?

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Podpiera

    2006-01-01

    Substantial effort has been devoted to reforming China's banking system in recent years. The authorities recapitalized three large state-owned banks, introduced new governance structures, and brought in foreign strategic investors. However, it remains unclear the extent to which currently reported data reflect the true credit risk in loan portfolios and whether lending decisions have started to be taken on a commercial basis. We examine lending growth, credit pricing, and regional patterns in...

  2. Working for Jewish girls : Lily Montagu, girls' clubs and industrial reform 1890-1914.

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, J.

    2004-01-01

    Lily Montagu was involved in social work and religious ministry with the London Jewish community for over sixty years. This article considers the significance of her involvement in the girls' club movement and her efforts towards workplace reform. It argues that the specific circumstances of working-class Jewish girls in the early twentieth century enabled her to develop a comprehensive view of both industrial organisation and social work. Her approach was submerged as social work and trade u...

  3. Health care reform and federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Jacobson, Peter D

    2010-04-01

    Health policy debates are replete with discussions of federalism, most often when advocates of reform put their hopes in states. But health policy literature is remarkably silent on the question of allocation of authority, rarely asking which levels of government ought to lead. We draw on the larger literatures about federalism, found mostly in political science and law, to develop a set of criteria for allocating health policy authority between states and the federal government. They are social justice, procedural democracy, compatibility with value pluralism, institutional capability, and economic sustainability. Of them, only procedural democracy and compatibility with value pluralism point to state leadership. In examining these criteria, we conclude that American policy debates often get federalism backward, putting the burden of health care coverage policy on states that cannot enact or sustain it, while increasing the federal role in issues where the arguments for state leadership are compelling. We suggest that the federal government should lead present and future financing of health care coverage, since it would require major changes in American intergovernmental relations to make innovative state health care financing sustainable outside a strong federal framework.

  4. Hospital Acquisitions Before Healthcare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J; Thompson, Jon M; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The hospital industry has experienced increased consolidation in the past 20 years. Since 2010, in particular, there has been a large rise in the number of hospital acquisitions, and observers have suggested this is due in part to the expected impact of federal healthcare reform legislation. This article reports on a study undertaken to identify the market, management, and financial factors affecting acute care, community hospitals acquired between 2010 and 2012. We identified 77 such hospitals and compared them to other acute care facilities. To assess how different factors were associated with acquisitions, the study used multiple logistic regressions whereby market factors were included first, followed by management and financial factors. Study findings show that acquired hospitals were located in markets with lower rates of preferred provider organization (PPO) penetration compared with nonacquired hospitals. Occupancy rate was found to be inversely related to acquisition rate; however, case-mix index was significantly and positively related to a hospital's being acquired. Financial factors negatively associated with a hospital's being acquired included age of plant and cash flow margin. In contrast to the findings from earlier studies of hospital acquisitions, our results showed that acquired hospitals possessed newer assets. However, similar to the findings of other studies, the cash flow margin of acquired hospitals was lower than that of nonacquired facilities.

  5. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Gerlier Forest

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility

  7. Health care in China: improvement, challenges, and reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Rao, Keqin; Wu, Sinan; Liu, Qian

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 2 decades, significant progress has been made in improving the health-care system and people's health conditions in China. Following rapid economic growth and social development, China's health-care system is facing new challenges, such as increased health-care demands and expenditure, inefficient use of health-care resources, unsatisfying implementation of disease management guidelines, and inadequate health-care insurance. Facing these challenges, the Chinese government carried out a national health-care reform in 2009. A series of policies were developed and implemented to improve the health-care insurance system, the medical care system, the public health service system, the pharmaceutical supply system, and the health-care institution management system in China. Although these measures have shown promising results, further efforts are needed to achieve the ultimate goal of providing affordable and high-quality care for both urban and rural residents in China. This article not only covers the improvement, challenges, and reform of health care in general in China, but also highlights the status of respiratory medicine-related issues.

  8. Participatory management reforms in irrigation sector of sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashari, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    Pakistan has been making efforts to restructuring the century old irrigation system by involving beneficiaries (water users) at various units of the irrigation system management. The main purposes of reforms are to improve O and M (Operation and Maintenance) of irrigation system, to make balance in expenditure and revenue, to improve crop production through efficient use of water, to maintain affordable drainage system and to adopt PWRM (Participatory Water Resource Management) approach. In these reforms, the Sindh provincial irrigation department was transferred to an autonomous body as SmA (Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority). Under SmA, CAWB (Canal Area Water Board) at each canal command area, water users association at watercourse level and Farmer Organizations at each secondary canal (Distributary/ Minor) command area were being formed. So far 335 FOs (Farmers Organizations) have been formed in Sindh. To evaluate the performance of FOs in their day to day activities such as water distribution, O and M of irrigation channels, conflict management and revenue (Abiana) collection, IMI (Institutional Maturity Index) of FOs is conducted. The objective IMI analysis was to assess the maturity of FOs in terms of organizational aspects, conflict resolution, financial aspects, water distribution, operation and maintenance, environmental aspects and capacity building of FOs. The IMI analyses identified the weaker aspects of the FOs and need of focus these aspects for improved performance of FOs through effective social mobilization and capacity building activities. (author)

  9. Ni Catalysts Supported on Modified Alumina for Diesel Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Tribalis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel catalysts are the most popular for steam reforming, however, they have a number of drawbacks, such as high propensity toward coke formation and intolerance to sulfur. In an effort to improve their behavior, a series of Ni-catalysts supported on pure and La-, Ba-, (La+Ba- and Ce-doped γ-alumina has been prepared. The doped supports and the catalysts have been extensively characterized. The catalysts performance was evaluated for steam reforming of n-hexadecane pure or doped with dibenzothiophene as surrogate for sulphur-free or commercial diesel, respectively. The undoped catalyst lost its activity after 1.5 h on stream. Doping of the support with La improved the initial catalyst activity. However, this catalyst was completely deactivated after 2 h on stream. Doping with Ba or La+Ba improved the stability of the catalysts. This improvement is attributed to the increase of the dispersion of the nickel phase, the decrease of the support acidity and the increase of Ni-phase reducibility. The best catalyst of the series doped with La+Ba proved to be sulphur tolerant and stable for more than 160 h on stream. Doping of the support with Ce also improved the catalytic performance of the corresponding catalyst, but more work is needed to explain this behavior.

  10. Ecological Tax Reform in Denmark: history and social acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, Jacob; Larsen, Anders; Hansen, Kirsten; Dahl, Anja

    2006-01-01

    Despite the long-term and positive experience with Ecological Tax Reform (ETR), the PETRAS study indicates that awareness about the principles behind ETR is low among both businesses and the general public in Denmark. As well as the lack of awareness of ETR, attitudes towards environmental taxation appear negative. When explaining the political intentions behind ETR, attitudes seem to improve somewhat, but they still remain overall sceptical. Based on the history and the results of the PETRAS project the article will describe some of the main impediments for further development of environmental tax and ETR policies in Denmark. The article concludes that the main reason why the ETR policy has been met with such apparently low social acceptability in Denmark is that the 'green' of the 'green' tax reform has been somewhat oversold. On this basis it recommends the pursuit of a courageous government strategy of, openly and repeatedly, stressing the revenue purposes of environmentally related taxes over the environmental purposes in an effort to redirect public discussions towards relevant issues like the pros and cons of environmentally related taxation compared with other types of taxation and the connection between the overall tax burden and demands for government spending. Such a bold government 'confession' to the obvious revenue purposes of the environmentally related taxes could make them, if not popular, then at least a bit more acceptable to businesses and the general public. (author)

  11. High temperature nuclear heat for isothermal reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.

    2000-01-01

    High temperature nuclear heat can be used to operate a reformer with various feedstock materials. The product synthesis gas can be used not only as a source for hydrogen and as a feedstock for many essential chemical industries, such as ammonia and other products, but also for methanol and synthetic fuels. It can also be burnt directly in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine in an efficient combined cycle and generate electricity. In addition, it can be used as fuel for fuel cells. The reforming reaction is endothermic and the contribution of the nuclear energy to the calorific value of the final product (synthesis gas) is about 25%, compared to the calorific value of the feedstock reactants. If the feedstock is from fossil origin, the nuclear energy contributes to a substantial reduction in CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. The catalytic steam reforming of natural gas is the most common process. However, other feedstock materials, such as biogas, landfill gas and CO 2 -contaminated natural gas, can be reformed as well, either directly or with the addition of steam. The industrial steam reformers are generally fixed bed reactors, and their performance is strongly affected by the heat transfer from the furnace to the catalyst tubes. In top-fired as well as side-fired industrial configurations of steam reformers, the radiation is the main mechanism of heat transfer and convection heat transfer is negligible. The flames and the furnace gas constitute the main sources of the heat. In the nuclear reformers developed primarily in Germany, in connection with the EVA-ADAM project (closed cycle), the nuclear heat is transferred from the nuclear reactor coolant gas by convection, using a heating jacket around the reformer tubes. In this presentation it is proposed that the helium in a secondary loop, used to cool the nuclear reactor, will be employed to evaporate intermediate medium, such as sodium, zinc and aluminum chloride. Then, the vapors of the medium material transfer

  12. A Critique of Pension Reform Act, 2004 In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCIS C. ANYIM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pension is benefit paid to an employee after attaining the statutory required age of retirement or if the employee leaves employment for other reasons. The benefit is meant to guarantee comfortable life after active years of service and also assist in the maintenance of living standard previously enjoyed during the beneficiaries’ active productive years. However, previous attempts by successive governments in Nigeria at instituting a hitch-free workable Pension Scheme have been hampered by inadequate and untimely funding, improper records, endemic fraud and corruption leading to avoidable pains and misery for the retirees and beneficiaries. It was on the account of these challenges in pension administration that the government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, as part of its reform agenda established a new scheme referred to as Pension Reform Act, 2004. The study based on the qualitative research method and employing review of relevant literature takes a critical examination of the Act and concedes that although some inherent defects exist in the operations of the new Pension Scheme, these pitfalls are not fundamental or substantial to compromise or undermine the overall objectives of the Act. The paper therefore calls for an urgent review of some portions of the Pension Act, to check fraud, corruption and abuses currently inherent in the system. To treat these shortcomings with levity the paper contends may be tantamount to the State not playing its dutiful role in taking care of its senior citizens after active and meritorious years of service to the nation and fatherland.

  13. Tax reform options: promoting retirement security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerhei, Jack

    2011-11-01

    TAX PROPOSALS: Currently, the combination of worker and employer contributions in a defined contribution plan is capped by the federal tax code at the lesser of $49,000 per year or 100 percent of a worker's compensation (participants over age 50 can make additional "catch-up" contributions). As part of the effort to lower the federal deficit and reduce federal "tax expenditures," two major reform proposals have surfaced that would change current tax policy toward retirement savings: A plan that would end the existing tax deductions for 401(k) contributions and replace them with a flat-rate refundable credit that serves as a matching contribution into a retirement savings account. The so-called "20/20 cap," included by the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform in their December 2010 report, "The Moment of Truth," which would limit the sum of employer and worker annual contributions to the lower of $20,000 or 20 percent of income, the so-called "20/20 cap." IMPACT OF PERMANENTLY MODIFYING THE EXCLUSION OF EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RETIREMENT SAVINGS PLANS FROM TAXABLE INCOME: If the current exclusion of worker contributions for retirement savings plans were ended in 2012 and the total match remains constant, the average reductions in 401(k) accounts at Social Security normal retirement age would range from a low of 11.2 percent for workers currently ages 26-35 in the highest-income groups, to a high of 24.2 percent for workers in that age range in the lowest-income group. IMPACT OF "20/20 CAP": Earlier EBRI analysis of enacting the 20/20 cap starting in 2012 showed it would, as expected, most affect those with high income. However, EBRI also found the cap would cause a significant reduction in retirement savings by the lowest-income workers as well, and younger cohorts would experience larger reductions given their increased exposure to the proposal. IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYER-SPONSORED RETIREMENT PLANS AND AUTO-ENROLLMENT: A key factor in future

  14. [Labor legislation reform: law 50 of 1990. The context of the reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanuzova, M

    1991-12-01

    Labor legislation reforms contained in Law 50 of 1990 were intended to facilitate international opening of Colombia's economy, which has been beset by external debt, an absence of foreign investment, technological backwardness, and low productivity. The weakness of the labor movement, aggravated by the failure of the socialist economic model and its power organization, made possible a dismantling of past labor victories. The labor reform is intended to combat stagnation in productivity which is believed by the government to result from labor instability; to create a climate permitting generation of employment, and to adapt internal labor laws to recommendations of the International Labour Organization. The effort to make labor legislation more flexible and more adaptable to market conditions removed some protectionist measures and facilitated firing or laying off of workers. Several categories of workers were removed from the jurisdiction of labor laws and placed under the jurisdiction of civil law and ultimately of market forces. The new labor law will lead to salary reductions for most workers. A 36-hour work week without overtime was created for new enterprises as a strategy to encourage job creation. The principle that labor laws should protect workers because of their unequal power relative to employers has been suppressed in the new legislation. Although it is too early to draw definite conclusions about the effect of the law on women workers, some effects are predictable. The liberating power of employment for married women has been limited in Colombia as in many other countries because women are expected to carry out their full traditional domestic role in addition to their paid employment. Women's status in the workplace has improved considerably over the past 50 years, but they still have higher unemployment rates than men, receive lower wages, and are concentrated in less skilled jobs and the informal sector. Employment in the informal sector allows

  15. [Health reform in Ecuador: never again the right to health as a privilege].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo-Serrano, Miguel; Malo-Corral, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    The process of the health reform being experienced by Ecuador has had significant achievements because it occurs within the framework of a new Constitution of the Republic, which allowed the incorporation of historical social demands that arose from the criticism of neoliberalism in the restructure and modernization of the state. The backbone of the reform consists of three components: organization of a National Health System that overcomes the previous fragmentation and constitutes the Integral Public Health Network; development of policies to strengthen primary health care, articulating actions on the determinants of health, and finally, increasing funding to consolidate these changes. We conclude that challenges to the reform are related to the sustainability of the processes, financial sustainability of the system, greater activation of participatory mechanisms that enable citizen assessment of services and citizen empowerment regarding their right to health.

  16. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic

  17. Interests, Effort, Achievement and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, L.

    1984-01-01

    Relationships between interest in natural sciences and technology and perceived ability, success, and invested effort were studied in Swedish secondary school students. Interests were accounted for by logical orientation and practical value. Interests and grades were strongly correlated, but correlations between interests and effort and vocational…

  18. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Triasih Kurniawan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA towards overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal’s motivation towards effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia (BG and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

  19. Listening Effort With Cochlear Implant Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing

  20. Effort and Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive

  1. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  2. Renovating the Commons: Swedish health care reforms in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Richard B; Bergman, Sven-Eric

    2005-01-01

    Recent reform experience in Sweden supports the premise that key dimensions of a country's health care system reflect the core social norms and values held by its citizenry. The fundamental structure of the Swedish health system has remained notably consistent over the past half century, that is, tax-based financing and publicly operated hospitals. Yet on other, nearly as important, parameters, there has been substantial change, for example, the persistent pursuit for thirty years of a stronger primary care framework and the effort to allow patient choice of doctor, health center, and hospital within the publicly operated system. This particular combination of continuity and change has occurred as traditional Swedish values of jamlikhet (equality) and trygghet (security) have been challenged in an environment shaped by an aging population, changing medical technology, and Sweden's integration into the European Single Market. This article explores the ongoing process of health system development in Sweden in the context of the country's broader social and cultural characteristics.

  3. LAND REFORM IN UKRAINE: HISTORIOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barantsov B.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern land reform, that continues in Ukraine since the beginning of the 90-th of ХХ century, is a logical result of the functioning of society and the state.. It’s prerequisites becames, especially full monopolization of state on ownership of land; absence of payment for land as one of the means of ensuring the rational use of lands; absence on workers motivation for intensive work on the land, etc.. These and other preconditions contributed to soil degradation, production of agricultural products with exceeding of maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants, development of diseases, undermine the gene pool of nature and man. Mentioned reasons determined the goal and objectives of modern land reform, which were originally set out in the preamble to the Resolution of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine from December 18, 1990 «On Land Reform» with following changes and additions, and in the implementation of the land-reformation measures gained more complete content. Conducted analysis shows that land reform in Ukraine leads to a change of ownership of land, contributes to solving problems of citizens by land plots, enactment of payment for land usecreation of conditions for the development of land market. Thus changing land relations, is formed legal and regulatory framework of land reform and land market. However, positive developments in the implementation of land reform to end of the 90-th years have not led to a radical and effective upgrade of agricultural production, recovery of investment processes in other branches of industry, improving of welfare of the population. Land reform measures didn’t receive adequate financial support. The ultimate goal - an economically-effective and environmentally safe use of land in Ukraine - has not been achieved. Further reforming of land relations contributed to the adoption in October 2001 of the Land Code of Ukraine in the new edition that created the legal principles of land reform. Since it

  4. What triggers reforms in OECD countries? Improved reform measurement and evidence from the healthcare sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiese, Rasmus

    The main contribution of this paper is the development of a novel and versatile methodology to identify economic reforms. The methodology is a combination of the Bai & Perron structural break filter, and validation of the structural breaks identified using de jure evidence of reforms. The procedure

  5. Reforming Higher Education in "Transition": Between National and International Reform Initiatives--The Case of Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgaga, Pavel; Miklavic, Klemen

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the last two decades of higher education reforms in Slovenia. During the "period of transition," they were led by national as well as international initiatives. At an early stage, the national initiatives were mainly based on criticisms of the last reform made by the former regime, although the generation of new…

  6. Low-effort thought promotes political conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, Scott; Crandall, Christian S; Goodman, Jeffrey A; Blanchar, John C

    2012-06-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. In Study 1, alcohol intoxication was measured among bar patrons; as blood alcohol level increased, so did political conservatism (controlling for sex, education, and political identification). In Study 2, participants under cognitive load reported more conservative attitudes than their no-load counterparts. In Study 3, time pressure increased participants' endorsement of conservative terms. In Study 4, participants considering political terms in a cursory manner endorsed conservative terms more than those asked to cogitate; an indicator of effortful thought (recognition memory) partially mediated the relationship between processing effort and conservatism. Together these data suggest that political conservatism may be a process consequence of low-effort thought; when effortful, deliberate thought is disengaged, endorsement of conservative ideology increases.

  7. Biopsychosocial law, health care reform, and the control of medical inflation in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Daniel; Mueller, Kathryn; Warren, Pamela A

    2012-05-01

    A noteworthy attempt at health care reform was the 1992 Colorado workers' compensation reform bill, which led to the creation of what has been called "biopsychosocial laws." These laws mandated the use of treatment guidelines for patients with injury or chronic pain, which advocated a biopsychosocial model of rehabilitation, and aspired to use a "best practice" approach to controlling costs. The purpose of this study was to examine the financial impact of this health care reform process, and to test the hypothesis that this approach can be an effective strategy to contain costs while providing good care. This study utilized a dataset collected prospectively from 1992 to 2007 in 45 U.S. states for regulatory purposes. These data summarized the medical treatment and disability costs of 520,314 injured workers in Colorado, and an estimated 28.6 million injured workers nationally. As no other state passed a comparable bill, the Colorado worker compensation reform bill created a natural experiment, where a treatment group was created by legally enforceable medical treatment guidelines. In the 15 years following the implementation of the reform, the inflation of medical costs in Colorado workers' compensation was only one third that of the national average, saving an estimated $859 million on patients injured in 2007 alone. Although there were confounding variables, and causality could not be determined, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that Colorado's 1992 legislative efforts to reform workers compensation law using the biopsychosocial model worked as intended to provide good care while controlling costs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth

    2002-04-01

    Motivation in the work context can be defined as an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. Health sector performance is critically dependent on worker motivation, with service quality, efficiency, and equity, all directly mediated by workers' willingness to apply themselves to their tasks. Resource availability and worker competence are essential but not sufficient to ensure desired worker performance. While financial incentives may be important determinants of worker motivation, they alone cannot and have not resolved all worker motivation problems. Worker motivation is a complex process and crosses many disciplinary boundaries, including economics, psychology, organizational development, human resource management, and sociology. This paper discusses the many layers of influences upon health worker motivation: the internal individual-level determinants, determinants that operate at organizational (work context) level, and determinants stemming from interactions with the broader societal culture. Worker motivation will be affected by health sector reforms which potentially affect organizational culture, reporting structures, human resource management, channels of accountability, types of interactions with clients and communities, etc. The conceptual model described in this paper clarifies ways in which worker motivation is influenced and how health sector reform can positively affect worker motivation. Among others, health sector policy makers can better facilitate goal congruence (between workers and the organizations they work for) and improved worker motivation by considering the following in their design and implementation of health sector reforms: addressing multiple channels for worker motivation, recognizing the importance of communication and leadership for reforms, identifying organizational and cultural values that might facilitate or impede implementation of reforms, and understanding that reforms

  9. Dilemmas of reform: An exploration of science teachers' collective sensemaking of formative assessment practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Sara Catherine

    Current reform efforts in science education call for significant shifts in how science is taught and learned. Teachers are important gatekeepers for reform, as they must enact these changes with students in their own classrooms. As such, professional development approaches need to be developed and studied to understand how teachers interpret and make instructional plans to implement these reforms. However, traditional approaches to studying implementation of reforms often draw on metrics such as time allotted to new activities, rather than exploring the ways in which teachers make sense of these reforms. In this dissertation I draw upon a body of work called sensemaking that has focused on locating learning in teachers' conversations in departmental work groups. I developed a conceptual and analytic framework to analyze how teachers make sense of reform given their local contexts and then used this framework to perform a case study of one group of teachers that participated in larger professional development project that examined the impact of a learning progression on science teachers' formative assessment practices. I draw upon videotapes of three years of monthly professional development meetings as my primary source of data, and used an ethnographic approach to identify dilemmas surfaced by teachers, sources of ambiguity and uncertainty, and patterns of and resources for teacher sensemaking. The case study reveals relationships between the type of dilemma surfaced by the teachers and different patterns of sensemaking for modification of teaching practices. When teachers expressed concerns about district or administrative requirements, they aligned their work in the professional development to those external forces. In contrast, teachers were able to develop and try out new practices when they perceived coherence between the professional development and school or district initiatives. These results underscore the importance of coherence between various

  10. National Health-Care Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-24

    and pre/ post partum care during delivery. America should select measures that reflect the health-care goals of the nation. As an example, the Healthy...accidents (8) More than 50% of patients with diabetes, hypertension, tobacco addiction, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, asthma, depression ...reflect the cumulative efforts of different types of individual care. For example, infant mortality is a reflection of pre-natal care, post - natal care

  11. Peruvian Mental Health Reform: A Framework for Scaling-up Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Mauricio; Castillo, Humberto; Galea, Jerome T.; Brandt, Lena R.; Mendoza, María; Herrera, Vanessa; Mitrani, Martha; Cutipé, Yuri; Cavero, Victoria; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS) use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Methods: Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Results: Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Conclusion: Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru has achieved a

  12. Peruvian Mental Health Reform: A Framework for Scaling-up Mental Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Toyama

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Methods Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Results Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Conclusion Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru

  13. The core to regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Orders 436, 500, and 636, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Utility Holding Company Act reform, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act all can have significant effects on an LDC's operations. Such changes in an LDC's environments must be balanced by changes within the utility, its marketplace, and its state regulatory environment. The question is where to start. For Columbia Gas Distribution Cos., based in Columbus, OH, the new operating foundation begins with each employee. Internal strength is critical in designing initiatives that meet the needs of the marketplace and are well-received by regulators. Employees must understand not only the regulatory environment in which the LDC operates, but also how their work contributes to a positive regulatory relationship. To achieve this, Columbia initiated the COntinuing Regulatory Education program, or CORE, in 1991. CORE is a regulatory-focused, information-initiative program coordinated by Columbia's Regulatory Policy, Planning, and Government Affairs Department. The CORE programs can take many forms, such as emerging issue discussions, dialogues with regulators and key parties, updates on regulatory fillings, regulatory policy meetings, and formal training classes. The speakers and discussion facilitators can range from human resource department trainers to senior officers, from regulatory department staff members to external experts, or from state commissioners to executives from other LDCs. The goals of CORE initiatives are to: Support a professional level of regulatory expertise through employee participation in well-developed regulatory programs presented by credible experts. Encourage a constructive state regulatory environment founded on communication and cooperation. CORE achieves these goals via five program levels: introductory basics, advanced learning, professional expertise, crossfunctional dialogues, and external idea exchanges

  14. Improvements of reforming performance of a nuclear heated steam reforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, Kazuhiko

    1996-10-01

    Performance of an energy production process by utilizing high temperature nuclear process heat was not competitive to that by utilizing non-nuclear process heat, especially fossil-fired process heat due to its less favorable chemical reaction conditions. Less favorable conditions are because a temperature of the nuclear generated heat is around 950degC and the heat transferring fluid is the helium gas pressurized at around 4 MPa. Improvements of reforming performance of nuclear heated steam reforming process were proposed in the present report. The steam reforming process, one of hydrogen production processes, has the possibility to be industrialized as a nuclear heated process as early as expected, and technical solutions to resolve issues for coupling an HTGR with the steam reforming system are applicable to other nuclear-heated hydrogen production systems. The improvements are as follows: As for the steam reformer, (1) increase in heat input to process gas by applying a bayonet type of reformer tubes and so on, (2) increase in reforming temperature by enhancing heat transfer rate by the use of combined promoters of orifice baffles, cylindrical thermal radiation pipes and other proposal, and (3) increase in conversion rate of methane to hydrogen by optimizing chemical compositions of feed process gas. Regarding system arrangement, a steam generator and superheater are set in the helium loop as downstream coolers of the steam reformer, so as to effectively utilize the residual nuclear heat for generating feed steam. The improvements are estimated to achieve the hydrogen production rate of approximately 3800 STP-m 3 /h for the heat source of 10 MW and therefore will provide the potential competitiveness to a fossil-fired steam reforming process. Those improvements also provide the compactness of reformer tubes, giving the applicability of seamless tubes. (J.P.N.)

  15. Visual cues and listening effort: individual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and 2 presentation modalities (audio only [AO] and auditory-visual [AV]). Signal-to-noise ratios were adjusted to provide matched speech recognition across audio-only and AV noise conditions. Also measured were subjective perceptions of listening effort and 2 predictive variables: (a) lipreading ability and (b) WMC. Objective and subjective results indicated that listening effort increased in the presence of noise, but on average the addition of visual cues did not significantly affect the magnitude of listening effort. Although there was substantial individual variability, on average participants who were better lipreaders or had larger WMCs demonstrated reduced listening effort in noise in AV conditions. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that integrating auditory and visual cues requires cognitive resources in some participants. The data indicate that low lipreading ability or low WMC is associated with relatively effortful integration of auditory and visual information in noise.

  16. IAEA Patient Protection Effort Reaches Key Milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) effort to help people track their radiation exposure from medical procedures achieved a significant milestone this week. The Agency received the final approval from a group of medical oversight organizations for the 'Joint Position Statement on the IAEA Patient Radiation Exposure Tracking', a set of principles to guide patient protection efforts at the sub-national, national, and international level. The joint statement endorses the IAEA's three-year-old Smart Card/SmartRadTrack project, which aims to help nations develop systems to track medical radiation procedures and radiation doses. The statement has been agreed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Society of Radiology (ESR), the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT), and the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, USA (CRCPD). 'This system is critical if the medical community is going to keep patients safe when they are being referred for more and more diagnostic scans. These scans, over the years, are made using more and more powerful machines', said Madan Rehani, Radiation Safety Specialist in the IAEA's Radiation Protection of Patients Unit. 'The tracking system will draw doctors' attention to previous radiological examinations, both in terms of clinical information and radiation dose and thus help them assess whether the 11th or 20th CT scan is really appropriate, whether it will do more good than harm.' Advances in radiation-based diagnostic technologies, such as the CT scan, have led to patients receiving such procedures more frequently. The convenience of CT with the added advantage of increased information has resulted in increased usage to the point that there are instances of patients getting tens of CT scans in a few years, not all of which may be justified, or getting CT

  17. The church's missionary efforts among domestic workers with special reference to Johannesburg West / by Malatsi Samuel Mofokeng

    OpenAIRE

    Mofokeng, Malatsi Samuel

    2007-01-01

    This research deals with the role of the church in its efforts to bring the gospel to domestic workers with reference to five church denominations in Johannesburg-West namely, the Methodist, Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Anglican and the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa. Church leaders of the above mentioned church denominations used the integrated ministry by introducing programmes, projects and skills training along side the preaching of the gospel to empower domestic workers spiritua...

  18. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  19. Tort reform: an issue for nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klutz, Diane L

    2004-02-01

    To inform nurse practitioners (NPs) about the issues related to tort reform and its relationship to malpractice insurance costs. Current journals, newspapers, professional newsletters, and Internet sites. NPs are paying more for their malpractice premiums, and many are losing their places of employment as clinics close due to the increased cost of premiums. One method proposed for curbing the flow of monies spent on premiums and litigation is tort law reform. California serves as an example; its Medical Injury Compensation Reform Act (MICRA) tort reform law was passed 25 years ago, and it has maintained stable malpractice premiums. Other states have proposed similar laws, but some have not had similar success. To curb litigation costs, not only should tort laws be reformed, but NPs and physicians should keep abreast of current practice standards in order to provide quality medical care. Like physicians, NPs are affected directly by tort laws. These laws hold NPs accountable at the same level as physicians. In addition, many states limit NPs' practice to delegation of authority by a physician. Liability is therefore transferred from the NP to the physician and vice versa in cases of injury or wrongful act. In addition, many NPs are finding it increasingly difficult to locate insurers who will write policies for medical liability.

  20. Global implications of China's healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Tang, Shenglan; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing healthcare reform in China has a powerful spillover effect beyond the health sector and the borders of China. A successful completion of the Chinese reform will offer a new model for social justice development, shift the global economy toward sustainability and create a new hub for science and technology in medical and health science. However, reforming the healthcare system in the most populated country is a daunting task. China will not live up to its promise, and all the potentials may end with hype not hope if coherent national strategies are not constructed and state-of-the-art navigation is not achieved with staggering domestic and global challenges. The cost of failure will be immensely high, socioeconomic costs for Chinese and an opportunity cost for the world as a whole. A full appreciation of the global implications of China's healthcare reform is crucial in keeping China receptive toward good practices evidence-approved elsewhere and open minded to fulfill its international obligations. More critically, the appreciation yields constructive engagements from global community toward a joint development and global prosperity. The current report provides a multiple disciplinary assessment on the global implications of the healthcare reform in China. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  2. Security Sector Reform and the Serbian Conundrum: Are Security Sector Reform Efforts Bringing Serbia Closer to European Union and North Atlantic Treaty Organization Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Marion J

    2005-01-01

    .... In 2005, certain of the southern Slav nations have gained NATO and EU membership, as in the case of Slovenia, or have drawn ever closer to qualifying for membership, as in the case of Croatia and Bulgaria...

  3. Organizational interventions in response to duty hour reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Madelyn P; Orlando, Elaina; Baker, G Ross

    2014-01-01

    Changes in resident duty hours in Europe and North America have had a major impact on the internal organizational dynamics of health care organizations. This paper examines, and assesses the impact of, organizational interventions that were a direct response to these duty hour reforms. The academic literature was searched through the SCOPUS database using the search terms "resident duty hours" and "European Working Time Directive," together with terms related to organizational factors. The search was limited to English-language literature published between January 2003 and January 2012. Studies were included if they reported an organizational intervention and measured an organizational outcome. Twenty-five articles were included from the United States (n=18), the United Kingdom (n=5), Hong Kong (n=1), and Australia (n=1). They all described single-site projects; the majority used post-intervention surveys (n=15) and audit techniques (n=4). The studies assessed organizational measures, including relationships among staff, work satisfaction, continuity of care, workflow, compliance, workload, and cost. Interventions included using new technologies to improve handovers and communications, changing staff mixes, and introducing new shift structures, all of which had varying effects on the organizational measures listed previously. Little research has assessed the organizational impact of duty hour reforms; however, the literature reviewed demonstrates that many organizations are using new technologies, new personnel, and revised and innovative shift structures to compensate for reduced resident coverage and to decrease the risk of limited continuity of care. Future research in this area should focus on both micro (e.g., use of technology, shift changes, staff mix) and macro (e.g., culture, leadership support) organizational aspects to aid in our understanding of how best to respond to these duty hour reforms.

  4. Reforming EIA systems: A critical review of proposals in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Alberto, E-mail: albertof@em.ufop.br [Federal University of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Sánchez, Luis Enrique [University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Ribeiro, José Claudio Junqueira [Escola Superior Dom Helder Câmara, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems are under pressure in many countries, driven by a call for efficiency and streamlining. Such a phenomenon is particularly clear in Brazil, where, in the past few years, a number of influential associations put forward documents proposing significant changes to environmental licensing and impact assessment regulations. So far, there is no publicly available information about any initiative towards scrutinizing those proposals. The objective of this study was to critically review the merits and drawbacks of the changes proposed in those documents. The analysis triangulated content analysis, focus group and online survey data. The focus group included ten seasoned Brazilian EIA specialists; the survey, based on Likert-scale and open-ended questions, resulted in 322 valid responses from EIA professionals. Results show that the proposals generally agree that the current EIA system, while playing a key role in mitigating impacts and enhancing project design, needs many changes. Nonetheless, the proposals neither offered solutions to overcome political, technical and budget barriers, nor established a sense of priority of the most urgent issues. Findings from the focus group and the survey signaled that a number of proposed actions might face public outcry, and that those changes that do not depend on legislative action are more likely to be implementable. Previous studies about EIA reform focused mostly on the context of developed countries after changes had taken place. This study, while addressing the perspective of a large developing country in a “before-reform” stage, shows that capacity-building is a key requirement in EIA reform. - Highlights: • Brazil's EIA system is under strong pressure for change. • Findings corroborate ineffectiveness in current system. • There are tensions as to the best approaches to overcome problems. • Exact effects of proposals are uncertain. • Low institutional capacity can

  5. Aspects of financial history in Romania. Reform and reformers. The financial tax reform accomplished BY Nicolae Titulescu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief history of the financial reform designed by Nicolae Titulescu at the beginning of the 1920’s. His tax reform law was formulated after thorough research of other European tax systems. He tried to implement it while he was Minister of Finance. Even though the law was adopted, it was never enacted. It met a certain amount of controversy in the Assembly of Deputies. The analysis made also tries to explain the cedular tax system.

  6. A case study of systemic curricular reform: A forty-year history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Timothy Alan

    What follows is a description of the development of a particular inquiry-based elementary school science curriculum program and how its theoretical underpinnings positively influenced a school district's (K-12) science program and also impacted district- and state-wide curriculum reform initiatives. The district's science program has evolved since the inception of the inquiry-based elementary school science curriculum reform forty years ago. Therefore, a historical case study, which incorporated grounded theory methodology, was used to convey the forty-year development of a science curriculum reform effort and its systemic influences. Data for this study were collected primarily through artifacts, such as technical and non-technical documents, and supported and augmented with interviews. Fifteen people comprised the interview consortium with professional responsibilities including (a) administrative roles, such as superintendents, assistant superintendents, principals, and curriculum consultants/coordinators; (b) classroom roles, such as elementary and secondary school teachers who taught science; (c) partnership roles, such as university faculty who collaborated with those in administrative and classroom positions within the district; and (d) the co-director of SCIS who worked with the SCIS trial center director. Data were analyzed and coded using the constant comparative method. The analysis of data uncovered five categories or levels in which the curriculum reform evolved throughout its duration. These themes are Initiation, Education, Implementation, Confirmation, and Continuation. These five categories lead to several working hypotheses that supported the sustaining and continuing of a K-12 science curriculum reform effort. These components are a committed visionary; a theory base of education; forums promoting the education of the theory base components; shared-decision making; a university-school partnership; a core group of committed educators and teachers

  7. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2015. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  8. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  9. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents the 2014 sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling reclaimed materials in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois : Public Act 097-0314 by documenting I...

  10. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2016. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  11. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling and reclaiming materials for use in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of : Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by docum...

  12. Progress in reforming chemical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankat, Phillip C

    2013-01-01

    Three successful historical reforms of chemical engineering education were the triumph of chemical engineering over industrial chemistry, the engineering science revolution, and Engineering Criteria 2000. Current attempts to change teaching methods have relied heavily on dissemination of the results of engineering-education research that show superior student learning with active learning methods. Although slow dissemination of education research results is probably a contributing cause to the slowness of reform, two other causes are likely much more significant. First, teaching is the primary interest of only approximately one-half of engineering faculty. Second, the vast majority of engineering faculty have no training in teaching, but trained professors are on average better teachers. Significant progress in reform will occur if organizations with leverage-National Science Foundation, through CAREER grants, and the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET-use that leverage to require faculty to be trained in pedagogy.

  13. Iliopsoas Tendon Reformation after Psoas Tendon Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal snapping hip syndrome, or psoas tendonitis, is a recognised cause of nonarthritic hip pain. The majority of patients are treated conservatively; however, occasionally patients require surgical intervention. The two surgical options for iliopsoas tendinopathy are step lengthening of the iliopsoas tendon or releasing the tendon at the lesser trochanter. Although unusual, refractory snapping usually occurs soon after tenotomy. We report a case of a 47-year-old active female with internal snapping and pain following an open psoas tenotomy. Postoperatively she was symptom free for 13 years. An MRI arthrogram revealed reformation of a pseudo iliopsoas tendon reinserting into the lesser trochanter. The pain and snapping resolved after repeat iliopsoas tendon release. Reformation of tendons is an uncommon sequela of tenotomies. However the lack of long-term studies makes it difficult to calculate prevalence rates. Tendon reformation should be included in the differential diagnosis of failed tenotomy procedures after a period of symptom relief.

  14. [The reform of Spanish abortion law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requero Ibáñez, José Luís

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on the different factors and circumstances that have led to the reform of Spanish Abortion Law (1985). Judicial investigations of several abortion clinics have demonstrated that up until today there has been a widespread tendency of the clinics to practice beyond the limits established by the law. Nonetheless, the reaction of the government has not been to protect the life of the unborn. Its reaction has been, however, to cover the irregularities committed by the abortionists through the legalization of their abusive practices. Besides, the reform of the law has been inspired by elements of radical feminism. The author points out the major reasons that make this reform unconstitutional and offers alternative solutions for the protection of the mother and the unborn child.

  15. Hydrogen production from methane reforming: thermodynamic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, A.J.; Hori, Carla E.; Avila Neto, Cicero; Franco, Tatiana [Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail: adilsonjassis@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The main contributions of this study are to conduct a comparative thermodynamic analysis of methane reforming reactions and to asses the influence of key operational variables on chemical equilibrium using an in-house code, developed in the open-source software Scilab{sup c} INRIA-ENPC (www.scilab.org). Equilibrium compositions are calculated by two distinct methods: evaluation of equilibrium constants and Lagrange multipliers. Both methods result in systems of non-linear algebraic equations, solved numerically using the Scilab function 'fsolve'. Comparison between experimental and simulated equilibrium data, published in the literature, was used to validate the simulated results. Effects of temperature, pressure, initial H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 4} ratio (steam reforming), initial CH{sub 4}:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} ratio (dry reforming) and initial O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio (partial oxidation) on the reaction products were evaluated. (author)

  16. Design of a nuclear steam reforming plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a plant for the steam reforming of methane using a High Temperature Reactor has been studied by CEA in connection with the G.E.G.N. This group of companies (CEA, GAZ DE FRANCE, CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE, CREUSOT-LOIRE, NOVATOME) is in charge of studying the feasibility of the coal gasification process by using a nuclear reactor. The process is based on the hydrogenation of the coal in liquid phase with hydrogen produced by a methane steam reformer. The reformer plant is fed by a pipe of natural gas or SNG. The produced hydrogen feeds the gasification plant which could not be located on the same site. An intermediate hydrogen storage between the two plants could make the coupling more flexible. The gasification plant does not need a great deal of heat and this heat can be satisfied mostly by internal heat exchanges

  17. Reform in Mexico: imports, exports and investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.

    1997-01-01

    Terms of the policy and regulatory reform for the natural gas sector in Mexico since 1993 were described, and major changes taking place in the structure, organization and operations of the sector since the introduction of reforms were reviewed. Consequences that the structural changes are likely to have on the long-term balance of natural gas supply and demand in Mexico, have been assessed. The goal of full open access by November of 1997 was reiterated. Reforms to the electric power industry also have been undertaken. As with natural gas, the objective is to eliminate the State monopoly and to allow private power producers to participate in the expansion of the sector's generating capacity. Public investment will be directed towards the improvement of transmission and distribution networks. Over time, independent power producers are expected to become the principal source of funds for the expansion of electric power availability in Mexico. 3 tabs., 29 figs

  18. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  19. Nuclear damage compensation and energy reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokemoto, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear damage compensation and energy reform were closely related. Nuclear damage compensation cost should be part of generation cost of nuclear power. Extend of nuclear damage compensation was limited by compensation standard of Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) following guidelines of Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation. TEPCO had already paid compensation of about two trillion yen until now, which was only a part of total damage compensation cost. TEPCO had been provided more than 3.4 trillion yen by Nuclear Damage Liability Facilitation Cooperation, which would be put back by nuclear operators including TEPCO. TEPCO could obtain present raising funds and try to reconstruct business with restart of nuclear power, which might disturb energy reform. Present nuclear damage compensation scheme had better be reformed with learning more from Minamata disease case in Japan. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Health insurance reform: labor versus health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Walid; Awar, May

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Labor (MOL) has submitted to the Council of Ministers a social security reform plan. The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) considers that health financing should be dealt with as part of a more comprehensive health reform plan that falls under its prerogatives. While a virulent political discussion is taking place, major stakeholders' inputs are very limited and civil society is totally put away from the whole policy making process. The role of the media is restricted to reproducing political disputes, without meaningful substantive debate. This paper discusses health insurance reform from labor market as well as public health perspectives, and aims at launching a serious public debate on this crucial issue that touches the life of every citizen.

  1. Use of clickers and sustainable reform in upper-division physics courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubson, Michael

    2008-03-01

    At the University of Colorado at Boulder, successful reforms of our freshmen and sophomore-level physics courses are now being extended to upper-division courses, including Mechanics, Math Methods, QM, E&M, and Thermal Physics. Our course reforms include clicker questions (ConcepTests) in lecture, peer instruction, and an added emphasis on conceptual understanding and qualitative reasoning on homework assignments and exams. Student feedback has been strongly positive, and I will argue that such conceptual training improves rather than dilutes, traditional, computationally-intensive problem-solving skills. In order for these reforms to be sustainable, reform efforts must begin with department-wide consensus and agreed-upon measures of success. I will discuss the design of good clicker questions and effective incorporation into upper-level courses, including examples from materials science. Condensed matter physics, which by nature involve intelligent use of approximation, particularly lends itself to conceptual training. I will demonstrate the use of a clicker system (made by iClicker) with audience-participation questions. Come prepared to think and interact, rather than just sit there!

  2. Global Economic Governance Reform and the Roleof Asia: Opportunities Offered by the G20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Je Cho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent global financial crisis has highlighted the importance of international monetary and financial system reform. The current system is deemed to be no longer adequate to meet the needs of a complex, integrated world economy. With regards to the reform of the international monetary system, there have been various proposals both in demand and supply sides. These include proposals to build a stronger global financial safety net, to diversify the supply of international reserve currency and so on. These proposals face trade-offs between desirability and political feasibility. Given this situation, a practical transition would be to strengthen policy coordination among the major economies and to reform the International Monetary Fund. The success on both fronts depends heavily on global economic governance reform and the role of the G20. Increased status and representation of Asian countries in the G20 give both privileges and responsibilities to Asians. To meet these responsibilities, Asians should put forth greater efforts to develop their intellectual leadership in global economic issues through creating new forum and institutions.

  3. Drivers of health reform in the United States: 2012 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexa, Frank J

    2012-10-01

    American medicine has seen radical changes in the past decade. In particular, radiology has been affected, notably first with the passage of the Deficit Reduction Act in 2005 and then with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2010. Health care reforms are not only driven by political agendas. This process is also a response to underlying social, economic, and technological realities. It is unlikely that reform efforts will just evaporate because of a single change in government or with a decision by the US Supreme Court. Regardless of who sits in the Oval Office and which party controls Congress, there are forces that will need to be addressed through policy changes in the coming years. The underlying drivers of health care reform are legion, but health care inflation, fiscal mismanagement by government, poor planning for demographic changes that affect entitlement programs, questions about the quality of health outcomes, and a desire for universal health care were all central factors in the reforms put forth since 2009. Radiologists should be preparing now for continued change in both the public and private sectors in health care for the foreseeable future. These changes are likely to have profound impacts on our profession. Radiologists and their groups should plan to pay greater attention to these events and should seek to have a much greater level of involvement in the political and social processes that lead to policy changes in health care. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Barriers to contraceptive access after health care reform: experiences of young adults in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessett, Danielle; Prager, Joanna; Havard, Julia; Murphy, Danielle J; Agénor, Madina; Foster, Angel M

    2015-01-01

    To explore how Massachusetts' 2006 health insurance reforms affected access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for young adults. We conducted 11 focus group discussions across Massachusetts with 89 women and men aged 18 to 26 in 2009. Most young adults' primary interaction with the health system was for contraceptive and other SRH services, although they knew little about these services. Overall, health insurance literacy was low. Parents were primary decision makers in health insurance choices or assisted their adult children in choosing a plan. Ten percent of our sample was uninsured at the time of the discussion; a lack of knowledge about provisions in Chapter 58 rather than calculated risk analysis characterized periods of uninsurance. The dynamics of being transitionally uninsured, moving between health plans, and moving from a location defined by insurance companies as the coverage area limited consistent access to contraception. Notably, staying on parents' insurance through extended dependency, a provision unique to the post-reform context, had implications for confidentiality and access. Young adults' access to and utilization of contraceptive services in the post-reform period were challenged by unanticipated barriers related to information and privacy. The experience in Massachusetts offers instructive lessons for the implementation of national health care reform. Young adult-targeted efforts should address the challenges of health service utilization unique to this population. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. South Africa’s freight rail reform: A demand-driven perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the 20th century, freight transport in South Africa was employed to attain politicoeconomic ideals, resulting in the overprotection of rail and overregulation of road transport. Increasing industry pressure, combined with the international deregulation trend, led to deregulation in 1988. Myopia resulted in a rail investment hiatus and exponential growth in high-value, long-distance road transport, causing excessive logistics and externality costs for the country. The aim of this study was to propose a freight rail reform agenda based on, (1 lessons from past freight transport policy efforts and (2 the results of freight transport market segmentation driven by models developed over the past two decades. For the study, freight flows were modelled by disaggregating the national input–output model into 372 origin–destination pairs and 71 commodity groups, followed by distance decay gravitymodelling. Logistics costs were calculated by relating commodity-level freight flows to the costs of fulfilling associated logistical functions. The standard management approach of founding strategy development on market-driven segmentation provides a neutral input to steer rail reform discussions in South Africa. Market segmentation points to a dualistic rail reform agenda, enabling both a profit-driven core and a development-driven branch line network. Freight flow insights are steering the policy reform debate towards long-term freight strategy development and optimal freight logistics network design.

  6. Nigeria's electric power sector reform: what should form the key objectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeme, J.; Ebohon, O.J.

    2005-01-01

    Nigeria's electric power sector requires substantial reform if the country's economic development and poverty alleviation program is to be realised. This understanding is behind the reform programme recently initiated by the Nigerian government with the goal of privatising the national electric power monopoly, NEPA. Currently, the country faces serious energy crisis due to declining electricity generation from domestic power plants which are basically dilapidated, obsolete, unreliable and in an appalling state of disrepair, reflecting the poor maintenance culture in the country and gross inefficiency of the public utility provider. Building on an analysis of the major shortcomings of the current electric power company, this paper presents the central issues that should form the key objectives of the proposed reform. This include corporatization of the electric power industry, increasing access and power delivery capacity, constraining the costs of the power industry and increasing efficiency and share of renewables in energy generation, as well as minimising environmental damage. We conclude with the observation that efforts at reform will not yield the desired result if the current end-user inefficiency is not constrained. As Nigeria implements its national utility privatisation programme, it is hoped that this review will benefit policy makers and emerging managers and providers of electricity service in the country

  7. The indonesia’s Police Reform Police in the Reform Era New Institutionalism Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACHMAD NURMAND

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the reformation and democratization movement in 1998, Indonesians have faced a chronic corruption problem. At the beginning of reformation era in 1998 to fight against corruption, the Indonesian government reforms the organization structure of the Indonesia Police to be an independent body separated from the Military organization. The police reforms begun in 1999 and got legal foundation with Act No. 2/2002. However, since fourteen years, the level of police reform has not yet succeed because of low community satisfaction on police service and the intense conflicts always occur whenever ACA investigates the case of corruptions conducted by police leaders. Three conflicts between police institution and ACA have taken placed. By using institutionalism approach, this research focus on the reform in police themselves are major actors on how reforms are organized and managed. This study is interpretative in nature gained only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, documents, tools, and other artefacts’. This finding revealed that this unsuccessful institutionalization process took place in a context of the main task of police for communicty service. Second, the study has demonstrated that three concepts from institutional theory as aforementioned provided vocabularies and insights to explain the phenomenon under study.

  8. Oral Health Care Reform in Finland – aiming to reduce inequity in care provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widström Eeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, dental services are provided by a public (PDS and a private sector. In the past, children, young adults and special needs groups were entitled to care and treatment from the public dental services (PDS. A major reform in 2001 – 2002 opened the PDS and extended subsidies for private dental services to all adults. It aimed to increase equity by improving adults' access to oral health care and reducing cost barriers. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of the reform on the utilization of publicly funded and private dental services, numbers and distribution of personnel and costs in 2000 and in 2004, before and after the oral health care reform. An evaluation was made of how the health political goals of the reform: integrating oral health care into general health care, improving adults' access to care and lowering cost barriers had been fulfilled during the study period. Methods National registers were used as data sources for the study. Use of dental services, personnel resources and costs in 2000 (before the reform and in 2004 (after the reform were compared. Results In 2000, when access to publicly subsidised dental services was restricted to those born in 1956 or later, every third adult used the PDS or subsidised private services. By 2004, when subsidies had been extended to the whole adult population, this increased to almost every second adult. The PDS reported having seen 118 076 more adult patients in 2004 than in 2000. The private sector had the same number of patients but 542 656 of them had not previously been entitled to partial reimbursement of fees. The use of both public and subsidised private services increased most in big cities and urban municipalities where access to the PDS had been poor and the number of private practitioners was high. The PDS employed more dentists (6.5% and the number of private practitioners fell by 6.9%. The total dental care expenditure (PDS plus private

  9. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Phase 1: Multi-fuel reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  10. Developing Program Management Leadership for Acquisition Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    mêçÅÉÉÇáåÖë= çÑ=íÜÉ= bfdeqe=^kkr^i=^`nrfpfqflk== obpb^o`e=pvjmlpfrj== qeropa^v=pbppflkp== slirjb ff Developing Program Management Leadership for...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Developing Program Management Leadership for Acquisition Reform 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Developing Program  Management   Leadership   for Acquisition Reform    The 8th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium Panel #20: Investing in People

  11. NAFTA and Mexico's Tax Policy Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Duanje Chen

    2001-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has had a significant effect on Mexico’s economy and institutions. The ongoing consideration of tax reform in Mexico requires an evaluation of the role of NAFTA in Mexico’s economy, including its tax structure; it also requires an assessment of the impact of the Mexico’s tax system on the trade and capital flows between Mexico and its NAFTA partners, the United States and Canada. Clearly, no good tax reform in Mexico can ignore the role of NAFTA...

  12. Plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya; Kolgan, V.V.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Solomenko, O.V.; Fedirchyk, I.I.; Martysh, E.V.; Demchina, V.P.; Klochok, N.V.; Dragnev, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    The series of experiments studying the plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was carried out. The dynamic plasma-liquid system based on a low-power rotating gliding arc with solid electrodes was used for the investigation of liquid hydrocarbons reforming process. Conversion was done via partial oxidation. A part of oxidant flow was activated by the discharge. Synthesis-gas composition was analysed by means of mass-spectrometry and gas-chromatography. A standard boiler, which operates on natural gas and LPG, was used for the burning of synthesis-gas

  13. The Reformation: A Very Short Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    TKACHENKO, Rostislav

    2017-01-01

    A small, relatively recent, and well-written book by Peter Marshall belongs tothe well-known Oxford series called “Very Short Introductions.” It is an informativeand analytical introduction to the history, culture, politics, and theology of theReformation that took place in sixteenth-century Europe. The Reformation is anacademic research-based book that is nevertheless very accessible to a wide audience. It is part of the larger company of historical and cultural mini-handbooks such as, The M...

  14. PLA Reforms and Chinas Nuclear Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Specifically, “the value and the capability of the Rocket Force should lie in the strengthening of the credible and reliable nuclear deterrence and... deterrent imply a cap on the size of nuclear forces and the missions as- signed to them.41 However, the Rocket Force could seek to capitalize on its...JFQ 83, 4th Quarter 2016 Logan 57 PLA Reforms and China’s Nuclear Forces By David C. Logan C hina is in the midst of sweeping military reforms that

  15. Reforming China’s Criminal Procedure Law

    OpenAIRE

    Winckler, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Sources:- Wang Jianxun, “The provisions of the reform of criminal procedural law legalising secret investigations are a step backwards,” Caijing wang, 5 September 2011.- Chen Youxi, “The legalisation of secret investigations is an important violation of political integrity,” Zhongguo wangluo dianshitai – CNTV web site, Opinion section, 27 November 2011.- Wu Zhehua, “Chen Weidong discusses reform of the criminal procedure law: Behind each article there is a story,” Zhongguoguangbo wang, 8 Marc...

  16. The transnational grip on Scandinavian education reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.; Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article reveals how templates that emerge from opaque albeit often inclusive policy processes in transnational forums (EU, OECD & the Bologna Process) affect education reform policy in Scandinavian countries, such as Denmark and Sweden. The open method of coordination is the mother template...... of the political technologies (standards, performance indicators, scorecards, best practices) that are instrumental in fashioning reforms. This template commits countries in consensus-making ways to comparison, and normalizes the competitive incentive of mutual peer pressure. The authors draw on post...

  17. Shanghai housing reform. Program a burden on foreign investors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, F

    1991-09-23

    This document contains a summary of the Housing Reform Program created in Shanghai, China, in 1991, which requires monthly contributions of all employers and employees in Shanghai to a "Collective Reserve Fund." The program also applies to foreign investment enterprises and must be followed by all enterprises, regardless of any previous housing benefits that an enterprise may be providing its employees. Employers must deduct 5% from each employee's salary (with a minimum) monthly and must match that amount. The total is paid into an account in the employer's name with the People's Construction Bank of China. The total amount collected and matched for an employee is considered the property of the employee, but the account is administered by the employer as a collective trust account. Each employee's balance may be withdrawn upon retirement, leaving the area, or purchasing a home and leaving state-owned housing. Foreign investment enterprises contribute a reduced amount in recognition of the fact that they pay salaries that are higher than those of state enterprises. The Housing Reform Program also requires employers to contribute to doubled rent subsidies for public housing, requires workers to purchase housing construction bonds in order to be eligible for newly allocated public housing, calles for housing to be sold at favorable prices, and creates a system whereby mortgages can be obtained from the Collective Reserve Fund.

  18. Perspectives of tax reforms in Croatia: expert opinion survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Šimović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to shape tax reform it is necessary objectively to assess the current stateof-the-art of and of the outlook for the tax system. After having reviewed all previous reforms in the light of the consumption-based (interest-adjusted concept of direct taxation, which was almost systematically implemented in Croatia in 1994, we present the results of a broad expert opinion survey about the Croatian tax system. The most interesting results suggest the maintenance/(reintroduction of different tax incentives and reduced VAT rates, rejection of a flat tax as well as decrease of tax brackets, an increase in alcohol and tobacco duties, the introduction of a financial activities tax, a further shift from income to consumption, a decrease of the tax share in GDP and a belief in the behavioral responsiveness of tax decreases/exemptions, as well as a firm commitment to the principle of equity. The last three economic views/values are important predictors of other tax attitudes.

  19. Pension Reform Act 2004 and its Controversies: Repeating or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pension Reform Act 2004 and its Controversies: Repeating or Learning from Past Mistakes? ... Journal of Research in National Development ... and discusses how the present pension reform will affect active employees when they retire.

  20. The reformation of liquid hydrocarbons in an aqueous discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming; Cha, Min

    2015-01-01

    deposition. These findings offer a new approach to the reforming processes of liquid hydrocarbons and provide a novel concept for the design of a practical and compact plasma reformer. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. How do we improve synchronization between land and water reform?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A completed study initiated, managed and funded by the Water Research Commission (WRC) and led by the CSIR is delving into the successes of land reform and water allocation reform in the Maruleng local municipal area....

  2. The Evolution Of Human Resource Management In Reforming The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic reforms across the country. The reform in all sectors aims at addressing dissatisfaction of the Nigerian populace restlessly desiring change for a better Nigeria. The National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy, (NEEDS), ...

  3. Fostering Home-Grown Democratic Reform | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To support the political and governance-related processes taking place, the Arab Reform Initiative ... In the summer of 2012, several papers were commissioned on Egypt's constitutional reform looking at specific issues such ... Related articles ...

  4. Reforming Pensions in Europe: Economic Fundamentals and Political Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ondřej Schneider

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes pension reforms in Europe and their determinants. As pension reforms are intrinsically difficult to define and pinpoint, we introduce an alternative measure of pension reforms by comparing long-term forecasts of pension expenditures for seventeen European countries. The larger the decrease in expected spending on public pensions in 2050 between two base years, the more successful a pension reform the country achieved (after controlling for other factors, such as demography...

  5. International Aspects of Social Reform in the Interwar Period

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Galbi

    2004-01-01

    The reconstruction of the international order after World War I put great emphasis on social reforms through the International Labor Organization (ILO). Three types of arguments were used to promote social reform. The first asserted that international economic competition meant that social reform had to be coordinated internationally in order to maintain the relative competitiveness of countries. The second proposed that social reform was necessary to preserve the stability of states, and hen...

  6. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  7. A comparison of higher education reforms in Egypt and Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Kohstall, Florian

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral thesis examines the impact of international aid agencies on the reform agenda of North African countries. It analyses and compares the paths of higher education reform (1997-2007) in Egypt and Morocco, using analytical instruments pertaining to new approaches in public policy theory. For a long time, both countries appeared relatively immune against reform pressure from outside. Still, the analysis of their reform processes shows that the internationalization of higher educa...

  8. Implementing Active Learning Reform in the Maldives: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biase, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Many countries are adopting child-centered active learning reforms as they strive to improve the quality of primary education. Consistent challenges can be found in the implementation of similar, global reforms. These issues are discussed here within the following framework: the cultural appropriateness of such reforms; the extent to which active…

  9. Constructivism and Pedagogical Reform in China: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    This article critically discusses the constructivist ideas, assumptions and practices that undergird the current pedagogical reform in China. The pedagogical reform is part of a comprehensive curriculum reform that has been introduced across schools in Mainland China. Although the official documents did not specify the underpinning theories for…

  10. The New Technology and Educational Reform: Guidelines for School Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Mark; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper presents the results of a literature review on educational methodology reforms. The first section discusses five factors in broad-based school reforms: change theory; organizational theory; state/national politics; local politics/governance; and leadership theory. Five types of reforms for school-wide success are described in the second…

  11. Experimental characterization and modeling of an ethanol steam reformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Bovo, Mirko; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the characterization of an ethanol reforming system for a high temperature PEM fuel cell system. High temperature PEM fuel cells are well suited for operation on reformate gas due to the superior CO tolerance compared with low temperature PEM. Steam reforming of liquid biofuels...

  12. 76 FR 30869 - Promoting Transmission Investment Through Pricing Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ...] Promoting Transmission Investment Through Pricing Reform May 19, 2011. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... varied. \\1\\ Promoting Transmission Investment through Pricing Reform, Order No. 679, 71 FR 43294 (Jul. 31... issued Order No. 679, Promoting Transmission Investment through Pricing Reform, which was further refined...

  13. The Heart of Economic Reform: China's Banking Reform and State Enterprise Restructuring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tong, Daochi

    1999-01-01

    ... priority in the reform agenda. This study examines how financial resources are misallocated under the current financial system in China, and the impact of such misallocation of capital on the strength of the banking sector...

  14. Advances in Schoolwide Inclusive School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights three significant advances in schoolwide inclusive school reform and suggests three next steps to improve educational outcomes for "all" students, particularly for students for whom typical instruction is not effective. Significant advances are as follows: (a) a multi-tiered system of support (MTSS) with embedded…

  15. ELi institutsioonide ja juhtimise reform / Ivar Raig

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raig, Ivar, 1953-

    2003-01-01

    Kuna Eestist võib 2004. aasta mais saada EL-i liige, siis on vaja kujundada seisukoht, milline EL-i institutsioonide ja juhtimise reform oleks kõige vastuvõetavam Eesti kui erilise majanduspoliitikaga väikeriigi huvidest lähtuvalt. Märkused valitsuse sellekohaste seisukohtade suhtes ja ettepanekud nende muutmiseks või täiendamiseks

  16. Barreda, Vasconcelos, and Mexican Educational Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirius, John

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the contributions to Mexican education of Gabino Barredas' positivism between 1867-1898 and the contributions of Jose Vasconcelos during the 1920s. Discusses the secondary curriculum reforms of Barreda's era and the vocational education and the education for women and adults during the Vasconcelos era. (SB)

  17. The Gendered Consequences of Unemployment Insurance Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooi-Reci, Irma; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period 1980-2000, and adopting a quasi-experimental design,…

  18. Publicity as an Instrument of Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, Susan

    Albert Einstein and the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists (ECAS) conducted a reform-based public communication campaign for the international control of atomic energy after the Second World War. The Committee raised funds and sought publicity for its proposed solution to the problem of war and the management of peace. Its solution was the…

  19. China at the Crossroads: Reform after Tiananmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Steven M.

    1992-01-01

    This publication analyzes the reform movement in China before and after the Tiananmen Square demonstrations of 1989. In the aftermath of the cold war and because of recent mutual hostility, U.S.-Chinese relations are at a critical juncture. The events leading up to and encompassing the demonstrations in Tiananmen Square and the brutal manner in…

  20. Business Registration Reform Case Studies : Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Olaisen, John

    2009-01-01

    This collection of case studies describes experiences and draws lessons from varied business registration reform programs in economies in vastly different stages of development: Bulgaria, Estonia, Ireland, Madagascar, and Malaysia. Over the last twenty years, a number of countries have recognized the importance of smooth and efficient business start up procedures. A functioning business re...