WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous qualitative work

  1. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE: PREVIOUS WORK AND EXAMPLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, Richard; Bevill, Aaron; Charlton, William; Bean, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The future expansion of nuclear power will require not just electricity production but fuel cycle facilities such as fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. As large reprocessing facilities are built in various states, they must be built and operated in a manner to minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation. Process monitoring has returned to the spotlight as an added measure that can increase confidence in the safeguards of special nuclear material (SNM). Process monitoring can be demonstrated to lengthen the allowable inventory period by reducing accountancy requirements, and to reduce the false positive indications. The next logical step is the creation of a Safeguards Envelope, a set of operational parameters and models to maximize anomaly detection and inventory period by process monitoring while minimizing operator impact and false positive rates. A brief example of a rudimentary Safeguards Envelope is presented, and shown to detect synthetic diversions overlaying a measured processing plant data set. This demonstration Safeguards Envelope is shown to increase the confidence that no SNM has been diverted with minimal operator impact, even though it is based on an information sparse environment. While the foundation on which a full Safeguards Envelope can be built has been presented in historical demonstrations of process monitoring, several requirements remain yet unfulfilled. Future work will require reprocessing plant transient models, inclusion of 'non-traditional' operating data, and exploration of new methods of identifying subtle events in transient processes

  2. A qualitative approach to assessing work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    We often need to be able to assess the extent to which individuals have or lack work ability. For this we need instruments. Most of the instruments available have flaws. They either lack validity or they use roundabout methods when collecting information about the individual's work ability. The aim of this paper is to present a conceptual model for constructing a questionnaire that can be used for assessing work ability. The methods used are philosophical, i.e. analytical and deductive. A conceptual theory is provided, and based on the resulting definition of the concept of "work ability" conclusions are drawn regarding how to assess work ability. When constructing quantitative instruments, we can increase validity through using a more strict definition of work ability. However, such an approach will only solve some of the problems noted above. The proposal is, instead, to create a qualitative questionnaire, founded on a definition of "work ability", which focuses on the concrete problems concerning the work ability of the individual. Finally, a sketch of such an instrument is provided, with questions covering all the relevant aspects of work ability. The qualitative questionnaire proposed is believed to be superior to more traditional (quantitative) instruments for assessing a person's work ability, as well as for finding solutions to her problems concerning work ability.

  3. Qualitative Research in Group Work: Status, Synergies, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Deborah; Okech, Jane E. Atieno

    2017-01-01

    The article aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods to understand group work. The first part of this article situates the use of qualitative research methods in relationship to group work research. The second part examines recent qualitative group work research using a framework informed by scoping and systematic review methods and…

  4. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S

    2015-06-23

    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  5. A qualitative exploration of female sex work in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucardo, Jesus; Semple, Shirley J; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel; Davila, Wendy; Patterson, Thomas L

    2004-08-01

    Previous research has documented high rates of STDs and increased risk of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico; however, little is known about the sexual risk behaviors of this population. The purpose of this study was to explore work history, context of sex work, sexual risk practices, client characteristics, attitudes toward condoms, and potential barriers to condom use in a sample of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Analysis of qualitative data from 25 FSWs revealed that most women entered the sex trade at a young age ( M = 23 years), primarily as a result of financial need. Forty percent were single mothers supporting children. Women worked an average of 6-7 days per week; work shifts ranged from 4 to 13 hr per day. Clients were both Mexican and foreign (mostly American and Asian), and ranged in age from 18 to 80 years. Positive aspects of the job included flexible work hours and good income. Negative aspects of sex work included risks associated with physical assault, diseases, and unwanted pregnancies. Most clients did not want to use a condom and many offered additional money for unprotected sex. FSWs did not like to use condoms because they were perceived as uncomfortable. Most FSWs did not negotiate the use of condoms, had a low knowledge regarding the proper use of condoms, and were reticent to report their own unsafe sex practices. These results suggest the need to develop culturally appropriate safer sex interventions for FSWs in Mexican border cities.

  6. Current and previous eating practices among women recovered from anorexia nervosa: a qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dimitrov Ulian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze qualitatively how women, who have recovered from anorexia nervosa, perceive and describe their current eating practices, as well as the ones developed during the eating disorder period. METHODS: Seven women were interviewed individually with the objective of investigating their eating practices, transition phases and all relevant aspects that somewhat contributed to the habit-forming; experiences, feelings and perceptions related to mealtime and the influence that food has had over the present subjects' life. The interviews were analyzed by the discourse of the collective subject method. RESULTS: The results brought up the following topics: a control; b concerns and feelings; c deprivation d beauty dictatorship; e eating competence; f importance of food; g food cacophony. CONCLUSIONS: What stands out is a multiplicity of eating practices, which during the eating disorder were similar to and characterized by restriction; however, after recovery, part of the subjects seem to have developed a higher eating competence, whereas others show a practice similar to the one acquired during the anorexia nervosa, such as the difficulty in realizing when they are satisfied and a feeling of discomfort when facing social interactions.

  7. The interpersonal work of dental conscious sedation: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Stephen M; Chadwick, Barbara; Pugsley, Lesley

    2017-08-01

    Whilst there is a considerable body of literature examining the pharmacology of conscious sedation, the social tasks required to successfully provide conscious sedation have not been reported. This paper discusses data regarding the interpersonal work integral to effective conscious sedation provision, from a larger qualitative study exploring how patients and clinicians engage with secondary care conscious sedation provided within the UK. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 conscious sedation providers and nine patients within UK-based secondary care sedation settings. Digital audio-recordings were transcribed verbatim and subsequently analysed using a constant comparative method within NVivo Data Analysis Software. Four main themes of interpersonal work were reported by participants: displaying care, containing emotions, demonstrating competence and maximizing the effect. This study shows that performing conscious sedation requires more than technical delivery, and involves the projection of attributes in a literal "performance." The importance of managing outward emotional appearance reflects previous dental research. The need to manage outward appearance, and the emotional impact this has, is of relevance to all clinicians. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Work-Related Daydreams: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarik, Christopher T.; Rowell, P. Clay; Currie, Lacy K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop and examine the work-related daydream construct. The content of undergraduate college students' daydream journals were analyzed using an exploratory qualitative research methodology. The data suggested that the work-related daydream phenomenon was a tangible and accessible process that presented fully developed…

  9. Visual Working Memory Supports the Inhibition of Previously Processed Information: Evidence from Preview Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Emrich, Stephen M.; Ferber, Susanne; Pratt, Jay

    2012-01-01

    In four experiments we assessed whether visual working memory (VWM) maintains a record of previously processed visual information, allowing old information to be inhibited, and new information to be prioritized. Specifically, we evaluated whether VWM contributes to the inhibition (i.e., visual marking) of previewed distractors in a preview search.…

  10. Novice Nurses’ Perception of Working Night Shifts: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Faseleh Jahromi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing is always accompanied by shift working and nurses in Iran have to work night shifts in some stages of their professional life. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts. Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted on 20 novice nurses working in two university hospitals of Jahrom, Iran. The study data were collected through focus group interviews. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparative analysis and qualitative content analysis. Results: The study findings revealed five major themes of value system, physical and psychological problems, social relationships, organizational problems, and appropriate opportunity. Conclusion: The study presented a deep understanding of the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts, which can be used by the managers as a basis for organizing health and treatment systems.

  11. Nonstandard Work Schedules and Partnership Quality : Quantitative and Qualitative Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda; Täht, K

    This article questions existing findings and provides new evidence about the consequences of nonstandard work schedules on partnership quality. Using quantitative couple data from The Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (NKPS) (N = 3,016) and semistructured qualitative interviews (N = 34), we found

  12. Nonstandard Work Schedules and Partnership Quality: Quantitative and Qualitative Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Melinda; Taht, Kadri

    2010-01-01

    This article questions existing findings and provides new evidence about the consequences of nonstandard work schedules on partnership quality. Using quantitative couple data from The Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (NKPS) (N = 3,016) and semistructured qualitative interviews (N = 34), we found that, for women, schedules with varying hours…

  13. A Qualitative Study of the Dislocated Working Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Carter, Laura; Bernfeld, Steven; Gray, India; Liu, Jane P.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines factors that influence the career decisions of dislocated workers. The research focuses on individuals identified as working class, as this group has been relatively ignored in past research compared to individuals from higher socioeconomic statuses. Participants include 13 individuals (10 females and 3 males)…

  14. Impact of previous pharmacy work experience on pharmacy school academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Ellena; Barnett, Mitchell J; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R; Knapp, Katherine

    2010-04-12

    To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses.

  15. Impact of Previous Pharmacy Work Experience on Pharmacy School Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Ellena; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R.; Knapp, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). Methods The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. Results No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Conclusions Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses. PMID:20498735

  16. Service for victims of crime VDS info and victims’ support: Analysis of the previous work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The first victim support service in our country VDS info and victims’ support started with its work in April 2003 within the Victimology Society of Serbia. This service is aimed at victims of crime (women and men, primarily at victims of violent crime, but also of some forms of property crime (such as burglary. The aim of the Service is to offer victims of crime information on their rights and the ways of how to realize them, emotional support, as well as to refer them to other institutions/organizations depending on the certain victim’s needs. Coordinators and volunteers, who passed the appropriate training, are responsible for that. Bearing that in mind, this paper will give the brief glens on the Service itself, its organization and the way of work, followed by the analysis of the results of previous work.

  17. A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE BALANCE BETWEEN WORK AND LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    Eleftheria Charitou; Evgeniia Kolobova; Tryfon Ziatas; Miltiadis Chalikias; Michalis Skordoulis

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the balancing of professional and personal life and its importance for a company’s profitability. Α qualitative research was taken up. The research findings revealed another that the hierarchical level to which an employee belongs differentiates the degree of balancing between professional and personal life. Furthermore it was found that an imbalance between work and life leads mainly to stress, anger and reduced job satisfaction and other negati...

  18. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis Marthoenis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  19. Barriers to postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Forough; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Mehrdad, Neda; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    Risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Postpartum glycemic screening is recommended in women with recent GDM. But this screening rate is low and the reasons are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Iranian women with recent GDM on barriers of postpartum screening for diabetes. This qualitative study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interview was used for data collection. 22 women with recent GDM were interviewed. These women gave birth in Tehran hospitals at a minimum of 6 months before interview. The missed screening defined as not attending to laboratory for Fasting Blood Sugar and/or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, 6 week to 6 month after their child birthing. The data was analyzed by content analysis method. Themes and sub-themes that illustrated the barriers to postpartum diabetes screening were: inadequate education (about developing diabetes in the future, implementation of the screening, and glucometer validity in diagnosis of diabetes), perceiving the screening as difficult (feeling comfortable with the glucometer, poor laboratory conditions, issues related to the baby/babies, and financial problems), improper attitudes toward the screening (unwilling to get diagnosed, not giving priority to oneself, having false beliefs) and procrastination (gap to intention and action, self-deception and self-regulation failure). Women with recent GDM reported several barriers for postpartum diabetes screening. This study help to develop the evidence-based interventions for improving this screening rate.

  20. Confucianism and Qualitative Interviewing: Working Seoul to Soul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghee Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the internationalization of higher education, research settings and researcher backgrounds are becoming increasingly complex, further complicating disciplinary assumptions, traditions and techniques. This article highlights key practical and conceptual issues that arose during planning fieldwork, fieldwork conduct, subsequent analysis and writing up of a qualitative study carried out within a Confucian setting. Drawing on the experience with a detailed research study of a pay for performance scheme (involving 31 in-depth interviews undertaken by a South Korean researcher, this article explores conceptual and practical issues that emerged between Anglophone methods and countries with a Confucian heritage. It is discussed how processes of sampling/recruitment, ethics, fieldwork conduct (including insider relations, power hierarchies, and translation are complicated in such settings. The article seeks to expand our understandings of qualitative research vis-à-vis contemporary Confucian cultures, something which has previously not been well addressed and which is part of the ongoing project of "globalizing qualitative research." URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150274

  1. A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE BALANCE BETWEEN WORK AND LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Charitou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the balancing of professional and personal life and its importance for a company’s profitability. Α qualitative research was taken up. The research findings revealed another that the hierarchical level to which an employee belongs differentiates the degree of balancing between professional and personal life. Furthermore it was found that an imbalance between work and life leads mainly to stress, anger and reduced job satisfaction and other negative results. Last but not least, the research results indicate that the balance between work and life can be affected by job insecurity and lifestyle. Businesses must pay more attention to their employees in order to reduce a possible imbalance between their works and lives.

  2. Visual working memory supports the inhibition of previously processed information: evidence from preview search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Emrich, Stephen M; Ferber, Susanne; Pratt, Jay

    2012-06-01

    In four experiments we assessed whether visual working memory (VWM) maintains a record of previously processed visual information, allowing old information to be inhibited, and new information to be prioritized. Specifically, we evaluated whether VWM contributes to the inhibition (i.e., visual marking) of previewed distractors in a preview search. We evaluated this proposal by testing three predictions. First, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that preview inhibition is more effective when the number of previewed distractors is below VWM capacity than above; an effect that can only be observed at small preview set sizes (Experiment 2A) and when observers are allowed to move their eyes freely (Experiment 2B). Second, Experiment 3 shows that, when quantified as the number of inhibited distractors, the magnitude of the preview effect is stable across different search difficulties. Third, Experiment 4 demonstrates that individual differences in preview inhibition are correlated with individual differences in VWM capacity. These findings provide converging evidence that VWM supports the inhibition of previewed distractors. More generally, these findings demonstrate how VWM contributes to the efficiency of human visual information processing--VWM prioritizes new information by inhibiting old information from being reselected for attention.

  3. Social Work's Role in Medicaid Reform: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Sara S; Wachman, Madeline; Manning, Leticia; Cohen, Alexander M; Seifert, Robert W; Jones, David K; Fitzgerald, Therese; Nuzum, Rachel; Riley, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    To critically analyze social work's role in Medicaid reform. We conducted semistructured interviews with 46 stakeholders from 10 US states that use a range of Medicaid reform approaches. We identified participants using snowball and purposive sampling. We gathered data in 2016 and analyzed them using qualitative methods. Multiple themes emerged: (1) social work participates in Medicaid reform through clinical practice, including care coordination and case management; (2) there is a gap between social work's practice-level and systems-level involvement in Medicaid innovations; (3) factors hindering social work's involvement in systems-level practice include lack of visibility, insufficient clarity on social work's role and impact, and too few resources within professional organizations; and (4) social workers need more training in health transformation payment models and policy. Social workers have unique skills that are valuable to building health systems that promote population health and reduce health inequities. Although there is considerable opportunity for social work to increase its role in Medicaid reform, there is little social work involvement at the systems level.

  4. Inside the fitness for work consultation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A; Aylward, M; Rollnick, S

    2009-08-01

    Evidence now suggests that work is generally good for physical and mental health and well-being. Worklessness for whatever reason can lead to poorer physical and mental health. The role of the general practitioner (GP) in the management of fitness for work is pivotal. To understand the interaction between GP and patient in the fitness for work consultation. This study forms part of a larger research project to develop a learning programme for GPs around the fitness for work consultation based on behaviour change methodology. A qualitative study set in South Wales. Structured discussion groups with seven GPs. Two sessions each lasting 3 h were conducted to explore the GP and patient interaction around the fitness for work consultation. Multiple methods were used to enhance engagement. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Four major themes emerged from the meetings: role legitimacy, negotiation, managing the patient and managing the systems. Within these, subthemes emerged around role legitimacy. 'It's not my job', 'It's not what I trained for' and the 'shifting agenda' Negotiation was likened to 'A polite tug of war' and subthemes around decision making, managing the agenda and dealing with uncertainty emerged. This study starts to unravel the complexity of the fitness for work consultation. It illustrates how GPs struggle with the 'importance' of their role and 'confidence' in managing the fitness for work consultation. It addresses the skillful negotiation that is required to manage the consultation effectively.

  5. Work-related stress among correctional officers: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Sara

    2016-01-25

    Correctional officers (COs) are exposed to various factors likely to jeopardize their health and safety. Even if numerous studies have been focused on work-related stress among COs, few studies have been carried out in Italy. Indentify the work-related factors and comprehend how they negatively affect the COs' psychological health in the Italian penal system. A qualitative approach was employed. Twenty-eight COs employed in a detention block of an Italian jail were interviewed face-to-face. For the analyses of the text, Template Analysis technique was followed. The analyses of the text highlighted six macro-categories and thirteen categories hierarchically linked to them: A) Intrinsic work-related factors with six categories: demanding contact with prisoners, high level of responsibility, health risks, critical events, lack of intellectual and social stimulation, and conflict value; B) Factors related to the type of contract and work organization: challenging working hours contrasted with social time, and relocation; C) Social factors: relationships with colleagues and hierarchy; D) Organizational factors: organizational injustice, E) External factors: negative social image; F) Physical environmental factors: physical structure of the prison building. The results indicated that COs are at high risk of stress. More specifically, the analyses highlighted that the most stressful part of the COs' job concerns their relationship with the inmates.

  6. Qualitative Research Methods to Advance Research on Health Inequities among Previously Incarcerated Women Living with HIV in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Courtenay; Scanlon, Michael L.; Pantalone, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Justice-involved HIV-positive women have poor health outcomes that constitute health inequities. Researchers have yet to embrace the range of qualitative methods to elucidate how psychosocial histories are connected to pathways of vulnerability to HIV and incarceration for this key population. We used life course narratives and…

  7. Barriers to partnership working in public health: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carlton Taylor-Robinson

    Full Text Available Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes.70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities.The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions.

  8. Charged-particle thermonuclear reaction rates: IV. Comparison to previous work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadis, C.; Longland, R.; Champagne, A.E.; Coc, A.

    2010-01-01

    We compare our Monte Carlo reaction rates (see Paper II of this issue) to previous results that were obtained by using the classical method of computing thermonuclear reaction rates. For each reaction, the comparison is presented using two types of graphs: the first shows the change in reaction rate uncertainties, while the second displays our new results normalized to the previously recommended reaction rate. We find that the rates have changed significantly for almost all reactions considered here. The changes are caused by (i) our new Monte Carlo method of computing reaction rates (see Paper I of this issue), and (ii) newly available nuclear physics information (see Paper III of this issue).

  9. Navigation and Comprehension of Digital Expository Texts: Hypertext Structure, Previous Domain Knowledge, and Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, Debora I.; Barreyro, Juan P.; Saux, Gastón; Irrazábal, Natalia C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In contemporary information societies, reading digital text has become pervasive. One of the most distinctive features of digital texts is their internal connections via hyperlinks, resulting in non-linear hypertexts. Hypertext structure and previous knowledge affect navigation and comprehension of digital expository texts. From the…

  10. Qualitative Research in Palliative Care: Applications to Clinical Trials Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Christopher T; Tadmor, Avia; Fujisawa, Daisuke; MacDonald, James J; Gallagher, Emily R; Eusebio, Justin; Jackson, Vicki A; Temel, Jennifer S; Greer, Joseph A; Hagan, Teresa; Park, Elyse R

    2017-08-01

    While vast opportunities for using qualitative methods exist within palliative care research, few studies provide practical advice for researchers and clinicians as a roadmap to identify and utilize such opportunities. To provide palliative care clinicians and researchers descriptions of qualitative methodology applied to innovative research questions relative to palliative care research and define basic concepts in qualitative research. Body: We describe three qualitative projects as exemplars to describe major concepts in qualitative analysis of early palliative care: (1) a descriptive analysis of clinician documentation in the electronic health record, (2) a thematic content analysis of palliative care clinician focus groups, and (3) a framework analysis of audio-recorded encounters between patients and clinicians as part of a clinical trial. This study provides a foundation for undertaking qualitative research within palliative care and serves as a framework for use by other palliative care researchers interested in qualitative methodologies.

  11. Nuclear thermal rocket clustering: 1, A summary of previous work and relevant issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buksa, J.J.; Houts, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    A general review of the technical merits of nuclear thermal rocket clustering is presented. A summary of previous analyses performed during the Rover program is presented and used to assess clustering in the context of projected Space Exploration Initiative missions. A number of technical issues are discussed including cluster reliability, engine-out operation, neutronic coupling, shutdown core power generation, shutdown reactivity requirements, reactor kinetics, and radiation shielding. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Feature binding and attention in working memory: a resolution of previous contradictory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard J; Hitch, Graham J; Mate, Judit; Baddeley, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to resolve an apparent contradiction between previous experiments from different laboratories, using dual-task methodology to compare effects of a concurrent executive load on immediate recognition memory for colours or shapes of items or their colour-shape combinations. Results of two experiments confirmed previous evidence that an irrelevant attentional load interferes equally with memory for features and memory for feature bindings. Detailed analyses suggested that previous contradictory evidence arose from limitations in the way recognition memory was measured. The present findings are inconsistent with an earlier suggestion that feature binding takes place within a multimodal episodic buffer Baddeley, ( 2000 ) and support a subsequent account in which binding takes place automatically prior to information entering the episodic buffer Baddeley, Allen, & Hitch, ( 2011 ). Methodologically, the results suggest that different measures of recognition memory performance (A', d', corrected recognition) give a converging picture of main effects, but are less consistent in detecting interactions. We suggest that this limitation on the reliability of measuring recognition should be taken into account in future research so as to avoid problems of replication that turn out to be more apparent than real.

  13. Psychosocial working conditions and diabetes self-management at work: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerbroks, Adrian; Nguyen, Xuan Quynh; Vu-Eickmann, Patricia; Krichbaum, Michael; Kulzer, Bernhard; Icks, Andrea; Angerer, Peter

    2018-03-31

    We conducted a qualitative study to expand our current understanding of the potential link between psychosocial working conditions and diabetes self-management at work. Thirty employed adults with diabetes mellitus living in Germany (n = 19 with type 1, n = 11 with type 2, 57% female, aged 24-64 years) were recruited. Using a topic guide, we carried out in-depth interviews in face-to-face contact or by telephone. Interviews were transcribed and content-analyzed using MaxQDA. Psychosocial working conditions perceived to detrimentally affect self-management activities included, amongst others, a high workload, poor job control, unhygienic working environments, the requirement to work under high or fluctuating temperature, perceived social norms at the workplace, and the attitude to prioritize work-related demands as opposed to diabetes-related demands. The types of self-management activities considered to be adversely affected related to glucose monitoring, insulin injections, dietary control, the ability to recognize hypoglycemia and health care use. Various types of occupational psychosocial factors may determine diabetes self-management practices at the workplace. Quantitative studies are needed to confirm our observations. Subsequently, interventions could be developed and evaluated to improve opportunities to adequately engage into diabetes self-management at work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. School Counselors' Experiences Working with Digital Natives: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…

  15. Creating integrative work: a qualitative study of how massage therapists work with existing clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Luann Drolc; Hymel, Glenn M

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most often used complementary treatments, massage is increasingly positioned as an essential component of integrative medicine. Recent studies evaluate the clinical efficacy of massage therapy, but few studies explore how massage therapists (MTs) execute their work and exercise clinical reasoning in natural settings. To gain foundational knowledge about clinical reasoning and applied knowledge, this study examined how 10 MTs executed an entire session with established clients. Results support translational research design and inform educators. Ethnomethodology and phenomenology informed the qualitative design. Data were collected by videotaping actual sessions and interviewing the participants immediately afterward while viewing the videos. Computer-aided analysis identified data patterns for thematic interpretation. The MTs shared tacit knowledge that directed their work: a) maintaining a primarily biomechanical focus, b) prerequisite safe touch, c) multitasking not allowed, d) MTs assume physical risk, and e) the work affects multiple bodily systems. The MTs sensed effectiveness experientially by adopting common tactics: a) visualizing the manual engagement points, b) assuming the client controlled the physiological release, and c) educating the client. Within these commonalities, they operationalized their work in complex and singular ways, with the particular client relationship critical to structuring the session and evaluating the outcome. MTs viewed their work primarily as a biomechanical intervention, but understood therapeutic massage as serving multiple functions. Process-oriented clinical reasoning mirrored models found in psychotherapy and was informed by experience, intuition, and training, which resulted in an intentionally holistic approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Weight bias in work settings - a qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Thiel, Ansgar; Teufel, Martin; Mayer, Jochen; Zipfel, Stephan

    2010-02-01

    Studies have repeatedly demonstrated the influence of physical appearance on behavior and treatment of individuals in work settings. A high proportion of obese individuals in the USA have reported perceived discrimination in the work place due to their body weight. The present review examines the specific kind, context and extent of a weight bias in work settings. We performed a literature search in the scientific databases PubMed and PsychINFO to identify studies which have investigated aspects of a potential weight bias in the occupational context. There is evidence from self-report data, surveys, and laboratory research for a weight bias in five aspects of work life. Evidence shows that obesity is a general barrier to employment, certain professions and professional success. Obese individuals are at higher risk of encountering stereotypes concerning their work-related qualities and for general unequal treatment in the work place. Current evidence reveals a weight bias in several areas in the work place. The ecological validity of results is limited due to the predominant reliance on laboratory studies with student samples. Field studies are needed to examine weight-based discrimination in actual work environments as well as to uncover underlying mechanisms. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Redefining Work And Nonwork. A Qualitative Study Comparing The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The married interviewees with two or more children held a much wider concept of work that covered also the home, family and voluntary work, and synthesized the diverse definitions found in the literature with an added emphasis on responsibility. They defined nonwork essentially as relaxation. Effort, purpose and sense of ...

  18. Meaning in work of secondary school teachers: A qualitative study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    In order to identify specific, shared sources of meaning and mechanisms with which ... Keywords: education sector; meaning in work; meaning-making mechanisms; ..... was mainly divided into purpose and significance- ... Attention ought.

  19. What motivates dentists to work in prisons? A qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P A; Themessl-Huber, M; Akbar, T; Richards, D; Freeman, R

    2011-08-26

    To explore what motivates dentists to work in prisons using Vroom's theoretical model of motivation as an explanatory framework. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten of the 15 dentists working in Scottish prisons. The focus was to explore their motivations to work in Scottish prisons. The data were analysed using a thematic framework based on the three motivational dimensions of expectancy, instrumentality and valence. The dentists had the skills to help improve their prisoner-patients' oral health but their efforts were often hindered by institutional rationing and the requirement to fit in with prison routines and procedures (expectancy). Despite these institutional difficulties the dentists experienced work rewards associated with the improvement in the prisoners' oral health (instrumentality). Finally, the dentists experienced a feeling of personal worth and a sense of commitment to providing care to Scottish prisoners (valence). The dentists' motivation to work in Scottish prisons may be explained by Vroom's Expectancy Theory. The dentists' motivation is characterised by their beliefs that their work will improve clinical outcomes which will be rewarded by the satisfaction experienced when they overcome environmental obstacles and provide oral health care for their prisoner-patients.

  20. A qualitative study on the motivation of Turkish EFL teachers working at state universities

    OpenAIRE

    Ölmezer Öztürk, Elçin

    2015-01-01

    Following a qualitative research design, this study examines the motivation of Turkish EFL teachers working at state universities in Turkey. Purposeful sampling was used in the selection of participants and 20 teachers working at different universities participated in the study. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and daily reflection entries. In the analysis of data, qualitative content analysis scheme of Creswell (2011) was used. The results revealed that ...

  1. Flexibility and working conditions : a qualitive and comparative study in seven EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Nanteuil, M. de

    2000-01-01

    Within the context of profound transformations in work and employment, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions has undertaken a qualitative and comparative study concerning the impact of flexibility on working conditions in the European Union. Complementing other

  2. Perceived challenges of working in a fertility clinic: a qualitative analysis of work stressors and difficulties working with patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Jacky; Bunting, Laura; Koert, Emily; Ieng U, Chin; Verhaak, Christianne

    2017-02-01

    What are some of the challenges of working in a fertility clinic? The most frequently mentioned challenges were workload (e.g. high time pressure) and patient-related sources (e.g. unrealistic expectations). One study showed a too high workload, worry about handling human material and low success rates were main stressors in fertility clinics. An online open-ended survey inviting participants to respond to seven questions was distributed to 5902 members of the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE, October 2010). Questions asked participants to describe the top three factors that made (i) their work stressful (hereafter 'Work stressors') and (ii) working with patients difficult (hereafter 'Perceived sources of difficulties'), and (iii) to choose from these factors which top three issues they would be willing to attend a workshop to resolve (hereafter 'Workshops'). A qualitative content analysis using inductive coding for each question was used to extract meaningful themes from the text replies, at three levels of increasing abstraction (lower and higher categories, general themes). The final sample comprised 526 respondents (8.9% participation rate). Respondents were predominantly clinicians (41.3%, n = 216) or embryologists (35.5%, n = 186) from European countries (73.0%, n = 386). The number of text replies generated for each question was 1421, 1208 and 907 for the 'Work Stressors', 'Perceived sources of difficulties' and 'Workshop' questions, respectively. The most often reported higher-order categories of Work Stressors were 'Time and Workload' (61.6%, e.g. time pressure), 'Organisation, Team and management issues' (60.4%, e.g. team conflicts) and 'Job content and work environment' (50.3%, e.g. burdensome administration). For 'Perceived sources of difficulties' these were 'Patient-related sources' (66.7%, e.g. unrealistic expectations), 'Communication and Counselling with patients' (33.7%, e.g. strained information giving) and

  3. [Estimating non work-related sickness leave absences related to a previous occupational injury in Catalonia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero-Ruiz, Emilia; Navarro, Albert; Moriña, David; Albertí-Casas, Constança; Jardí-Lliberia, Josefina; de Montserrat-Nonó, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the frequency of non-work sickness absence (ITcc) related to previous occupational injuries with (ATB) or without (ATSB) sick leave. Prospective longitudinal study. Workers with ATB or ATSB notified to the Occupational Accident Registry of Catalonia were selected in the last term of 2009. They were followed-up for six months after returning to work (ATB) or after the accident (ATSB), by sex and occupation. Official labor and health authority registries were used as information sources. An "injury-associated ITcc" was defined when the sick leave occurred in the following six months and within the same diagnosis group. The absolute and relative frequency were calculated according to time elapsed and its duration (cumulated days, measures of central trend and dispersion), by diagnosis group or affected body area, as compared to all of Catalonia. 2,9%of ATB (n=627) had an injury-associated ITcc, with differences by diagnosis, sex and occupation; this was also the case for 2,1% of ATSB (n=496).With the same diagnosis, duration of ITcc was longer among those who had an associated injury, and with respect to all of Catalonia. Some of the under-reporting of occupational pathology corresponds to episodes initially recognized as being work-related. Duration of sickness absence depends not only on diagnosis and clinical course, but also on criteria established by the entities managing the case. This could imply that more complicated injuries are referred to the national health system, resulting in personal, legal, healthcare and economic cost consequences for all involved stakeholders. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  4. Cold working room temperature increased moderate/severe qualitative work stressor risk in Air Traffic Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Astuti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Pemandu lalu lintas udara (PLLU kemungkinan lebih besar terkena stresor kerja kualitatif. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengidentifikasi beberapa faktor yang berkaitan dengan stresor kerja kualitatif moderat (SBKL sedang di antara PLLU di Bandar Udara Internasional Soekarno-Hatta.Metode:  Studi  potong  lintang  dilakukan  pada  bulan  November 2008  dengan  subjek  PLLU  aktif  bekerja minimal  6  bulan. Penelitian  menggunakan  kuesioner  standar  survei  diagnostik stres  dan  kuesioner  stresor rumah tangga. Kuesioner diisi oleh subjek.Hasil: Subjek berumur 27-55 tahun terdiri dari 122 PLLU dengan SBKL sedang/berat dan serta 13 (9,6% PLLU dengan SBKL rendah. Model menunjukkan bahwa mereka yang merasa dibandingkan dengan yang tidak merasa suhu ruangan terlalu dingin mempunyai 11-lipat risiko SBKL sedang/berat [rasio odds suaian (ORa = 10,63: 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 1,79-65,59]. Dibandingkan dengan subjek tanpa stresor ketaksaan peran, mereka yang mempunyai stresor ketaksaan peran sedang/berat berisiko 8,2-lipat SBKL sedang/berat (ORa = 8,23: 95% CI = 1,13-59,90. Di samping itu, mereka yang mempunyai stresor tanggung jawab sedang/berat mendapatkan dibandingkan dengan tanpa stesor ini 6,6-kali berisiko SBKL sedang/berat (ORa = 6,64: 95% CI = 1.13-38.85, Selanjutntya mereka yang mempunyai dibandingkan dengan yang tanpa stresor pengembangan karir sedang/berat mempunyai 3,7-kali risiko SBKL sedang/berat  (ORa = 3,67: 95% CI = 0.88-15.35; P = 0,075.Kesimpulan: Subjek LLU yang merasa suhu ruangan terlalu dingin, stresor ketaksaan peran, tanggung jawab personal dan pengembangan karir sedang/berat mengalami peningkatan risiko SBKL sedang/berat. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:58-65.AbstractBack ground: Air traffic controllers (ATCs have a high level of responsibility which may lead to qualitative work load stressor (QLWS. This study identified several risk factors related to moderate qualitative

  5. Intersecting Interests: Qualitative Research Synthesis on Art in the Social Work Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbi, Samantha; Cowell, Amanda; Perreault-Laird, Jordyn; El-Lahib, Yahya; Straka, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative research synthesis that explored the intersections between art and social work. The scholarship notes a rise in interest in integrating creative arts practices in social work classrooms from assignment design to classroom activities. Also highlighted are the potential contributions of these artsinformed…

  6. Interpretative Social Work: On the Uses of Qualitative Methods for Practice, Reflection and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Völter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methods could play an important role in the context of a lively, life-world oriented, and emancipatory self-reflective social work. They are already applied in three realms of social work: social work research, the daily practice of social workers and professional self-reflection. Even though these three realms overlap they are three distinct spheres of knowledge and action, which have specific aims. Therefore qualitative methods have to be adjusted to the needs of social science, practice and practice reflection. When students and practitioners of social work learn to use qualitative methods in this sense, they gain a competence which can be referred to as "ethnographic sophistication." This "ethnographic sophistication" contains essential elements of social work professionalism. Familiarity with qualitative methods and their application are highly relevant for the acquisition of basic competencies in social work, i.e., that what has become known as "reconstructive social pedagogy" is much more than just one social work method among others. But a consequence of the introduction of academic reforms of the so called "Bologna process" all over Europe is that it has become more difficult in many universities and universities of applied sciences to implement this approach. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801563

  7. Women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous caesarean section in Taiwan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Wen; Hutchinson, Alison M; Nagle, Cate; Bucknall, Tracey K

    2018-01-17

    Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is an alternative option for women who have had a previous caesarean section (CS); however, uptake is limited because of concern about the risks of uterine rupture. The aim of this study was to explore women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous CS. A qualitative approach was used. The research comprised three stages. Stage I consisted of naturalistic observation at 33-34 weeks' gestation. Stage II involved interviews with pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation. Stage III consisted of interviews with the same women who were interviewed postnatally, 1 month after birth. The research was conducted in a private medical centre in northern Taiwan. Using a purposive sampling, 21 women and 9 obstetricians were recruited. Data collection involved in-depth interviews, observation and field notes. Constant comparative analysis was employed for data analysis. Ensuring the safety of mother and baby was the focus of women's decisions. Women's decisions-making influences included previous birth experience, concern about the risks of vaginal birth, evaluation of mode of birth, current pregnancy situation, information resources and health insurance. In communicating with obstetricians, some women complied with obstetricians' recommendations for repeat caesarean section (RCS) without being informed of alternatives. Others used four step decision-making processes that included searching for information, listening to obstetricians' professional judgement, evaluating alternatives, and making a decision regarding mode of birth. After birth, women reflected on their decisions in three aspects: reflection on birth choices; reflection on factors influencing decisions; and reflection on outcomes of decisions. The health and wellbeing of mother and baby were the major concerns for women. In response to the decision-making influences, women's interactions with obstetricians regarding birth choices

  8. Technological Health Intervention in Population Aging to Assist People to Work Smarter not Harder: Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Sonia Chien-I

    2018-01-01

    Background Technology-based health care has been promoted as an effective tool to enable clinicians to work smarter. However, some health stakeholders believe technology will compel users to work harder by creating extra work. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate how and why electronic health (eHealth) has been applied in Taiwan and to suggest implications that may inspire other countries facing similar challenges. Methods A qualitative methodology was adopted to obtain in...

  9. Making short-term international medical volunteer placements work: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnawawy, Omnia; Lee, Andrew C K; Pohl, Gerda

    2014-06-01

    International medical volunteering has grown in recent decades. It has the potential to benefit and harm the volunteer and host countries; but there is a paucity of literature on the impacts of international medical volunteering and a need to find ways to optimise the benefits of such placements. In this study, one example of international medical volunteering was examined involving British GPs on short-term placements in Nepal. The intention was to explore the expectations and experiences of the local health workers, volunteers, and host organisation to try and understand what makes volunteer placements work. Qualitative study of key informant interviews. Stakeholders of a short-term international medical volunteer (IMV) placement programme in Nepal. Key informant interviews were carried out via face-to-face or telephone/internet interviews with five previous volunteers, three representatives from a non-governmental organisation providing placements, and five local health workers in Nepal who had had contact with the IMVs. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using standard thematic framework approaches. All the stakeholders had their own specific motives for participating in the IMV programme. The relationship between volunteers and the Nepalese health workers was complex and characterised by discrepant and occasionally unrealistic expectations. Managing these different expectations was challenging. Contextual issues and cultural differences are important considerations in medical volunteer programmes, and this study highlights the importance of robust preparation pre-placement for the volunteer and host to ensure positive outcomes. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  10. Work organization, health, and obesity in urban transit operators: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Marnie; Choi, BongKyoo; Schnall, Peter L

    2017-11-01

    Urban transit operators have high rates of obesity, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk-factors compared to other occupations. There have been few qualitative studies exploring the interrelationships between the organization of transit work, stress, and health including obesity, from the perspective of operators. Five focus groups were conducted at five Divisions in a transit authority in Southern California and included 65 bus and rail operators. Operators reported a great deal of stress related to their work, including 1) time pressures and lack of recovery time; 2) long work shifts and overtime; 3) feeling unsafe when dealing with the public; 4) lack of respect from supervisors and management. Operators believed stressful working conditions negatively impacted their health and weight. This qualitative study yielded new as well as confirmatory data about stress and transit work organization, health, and weight in operators. This study will add to future survey research and interventions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Exploring novice nurses' needs regarding their work-related health: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate Dutch novice nurses' experiences and needs regarding occupational health support to prevent work-related health problems and to keep them well-functioning. A qualitative interview study was conducted with six nursing students and eight newly qualified nurses. The interviews covered

  12. Qualitative Research in Career Development: Exploring the Center and Margins of Discourse About Careers and Working

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; Kenna, Alexandra C.; Murphy, Kerri A.; DeVoy, Julia E.; DeWine, David B.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the contributions of qualitative research to the study of career development and the psychology of working. Epistemological perspectives (logical positivism, postpositivism, and social constructionism) are discussed as they relate to historical context, career theories, and the various methods used within qualitative…

  13. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work?: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.; van den Heuvel, S.; Geuskens, G.; Ybema, J.F.; de Wind, A.; Burdorf, A.; Robroek, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in the Study on

  14. Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

  15. School Counselors' Professional Experience and Practices Working with Students Who Self-Harm: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ellen Adams

    2013-01-01

    The professional experiences and practices of school counselors and the interventions they employ while working with adolescent students who self-harm is an underrepresented area within current research. This generic qualitative study provides a rich description and a deeper understanding of the professional experiences and practices of school…

  16. A synthesis of qualitative research exploring the barriers to staying in work with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, Francine; Seers, Kate; Allcock, Nick; Briggs, Michelle; Carr, Eloise; Barker, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research can help to advance our understanding, management and prevention of work disability. Our aim was to integrate qualitative research findings in order to increase our understanding of barriers to stay in work with chronic pain. We searched five electronic bibliographic databases until September 2012, supplemented by citation tracking and hand-searching. We used meta-ethnography to synthesis our findings. Central to meta-ethnography is identifying “concepts” and developing a conceptual model. Concepts were compared and organised into categories. The following categories can have an impact on the decision to remain in work: struggling to affirm myself as a good worker; balancing life and work in the face of unpredictable symptoms; my work colleagues don't believe me; the system does not facilitate return to work; the battle for legitimacy. Our innovation is to present an internationally relevant model based on a conceptual synthesis. This model highlights the adversarial work experience of people with chronic. The papers span 15 years of qualitative research. A significant finding is that these themes continue to pervade the current work environment for those in pain, and this has clear implications for education, social care and policy. People with chronic pain face an adversarial struggle to maintain their credibility at work. Strategies to maintain personal credibility can have an adverse effect on working lives. Changes at a systems level are needed to facilitate continuance and return to work. Cultural changes in the way that we view people with pain would help to keep people in work.

  17. A qualitative study of work-life balance amongst specialist orthodontists in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, S. J.; Bateman, L. E.; Collins, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors affecting work-life balance amongst male and female orthodontists in the United Kingdom. Design: A qualitative interview-based study with a cross-sectional design. Subjects: Specialist orthodontists working in specialist practice and the hospital service in the United Kingdom were selected by purposive sampling. Methods: In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with eighteen orthodontic specialists. Interview transcripts were analysed using Framework A...

  18. School nurses’ experiences working with students with mental health problems : A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Julia; Maltestam, Malin; Bengtsson-Tops, Anita; Garmy, Pernilla

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to describe school nurses’ experiences working with students with mental health problems. In this inductive qualitative study, interviews were conducted with 14 school nurses in Sweden. The content analysis revealed three themes:(1) sense of worriedness about working with students with mental health problems, (2) taking care of students with mental health issues was an opportunity for personal and professional development, and (3) the experience of making a difference for young pe...

  19. A qualitative investigation of specialist orthodontists in New Zealand: part 2. Orthodontists' working lives and work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Kieran J; Thomson, W Murray; Morgaine, Kate C; Harding, Winifred J

    2012-11-01

    Orthodontics is the most widely practised form of specialist dentistry in New Zealand. To date, no known qualitative research has been published examining the work-life balance of practitioners. The aim of this study was to investigate the working lives and work-life balance of NZ orthodontists in order to generate an understanding of the reality of orthodontic specialist practice and its effects on orthodontists' professional and personal lives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted involving 19 practising orthodontists (four females, 15 males; mean age 50 years) from throughout New Zealand and selected for maximum variation in the sample. Transcribed interviews were analysed for themes using an applied grounded theory approach. A core category of 'practising orthodontist' was derived, and related themes were grouped under the sub-categories of: (a) NZ orthodontic specialist practice; (b) NZ specialist orthodontists; and (c) Work-life balance. The present paper reports on the final sub-category. Themes emerging from the work-life sub-category were further divided into two sub-themes of 'work' and 'life'. Themes in the 'work' subgroup included time off, injuries and illness, regrets, personality traits, job stress and criticism, establishing a practice, peer support and contact, and success in orthodontics. Themes in the 'life' sub-group were personal development, family life, life balance and interests outside work, and financial security. This was the first qualitative investigation of the orthodontic profession in New Zealand. The findings provided a valuable insight into the working lives of New Zealand orthodontists and effects on their day-today lives. It will be revealing and interesting to observe how the modernisation of orthodontic practice will affect the work-life balance of New Zealand orthodontists in the future.

  20. Nurses’ experiences of working in organizations undergoing restructuring: A metasynthesis of qualitative research studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dorthe; Jensen, Anne Sofie Bøtcher

    2017-01-01

    experience working in organizations undergoing structural changes. Design: The review is designed as a metasynthesis and follows the guidelines put forth by Sandelowski and Barroso for synthesizing qualitative research. Data sources: From January to April 2015, literature searches were conducted...... in the CINAHL, PubMed, ProQuest, and Web of Science databases for the period from 1994 to 2014. Review methods: A total of 762 articles were found and screened, 12 of which were included in the review after being appraised using a specially designed reading guide. The inclusion criteria were qualitative studies......Background: Health care organizations worldwide undergo continual reconfiguration and structural changes in order to optimize the use of resources, reduce costs, and improve the quality of treatment. Objective: The objective of this study was to synthesize qualitative studies of how nurses...

  1. [Suffering at work among medical students: qualitative study using semi-structured interviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Provost, A-S; Loddé, B; Pietri, J; De Parscau, L; Pougnet, L; Dewitte, J-D; Pougnet, R

    2018-01-01

    Suffering at work among health professionals is a hot topic. Medical students, doctors of tomorrow, are far from being spared. Prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders range from 20.3 to 69 % for the former and from 12 to 30 % for the latter. The purpose of this article is to determine these factors by qualitative research, according to medical students' points of view. It is a qualitative study using semistructured interviews. The analysis is done according to the Grounded Theory. 12 medical students are interviewed. They expressed difficulties at work and positive factors. Three major themes are identified in selective coding: occupational factors, " study " factors and individual factors. All themes are both a source of well-being and ill-being according to the situations specified in the results. Studying medicine includes positive and negative aspects. Abandonment issues, lack of recognition and insufficient coaching emerge from our study. Screening of suffering at work should be systematic for medical students.

  2. Doctors' perceptions of why 360-degree feedback does (not) work: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Karlijn; Wollersheim, Hub; Driessen, Erik; Lombarts, Kiki; van de Ven, Geertje; Grol, Richard; Arah, Onyebuchi

    2009-09-01

    Delivery of 360-degree feedback is widely used in revalidation programmes. However, little has been done to systematically identify the variables that influence whether or not performance improvement is actually achieved after such assessments. This study aims to explore which factors represent incentives, or disincentives, for consultants to implement suggestions for improvement from 360-degree feedback. In 2007, 109 consultants in the Netherlands were assessed using 360-degree feedback and portfolio learning. We carried out a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 23 of these consultants, purposively sampled based on gender, hospital, work experience, specialty and views expressed in a previous questionnaire. A grounded theory approach was used to analyse the transcribed tape-recordings. We identified four groups of factors that can influence consultants' practice improvement after 360-degree feedback: (i) contextual factors related to workload, lack of openness and social support, lack of commitment from hospital management, free-market principles and public distrust; (ii) factors related to feedback; (iii) characteristics of the assessment system, such as facilitators and a portfolio to encourage reflection, concrete improvement goals and annual follow-up interviews, and (iv) individual factors, such as self-efficacy and motivation. It appears that 360-degree feedback can be a positive force for practice improvement provided certain conditions are met, such as that skilled facilitators are available to encourage reflection, concrete goals are set and follow-up interviews are carried out. This study underscores the fact that hospitals and consultant groups should be aware of the existing lack of openness and absence of constructive feedback. Consultants indicated that sharing personal reflections with colleagues could improve the quality of collegial relationships and heighten the chance of real performance improvement.

  3. Rethinking work-health models for the new global economy: a qualitative analysis of emerging dimensions of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanyi, Michael; Tompa, Emile

    2004-01-01

    Technology change, rising international trade and investment, and increased competition are changing the organization, distribution and nature of work in industrialized countries. To enhance productivity, employers are striving to increase innovation while minimizing costs. This is leading to an intensification of work demands on core employees and the outsourcing or casualization of more marginal tasks, often to contingent workers. The two prevailing models of work and health - demand-control and effort-reward imbalance - may not capture the full range of experiences of workers in today's increasingly flexible and competitive economies. To explore this proposition, we conducted a secondary qualitative analysis of interviews with 120 American workers [6]. Our analysis identifies aspects of work affecting the quality of workers' experiences that are largely overlooked by popular work-health models: the nature of social interactions with customers and clients; workers' belief in, and perception of, the importance of the product of their work. We suggest that the quality of work experiences is partly determined by the objective characteristics of the work environment, but also by the fit of the work environment with the worker's needs, interests, desires and personality, something not adequately captured in current models.

  4. Changes in work affect in response to lunchtime walking in previously physically inactive employees: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C; Loughren, E A; Kinnafick, F-E; Taylor, I M; Duda, J L; Fox, K R

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity may regulate affective experiences at work, but controlled studies are needed and there has been a reliance on retrospective accounts of experience. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of lunchtime walks on momentary work affect at the individual and group levels. Physically inactive employees (N = 56; M age = 47.68; 92.86% female) from a large university in the UK were randomized to immediate treatment or delayed treatment (DT). The DT participants completed both a control and intervention period. During the intervention period, participants partook in three weekly 30-min lunchtime group-led walks for 10 weeks. They completed twice daily affective reports at work (morning and afternoon) using mobile phones on two randomly chosen days per week. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the data. Lunchtime walks improved enthusiasm, relaxation, and nervousness at work, although the pattern of results differed depending on whether between-group or within-person analyses were conducted. The intervention was effective in changing some affective states and may have broader implications for public health and workplace performance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A qualitative study of work-life balance amongst specialist orthodontists in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Lindsey E; Collins, Joanne M; Cunningham, Susan J

    2016-12-01

    To identify factors affecting work-life balance amongst male and female orthodontists in the UK. A qualitative interview-based study with a cross-sectional design. Specialist orthodontists working in specialist practice and the hospital service in the UK were selected by purposive sampling. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 orthodontic specialists. Interview transcripts were analyzed using Framework Analysis. Four main themes pertaining to work-life balance in orthodontics were identified: work factors affecting work-life balance, life factors affecting work-life balance, perception and effects of work-life balance and suggestions for managing work-life balance within the profession. There was substantial variation in the work-life balance of the orthodontists interviewed in this study; however the majority reported high levels of career satisfaction despite difficulties maintaining a good work-life balance. Whilst there were some clear distinctions in the factors affecting work-life balance between the hospital environment and specialist practice (including additional professional commitments and teaching/training-related issues), there were also a number of similarities. These included, the lack of flexibility in the working day, managing patient expectations, taking time off work at short notice and the ability to work part-time.

  6. Staying at work with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain: a qualitative study of workers' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geertzen Jan HB

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP have decreased work ability. The majority, however, stays at work despite their pain. Knowledge about workers who stay at work despite chronic pain is limited, narrowing our views on work participation. The aim of this study was to explore why people with CMP stay at work despite pain (motivators and how they manage to maintain working (success factors. Methods A semi-structured interview was conducted among 21 subjects who stay at work despite CMP. Participants were included through purposeful sampling. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and imported into computer software Atlas.ti. Data was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. The interviews consisted of open questions such as: "Why are you working with pain?" or "How do you manage working while having pain?" Results A total of 16 motivators and 52 success factors emerged in the interviews. Motivators were categorized into four themes: work as value, work as therapy, work as income generator, and work as responsibility. Success factors were categorized into five themes: personal characteristics, adjustment latitude, coping with pain, use of healthcare services, and pain beliefs. Conclusions Personal characteristics, well-developed self-management skills, and motivation to work may be considered to be important success factors and prerequisites for staying at work, resulting in behaviors promoting staying at work such as: raising adjustment latitude, changing pain-coping strategies, organizing modifications and conditions at work, finding access to healthcare services, and asking for support. Motivators and success factors for staying at work may be used for interventions in rehabilitation and occupational medicine, to prevent absenteeism, or to promote a sustainable return to work. This qualitative study has evoked new hypotheses about staying at work; quantitative studies on staying at

  7. Work environments and HIV prevention: a qualitative review and meta-synthesis of sex worker narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Duff, Putu; Krusi, Andrea

    2015-12-16

    Sex workers (SWs) experience a disproportionately high burden of HIV, with evidence indicating that complex and dynamic factors within work environments play a critical role in mitigating or producing HIV risks in sex work. In light of sweeping policy efforts to further criminalize sex work globally, coupled with emerging calls for structural responses situated in labour and human-rights frameworks, this meta-synthesis of the qualitative and ethnographic literature sought to examine SWs' narratives to elucidate the ways in which physical, social and policy features of diverse work environments influence SWs' agency to engage in HIV prevention. We conducted a meta-synthesis of qualitative and ethnographic studies published from 2008 to 2014 to elucidate SWs' narratives and lived experiences of the complex and nuanced ways in which physical, social, and policy features of indoor and outdoor work environments shape HIV prevention in the sex industry. Twenty-four qualitative and/or ethnographic studies were included in this meta-synthesis. SWs' narratives revealed the nuanced ways that physical, social, and policy features of work environments shaped HIV risk and interacted with macrostructural constraints (e.g., criminalization, stigma) and community determinants (e.g., sex worker empowerment initiatives) to shape SWs' agency in negotiating condom use. SWs' narratives revealed the ways in which the existence of occupational health and safety standards in indoor establishments, as well as protective practices of third parties (e.g., condom promotion) and other SWs/peers were critical ways of enhancing safety and sexual risk negotiation within indoor work environments. Additionally, working in settings where negative interactions with law enforcement were minimized (e.g., working in decriminalized contexts or environments in which peers/managers successfully deterred unjust policing practices) was critical for supporting SWs' agency to negotiate HIV prevention. Policy

  8. "It's still a great adventure" - exploring offshore employees' working conditions in a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mette, Janika; Velasco Garrido, Marcial; Harth, Volker; Preisser, Alexandra M; Mache, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Despite the particular demands inherent to offshore work, little is known about the working conditions of employees in the German offshore wind industry. To date, neither offshore employees' job demands and resources, nor their needs for improving the working conditions have been explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a qualitative analysis to gain further insight into these topics. Forty-two semi-structured telephone interviews with German offshore employees ( n  = 21) and offshore experts ( n  = 21) were conducted. Employees and experts were interviewed with regard to their perceptions of their working conditions offshore. In addition, employees were asked to identify areas with potential need for improvement. The interviews were analysed in a deductive-inductive process according to Mayring's qualitative content analysis. Employees and experts reported various demands of offshore work, including challenging physical labour, long shifts, inactive waiting times, and recurrent absences from home. In contrast, the high personal meaning of the work, regular work schedule (14 days offshore, 14 days onshore), and strong comradeship were highlighted as job resources. Interviewees' working conditions varied considerably, e.g. regarding their work tasks and accommodations. Most of the job demands were perceived in terms of the work organization and living conditions offshore. Likewise, employees expressed the majority of needs for improvement in these areas. Our study offers important insight into the working conditions of employees in the German offshore wind industry. The results can provide a basis for further quantitative research in order to generalize the findings. Moreover, they can be utilized to develop needs-based interventions to improve the working conditions offshore.

  9. Household Role in Coping with Precarious Work. Evidence from Qualitative Research in Urban Romania and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preoteasa Ana Maria D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative comparative study that looked at the meaning of ‘precarious work’ in households situated in the position of ‘precarious prosperity’ in Switzerland and Romania in 2013. The aim of this research is to explore the experiences of individuals with precarious work and to embed them into their household and national structural contexts. Employment patterns in the two countries are similar in terms of uncertainty and instability, yet vary in many other aspects. While in Romania insecurity is due mainly to the very low incomes, in Switzerland it stems from nonstandard contracts. The research shows that for households of precarious prosperity, precarious work is both a strategy to cope with uncertainty and instability and a circumstance leading to precariousness. The analysis explores qualitatively the meaning that individuals living in households of precarious prosperity attribute to their employment situation as contextualized by the interplay between household and individual situation.

  10. Qualitative Research on the Uneasiness of Japanese Working Married Women on the Decision of Having Children

    OpenAIRE

    山谷, 真名

    2011-01-01

    Japanese marriage was said to be followed by childbirth right after. Such trend is changing, and that some couples are having longer waiting time before having children. The desire to have children is also said to be on the decline (Sasai 1998 Iwama 2008). Women's difficulty in their work continuation after childbirth is well known and has not changed much (Nagase 1999 Higuchi 2007). The purpose of this paper is to bring forward qualitative reasons why more women are having longer waiting tim...

  11. Working in a danger zone: A qualitative study of Taiwanese nurses' work experiences in a negative pressure isolation ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Ling; Chen, Kuei-Ling; Lee, Li-Hung; Yang, Cheng-I

    2016-07-01

    Hospital nurses are frontline health care workers in controlling the spread of infectious diseases. It is not known if nurses working in negative pressure isolation wards (NPIWs) are better prepared than before to safely care for patients with common infectious diseases. For this qualitative descriptive study, 10 nurses were interviewed in depth about their experiences caring for patients in an NPIW. Tape recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The following 5 themes were identified: (1) complexity of patient care, (2) dissatisfaction with the quantity and quality of protective equipment, (3) shortage of nursing staff, (4) continued worries about being infected, and (5) sensitivity to self-protection. Our participants' anxiety and uncertainty about being infected in the NPIW were increased by the complexity of patients' health problems and organizational factors. To protect themselves against infection before and during patient care, participants also developed sensitivity to, concepts about, and strategies to improve self-protection. NPIW administrators should pay more attention to nurses' concerns about improving the NPIW working environment, supply good quality protective equipment, and provide appropriate psychologic support and ongoing education to ensure that nurses feel safe while working. This ongoing education should refresh and update nurses' knowledge about disease transmission, therefore decreasing unnecessary anxiety based on misunderstandings about becoming infected. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Methodological considerations in the use of audio diaries in work psychology: Adding to the qualitative toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Sarah E; Cassell, Catherine M

    2016-06-01

    The use of longitudinal methodology as a means of capturing the intricacies in complex organizational phenomena is well documented, and many different research strategies for longitudinal designs have been put forward from both a qualitative and quantitative stance. This study explores a specific emergent qualitative methodology, audio diaries, and assesses their utility for work psychology research drawing on the findings from a four-stage study addressing transient working patterns and stress in UK temporary workers. Specifically, we explore some important methodological, analytical and technical issues for practitioners and researchers who seek to use these methods and explain how this type of methodology has much to offer when studying stress and affective experiences at work. We provide support for the need to implement pluralistic and complementary methodological approaches in unearthing the depth in sense-making and assert their capacity to further illuminate the process orientation of stress. This study illustrates the importance of verbalization in documenting stress and affective experience as a mechanism for accessing cognitive processes in making sense of such experience.This study compares audio diaries with more traditional qualitative methods to assess applicability to different research contexts.This study provides practical guidance and a methodological framework for the design of audio diary research and design, taking into account challenges and solutions for researchers and practitioners.

  13. Factors affecting planned return to work after trauma: A prospective descriptive qualitative and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkard, S S; Bloomfield, T D; Page, P R J; Wilson, D; Ricketts, D M; Rogers, B A

    2016-12-01

    The use of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in trauma is limited. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate qualitative responses and factors affecting planned return to work following significant trauma, for which there is currently a poor evidence base. National ethical approval was obtained for routine prospective PROMs data collection, including EQ-5D, between Sept 2013 and March 2015 for trauma patients admitted to the Sussex Major Trauma Centre (n=92). 84 trauma patients disclosed their intended return to work at discharge. Additional open questions asked 'things done well' and 'things to be improved'. EQ-5D responses were valued using the time trade-off method. Statistical analysis between multiple variables was completed by ANOVA, and with categorical categories by Chi squared analysis. Only 18/68 of patients working at admission anticipated returning to work within 14days post-discharge. The injury severity scores (ISS) of those predicting return to work within two weeks and those predicting return to work longer than two weeks were 14.17 and 13.59, respectively. Increased physicality of work showed a trend towards poorer return to work outcomes, although non-significant in Chi-squared test in groups predicting return in less than or greater than two weeks (4.621, p=0.2017ns). No significant difference was demonstrated in the comparative incomes of patients with different estimated return to work outcomes (ANOVA r 2 =0.001, P=0.9590ns). EQ-5D scores were higher in those predicting return to work within two weeks when compared to greater than two weeks. Qualitative thematic content analysis of open responses was possible for 66/92 of respondents. Prominent positive themes were: care, staff, professionalism, and communication. Prominent negative themes were: food, ward response time, and communication. This pilot study highlights the importance of qualitative PROMs analysis in leading patient-driven improvements in trauma care. We provide standard

  14. Impact of Fatigue in Rheumatic Diseases in the Work Environment: A Qualitative Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, Deirdre

    2015-10-28

    Fatigue is a symptom of arthritis that causes difficulty at work. An improved understanding of this symptom could assist its management in the work environment. The aim of this study was to explore people with rheumatic diseases\\' experiences of fatigue in work. A qualitative descriptive design was used with semi-structured interviews and a constant comparative method of data analysis. There were 18 participants, the majority of them female with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and working full-time. Three themes were identified: "Impact of fatigue on work performance" with cognition, mood and physical abilities being the main difficulties reported. In the second theme "Disclosure at Work" participants discussed disclosing their disease to employers but reported a lack of understanding of fatigue from colleagues. The final theme "work-based fatigue management strategies" included cognitive strategies and energy management techniques, which were mainly self-taught. In this study, fatigue was reported to impact on many areas of work performance with limited understanding from colleagues and employers. Interventions from health professionals to assist with development of work-related self-management skills are required to assist with symptom management in the work place. Such interventions should include education to employers and colleagues on the nature of fatigue in Rheumatic diseases.

  15. Supporting 'work-related goals' rather than 'return to work' after cancer? A systematic review and meta-synthesis of 25 qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Mary; Williams, Brian; Firnigl, Danielle; Lang, Heidi; Coyle, Joanne; Kroll, Thilo; MacGillivray, Steve

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to systematically review and synthesise qualitative studies of employment and cancer. A rigorous systematic review and meta-synthesis process was followed. A total of 13,233 papers were retrieved from eight databases; 69 were deemed relevant following title and abstract appraisal. Four further publications were identified via contact with key authors. Screening of full texts resulted in the retention of 25 publications from six countries, which were included in the synthesis. Studies consistently indicate that for people with cancer, 'work' forms a central basis for self-identity and self-esteem, provides financial security, forms and maintains social relationships, and represents an individual's abilities, talents and health. Work is therefore more than paid employment. Its importance to individuals rests on the relative value survivors place on these constituent functions. The desirability, importance and subsequent interpretation of individuals' experience of 'return to work' appears to be influenced by the ways in which cancer affects these functions or goals of 'work'. Our synthesis draws these complex elements into a heuristic model to help illustrate and communicate these inter-relationships. The concept of 'return to work' may be overly simplistic, and as a result, misleading. The proposed benefits previously ascribed to 'return to work' may only be achieved through consideration of the specific meaning and role of work to the individual. Interventions to address work-related issues need to be person-centred, acknowledging the work-related outcomes that are important to the individual. A conceptual and operational shift towards supporting survivors to identify and achieve their 'work-related goals' may be more appropriate. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Resources for work-related well-being: a qualitative study about healthcare employees' experiences of relationships at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön Persson, Sophie; Nilsson Lindström, Petra; Pettersson, Pär; Nilsson, Marie; Blomqvist, Kerstin

    2018-05-23

    The aim of this study was to explore municipal healthcare employees' experiences of relationships with care recipients and colleagues. The specific research questions were when do the relationships enhance well-being, and what prerequisites are needed for such relationships to occur?. Employees in health and social care for older people often depict their work in negative terms, and they often take a high number of sick leaves. Despite the heavy workload, other employees express well-being at work and highlight social relationships as one reason for this. However, a greater understanding of how these relationships can act as resources for workplace well-being is needed. The design of the study was qualitative and exploratory. Qualitative interview studies were conducted with twenty-three healthcare employees in municipal healthcare. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Two themes were identified as resources for promoting relationships between employees and care recipients or colleagues: (i) Being personal - a close interpersonal relationship to a care recipient - and (ii) Colleague belongingness - a sense of togetherness within the working group. Spending quality time together, providing long-term care and providing additional care were antecedents for a close interpersonal relationship with care recipients. Trust, mutual responsibility and cooperation were antecedents for a sense of togetherness within the working group. The findings provide an empirical base to raise awareness of relationships with care recipients and colleagues as health aspects. Relationships among employees in healthcare are vital resources that must be considered to create sustainable workplaces, and consequently improve the quality of care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Working together: critical care nurses experiences of temporary staffing within Swedish health care: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Jansson, Anna; Engström, Åsa

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to describe critical care nurses (CCN's) experiences of working with or as temporary agency staff. This explorative qualitative study is based on interviews with five agency CCNs and five regular CCNs, a total of ten interviews, focusing on the interviewees' experiences of daily work and temporary agency staffing. The interviews were analysed manually and thematically following an inductive approach. Four themes that illustrate both similarities and differences between regular and temporary agency CCNs emerged: "working close to patients versus being responsible for everything", "teamwork versus independence", "both groups needed" and "opportunities and challenges". The study findings illustrate the complexity of the working situation for agency and regular staff in terms of the organisation and management of the temporary agency nurses and the opportunities and challenges faced by both groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Drug Use and Sex Work Among At-risk Women: A Qualitative Study of Initial Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanfekr, Payam; Noori, Roya; Dejman, Masoumeh; Fathi Geshnigani, Zahra; Rafiey, Hassan

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in performing research on drug use and sex work among at-risk women. Although there is a well-documented literature of the initial reasons associated with drug use and sex work among women, there is, however, a paucity of information in this area in Iran. This study aimed to explore the initial reasons associated with drug use and sex work in a group of female treatment seekers, who presented health-related risk behaviors, in Tehran, Iran. This qualitative study enrolled a total of 65 at-risk women, from five women-specific drug clinics, who participated in the study in 2011. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted. Focus group interviews were conducted with 10 key informants. All interviews were audio-taped and thematically written. The recorded data were analyzed using ATLASti qualitative research software version 10. The median age of the sample was 34 years. In addition, 44.6% of subjects were opiate users, and 55.4% were users of opiates and methamphetamine. Sex work was the main source of income for almost half of the sample. The most frequently reported reasons, associated with initial drug use, were extrinsic motivations, including the drug-using family, friends or social networks. Intrinsic motivations, including curiosity and individual willingness to use drugs, were other initial reasons. The most frequently reported reasons, associated with initial sex work, included the need to purchase drugs and financial problems. The study findings demonstrated a number of reasons associated with initial drug use and sex work. The role of sex work in providing drugs necessitates education and prevention. Special treatment programs should be implemented to prevent sex work among at-risk women in Iran.

  19. Why older workers work beyond the retirement age: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewdas, Ranu; de Wind, Astrid; van der Zwaan, Lennart G L; van der Borg, Wieke E; Steenbeek, Romy; van der Beek, Allard J; Boot, Cécile R L

    2017-08-22

    The aims of the present study were to: 1) gain insight into reasons for working beyond the statutory retirement age from older workers' perspectives, and 2) explore how the domains of the research framework Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) can be applied to working beyond retirement age. A qualitative research design included individual interviews (n = 15) and three focus groups (n = 18 participants) conducted with older workers aged 65 years and older continuing in a paid job or self-employment. Interview participants were recruited from an existing STREAM cohort study. Focus group participants were recruited from companies and employment agencies. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. The most important motives for working beyond retirement age were maintaining daily routines and financial benefit. Good health and flexible work arrangements were mentioned as important preconditions. The themes emerging from the categorization of the motives and preconditions corresponded to the domains of health, work characteristics, skills and knowledge, and social and financial factors from the STREAM research framework. However, our analysis revealed one additional theme-purpose in life. This study offers important new insights into the various preconditions and motives that influence working beyond retirement age. In addition, the five domains of the STREAM research framework, including the additional domain of 'purpose in life', seem to be applicable to working beyond retirement age. This knowledge contributes to the development of work-related interventions that enhance older workers' motivation to prolong their working lives.

  20. Impact of Fatigue in Rheumatic Diseases in the Work Environment: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Connolly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is a symptom of arthritis that causes difficulty at work. An improved understanding of this symptom could assist its management in the work environment. The aim of this study was to explore people with rheumatic diseases’ experiences of fatigue in work. A qualitative descriptive design was used with semi-structured interviews and a constant comparative method of data analysis. There were 18 participants, the majority of them female with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA and working full-time. Three themes were identified: “Impact of fatigue on work performance” with cognition, mood and physical abilities being the main difficulties reported. In the second theme “Disclosure at Work” participants discussed disclosing their disease to employers but reported a lack of understanding of fatigue from colleagues. The final theme “work-based fatigue management strategies” included cognitive strategies and energy management techniques, which were mainly self-taught. In this study, fatigue was reported to impact on many areas of work performance with limited understanding from colleagues and employers. Interventions from health professionals to assist with development of work-related self-management skills are required to assist with symptom management in the work place. Such interventions should include education to employers and colleagues on the nature of fatigue in Rheumatic diseases.

  1. The impact of bipolar disorder upon work functioning: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Erin E; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Maxwell, Victoria; Hale, Sandra; Lam, Raymond W

    2007-01-01

    One important but sometimes poorly-captured area of functioning concerns an individual's ability to work. Several quantitative studies have now indicated that bipolar disorder (BD) can have a severe, and often enduring, negative impact upon occupational functioning. While this data indicates that employment rates are relatively low in this patient population, it throws little light on the specific ways in which this complex psychiatric condition can affect work, or upon how these effects are subjectively interpreted by individuals with BD. In order to further elucidate the relationship between BD and work, we report here on a series of exploratory qualitative interviews undertaken to develop a disease-specific measure of quality of life in BD. We conducted 52 interviews with people with BD (n = 35), their caregivers (n = 5) and healthcare professionals (n = 12) identified by both convenience and purposive sampling. The affected sample came from a variety of employment situations, ranging between people with no employment history through to those in highly skilled, stable professional positions. Interviews were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Respondents described the different ways in which the symptoms of depression and hypo/mania presented in the workplace. Five main themes emerged from the data: lack of continuity in work history, loss, illness management strategies in the workplace, stigma and disclosure in the workplace, and interpersonal problems at work. Patient outcome in BD has traditionally been determined by the assessment of clinical characteristics such as rates of relapse, hospitalization, or degree of symptom reduction. More recently, however, there has been increasing interest in expanding the assessment of outcome to include the measurement of indices such as functioning, a key facet of which relates to an individual's ability to work. The qualitative data obtained here highlights the often complex, varied and

  2. Perceived challenges of working in a fertility clinic: a qualitative analysis of work stressors and difficulties working with patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boivin, J.; Bunting, L.; Koert, E.; Ieng, U.C.; Verhaak, C.M.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What are some of the challenges of working in a fertility clinic? SUMMARY ANSWER: The most frequently mentioned challenges were workload (e.g. high time pressure) and patient-related sources (e.g. unrealistic expectations). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: One study showed a too high workload,

  3. A qualitative inquiry into work-family conflict among Indian doctors and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Suchitra

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this pilot study were to identify and examine job control, working long hours and their impact on work and family conflict (WFC) among four Indian doctors and nurses. The four participants had previously worked in the west and were now working in India. Employing a grounded theory approach data were analyzed using several coding procedures geared toward model development. For these four Indian doctors and nurses, job control was found to be grounded in two factors: type of work group control and a lack of control in the work environment. Working long hours is seen to be possible due to a culture accepting of working long hours, a supportive family system, and other arrangements at home.

  4. Healthcare workers' attitudes to working during pandemic influenza: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petts Judith I

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare workers (HCWs will play a key role in any response to pandemic influenza, and the UK healthcare system's ability to cope during an influenza pandemic will depend, to a large extent, on the number of HCWs who are able and willing to work through the crisis. UK emergency planning will be improved if planners have a better understanding of the reasons UK HCWs may have for their absenteeism, and what might motivate them to work during an influenza pandemic. This paper reports the results of a qualitative study that explored UK HCWs' views (n = 64 about working during an influenza pandemic, in order to identify factors that might influence their willingness and ability to work and to identify potential sources of any perceived duty on HCWs to work. Methods A qualitative study, using focus groups (n = 9 and interviews (n = 5. Results HCWs across a range of roles and grades tended to feel motivated by a sense of obligation to work through an influenza pandemic. A number of significant barriers that may prevent them from doing so were also identified. Perceived barriers to the ability to work included being ill oneself, transport difficulties, and childcare responsibilities. Perceived barriers to the willingness to work included: prioritising the wellbeing of family members; a lack of trust in, and goodwill towards, the NHS; a lack of information about the risks and what is expected of them during the crisis; fear of litigation; and the feeling that employers do not take the needs of staff seriously. Barriers to ability and barriers to willingness, however, are difficult to separate out. Conclusion Although our participants tended to feel a general obligation to work during an influenza pandemic, there are barriers to working, which, if generalisable, may significantly reduce the NHS workforce during a pandemic. The barriers identified are both barriers to willingness and to ability. This suggests that pandemic planning

  5. Preferences Of Doctors For Working In Rural Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Sana Azmat; Sarfraz, Mariyam; Kamran, Irum; Jadoon, Huma

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries are faced with acute shortages of human resources in rural/remote areas. Decisions of human resources for health to work in rural areas are influenced by many financial and non-financial factors. This study focused on preferences of doctors for working in rural and resource constrained areas of Pakistan. The study was based on qualitative research techniques. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with final year medical students and house officers and In-depth Interviews (IDIs) with senior health managers of Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT). Results were analyzed using qualitative content analysis technique to present the findings. The results showed that quality of facilities; career development, lack of incentives, quality of life, and lack of connectivity between rural and urban health facilities, transportation services and governance issues are some of the main factors identified by young doctors of ICT that contribute in their decision of choosing a certain job or not in rural areas. Study results show the indepth detail of deciding factors for attracting and retaining health workforce in rural areas. These can be used for designing DCE (Discrete Choice Experiment) questionnaire to further analyze the preference incentive packages for attracting doctors to work in rural Islamabad.

  6. Reluctance to Retire: A Qualitative Study on Work Identity, Intergenerational Conflict, and Retirement in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Michelle Pannor; Williams, Sarah A

    2018-03-19

    Some professions foster expectations that individuals cultivate their work identity above all other aspects of life. This can be problematic when individuals are confronted with the expectation that they will readily terminate this identity in later-career stages as institutions seek to cycle in new generations. This study examines the relationship between work identity and retirement by examining multiple generations of academic physicians. This study used a multimethod qualitative design that included document analysis, participant observation, focus groups, and in-depth interviews with academic physicians from one of the oldest departments of medicine in North America. This study illustrates how participants were predisposed and then groomed through institutional efforts to embrace a career trajectory that emphasized work above all else and fostered negative sensibilities about retirement. Participants across multiple generations described a lack of work-life balance and a prioritization of their careers above nonwork commitments. Assertions that less experienced physicians were not as dedicated to medicine and implicit assumptions that later-career physicians should retire emerged as key concerns. Strong work identity and tensions between different generations may confound concerns about retirement in ways that complicate institutional succession planning and that demonstrate how traditional understandings of retirement are out of date. Findings support the need to creatively reconsider the ways we examine relations between work identity, age, and retirement in ways that account for the recent extensions in the working lives of professionals.

  7. Why older workers work beyond the retirement age: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranu Sewdas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to: 1 gain insight into reasons for working beyond the statutory retirement age from older workers’ perspectives, and 2 explore how the domains of the research framework Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM can be applied to working beyond retirement age. Methods A qualitative research design included individual interviews (n = 15 and three focus groups (n = 18 participants conducted with older workers aged 65 years and older continuing in a paid job or self-employment. Interview participants were recruited from an existing STREAM cohort study. Focus group participants were recruited from companies and employment agencies. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results The most important motives for working beyond retirement age were maintaining daily routines and financial benefit. Good health and flexible work arrangements were mentioned as important preconditions. The themes emerging from the categorization of the motives and preconditions corresponded to the domains of health, work characteristics, skills and knowledge, and social and financial factors from the STREAM research framework. However, our analysis revealed one additional theme—purpose in life. Conclusion This study offers important new insights into the various preconditions and motives that influence working beyond retirement age. In addition, the five domains of the STREAM research framework, including the additional domain of ‘purpose in life’, seem to be applicable to working beyond retirement age. This knowledge contributes to the development of work-related interventions that enhance older workers’ motivation to prolong their working lives.

  8. Exploring novice nurses' needs regarding their work-related health: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaar, Sarah M; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2015-10-01

    To investigate Dutch novice nurses' experiences and needs regarding occupational health support to prevent work-related health problems and to keep them well-functioning. A qualitative interview study was conducted with six nursing students and eight newly qualified nurses. The interviews covered three topics: experiences with the link between work and health, received occupational health support, and occupational health support needs. Data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Participants reported experiences with work-related health problems early in their career and described experiences with how health problems lead to suboptimal work functioning. Occupational health support needs included knowledge and psychosocial support during nursing education, e.g. through paying attention to dealing with shift work, or career counselling. Also, they reported a need for knowledge and psychosocial support at the start of their clinical placement or new job in the hospital, e.g. information from occupational health services or having a mentor. Furthermore, they reported that occupational health support requires a more general place at work through offering knowledge, e.g. tailored advice on proper lifting position; psychosocial support, e.g. positive team atmosphere; and physical support, e.g. suitable preventive measures. Occupational health support for novice nurses is important, since they already experience work-related health problems and suboptimal work functioning due to health problems early in their career and while still in training to be a nurse. Novice nurses should be given more knowledge and support to help them stay healthy and well-functioning in their work. This is a joint responsibility of nurse educators, the employer and occupational health services.

  9. How Home Health Nurses Plan Their Work Schedules: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Elliane; Hirschman, Karen B; Cacchione, Pamela Z; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2018-06-12

    To describe how home health nurses plan their daily work schedules and what challenges they face during the planning process. Home health nurses are viewed as independent providers and value the nature of their work because of the flexibility and autonomy they hold in developing their work schedules. However, there is limited empirical evidence about how home health nurses plan their work schedules, including the factors they consider during the process and the challenges they face within the dynamic home health setting. Qualitative descriptive design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 registered nurses who had greater than 2 years of experience in home health and were employed by one of the three participating home health agencies in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Four themes emerged about planning work schedules and daily itineraries: identifying patient needs to prioritize visits accordingly, partnering with patients to accommodate their preferences, coordinating visit timing with other providers to avoid overwhelming patients, and working within agency standards to meet productivity requirements. Scheduling challenges included readjusting the schedule based on patient needs and staffing availability, anticipating longer visits, and maintaining continuity of care with patients. Home health nurses make autonomous decisions regarding their work schedules while considering specific patient and agency factors, and overcome challenges related to the unpredictable nature of providing care in a home health setting. Future research is needed to further explore nurse productivity in home health and improve home health work environments. Home health nurses plan their work schedules to provide high quality care that is patient-centered and timely. The findings also highlight organizational priorities to facilitate continuity of care and support nurses while alleviating the burnout

  10. How Does Staff Working at University Think About and Experience Leisure? (A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Ghanbari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: University staff plays an important role in breeding a healthy and prosperous generation. Their right for attending to interests and selfactualization are noticeable. This qualitative research has been conducted in order to understand and explain the perspective and experience of staff working at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (AJUMS about Leisure time. Methods: A qualitative study using purposeful sampling was performed among staff working in all parts of AJUMS about leisure time in 2012. The tool used for gathering data was a deep, semi-structured interview. Data saturation was achieved with 18 interviews. Findings from the interviews were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results: In this study, there were 5 themes for perspective and experience of staff, including meaningfulness and purposefulness of leisure time (physical, mental and social, leisure time activities (passing individual and in group, leisure time duration (more or less, and the same as the time of working, barriers for leisure time (personal, social, and environmental, and suggestions for how to spend leisure time (role of the person and community. The findings from participants’ views and experiences showed that they are not satisfied with their leisure pattern. With attention to working at university, they do not have efficient leisure time duration. Conclusion: Participants believed that leisure time is effective to improve their physical, psychological, and social performance. People spend their leisure time either individually or in groups. Personal, social, and environmental barriers highlight the role of an individual and society as a whole in increasing opportunities for better leisure.

  11. Empathy and stress in nurses working in haemodialysis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vioulac, Christel; Aubree, Colette; Massy, Ziad A; Untas, Aurélie

    2016-05-01

    To explore the concepts of empathy and stress in nurses working in haemodialysis units in France and their possible interactions. Nurses' work in haemodialysis is rather complex. It requires technical expertise, because of the peculiarity of the treatment, and emotional skills, to care for patients throughout a long-lasting therapy. Empathy is considered as a key in the concept of caring, which allows nurses to give appropriate answers to their patients' needs. In addition, nurses' work environment can generate stress. A qualitative descriptive design. Nurses (N = 23) working in haemodialysis units were interviewed in three different sites in 2014. The analysis of nurses' speech emphasized a predominance of the cognitive attributes of empathy: understanding, communication, adjusted response (43%), and a special feature of the relationship due to the chronicity of the care (23%). The main stressors highlighted were time management (14%), emergencies (12%) and technical nature of the task (8%). Nurses' experience in haemodialysis seemed to be a modulating factor regarding empathy and stress. The main stressors highlighted were time management (14%), emergencies (12%) and technical nature of the task (8%). Nurses' experience in haemodialysis seemed to be a modulating factor regarding empathy and stress. The results showed the special features of nurses' work in haemodialysis and the need for further studies to investigate these concepts. The influence of stress on empathy needs to be explored more precisely, especially regarding nurses' experience and its impact on patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Young consumers' considerations of healthy working conditions in purchasing decisions: a qualitative examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Shane M; Nordvall, Anna-Carin; Cukier, Wendy; Neumann, W Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Research has suggested that products manufactured under healthy work conditions (HWC) may provide a marketing advantage to companies. This paper explores young consumers' considerations of HWC in purchasing decisions using data from qualitative interviews with a sample of 21 university students. The results suggest that interviewees frequently considered the working conditions of those who produced the products they purchased. Participants reported a willingness to pay 17.5% more on a $100 product if it were produced under HWC compared to not. Their ability and willingness to act on this issue was, however, hampered by  a lack of credible information about working conditions in production, the limited availability of HWC goods and a presumed higher price of HWC goods. While caution should be applied when generalising from this targetable market segment to a general population, these results provide actionable direction for companies interested in using a HWC brand image to gain a strategic sales advantage. Practitioner Summary: This interview study shows that young consumers are interested in, and willing to pay a premium for, goods made under healthy working conditions (HWC). Reported barriers to acting on this impulse include a lack of credible information on working conditions. Ergonomics can help provide a strategic marketing advantage for companies.

  13. Timing of return to work and women's breastfeeding practices in urban Malaysia: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Zaharah; Liamputtong, Pranee; Amir, Lisa H

    2018-01-01

    Nearly half of the working population in Malaysia are women, and with only a short period of maternity leave, they may struggle to achieve the recommended 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of this paper was to explore the relationship between the timing of return to work and beliefs and breastfeeding practices among women in urban Malaysia. A qualitative inquiry based on a phenomenological framework and multiple methods was used: face-to-face interview, participant diary and researcher field notes. Data collection took place in Penang and the Klang Valley, Malaysia, from March to September 2011. Eligible participants were purposely identified at randomly selected recruitment sites. A thematic analysis method was used to develop the typologies and categories of the findings. A total of 40 working women with a mean age of 32 years (SD 3.4) were interviewed and 15 participated in the diary writing. Most women (75%) returned to work between 2 and 3 months. Only 10% returned to work 4 months or later postpartum, and 15% had an early return to work (defined here as less than 2 months). The women fell into three groups: Passionate women with a strong determination to breastfeed, who exclusively breastfed for 6 months; Ambivalent women, who commenced breastfeeding but were unable to sustain this after returning to work; and Equivalent women, who perceived formula feeding as equally nutritious as breast milk. Although longer maternity leave was very important for Ambivalent women to maintain breastfeeding, it was not as important for the Equivalent or Passionate women. In conclusion, returning earlier was not an absolute barrier to continuing breastfeeding. Instead, a woman's beliefs and perceptions of breastfeeding were more important than the timing of her return to work in determining her ability to maintain breastfeeding or breast milk feeding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Caring for women wanting a vaginal birth after previous caesarean section: A qualitative study of the experiences of midwives and obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foureur, Maralyn; Turkmani, Sabera; Clack, Danielle C; Davis, Deborah L; Mollart, Lyndall; Leiser, Bernadette; Homer, Caroline S E

    2017-02-01

    One of the greatest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate is elective repeat caesarean section. Decisions around mode of birth are often complex for women and influenced by the views of the doctors and midwives who care for and counsel women. Women may be more likely to choose a repeat elective caesarean section (CS) if their health care providers lack skills and confidence in supporting vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC). To explore the views and experiences of providers in caring for women considering VBAC, in particular the decision-making processes and the communication of risk and safety to women. A descriptive interpretive method was utilised. Four focus groups with doctors and midwives were conducted. The central themes were: 'developing trust', 'navigating the system' and 'optimising support'. The impact of past professional experiences; the critical importance of continuity of carer and positive relationships; the ability to weigh up risks versus benefits; and the language used were all important elements. The role of policy and guidelines on providing standardised care for women who had a previous CS was also highlighted. Midwives and doctors in this study were positively oriented towards assisting and supporting women to attempt a VBAC. Care providers considered that women who have experienced a prior CS need access to midwifery continuity of care with a focus on support, information-sharing and effective communication. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Primary care team working in Ireland: a qualitative exploration of team members' experiences in a new primary care service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Norelee; Armstrong, Claire; Woodward, Oonagh; Cullen, Walter

    2015-07-01

    Team working is an integral aspect of primary care, but barriers to effective team working can limit the effectiveness of a primary care team (PCT). The establishment of new PCTs in Ireland provides an excellent opportunity to explore team working in action. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of team members working in a PCT. Team members (n = 19) from two PCTs were interviewed from May to June 2010 using a semi-structured interview guide. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were analysed using NVivo (version 8). Thematic analysis was used to explore the data. We identified five main themes that described the experiences of the team members. The themes were support for primary care, managing change, communication, evolution of roles and benefits of team working. Team members were generally supportive of primary care and had experienced benefits to their practice and to the care of their patients from participation in the team. Regular team meetings enabled communication and discussion of complex cases. Despite the significant scope for role conflict due to the varied employment arrangements of the team members, neither role nor interpersonal conflict was evident in the teams studied. In addition, despite the unusual team structure in Irish PCTs - where there is no formally appointed team leader or manager - general issues around team working and its benefits and challenges were very similar to those found in other international studies. This suggests, in contrast to some studies, that some aspects of the leadership role may not be as important in successful PCT functioning as previously thought. Nonetheless, team leadership was identified as an important issue in the further development of the teams. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Factors Influencing Neurosurgeons’ Decision to Retain in a Work Location: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, Sima; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Physician retention is a serious concern to have an effective and efficient health system; the key challenge is how best to encourage and retain health providers in their work location. There have been considerable studies on factors influencing physicians’ retention but little research has been conducted in Iran. This study aims to determine the affecting factors from neurosurgeons’ viewpoint to support policy makers in proposing a sort of evidence based retention strategies. Methods: We conducted semi structured interviews with 17 neurosurgeons working in 9 provinces of Iran between September and November 2014. We included physicians remaining to work in a particular community for at least 3 years and asked them about the factors influenced their decision to retain in a work place. Data were thematically analyzed using “framework approach” for qualitative research. Results: Satisfaction with monetary incentives, availability of adequate clinical infrastructure in a community and appropriate working condition were most commonly cited factors mentioned by all participants as key reasons for retention. Furthermore elements which contributed to the quality of living condition, personal background and incentives, family convenience were emphasized by majority of them. A small number of participants mentioned opportunity for continuing learning and updating knowledge as well as supportive organizational policies as important motivators in a workplace. Conclusion: Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) should consider a multifaceted and holistic approach to improve neurosurgeons’ retention in their work location. Our findings suggests a combination of financial remuneration, establishment of adequate hospitals and clinical facilities, collaborative working environment with reasonable workload, proper living condition, family support and facilities for professional development to be employed as an effective strategy for promoting

  17. Meta-synthesis of qualitative research on return to work among employees with common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Malene Friis; Nielsen, Karina M; Brinkmann, Svend

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate which opportunities and obstacles employees with common mental disorders (CMD) experience in relation to return to work (RTW) and how they perceive the process of returning to work. In addition, the study explores what characterizes an optimal RTW intervention and points to possible ways to improve future interventions for employees with CMD. A systematic literature search was conducted, and eight qualitative studies of medium or high quality published between 1995-2011 were included in this systematic review. The eight studies were synthesized using the meta-ethnographic method. This meta-synthesis found that employees with CMD identify a number of obstacles to and facilitators of returning to work related to their own personality, social support at the workplace, and the social and rehabilitation systems. The employees found it difficult to decide when they were ready to resume work and experienced difficulties implementing RTW solutions at the workplace. This study reveals that the RTW process should be seen as a continuous and coherent one where experiences of the past and present and anticipation of the future are dynamically interrelated and affect the success or failure of RTW. The meta-synthesis also illuminates insufficient coordination between the social and rehabilitation systems and suggests how an optimal RTW intervention could be designed.

  18. Coming and staying: a qualitative exploration of Registered Nurses' experiences working in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Dawn; Black, Margaret

    2007-09-01

    Aim. This paper reports on a qualitative study that explored the reasons why Registered Nurses (RNs) chose to work in nursing homes in Southern Ontario, Canada and what factors attracted them to remain. Background.  There is a paucity of information about factors associated with the recruitment and retention of RNs within long-term care (LTC) in Canada. As the population of older people is growing in Canada and elsewhere, it is essential that we better understand what attracts RNs to work and remain in this setting. Design and method. A case study approach was used in this study of nine RNs working in three nursing homes. Data were collected through in-depth interviews. Findings. Six sub-themes were identified: 'Job of Choice', 'Job of Convenience', 'Caring for the Residents', 'A Supportive Environment', 'Heavy Workload' and 'Supervisory Role of the RN'. Conclusion. Nurses chose to work in the nursing home because it was a 'Job of Convenience'. However, characteristics of the organizational environment played a major role in their remaining. Also, the caring relationship with residents played a role in the nurses remaining in this setting. Relevance to clinical practice. Strategies are provided that nurse managers may consider when planning recruitment and retention activities for LTC settings.

  19. A qualitative study about immigrant workers' perceptions of their working conditions in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, E Q; Porthé, V; Vázquez, M L; García, A M; López-Jacob, M J; Ruiz-Frutos, C; Ronda-Pérez, E; Benach, J; Benavides, F G

    2009-11-01

    Spain has recently become an inward migration country. Little is known about the occupational health of immigrant workers. This study aimed to explore the perceptions that immigrant workers in Spain had of their working conditions. Qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study. Criterion sampling. Data collected between September 2006 and May 2007 through semi-structured focus groups and individual interviews, with a topic guide. One hundred and fifty-eight immigrant workers (90 men/68 women) from Colombia (n = 21), Morocco (n = 39), sub-Saharan Africa (n = 29), Romania (n = 44) and Ecuador (n = 25), who were authorised (documented) or unauthorised (undocumented) residents in five medium to large cities in Spain. Participants described poor working conditions, low pay and health hazards. Perception of hazards appeared to be related to gender and job sector. Informants were highly segregated into jobs by sex, however, so this issue will need further exploration. Undocumented workers described poorer conditions than documented workers, which they attributed to their documentation status. Documented participants also felt vulnerable because of their immigrant status. Informants believed that deficient language skills, non-transferability of their education and training and, most of all, their immigrant status and economic need left them with little choice but to work under poor conditions. The occupational health needs of immigrant workers must be addressed at the job level, while improving the enforcement of existing health and safety regulations. The roles that documentation status and economic need played in these informants' work experiences should be considered and how these may influence health outcomes.

  20. GPs' perspectives on the diagnostic work-up in patients with shoulder pain: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheijm, Ramon P G; Hesselmans, Nicolle J J M; Kemper, Anouk; Moser, Albine; de Bie, Rob A; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Cals, Jochen W L

    2014-06-01

    The diagnostic work-up of patients with shoulder pain in general practice is complex. General practitioners' (GPs) guidelines advise a pragmatic diagnostic work-up in which additional imaging has a limited role. However, diagnostic ultrasounds are increasingly ordered by GPs, which seems to reflect complexity in management of shoulder pain. This study aimed to explore GPs' perspectives on the diagnostic work-up of patients with shoulder pain. This study has a qualitative exploratory design with an inductive approach and was carried out in Dutch general practice. The study population consisted of 18 Dutch GPs who were sampled purposefully with a spread in clinical experience and ordering diagnostic ultrasound. Data were gathered by means of semi-structured interviews and analysed following principles of the constant comparative method. Three main categories with subcategories emerged that captured the diagnostic work-up of shoulder pain: variety in diagnostic classifications [(non-)specific diagnosis and interdisciplinary differences], establishing strategies for diagnostic work-up (use of existing tools and motives to deviate from existing tools), and strategies dealing with diagnostic uncertainties (accepting diagnostic uncertainties, diagnostic imaging tests, and interdisciplinary consultation and referral). Despite the availability of evidence-based shoulder guidelines, GPs experience uncertainties during diagnostic work-up and apply different strategies when dealing with these uncertainties. At some point, GPs as well as patients seem to have a need for a specific diagnosis. Currently, there appears to be little agreement if, or in which phase of shoulder pain, diagnostic ultrasound is useful or indicated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Scaffolding and working together: a qualitative exploration of strategies for everyday life with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Louise; Robertson, Jane; Kelly, Fiona

    2018-03-01

    living with dementia has been described as a process of continual change and adjustment, with people with dementia and their families adopting informal strategies to help manage everyday life. As dementia progresses, families increasingly rely on help from the wider community and formal support. this article reports on a secondary analysis of qualitative data from focus groups and individual interviews with people with dementia and their carers in the North of England. In total, 65 people with dementia and 82 carers took part in the research: 26 in interviews and 121 in focus groups. Focus group and interview audio recordings were transcribed verbatim. A qualitative, inductive, thematic approach was taken for data analysis. the article applies the metaphor of scaffolding to deepen understanding of the strategies used by families. Processes of scaffolding were evident across the data where families, communities, professionals and services worked together to support everyday life for people with dementia. Within this broad theme of scaffolding were three sub-themes characterising the experiences of families living with dementia: doing things together; evolving strategies; and fragility and fear of the future. families with dementia are resourceful but do need increasing support (scaffolding) to continue to live as well as possible as dementia progresses. More integrated, proactive work is required from services that recognises existing scaffolds and provides appropriate support before informal strategies become unsustainable; thus enabling people with dementia to live well for longer. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Qualitative assessment of the CEE arrangement - Second period 2011-2013. The Certificates of Energy Savings: an arrangement which catalyses decision by households for energy saving works. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    After previous assessments on energy savings, costs, and potentials, this publication reports a qualitative assessment of the CEE arrangement (certificate of energy savings). The objective is to get a better insight into decision making by the final consumer. After a brief presentation of the survey methodology, the report describes the CEEs as a catalyst for higher performance works. The survey highlighted the incentive effect of the CEE premium, and the lever effect of advice and information. The report also outlines that the CEE is an additional tool to other public aids. It indicates that works are highly motivated by a search for energy savings, and are actually efficient to meet this objective

  3. Can inequality be tamed through boundary work? A qualitative study of health promotion aimed at reducing health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Pia Vivian; Hjelmar, Ulf; Høybye, Mette Terp; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines the organisational dynamics that arise in health promotion aimed at reducing health inequalities. The paper draws on ethnographic fieldwork among public health officers in Danish municipalities and qualitative interviews from an evaluation of health promotion programmes targeting homeless and other marginalised citizens. Analytically, we focus on 'boundary work', i.e. the ways in which social and symbolic boundaries are established, maintained, transgressed and negotiated, both at the administrative level and among frontline professionals. The paper discusses three types of boundary work: (i) demarcating professional domains; (ii) setting the boundaries of the task itself; and (iii) managing administrative boundaries. The main argument is that the production, maintenance and transgression of these three types of boundaries constitute central and time-consuming aspects of the practices of public health professionals, and that boundary work constitutes an important element in professional practices seeking to 'tame a wicked problem', such as social inequalities in health. A cross-cutting feature of the three types of boundary work is the management of the divide between health and social issues, which the professionals seemingly seek to uphold and transgress at the same time. The paper thus contributes to ongoing discussions of intersectoral action to address health inequalities. Furthermore, it extends the scope and application of the concept of boundary work in the sociology of public health by suggesting that the focus in previous research on professional demarcation be broadened in order to capture other types of boundaries that shape, and are shaped by, professional practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring the experiences of EU qualified doctors working in the United Kingdom: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legido-Quigley, Helena; Saliba, Vanessa; McKee, Martin

    2015-04-01

    This qualitative study of 23 doctors from other EU member states working in the UK highlights that, contrary to media reports, doctors from other member states working in the UK were well prepared and their main motivation to migrate was to learn new skills and experience a new health care system. Interviewees highlighted some aspects of their employment that work well and others that need improving. Some interviewees reported initially having language problems, but most noted that this was resolved after a few months. These doctors overwhelmingly reported having very positive experiences with patients, enjoying a NHS structure that was less hierarchical structure than in their home systems, and appreciating the emphasis on evidence-based medicine. Interviewees mostly complained about the lack of cleanliness of hospitals and gave some examples of risk to patient safety. Interviewees did not experience discrimination other than some instances of patronising and snobbish behaviour. However, a few believed that their nationality was a block to achieving senior positions. Overall, interviewees reported having enjoyable experiences with patients and appreciating what the NHS had to offer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Technological Health Intervention in Population Aging to Assist People to Work Smarter not Harder: Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Technology-based health care has been promoted as an effective tool to enable clinicians to work smarter. However, some health stakeholders believe technology will compel users to work harder by creating extra work. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate how and why electronic health (eHealth) has been applied in Taiwan and to suggest implications that may inspire other countries facing similar challenges. Methods A qualitative methodology was adopted to obtain insightful inputs from deeper probing. Taiwan was selected as a typical case study, given its aging population, advanced technology, and comprehensive health care system. This study investigated 38 stakeholders in the health care ecosystem through in-depth interviews and focus groups, which provides an open, flexible, and enlightening way to study complex, dynamic, and interactive situations through informal conversation or a more structured, directed discussion. Results First, respondents indicated that the use of technology can enable seamless patient care and clinical benefits such as flexibility in time management. Second, the results suggested that a leader’s vision, authority, and management skills might influence success in health care innovation. Finally, the results implied that both internal and external organizational governance are highly relevant for implementing technology-based innovation in health care. Conclusions This study provided Taiwanese perspectives on how to intelligently use technology to benefit health care and debated the perception that technology prevents human interaction between clinicians and patients. PMID:29301736

  6. Through doctors' eyes: A qualitative study of hospital doctor perspectives on their working conditions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, Yvonne

    2013-03-11

    BACKGROUND: Hospital doctors face significant challenges in the current health care environment, working with staff shortages and cutbacks to health care expenditure, alongside increased demand for health care and increased public expectations. OBJECTIVE: This article analyses challenges faced by junior hospital doctors, providing insight into the experiences of these frontline staff in delivering health services in recessionary times. DESIGN: A qualitative methodology was chosen. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 doctors from urban Irish hospitals. Interviews were recorded via note taking. Full transcripts were analysed thematically using NVivo software. RESULTS: Dominant themes included the following: (1) unrealistic workloads: characterised by staff shortages, extended working hours, irregular and frequently interrupted breaks; (2) fatigue and its impact: the quality of care provided to patients while doctors were sleep-deprived was questioned; however, little reflection was given to any impact this may have had on junior doctors own health; (3) undervalued and disillusioned: insufficient training, intensive workloads and a perceived lack of power to influence change resulted in a sense of detachment among junior doctors. They appeared immune to their surroundings. CONCLUSION: Respondents ascribed little importance to the impact of current working conditions on their own health. They felt their roles were underappreciated and undervalued by policy makers and hospital management. Respondents were concerned with the lack of time and opportunity for training. This study highlighted several \\'red flags\\

  7. Work-family balance by women GP specialist trainees in Slovenia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petek, Davorina; Gajsek, Tadeja; Petek Ster, Marija

    2016-01-28

    Women physicians face many challenges while balancing their many roles: doctor, specialist trainee, mother and partner. The most opportune biological time for a woman to start a family coincides with a great deal of demands and requirements at work. In this study we explored the options and capabilities of women GP specialist trainees in coordinating their family and career. This is a phenomenological qualitative research. Ten GP specialist trainees from urban and rural areas were chosen by the purposive sampling technique, and semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted, recorded, transcribed and analysed by using thematic analysis process. Open coding and the book of codes were formed. Finally, we performed the process of code reduction by identifying the themes, which were compared, interpreted and organised in the highest analytical units--categories. One hundred fifty-five codes were identified in the analysis, which were grouped together into eleven themes. The identified themes are: types, causes and consequences of burdens, work as pleasure and positive attitude toward self, priorities, planning and help, and understanding of superiors, disburdening and changing in specialisation. The themes were grouped into four large categories: burdens, empowerment, coordination and needs for improvement. Women specialist trainees encounter intense burdens at work and home due to numerous demands and requirements during their specialisation training. In addition, there is also the issue of the work-family conflict. There are many consequences regarding burden and strain; however, burnout stands out the most. In contrast, reconciliation of work and family life and needs can be successful. The key element is empowerment of women doctors. The foremost necessary systemic solution is the reinforcement of general practitioners in primary health care and their understanding of the specialisation training scheme with more flexible possibilities for time adaptations of

  8. Intersecting Interests: Qualitative Research Synthesis on Art in the Social Work Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Wehbi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a qualitative research synthesis that explored the intersections between art and social work. The scholarship notes a rise in interest in integrating creative arts practices in social work classrooms from assignment design to classroom activities. Also highlighted are the potential contributions of these arts-informed practices to teaching about topics related to oppression. The synthesis presented in this paper explored this potential through an interpretivist analysis of articles on the intersection of art and social work. Findings highlight the contribution of this approach to enhancing student engagement and critical reflexivity; creating a sense of collectivity and solidarity in the classroom; as well as transforming the role of the educator. Findings suggest the need for further research to explore the potential contributions of arts-informed approaches in social work education beyond a single classroom. Cet article présente la synthèse d’une recherche qualitative qui a exploré les intersections entre l’art et le travail social. Les recherches effectuées indiquent qu’il existe une augmentation de l’intérêt à intégrer les pratiques des arts créatifs dans les salles de classe de travail social, allant de la conception des devoirs aux activités en salle de classe. Les contributions potentielles de ces pratiques qui intègrent l’art à l’enseignement de sujets liés à l’oppression sont également mises en relief. Les synthèses présentées dans cet article explorent ce potentiel par le biais d’une analyse interprétative d’articles qui se situent à l’intersection de l’art et du travail social. Les résultats mettent en relief la contribution de cette approche à l’amélioration de l’engagement des étudiants et de la réflexion critique; à la création d’un sens de collectivité et de solidarité dans la salle de classe; ainsi qu’à la transformation du rôle de l

  9. [Role transition and working adaption in new nursing graduates: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Pei-Fen; Hu, Hsiao-Chen; Huang, Su-Fei; Chen, Hsiao-Lien

    2010-12-01

    The role transition process is full of stresses and challenges for nurses. Between 35-61% nurses leave their job within the first year. Past cross-sectional quantitative studies have not provided deep descriptions of either the dynamic role transition or work adaption processes of new nurses. The purpose of this study was to understand the role transition experience of new nurses as they transitioned into clinical practice during their first three months on the job. A qualitative approach was used. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview from 50 new nurses. Data were analyzed using category-content analysis. Three stages were identified in the new nurse work adaption process over the first three-month period. These included (1) Understanding: New nurse knowledge and skills are insufficient to handle routine work, adapting to the role transition is difficult, feelings of anxiety emerge related to fears of incompetence, communication difficulties must be faced in the handover process, new nurses adopt feelings of attachment to their preceptors, they must work to adopt appropriate attitudes and approaches to nursing practice, and support is sought from family, teachers and friends; (2) Acclimation: Learning to care for patients independently, seeking role models, learning to adapt to night shifts, trying to identify with co-workers, and seeking support from colleagues, preceptors and head nurses; (3) Acceptance: Managing nursing work better in terms of time and organization, feeling gradual acceptance from co-workers, restoring personal enthusiasm for work, starting to consider other, non-work related matters, experiencing and appreciating the support of co-workers and head nurses. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATION: New nurses face a critical role transition process through their first three months on the job. Guidance and leadership from experienced nurses and multiple support systems can assist new nurses to acclimate to their role. Research results provide

  10. Understanding Dieting and Previous Weight Loss Attempts among Overweight and Obese Participants: Insights into My Body Is Fit and Fabulous at Work Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku; Jalil, Rohana Abdul; Wan Ishak, Wan Rosli; Hamid, Noor Fadzlina; Wan Nik, Wan Suriati; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan; Mohd, Nor Haslina; Arifin, Wan Nor; Mohamed, Wan Mohd Izani Wan; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Ismail, Rohaida; Hassim, Tengku Fatimatul Tengku; Aris, Tahir; Wan Muda, Wan Manan

    2018-01-01

    A qualitative study providing an in-depth exploration of people's view and the increasing burden of overweight and obesity is required. This study aimed to explore the understanding of dieting and previous experiences on weight loss attempts among overweight and obese government employees in Kelantan, Malaysia, prior to recruitment into the intervention program. Thirteen focus group discussions involving 129 participants from a weight-loss intervention program were conducted within the first 1 month of recruitment. These discussions were moderated by two trained researchers in the Malay language and assisted by an interview guide. They were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis was performed, and codes and themes from each discussion were constructed. The participants understood dieting with various meanings, including skipping meals and removing rice from daily diets. They applied numerous methods to lose weight and achieved various outcomes. Health and appearance, social support, and compliance with current trends were the factors motivating these participants to lose weight. Their determination to lose weight was limited by lack of self-control and motivation, experiences of unpleasant effects, influence on weight, and environmental and health factors. Real-life weight loss experiences and perceptions provided relevant insights into current weight loss management strategies. Some of these issues and misunderstandings should be emphasized in weight loss strategies during health promotion.

  11. A qualitative exploration of the work of embodiment in adolescent girls with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liné, C; Moro, M R; Lefèvre, H; Thievenaz, J; Lachal, J

    2016-10-01

    Social representations generally associate obesity, especially in adolescent girls, with sedentariness, lack of self-control and laziness. These girls thus have substantial problems of self-esteem. Dietary, lifestyle and behavioural approaches alone cannot address this issue, for they do not apprehend all of the complexity of obesity. This qualitative study is based on a dual observation: that the work performed by adolescents is unrecognized and that the body is not considered as a subject of analysis. It raises the question of the corporality of these teens through an original perspective: that of the perspective of their organization of actions on, to and by the body, in specific situations. The objective is to have access to the corporal experience of young girls with obesity, so that we can understand and support them better. The data come from semi-directive interviews with 10 adolescent girls with obesity. The content was analysed in terms of concepts of professional didactics (a branch of educational psychology) and enaction. Five situations were identified from these interviews: the first, shopping with friends, concerns actions by the subjects towards their bodies; the other four are enacted actions: conduct towards a normal-weight person, conduct in public transportation, performing physical activity, and eating. The results show the work of these young women with obesity, the means they mobilize to live in their bodies and their considerable efforts of embodiment. Recognition of this work should help to enhance their self-esteem. Treatment and support may take this dimension of work into account and help them to become aware of the efforts they make every day. © 2016 World Obesity.

  12. Motivations for active commuting: a qualitative investigation of the period of home or work relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Caroline H D; Ogilvie, David

    2012-09-11

    Promoting walking or cycling to work (active commuting) could help to increase population physical activity levels. According to the habit discontinuity and residential self-selection hypotheses, moving home or workplace is a period when people (re)assess, and may be more likely to change, their travel behavior. Research in this area is dominated by the use of quantitative research methods, but qualitative approaches can provide in-depth insight into the experiences and processes of travel behavior change. This qualitative study aimed to explore experiences and motivations regarding travel behavior around the period of relocation, in an effort to understand how active commuting might be promoted more effectively. Participants were recruited from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort in the UK. Commuters who had moved home, workplace or both between 2009 and 2010 were identified, and a purposive sample was invited to participate in semi-structured interviews regarding their experiences of, and travel behavior before and after, relocating. A grounded theory approach was taken to analysis. Twenty-six commuters participated. Participants were motivated by convenience, speed, cost and reliability when selecting modes of travel for commuting. Physical activity was not a primary motivation, but incidental increases in physical activity were described and valued in association with active commuting, the use of public transport and the use of park-and-ride facilities. Emphasizing and improving the relative convenience, cost, speed and reliability of active commuting may be a more promising approach to promoting its uptake than emphasizing the health benefits, at least around the time of relocation. Providing good quality public transport and free car parking within walking or cycling distance of major employment sites may encourage the inclusion of active travel in the journey to work, particularly for people who live too far from work to walk or cycle the

  13. Motivations for active commuting: a qualitative investigation of the period of home or work relocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Caroline HD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoting walking or cycling to work (active commuting could help to increase population physical activity levels. According to the habit discontinuity and residential self-selection hypotheses, moving home or workplace is a period when people (reassess, and may be more likely to change, their travel behavior. Research in this area is dominated by the use of quantitative research methods, but qualitative approaches can provide in-depth insight into the experiences and processes of travel behavior change. This qualitative study aimed to explore experiences and motivations regarding travel behavior around the period of relocation, in an effort to understand how active commuting might be promoted more effectively. Methods Participants were recruited from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort in the UK. Commuters who had moved home, workplace or both between 2009 and 2010 were identified, and a purposive sample was invited to participate in semi-structured interviews regarding their experiences of, and travel behavior before and after, relocating. A grounded theory approach was taken to analysis. Results Twenty-six commuters participated. Participants were motivated by convenience, speed, cost and reliability when selecting modes of travel for commuting. Physical activity was not a primary motivation, but incidental increases in physical activity were described and valued in association with active commuting, the use of public transport and the use of park-and-ride facilities. Conclusions Emphasizing and improving the relative convenience, cost, speed and reliability of active commuting may be a more promising approach to promoting its uptake than emphasizing the health benefits, at least around the time of relocation. Providing good quality public transport and free car parking within walking or cycling distance of major employment sites may encourage the inclusion of active travel in the journey to work

  14. [Work accommodation at the time of Return-to-Work for workers on sick leave: a qualitative systematic review with recommendations for Return-to-work Guidance 2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Kojimahara, Noriko

    2018-03-12

    We conducted a systematic review to determine whether work accommodation at the time of return-to-work (RTW) following a period of sick leave would improve work-related outcomes. Using a Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, we developed recommendations applicable to the field of occupational health in Japan. We approached our review question for "Evidence-based Return-to-work Guidance in Occupational Health 2017 (RTW 2017)" using a PICO framework (P: workers on sick leave; I: work accommodation; C: usual care; O: improvement of work-related outcomes, such as shortened sick leave period or lower rate of sick leave recurrence). To identify relevant intervention studies about work accommodation at the time of RTW, for example, modified work or partial RTW, we searched Cochrane Library, PubMed, and ICHUSHI Web using keywords/phrases such as workplace accommodation, partial RTW, rehabilitation, and modified work. Although we found no systematic reviews, we did identify 632 randomized controlled trials and cohort studies. Two researchers screened them independently using selection and exclusion criteria defined by the RTW guidance committee in the scope. For intervention studies, we extracted PICO and evaluated risk of bias using RevMan 5.3. For cohort studies, we applied the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for evaluation of risk of bias. We then evaluated the body of evidence based on risk of bias, indirectness, inconsistency, imprecision, and publication bias using GRADEPro GDT. Finally, we adopted Evidence to Decision from GRADE and developed recommendations based on anonymous panels' votes. We identified three relevant studies, which were one randomized controlled trial and two cohort studies, on Partial RTW or modified work for musculoskeletal disorders. Although we could not conduct a meta-analysis, our qualitative systematic review of these studies led us to conclude that partial RTW could shorten the period of sick leave and

  15. Work-based assessment: qualitative perspectives of novice nutrition and dietetics educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, C; Beck, E J; Chung, A; Ash, S; Capra, S; Truby, H; Jolly, B

    2014-10-01

    The assessment of competence for health professionals including nutrition and dietetics professionals in work-based settings is challenging. The present study aimed to explore the experiences of educators involved in the assessment of nutrition and dietetics students in the practice setting and to identify barriers and enablers to effective assessment. A qualitative research approach using in-depth interviews was employed with a convenience sample of inexperienced dietitian assessors. Interviews explored assessment practices and challenges. Data were analysed using a thematic approach within a phenomenological framework. Twelve relatively inexperienced practice educators were purposefully sampled to take part in the present study. Three themes emerged from these data. (i) Student learning and thus assessment is hindered by a number of barriers, including workload demands and case-mix. Some workplaces are challenged to provide appropriate learning opportunities and environment. Adequate support for placement educators from the university, managers and their peers and planning are enablers to effective assessment. (ii) The role of the assessor and their relationship with students impacts on competence assessment. (iii) There is a lack of clarity in the tasks and responsibilities of competency-based assessment. The present study provides perspectives on barriers and enablers to effective assessment. It highlights the importance of reflective practice and feedback in assessment practices that are synonymous with evidence from other disciplines, which can be used to better support a work-based competency assessment of student performance. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Working with teams of "insiders": Qualitative approaches to data collection in the Global South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enid Schatz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The convergence of two qualitative methodological strategies - working in "teams" and with "insiders" - can facilitate access, efficiency, and insights into research questions of interest to demographers. Even though this approach is becoming more common among population researchers in the Global South to address a range of research questions, little has been published that describes the method and critically assesses its strengths and weaknesses. Objective: We draw on three projects embedded in the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System site in rural South Africa that integrate both approaches to demonstrate the benefits and limitations of this strategy. Methods: We document, through in-depth description, how these three projects achieve access, efficiency, and insights into issues of population concern (HIV/AIDS, aging, and child wellbeing utilizing a "team-insider" approach by working with groups of local research assistants. Conclusions: The projects vary in their use of "teams" and "insiders" but collectively deepen our understanding of pressing population concerns in the Global South. In particular, by using teams of insiders, these projects gain insights into local ideas about HIV, uncover ways that HIV affects older women's lives, and provide in-depth understanding of children's social connections. The approach also presents a number of challenges, however, such as grappling with the responsibilities and burdens that are placed on local insider team members.

  17. A qualitative study investigating the barriers to returning to work for breastfeeding mothers in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Deirdre; Meaney, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that mothers exclusively breastfeed for the first 6 months of an infant's life. In Ireland, currently paid maternity leave is 26 weeks and the expectant mother is required by law to finish work 2 weeks before her expected delivery date. Mothers wishing to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months or longer find themselves having to take holiday leave or unpaid leave from work in order to meet the WHO's guidelines. The aim of this study is to explore women's experiences of breastfeeding after their return to work in Ireland. This study was carried out utilizing a qualitative design. Initially 25 women who returned to the workforce while continuing to breastfeed were contacted, 16 women returned consent forms and were subsequently contacted to take part in an interview. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was employed to establish recurring patterns and themes throughout the interviews. Women noted that cultural attitudes in Ireland coupled with inadequate or inconsistent advice from health professionals posed the biggest challenge they had to overcome in order to achieve to 6 months exclusive breastfeeding. The findings of this study illustrate that mothers with the desire to continue to breastfeed after their return to work did so with some difficulty. Many did not disclose to their employers that they were breastfeeding and did not make enquiries about being facilitated to continue to breastfeed after their return to the workplace. The perceived lack of support from their employers as well as embarrassment about their breastfeeding status meant many women concealed that they were breastfeeding after their return to the workplace. While it has been suggested that WHO guidelines for exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months may be unattainable for many women due to work commitments, a different problem exists in Ireland. Mothers struggle to overcome cultural and societal obstacles coupled

  18. Doing mental health care integration: a qualitative study of a new work role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Merry, Jennifer; Gillespie, Jim; Hancock, Nicola; Yen, Ivy

    2015-01-01

    Mental health care in Australia is fragmented and inaccessible for people experiencing severe and complex mental ill-health. Partners in Recovery is a Federal Government funded scheme that was designed to improve coordination of care and needs for this group. Support Facilitators are the core service delivery component of this scheme and have been employed to work with clients to coordinate their care needs and, through doing so, bring the system closer together. To understand how Partners in Recovery Support Facilitators establish themselves as a new role in the mental health system, their experiences of the role, the challenges that they face and what has enabled their work. In-depth qualitative interviews were carried out with 15 Support Facilitators and team leaders working in Partners in Recovery in two regions in Western Sydney (representing approximately 35 % of those working in these roles in the regions). Analysis of the interview data focused on the work that the Support Facilitators do, how they conceptualise their role and enablers and barriers to their work. The support facilitator role is dominated by efforts to seek out, establish and maintain connections of use in addressing their clients' needs. In doing this Support Facilitators use existing interagency forums and develop their own ad hoc groupings through which they can share knowledge and help each other. Support Facilitators also use these groups to educate the sector about Partners in Recovery, its utility and their own role. The diversity of support facilitator backgrounds are seen as both and asset and a barrier and they describe a process of striving to establish an internally collective identity as well as external role clarity and acceptance. At this early stage of PIR establishment, poor communication was identified as the key barrier to Support Facilitators' work. We find that the Support Facilitators are building the role from within and using trial and error to develop their practice

  19. Technological Health Intervention in Population Aging to Assist People to Work Smarter not Harder: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sonia Chien-I

    2018-01-04

    Technology-based health care has been promoted as an effective tool to enable clinicians to work smarter. However, some health stakeholders believe technology will compel users to work harder by creating extra work. The objective of this study was to investigate how and why electronic health (eHealth) has been applied in Taiwan and to suggest implications that may inspire other countries facing similar challenges. A qualitative methodology was adopted to obtain insightful inputs from deeper probing. Taiwan was selected as a typical case study, given its aging population, advanced technology, and comprehensive health care system. This study investigated 38 stakeholders in the health care ecosystem through in-depth interviews and focus groups, which provides an open, flexible, and enlightening way to study complex, dynamic, and interactive situations through informal conversation or a more structured, directed discussion. First, respondents indicated that the use of technology can enable seamless patient care and clinical benefits such as flexibility in time management. Second, the results suggested that a leader's vision, authority, and management skills might influence success in health care innovation. Finally, the results implied that both internal and external organizational governance are highly relevant for implementing technology-based innovation in health care. This study provided Taiwanese perspectives on how to intelligently use technology to benefit health care and debated the perception that technology prevents human interaction between clinicians and patients. ©Sonia Chien-I Chen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 04.01.2018.

  20. Difficulties experienced by migrant physicians working in German hospitals: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingler, Corinna; Marckmann, Georg

    2016-09-23

    With Germany facing a shortage of doctors, hospitals have been increasingly recruiting physicians from abroad. Studies in other countries have shown that migrant physicians experience various difficulties in their work, which might impact the quality of patient care, physician job satisfaction, and, accordingly, retention. The experiences of migrant doctors in Germany have not been systematically studied so far and will likely differ from experiences migrant physicians make in other contexts. A thorough understanding of challenges faced by this group, however, is needed to develop adequate support structures-as required by the WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel. A qualitative study was conducted to give an overview of the multifaceted difficulties migrant physicians might face in German hospitals. Twenty semi-structured interviews with foreign-born and foreign-trained physicians were conducted in German. Participants were recruited via the State Chambers of Physicians and snowballing based on a maximum variation sampling strategy varying purposefully by source country and medical specialty. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Participants described difficulties relating to healthcare institutions, own competencies, and interpersonal interactions. Participants experienced certain legal norms, the regulation of licensure and application for work, and the organization of the hospital environment as inadequate. Most struggled with their lack of setting-specific (language, cultural, clinical, and system) knowledge. Furthermore, behaviour of patients and co-workers was perceived as discriminating or inadequate for other reasons. This is the first study to describe the broad range of issues migrant physicians experience in Germany. Based on this information, institutional actors should devise support structures to ensure quality of care, physician wellbeing, and

  1. A qualitative study exploring the impact of student nurses working part time as a health care assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Felicity; McKenna, Hugh P; Keeney, Sinead

    2013-08-01

    National and international evidence indicates that university students engage in employment whilst studying. Research has suggested that nursing students either enter training with previous care experience or tend to work part time in a health related area whilst undertaking higher education. The impact of this on the socialisation process remains unclear. Based on the symbolic interactionist framework, this paper reports on a theme from a large mixed methods study - the extent and implications of student nurses' work experience on learning and training. One qualitative stage from a sequential exploratory mixed methods design. One higher education institution in the United Kingdom. Forty-five pre-registration nursing students. Thirty-two students took part in four focus groups and 13 took part in individual interviews. Findings revealed that 27 (60%) of students were in paid nursing related employment. This was reported to be advantageous by most participants with regards to enhancing confidence, skills and time spent in the clinical setting. However, it was also perceived by a small number of participants as being detrimental to subsequent learning resulting in role confusion, influencing placement behaviour, and preferences for future nursing practice. Student participants with no prior work experience believed this placed them at a disadvantage, negatively influencing their learning, ability to fit in, and adjustment on placement. Findings have suggested that student participants desire more recognition of the experience and skills they have gained from their employment. Whilst care experience among the student nursing population is advocated, the results of this study show that it is perceived to impinged on their learning and educational journey. Policy makers, educationalists and health service providers need to be aware of the students who operate within the dual roles of student and health care worker so as to provide guidance and appropriate direction

  2. Video conferencing versus telephone calls for team work across hospitals: a qualitative study on simulated emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Oddvar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teamwork is important for patient care and outcome in emergencies. In rural areas, efficient communication between rural hospitals and regional trauma centers optimise decisions and treatment of trauma patients. Little is known on potentials and effects of virtual team to team cooperation between rural and regional trauma teams. Methods We adapted a video conferencing (VC system to the work process between multidisciplinary teams responsible for trauma as well as medical emergencies between one rural and one regional (university hospital. We studied how the teams cooperated during simulated critical scenarios, and compared VC with standard telephone communication. We used qualitative observations and interviews to evaluate results. Results The team members found VC to be a useful tool during emergencies and for building "virtual emergency teams" across distant hospitals. Visual communication combined with visual patient information is superior to information gained during ordinary telephone calls, but VC may also cause interruptions in the local teamwork. Conclusion VC can improve clinical cooperation and decision processes in virtual teams during critical patient care. Such team interaction requires thoughtful organisation, training, and new rules for communication.

  3. Doing Qualitative Comparative Research on Teaching: Challenges and Benefits of Working with Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen the completion of an increasing number of qualitative comparative research projects on teaching. Challenges and benefits which might arise from a qualitative international comparative research design have been considered. However, very little has been published on challenges and benefits which may arise from using…

  4. Work resumption at the price of distrust: a qualitative study on return to work legislation in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Return to work (RTW) after sick leave is considered necessary to support the employees’ health. Cooperation between employees and employers may encourage employees’ RTW, but is hampered by bottlenecks that we do not completely understand. Dutch legislation means to support this cooperation and allows trying RTW during two years. The Resource Dependence Institutional Cooperation (RDIC) model has been developed for studying cooperation in public health. Study aims were to get insight into the degree of cooperation between Dutch sick-listed employees and employers, how this (lack of) cooperation can be understood, and how valid the RDIC model is for understanding this (lack of) cooperation. Methods This qualitative study was based on in-depth interviews with 8 employees and 8 employers. Employees reported sick for 1.5-20 months for various reasons. Interviews were analysed using an interpretative approach and pattern matching. Results Cooperation was lacking early during sick leave. Later on there were regular meetings, but employers decided about RTW without consulting the employees. Particularly employers were motivated to cooperate during the first year, while employees were especially motivated during the second. This could be understood by experienced dependence; employees (first year) and employers (second year) did not consider cooperation to be important for achieving medical recovery (employees) or RTW (employers). These divergent goals may be understood by personal norms about the timing of medical recovery and RTW. Legislation was particularly effective regarding employer behaviour in year 1 and employee behaviour in year 2. Employees distrusted their employers during the first year, while employers reported to distrust the employees during the second year. Besides, employees and employers experienced a moderate ability to cooperate. This could be understood particularly by having moderate knowledge about legislation. The RDIC model

  5. 'Working is out of the question': a qualitative text analysis of medical certificates of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, Guri; Natvig, Bård; Engebretsen, Eivind; Lie, Anne Kveim

    2017-04-20

    Medical certificates influence the distribution of economic benefits in welfare states; however, the qualitative aspects of these texts remain largely unexplored. The present study is the first systematic investigation done of these texts. Our aim was to investigate how GPs select and mediate information about their patients' health and how they support their conclusions about illness, functioning and fitness for work in medical certificates. We performed a textual analysis of thirty-three medical certificates produced by general practitioners (GP) in Norway at the request of the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV).The certificates were subjected to critical reading using the combined analytic methods of narratology and linguistics. Some of the medical information was unclear, ambiguous, and possibly misleading. Evaluations of functioning related to illness were scarce or absent, regardless of diagnosis, and, hence, the basis of working incapacity was unclear. Voices in the text frequently conflated, obscuring the source of speaker. In some documents, the expert's subtle use of language implied doubts about the claimant's credibility, but explicit advocacy also occurred. GPs show little insight into their patients' working lives, but rather than express uncertainty and incompetence, they may resort to making too absolute and too general statements about patients' working capacity, and fail to report thorough assessments. A number of the texts in our material may not function as sufficient or reliable sources for making decisions regarding social benefits. Certificates as these may be deficient for several reasons, and textual incompetence may be one of them. Physicians in Norway receive no systematic training in professional writing. High-quality medical certificates, we believe, might be economical in the long term: it might increase the efficiency with which NAV processes cases and save costs by eliminating the need for unnecessary and expensive

  6. Sexual harassment in care work - Dilemmas and consequences: A qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D; Kjær, Susie; Aldrich, Per T; Madsen, Ida E H; Friborg, Maria K; Rugulies, Reiner; Folker, Anna P

    2017-05-01

    Care workers are often exposed to sexual harassment from patients. Research shows that such exposure may have detrimental effects on mental health of the care workers. Inappropriate sexual behaviour from patients is a particular challenge for formal and informal care workers alike. There is a scarceness of studies investigating the experience and the handling of sexual harassment from patients. To investigate the experience and handling of sexual harassment from patients in care work. The study follows an explorative qualitative approach based on group interviews (n=19) with 39 care workers. Ten workplaces participated in the study, including hospitals, nursing homes, community health centres, rehabilitations care centres, and psychiatric residential facilities. We conducted group interviews with care workers (employees), managers, shop stewards and/or safety representatives. The majority of the interviewees were trained nurses. The interviews revealed that sexual harassment is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. The care workers often separated between intentional and unintentional behaviours initiated by cognitively impaired patients. Thus, they often refrain from using the term harassment, because it implies that the actions were intentional. However, the interviews revealed that, in practice, this separation was very difficult, and that sexual harassment often creates a range of dilemmas in the daily work. At the same time, sexual harassment is a taboo. The managers, shop stewards and safety representatives in this study were often not aware of the frequency and the impact of the episodes had on the care workers. The workplaces participating in this study, rarely had guidelines or policies for managing and/or preventing sexual harassment or inappropriate sexual behaviours, but often responded to episodes in an ad hoc and case-by-case manner. The term sexual harassment might not be appropriate in the context of care work, because many patients who display

  7. Exploring the interpersonal relationships in street-based male sex work: results from an Australian qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, David; Minichiello, Victor

    2007-01-01

    While the literature on male sex work has increased significantly over the past decade, few studies examine the influence of relational dynamics in the lives of those engaged in male sex work. This qualitative study, conducted with a sample of male street sex workers in Sydney, Australia, explores how relationships color their involvement with sex work. The findings reveal the complexity of their relationships and how their interactions with others shape their engagement in sex work. The data also offer insight into how exit pathways are influenced by money and relationships that occur within this particular male sex work setting. Implications for health policy and intervention are considered.

  8. "Whenever I can I push myself to go to work": a qualitative study of experiences of sickness presenteeism among workers with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Paula; Collins, Alison M

    2018-02-01

    UK government policy emphasizes the importance of continuing to work for recovery from poor health, yet sickness presenteeism (going to work whilst ill) is commonly regarded as having negative consequences for organizations and individuals. Our study explores experiences of working after onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic musculoskeletal disorder characterized by high rates of work disability. An exploratory qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews and six-month follow-up with 11 men and women with RA employed at disease onset. We expand upon previous models of sickness presenteeism by distinguishing between presenteeism that occurs voluntarily (wanting to work despite illness) and involuntarily (feeling pressured to work when ill). RA onset affected participants' ability to work, yet motivation to remain working remained high. The implementation of workplace adjustments enabled participants to stay working and restore their work capacity. Conversely, managers' misinterpretation of organizational sickness absence policies could lead to involuntary presenteeism or delayed return to work, conflicting with the notion of work as an aid to recovery. Workplace adjustments can facilitate voluntary sickness presenteeism. To reduce work disability and sickness absence, organizational policies should be sufficiently flexible to accommodate the needs of workers with fluctuating conditions. Implications for rehabilitation Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at high risk of work disability. Individuals' motivation to remain in work following onset of RA remains high, yet sickness presenteeism (working while ill) has received largely negative attention. It is important to distinguish between voluntary and involuntary forms of sickness presenteeism. Workplace adjustments facilitate voluntary sickness presenteeism (wanting to work despite illness) and improve job retention and productivity among workers with RA. Involuntary presenteeism (feeling

  9. Team behaviors in emergency care: a qualitative study using behavior analysis of what makes team work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocato, Pamela; Forsberg, Helena Hvitfeldt; Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele

    2011-11-15

    Teamwork has been suggested as a promising approach to improving care processes in emergency departments (ED). However, for teamwork to yield expected results, implementation must involve behavior changes. The aim of this study is to use behavior analysis to qualitatively examine how teamwork plays out in practice and to understand eventual discrepancies between planned and actual behaviors. The study was set in a Swedish university hospital ED during the initial phase of implementation of teamwork. The intervention focused on changing the environment and redesigning the work process to enable teamwork. Each team was responsible for entire care episodes, i.e. from patient arrival to discharge from the ED. Data was collected through 3 days of observations structured around an observation scheme. Behavior analysis was used to pinpoint key teamwork behaviors for consistent implementation of teamwork and to analyze the contingencies that decreased or increased the likelihood of these behaviors. We found a great discrepancy between the planned and the observed teamwork processes. 60% of the 44 team patients observed were handled solely by the appointed team members. Only 36% of the observed patient care processes started according to the description in the planned teamwork process, that is, with taking patient history together. Beside this behavior, meeting in a defined team room and communicating with team members were shown to be essential for the consistent implementation of teamwork. Factors that decreased the likelihood of these key behaviors included waiting for other team members or having trouble locating each other. Getting work done without delay and having an overview of the patient care process increased team behaviors. Moreover, explicit instructions on when team members should interact and communicate increased adherence to the planned process. This study illustrates how behavior analysis can be used to understand discrepancies between planned and observed

  10. Work Change in Multiple Sclerosis as Motivated by the Pursuit of Illness-Work-Life Balance: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayasingham, Lavanya; Jogulu, Uma; Allotey, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis have a tendency to make early decisions for work change, even in reversible, episodic, or mild disease stages. To better understand how a multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis influences perceptions of work and motivations for work changes, we conducted a hermeneutic phenomenology study to explore the work lives of ten individuals with MS in Malaysia. The interpretive analysis and cumulative narratives depict an overarching change in their concept of ideal work...

  11. Work related musculoskeletal disorders amongst therapists in physically demanding roles: qualitative analysis of risk factors and strategies for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passier, Leanne; McPhail, Steven

    2011-01-25

    Physiotherapy and occupational therapy are two professions at high risk of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD). This investigation aimed to identify risk factors for WRMD as perceived by the health professionals working in these roles (Aim 1), as well as current and future strategies they perceive will allow them to continue to work in physically demanding clinical roles (Aim 2). A two phase exploratory investigation was undertaken. The first phase included a survey administered via a web based platform with qualitative open response items. The second phase involved four focus group sessions which explored topics obtained from the survey. Thematic analysis of qualitative data from the survey and focus groups was undertaken. Overall 112 (34.3%) of invited health professionals completed the survey; 66 (58.9%) were physiotherapists and 46 (41.1%) were occupational therapists. Twenty-four health professionals participated in one of four focus groups. The risk factors most frequently perceived by health professionals included: work postures and movements, lifting or carrying, patient related factors and repetitive tasks. The six primary themes for strategies to allow therapists to continue to work in physically demanding clinical roles included: organisational strategies, workload or work allocation, work practices, work environment and equipment, physical condition and capacity, and education and training. Risk factors as well as current and potential strategies for reducing WRMD amongst these health professionals working in clinically demanding roles have been identified and discussed. Further investigation regarding the relative effectiveness of these strategies is warranted.

  12. Implementing a collaborative return-to-work program: Lessons from a qualitative study in a large Canadian healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skivington, Kathryn; Lifshen, Marni; Mustard, Cameron

    2016-11-22

    Comprehensive workplace return-to-work policies, applied with consistency, can reduce length of time out of work and the risk of long-term disability. This paper reports on the findings from a qualitative study exploring managers' and return-to-work-coordinators' views on the implementation of their organization's new return-to-work program. To provide practical guidance to organizations in designing and implementing return-to-work programs for their employees. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were undertaken with 20 managers and 10 return-to-work co-ordinators to describe participants' perspectives on the progress of program implementation in the first 18 months of adoption. The study was based in a large healthcare organization in Ontario, Canada. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted. We identified tensions evident in the early implementation phase of the organization's return-to-work program. These tensions were attributed to uncertainties concerning roles and responsibilities and to circumstances where objectives or principles appeared to be in conflict. The implementation of a comprehensive and collaborative return-to-work program is a complex challenge. The findings described in this paper may provide helpful guidance for organizations embarking on the development and implementation of a return-to-work program.

  13. The work and challenges of care managers in the implementation of collaborative care: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, G; Kousgaard, M B; Davidsen, A S

    2018-04-01

    of one supervision session were analysed by thematic analysis. Results The CM carried out considerable implementation work. This included finding suitable locations; initiating and sustaining communication with the GPs and maintaining their engagement in the model; adapting to the patient population in general practice; dealing with personal security issues, and developing supportive peer relations and meaningful supervision. Discussion We compare our findings to previous studies of collaborative care and advanced nursing roles in general practice. The importance of organizational leadership to support the CM's bridge-building role is emphasized. Implications for practice The planners of new collaborative care interventions should not only focus on the CM's clinical tasks but also on ensuring the sufficient organizational conditions for carrying out the role. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Work Change in Multiple Sclerosis as Motivated by the Pursuit of Illness-Work-Life Balance: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Vijayasingham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with multiple sclerosis have a tendency to make early decisions for work change, even in reversible, episodic, or mild disease stages. To better understand how a multiple sclerosis (MS diagnosis influences perceptions of work and motivations for work changes, we conducted a hermeneutic phenomenology study to explore the work lives of ten individuals with MS in Malaysia. The interpretive analysis and cumulative narratives depict an overarching change in their concept of ideal work and life aspirations and how participants make preemptive work changes to manage illness-work-life futures in subjectively meaningful ways. Discussions on their integrated pursuit of finding dynamic and subjective illness-work-life balance include reconciling the problem of hard work and stress on disease activity and progress, making positive lifestyle changes as health management behaviour, and the motivational influence of their own life and family roles: the consideration of their spouses, parents, and children. At an action level, work change was seen as moral and necessary for the management of illness futures. Our findings contribute insights on how individual perceptions and holistic life management decisions contribute to on-going and disrupted work trajectories, which can inform practice and policy on early interventions to support continued employment.

  15. Work Change in Multiple Sclerosis as Motivated by the Pursuit of Illness-Work-Life Balance: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasingham, Lavanya; Jogulu, Uma; Allotey, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis have a tendency to make early decisions for work change, even in reversible, episodic, or mild disease stages. To better understand how a multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis influences perceptions of work and motivations for work changes, we conducted a hermeneutic phenomenology study to explore the work lives of ten individuals with MS in Malaysia. The interpretive analysis and cumulative narratives depict an overarching change in their concept of ideal work and life aspirations and how participants make preemptive work changes to manage illness-work-life futures in subjectively meaningful ways. Discussions on their integrated pursuit of finding dynamic and subjective illness-work-life balance include reconciling the problem of hard work and stress on disease activity and progress, making positive lifestyle changes as health management behaviour, and the motivational influence of their own life and family roles: the consideration of their spouses, parents, and children. At an action level, work change was seen as moral and necessary for the management of illness futures. Our findings contribute insights on how individual perceptions and holistic life management decisions contribute to on-going and disrupted work trajectories, which can inform practice and policy on early interventions to support continued employment.

  16. Radiation therapists' and radiation oncology medical physicists' perceptions of work and the working environment in Australia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkett, G K B; McKay, J; Hegney, D G; Breen, Lauren J; Berg, M; Ebert, M A; Davis, M; Kearvell, R

    2017-09-01

    Workforce recruitment and retention are issues in radiation oncology. The working environment is likely to have an impact on retention; however, there is a lack of research in this area. The objectives of this study were to: investigate radiation therapists' (RTs) and radiation oncology medical physicists' (ROMPs) perceptions of work and the working environment; and determine the factors that influence the ability of RTs and ROMPs to undertake their work and how these factors affect recruitment and retention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and thematic analysis was used. Twenty-eight RTs and 21 ROMPs participated. The overarching themes were delivering care, support in work, working conditions and lifestyle. The overarching themes were mostly consistent across both groups; however, the exemplars reflected the different roles and perspectives of RTs and ROMPs. Participants described the importance they placed on treating patients and improving their lives. Working conditions were sometimes difficult with participants reporting pressure at work, large workloads and longer hours and overtime. Insufficient staff numbers impacted on the effectiveness of staff, the working environment and intentions to stay. Staff satisfaction is likely to be improved if changes are made to the working environment. We make recommendations that may assist departments to support RTs and ROMPs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A qualitative study of factors affecting mental health amongst low-income working mothers in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travasso, Sandra Mary; Rajaraman, Divya; Heymann, Sally Jody

    2014-02-07

    Low-income urban working mothers face many challenges in their domestic, environmental, and working conditions that may affect their mental health. In India, a high prevalence of mental health disorders has been recorded in young women, but there has been little research to examine the factors that affect their mental health at home and work. Through a primarily qualitative approach, we studied the relationship between work, caring for family, spousal support, stress relief strategies and mental health amongst forty eight low-income working mothers residing in urban slums across Bangalore, India. Participants were construction workers, domestic workers, factory workers and fruit and vegetable street vendors. Qualitative data analysis themes included state of mental health, factors that affected mental health positively or negatively, manifestations and consequences of stress and depression, and stress mitigators. Even in our small sample of women, we found evidence of extreme depression, including suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Women who have an alcoholic and/or abusive husband, experience intimate partner violence, are raising children with special needs, and lack adequate support for child care appear to be more susceptible to severe and prolonged periods of depression and suicide attempts. Factors that pointed towards reduced anxiety and depression were social support from family, friends and colleagues and fulfilment from work. This qualitative study raises concerns that low-income working mothers in urban areas in India are at high risk for depression, and identifies common factors that create and mitigate stress in this population group. We discuss implications of the findings for supporting the mental health of urban working women in the Indian context. The development of the national mental health policy in India and its subsequent implementation should draw on existing research documenting factors associated with negative mental health amongst

  18. A Qualitative Study of Characteristics, Competencies, and Strategies of Transition Staff Working with Urban Latino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Lorenzo, Omayra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore characteristics, competencies, and strategies of transition program employment representatives who attain successful employment outcomes for urban Latino/a youths with disabilities. This study employed in-depth interviewing as a method of data collection. The central research question guiding…

  19. Information Overload in the New World of Work: Qualitative Study into the Reasons and Countermeasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Heerdt, Jeroen; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the authors present a revision of the information overload concept elaborated by Eppler and Mengis (2004). The main elements of our approach are literature synopsis and analysis, qualitative semi-structured interviews, and discussion. Their review of the information overload concept

  20. A benchmarking project on the quality of previous guidelines about the management of malignant pleural effusion from the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) Pleural Diseases Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolaccini, Luca; Bedetti, Benedetta; Brunelli, Alessandro; Marinova, Katerina; Raveglia, Federico; Rocco, Gaetano; Shargall, Yaron; Solli, Piergiorgio; Varela, Gonzalo; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas; Kuzdzal, Jaroslaw; Massard, Gilbert; Ruffini, Enrico; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Martinez-Barenys, Carlos; Opitz, Isabelle; Batirel, Hasan F; Toker, Alper; Scarci, Marco

    2017-08-01

    In the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) survey about management of malignant pleural effusions (MPE), 56% of respondents are not informed of any relevant clinical guidelines and 52%, who are aware of the existence of guidelines, declared that they are in need of updating or revision. The ESTS Pleural Diseases Working Group developed a benchmarking project on quality of previous guidelines on the management of MPE. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument was used to assess each guideline. Each item was scored on a 7-point scale. Scores for each domain were calculated. Economic data for the nations which have issued the guidelines were collected from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development health statistics database. Six guidelines fitted the inclusion criteria and were assessed. Five out of 6 guidelines were produced by a multinational collaboration. Observers would recommend only 2 guidelines with minimal modification. Two areas that received the best score were clarity of presentation and scope and purpose (objectives and health questions target population). The applicability of guideline domain had the lowest score. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that clarity of presentation, international guidelines and publication through medical journal were related to improved scores. A strong correlation was observed between the measures of economic status. The quality of guidelines assessed by the AGREE II criteria was found to be extremely variable. Guidelines achieving higher AGREE II scores were more likely to come from the European Union with the direct involvement of scientific societies in their development. It was also recognized that some fundamental unanswered questions remain about the management of MPE. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  1. The Joy of Social Work Administration: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Human Service Administrators' Positive Perceptions of Their Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Larry D.; Hoefer, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Positive organizational psychology suggests that researchers should focus on the rewarding elements of work life, yet those in the fields of social work and nonprofit administration have not conducted research in line with this admonition. Indeed, the current focus on administrative challenges and problems may be part of the reason there is…

  2. A qualitative study of factors influencing different generations of Newfoundland and Saskatchewan trained physicians to leave a work location

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Maria; Seguin, Maureen; Chowdhury, Nurun; Card, Robert T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Some studies have suggested that young physicians may have different expectations and practice behaviours than their older generational counterparts, including their reasons for wanting to remain or leave a community. This study examined the factors associated with a physician’s decision to leave a work location. We compared different generations of physicians to assess whether these factors have changed over generations. Methods We conducted semi-structured, qualitative i...

  3. What's work got to do with it? A qualitative study of work life among people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleal, Bryan; Nexø, Mette Andersen; Willaing, Ingrid

    Background Epidemiological and health economic analyses highlight that lost productivity at work among people with diabetes represents a significant social and individual burden. The reasons for this have been investigated in relation to type 1 diabetes (T1D), but less is known about...... most extreme, one participant bemoaned walking a lot at work while having no feeling in his feet, simultaneously rejecting that diabetes had impacted on his work life. The challenging and negative experiences which did emerge were similar to those highlighted in relation to work and T1D e.g. medication......, food consumption, exercise. Discrimination and stigma were mentioned by a very small number of participants. In short, there was no indication of work-related challenges specific to T2D. Discussion In contrast to studies conducted among people with type 1 diabetes, people with T2D seemed generally less...

  4. Experiences of reduced work hours for nurses and assistant nurses at a surgical department: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllensten, Kristina; Andersson, Gunnar; Muller, Helena

    2017-01-01

    There is a shortage of registered nurses in the European Union (EU), and job dissatisfaction and perceived high work-family conflict have been identified as causes of nursing staff turnover. Reducing work hours is an organisational intervention that could have a positive effect on nurses' and assistant nurses' job satisfaction, work-life balance, and willingness to stay in the job. An orthopaedic surgery department at a large hospital in Sweden introduced reduced work hours for nurses and assistant nurses in order to improve the working situation. The aim of the study was to investigate the experiences of reduced work hours and no lunch breaks among nurses and assistant nurses at an orthopaedic surgery department at a hospital in Sweden, with a particular focus on recovery and psychosocial working environment. A qualitative design was used in the study. Eleven nurses and assistant nurses working at the particular orthopaedic department took part in the study, and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. The interviews were analysed by interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four main themes were developed in the analysis of the data: A more sustainable working situation, Improved work-life balance, Consequences of being part of a project, and Improved quality of care. Each theme consisted of subthemes. Overall, reduced work hours appeared to have many, mainly positive, effects for the participants in both work and home life.

  5. How Has Living with Intimate Partner Violence Affected the Work Situation? A Qualitative Study among Abused Women in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Moen, Bente E; Baste, Valborg; Morken, Tone

    A qualitative study was conducted among 18 abused women from different parts of Norway to explore what paid work means for women exposed to partner violence and how living with an abusive partner affected their working life. Based on systematic text condensation analyses of their experiences as described in individual and focus group interviews, the study's findings reveal two major themes. The first is about recovery and survival, and the other about the spillover of problems caused by a violent partner into paid work. Work was important to the women, as it represented time off from violence, contact with others who cared for them, and maintenance of self-esteem and self-confidence. Having their own money provided security and strengthened the belief that they could manage on their own. The spillover of intimate partner violence problems appeared through feelings of fear, shame and guilt at work.

  6. How can work be designed to be intrinsically rewarding? Qualitative insights from South African non-profit employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Renard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Intrinsic rewards are personal, psychological responses to the work thatemployees perform, which stem from the manner in which their work is designed. Research purpose: This study sought to discover in what ways non-profit employees arepsychologically rewarded by the nature of their work tasks. The use of a qualitative approachto data collection and analysis ensured that in-depth responses from participants were gained. Motivation for the study: Intrinsic rewards are of particular importance to non-profitemployees, who tend to earn below-market salaries. This implies that their motivationoriginates predominantly from intrinsic as opposed to extrinsic rewards; yet, research into thisarea of rewards is lacking. Research approach, design and method: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conductedusing a sample of 15 extrinsically rewarded non-profit employees working within South Africa.Thematic analysis was utilised in order to generate codes which led to the formation of fiveintrinsic rewards categories. Main findings: Intrinsic rewards were classified into five categories, namely (1 MeaningfulWork, (2 Flexible Work, (3 Challenging Work, (4 Varied Work and (5 Enjoyable Work.These rewards each comprise of various subcategories, which provide insight into why suchwork is rewarding to non-profit employees. Practical/managerial implications: Traditional performance management systems shouldbe re-evaluated in the non-profit sector to shift focus towards intrinsic rewards, asopposed to focusing only on the use of extrinsic rewards such as incentives to motivateemployees. Contribution/value-add: The study provides a qualitative understanding of how extrinsicallyrewarded non-profit employees perceive their work to be intrinsically rewarding, whichbridges the empirical gap pertaining to intrinsic rewards within this sector.

  7. Staying at work with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain : a qualitative study of workers' experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Haitze J.; Brouwer, Sandra; Groothoff, Johan W.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many people with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP) have decreased work ability. The majority, however, stays at work despite their pain. Knowledge about workers who stay at work despite chronic pain is limited, narrowing our views on work participation. The aim of this study

  8. What do working menopausal women want? A qualitative investigation into women’s perspectives on employer and line manager support

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Claire; Griffiths, Amanda; Hunter, Myra S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore women’s perspectives on what employers and managers should, and should not do in relation to women going through the menopause at work.\\ud Methods: An online questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data in a cross-sectional study of working women. Three open-ended questions asked peri- and post-menopausal women, aged 45-65 years: (i) what they thought employers could do, or should do, to help menopausal women who may be experiencing difficult menopausal symptoms a...

  9. "Work is good for me": views of mental health service users seeking work during the UK recession, a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boycott, Naomi; Akhtar, Athfah; Schneider, Justine

    2015-04-01

    Individual placement and support (IPS) is an effective form of supported employment for people with severe mental illness. Little is known about service users' experiences of these programmes during economic recession. Obtain service users' views of an IPS programme implemented in the UK during recession. Thirty-one service users enrolled in an IPS programme were interviewed using a semi-structured protocol. The questions covered several areas of their experience, including problems faced in seeking work, perceived barriers in returning to work and what they found helpful in employment support. Unsurprisingly, a large number of service users had problems in finding work due to the number of appropriate jobs available. Nevertheless, many service users felt positively about the support they had received (90% were satisfied with IPS), and would advise others in their position to seek employment. Personal and practical support from employment specialists (ES) was the most useful aspect of the service. Despite economic recession, an IPS service was implemented and regarded as satisfactory to service users seeking work. Although many found obtaining employment difficult, they would still advise others that work is worthwhile, suggesting that the context of recession has not discouraged them.

  10. Can you see me? Experiences of nurses working night shift in Australian regional hospitals: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Idona

    2013-10-01

    To report a study that explored the experiences of night-shift nurses, focusing on employee interrelationships and work satisfaction. Night-shift nurses are a critical component in hospital care making it essential to understand the experiences that give meaning to their work and understand how these nurses and the organization can benefit from their contribution to hospital care. A literature review revealed minimal research in this area. Qualitative case study. A qualitative case study using semi-structured interviews and self-completed diaries was conducted in 2010 in regional public hospitals in Australia. Participants were 14 nurses working nights half or more of their shifts in medical or surgical wards. Thematic analysis identified four major areas of concern: work relationships, work environment, work practices and lifestyle impact. Notably, work relationships were most meaningful for nurses on the same shift; night-shift nurses experienced working conditions inferior to their daytime counterparts including a perception of minimal leadership. Despite limited education opportunities, night shift provided opportunity for professional growth for some nurses with a slippage in skills for others; night shift provided flexibility for family and social activities, yet impeded these same activities, primarily due to pervasive fatigue. Night-shift nurses considered their role critical, yet believed that they were poorly regarded. The strong interpersonal relationships developed between night-shift workers need to be capitalized on whilst developing a more effective leadership model, improved work environment, more equitable professional development, and genuine recognition of the critical role of night nurses. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Stabilizing and destabilizing forces in the nursing work environment: a qualitative study on turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sandy Pin-Pin; Pang, Samantha Mei-Che; Cheung, Kin; Wong, Thomas Kwok-Shing

    2011-10-01

    The nursing work environment, which provides the context of care delivery, has been gaining increasing attention in recent years. A growing body of evidence points to an inseparable link between attributes of the nursing work environment and nurse and patient outcomes. While most studies have adopted a survey design to examine the workforce and work environment issues, this study employed a phenomenological approach to provide empirical evidence regarding nurses' perceptions of their work and work environment. The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of the phenomenon of increasing nurse turnover through exploring frontline registered nurses' lived experiences of working in Hong Kong public hospitals. A modified version of Van Kaam's controlled explication method was adopted. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 frontline nurses recruited from ten acute regional, district and non-acute public hospitals in Hong Kong. Their perspectives in regard to their work and work environment, such as workload, manpower demand and professional values, were extensively examined, and a hypothetical description relating the nursing work environment with nurses' turnover intention was posited. Contemplation of nurses' experiences revealed the vulnerable aspects of nursing work and six essential constituents of the nursing work environment, namely staffing level, work responsibility, management, co-worker relationships, job, and professional incentives. These essential constituents have contributed to two sets of forces, stabilizing and destabilizing forces, which originate from the attributes of the nursing work environment. Nurses viewed harmonious co-worker relationships, recognition and professional development as the crucial retaining factors. However, nurses working in an unfavorable environment were overwhelmed by destabilizing forces; they expressed frustration and demonstrated an intention to leave their work environment. The nursing

  12. Swedish female hairdressers' views on their work environment--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Kerstin Kronholm; Nielsen, Jörn; Andersson, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Hairdressers have several work-related health hazards. Little is known of their strategies for the work environment. The aim of this study was to explore female hairdressers' own views on their physical, social and psychological work environment and possibilities of influencing it, implementation of their knowledge, financial impacts and how work-related symptoms affect their views. Fourteen hairdressers working for four years were subjected to open-ended interviews covering aspects of the physical, social and psychological work environment. Content analysis was applied. An awareness of the impact of the work environment and the possibilities of influencing it emerged, but also an inability to achieve preventive improvements. This included reflections concerning ventilation, health issues, job strain, hair products, financial issues, knowledge from school and concern for having to leave the profession. The organization and acceptance of the work environment were important issues. Making the work environment an active part of their business was not common. Female hairdressers had an awareness of their work environment but lacked the means and strategies to make it an active part of their business. The main focus was on the customers and the work techniques. Having various symptoms did not alter this. Organizational and financial issues could put limitations on the work environment. Teachers were crucial in making the work environment interesting. Hairdressing was seen with advantages and disadvantages, and its future was seen as being insecure in terms of the occupational health risks. The hairdressers expressed a great pride in their profession providing possibilities for development.

  13. The use of purposeful sampling in a qualitative evidence synthesis: A worked example on sexual adjustment to a cancer trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoot, Charlotte; Hannes, Karin; Bilsen, Johan

    2016-02-18

    An increasing number of qualitative evidence syntheses papers are found in health care literature. Many of these syntheses use a strictly exhaustive search strategy to collect articles, mirroring the standard template developed by major review organizations such as the Cochrane and Campbell Collaboration. The hegemonic idea behind it is that non-comprehensive samples in systematic reviews may introduce selection bias. However, exhaustive sampling in a qualitative evidence synthesis has been questioned, and a more purposeful way of sampling papers has been proposed as an alternative, although there is a lack of transparency on how these purposeful sampling strategies might be applied to a qualitative evidence synthesis. We discuss in our paper why and how we used purposeful sampling in a qualitative evidence synthesis about 'sexual adjustment to a cancer trajectory', by giving a worked example. We have chosen a mixed purposeful sampling, combining three different strategies that we considered the most consistent with our research purpose: intensity sampling, maximum variation sampling and confirming/disconfirming case sampling. The concept of purposeful sampling on the meta-level could not readily been borrowed from the logic applied in basic research projects. It also demands a considerable amount of flexibility, and is labour-intensive, which goes against the argument of many authors that using purposeful sampling provides a pragmatic solution or a short cut for researchers, compared with exhaustive sampling. Opportunities of purposeful sampling were the possible inclusion of new perspectives to the line-of-argument and the enhancement of the theoretical diversity of the papers being included, which could make the results more conceptually aligned with the synthesis purpose. This paper helps researchers to make decisions related to purposeful sampling in a more systematic and transparent way. Future research could confirm or disconfirm the hypothesis of conceptual

  14. The use of purposeful sampling in a qualitative evidence synthesis: A worked example on sexual adjustment to a cancer trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Benoot

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of qualitative evidence syntheses papers are found in health care literature. Many of these syntheses use a strictly exhaustive search strategy to collect articles, mirroring the standard template developed by major review organizations such as the Cochrane and Campbell Collaboration. The hegemonic idea behind it is that non-comprehensive samples in systematic reviews may introduce selection bias. However, exhaustive sampling in a qualitative evidence synthesis has been questioned, and a more purposeful way of sampling papers has been proposed as an alternative, although there is a lack of transparency on how these purposeful sampling strategies might be applied to a qualitative evidence synthesis. We discuss in our paper why and how we used purposeful sampling in a qualitative evidence synthesis about ‘sexual adjustment to a cancer trajectory’, by giving a worked example. Methods We have chosen a mixed purposeful sampling, combining three different strategies that we considered the most consistent with our research purpose: intensity sampling, maximum variation sampling and confirming/disconfirming case sampling. Results The concept of purposeful sampling on the meta-level could not readily been borrowed from the logic applied in basic research projects. It also demands a considerable amount of flexibility, and is labour-intensive, which goes against the argument of many authors that using purposeful sampling provides a pragmatic solution or a short cut for researchers, compared with exhaustive sampling. Opportunities of purposeful sampling were the possible inclusion of new perspectives to the line-of-argument and the enhancement of the theoretical diversity of the papers being included, which could make the results more conceptually aligned with the synthesis purpose. Conclusions This paper helps researchers to make decisions related to purposeful sampling in a more systematic and transparent way

  15. Can workers with chronic back pain shift from pain elimination to function restore at work? Qualitative evaluation of an innovative work related multidisciplinary programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Peter C; Lambeek, Ludeke C; Koppenrade, Vera; Hooftman, Wendela E; Anema, Johannes R

    2009-01-01

    Workers with chronic low back pain (LBP) mean a heavy human and social-economic burden. Their medical histories often include different treatments without attention to work-relatedness or communication with occupational health providers, leaving them passive and medicalized in (outpatient) health care. So we developed and implemented an innovative, patient-activating alternative: the multidisciplinary outpatient care (MOC) programme, including work(place) intervention and graded activity. It aims at function restore (instead of pain elimination), return to work (RTW) and coordinated communication. To qualitatively explore how patients and health care providers perceive the programme effectiveness and which factors influence its implementation. In-depth, semi structured interview with patients and focus groups of health care providers are used, all recorded, transformed into verbatim transcript and analysed. This qualitative study shows that although patients' expectations were low at the start of the program, and despite long LBP histories, including many different therapies, (primarily) directed at pain reduction, the MOC programme was successful in changing patients' goal setting from pain oriented towards function restore and RTW. The programme was therefore perceived as applicable and effective. Patient compliance was influenced by barriers - despair, supervisory and subordinate resistance at work, waiting period, medicalisation in health care - and facilitators: disciplinary motivation, protocolled communication, information supply, tailor-made exercises. For some patients the barriers were too high. Several improvement suggestions were given. This qualitative study shows that generally, patients and professionals perceived the multidisciplinary outpatient care programme as applicable and effective. After incorporating improvement suggestions this program seems promising for further, broader application and hypothesis testing. For those, negatively evaluating

  16. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings.

  17. A qualitative study of gender and work in a British riding school

    OpenAIRE

    Calamatta, Katherine F G

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on employees of the horse riding school sector within the United Kingdom. It is based on qualitative fieldwork at two riding schools that took place over the course of three years and asks two questions: why do women numerically dominate within the setting of the riding school? How can we best understand this phenomenon using sociological literature? The subject for this thesis was motivated by my own prior experience as a worker within this industry.\\ud \\ud The thesis wil...

  18. Resilience among doctors who work in challenging areas: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Alexander D; Phillips, Christine B; Anderson, Katrina J

    2011-07-01

    Although physician burnout has received considerable attention, there is little research of doctors who thrive while working in challenging conditions. To describe attitudes to work and job satisfaction among Australian primary care practitioners who have worked for more than 5 years in areas of social disadvantage. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 primary health care practitioners working in Aboriginal health, prisons, drug and alcohol medicine, or youth and refugee health. The interviews explored attitudes towards work and professional satisfaction, and strategies to promote resilience. All doctors were motivated by the belief that helping a disadvantaged population is the 'right thing' to do. They were sustained by a deep appreciation and respect for the population they served, an intellectual engagement with the work itself, and the ability to control their own working hours (often by working part-time in the field of interest). In their clinical work, they recognised and celebrated small gains and were not overwhelmed by the larger context of social disadvantage. If organisations want to increase the numbers of medical staff or increase the work commitment of staff in areas of social disadvantage, they should consider supporting doctors to work part-time, allowing experienced doctors to mentor them to model these patient-appreciative approaches, and reinforcing, for novice doctors, the personal and intellectual pleasures of working in these fields.

  19. Accelerating what works: using qualitative research methods in developing a change package for a learning collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Asta V; Bernard, Shulamit L

    2012-02-01

    Learning (quality improvement) collaboratives are effective vehicles for driving coordinated organizational improvements. A central element of a learning collaborative is the change package-a catalogue of strategies, change concepts, and action steps that guide participants in their improvement efforts. Despite a vast literature describing learning collaboratives, little to no information is available on how the guiding strategies, change concepts, and action items are identified and developed to a replicable and actionable format that can be used to make measurable improvements within participating organizations. The process for developing the change package for the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA) Patient Safety and Clinical Pharmacy Services Collaborative entailed environmental scan and identification of leading practices, case studies, interim debriefing meetings, data synthesis, and a technical expert panel meeting. Data synthesis involved end-of-day debriefings, systematic qualitative analyses, and the use of grounded theory and inductive data analysis techniques. This approach allowed systematic identification of innovative patient safety and clinical pharmacy practices that could be adopted in diverse environments. A case study approach enabled the research team to study practices in their natural environments. Use of grounded theory and inductive data analysis techniques enabled identification of strategies, change concepts, and actionable items that might not have been captured using different approaches. Use of systematic processes and qualitative methods in identification and translation of innovative practices can greatly accelerate the diffusion of innovations and practice improvements. This approach is effective whether or not an individual organization is part of a learning collaborative.

  20. Insights Into Care Providers' Understandings of Life Story Work With Persons With Dementia: Findings From a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendonk, Charlotte; Caine, Vera

    2017-08-01

    In Germany, life story work, an approach which acknowledges humans as narrative beings and honors biographies, is required by health authorities to be integrated in care provided in nursing homes. Insufficient attention to life story work could place residents at risk of dehumanization, particularly residents with dementia, who depend on support of others to tell and make meaning of their life experiences. We conducted a qualitative study to gain insights into care providers' perceptions and practices of life story work with persons with dementia. Thirty-six care providers in 7 nursing homes participated in semistructured interviews or group discussions. We derived subjective theories (individual understandings) of care providers and higher-order concept patterns following the principles and processes of grounded theory. We found a great variation in participants' understandings of life story work. Some participants were unsure if and how life story work impacts persons with dementia. Starting points for improving the integration of life story work into practice are discussed. We conclude that care providers need a better understanding of life story work as a nursing intervention. The importance of the notion of humans as narrative beings and the multiple ways in which we story our lives as well as embody life stories needs to be further developed. Knowledge is required about the practical and systemic challenges of integrating life story work in the care of persons with dementia.

  1. To work despite chronic health conditions: a qualitative study of workers at the Swedish Public Employment Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjärtström, Carina; Lindahl Norberg, Annika; Johansson, Gun; Bodin, Theo

    2018-04-20

    Achieving a sustainable, healthy and long working life is key prerequisite for meeting the demographic challenge posed by an ageing population so that more people can work on into their later years. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between work and chronic health conditions in a group of employees aged 50-64 years with a focus on factors that enable them to continue to work. Ten white-collar workers with one or more chronic health conditions at the Swedish Public Employment Service participated in the study. A qualitative method with semistructured in-depth interviews was used to collect data. This study shows that factors enabling people with chronic health conditions to work include adaptation of the work situation by task-shifting as well as provision of physical aids. Our study suggest that the changes often come at the employee's initiative; hence, there is potential for greater involvement from the employer, healthcare agencies and the social insurance fund in making it easier for employees to adapt their work situation and in providing information regarding available support. It confirms findings in earlier studies that health plays an important part and also that self-confidence and motivation are significant factors contributing to workers being able and wanting to continue working. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Safety and Security Concerns of Nurses Working in the Intensive Care Unit: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Yolanda; Stichler, Jaynelle F

    Intensive care units (ICUs) exist to serve as a safe place for critically ill patients to receive care from skilled practitioners. In this qualitative study, ICU nurses shared their perspectives on elements that promote safety and security on their units. After obtaining institutional review board approval, participants participated in telephone interviews with a nurse researcher who has experience as a bedside ICU nurse. Five categories and 14 themes were identified and then confirmed using member checking. Results indicate that participants prefer to provide care in ICUs with no more than 12 to 14 beds and provide the following: visibility of patients and coworkers; more than 1 way to exit; and can be locked in case of emergency or threat. Nearly all respondents mentioned adequate staffing as the most important attribute of a safe, secure care environment for patients and families. More research is needed to identify design features that make the most impact on providing a safe, secure ICU environment.

  3. Learning to do qualitative data analysis: an observational study of doctoral work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sarah; Seale, Clive

    2007-12-01

    Using examples from written assignments and supervisory dialogues, the authors report a longitudinal observational case study of a doctoral research project, focusing on the teaching and learning of qualitative data analysis on a project that involved coding and analysis of nursing talk. Written drafts contain concrete exemplars illustrating the problems and solutions discussed in supervisions. Early problems include the difficulty of knowing where to start with coding, ambiguities in the definition of codes, inaccurate reporting and recording of data, failure to distinguish researcher and actor categories, and overinterpretation of evidence. Solutions to these problems required their accurate identification, communication of practical solutions, and care in the interactional management of delivery and receipt of feedback. This detailed analysis informs readers of sources of validity, rigor, and, eventually, creativity in carrying out a social research project. It also assists in explicating an apprenticeship model for the learning of research skills.

  4. Collecting School Counseling Group Work Data: Initiating Consensual Qualitative Research through Practitioner-Researcher Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Sarah I.; Land, Christy W.; Moss, Lauren J.; Cinotti, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Group counseling interventions can be complex to assess and research. Over the years, The "Journal for Specialists in Group Work" ("JSGW") has highlighted many of these challenges and offered valued approaches to designing projects that promote the efficacy and meaningfulness of group work in various settings. Similarly, school…

  5. Work-related experiences of head and neck cancer survivors: an exploratory and descriptive qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewa, Carolyn S.; Trojanowski, Lucy; Tamminga, Sietske J.; Ringash, Jolie; McQuestion, Maurene; Hoch, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory and descriptive study contributes to the growing knowledge about the return-to-work (RTW) experience of head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. Viewing RTW as a process, participants were asked to consider the work-related experience with HNC at different phases: (1) at

  6. Obesity/Overweight and the Role of Working Conditions: A Qualitative, Participatory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega, Suzanne; Champagne, Nicole; Abreu, Marlene; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Montano, Mirna; Lopez, Isabel; Arevalo, Jonny; Bruce, Suezanne; Punnett, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The rising U.S. prevalence of obesity has generated significant concern and demonstrates striking socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities. Most interventions target individual behaviors, sometimes in combination with improving the physical environment in the community but rarely involving modifications of the work environment. With 3.6 million workers earning at or below the federal minimum wage, it is imperative to understand the impact of working conditions on health and weight for lower income workers. To investigate this question, a university–community partnership created a participatory research team and conducted eight focus groups, in English and Spanish, with people holding low-wage jobs in various industries. Analysis of transcripts identified four themes: physically demanding work (illnesses, injuries, leisure-time physical activity), psychosocial work stressors (high demands, low control, low social support, poor treatment), food environment at work (available food choices, kitchen equipment), and time pressure (scheduling, having multiple jobs and responsibilities). Physical and psychosocial features of work were identified as important antecedents for overweight. In particular, nontraditional work shifts and inflexible schedules limited participants’ ability to adhere to public health recommendations for diet and physical activity. Workplace programs to address obesity in low-wage workers must include the effect of working conditions as a fundamental starting point. PMID:26333770

  7. A qualitative study of factors influencing different generations of Newfoundland and Saskatchewan trained physicians to leave a work location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Maria; Seguin, Maureen; Chowdhury, Nurun; Card, Robert T

    2012-07-25

    Some studies have suggested that young physicians may have different expectations and practice behaviours than their older generational counterparts, including their reasons for wanting to remain or leave a community. This study examined the factors associated with a physician's decision to leave a work location. We compared different generations of physicians to assess whether these factors have changed over generations. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews with 48 physicians who graduated from two Canadian medical schools. We asked each physician about the number and nature of work location changes and the factors related to their decisions to leave each location. Interview transcripts and notes were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Dissatisfaction with the working environment was the most frequently cited reason for leaving a location for physicians of all generations. Elements which contributed to the quality of the work environment included the collaborative nature of the practice, the relationship with administrators, and access to resources and personnel. For younger physicians, the work environment had to meet their personal expectations for work-life balance. While remuneration level was given by some physicians as the key reason for leaving a location, for others it was the "last straw" if the work environment was poor. A small number of older generation physicians moved in response to political events and/or policies We documented generational differences in physicians' reasons for choosing a work location. We found that a poor work environment was universally the most important reason why a physician chose to leave a location. A few physicians who were unsatisfied with their work location identified level of remuneration as an additional reason for leaving. Some older generation physicians cited political climate as a reason for leaving a work location. While economic factors have largely been the focus of recruitment and

  8. The Role of Early Maternal Support in Balancing Full-Time Work and Infant Exclusive Breastfeeding: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, Lea; Fisher, Christopher M; Barnes-Josiah, Debora; Coleman, Jason D; Lefebvre, R Craig

    Support of others is a key factor for mothers who choose to breastfeed their infants, including those who balance work outside the home and breastfeeding. However, little research has been done to understand how maternal support during the postpartum period impacts mothers' ability to later balance work and breastfeeding, in particular full-time work and exclusive breastfeeding. The results of this qualitative study indicate that the timing of support plays a key role in mothers' ability to successfully overcome barriers during the early postpartum period, thus building maternal self-efficacy in addressing problems encountered when they return to work. To understand the experience of low-income women who successfully balance full-time work and exclusive breastfeeding for the recommended 6 months, interviews were conducted with women who met study criteria for income level, work status, and exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding peer counselors were also interviewed as key informants. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded for themes. The results of both sets of interviews were triangulated with a focused literature review to assure the soundness of the qualitative analysis. Timing of support included acute support, such as help establishing a successful latch needed during the first 2 weeks after delivery, to deal with breastfeeding problems that mothers perceived as being mentally and emotionally overwhelming and longer-term support needed to overcome problems perceived as being less intense. The research invites further exploration into the relationship between breastfeeding support provided by mothers' support system, including healthcare professionals, during the postpartum period and rates of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity.

  9. Environmental and personal factors that support early return-to-work: a qualitative study using the ICF as a framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefsmit, Nicole; Houkes, Inge; Nijhuis, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Occupational health professionals such as occupational physicians (OPs) increasingly understand that in addition to health improvement, environmental factors (such as work adaptations) and personal factors (such as an employee's attitude towards return-to-work (RTW)) may stimulate employees on sick leave to return to work early. To target their professional interventions more specifically according to these factors, occupational health professionals need further insight into environmental and personal factors that stimulate RTW. The objectives of this study are (1) to identify which and how environmental and personal factors support RTW, and (2) to examine whether the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be used to describe these factors. We performed interviews with 14 employees, 15 employers and 4 OPs from multiple organisations with varying organisational sizes and types of industry such as healthcare and education. We used a qualitative data analysis partially based on the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven. The following environmental factors were found to support early RTW: 'social support from relatives', 'belief that work stimulates health', 'adequate cooperation between stakeholders in RTW' (e.g., employees, employers and OPs) and 'the employers' communicative skills'. One personal factor stimulated RTW: 'positive perception of the working situation' (e.g. enjoyment of work). Most factors stimulated RTW directly. In addition, adequate treatment and social support stimulated medical recovery. Environmental factors can either fully (social support, belief that RTW stimulates health), partially (effective cooperation), or not (employers' communicative skills) be described using ICF codes. The personal factor could not be classified because the ICF does not contain codes for personal factors. RTW interventions should aim at the environmental and personal factors mentioned above. Professionals can use the ICF to

  10. Motivation of Volunteers to Work in Palliative Care Setting: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckaden, M A; Pandya, Sachi Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Volunteers are an integral part of the palliative care services in the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. These volunteers are an important resource for the department. Thus, it is necessary for the department to determine what motivates these volunteers to continue to work in the setting, acknowledge them and direct efforts toward retaining them and giving them opportunities to serve to the best of their desire and abilities. The current study aimed at understanding the motivation of volunteers to work in palliative care, to identify the challenges they face and also the effect of their work on their self and relationships. In-depth interviews were conducted using semistructured interview guide to study above mentioned aspects. Themes were identified and coding was used to analyze the data. The results suggested that the basic motivation for all the volunteers to work in a palliative care setting is an inherent urge, a feeling of need to give back to the society by serving the sick and the suffering. Other motivating factors identified were team spirit, comfort shared, warm and respectful treatment by the team, satisfying nature of work, experience of cancer in the family, and aligned values and beliefs. Some intrinsic rewards mentioned by volunteers were joy of giving, personal growth, enriching experiences, and meaningful nature of work. The study attempted to improve opportunities of working for these volunteers. Although limited in scope, it offers insight for future research in the area of volunteerism in palliative care setup.

  11. Motivation of volunteers to work in palliative care setting: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Muckaden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volunteers are an integral part of the palliative care services in the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. These volunteers are an important resource for the department. Thus, it is necessary for the department to determine what motivates these volunteers to continue to work in the setting, acknowledge them and direct efforts toward retaining them and giving them opportunities to serve to the best of their desire and abilities. Aims: The current study aimed at understanding the motivation of volunteers to work in palliative care, to identify the challenges they face and also the effect of their work on their self and relationships. Methodology: In-depth interviews were conducted using semistructured interview guide to study above mentioned aspects. Themes were identified and coding was used to analyze the data. Results: The results suggested that the basic motivation for all the volunteers to work in a palliative care setting is an inherent urge, a feeling of need to give back to the society by serving the sick and the suffering. Other motivating factors identified were team spirit, comfort shared, warm and respectful treatment by the team, satisfying nature of work, experience of cancer in the family, and aligned values and beliefs. Some intrinsic rewards mentioned by volunteers were joy of giving, personal growth, enriching experiences, and meaningful nature of work. Conclusion: The study attempted to improve opportunities of working for these volunteers. Although limited in scope, it offers insight for future research in the area of volunteerism in palliative care setup.

  12. Work-based learning in health care organisations experienced by nursing staff: A systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Marja; Lunkka, Nina; Suhonen, Marjo

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this review is to systematically summarise qualitative evidence about work-based learning in health care organisations as experienced by nursing staff. Work-based learning is understood as informal learning that occurs inside the work community in the interaction between employees. Studies for this review were searched for in the CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus and ABI Inform ProQuest databases for the period 2000-2015. Nine original studies met the inclusion criteria. After the critical appraisal by two researchers, all nine studies were selected for the review. The findings of the original studies were aggregated, and four statements were prepared, to be utilised in clinical work and decision-making. The statements concerned the following issues: (1) the culture of the work community; (2) the physical structures, spaces and duties of the work unit; (3) management; and (4) interpersonal relations. Understanding the nurses' experiences of work-based learning and factors behind these experiences provides an opportunity to influence the challenges of learning in the demanding context of health care organisations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating an mHealth App for Health and Well-Being at Work: Mixed-Method Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, Elsbeth Marieke; Wiezer, Noortje; Janssen, Joris H; Vink, Peter; Kraaij, Wessel

    2018-03-28

    To improve workers' health and well-being, workplace interventions have been developed, but utilization and reach are unsatisfactory, and effects are small. In recent years, new approaches such as mobile health (mHealth) apps are being developed, but the evidence base is poor. Research is needed to examine its potential and to assess when, where, and for whom mHealth is efficacious in the occupational setting. To develop interventions for workers that actually will be adopted, insight into user satisfaction and technology acceptance is necessary. For this purpose, various qualitative evaluation methods are available. The objectives of this study were to gain insight into (1) the opinions and experiences of employees and experts on drivers and barriers using an mHealth app in the working context and (2) the added value of three different qualitative methods that are available to evaluate mHealth apps in a working context: interviews with employees, focus groups with employees, and a focus group with experts. Employees of a high-tech company and experts were asked to use an mHealth app for at least 3 weeks before participating in a qualitative evaluation. Twenty-two employees participated in interviews, 15 employees participated in three focus groups, and 6 experts participated in one focus group. Two researchers independently coded, categorized, and analyzed all quotes yielded from these evaluation methods with a codebook using constructs from user satisfaction and technology acceptance theories. Interviewing employees yielded 785 quotes, focus groups with employees yielded 266 quotes, and the focus group with experts yielded 132 quotes. Overall, participants muted enthusiasm about the app. Combined results from the three evaluation methods showed drivers and barriers for technology, user characteristics, context, privacy, and autonomy. A comparison between the three qualitative methods showed that issues revealed by experts only slightly overlapped with those

  14. Evaluating an mHealth App for Health and Well-Being at Work: Mixed-Method Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiezer, Noortje; Janssen, Joris H; Vink, Peter; Kraaij, Wessel

    2018-01-01

    Background To improve workers’ health and well-being, workplace interventions have been developed, but utilization and reach are unsatisfactory, and effects are small. In recent years, new approaches such as mobile health (mHealth) apps are being developed, but the evidence base is poor. Research is needed to examine its potential and to assess when, where, and for whom mHealth is efficacious in the occupational setting. To develop interventions for workers that actually will be adopted, insight into user satisfaction and technology acceptance is necessary. For this purpose, various qualitative evaluation methods are available. Objective The objectives of this study were to gain insight into (1) the opinions and experiences of employees and experts on drivers and barriers using an mHealth app in the working context and (2) the added value of three different qualitative methods that are available to evaluate mHealth apps in a working context: interviews with employees, focus groups with employees, and a focus group with experts. Methods Employees of a high-tech company and experts were asked to use an mHealth app for at least 3 weeks before participating in a qualitative evaluation. Twenty-two employees participated in interviews, 15 employees participated in three focus groups, and 6 experts participated in one focus group. Two researchers independently coded, categorized, and analyzed all quotes yielded from these evaluation methods with a codebook using constructs from user satisfaction and technology acceptance theories. Results Interviewing employees yielded 785 quotes, focus groups with employees yielded 266 quotes, and the focus group with experts yielded 132 quotes. Overall, participants muted enthusiasm about the app. Combined results from the three evaluation methods showed drivers and barriers for technology, user characteristics, context, privacy, and autonomy. A comparison between the three qualitative methods showed that issues revealed by experts

  15. Korean working mothers' parenting style in Korea and in the United STates: a qualitative comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyesang; Kim, Eunjung; Sung, Kyungsuk

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the similarities and differences of cultural influences on the parenting styles of Korean working mothers who live in South Korea versus Korean American working mothers living in the U.S. Four major themes were identified: (a) expression of affection for children, (b) parental control, (c) feelings for children, and (d) feelings for themselves. The findings indicate that acculturation to the American culture affected the Korean American working mothers to grant higher self-regulation to their children and to have more positive feelings for their children and themselves.

  16. "Social Work Is a Profession, Not an Ideology": A Qualitative Analysis of Student Perceptions of Social Justice Discussions in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, Candace; Ely, Gretchen E.; Flaherty, Chris; Meyer-Adams, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe student perceptions of their experiences around social justice discussions in the social work classroom through a qualitative, grounded theory framework. Student responses from a qualitative section of a survey were analyzed and sorted into three categories: perceived discrimination, heightened…

  17. Flexible working and the contribution of nurses in mid-life to the workforce: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth; Bennett, Janette; Davey, Barbara; Ross, Fiona

    2010-04-01

    With the changing demographic profile of the nursing workforce, retaining the skill and experience of nurses in mid-life is very important. Work-life balance is a concept that is gaining increasing prominence in today's society. However, little is known about older nurses' experience of family friendly policies and flexible working. This study explored the organisational, professional and personal factors that influence perceptions of commitment and participation in the workforce for nurses working in mid-life (aged 45 and over). A qualitative study using a range of methods including biographical methods, semi-structured face-to-face interviews, focus groups and telephone interviews. Data were analysed using constant comparative method. A large inner city acute teaching hospital and an inner city mental health and social care trust providing both community and inpatient health and social care. 34 nurses and 3 health care assistants participated in individual interviews, 10 nurses participated in two focus groups and 17 managers participated in individual telephone interviews. Four themes emerged: the nature of nursing poses a challenge to the implementation of flexible working, differences in perceptions of the availability of flexible working, ward managers have a crucial role in the implementation of flexible working policies and the implementation of flexible working may be creating an inflexible workforce. The findings suggest that there are limits to the implementation of flexible working for nurses. In some areas there is evidence that the implementation of flexible working may be producing an inflexible workforce as older nurses are required to compensate for the flexible working patterns of their colleagues. Ward managers have a key role in the implementation of family friendly policies and require support to fulfil this role. There is a need for creative solutions to address implementation of flexible working for all nurses to ensure that workforce policy

  18. Work values and job satisfaction: a qualitative study of Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravari, Ali; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ebadi, Abbas; Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Oshvandi, Khodayar

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the effect of nursing profession work-related values on job satisfaction among a sample of Iranian nurses. We used in-depth interviews with 30 nurses who worked in university-affiliated and public hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The results of thematic analysis of interviews are reported in four themes to present the participants' articulations in linking their work-related values to job satisfaction. The themes consist of values that "encourage tolerance," "enhance inner harmony," "reflect traditional commitment," "enhance unity," and are "centered around altruism and spiritual values." The most satisfied participants considered nursing a divine profession and a tool by which they could gain spiritual pleasure and satisfaction. Our findings highlight the potential role of nursing work-related values in reducing dissatisfaction with one's job. For the nursing profession, this may have implications in reducing job instability and turnover.

  19. Qualitative interviews of pharmacy interns: determining curricular preparedness for work life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupans I

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the key features affecting the transition from university to paid employment is the graduate’s perception of their capability to satisfactorily perform the work of a graduate. In some professions such as in nursing, the concept of “transition shock” is referred to. There is a need to understand how pharmacy students perceive the transition to their first job as intern pharmacists and identify potential curriculum gaps in their pharmacy studies. To date, little evidence around whether university programs are effective in equipping pharmacy graduates in transitioning to the world of work has been published.Objectives: To explore from the perspective of new pharmacy professionals, graduated from one Australian university areas that need to be addressed in pharmacy programs to prepare graduates for the transition to full-time work as interns in pharmacy. Methods: Thematic analysis of interviews with interns.Results: Subthemes were identified within the responses- relationships within the workplace and graduates needing to interest themselves in other people, adjusting to work hours and the differences between university assessments and performing in a workplace. Suggestions were made by graduates that the placement period within the pharmacy program be increased.Conclusions: Pharmacy graduates appear prepared for the world of pharmacy work. The concept of “transition shock” or “transition stress” described for graduates of other health professions commencing work was not apparent.

  20. [Clinical anamnestic characteristics in neurological work-related medical rehabilitation : Necessity for a qualitative identification of severe restrictions of work ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heßling, A; Brandes, I; Dierks, M-L; Leniger, T

    2018-02-01

    Severe restrictions of work ability (SRWA) as a condition for participation in neurological work-related medical rehabilitation (WMR) have not been adequately described up to now. Similarly, the applicability of the screening instrument SIMBO-C for evaluating SRWA in neurological rehabilitation has not yet been answered conclusively. Determination of clinical and anamnestic characteristics of neurological SRWA and assessment of the applicability of the screening instrument SIMBO-C in neurological WMR. For the identification of SRWA clinical and anamnestic characteristics of 344 rehabilitants were routinely collected. The clinically and anamnestically determined SRWA was described quantitatively and content-analytically and correlated with SIMBO-C. Of the rehabilitants 66% exhibited SRWA. Apart from the established characteristics of SRWA further person and disease-specific factors were found. The SIMBO-C score was significantly higher in the group with SRWA compared to the group without SRWA (45.6 ± 18.9 vs. 31.5 ± 12.5, p characteristics in the group with SRWA was homogeneous, regardless of the SIMBO-C score. The characteristics of neurological SRWA are mainly qualitatively shaped and may only partly be identified by SIMBO-C. A combined quantitative and qualitative approach is necessary in neurological WMR.

  1. Interprofessional Communication Concerning Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Séverine; Gouyet, Thomas; Letourneux, Véronique Daubas; Mener, Eric; Huge, Sandrine; Petit, Audrey; Begue, Cyril

    2018-02-06

    Purpose Understanding and treating musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) requires coordination between the numerous healthcare professionals involved, including occupational physicians (OPs), general practitioners (GPs) and social insurance physicians (SIPs). The main objective of this study was to assess communication between OPs, GPs and SIPs in the management of MSDs. Methods This is a qualitative study in the form of semi-structured interviews with OPs in the French region of Brittany. The interviews were conducted until data saturation was achieved. The interviews were fully coded and analysed thematically using NVivo® software. Results The interviews were carried out among 17 OPs from companies and external occupational healthcare services who treated employees from various activity sectors. Different communication channels were used depending on the interlocutor, though they were mainly contacted by mail or phone. Most of the communication passed through the patient, either verbally or in writing. No major failure was detected in communication between the various types of practitioners, but instances of communication were influenced by various factors such as differences in perception, representation and objectives, as well as by how well the physicians knew each other. A number of instances of non-communication were found. Conclusion This study showed that patients play a key role in the interactions between different practitioners. It also revealed that different types of professional relationships depend on the objectives of the various interlocutors, which in turn vary according to their roles and competences.

  2. Qualitative study of Singaporean youths’ perception of antismoking campaigns: what works and what does not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahwan, Shazana; Fauziana, Restria; Satghare, Pratika; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Picco, Louisa; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Background Youths are more likely to rebel against messages perceived to inhibit their independence. In order for antismoking campaigns to be effective with this population, adopting evidence-based strategies is crucial. In this study, we examined youths’ reaction to past and ongoing antismoking campaigns, and delineate effective and ineffective components of campaigns as identified by them. Methods 12 focus group discussions were conducted with 91 youth smokers aged 15–29 years. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. A codebook was derived through an iterative process. The data were coded systematically by three coders, using Nvivo V.10. Results Fear appeals that had no immediate relevance to youths, and campaigns involving humour or sports/dance activities that distracted youths from the antismoking messages, were deemed ineffective. In contrast, elements identified to be efficacious were: positive tone, low-fear visual images, ‘low-controlling language’ and a genuine spokesperson. Youth tended to favour campaigns circulating on social media platforms. Importantly, youths voiced a lack of tangible support for their efforts to quit smoking. Conclusions Participants expressed a preference towards antismoking messages that were less authoritative, and perceived a distinct lack of support for their intentions to quit smoking. There is room for incorporating suggestions by participants in future antismoking campaigns. Future research is needed to identify barriers to accessing available support. PMID:26944686

  3. A qualitative investigation of Foundation Year 2 doctors' views on the European Working Time Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Myanna; Haslam, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE - The purpose of this paper is to examine the personal views and experiences of Foundation Year 2 doctors operating under the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH - In total, 36 Foundation Year 2 doctors from a single UK-based Deanery participated in this semistructured interview study. FINDINGS - Findings indicated that Foundation doctors typically welcomed a regulation of working hours, but reported frustration at the manner in which the Directive had been implemented. Participants reported concerns at reducing hours by removing out-of-hours working in order to meet EWTD requirements. Out-of-hours shifts were highly valued owing to their increased opportunities for autonomous clinical decision making. By contrast, day-shifts were regarded as heavily administrative in nature and were perceived as service provision. Foundation doctors discussed the unique nature of the out-of-hours working period which appeared to provide specific learning opportunities as doctors draw on time management and prioritisation skills. ORIGINALITY/VALUE - Given the challenges the EWTD presents, careful rota planning is essential. First, the authors would encourage the restructuring of day-shift work to provide a greater emphasis on hands-on skills experience in a supportive, supervised environment. Second, where possible, Foundation doctors might benefit from the opportunity to engage in some out-of-hours working, such as with multi-professional "Hospital at Night" teams. Third, the authors would encourage junior doctor involvement in rota design and planning which may increase their perceived autonomy and therefore buy-in of working practices.

  4. Barriers and enabling factors for work-site physical activity programs: a qualitative examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Gena M; Behrens, Timothyh K; Domina, Lorie

    2008-05-01

    Work sites offer a productive setting for physical activity (PA) promoting interventions. Still, PA participation remains low. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the reasoning behind commonly reported barriers and enabling factors to participation in PA programs in a work-site setting. Employees from a large city government were recruited to participate in focus groups, stratified by white- and blue-collar occupations. Responses from open-ended questions about factors influencing participation in PA programs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Resulting data were analyzed with open and axial coding. The sample consisted of 60 employees composing 9 focus groups. Although time was the most common barrier between both groups, white-collars workers responded that scheduling and work conflicts were the most common barrier concerning time. Blue-collar workers indicated shift work as their most common barrier. In addition, health was a significant enabling factor for both occupational categories. White-collar workers were much more concerned with appearances and were more highly motivated by weight loss and the hopefulness of quick results than were blue-collar workers. These findings are important in the understanding of PA as it relates to the reasoning behind participation in work-site programs in regard to occupational status.

  5. The content and meaning of administrative work: a qualitative study of nursing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Lucie; Waelli, Mathias; Allen, Davina; Minvielle, Etienne

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the content and meaning of nurses' administrative work. Nurses often report that administrative work keeps them away from bedside care. The content and meaning of this work remains insufficiently explored. Comparative case studies. The investigation took place in 2014. It was based on 254 hours of observations and 27 interviews with nurses and staff in two contrasting units: intensive care and long-term care. A time and motion study was also performed over a period of 96 hours. Documentation and Organizational Activities is composed of six categories; documenting the patient record, coordination, management of patient flow, transmission of information, reporting quality indicators, ordering supplies- stock management Equal amounts of time were spent on these activities in each case. Nurses did not express complaints about documentation in intensive care, whereas they reported feeling frustrated by it in long-term care. These differences reflected the extent to which these activities could be integrated into nurses' clinical work and this is in turn was related to several factors: staff ratios, informatics, and relevance to nursing work. Documentation and Organizational Activities are a main component of care. The meaning nurses attribute to them is dependent on organizational context. These activities are often perceived as competing with bedside care, but this does not have to be the case. The challenge for managers is to fully integrate them into nursing practice. Results also suggest that nurses' Documentation and Organizational Activities should be incorporated into informatics strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A qualitative study investigating the barriers to returning to work for breastfeeding mothers in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Desmond, Deirdre; Meaney, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that mothers exclusively breastfeed for the first 6?months of an infant?s life. In Ireland, currently paid maternity leave is 26?weeks and the expectant mother is required by law to finish work 2?weeks before her expected delivery date. Mothers wishing to exclusively breastfeed for 6?months or longer find themselves having to take holiday leave or unpaid leave from work in order to meet the WHO?s guidelines. The aim of this study is to...

  7. Working with Randolph-Sheppard Entrepreneurs Who Are Deafblind: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierholzer, Anne C.; Bybee, Jacquelyn

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the study was to explore challenges facing deafblind entrepreneurs and the staff who work with them through the Randolph-Sheppard Business Enterprise Program. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 41 Randolph-Sheppard staff and deafblind entrepreneurs across the United States. Participants were selected using a…

  8. Work, worksites, and wellbeing among North American Indian women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Karina; Gadhoke, Preety; Pardilla, Marla; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-04-10

    The purpose of this study was to understand what factors influenced work-family balance and related health behaviors among a sample of rural North American Indian women. We interviewed 89 women through both in-depth interviews and focus groups across four tribal communities in the American Southwest and Upper Midwest between July 2010 and August 2011. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for emerging themes related to work- family demands placed on women and resources available to cope with those demands. Three prominent themes emerged: structural characteristics (the context of rural reservation life), role stressors (women's multiple and conflicting roles) and the influence of social support (communal nature of care in the family and institutional support in the workplace). We found that women in participating rural reservation communities often acted as primary caregivers for both immediate and extended family, and often placed the needs of others before themselves. The context of rural reservations, with high rates of unemployment, poverty, and chronic illnesses associated with the collective trauma of colonization, placed high demands on female caregivers. Social support from within the workplace, family, and cultural traditions helped some female caregivers balance the demands of home and work. Tribal worksites could be a resource for promoting health and work-life balance by being responsive to the particular demands placed on women that often interfere with engaging in positive health behaviors in general and tribal wellness programs in particular.

  9. [Medical Rehabilitation as an Attractive Field of Work for Medical Doctors? - A Qualitative Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederle, Mareike; Kotzjan, Priscilla Simone; Niehues, Christiane; Brüggemann, Silke; Bitzer, Eva-Maria

    2017-10-01

    In the German Health system there is an increasing competition in the recruitment of specialised staff, especially for rehabilitation centres, which are deemed less attractive. Therefore, this study examines the attractiveness of the field of medical rehabilitation from the point of view of medical professionals. We conducted 16 semi-structured interviews with doctors from 7 rehabilitation centres with different medical specialisations. The interviews were digitized and transcribed. A structured content analysis was carried out using the software MAXQDA 11. 745 codes were identified and assigned to the categories "attractiveness", "unfavourable aspects" and "special features" of rehabilitation. Regarding medical rehabilitation, the interviewees appreciated especially the predictable, flexible working environment with little time pressure. Other than working with rehabilitative patients working as part of an interdisciplinary team was of high importance for the interviewees. Among the special features of rehabilitation in comparison with acute care were the higher relevance of the bio-psycho-social model of health and illness as well as the higher proportion of communication and organisation. Medical rehabilitation in Germany is an attractive field of work for medical doctors. This fact should be considered more with regards to rehabilitation's public image. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Night Moves: A Qualitative Investigation of Street-Level Sex Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, Rochelle L.

    2002-01-01

    The subculture of street-level sex work including the social environment, drug use and abuse, and violence was examined. Personal interviews were conducted with 43 women involved in streetwalking prostitution. Data were analyzed using Phenomenological Descriptive Analysis (Colaizzi, 1978). Several participants reported developing emotional…

  11. A Qualitative Study of Work-Life Choices in Academic Internal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol; Byars-Winston, Angela; McSorley, Rebecca; Schultz, Alexandra; Kaatz, Anna; Carnes, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    The high attrition rate of female physicians pursuing an academic medicine research career has not been examined in the context of career development theory. We explored how internal medicine residents and faculty experience their work within the context of their broader life domain in order to identify strategies for facilitating career…

  12. Experience of Social Media, Training and Development on Work Proficiency: A Qualitative Study with Security Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyireh, Rexford Owusu; Okyireh, Marijke Akua Adobea

    2016-01-01

    How useful is social media and training programs to the development of professionals in the security sector? In this study the researchers examined three key issues pertaining to training programs. These were marketing of training programs, participant experiences of training content and work proficiency. A sample of ten participants of a forensic…

  13. Work-related stress in a humanitarian context: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachens, Liza; Houdmont, Jonathan; Thomas, Roslyn

    2018-03-13

    There is a paucity of research on the subjective stress-related experiences of humanitarian aid workers. Most evaluations of stress among these individuals focus on trauma and related conditions or adopt a quantitative approach. This interview-based study explored how 58 humanitarian aid workers employed by a United Nations-aligned organisation perceived the transactional stress process. The thematic analysis revealed eight main topics of interest: an emergency culture was found where most employees felt compelled to offer an immediate response to humanitarian needs; employees identified strongly with humanitarian goals and reported a high level of engagement; the rewards of humanitarian work were perceived as motivating and meaningful; constant change and urgent demands resulted in work overload; and managing work-life boundaries and receiving positive support from colleagues and managers helped to buffer perceived stress, work overload, and negative health outcomes. The practical implications of the results are discussed and suggestions made in the light of current research and stress theory. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  14. Perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work: a qualitative study in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tyler; Green, Heidi; Scandlyn, Jean; Kestler, Andrew

    2009-02-26

    Each year medical providers from wealthy countries participate in short-term medical volunteer work in resource-poor countries. Various authors have raised concern that such work has the potential to be harmful to recipient communities; however, the social science and medical literature contains little research into the perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work from the perspective of members of recipient communities. This exploratory study examines the perception of short-term medical volunteer work in Guatemala among groups of actors affected by or participating in these programs. The researchers conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 72 individuals, including Guatemalan healthcare providers and health authorities, foreign medical providers, non-medical personnel working on health projects, and Guatemalan parents of children treated by a short-term volunteer group. Detailed notes and summaries of these interviews were uploaded, coded and annotated using Atlas.ti (Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin) to identify recurrent themes from the interviews. Informants commonly identified a need for increased access to medical services in Guatemala, and many believed that short-term medical volunteers are in a position to offer improved access to medical care in the communities where they serve. Informants most frequently cited appropriate patient selection and attention to payment systems as the best means to avoid creating dependence on foreign aid. The most frequent suggestion to improve short-term medical volunteer work was coordination with and respect for local Guatemalan healthcare providers and their communities, as insufficient understanding of the country's existing healthcare resources and needs may result in perceived harm to the recipient community. The perceived impact of short-term medical volunteer projects in Guatemala is highly variable and dependent upon the individual project. In this exploratory study, project

  15. Involvement as inclusion? Shared decision-making in social work practice in Israel: a qualitative account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lia

    2015-03-01

    Shared decision-making (SDM), a representation of shared knowledge and power between social workers and their clients, is gaining popularity and prevalence in social services around the world. In many senses, SDM reflects values traditionally associated with social work and service provision, such as equality and anti-discrimination. In the complex context of social problem-solving, however, the relationship between SDM, social workers and their clients is multi-faceted and deserves particular attention. The current study examined SDM and the dilemmas it entails through interviews conducted in 2012 with 77 Israeli social workers and policy makers whose responses were analysed according to the guiding principles of descriptive phenomenological content analysis and dialogical commonality. Participants' responses represent notions of hope, change, identity and choice. Findings are discussed in correspondence with current and recent trends in Israeli social services, and the social work profession in Israel. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nurse prescribing in general practice: a qualitative study of job satisfaction and work-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Rosanna; Donnell, Christine

    2012-04-01

    Studies examining the impact nurse prescribing have largely focused on the efficacy of the service. It was suggested in pro-prescribing policy arguments that extending the nursing role to include prescribing would increase job satisfaction. This assertion has not been fully explored. To investigate the impact of independent prescribing for experienced nurse practitioners (NPs) working in general practice. In-depth interviews were conducted with six NPs who each had at least 3 years experience of independent prescribing in a busy inner city general practice. Analysis of interview data yielded two main themes: as independent prescribers NPs experienced increased levels of both job satisfaction and work-related stress. Increased satisfaction was associated with having greater autonomy and being able to provide more holistic care. Increased work-related stress emerged from greater job demands, perceived insufficient support and perceived effort-reward imbalance that centred upon the enhanced role not being recognized in terms of an increase in grade and pay. Independent prescribing increases job satisfaction for NPs in general practice, but there is also evidence of stressors associated with the role. It is important that NPs in general practice are encouraged and supported towards providing the effective patient-centred care in the community envisaged by current UK government. We acknowledge that the results presented in this paper are based on a sample limited to one city; however, it provides information that has important implications for the well being of NPs and ultimately patient care.

  17. Exploring the return-to-work process for workers partially returned to work and partially on long-term sick leave due to common mental disorders: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordik, Erik; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Varekamp, Inge; van der Klink, Jac J.; Van Dijk, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study into the return-to-work process of workers partially on sick leave due to common mental disorders. Our objectives were to describe the barriers to a full return to work, solutions, communicating to the working environment and the aim of a full return to work, all as

  18. Swimming Against the Current: A Qualitative Review of the Work Experiences and Adaptations made by Employees with Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purc-Stephenson, R J; Dostie, Jessica; Smith, Hailey J

    2018-01-30

    To describe the experiences and strategies of employees with arthritis (EwA) to maintain employment and to use this information to build a conceptual model. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies that examined the work experiences of EwA. Published studies on arthritis and employment were searched from electronic databases (1980-2017) and bibliographical reviews of relevant studies. We used meta-ethnography to synthesize the findings. We reviewed 17 studies reporting on the experiences of 873 employees. We identified 11 main themes that highlight common issues experienced by EwA, and grouped these into four higher-order categories: nature of the disease (emotional issues, cognitive struggles, physical symptoms), intrapersonal issues (personal meaning of work, preserving a work identity), interpersonal issues (managing disclosure, gaining co-worker support, organizational culture issues), and work-sustainability strategies (making personal adjustments, using social support, using workplace accommodations). Using these themes, we developed the Job Sustainability Model to illustrate how disease, personal, and work-related factors interact to influence what type of coping behaviors are used and when. Initially, EwA rely on making personal adjustments, using social support, and medical intervention. However, when these coping behaviors fail to be effective, they draw upon workplace accommodations and resources. Arthritis disrupts an employee's work life by impairing his or her capacity to be a productive worker. Our results highlight how EwA make strategic adaptations to maintain a productive work life for as long as possible. The findings of this study have implications for work-related interventions aimed at preserving employment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. The return to work discussion: a qualitative study of the line manager conversation about return to work and the development of an educational programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Debbie; Allen, Joanna; Rhydderch, Melody; Aylward, Mansel

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the conversation between line manager and employee about return to work to inform the development of an online interactive educational programme for line managers to improve the effectiveness of their discussions. An inductive qualitative approach, using the principles of action research and motivational interviewing were adopted. The results informed the development of the educational programme for line managers. Middle grade line managers in a large public services employer in the UK. Four discussion groups were conducted over a period of 8 months. Line managers explored the challenges of the return to work interview, analysed their interactions with employees and constructed the content of an educational programme. Multiple methods were used to build engagement with participants, including video and role-play. Nine line managers were recruited across 3 business areas. Managers recognised that their conversations focused on the organisations' policies and procedures and the outcome, rather than the interaction. They recognised the strength of shifting style to shared decision-making and guidance rather than process and instruction. These communication strategies were depicted in the educational programme. The content and flow of the return to work discussion is of high importance and influences employee behaviour and return to work outcomes.

  20. Review and interpretation of previous work and new data on the hydrogeology of the Schwartzwalder Uranium Mine and vicinity, Jefferson County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan S.; Johnson, Raymond H.; Wild, Emily C.

    2011-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder deposit is the largest known vein type uranium deposit in the United States. Located about eight miles northwest of Golden, Colorado it occurs in Proterozoic metamorphic rocks and was formed by hydrothermal fluid flow, mineralization, and deformation during the Laramide Orogeny. A complex brittle fault zone hosts the deposit comprising locally brecciated carbonate, oxide, and sulfide minerals. Mining of pitchblende, the primary ore mineral, began in 1953 and an extensive network of underground workings was developed. Mine dewatering, treatment of the effluent and its discharge into the adjacent Ralston Creek was done under State permit from about 1990 through about 2008. Mining and dewatering ceased in 2000 and natural groundwater rebound has filled the mine workings to a current elevation that is above Ralston Creek but that is still below the lowest ground level adit. Water in the 'mine pool' has concentrations of dissolved uranium in excess of 1,000 times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 30 milligrams per liter. Other dissolved constituents such as molybdenum, radium, and sulfate are also present in anomalously high concentrations. Ralston Creek flows in a narrow valley containing Quaternary alluvium predominantly derived from weathering of crystalline bedrock including local mineralized rock. Just upstream of the mine site, two capped and unsaturated waste rock piles with high radioactivity sit on an alluvial terrace. As Ralston Creek flows past the mine site, a host of dissolved metal concentrations increase. Ralston Creek eventually discharges into Ralston Reservoir about 2.5 miles downstream. Because of highly elevated uranium concentrations, the State of Colorado issued an enforcement action against the mine permit holder requiring renewed collection and treatment of alluvial groundwater. As part of planned mine reclamation, abundant data were collected and compiled into a report by Wyman and Effner

  1. Working with interpreters in cross-cultural qualitative research in the context of a developing country: systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpuku, Yoko; Norr, Kathleen F

    2012-08-01

    This article is a report of a systematic literature review describing how cross-cultural researchers conducted qualitative studies with interpreters in Tanzania. The purpose was to draw methodological implications for working with interpreters within the context of developing countries. In a growing number of cross-cultural nursing studies in developing countries, interpreters play a crucial role for imparting verbal and cultural understanding. In many studies, however, the interpreters' role and their influences on the findings are not adequately described, and therefore the study credibility is weakened. Cross-cultural qualitative studies conducted with interpreters in Tanzania were searched in four databases. Meeting our inclusion criteria were 20 studies published from 1994-2009. We used Garrard's Matrix Method following Wallin and Ahlström's framework to analyse how cross-cultural researchers described the role of interpreters. We identified three major patterns of how researchers worked with interpreters: (i) invisible assistance, (ii) independent fieldwork and (iii) integrated collaboration. In many studies, interpreters' information was limited. They were often asked to collect data in the field without the presence of the researcher. They were integrated into the research process beyond data collection, such as subject recruitment, review of interviews, transcription and translation and analysis. From planning of research to dissemination of the findings, nurse researchers should carefully consider interpreters' influences on the findings. They may use a set of questions we developed for working with interpreters in developing countries to systematically describe the interpreter's role and maximize their research credibility. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Work-Related Stressors Among Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Home Visitors: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitz, Paige J; Geary, Shana; Birriel, Pamela C; Sayi, Takudzwa; Ramakrishnan, Rema; Balogun, Omotola; Salloum, Alison; Marshall, Jennifer T

    2018-05-31

    Background The Florida Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) program delivers evidence-based home visiting services to over 1400 families each year. Home visitors are integral in providing resources for families to promote healthy pregnancy, child development, family wellness, and self-sufficiency. Due to the nature of this work, home visitors experience work-related pressures and stressors that can impact staff well-being and retention. Objectives The purpose of this study was to understand primary sources of work-related stress experienced by home visitors, subsequent effects on their engagement with program participants, and to learn of coping mechanisms used to manage stress. Methods In 2015, Florida MIECHV program evaluators conducted ten focus groups with 49 home visitors during which they ranked and discussed their top sources of work-related stress. Qualitative analysis was conducted to identify emergent themes in work-related stressors and coping/supports. Results Across all sites, the burden of paperwork and data entry were the highest ranked work-related stressors perceived as interfering with home visitors' engagement with participants. The second-highest ranked stressors included caseload management, followed by a lack of resources for families, and dangerous environments. Home visitors reported gratification in their helping relationships families, and relied on coworkers or supervisors as primary sources of workplace support along with self-care (e.g. mini-vacations, recreation, and counseling). Conclusions for practice Florida MIECHV home visitors across all ten focus groups shared similar work-related stressors that they felt diminished engagement with program participants and could impact participant and staff retention. In response, Florida MIECHV increased resources to support home visitor compensation and reduce caseloads, and obtained a competitive award from HRSA to implement a mindfulness-based stress reduction

  3. What do working menopausal women want? A qualitative investigation into women's perspectives on employer and line manager support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Claire; Griffiths, Amanda; Hunter, Myra S

    2017-07-01

    To explore women's perspectives on what employers and managers should and should not do in relation to women going through the menopause. An online questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data in a cross-sectional study of working women. Three open-ended questions asked peri- and post-menopausal women, aged 45-65 years: (i) what they thought employers could do, or should do, to help menopausal women who may be experiencing difficult menopausal symptoms at work; (ii) how managers should behave; and (iii) how managers should not behave towards women going through the menopause. 137 women responded to the open questions in the survey. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted and three overarching themes emerged. Theme 1 related to employer/manager awareness, specifically to knowledge about the menopause and awareness of how the physical work environment might impact on menopausal women. Theme 2 related to employer/manager communication skills and behaviors, specifically those considered helpful and desired and those considered unhelpful and undesired. Theme 3 described employer actions, involving staff training and raising awareness, and supportive policies such as those relating to sickness absence and flexible working hours. The menopause can be difficult for some women to deal with at work, partly due to the working environment. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore women's descriptions of how they would like to be treated by employers/managers, and what would be helpful and unhelpful. The results have clear implications for communication about menopause at work and for employer-level policy and practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A qualitative study of factors influencing different generations of Newfoundland and Saskatchewan trained physicians to leave a work location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have suggested that young physicians may have different expectations and practice behaviours than their older generational counterparts, including their reasons for wanting to remain or leave a community. This study examined the factors associated with a physician’s decision to leave a work location. We compared different generations of physicians to assess whether these factors have changed over generations. Methods We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews with 48 physicians who graduated from two Canadian medical schools. We asked each physician about the number and nature of work location changes and the factors related to their decisions to leave each location. Interview transcripts and notes were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Dissatisfaction with the working environment was the most frequently cited reason for leaving a location for physicians of all generations. Elements which contributed to the quality of the work environment included the collaborative nature of the practice, the relationship with administrators, and access to resources and personnel. For younger physicians, the work environment had to meet their personal expectations for work-life balance. While remuneration level was given by some physicians as the key reason for leaving a location, for others it was the “last straw” if the work environment was poor. A small number of older generation physicians moved in response to political events and/or policies Conclusions We documented generational differences in physicians’ reasons for choosing a work location. We found that a poor work environment was universally the most important reason why a physician chose to leave a location. A few physicians who were unsatisfied with their work location identified level of remuneration as an additional reason for leaving. Some older generation physicians cited political climate as a reason for leaving a work

  5. Job satisfaction among nurses working in the private and public sectors: a qualitative study in tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saima Hamid,1 Asmat Ullah Malik,2 Irum Kamran,3 Musarat Ramzan41Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan; 2Integrated Health Services, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3GIZ, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Wah Medical College, Wah Cantt, University of Health Sciences, Wah, PakistanBackground: Many low and middle income countries lack the human resources needed to deliver essential health interventions. A health care system with a limited number of nurses cannot function effectively. Although the recommended nurse to doctor ratio is 4:1, the ratio in Pakistan is reversed, with 2.7 doctors to one nurse.Methods: A qualitative study using narrative analysis was undertaken in public and private tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan to examine and compare job satisfaction among nurses and understand the factors affecting their work climate. Interactive interviews were conducted with nurses working with inpatients and outpatients.Results: All of the respondents had joined the profession by choice and were supported by their families in their decision to pursue their career, but now indicated that they were dissatisfied with their jobs. Three types of narratives were identified, namely, “Working in the spirit of serving humanity”, “Working against all odds”, and “Working in a functional system and facing pressures of increased accountability”. Nurses working in a public sector hospital are represented in the first two narrative types, whereas the third represents those working in a private sector hospital. The first narrative represents nurses who were new in the profession and despite hard working conditions were performing their duties. The second narrative represents nurses working in the public sector with limited resources, and the third narrative is a representation of nurses who were working hard and stressed out despite a well functioning system.Conclusion: The study shows that the presence of a well trained health workforce is vital, and that certain

  6. UK doctors’ views on the implementation of the European Working Time Directive as applied to medical practice: a qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Rachel T; Pitcher, Alex; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To report on what doctors at very different levels of seniority wrote, in their own words, about their concerns about the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and its implementation in the National Health Service (NHS). Design All medical school graduates from 1993, 2005 and 2009 were surveyed by post and email in 2010. Setting The UK. Methods Using qualitative methods, we analysed free-text responses made in 2010, towards the end of the first year of full EWTD implementation, of three cohorts of the UK medical graduates (graduates of 1993, 2005 and 2009), surveyed as part of the UK Medical Careers Research Group's schedule of multipurpose longitudinal surveys of doctors. Results Of 2459 respondents who gave free-text comments, 279 (11%) made unprompted reference to the EWTD; 270 of the 279 comments were broadly critical. Key themes to emerge included frequent dissociation between rotas and actual hours worked, adverse effects on training opportunities and quality, concerns about patient safety, lowering of morale and job satisfaction, and attempts reportedly made in some hospitals to persuade junior doctors to collude in the inaccurate reporting of compliance. Conclusions Further work is needed to determine whether problems perceived with the EWTD, when they occur, are attributable to the EWTD itself, and shortened working hours, or to the way that it has been implemented in some hospitals. PMID:24503304

  7. UK doctors' views on the implementation of the European Working Time Directive as applied to medical practice: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Rachel T; Pitcher, Alex; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J

    2014-02-06

    To report on what doctors at very different levels of seniority wrote, in their own words, about their concerns about the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and its implementation in the National Health Service (NHS). All medical school graduates from 1993, 2005 and 2009 were surveyed by post and email in 2010. The UK. Using qualitative methods, we analysed free-text responses made in 2010, towards the end of the first year of full EWTD implementation, of three cohorts of the UK medical graduates (graduates of 1993, 2005 and 2009), surveyed as part of the UK Medical Careers Research Group's schedule of multipurpose longitudinal surveys of doctors. Of 2459 respondents who gave free-text comments, 279 (11%) made unprompted reference to the EWTD; 270 of the 279 comments were broadly critical. Key themes to emerge included frequent dissociation between rotas and actual hours worked, adverse effects on training opportunities and quality, concerns about patient safety, lowering of morale and job satisfaction, and attempts reportedly made in some hospitals to persuade junior doctors to collude in the inaccurate reporting of compliance. Further work is needed to determine whether problems perceived with the EWTD, when they occur, are attributable to the EWTD itself, and shortened working hours, or to the way that it has been implemented in some hospitals.

  8. Does Working Memory Impact Functional Outcomes in Individuals With ADHD: A Qualitative and Comprehensive Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Ronna; Abrams, Jessica; Hall, Anna; Feinberg, Leah; Pope, Amanda; Biederman, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    Working Memory (WM) is a domain of executive functioning often impaired in individuals with ADHD. Although assumed to cause difficulties across functioning, the scope of impairments from WM deficits in ADHD has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine outcomes associated with WM deficits in ADHD. We conducted a search of the scientific literature on WM deficits, and Freedom From Distractibility (FFD), in ADHD using PubMed and PsycInfo databases. The final sample included 11 controlled studies of WM/FFD deficits in ADHD with operationalized assessment of outcomes in academic, social, and emotional areas. WM assessment was divided into auditory-verbal memory (AVM) and spatial-visual memory (SWM). Seven studies examined WM deficits in academic functioning, eight studies assessed WM deficits in social functioning, and three assessed WM deficits in psychopathology. The majority of the literature suggests that WM deficits affect primarily academic functioning.

  9. Interprofessional competence: a qualitative exploration of social work and nursing students' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Engle Angela; Lam, Winsome; Lam Yeung, Syrine Kit-Sum

    2013-09-01

    Being a professional in today's health care system carries with it an expectation of becoming interprofessional. This study was designed to explore the perceived development of the participants' interprofessional competence through interprofessional seminars and collaborative community practice. Data were collected from social work and nursing undergraduates through two interprofessional seminar discussions, followed by focus group interviews after the completion of 2 weeks of practice experience. Study findings included: (a) role clarification and enhancement, (b) evolving role emphasis, (c) understanding the importance of and various communications in teamwork, and (d) being more responsive to the meaning of teamwork and the understanding of collaborative interdependence. Through interprofessional collaborative practice, students developed an insight into teamwork, where they witnessed the merits of collaboration and gained an understanding of each other's lack of holistic approach. In addition, not only the particular practice settings but also the role variations involved revealed various dimensions of interprofessional learning. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Mental health claims management and return to work: qualitative insights from Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijnath, Bianca; Mazza, Danielle; Singh, Nabita; Kosny, Agnieszka; Ruseckaite, Rasa; Collie, Alex

    2014-12-01

    Mental health conditions (MHC) are an increasing reason for claiming injury compensation in Australia; however little is known about how these claims are managed by different gatekeepers to injury entitlements. This study, drawing on the views of four stakeholders-general practitioners (GPs), injured persons, employers and compensation agents, aims to describe current management of MHC claims and to identify the current barriers to return to work (RTW) for injured persons with a MHC claim and/or mental illness. Ninety-three in-depth interviews were undertaken with GPs, compensation agents, employers and injured persons. Data were collected in Melbourne, Australia. Thematic techniques were used to analyse data. MHC claims were complex to manage because of initial assessment and diagnostic difficulties related to the invisibility of the injury, conflicting medical opinions and the stigma associated with making a MHC claim. Mental illness also developed as a secondary issue in the recovery process. These factors made MHC difficult to manage and impeded timely RTW. It is necessary to undertake further research (e.g. guideline development) to improve current practice in order to enable those with MHC claims to make a timely RTW. Further education and training interventions (e.g. on diagnosis and management of MHC) are also needed to enable GPs, employers and compensation agents to better assess and manage MHC claims.

  11. Child-care and feeding practices of urban middle class working and non-working Indonesian mothers: a qualitative study of the socio-economic and cultural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2012-07-01

    The double-burden problem of malnutrition in many developing countries is occurring against a backdrop of complex changes in the socio-economic and cultural environment. One such change is the increasing rate of female employment, a change that has attracted researchers to explore the possible relationships between maternal employment and child nutritional status. The present study employs a qualitative approach to explore the socio-economic and cultural environments that may influence child-care practices in families of working and non-working mothers with children of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver. It was conducted in Depok, a satellite city of Jakarta, Indonesia, and was designed as a case study involving 26 middle class families. The children were categorized as underweight, normal weight and obese, and caregivers were grouped as family and domestic paid caregivers. Twenty-six mothers and 18 caregivers were interviewed. Data were analysed by the constant comparative approach. The study identified five emerging themes, consisting of reason for working and not working, support for mother and caregivers, decision maker on child food, maternal self-confidence and access to resources. It confirmed that mothers and caregivers need support and adequate resources to perform child-care practices regardless of the child nutritional and maternal working status. Further research is required into how Indonesian mothers across a range of socio-economic strata can have increased options for quality child-care arrangements and support with child feeding. Additionally, this paper discussed the importance of enhanced dissemination of health information addressing both child underweight and obesity problems. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The work-related stressors and coping strategies of group-employed rural health care practitioners: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbrouck, Melinda A; Waddimba, Anthony C

    2017-10-01

    Escalating demands on practitioners, stagnating/dwindling resources, and diminishing autonomy have heightened patient-care work-related stress. Using qualitative content/thematic analysis of responses to open-ended survey questions, plus spontaneous comments, we sought to identify rural clinicians' subjective perceptions of their workplace stressors and typical adaptive/coping strategies. Within a hybrid inductive-deductive approach, we framed empirical themes (derived by consensus, corroborated with text segments, and extant literature) into theory-based coding templates by which we analyzed the data. Of 308 (65.1% of) recipients completing questionnaires, 290 (94%) answered open-ended questions and/or provided comments. Categorizing stressors by socio-ecology, they cited four themes: Organizational, practitioner/staff-related, patient-related, and third party-induced stressors. Organizational stressors were referenced most conspicuously. How respondents described their coping fitted the Stress, Appraisal and Coping. [Lazarus and Folkman (1984): New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, Inc] model. Emotion-focused were referenced more than problem-focused approaches. Themes scarcely differed by demographics, except for marital status. Findings highlight needs for resilience coaching, rekindling work meaningfulness, mentorship in work-home balance/limit-setting, supportive peer networks, and deeper teamwork. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Working as simulated patient has effects on real patient life – Preliminary insights from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Persons who simulate patients during medical education understand the routines and the underlying script of medical consultations better. We aimed to explore how simulated patients (SPs integrated this new understanding into their daily life, how this work affected their private life as patients, and what we can learn from these changes for concepts of empowerment.Design, setting, and participants: A qualitative interview study. All SPs of Göttingen medical school who had been working longer than three semesters (n=14 were invited and agreed to take part in an open interview about their daily experience with real doctors. Documentary method was used to identify the main issues. Several cases were chosen according to maximum contrast and analysed by in-depth analysis to provide vivid examples of how simulations may affect the real life of the SPs as patients.Results: Our analysis revealed three main changes in the behaviour of SPs as real patients. They were more attentive, had a better understanding of the circumstances under which doctors work, and acted more self-confidently. From the selected cases it became apparent that working as a SP may lead to a constant and significant decrease of fear of hospitals and medical procedures or, in other cases, may enable the SPs to develop new abilities for giving feedback, questioning procedures, and explanations for real doctors.Conclusion: working as a simulated patient seems to be well-suited to understand own progression of diseases, to increase self-responsibility and to a confident attitude as patient.

  14. How nurses and their work environment affect patient experiences of the quality of care: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare organisations monitor patient experiences in order to evaluate and improve the quality of care. Because nurses spend a lot of time with patients, they have a major impact on patient experiences. To improve patient experiences of the quality of care, nurses need to know what factors within the nursing work environment are of influence. The main focus of this research was to comprehend the views of Dutch nurses on how their work and their work environment contribute to positive patient experiences. Methods A descriptive qualitative research design was used to collect data. Four focus groups were conducted, one each with 6 or 7 registered nurses in mental health care, hospital care, home care and nursing home care. A total of 26 nurses were recruited through purposeful sampling. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Results The nurses mentioned essential elements that they believe would improve patient experiences of the quality of nursing care: clinically competent nurses, collaborative working relationships, autonomous nursing practice, adequate staffing, control over nursing practice, managerial support and patient-centred culture. They also mentioned several inhibiting factors, such as cost-effectiveness policy and transparency goals for external accountability. Nurses feel pressured to increase productivity and report a high administrative workload. They stated that these factors will not improve patient experiences of the quality of nursing care. Conclusions According to participants, a diverse range of elements affect patient experiences of the quality of nursing care. They believe that incorporating these elements into daily nursing practice would result in more positive patient experiences. However, nurses work in a healthcare context in which they have to reconcile cost-efficiency and accountability with their desire to provide nursing care that is based on patient needs and preferences, and

  15. The challenges of working in underserved areas: a qualitative exploratory study of views of policy makers and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuAlRub, Raeda F; El-Jardali, Fadi; Jamal, Diana; Iblasi, Abdulkareem S; Murray, Susan F

    2013-01-01

    The inadequate number of health care providers, particularly nurses, in underserved areas is one of the biggest challenges for health policymakers. There is a scarcity of research in Jordan about factors that affect nurse staffing and retention in underserved areas. To elucidate the views of staff nurses working in underserved areas, directors of health facilities in underserved areas and key informants from the policy and education arena on issues of staffing and retention of nurses in underserved areas. An exploratory study using a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was utilized to elucidate the views of 22 key informants from the policy and education arena, 11 directors of health centers, and 19 staff nurses on issues that contribute to low staffing and retention of nurses in underserved areas. The five stage 'framework approach' proposed by Bryman et al. (1993) was utilized for data analysis. Nursing shortage in underserved areas in Jordan are exacerbated by a lack of financial incentives, poor transportation and remoteness of these areas, bad working conditions, and lack of health education institutions in these areas, as well as by opportunities for internal and external migration. Young Jordanian male nurses usually grab any opportunity to migrate and work outside the country to improve their financial conditions; whereas, female nurses are more restricted and not encouraged to travel abroad to work. Several strategies are suggested to enhance retention in these areas, such as promoting financial incentives for staff to work there, enhancing the transportation system, and promoting continuous and academic education. Nurses' administrators and health care policy makers could utilize the findings of the present study to design and implement comprehensive interventions to enhance retention of staff in underserved areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The work of local healthcare innovation: a qualitative study of GP-led integrated diabetes care in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michele; Burridge, Letitia; Donald, Maria; Zhang, Jianzhen; Jackson, Claire

    2016-01-14

    Service delivery innovation is at the heart of efforts to combat the growing burden of chronic disease and escalating healthcare expenditure. Small-scale, locally-led service delivery innovation is a valuable source of learning about the complexities of change and the actions of local change agents. This exploratory qualitative study captures the perspectives of clinicians and managers involved in a general practitioner-led integrated diabetes care innovation. Data on these change agents' perspectives on the local innovation and how it works in the local context were collected through focus groups and semi-structured interviews at two primary health care sites. Transcribed data were analysed thematically. Normalization Process Theory provided a framework to explore perspectives on the individual and collective work involved in putting the innovation into practice in local service delivery contexts. Twelve primary health care clinicians, hospital-based medical specialists and practice managers participated in the study, which represented the majority involved in the innovation at the two sites. The thematic analysis highlighted three main themes of local innovation work: 1) trusting and embedding new professional relationships; 2) synchronizing services and resources; and 3) reconciling realities of innovation work. As a whole, the findings show that while locally-led service delivery innovation is designed to respond to local problems, convincing others to trust change and managing the boundary tensions is core to local work, particularly when it challenges taken-for-granted practices and relationships. Despite this, the findings also show that local innovators can and do act in both discretionary and creative ways to progress the innovation. The use of Normalization Process Theory uncovered some critical professional, organizational and structural factors early in the progression of the innovation. The key to local service delivery innovation lies in building

  17. Exploring the return-to-work process for workers partially returned to work and partially on long-term sick leave due to common mental disorders : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordik, Erik; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Varekamp, Inge; van der Klink, Jac J.; van Dijk, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. We conducted a qualitative study into the return-to-work process of workers partially on sick leave due to common mental disorders. Our objectives were to describe the barriers to a full return to work, solutions, communicating to the working environment and the aim of a full return to

  18. What are the sources of stress and distress for general practitioners working in England? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ruth; Spiers, Johanna; Buszewicz, Marta; Taylor, Anna Kathryn; Thornton, Gail; Chew-Graham, Carolyn Anne

    2018-01-11

    This paper reports the sources of stress and distress experienced by general practitioners (GP) as part of a wider study exploring the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for mental illness and burnout among this medical population. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 47 GP participants. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, anonymised and imported into NVivo V.11 to facilitate data management. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis employing the constant comparative method. England. A purposive sample of GP participants who self-identified as: (1) currently living with mental distress, (2) returning to work following treatment, (3) off sick or retired early as a result of mental distress or (4) without experience of mental distress. Interviews were conducted face-to-face or over the telephone. The key sources of stress/distress related to: (1) emotion work-the work invested and required in managing and responding to the psychosocial component of GPs' work, and dealing with abusive or confrontational patients; (2) practice culture-practice dynamics and collegial conflict, bullying, isolation and lack of support; (3) work role and demands-fear of making mistakes, complaints and inquests, revalidation, appraisal, inspections and financial worries. In addition to addressing escalating workloads through the provision of increased resources, addressing unhealthy practice cultures is paramount. Collegial support, a willingness to talk about vulnerability and illness, and having open channels of communication enable GPs to feel less isolated and better able to cope with the emotional and clinical demands of their work. Doctors, including GPs, are not invulnerable to the clinical and emotional demands of their work nor the effects of divisive work cultures-culture change and access to informal and formal support is therefore crucial in enabling GPs to do their job effectively and to stay well. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  19. What Are the Ethical Issues Facing Global-Health Trainees Working Overseas? A Multi-Professional Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Harrison

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify global health ethical issues that health professional trainees may encounter during electives or placements in resource-limited countries. We conducted a qualitative study involving focus groups and an interview at the University of California San Francisco. Participants were multi-professional from the Schools of Medicine, Nursing and Pharmacy and had experience working, or teaching, as providers in resource-limited countries. Eighteen participants provided examples of ethical dilemmas associated with global-health outreach work. Ethical dilemmas fell into four major themes relating to (1 cultural differences (informed consent, truth-telling, autonomy; (2 professional issues (power dynamics, training of local staff, corruption; (3 limited resources (scope of practice, material shortages; (4 personal moral development (dealing with moral distress, establishing a moral compass, humility and self awareness. Three themes (cultural differences, professional issues, limited resources were grouped under the core category of “external environmental and/or situational issues” that trainees are confronted when overseas. The fourth theme, moral development, refers to the development of a moral compass and the exercise of humility and self-awareness. The study has identified case vignettes that can be used for curriculum content for global-health ethics training.

  20. Alcohol drinking behaviors and alcohol management policies under outsourcing work conditions: A qualitative study of construction workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen

    2016-02-01

    Workplace alcohol policies are crucial for workers' health and safety. The practice of outsourcing is gaining popularity around the world and was found to be associated with poorer health in the working population. This study aimed to examine how outsourcing complicates the implementation of workplace alcohol policies and affects workers' drinking behaviors. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 outsource workers, 3 subcontractors and 3 worksite supervisors. Information regarding workers' drinking behaviors, their knowledge, and attitudes toward workplace alcohol policy were analyzed using a qualitative thematic analysis. Factors associated with poor workplace alcohol management included smaller size and private ownership of outsourcers, subcontractors' own drinking behavior and positive attitude to alcohol, and precarious employment conditions of outsourcing workers. The multilateral relationship between outsourcers, subcontractors, and workers complicated and impaired the implementation of workplace alcohol policies. The implementation of workplace alcohol management policies was hampered in outsourcing work conditions due to poor coordination of supervisors in the subcontract chain. The enforcement of alcohol policies in the workplace should be strengthened by consolidating management responsibilities of outsourcers and subcontractors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. What Are the Ethical Issues Facing Global-Health Trainees Working Overseas? A Multi-Professional Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, James D.; Logar, Tea; Le, Phuoc; Glass, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify global health ethical issues that health professional trainees may encounter during electives or placements in resource-limited countries. We conducted a qualitative study involving focus groups and an interview at the University of California San Francisco. Participants were multi-professional from the Schools of Medicine, Nursing and Pharmacy and had experience working, or teaching, as providers in resource-limited countries. Eighteen participants provided examples of ethical dilemmas associated with global-health outreach work. Ethical dilemmas fell into four major themes relating to (1) cultural differences (informed consent, truth-telling, autonomy); (2) professional issues (power dynamics, training of local staff, corruption); (3) limited resources (scope of practice, material shortages); (4) personal moral development (dealing with moral distress, establishing a moral compass, humility and self awareness). Three themes (cultural differences, professional issues, limited resources) were grouped under the core category of “external environmental and/or situational issues” that trainees are confronted when overseas. The fourth theme, moral development, refers to the development of a moral compass and the exercise of humility and self-awareness. The study has identified case vignettes that can be used for curriculum content for global-health ethics training. PMID:27417631

  2. The influence of 'significant others' on persistent back pain and work participation: A qualitative exploration of illness perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Nigel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual illness perceptions have been highlighted as important influences on clinical outcomes for back pain. However, the illness perceptions of 'significant others' (spouse/partner/close family member are rarely explored, particularly in relation to persistent back pain and work participation. The aim of this study was to initiate qualitative research in this area in order to further understand these wider influences on outcome. Methods Semi-structured interviews based on the chronic pain version of the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire-Revised were conducted with a convenience sample of UK disability benefit claimants, along with their significant others (n = 5 dyads. Data were analysed using template analysis. Results Significant others shared, and perhaps further reinforced, claimants' unhelpful illness beliefs including fear of pain/re-injury associated with certain types of work and activity, and pessimism about the likelihood of return to work. In some cases, significant others appeared more resigned to the permanence and negative inevitable consequences of the claimant's back pain condition on work participation, and were more sceptical about the availability of suitable work and sympathy from employers. In their pursuit of authenticity, claimants were keen to stress their desire to work whilst emphasising how the severity and physical limitations of their condition prevented them from doing so. In this vein, and seemingly based on their perceptions of what makes a 'good' significant other, significant others acted as a 'witness to pain', supporting claimants' self-limiting behaviour and statements of incapacity, often responding with empathy and assistance. The beliefs and responses of significant others may also have been influenced by their own experience of chronic illness, thus participants lives were often intertwined and defined by illness. Conclusions The findings from this exploratory study reveal how

  3. 'It's trying to manage the work': a qualitative evaluation of recruitment processes within a UK multicentre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skea, Zoë Christina; Treweek, Shaun; Gillies, Katie

    2017-08-11

    To explore trial site staff's perceptions regarding barriers and facilitators to local recruitment. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with a range of trial site staff from four trial sites in the UK. Interviews were analysed thematically to identify common themes across sites, barriers that could be addressed and facilitators that could be shared with other sites. 11 members of staff from four trial sites: clinical grant Co-applicant (n=1); Principal Investigators (n=3); Consultant Urologist (n=1); Research Nurses (n=5); Research Assistant (n=1). Embedded within an ongoing randomised controlled trial (the TISU trial). TISU is a UK multicentre trial comparing therapeutic interventions for ureteric stones. Our study draws attention to the initial and ongoing burden of trial work that is involved throughout the duration of a clinical trial. In terms of building and sustaining a research culture, trial staff described the ongoing work of engagement that was required to ensure that clinical staff were both educated and motivated to help with the process of identifying and screening potential participants. Having adequate and sufficient organisational and staffing resources was highlighted as being a necessary prerequisite to successful recruitment both in terms of accessing potentially eligible patients and being able to maximise recruitment after patient identification. The nature of the research study design can also potentially generate challenging communicative work for recruiting staff which can prove particularly problematic. Our paper adds to existing research highlighting the importance of the hidden and complex work that is involved in clinical trial recruitment. Those designing and supporting the operationalisation of clinical trials must recognise and support the mitigation of this 'work'. While much of the work is likely to be contextually sensitive at the level of local sites and for individual trials, some aspects are ubiquitous issues for delivery of

  4. The effects of EMR deployment on doctors' work practices: a qualitative study in the emergency department of a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Young; Lee, So Young; Chen, Yunan

    2012-03-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effects of medical notes (MD) in an electronic medical records (EMR) system on doctors' work practices at an Emergency Department (ED). We conducted a six-month qualitative study, including in situ field observations and semi-structured interviews, in an ED affiliated with a large teaching hospital during the time periods of before, after, and during the paper-to-electronic transition of the rollout of an EMR system. Data were analyzed using open coding method and various visual representations of workflow diagrams. The use of the EMR in the ED resulted in both direct and indirect effects on ED doctors' work practices. It directly influenced the ED doctors' documentation process: (i) increasing documentation time four to five fold, which in turn significantly increased the number of incomplete charts, (ii) obscuring the distinction between residents' charting inputs and those of attendings, shifting more documentation responsibilities to the residents, and (iii) leading to the use of paper notes as documentation aids to transfer information from the patient bedside to the charting room. EMR use also had indirect consequences: it increased the cognitive burden of doctors, since they had to remember multiple patients' data; it aggravated doctors' multi-tasking due to flexibility in the system use allowing more interruptions; and it caused ED doctors' work to become largely stationary in the charting room, which further contributed to reducing doctors' time with patients and their interaction with nurses. We suggest three guidelines for designing future EMR systems to be used in teaching hospitals. First, the design of documentation tools in EMR needs to take into account what we called "note-intensive tasks" to support the collaborative nature of medical work. Second, it should clearly define roles and responsibilities. Lastly, the system should provide a balance between flexibility and interruption to better manage the

  5. A qualitative study of volunteer doulas working alongside midwives at births in England: Mothers' and doulas' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Jenny; Redshaw, Maggie

    2018-01-01

    to explore trained volunteer doulas' and mothers' experiences of doula support at birth and their perceptions of how this related to the midwife's role. a qualitative descriptive study, informed by phenomenological social psychology. semi-structured interviews were carried out between June 2015 and March 2016. Interview transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. three community volunteer doula projects run by third sector organisations in England. 19 volunteer doulas and 16 mothers who had received doula support during labour. three overarching themes emerged: (1) 'the doula as complementary to midwives', containing subthemes 'skilled physical and emotional support', 'continuous presence', 'woman-centred support', 'ensuring mothers understand and are understood' and 'creating a team for the mother'; (2)'the doula as a colleague to midwives', containing subthemes 'welcomed as a partner', 'co-opted to help the midwives', and 'doulas identify with the midwives'; and (3) 'the doula as challenge to midwives', containing subthemes 'confusion about the doula's role', 'defending informed choice', and 'counterbalancing disempowering treatment'. KEY CONCLUSIONS&IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: volunteer doulas can play an important role in improving women's birth experiences by offering continuous, empowering, woman-focused support that complements the role of midwives, particularly where the mothers are disadvantaged. Greater clarity is needed about the scope of legitimate volunteer doula advocacy on behalf of their clients, to maximise effective working relationships between midwives and doulas. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Working with Science Teachers to Transform the Opportunity Landscape for Regional and Rural Youth: A Qualitative Evaluation of the Science in Schools Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Grania R.; Mosse, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative evaluation of the Science in Schools program; a suite of science based activities delivered by staff of a regional university campus and designed to provide professional development for science teachers working in non-metropolitan schools in a socioeconomically disadvantaged region of Australia. The research…

  7. Raising Teachers' Voices: An In-Depth Qualitative Inquiry into Teachers' Working Conditions and Professional Development Needs in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a Province of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Takbir

    2018-01-01

    This study documented in detail teachers' voices about their working conditions, professional development needs and opportunities to cater to these needs. The study reported in this paper was conducted as part of a large-scale study that used mixed methods to assess teachers' professional development needs. The qualitative data reported in this…

  8. High-performance work systems in health care management, part 2: qualitative evidence from five case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Garman, Andrew N; Song, Paula H; McHugh, Megan; Robbins, Julie; Harrison, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    : A capable workforce is central to the delivery of high-quality care. Research from other industries suggests that the methodical use of evidence-based management practices (also known as high-performance work practices [HPWPs]), such as systematic personnel selection and incentive compensation, serves to attract and retain well-qualified health care staff and that HPWPs may represent an important and underutilized strategy for improving quality of care and patient safety. : The aims of this study were to improve our understanding about the use of HPWPs in health care organizations and to learn about their contribution to quality of care and patient safety improvements. : Guided by a model of HPWPs developed through an extensive literature review and synthesis, we conducted a series of interviews with key informants from five U.S. health care organizations that had been identified based on their exemplary use of HPWPs. We sought to explore the applicability of our model and learn whether and how HPWPs were related to quality and safety. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and subjected to qualitative analysis. : In each of the five organizations, we found emphasis on all four HPWP subsystems in our conceptual model-engagement, staff acquisition/development, frontline empowerment, and leadership alignment/development. Although some HPWPs were common, there were also practices that were distinctive to a single organization. Our informants reported links between HPWPs and employee outcomes (e.g., turnover and higher satisfaction/engagement) and indicated that HPWPs made important contributions to system- and organization-level outcomes (e.g., improved recruitment, improved ability to address safety concerns, and lower turnover). : These case studies suggest that the systematic use of HPWPs may improve performance in health care organizations and provide examples of how HPWPs can impact quality and safety in health care. Further research is needed to specify

  9. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  10. Ethics and the practice of qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Ian Frank

    2016-01-01

    Ethics and the practice of qualitative research? Qualitative Social Work 7 (4): 400-414. Reprinted......Ethics and the practice of qualitative research? Qualitative Social Work 7 (4): 400-414. Reprinted...

  11. The Ethics of Quantification and Why It Doesn't Work; or Life among the Numerologists, Inumerates, and Qualitatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Gilbert

    The paper states that quantification is neither ethical nor unethical, but is ethically neutral. It is the behavior or intent of the human being that is clearly a matter of ethical concern. Like numerology and the sects of inumerates and qualitatives, there is not so much an unethical practice that is supported as there is a lack of vision and…

  12. ?You can't be a person and a doctor?: the work?life balance of doctors in training?a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Antonia; Viney, Rowena; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann; Woolf, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Investigate the work?life balance of doctors in training in the UK from the perspectives of trainers and trainees. Design Qualitative semistructured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Setting Postgraduate medical training in London, Yorkshire and Humber, Kent, Surrey and Sussex, and Wales during the junior doctor contract dispute at the end of 2015. Part of a larger General Medical Council study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. Participants ...

  13. Qualitative Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Satu Elo; Maria Kääriäinen; Outi Kanste; Tarja Pölkki; Kati Utriainen; Helvi Kyngäs

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative content analysis is commonly used for analyzing qualitative data. However, few articles have examined the trustworthiness of its use in nursing science studies. The trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis is often presented by using terms such as credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability, and authenticity. This article focuses on trustworthiness based on a review of previous studie...

  14. Essential ingredients of engagement when working alongside people after their first episode of psychosis: A qualitative meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Rachel M; Simmons, Magenta B; Allott, Kelly; Hamilton, Bridget E

    2018-04-06

    Early intervention services (EISs) for first-episode psychosis (FEP) have been established internationally, however, service disengagement is a recurrent concern resulting in unplanned treatment cessation. The implications of this are far-reaching due to the financial and personal costs associated with untreated symptoms. The aim of this meta-synthesis was to collect, interpret and synthesize qualitative research about how engagement is experienced within EISs for FEP. A systematic search was conducted in PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid Emcare from date of conception to November 2016. Following initial screening, 91 abstracts and 13 full texts were reviewed for eligibility. Nine studies were then critically appraised using the CASP tool for qualitative studies, data were systematically extracted and results were synthesized using constant comparison and reciprocal translational analysis. Nine qualitative studies explored engagement with EISs, from the perspectives of service users and their caregivers. No studies were found from the perspectives of clinicians or services. All 9 studies employed an inductive methodology, within an interpretivist epistemology. Five main themes were identified: experiences of finding help; factors promoting engagement; the therapeutic relationship; the role of caregivers in supporting engagement; and factors impacting ongoing engagement. There is a critical need to stimulate discussion around this multifaceted phenomenon, including a continued focus on the roles of key stakeholders and clinical models that may further facilitate collaboration in treatment plans and recovery. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Perceptions of Breast Cancer Survivors on the Supporting Practices of Their Supervisors in the Return-to-Work Process: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Maryse; Durand, Marie-José; Tremblay, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    Purpose Supervisors are known to be key actors in ensuring the success of absent employees in their return-to-work process. However, to date, little is known about the perceptions of breast cancer survivors on the practices put in place by their supervisors to support them during this process. The objective of this study was to describe the perceptions of breast cancer survivors on the practices put in place by their supervisors to support them during their return-to-work process. Method A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with breast cancer survivors (n = 10) who had returned to work after treatment and were still at work more than 18 months later. Each interview was audio recorded and then transcribed verbatim for qualitative thematic content analysis using a semi-open codification framework. Results Participants identified three main practices put in place by their supervisors to support them and which they perceived as particularly helpful during the return-to-work process: (1) maintaining communication during their period of absence; (2) working with them to structure their return-to-work process before their actual return; and (3) allowing them flexibility in their schedule for a certain period, particularly at the beginning of the return-to-work process. Breast cancer survivors also identified an omission in the practice of employers: lack of follow-up over time. Conclusion Knowledge about the practices perceived as helpful by breast cancer survivors during their return-to-work process lays the groundwork for the eventual development of services to help breast cancer survivors in their return to work.

  16. A qualitative evaluation of occupational therapy-led work rehabilitation for people with inflammatory arthritis: Perspectives of therapists and their line managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Yeliz; Amanna, Evangeline A; Bodell, Sarah J; Hammond, Alison

    2015-08-01

    Occupational therapy-led work rehabilitation for employed people with inflammatory arthritis and work problems was piloted in five hospitals in the United Kingdom. This qualitative study explored the views of participating occupational therapists and their line managers about the work rehabilitation training received and conducting the intervention, with particular focus on the structured interview used, the Work Experience Survey - Rheumatic Conditions. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with occupational therapists ( n  = 9), followed by telephone interviews with their line managers ( n  = 2). Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed by three researchers to maximize validity. The main themes emerging from the occupational therapists' interviews were: varying levels of prior knowledge and experience of work rehabilitation, initial concerns about the feasibility of a lengthy work assessment in practice and increased confidence in delivering work rehabilitation as the study progressed. The line managers' interviews generated themes around the positive impact of the work rehabilitation training the occupational therapists received, and changes in their practice. The Work Experience Survey - Rheumatic Conditions was considered a good choice of work assessment which can be implemented in practice. Once therapists had provided the work intervention several times, their confidence and skills increased.

  17. Surveillance technology: an alternative to physical restraints? A qualitative study among professionals working in nursing homes for people with dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Niemeijer, A.R.; Francke, A.L.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Working with surveillance technology as an alternative to traditional restraints creates obvious differences in the way care is organised. It is not clear whether professional caregivers find working with surveillance technology useful and workable and whether surveillance technology is

  18. Experiences of reduced work hours for nurses and assistant nurses at a surgical department: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Gyllensten, Kristina; Andersson, Gunnar; Muller, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a shortage of registered nurses in the European Union (EU), and job dissatisfaction and perceived high work?family conflict have been identified as causes of nursing staff turnover. Reducing work hours is an organisational intervention that could have a positive effect on nurses? and assistant nurses? job satisfaction, work?life balance, and willingness to stay in the job. An orthopaedic surgery department at a large hospital in Sweden introduced reduced work hours for nur...

  19. Patient, Caregiver, and Physician Work in Heart Failure Disease Management: A Qualitative Study of Issues That Undermine Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Steven A; Magasi, Susan; Block, Phoebe; Whelen, Megan J; Hansen, Luke O; Bonow, Robert O; Schmidt, Philip; Shah, Ami; Grady, Kathleen L

    2016-08-01

    To identify factors underlying heart failure hospitalization. Between January 1, 2012, and May 31, 2012, we combined medical record reviews and cross-sectional qualitative interviews of multiple patients with heart failure, their clinicians, and their caregivers from a large academic medical center in the Midwestern United States. The interview data were analyzed using a 3-step grounded theory-informed process and constant comparative methods. Qualitative data were compared and contrasted with results from the medical record review. Patient nonadherence to the care plan was the most important contributor to hospital admission; however, reasons for nonadherence were complex and multifactorial. The data highlight the importance of patient education for the purposes of condition management, timeliness of care, and effective communication between providers and patients. To improve the consistency and quality of care for patients with heart failure, more effective relationships among patients, providers, and caregivers are needed. Providers must be pragmatic when educating patients and their caregivers about heart failure, its treatment, and its prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Inflows of foreign-born physicians and their access to employment and work experiences in health care in Finland: qualitative and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusio, Hannamaria; Lämsä, Riikka; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Keskimäki, Ilmo; Elovainio, Marko

    2014-08-07

    In many developed countries, including Finland, health care authorities customarily consider the international mobility of physicians as a means for addressing the shortage of general practitioners (GPs). This study i) examined, based on register information, the numbers of foreign-born physicians migrating to Finland and their employment sector, ii) examined, based on qualitative interviews, the foreign-born GPs' experiences of accessing employment and work in primary care in Finland, and iii) compared experiences based on a survey of the psychosocial work environment among foreign-born physicians working in different health sectors (primary care, hospitals and private sectors). Three different data sets were used: registers, theme interviews among foreign-born GPs (n = 12), and a survey for all (n = 1,292; response rate 42%) foreign-born physicians living in Finland. Methods used in the analyses were qualitative content analysis, analysis of covariance, and logistic regression analysis. The number of foreign-born physicians has increased dramatically in Finland since the year 2000. In 2000, a total of 980 foreign-born physicians held a Finnish licence and lived in Finland, accounting for less than 4% of the total number of practising physicians. In 2009, their proportion of all physicians was 8%, and a total of 1,750 foreign-born practising physicians held a Finnish licence and lived in Finland. Non-EU/EEA physicians experienced the difficult licensing process as the main obstacle to accessing work as a physician. Most licensed foreign-born physicians worked in specialist care. Half of the foreign-born GPs could be classified as having an 'active' job profile (high job demands and high levels of job control combined) according to Karasek's demand-control model. In qualitative interviews, work in the Finnish primary health centres was described as multifaceted and challenging, but also stressful. Primary care may not be able in the long run to attract a sufficient

  1. "The only way I know how to live is to work": a qualitative study of work following treatment for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunfeld, Elizabeth A; Drudge-Coates, Lawrence; Rixon, Lorna; Eaton, Emma; Cooper, Alethea F

    2013-01-01

    For many survivors of prostate cancer, returning to work posttreatment is a realistic goal. However, little research to date has explored work among prostate cancer survivors. The focus of this study was to explore the meaning of work among prostate cancer survivors and to describe the linkages between masculinity and work following prostate cancer treatment. Fifty prostate cancer survivors who were in paid employment prior to their diagnosis completed a semistructured interview following completion of their treatment and of these, 41 also completed a 12-month follow-up interview. Framework analysis of the 91 transcripts was undertaken. The majority of the men had returned to work at the 12-month interview. Four themes were identified, and these were labeled "Work and self-identity," "Work-related implications of treatment side effects," "Disclosure of cancer," and "Perceptions of future as a cancer survivor." A degree of embarrassment and concern about residual side effects and whether these would present a challenge within the workplace was apparent among our sample and was compounded by a reluctance to disclose these. The descriptions provided by the men in this study reveal that the experience of prostate cancer can lead to challenges for both social and work-related roles. The influence of prostate cancer on men's reports of masculinity was variable, and recognition of these differences is required. In addition, some survivors of prostate cancer may require specific interventions aimed at helping them to manage disclosure of their illness, particularly within a work environment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Working conditions in the engine department - A qualitative study among engine room personnel on board Swedish merchant ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Monica; Lützhöft, Margareta; Rydstedt, Leif; Dahlman, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    The specific problems associated with the work on board within the merchant fleet are well known and have over the years been a topic of discussion. The work conditions in the engine room (ER) are demanding due to, e.g. the thermal climate, noise and awkward working postures. The work in the engine control room (ECR) has over recent years undergone major changes, mainly due to the introduction of computers on board. In order to capture the impact these changes had implied, and also to investigate how the work situation has developed, a total of 20 engine officers and engine ratings were interviewed. The interviews were semi-structured and Grounded Theory was used for the data analysis. The aim of the present study was to describe how the engine crew perceive their work situation and working environment on board. Further, the aim was to identify areas for improvements which the engine crew consider especially important for a safe and effective work environment. The result of the study shows that the design of the ECR and ER is crucial for how different tasks are performed. Design which does not support operational procedures and how tasks are performed risk inducing inappropriate behaviour as the crew members' are compelled to find alternative ways to perform their tasks in order to get the job done. These types of behaviour can induce an increased risk of exposure to hazardous substances and the engine crew members becoming injured. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Qualitative data analysis a methods sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Matthew B; Saldana, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    The Third Edition of Miles & Huberman's classic research methods text is updated and streamlined by Johnny SaldaNa, author of The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. Several of the data display strategies from previous editions are now presented in re-envisioned and reorganized formats to enhance reader accessibility and comprehension. The Third Edition's presentation of the fundamentals of research design and data management is followed by five distinct methods of analysis: exploring, describing, ordering, explaining, and predicting. Miles and Huberman's original research studies are profiled and accompanied with new examples from SaldaNa's recent qualitative work. The book's most celebrated chapter, "Drawing and Verifying Conclusions," is retained and revised, and the chapter on report writing has been greatly expanded, and is now called "Writing About Qualitative Research." Comprehensive and authoritative, Qualitative Data Analysis has been elegantly revised for a new generation of qualitative r...

  4. When caretaking competes with care giving: a qualitative study of full-time working mothers who are nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W; Bailey, Megan

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the motivations and stresses associated with full-time working mothers who practice as nurse managers. Full-time work outside the home for mothers has been recognized as a circumstance which may present certain benefits and risks to family life. Nursing management is recognized as a high-stress occupation, which may be filled by mothers who work full time. Little is known about the specific needs and stresses of full-time nurse managers who are caring for children at home. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 mothers who worked as nurse managers. Participants expressed challenges in several areas including balancing/separating work and home, self-imposed advancement inhibitions, and constant giving. Challenges were offset by assets, which included complimentary roles, health insurance, added income, and professional and personal fulfilment. Participants 'wanted it all', including the conveniences of part-time employment and the benefits of full-time employment. Full-time nurse managers with children at home experience unique tensions which characterize their work and home environments. Employers may assist nurses by adopting flexible scheduling, educational and child-care support and assistance in negotiating work and home roles.

  5. Experiences of Public Doctors on Managing Work Difficulties and Maintaining Professional Enthusiasm in Acute General Hospitals: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Andrew Leung; Yau, Adrian Fai To

    2018-01-01

    Overseas studies suggest that 10-20% of doctors are depressed, 30-45% have burnout, and many report dissatisfaction with work-life balance. A local study on public doctors showed that 31.4% of the respondents satisfied the criteria for high burnout. Young, but moderately experienced doctors who need to work shifts appeared most vulnerable. This study aims to explore the experiences of those public doctors who have managed their work difficulties and maintained professional enthusiasm for references in medical education and continuing professional training. Ten public doctors with reputation were invited respectively from three acute general hospitals for an in-depth interview. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Content analysis was carried out to identify major themes in relation to the research questions. Three themes emerging from difficulties encountered were (1) managing people, mostly are patients, followed by colleagues and then patients' relatives; (2) constraints at work, include time and resources; and (3) managing self with decision-making within a short time. Three themes generating from managing work difficulties included (1) self-adjustment with practicing problem solving and learning good communication appeared more frequently, followed by maintaining a professional attitude and accumulating clinical experiences; (2) seeking help from others; and (3) organizational support is also a theme though it is the least mentioned. Four themes emerging from maintaining work enthusiasm were (1) personal conviction and discipline: believing that they are helping the needy, having the sense of vocation and support from religion; disciplining oneself by continuing education, maintaining harmonious family relationship and volunteer work. (2) Challenging work: different challenging natures of their job. (3) Positive feedback from patients: positive encounters with patients keep a connectedness with their clients. (4) Organization support: working with

  6. Evidence-informed decision-making by professionals working in addiction agencies serving women: a descriptive qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Susan M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective approaches to the prevention and treatment of substance abuse among mothers have been developed but not widely implemented. Implementation studies suggest that the adoption of evidence-based practices in the field of addictions remains low. There is a need, therefore, to better understand decision making processes in addiction agencies in order to develop more effective approaches to promote the translation of knowledge gained from addictions research into clinical practice. Methods A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explore: 1 the types and sources of evidence used to inform practice-related decisions within Canadian addiction agencies serving women; 2 how decision makers at different levels report using research evidence; and 3 factors that influence evidence-informed decision making. A purposeful sample of 26 decision-makers providing addiction treatment services to women completed in-depth qualitative interviews. Interview data were coded and analyzed using directed and summative content analysis strategies as well as constant comparison techniques. Results Across all groups, individuals reported locating and using multiple types of evidence to inform decisions. Some decision-makers rely on their experiential knowledge of addiction and recovery in decision-making. Research evidence is often used directly in decision-making at program management and senior administrative levels. Information for decision-making is accessed from a range of sources, including web-based resources and experts in the field. Individual and organizational facilitators and barriers to using research evidence in decision making were identified. Conclusions There is support at administrative levels for integrating EIDM in addiction agencies. Knowledge transfer and exchange strategies should be focussed towards program managers and administrators and include capacity building for locating, appraising and using research evidence

  7. Role and working conditions of nurses in public health in Mexico and Peru: a binational qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Córdova, Maria Isabel Peñarrietade; Mier, Nelda; Quirarte, Nora Hilda Gonzales; Gómez, Tranquilina Gutiérrez; Piñones, Socorro; Borda, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    This exploratory study conducted in Mexico and Peru investigated nurses' perceptions about their role in public health and working conditions. Health reform efforts in many countries are redefining the role of health professionals in public health. Little is known about the role of nurses working in public health contexts in Latin America. Fourteen focus groups were conducted in Mexico and Peru with 82 nurses working in government-sponsored community health centres. Data were analysed using a content analysis technique. Themes identified were: nurses' job descriptions in public health settings; organisational factors influencing the nurses' work, and influence of academic and social image factors. Management barriers and limited training influences the role and working conditions of public health nurses in Mexico and Peru. The professional role of nurses working in public health in Latin America is not well defined because of the health-care system infrastructure and the lack of a clear public health nurse job description. Further research is needed to better understand the role of public health nurses and strengthen their training, particularly in relation to nursing management encompassing abilities for decision-making processes and public health program planning and evaluation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Attending work or not when sick – what makes the decision? A qualitative study among car mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morken Tone

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High prevalence of sickness absence in countries with generous welfare schemes has generated debates on mechanisms that may influence workers’ decisions about calling in sick for work. Little is known about the themes at stake during the decision-making process for reaching the choice of absence or attendance when feeling ill. The aim of the study was to examine decisions of absence versus attendance among car mechanics when feeling ill. Methods Interviews with 263 male car mechanics from 19 companies were used for the study, analysed by systematic text condensation and presented as descriptions and quotations of experiences and opinions. Results Three major themes were at stake during the decision-making process: 1 Experienced degree of illness, focusing on the present health condition and indicators of whether you are fit for work or not; 2 daily life habits, where attending work was a daily routine, often learned from childhood; 3 the importance of the job, with focus on the importance of work, colleagues, customers and work environment. Conclusions The car mechanics expressed a strong will to attend work in spite of illness. Knowledge about attitudes and dilemmas in reaching the decision regarding sickness absence or sickness attendance is useful in the prevention of sickness absence.

  9. Implementation between text and work-a qualitative study of a readmission prevention program targeting elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Sara Fokdal; Thuesen, Jette; Bunkenborg, Gitte; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2018-03-01

    Numerous studies emphasize the importance of context in implementation. Successful implementation across the health care system depends on conditions and requirements that are often presented to health professionals through text-based materials and might present contradictory expectations to the work of health professionals. In this study, we operationalize institutional context as the text-based material, which from the perspective of health professionals, influence health care work. Via the case of a readmission prevention program for elderly patients, we examine the experiences of health professionals that work with implementation, concerning the contradictions that arise between the demands imposed by program implementation and their everyday work routines, and the role of text-based materials in these contradictions. We conducted five focus group interviews among health professionals working at different locations in a single administrative region of Denmark. The 24 health professionals in our study included hospital physicians, hospital nurses, medical secretaries, municipal care managers, registered municipal nurses, and general practitioners. All focus group interviews were transcribed verbatim. Inspired by institutional ethnography, we look into text-based materials, such as written guidelines, if health professionals indicate they are important. The health professionals experience that specific demands of the readmission prevention program come into conflict with the existing demands and daily work routines. Professional resistance to control and the existing digital communication tools create tensions with a program requirement for standardized enrollment of patients to the program. In addition, the striving for autonomy among health professionals and the high level of mono-professional working routines create tension with the program requirements for an additional amount of interdisciplinary work. The different demands are widely mediated by text

  10. Can workers with chronic back pain shift from pain elimination to function restore at work? Qualitative evaluation of an innovative work related multidisciplinary programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, P.C.; Lambeek, L.C.; Koppenrade, V.; Hooftman, W.E.; Anema, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Workers with chronic low back pain (LBP) mean a heavy human and social-economic burden. Their medical histories often include different treatments without attention to work-relatedness or communication with occupational health providers, leaving them passive and medicalized in

  11. Experiences of Public Doctors on Managing Work Difficulties and Maintaining Professional Enthusiasm in Acute General Hospitals: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Leung Luk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOverseas studies suggest that 10–20% of doctors are depressed, 30–45% have burnout, and many report dissatisfaction with work-life balance. A local study on public doctors showed that 31.4% of the respondents satisfied the criteria for high burnout. Young, but moderately experienced doctors who need to work shifts appeared most vulnerable. This study aims to explore the experiences of those public doctors who have managed their work difficulties and maintained professional enthusiasm for references in medical education and continuing professional training.MethodTen public doctors with reputation were invited respectively from three acute general hospitals for an in-depth interview. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Content analysis was carried out to identify major themes in relation to the research questions.ResultsThree themes emerging from difficulties encountered were (1 managing people, mostly are patients, followed by colleagues and then patients’ relatives; (2 constraints at work, include time and resources; and (3 managing self with decision-making within a short time. Three themes generating from managing work difficulties included (1 self-adjustment with practicing problem solving and learning good communication appeared more frequently, followed by maintaining a professional attitude and accumulating clinical experiences; (2 seeking help from others; and (3 organizational support is also a theme though it is the least mentioned. Four themes emerging from maintaining work enthusiasm were (1 personal conviction and discipline: believing that they are helping the needy, having the sense of vocation and support from religion; disciplining oneself by continuing education, maintaining harmonious family relationship and volunteer work. (2 Challenging work: different challenging natures of their job. (3 Positive feedback from patients: positive encounters with patients keep a connectedness with their clients. (4

  12. Dentists interacting and working with female dental nurses: a qualitative investigation of gender differences in primary dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, R; Gorter, R; Braam, A

    2004-02-14

    To investigate if women compared with men dentists experience deferential treatment from their female nurses, what workplace strategies women use to manage chair-side assistance and to examine if these were country related. A convenience sample of 22 male and female dentists of different ages working in general dental practice in The Netherlands and Northern Ireland participated. The sample framework was determined by saturation of the concepts. All informants were interviewed in a clinical setting. The data was subjected to rigorous line by line coding in order to identify clusters of codes, themes and concepts. Three themes were identified. These were: experiencing deferential nursing assistance; adopting 'friendly-like' working strategies and adopting business-like, hierarchical working strategies. Gender differences were shown for each of the themes. Women rather than men made friends with their nurses and attempted to reduce status inequalities. This led to workplace strategy inconsistencies. This suggested that it was not the type of strategy adopted but the inconsistency with which it was implemented that caused difficulties between younger women dentists and their nurses. Training dental students and young graduates how to interact appropriately in the clinical situation and to appreciate the nurses' work status will assist in improving working relationships.

  13. Situating mental health work in place: Qualitative findings from interviews with Veterans in Southeastern Louisiana and Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Traci H; Koenig, Christopher J; Zamora, Kara; Hill, Coleen; Uddo, Madeline; Kelly, Adam P; Hamilton, Michelle F; Curran, Geoffrey M; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Seal, Karen H

    2017-09-01

    Most chronic illness management occurs outside clinics and hospitals, in the everyday lives of individuals. We use data from semi-structured interviews with 37 veterans from Southeastern Louisiana and Northern California to illustrate how "health work" for mental health concerns are shaped by place. Using health work as an orienting concept for analysis, we discerned variation between the two study sites in how Veterans used interacting with the natural environment, cultivating time alone, and religious practice to manage their mental health and well-being. Through these findings, we advocate for a situated notion of health work that is mindful of how health-related behaviors are shaped by place and the attributes that constitute place. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Physical Therapists, Telephone Coaches, and Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: Qualitative Study About Working Together to Promote Exercise Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Rana S; Delany, Clare M; Campbell, Penelope K; Gale, Janette; Bennell, Kim L

    2016-04-01

    Integrated models of care are recommended for people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Exercise is integral to management, yet exercise adherence is problematic. Telephone-based health coaching is an attractive adjunct to physical therapist-prescribed exercise that may improve adherence. Little is known about the perceptions and interpretations of physical therapists, telephone coaches, and patients engaged in this model of care. The purpose of this study was to explore how stakeholders (physical therapists, telephone coaches, and patients) experienced, and made sense of, being involved in an integrated program of physical therapist-supervised exercise and telephone coaching for people with knee OA. A cross-sectional qualitative design drawing from symbolic interactionism was used. Semistructured interviews with 10 physical therapists, 4 telephone coaches, and 6 patients with painful knee OA. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis informed by grounded theory. Four themes emerged: (1) genuine interest and collaboration, (2) information and accountability, (3) program structure, and (4) roles and communication in teamwork. Patients reported they appreciated personalized, genuine interest from therapists and coaches and were aware of their complementary roles. A collaborative approach, with defined roles and communication strategies, was identified as important for effectiveness. All participants highlighted the importance of sharing information, monitoring, and being accountable to others. Coaches found the lack of face-to-face contact with patients hampered relationship building. Therapists and coaches referred to the importance of teamwork in delivering the intervention. The small number of physical therapists and telephone coaches who delivered the intervention may have been biased toward favorable experiences with the intervention and may not be representative of their respective professions. Integrated physical therapy and

  15. The role of out-of-class work of doctor-interns in improving qualitive academic progress on clinical immunology and allergology under the primary specialization “Internal diseases”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Kuz'mina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of independent out-of-class work of interns on the specialty "Internal diseases" in the section of clinical immunology and allergology promoted the improvement of the qualitative success of interns.

  16. Motivations of persons with psychiatric disabilities to work in mental health peer services: a qualitative study using self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Galia Sharon; Russinova, Zlatka; Yim, Jung Yeon; Sprague, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    Individuals with psychiatric disabilities have low rates of employment and occupational rehabilitation success. Mental health peer services are a new occupational modality that opened a promising occupational path: persons with serious mental illnesses employed to provide support to others with psychiatric conditions. However challenges to successful peer work exist. Work motivation is central to understanding and supporting peer workers, yet little is known about sources of motivation to work as mental health peer providers. The aim of this study was to identify what drives individuals to mental health peer work using self determination theory (SDT). Motivations of 31 mental health peer workers were explored as part of a larger study. A theory driven approach was employed to emerging qualitative data using SDT concepts: external motivation and internally regulated motivations derived from basic needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness). External motivations included generic occupational goals and getting away from negative work experiences. Internal motivations corresponded with SDT basic needs: autonomy met-needs was reflected in having freedom to disclose and finding that work accords with personal values; competence met-needs was reflected in using personal experience as a resource to help others; and relatedness met-needs were reflected in having opportunity to connect intimately and reciprocate with consumers. This study identified external and internal motivations of persons with psychiatric disabilities to work as peer providers-a novel occupation in mental health. Employing personal experience and enabling peer contact emerge as major motivational tenets of mental health peer work. According to SDT instrumental occupational goals are considered more external than satisfaction of basic psychological needs. The study demonstrates the applicability of SDT in the design of autonomy supported environments to promote work engagement and sustenance of mental

  17. A Qualitative Study Investigating Gender Differences in Primary Work Stressors and Levels of Job Satisfaction in Greek Junior Hospital Doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Alexander-Stamatios; Cooper, Cary L.; Davidson, Marilyn J.

    2008-01-01

    Primary work stressors and job satisfaction/dissatisfaction in Greek Junior Hospital Doctors (JHDs) are investigated to identify similarities and differences in the reports obtained from male and female hospital doctors. Participants in the study included 32 male and 28 female Greek hospital doctors who provided information through…

  18. Desk-based workers' perspectives on using sit-stand workstations: a qualitative analysis of the Stand@Work study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, J.Y.; Daley, M.; Srinivasan, A.; Dunn, S.; Bauman, A.E.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prolonged sitting time has been identified as a health risk factor. Sit-stand workstations allow desk workers to alternate between sitting and standing throughout the working day, but not much is known about their acceptability and feasibility. Hence, the aim of this study was to

  19. 'Emigration is a matter of self-preservation. The working conditions . . . are killing us slowly': qualitative insights into health professional emigration from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Niamh; McAleese, Sara; Matthews, Anne; Brugha, Ruairi

    2015-05-16

    Achieving a sustainable health workforce involves training and retaining sufficient staff to deliver health services. The Irish health workforce is characterised by a high level of emigration of Irish-trained staff and a heavy reliance on internationally trained staff. This paper presents qualitative findings from a mixed-method study of doctors, nurses and midwives who have recently emigrated from Ireland. Using Facebook, this study elicited 556 (388 completed) responses to an exploratory mixed-method online survey in July 2014. Respondents provided rich responses to two free-text questions, one on health worker return (N = 343) and another on health professional emigration (N = 209) from the source country (Ireland). Respondents emigrated because of difficult working conditions in the Irish health system (long working hours, uncertain career progression), which compared poorly with conditions in the destination country. Respondents' experiences in the destination country vindicated the decision to emigrate and complicated the decision to return. Their return to Ireland was contingent upon significant reform of the Irish health system and an improvement in working conditions, expressed, for example, as: 'It's not about the money, it's about respect . . . we love working in medicine, but we love our families and health more' (RD283). This paper highlights that doctors, nurses and midwives are emigrating from Ireland in search of better working conditions, clear career progression pathways and a better practice environment. The question for the source country is whether it can retain and attract back emigrant doctors, nurses and midwives by matching their expectations.

  20. Negotiating the boundary between paid and unpaid hospice workers: a qualitative study of how hospice volunteers understand their work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field-Richards, Sarah E; Arthur, Antony

    2012-12-01

    To explore the nurse-volunteer relationship in a day hospice. Underpinned by an interpretive approach, face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 day hospice volunteers. The nature and dynamics of the relationship between nursing staff and volunteers within the day hospice were characterized by increasing formality and changes in the division of labor, which challenged smooth working relationships. Volunteers see their role as becoming increasingly formalized partly as a response to increasing administrative demands on hospice nurses. The willingness of volunteers to take on new roles is variable. For volunteers to feel secure and valued and working relationships to remain strong, the process of how boundaries between paid and unpaid workers are negotiated needs to be transparent.

  1. Stress in hospice at home nurses: a qualitative study of their experiences of their work and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnah, Karen; Jones, Angela; Johnstone, Rosalynde

    2012-06-01

    The literature has evaluated studies of hospice nurses and stress but very few studies have focused on community hospice nurses. This study explored hospice at home nurses' experiences of caring for palliative and dying patients. Hospice at home nurses working in the community across North West Wales were interviewed and a grounded theory approach was used to categorise the data into the following themes: job satisfaction, stressors, coping strategies, and support. Recommendations arising from the study include encouraging the use of clinical supervision, attendance at multidisciplinary meetings, and the provision of stress-awareness training, and raising awareness of the role of hospice at home nurses in primary care. Implementation of these recommendations might be beneficial for staff wellbeing. Further work would identify whether such recommendations can help to prevent sickness and promote staff retention.

  2. Do Programs for Runaway and Homeless Youth Work? A Qualitative Exploration From the Perspectives of Youth Clients in Diverse Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Gwadz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Runaway and homeless youth (RHY comprise a large population of young people who reside outside the control and protection of parents and guardians and who experience numerous traumas and risk factors, but few buffering resources. Specialized settings have developed to serve RHY, but little is known about their effects. The present cross-sectional qualitative descriptive study, grounded in the positive youth development approach and the Youth Program Quality Assessment model, addressed this gap in the literature. From a larger sample of 29 RHY-specific settings across New York State, RHY ages 16–21 from 11 settings were purposively sampled for semi-structured in-depth interviews on their transitions into homelessness, experiences with settings, and unmet needs (N = 37 RHY. Data were analyzed with a theory-driven and inductive systematic content analysis approach. Half of participants (54% were female; almost half (49% identified as non-heterosexual; and 42% were African American/Black, 31% were Latino/Hispanic, and 28% were White/other. Results indicated that because RHY are a uniquely challenged population, distrustful of service settings and professional adults and skilled at surviving independently, the population-tailored approaches found in RHY-specific settings are vital to settings’ abilities to effectively engage and serve RHY. We found the following four major themes regarding the positive effects of settings: (1 engaging with an RHY setting was emotionally challenging and frightening, and thus the experiences of safety and services tailored to RHY needs were critical; (2 instrumental support from staff was vital and most effective when received in a context of emotional support; (3 RHY were skilled at survival on the streets, but benefited from socialization into more traditional systems to foster future independent living; and (4 follow-through and aftercare were needed as RHY transitioned out of services. With respect to gaps

  3. Do Programs for Runaway and Homeless Youth Work? A Qualitative Exploration From the Perspectives of Youth Clients in Diverse Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwadz, Marya; Freeman, Robert M; Kutnick, Alexandra H; Silverman, Elizabeth; Ritchie, Amanda S; Cleland, Charles M; Leonard, Noelle R; Srinagesh, Aradhana; Powlovich, Jamie; Bolas, James

    2018-01-01

    Runaway and homeless youth (RHY) comprise a large population of young people who reside outside the control and protection of parents and guardians and who experience numerous traumas and risk factors, but few buffering resources. Specialized settings have developed to serve RHY, but little is known about their effects. The present cross-sectional qualitative descriptive study, grounded in the positive youth development approach and the Youth Program Quality Assessment model, addressed this gap in the literature. From a larger sample of 29 RHY-specific settings across New York State, RHY ages 16-21 from 11 settings were purposively sampled for semi-structured in-depth interviews on their transitions into homelessness, experiences with settings, and unmet needs ( N  = 37 RHY). Data were analyzed with a theory-driven and inductive systematic content analysis approach. Half of participants (54%) were female; almost half (49%) identified as non-heterosexual; and 42% were African American/Black, 31% were Latino/Hispanic, and 28% were White/other. Results indicated that because RHY are a uniquely challenged population, distrustful of service settings and professional adults and skilled at surviving independently, the population-tailored approaches found in RHY-specific settings are vital to settings' abilities to effectively engage and serve RHY. We found the following four major themes regarding the positive effects of settings: (1) engaging with an RHY setting was emotionally challenging and frightening, and thus the experiences of safety and services tailored to RHY needs were critical; (2) instrumental support from staff was vital and most effective when received in a context of emotional support; (3) RHY were skilled at survival on the streets, but benefited from socialization into more traditional systems to foster future independent living; and (4) follow-through and aftercare were needed as RHY transitioned out of services. With respect to gaps in settings

  4. What makes teacher teams in a vocational education context effective?: A qualitative study of managers' view on team working

    OpenAIRE

    Truijen, Karin; Sleegers, Peter; Meelissen, Martina; Nieuwenhuis, Loek

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – At a time when secondary vocational education is implementing competence-based education (CBE) on a large scale, to adapt to the needs of students and of the labour market in a modern society, many vocational schools have recognised that interdisciplinary teacher teams are an important condition for this implementation. In order to provide students with the right competences for the labour market, different subject teachers should work and learn together and, by doing so, should be ...

  5. Factors influencing feeding practices of extreme poor infants and young children in families of working mothers in Dhaka slums: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ashraful; Maitrot, Mathilde Rose Louise

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional status differs between infants and young children living in slum and non-slum conditions-infants and young children living in City Corporation slums are likely to have worse nutritional status compared to those from non-slums. Furthermore, families in slums tend to engage female labor in cash-earning activities as a survival strategy; hence, a higher percentage of mothers stay at work. However, little is known about feeding practices for infants and young children in families with working mothers in slums. This study aims to understand the factors that determine feeding practices for infants and young children living in families with working mothers in Dhaka slums. This study adopted a qualitative approach. Sixteen In-depth Interviews, five Key Informant Interviews, and Focused Group Discussions were conducted with family members, community leaders, and program staff. Method triangulation and thematic analyses were conducted. Feeding practices for infants and young children in families with working mothers are broadly determined by mothers' occupation, basis civic facilities, and limited family buying capacity. Although mothers have good nutritional knowledge, they negotiate between work and feeding their infants and young children. Household composition, access to cooking facilities, and poverty level were also found to be significant determining factors. The results suggest a trade-off between mothers' work and childcare. The absence of alternative care support in homes and/or work places along with societal factors outweighs full benefits of project interventions. Improving alternative childcare support could reduce the burden of feeding practice experienced by working mothers and may improve nutritional outcomes.

  6. To break the weight gain-A qualitative study on the experience of school nurses working with overweight children in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstensson, Stina; Blomgren, Carola; Sundler, Annelie J; Larsson, Margaretha

    2018-01-01

    To describe the experiences of school nurses working with overweight schoolchildren. School nurses play an important role in health promotion of overweight children. Lifestyle changes and interventions to address being overweight can improve health outcomes and decrease the risk for future health problems. A descriptive and qualitative design with a phenomenological approach was used. Data were gathered through interviews with school nurses working with overweight schoolchildren in Swedish elementary school; the data were subsequently analysed for meanings. Working with overweight children was perceived as demanding and challenging by the school nurses who found conversations on this topic emotionally loaded and complex. In addition, the school nurses needed to be sensitive and supportive to succeed in their support for a healthier everyday life for the schoolchildren. It was stated as important to find ways to break the child's weight gain and to cooperate with the parents in this work. The children's decrease in weight was experienced to be more successful when making small, step-by-step changes together with the child and his or her parents. This study concludes that health talks about being overweight may be a challenge for school nurses. Strategies used to manage and succeed in this work included engaging in motivational conversations, working step by step and cooperating with the child's parents. Furthermore, the nurses experienced that they needed to provide emotional support for overweight children during school time. The school nurses' health promotion needs to focus on how to break weight gain in overweight children. In this work, the nurses' sensitiveness seems pivotal. Further research is needed on school nurses' work with health promotion and support of overweight children concerning how to perform efficient communication and cooperation with the children and their parents. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The experience of attempting to return to work following spinal cord injury: a systematic review of the qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Gillean; Unsworth, Carolyn; Murphy, Gregory

    2018-07-01

    This review sought to answer the question "What are the barriers and facilitators influencing people's experience of return to work following spinal cord injury?" Studies that met the selection criteria were identified, presented and critically appraised using National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines. Thematic synthesis was completed with studies possessing strong methodological rigor. Synthesis and interpretation involved three stages; coding of primary data; development of descriptive themes reflective of the primary data; and establishment of analytical themes to answer the review question. Data from nine papers were included in the thematic synthesis. Several descriptive themes and three analytical themes were drawn from the data to answer the research question. Analytical themes included: a matrix of personal and environmental factors exists requiring complex navigation in order to create possibilities and opportunities for postinjury employment; the process of seeking or gaining employment shares a reciprocal relationship with the temporal nature of adjustment to spinal cord injury; and there is an intrinsic need for occupational engagement through paid employment. Returning to or gaining employment after spinal cord injury is a fundamentally difficult experience for people. Multiple strategies are required to support the navigation of the process. There is, however, a need in people with spinal cord injury, to be a worker, and with that comes the inherent benefits of being employed. Implications for rehabilitation Returning to work should be a significant focus of spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Employment is both possible and health promoting following spinal cord injury. Multiple strategies are required to support people to navigate the return to work process. It is important to be cognizant of the individual motivations for being a worker and the complexity of the adjustment process. Spinal cord injury centers can provide a

  8. [A qualitative study to validate the Work and Career (Santé et Itinéraire Professionnel) statistical survey: principles and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiho-Bailly, Marie-Pierre; Roquelaure, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The population-based survey "Santé et itinéraire professionnel" (SIP) aims to investigate the relationship between health and career. A qualitative study was conducted to identify potential biases in the design of the questionnaire. The Laboratoire d'ergonomie et d'épidémiologie en santé au travail (research center on "Ergonomics and Epidemiology in Occupational Health" based at the University of Angers, France) recently conducted a study entitled "Rapport subjectif au travail, sens des trajets professionnels et construction de la santé" ("The subjective perception of work, career paths and the construction of health"). Individual interviews were conducted with thirty survey respondents (irrespective of whether they had reported any health problems or established a link between a health event and their career path) by two experts in the psychodynamics of work. The analysis of the clinical and statistical data involved four stages: a study of an initial test case, a comparison of monographs and reports drawn up by the DREES/DARES, an analysis of questionnaire responses, and an analysis of thirty monographs. MAIN RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: After an examination of the results in relation to sample composition and the method used, the study shows that the relationship between health and career is not overestimated, but also indicates that psychological and musculoskeletal disorders and "minor" work accidents tend to be underreported. The study also found a loss of information about professional mobility as a way of maintaining health. Based on a qualitative approach to validation, the proposed method provides a basis for assessing the design of the questionnaire and provides reference points for data interpretation and the direction of future research.

  9. What is the value of occupational therapy in return to work for breast cancer patients? A qualitative inquiry among experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désiron, H A M; Donceel, P; Godderis, L; Van Hoof, E; de Rijk, A

    2015-03-01

    An increasing number of patients are confronted with breast cancer (BC) and functional limitations after treatment. Occupational therapy (OT) is successful in return to work (RTW), but not yet available for BC patients. This paper explores experts' opinions on OT interventions for RTW in BC patients in the Belgian context. Primary data were topic-interviews with all heads of OT departments in Flemish University Hospitals (n = 5). Secondary data were four focus group interviews with care professionals in oncological rehabilitation (n = 41). All data were transcribed and thematic analysis was used. Integrated in multidisciplinary teamwork, OT interventions should have a holistic and client-centred approach, start early in the rehabilitation process, include workplace visits and contacts with relevant stakeholders, and use goal setting to start up tailor made rehabilitation, linking assessment of abilities and work. Occupational therapists are regarded as professionals who can effectively answer BC patients unmet needs regarding RTW due to their skill to bridge between care and workplace. According to the experts, OT interventions supporting RTW in BC patients are useful when integrated in regular healthcare. They agree on the components but organisational barriers should be removed, for example not providing reimbursement for including this type of support trough healthcare insurance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Exploring the Context and Implementation of Public Health Regulations Governing Sex Work: A Qualitative Study with Migrant Sex Workers in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Jiménez, Teresita; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Silverman, Jay G; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2017-10-01

    Public health regulations practices surrounding sex work and their enforcement can have unintended consequences for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and care among sex workers. This analysis was based on qualitative in-depth (n = 33) and focus groups interviews (n = 20) conducted with migrant female sex workers in Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, and explored the implementation of sex work regulations and related consequences for HIV prevention and care among migrant sex workers. Sex work regulations were found to have health-related benefits (e.g., access to HIV/STI testing) as well as negative impacts, such as abuse by police and harassment, detention/deportation of migrant sex workers. Whereas public health regulations may improve access to HIV/STI testing, their implementation may inadvertently jeopardize sex workers' health through unintended negative consequences. Non-coercive, evidence-based public health and sex work policies and programs are needed to expand access to HIV/STI prevention and care among migrant sex workers, while protecting their dignity and human rights.

  11. Working with the ineffable: Toward a process of understanding and communicating qualitative research knowledge and experience through design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coxon, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    The work described in this paper addresses the conference call for "New processes, tools or approaches that facilitate knowledge exchange and collaboration" between academia and creative people. It introduces a research-for-design program that we at the Experience-based Designing Centre in Denmar...... found to others. It requires creative thinking and collaborative effort to make the kinds of breakthroughs that we have so far. We would like the opportunity to continue this process at this conference with the help of our peers...... thinking. All of these stages involve researchers either academic or from practice, trying to communicate ineffable forms of knowledge to others. It is difficult enough to gain access to this knowledge in the first place, then to know what to do with it when you find it or how to communicate what you have...

  12. Working with 'hands-off' support: a qualitative study of multidisciplinary teams' experiences of home rehabilitation for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randström, Kerstin Björkman; Wengler, Yvonne; Asplund, Kenneth; Svedlund, Marianne

    2014-03-01

    There is a move towards the provision of rehabilitation for older people in their homes. It is essential to ensure that rehabilitation services promote independence of older people. The aim of the study was to explore multidisciplinary teams' experiences of home rehabilitation for older people. Five focus groups were conducted with multidisciplinary teams based in a municipality in Sweden, covering seven different professions. In total, 28 participants volunteered to participate in these interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed according to content analysis. Two main categories, as well as four subcategories, emerged. The first main category, having a rehabilitative approach in everyday life, consisted of the subcategories: 'giving 'hands-off' support' and 'being in a home environment'. The second main category, working across professional boundaries, consisted of the subcategories: 'coordinating resources' and 'learning from each other'. Common goals, communication skills and role understanding contributed to facilitating the teams' performances of rehabilitation. A potential benefit of home rehabilitation, because the older person is in a familiar environment, is to work a rehabilitative approach into each individual's activity in their everyday life in order to meet their specific needs. At an organisational level, there is a need for developing services to further support older people's psychosocial needs during rehabilitation. Team performance towards an individual's rehabilitation should come from an emerged whole and not only from the performance of a specific professional approach depending on the traditional role of each profession. A rehabilitative approach is based on 'hands-off' support in order to incorporate an individual's everyday activities as a part of their rehabilitation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Fear of (reinjury and return to work following compensable injury: qualitative insights from key stakeholders in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Bunzli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Return to work (RTW is important for recovery post-injury. Fear of (reinjury is a strong predictor of delayed RTW, and therefore much attention has been given to addressing injured workers’ fear beliefs. However, RTW is a socially-negotiated process and it may be important to consider the wider social context of the injured worker, including the beliefs of the key people involved in their RTW journey. Methods This paper involves data collected as part of a wider study in which semi-structured interviews explored RTW from the perspectives of 93 key stakeholders: injured workers, GPs, employers and insurance case managers in Victoria, Australia. Inductive analysis of interview transcripts identified fear of (reinjury as a salient theme across all stakeholder groups. This presented an opportunity to analyse how the wider social context of the injured worker may influence fear and avoidance behaviour. Two co-authors performed inductive analysis of the theme ‘fear of (reinjury’. Codes identified in the data were grouped into five categories. Between and within category analysis revealed three themes describing the contextual factors that may influence fear avoidance and RTW behaviour. Results Theme one described how injured workers engaged in a process of weighing up the risk of (reinjury in the workplace against the perceived benefits of RTW. Theme two described how workplace factors could influence an injured workers’ perception of the risk of (reinjury in the workplace, including confidence that the source of the injury had been addressed, the availability and suitability of alternative duties. Theme three described other stakeholders’ reluctance to accept injured workers back at work because of the fear that they might reinjure themselves. Conclusions Our findings illustrate the need for a contextualised perspective of fear avoidance and RTW behaviour that includes the beliefs of other important people surrounding

  14. Exploration of joint working practices on anti-social behaviour between criminal justice, mental health and social care agencies: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayer, Anne; Robinson, Catherine A; Poole, Rob

    2018-05-01

    Although the police play an important role for people with mental health problems in the community, little is known about joint working practices between mental health, social care and police services. There is potential for tensions and negative outcomes for people with mental health problems, in particular when the focus is on behaviours that could be interpreted as anti-social. This study explores perceptions about joint working between mental health, social care and police services with regard to anti-social behaviour. We conducted a multi-method sequential qualitative study in the UK collecting data between April 2014 and August 2016. Data were collected from two study sites: 60 narrative police logs of routinely gathered information, and semi-structured interviews and focus groups with professionals from a range of statutory and third sector organisations (N = 55). Data sets were analysed individually, using thematic iterative coding before integrating the findings. We also looked at sequencing and turning points in the police logs. Findings mapped on a continuum of joint working practices, with examples more likely to be away from the policy ideal of partnership working as being central to mainstream activities. Joint working was driven by legal obligations and concerns about risk rather than a focus on the needs of a person with mental health problems. This was complicated by different perceptions of the police role in mental health. Adding anti-social behaviour to this mix intensified challenges as conceptualisation of the nature of the problem and agreeing on best practice and care is open to interpretations and judgements. Of concern is an evident lack of awareness of these issues. There is a need to reflect on joint working practices, including processes and goals, keeping in mind the health and welfare needs of people with mental health problems. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Neoliberalism, welfare policy and health: a qualitative meta-synthesis of single parents' experience of the transition from welfare to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kay

    2012-09-01

    Following the United States' lead, the emergence of neoliberal welfare policy across the western world has resulted in employment programmes for single parents, who are predominantly single mothers. While some governments claim that employment will improve single parents' incomes and well-being, researchers dispute that single parents can unproblematically move into the workforce, with net positive effects. While researchers have quantified the socio-economic effect of these programmes, in particular on participant health, no study has yet synthesized participants' experiences of welfare-to-work. Here, I present a meta-synthesis of eight qualitative health-related studies of single parents' (and exclusively single mothers') welfare-to-work transition. I report that single mothers faced a combination of health and economic issues which made their transition from welfare to work difficult, including degrees of poor physical and mental health. For participants in the United States, these health issues were often compounded by a loss of health benefits on moving into low-wage employment. In countries where a return to employment was required before children reached school age, a lack of affordable and appropriate child care, especially for children with health problems, exacerbated these difficulties. As a result of scarce resources, single mothers in receipt of welfare benefits often relied on food banks or went without food. A return to the workforce did not alleviate this problem as additional child care and reduced government subsidies depleted the funds available for food. I conclude that welfare-to-work policies are underpinned by the neoliberal assumption that the market more efficiently distributes resources than the State. However, for the women in the studies examined here, labour market participation often depleted access to essential resources. Interventions to address the 'problem' of welfare dependency must recognize the complex interplay between work

  16. Exploring the rewards and challenges of paediatric palliative care work - a qualitative study of a multi-disciplinary children's hospice care team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Johanna; Aldridge, Jan

    2017-12-16

    Children's hospices are a key provider of palliative care for children and young people with life-limiting and life-threatening conditions. However, despite recent policy attention to the provision of paediatric palliative care, little is known about the role of children's hospice staff and the factors that may impact on their wellbeing at work. This study explored the rewards and challenges of working in a children's hospice with an aim to identify staff support and development needs. We conducted an exploratory, qualitative study involving thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with 34 staff and three focus groups with 17 staff working in a multi-disciplinary care team in a UK children's hospice. Participants identified rewards and challenges related to the direct work of caring for children and their families; team dynamics and organisational structures; and individual resilience and job motivation. Participants described the work as emotionally intensive and multi-faceted; 'getting it right' for children was identified as a strong motivator and reward, but also a potential stressor as staff strived to maintain high standards of personalised and emotional care. Other factors were identified as both a reward and stressor, including team functioning, the allocation of work, meeting parent expectations, and the hospice environment. Many participants identified training needs for different aspects of the role to help them feel more confident and competent. Participants also expressed concerns about work-related stress, both for themselves and for colleagues, but felt unable to discuss this at work. Informal support from colleagues and group clinical reflection were identified as primary resources to reflect on and learn from work and for emotional support. However, opportunities for this were limited. Providing regular, structured, and dedicated clinical reflection provides a mechanism through which children's hospice staff can come together for support and

  17. Front-line perspectives on 'joined-up' working relationships: a qualitative study of social prescribing in the west of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jane M; Cornish, Flora; Kerr, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Cross-sector collaboration has been promoted by government policies in the United Kingdom and many western welfare states for decades. Literature on joint working has focused predominantly on the strategic level, neglecting the role of individual practitioners in putting 'joined-up working' into practice. This paper takes the case of 'social prescribing' in the west of Scotland as an instance of joined-up working, in which primary healthcare professionals are encouraged to refer patients to non-medical sources of support in the third sector. This study draws on social capital theory to analyse the quality of the relationships between primary healthcare professionals and third sector practitioners. Eighteen health professionals and 15 representatives of third sector organisations participated in a qualitative interview study. Significant barriers to collaborative working were evident. The two stakeholder groups expressed different understandings of health, with few primary healthcare professionals considering non-medical sources of support to be useful or relevant. Health professionals were mistrustful of unknown third sector organisations, and concerned about their accountability for referrals that were not successful or positive for the patient. Third sector practitioners sought to build trust through face-to-face interactions with health professionals. However, primary healthcare professionals and third sector practitioners were not connected in effective networks. We highlight the ongoing imbalance of power between primary healthcare professionals and third sector organisations. Strategic collaborations should be complemented by efforts to build shared understandings, trust and connections between the diverse front-line workers whose mutual co-operation is necessary to achieve effective joined-up working. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A qualitative study of the impact of the implementation of advanced access in primary healthcare on the working lives of general practice staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offredy Maxine

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The North American model of 'advanced access' has been emulated by the National Primary Care Collaborative in the UK as a way of improving patients' access in primary care. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of the implementation of advanced access on the working lives of general practice staff. Methods A qualitative study design, using semi-structured interviews, was conducted with 18 general practice staff: 6 GPs, 6 practice managers and 6 receptionists. Two neighbouring boroughs in southeast England were used as the study sites. NUD*IST computer software assisted in data management to identify concepts, categories and themes of the data. A framework approach was used to analyse the data. Results Whilst practice managers and receptionists saw advanced access as having a positive effect on their working lives, the responses of general practitioners (GPs were more ambivalent. Receptionists reported improvements in their working lives with a change in their role from gatekeepers for appointments to providing access to appointments, fewer confrontations with patients, and greater job satisfaction. Practice managers perceived reductions in work stress from fewer patient complaints, better use of time, and greater flexibility for contingency planning. GPs recognised benefits in terms of improved consultations, but had concerns about the impact on workload and continuity of care. Conclusion AA has improved working conditions for receptionists, converting their perceived role from gatekeeper to access facilitator, and for practice managers as patients were more satisfied. GP responses were more ambivalent, as they experienced both positive and negative effects.

  19. Qualitative Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-01-01

    The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability). Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of ca...

  20. A comparison of working in small-scale and large-scale nursing homes: A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeerbergen, Lander; Van Hootegem, Geert; Benders, Jos

    2017-02-01

    Ongoing shortages of care workers, together with an ageing population, make it of utmost importance to increase the quality of working life in nursing homes. Since the 1970s, normalised and small-scale nursing homes have been increasingly introduced to provide care in a family and homelike environment, potentially providing a richer work life for care workers as well as improved living conditions for residents. 'Normalised' refers to the opportunities given to residents to live in a manner as close as possible to the everyday life of persons not needing care. The study purpose is to provide a synthesis and overview of empirical research comparing the quality of working life - together with related work and health outcomes - of professional care workers in normalised small-scale nursing homes as compared to conventional large-scale ones. A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies. A systematic literature search (April 2015) was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL and Web of Science. References and citations were tracked to identify additional, relevant studies. We identified 825 studies in the selected databases. After checking the inclusion and exclusion criteria, nine studies were selected for review. Two additional studies were selected after reference and citation tracking. Three studies were excluded after requesting more information on the research setting. The findings from the individual studies suggest that levels of job control and job demands (all but "time pressure") are higher in normalised small-scale homes than in conventional large-scale nursing homes. Additionally, some studies suggested that social support and work motivation are higher, while risks of burnout and mental strain are lower, in normalised small-scale nursing homes. Other studies found no differences or even opposing findings. The studies reviewed showed that these inconclusive findings can be attributed to care workers in some

  1. 'You can't be a person and a doctor': the work-life balance of doctors in training-a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Antonia; Viney, Rowena; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann; Woolf, Katherine

    2016-12-02

    Investigate the work-life balance of doctors in training in the UK from the perspectives of trainers and trainees. Qualitative semistructured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Postgraduate medical training in London, Yorkshire and Humber, Kent, Surrey and Sussex, and Wales during the junior doctor contract dispute at the end of 2015. Part of a larger General Medical Council study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. 96 trainees and 41 trainers. Trainees comprised UK graduates and International Medical Graduates, across all stages of training in 6 specialties (General Practice, Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Psychiatry, Radiology, Surgery) and Foundation. Postgraduate training was characterised by work-life imbalance. Long hours at work were typically supplemented with revision and completion of the e-portfolio. Trainees regularly moved workplaces which could disrupt their personal lives and sometimes led to separation from friends and family. This made it challenging to cope with personal pressures, the stresses of which could then impinge on learning and training, while also leaving trainees with a lack of social support outside work to buffer against the considerable stresses of training. Low morale and harm to well-being resulted in some trainees feeling dehumanised. Work-life imbalance was particularly severe for those with children and especially women who faced a lack of less-than-full-time positions and discriminatory attitudes. Female trainees frequently talked about having to choose a specialty they felt was more conducive to a work-life balance such as General Practice. The proposed junior doctor contract was felt to exacerbate existing problems. A lack of work-life balance in postgraduate medical training negatively impacted on trainees' learning and well-being. Women with children were particularly affected, suggesting this group would benefit the greatest from changes to improve the work-life balance of

  2. Better together? a naturalistic qualitative study of inter-professional working in collaborative care for co-morbid depression and physical health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Sarah E; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Coupe, Nia; Adeyemi, Isabel; Keyworth, Chris; Thampy, Harish; Coventry, Peter A

    2013-09-20

    Mental-physical multi-morbidities pose challenges for primary care services that traditionally focus on single diseases. Collaborative care models encourage inter-professional working to deliver better care for patients with multiple chronic conditions, such as depression and long-term physical health problems. Successive trials from the United States have shown that collaborative care effectively improves depression outcomes, even in people with long-term conditions (LTCs), but little is known about how to implement collaborative care in the United Kingdom. The aim of the study was to explore the extent to which collaborative care was implemented in a naturalistic National Health Service setting. A naturalistic pilot study of collaborative care was undertaken in North West England. Primary care mental health professionals from IAPT (Increasing Access to Psychological Therapies) services and general practice nurses were trained to collaboratively identify and manage patients with co-morbid depression and long-term conditions. Qualitative interviews were performed with health professionals at the beginning and end of the pilot phase. Normalization Process Theory guided analysis. Health professionals adopted limited elements of the collaborative care model in practice. Although benefits of co-location in primary care practices were reported, including reduced stigma of accessing mental health treatment and greater ease of disposal for identified patients, existing norms around the division of mental and physical health work in primary care were maintained, limiting integration of the mental health practitioners into the practice setting. Neither the mental health practitioners nor the practice nurses perceived benefits to joint management of patients. Established divisions between mental and physical health may pose particular challenges for multi-morbidity service delivery models such as collaborative care. Future work should explore patient perspectives about

  3. Combining clinical practice and academic work in nursing: A qualitative study about perceived importance, facilitators and barriers regarding clinical academic careers for nurses in university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oostveen, Catharina J; Goedhart, Nicole S; Francke, Anneke L; Vermeulen, Hester

    2017-12-01

    To obtain in-depth insight into the perceptions of nurse academics and other stakeholders regarding the importance, facilitators and barriers for nurses combining clinical and academic work in university hospitals. Combining clinical practice and academic work facilitates the use of research findings for high-quality patient care. However, nurse academics move away from the bedside because clinical academic careers for nurses have not yet been established in the Netherlands. This qualitative study was conducted in two Dutch university hospitals and their affiliated medical faculties and universities of applied sciences. Data were collected between May 2015 and August 2016. We used purposive sampling for 24 interviews. We asked 14 participants in two focus groups for their perceptions of importance, facilitators and barriers in nurses' combined clinical and academic work in education and research. We audiotaped, transcribed and thematically analysed the interviews and focus groups. Three themes related to perceived importance, facilitators and barriers: culture, leadership and infrastructure. These themes represent deficiencies in facilitating clinical academic careers for nurses. The current nursing culture emphasises direct patient care, which is perceived as an academic misfit. Leadership is lacking at all levels, resulting in the underuse of nurse academics and the absence of supporting structures for nurses who combine clinical and academic work. The present nursing culture appears to be the root cause of the dearth of academic positions and established clinical academic posts. A culture change would require a show of leadership that would promote and enable combined research, teaching and clinical practice and that would introduce clinical academic career pathways for nurses. Meanwhile, nurse academics should collaborate with established medical academics for whom combined roles are mainstream, and they should take advantage of their established infrastructure

  4. Behavioural research on human working memory: mixing qualitative and quantitative methods (Investigación conductual sobre memoria de trabajo: Integrando métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Bacigalupe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The long lasting opposition between qualitative and quantitative methods for studying behaviour has been overridden by interdisciplinary work in which methods can be combined to approach animal and human behaviour, thus contributing to drawing rigorous and useful conclusions. We show an example of this by combining a quasi-experimental design and descriptive methods to study working memory for the resolution of a spatial problem task (the Tower of Hanoi in a neuropsychiatric hospital inpatient with amnesia and executive deficits. Results from the quasi-experiment showed that the patient acquired strategies to solve the task with a high level of efficiency (F3/35 = 7, 19, p < .01. Qualitatively speaking, the patient developed more than one strategy to solve the problem, which indicates the presence of learning based on working memory. In the light of these findings, we discuss issues of mixed methods research and suggest the importance of developing mixed methods to study behaviour. RESUMEN: La oposición duradera entre métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos para estudiar el comportamiento ha sido anulada por el trabajo interdisciplinario en que los métodos pueden combinarse para enfocar el comportamiento humano y animal, contribuyendo así a obtener conclusiones útiles y rigurosas. Se presenta una muestra, combinando métodos descriptivos y un diseño cuasiexperimental para estudiar la memoria de trabajo en la resolución de una tarea de problema espacial (la Torre de Hanoi, en un paciente internado en un hospital neuropsiquiátrico con amnesia y déficit ejecutivo. Resultados del cuasiexperimento demostraron que el paciente adquirió estrategias para resolver la tarea con un alto nivel de eficiencia (F3/35 = 7, 19, p < .01. Cualitativamente el paciente desarrolló más de una estrategia para resolver el problema, lo cual indica la presencia de aprendizaje basado en memoria de trabajo. A la luz de estos resultados, se discuten m

  5. 'I could not join because I had to work for pay.': A qualitative evaluation of falciparum malaria pro-active case detection in three rural Cambodian villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffon, Pierluigi; Rossi, Gabriele; Kindermans, Jean-Marie; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Nguon, Chea; Debackere, Mark; Vernaeve, Lieven; De Smet, Martin; Venables, Emilie

    2018-01-01

    Pro-active case detection (Pro-ACD), in the form of voluntary screening and treatment (VSAT) following community mobilisation about 'asymptomatic malaria', is currently being evaluated as a tool for Plasmodium falciparum elimination in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia. A qualitative study was conducted to explore community understanding, perceptions, expectations and acceptability of the Pro-ACD intervention in order to identify aspects that could be improved in future Pro-ACD activities. This was ancillary to a three-round VSAT campaign, carried out in three villages between December 2015 and March 2016. Qualitative data collection began shortly after the end of the three rounds of screening. Purposive sampling was used to select participants. Nine focus group discussions with participants (n = 46) and non-participants (n = 40) in the Pro-ACD screening were conducted, in addition to in-depth interviews with key village figures (n = 9). Health promotion messages were well delivered and received, but it was difficult for many villagers to understand the messages around 'asymptomatic malaria'. Overall, villagers and village leaders had a positive opinion about the VSAT intervention. Acceptability was high, as a direct consequence of favourable perceptions towards the screening activity: the Pro-ACD intervention was seen by the local population as an effective, inexpensive, reliable and readily available tool to protect individuals and the community from the insurgence of malaria. Physical absence and lack of time (both linked to work-related activities) were the main reasons for non-participation. Although VSAT was generally well perceived and accepted, the 'time factor' related to the need to satisfy essential daily subsistence requirements played a significant role in determining participation in the screening. More well-adapted and meaningful Pro-ACD approaches could be implemented by improving the timing of the testing activites, and strengthening community

  6. Perceptions of rewards among volunteer caregivers of people living with AIDS working in faith-based organizations in South Africa: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, Olagoke

    2010-06-14

    Volunteer caregivers are a critical source of support for the majority of people living with HIV and AIDS in southern Africa, which has extremely high HIV/AIDS prevalence rates. While studies have shown that volunteer caregiving is associated with negative health and socio-economic outcomes, little is known about the positive experiences of volunteers in the home-based care context in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to explore the perception of rewards among volunteers working in home-based care settings. This study uses a qualitative design. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of 55 volunteer caregivers using an interview schedule containing open-ended questions. Volunteer caregivers derived intrinsic rewards related to self-growth and personal (emotional and psychological) development on the job; they also derived satisfaction from community members taking a liking for them and expressing a need for their services. Volunteers felt gratified by the improvements in their health behaviours, which were a direct consequence of the experiences of caring for terminally ill patients with AIDS. Extrinsic rewards came from appreciation and recognition shown by patients and community members. Extrinsic rewards also accrued to volunteers when the services they rendered made their patients happy. Perhaps the greatest sources of extrinsic rewards are skills and competencies acquired from training and experience while caring for their patients, and volunteers' ability to make a difference in the community. Insights into volunteer caregiver rewards provide opportunities for policy makers and programme managers to develop a model of home-based care that facilitates the accrual of rewards to volunteers alongside volunteers' traditional duties of patient care. Programme managers could employ these insights in recruiting and assisting volunteers to identify and reflect on rewards in the caregiving situation as a means of reducing the

  7. Overview of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossoehme, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research methods are a robust tool for chaplaincy research questions. Similar to much of chaplaincy clinical care, qualitative research generally works with written texts, often transcriptions of individual interviews or focus group conversations and seeks to understand the meaning of experience in a study sample. This article describes three common methodologies: ethnography, grounded theory, and phenomenology. Issues to consider relating to the study sample, design, and analysis are discussed. Enhancing the validity of the data, as well reliability and ethical issues in qualitative research are described. Qualitative research is an accessible way for chaplains to contribute new knowledge about the sacred dimension of people's lived experience.

  8. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators for Return to Work Among Colorectal Cancer Survivors: Malaysian Healthcare Professionals Experience- A Qualitative Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sze Loon; Loh, Siew Yim; Su, Tin Tin

    2015-06-01

    Return to work (RTW) can be a challenging occupational health (OH) issue among previously-employed colorectal cancer survivors. This study aimed to explore the various perceived barriers and facilitators encountered during the RTW process in cancer survivorship, from the perception of healthcare professionals (HCP). Face to face, semistructured interviews were carried out on twelve HCP (government and private sectors) from various disciplines. Data collected were transcribed verbatim and data management was aided by NVivo software 8.0. A new theory from contextual data was generated using open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The HCP shared numerous barriers and facilitators associated with RTW, under four categories. The key barriers were disturbing side effects, psychological barriers (personal factor), compensation (financial factor), poor ability to multitask (work-related factor), long paid medical leaves policy, employer's lackadaisical attitude, lack of knowledge and awareness of RTW (environmental factor). Key facilitators identified were desire to resume working life and to contribute to society (personal factor), financial pressure, maintain organizational health insurance (financial factor), less physically demanding job (work-related factor), supportive workplace and strict organizational policy on medical leaves (environmental factor). While not all HCP were trained in RTW, they all agreed that RTW is important for survivors and workplace. Occupational health doctors have a direct role in helping survivors RTW. Early Intervention on RTW during survivorship should involve occupational health doctors and employers, targeting the modifiable factors (environmental and work-related) to improve RTW after cancer.

  9. Shaped by asymmetrical interdependence: a qualitative case study of the external influences on international non-governmental organizations' implementation of equity principles in HIV/AIDS work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Elizabeth; Edwards, Nancy; McDowell, Ian; Muga, Richard; Brown, Stephen

    2014-10-08

    Addressing inequities is a key role for international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) working in health and development. Yet, putting equity principles into practice can prove challenging. In-depth empirical research examining what influences INGOs' implementation of equity principles is limited. This study examined the influences on one INGO's implementation of equity principles in its HIV/AIDS programs. This research employed a case study with nested components (an INGO operating in Kenya, with offices in North America). We used multiple data collection methods, including document reviews, interviews (with staff, partners and clients of the INGO in Kenya), and participant observation (with Kenyan INGO staff). Participant observation was conducted with 10 people over three months. Forty-one interviews were completed, and 127 documents analyzed. Data analysis followed Auerbach and Silverstein's analytic process (2003), with qualitative coding conducted in multiple stages, using descriptive matrices, visual displays and networks (Miles and Huberman, 1994). There was a gap between the INGO's intent to implement equity principles and actual practice due to multiple influences from various players, including donors and country governments. The INGO was reliant on donor funding and needed permission from the Kenyan government to work in-country. Major influences included donor agendas and funding, donor country policies, and Southern country government priorities and legislation. The INGO privileged particular vulnerable populations (based on its reputation, its history, and the priorities of the Kenyan government and the donors). To balance its equity commitment with the influences from other players, the INGO aligned with the system as well as pushed back incrementally on the donors and the Kenyan government to influence these organizations' equity agendas. By moving its equity agenda forward incrementally and using its reputational advantage, the INGO avoided

  10. Qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelling, Leslie

    2015-03-25

    Qualitative research has an important role in helping nurses and other healthcare professionals understand patient experiences of health and illness. Qualitative researchers have a large number of methodological options and therefore should take care in planning and conducting their research. This article offers a brief overview of some of the key issues qualitative researchers should consider.

  11. Implementation of evidence-based practice by nurses working in community settings and their strategies to mentor student nurses to develop evidence-based practice: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Joanne Mary; Mallion, Jaimee

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to explore how community nurses apply the best available evidence to their practice, and how they mentor student nurses to conceptualize and implement evidence-based practice in community settings. In the UK, the expansion of health-care provision in the community has supported the development of highly skilled community nurses. However, there is limited literature regarding the strategies used by community nurses to implement evidence-based practice and mentor student nurses to conceptualize evidence-based practice in community placements. An exploratory qualitative approach applying inductive reasoning to focus group data was used. As a result, nurses working for a community NHS Foundation Trust in South England with a mentor qualification were invited to participate in one of the seven focus groups, 33 nurses participated. Data were analyzed with thematic analysis. The themes discussed in this paper are: 'our practice is evidence-based' as guidelines and policies provided structure, but occasionally stifled autonomous clinical decision-making, and 'time' as a barrier and facilitator to mentoring student nurses in community settings. In conclusion, nurses need to develop the ability to incorporate patients' needs and wishes within evidence-based care. Time was a facilitator for some community mentors, but protected time is required to complete the necessary practice documentation of student nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. "What Do They Want Me To Say?" The hidden curriculum at work in the medical school selection process: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been little study of the role of the essay question in selection for medical school. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of how applicants approached the essay questions used in selection at our medical school in 2007. Methods The authors conducted a qualitative analysis of 210 essays written as part of the medical school admissions process, and developed a conceptual framework to describe the relationships, ideas and concepts observed in the data. Results Findings of this analysis were confirmed in interviews with applicants and assessors. Analysis revealed a tension between "genuine" and "expected" responses that we believe applicants experience when choosing how to answer questions in the admissions process. A theory named "What do they want me to say?" was developed to describe the ways in which applicants modulate their responses to conform to their expectations of the selection process; the elements of this theory were confirmed in interviews with applicants and assessors. Conclusions This work suggests the existence of a "hidden curriculum of admissions" and demonstrates that the process of selection has a strong influence on applicant response. This paper suggests ways that selection might be modified to address this effect. Studies such as this can help us to appreciate the unintended consequences of admissions processes and can identify ways to make the selection process more consistent, transparent and fair.

  13. Professional identity formation in the transition from medical school to working life: a qualitative study of group-coaching courses for junior doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lasson, Lydia; Just, Eva; Stegeager, Nikolaj; Malling, Bente

    2016-06-24

    The transition from student to medical doctor is challenging and stressful to many junior doctors. To practice with confidence and professionalism the junior doctors have to develop a strong professional identity. Various suggestions on how to facilitate formation of professional identity have been offered including the possible positive effect of group-coaching courses. The purpose of this study was to explore how group-coaching might facilitate professional identity formation among junior doctors in the transition period. Group-coaching courses comprising three whole-day sessions and five 2 h sessions during a period of 4 months were offered to junior doctors in the first years after graduation. The purpose was to support the participants' professional development, ability to relate to patients, relatives and staff and career development. The coaches in this study had a background as health professionals combined with coaching educations. Data was obtained through observations, open-ended questionnaires and interviews. A generic thematic analysis was applied. Forty-five doctors participated in six coaching groups. The three main themes emerging in the sessions were: Adoption to medical culture, career planning, and work/life-balance. The junior doctors found the coaching intervention highly useful in order to cope with these challenges. Furthermore, the group was a forum where the junior doctors could share thoughts and feelings with colleagues without being afraid that this would endanger their professional career. Many found new ways to respond to everyday challenges mainly through a new awareness of patterns of thinking and feeling. The participants found that the group-coaching course supported their professional identity formation (thinking, feeling and acting as a doctor), adoption to medical culture, career planning and managing a healthy work/life-balance. Further studies in different contexts are recommended as well as studies using other methods to

  14. Conception of spent fuel and radioactive wastes management in Poland based on the results of the previous work performed in the frames of Governmental Strategic Programme realised under patronate of National Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodarski, J.; Chwaszczewski, S.; Slizowski, K.; Frankowski, Z.

    1999-01-01

    About 300 cubic meters of solid and solidified radioactive wastes of low and medium activity are produced each year in Poland. Such materials, after processing, are stored in the Institute of Atomic Energy at Swierk or in the National Repository for Radioactive Wastes in Rozan. About 6000 spent fuel elements are temporarily stored in water pools at Swierk. Assumptions and strategy of future spent fuel and radioactive wastes management are presented taking into account operation of the first nuclear power plants (after 2010). Then Governmental Strategic Programme (GSP) for the year 1997-1999 concerning such topic is described and some results of the work performed in the frames of the GSP are given

  15. Working with previously anonymous gamete donors and donor-conceived adults: recent practice experiences of running the DNA-based voluntary information exchange and contact register, UK DonorLink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn; Gunter, Christine; Tidy, Christine; Atherton, Freda

    2013-03-01

    This article describes recent practice experiences with donor conceived adults, donors, non-donor-conceived adult children of donors using the voluntary DNA-based register, UK DonorLink. It highlights additional complexities faced when using DNA rather than paper records for searching, in particular from the risk of false positives, low chances of success and potential inclusion of biological parents' DNA. Professionals' experiences in supporting those being "linked" suggest challenges as well as rewards. Registration carries the potential to be therapeutic for donor-conceived adults and donors and to enhance their political awareness regardless of links being made. Registrants value both peer and professional support, providing the latter can respond flexibly and be delivered by staff experienced in intermediary work. Given that the majority of those affected by donor conception internationally come from anonymous donation systems, these findings are highly pertinent and argue the need for political and moral debate about such service provision.

  16. 'Treading water but drowning slowly': what are GPs' experiences of living and working with mental illness and distress in England? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ruth; Spiers, Johanna; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A; Taylor, Anna K; Thornton, Gail A; Buszewicz, Marta

    2018-05-03

    This paper provides an in-depth account of general practitioners' (GPs) experiences of living and working with mental illness and distress, as part of a wider study reporting the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for mental illness and burn-out, and sources of stress/distress for GP participants. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 47 GP participants. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, anonymised and imported into NVivo V.11 to facilitate data management. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis employing the constant comparative method. England. A purposive sample of GP participants who self-identified as: (1) currently living with mental distress, (2) returning to work following treatment, (3) off sick or retired early as a result of mental distress or (4) without experience of mental distress. Interviews were conducted face to face or over the telephone. The findings report GP participants' in-depth experiences of distress and mental illness with many recollecting their distressing experiences and significant psychological and physical symptoms relating to chronic stress, anxiety, depression and/or burn-out, and a quarter articulating thoughts of suicide. Many talked about their shame, humiliation and embarrassment at their perceived inability to cope with the stresses of their job and/or their symptoms of mental illness. These findings paint a concerning picture of the situation affecting primary care doctors, with participants' accounts suggesting there is a considerable degree of mental ill health and reduced well-being among GPs. The solutions are complex and lie in prevention and provision. There needs to be greater recognition of the components and cumulative effect of occupational stressors for doctors, such as the increasing workload and the clinical and emotional demands of the job, as well as the need for a culture shift within medicine to more supportive and compassionate work environments. © Article author

  17. Barriers and Facilitators for the Use of a Medical Mobile App to Prevent Work-Related Risks in Pregnancy: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velu, Adeline V; van Beukering, Monique Dm; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Mol, Ben Wj; van der Post, Joris Am; Kok, Marjolein

    2017-08-22

    The number of women participating in the labor market in Europe has increased over the last several decades. At the same time, there is growing evidence that certain conditions of employment during pregnancy may have a negative influence on pregnancy outcomes. In order to better inform pregnant women, we aim to develop an app to help assess the health risk as a result of personal and work-related factors and provide personal advice for these women and their health care providers. The aim of this study was to compose a thematic overview of the perceived facilitators and barriers according to pregnant women, medical professionals, and employers for the use of a mobile app in obstetrical care to prevent occupational-related pregnancy complications. Two multidisciplinary focus group meetings with in total 14 participants were conducted with pregnant women, occupational physicians, general practitioners, midwives, obstetricians, and representatives of trade unions and employer organizations. Transcripts were analyzed by qualitatively coding procedures and constant comparative methods. We identified 24 potential facilitators and 12 potential barriers for the use of the app in 4 categories: content of the app, the app as a mean to provide information, ease of use, and external factors. The 3 main facilitators identified were the need for a good interaction between the app and the user, apps were viewed as a more practical source of information, and the information should be understandable, according to the existing guidelines, and well-dosed. The 2 main barriers for use were extensive battery and memory use of the smartphone and sending frequent push notifications. The results of this study are important considerations in the developing process of a medical app implementing a guideline or evidence-based information in practice. ©Adeline V Velu, Monique DM van Beukering, Frederieke G Schaafsma, Monique HW Frings-Dresen, Ben WJ Mol, Joris AM van der Post, Marjolein Kok

  18. 'Nobody is after you; it is your initiative to start work': a qualitative study of health workforce absenteeism in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweheyo, Raymond; Daker-White, Gavin; Reed, Catherine; Davies, Linda; Kiwanuka, Suzanne; Campbell, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Published evidence on the drivers of absenteeism among the health workforce is mainly limited to high-income countries. Uganda suffers the highest rate of health workforce absenteeism in Africa, attracting attention but lacking a definitive ameliorative strategy. This study aimed to explore the underlying reasons for absenteeism in the public and private 'not-for-profit' health sector in rural Uganda. We undertook an empirical qualitative study, located within the critical realist paradigm. We used case study methodology as a sampling strategy, and principles of grounded theory for data collection and analysis. Ninety-five healthcare workers were recruited through focus groups and in-depth interviews. The NVivo V.10 software package was used for data management. Healthcare workers' absenteeism was explained by complex interrelated influences that could be seen to be both external to, and within, an individual's motivation. External influences dominated in the public sector, especially health system factors, such as delayed or omitted salaries, weak workforce leadership and low financial allocation for workers' accommodation. On the other hand, low staffing-particularly in the private sector-created work overload and stress. Also, socially constructed influences existed, such as the gendered nature of child and elderly care responsibilities, social class expectations and reported feigned sickness. Individually motivated absenteeism arose from perceptions of an inadequate salary, entitlement to absence, financial pressures heightening a desire to seek supplemental income, and educational opportunities, often without study leave. Health workforce managers and policy makers need to improve governance efficiencies and to seek learning opportunities across different health providers.

  19. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    2011-11-01

    HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the deleterious effects of stigma and discrimination

  20. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal, meso (social/community, and macro (organizational/political realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro, social networks and support groups (meso, and challenging stigma (macro.HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the deleterious effects of stigma and

  1. A qualitative study of health care providers' perceptions and experiences of working together to care for children with medical complexity (CMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Lisa; Zurynski, Yvonne; Breen, Christie; Hoffmann, Tim; Woolfenden, Susan

    2018-01-31

    Children with medical complexity (CMC) have a wide range of long term health problems and disabilities that have an adverse impact on their quality of life. They have high levels of family identified health care needs and health care utilisation. There is no Australian literature on the experiences of health care providers working in the Australian tertiary, secondary and primary health care system, whilst managing CMC. This information is essential to inform the design of integrated health care systems for these children. We address this knowledge gap by exploring the perceptions and experiences of health care providers on the provision of health care for CMC aged 0 to 18 years. A qualitative research study was undertaken. Stakeholder forums, group and individual in depth interviews were undertaken using a semi-structured interview guide. The stakeholder forums were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Field notes of the stakeholder forums, group and individual interviews were taken. Inductive thematic analysis was undertaken to identify key themes. One hundred and three providers took part in the stakeholder forums and interviews across 3 local health districts, a tertiary paediatric hospital network, and primary health care organisations. Providers expressed concern regarding family capacity to negotiate the system, which was impacted by the medical complexity of the children and psychosocial complexity of their families. Lack of health care provider capacity in terms of their skills, time and availability to manage CMC was also a key problem. These issues occurred within a health system that had impaired capacity in terms of fragmentation of care and limited communication among health care providers. When designing integrated care models for CMC, it is essential to understand and address the challenges experienced by their health care providers. This requires adequate training of providers, additional resources and time for coordination of care, improved

  2. Qualitative analysis of the diet of a probabilistic sample of schoolchildren from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, using the Previous Day Food Questionnaire Análise qualitativa da dieta de amostra probabilística de escolares de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, com o uso do Questionário Alimentar do Dia Anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Altenburg de Assis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative evaluation of the diet of a probabilistic sample of 7-10 year old schoolchildren (n = 1,232 from Florianópolis (southern Brazil was carried out by analyzing compliance with recommendations from the Brazilian Food Guidelines. The strengths and limitations of the Previous Day Food Questionnaire (PDFQ are also presented. Frequencies of intake were defined as how many times per day the food group was reported on the PDFQ. The percentages of schoolchildren who met the minimum recommendations and who ate foods that were not recommended in the guidelines were compared for boys versus girls, private versus public school and by family income level. Although most of the children complied with the guidelines regarding consumption of meat/fish, dry beans, sweets, and eating three meals and two snacks, only 6.5% of the children met the recommendations for cereals, and 15% for fruit and vegetables. The PDFQ was confirmed as a practical and cost-effective method for the evaluation of compliance with health promotion targets.Avaliação qualitativa da dieta de uma amostra probabilística de escolares de 7-10 anos (n = 1.232 de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, é apresentada por meio de uma análise da concordância com as recomendações do guia alimentar para a população brasileira. Os aspectos positivos e as limitações do Questionário Alimentar do Dia Anterior (QUADA são também discutidos. As freqüências de consumo foram definidas em vezes por dia que os grupos de alimentos foram relatados no QUADA. As porcentagens de escolares que atingiram as recomendações mínimas do guia e que consumiram alimentos não recomendados foram comparadas entre os sexos, tipo de escola (pública versus privada e nível de salário familiar. A maioria das crianças apresentou concordância com o guia para o consumo de carnes/peixes, feijão, doces e realização de três refeições e dois lanches; somente 6,5% atingiram as recomendações dos

  3. Strategies in primary healthcare to implement early identification of risky alcohol consumption: why do they work or not? A qualitative evaluation of the ODHIN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keurhorst, M; Heinen, M; Colom, J; Linderoth, C; Müssener, U; Okulicz-Kozaryn, K; Palacio-Vieira, J; Segura, L; Silfversparre, F; Słodownik, L; Sorribes, E; Laurant, M; Wensing, M

    2016-06-07

    Screening and brief interventions (SBI) in primary healthcare are cost-effective in risky drinkers, yet they are not offered to all eligible patients. This qualitative study aimed to provide more insight into the factors and mechanisms of why, how, for whom and under what circumstances implementation strategies work or do not work in increasing SBI. Semi-structured interviews were conducted between February and July 2014 with 40 GPs and 28 nurses in Catalonia, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Participants were purposefully selected from the European Optimising Delivery of Healthcare Interventions (ODHIN) trial. This randomised controlled trial evaluated the influence of training and support, financial reimbursement and an internet-based method of delivering advice on SBI. Amongst them were 38 providers with a high screening performance and 30 with a low screening performance from different allocation groups. Realist evaluation was combined with the Tailored Implementation for Chronic Diseases framework for identification of implementation determinants to guide the interviews and analysis. Transcripts were analysed thematically with the diagram affinity method. Training and support motivated SBI by improved knowledge, skills and prioritisation. Continuous provision, sufficient time to learn intervention techniques and to tailor to individual experienced barriers, seemed important T&S conditions. Catalan and Polish professionals perceived financial reimbursement to be an additional stimulating factor as well, as effects on SBI were smoothened by personnel levels and salary levels. Structural payment for preventive services rather than a temporary project based payment, might have increased the effects of financial reimbursement. Implementing e-BI seem to require more guidance than was delivered in ODHIN. Despite the allocation, important preconditions for SBI routine seemed frequent exposure of this topic in media and guidelines, SBI facilitating information

  4. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  5. HIV, Gender, Race, Sexual Orientation, and Sex Work: A Qualitative Study of Intersectional Stigma Experienced by HIV-Positive Women in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; James, LLana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. Methods and Findings We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). Conclusions HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being—as well as opportunities for coping—in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the

  6. “You can’t be a person and a doctor”. The work-life balance of doctors in training: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, A.; Viney, R.; Needleman, S.; Griffin, A.; Woolf, K. V. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Investigate the work–life balance of doctors in training in the UK from the perspectives of trainers and trainees. Design Qualitative semistructured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Setting Postgraduate medical training in London, Yorkshire and Humber, Kent, Surrey and Sussex, and Wales during the junior doctor contract dispute at the end of 2015. Part of a larger General Medical Council study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. Part...

  7. The influence of previous low back trouble, general health, and working conditions on future sick-listing because of low back trouble. A 15-year follow-up study of risk indicators for self-reported sick-listing caused by low back trouble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C F; Monrad, T; Biering-Sørensen, F; Darre, E; Deis, A; Kryger, P

    1999-08-01

    A 15-year follow-up study. To find risk indicators for self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble and to evaluate which variables were the most important indicators of work incapacity resulting from low back trouble during the follow-up period of 15 years. The initial data were obtained from a health survey conducted in a general population from the Municipality of Glostrup, Denmark. The follow-up data included information from the Central Person Register, the Early Retirement Pension Register, and a postal questionnaire regarding self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble. An epidemiologic study, in which logistic regression analyses were used for evaluation of the data. The model used consisted of the variable in question, age, gender, and previous experience of low back trouble, along with interactions. It was found that 22 of 37 variables were risk indicators for later self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble during the preceding year or the 7 years before the date of follow-up evaluation. In analyzing the most significant variables simultaneously, it was found that information from the initial investigation about sick-listing in general during the previous 10 years, sciatic pain, use of analgesics for low back trouble, previous sick-listing because of low back trouble, and occupation were the most important risk indicators for self-reported work incapacity resulting from low back trouble during the follow-up period of 15 years. Findings showed that the strongest prognostic indicators of later sick-listing because of low back trouble involve information from the person about previous sick-listing behavior in general and previous experience of low back trouble episodes, especially if these had been accompanied by sciatic pain, use of analgesics, or previous low back trouble sick-listing.

  8. Interviewing clinicians and advocates who work with sexual assault survivors: a personal perspective on moving from quantitative to qualitative research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2005-09-01

    This article describes the author's personal experiences of conducting a qualitative semistructured interview study, after having done predominantly quantitative survey research in the social sciences. The author describes the process of learning how to approach conducting semistructured interviews with female advocates and clinicians who provide services to sexual assault survivors in the community. The author describes making the transition from a logical positivist deductive approach to thinking about and conducting research to a more social constructionist stance in which one learns from participants about their experiences and perspectives in narrative form to discover knowledge and develop theory inductively.

  9. School-to-Work-Transition—Career Development and Family Planning: Methodological Guidelines and Challenges of a Qualitative Longitudinal Panel-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kühn

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting the basic features of our qualitative German panel study concerning the job entry of young adults, dealing also with methodological issues. The selection of the respondents in qualified jobs (commercial-technical, crafts/trade, services took into account gender-specific aspects, different labor-market prospects and regions. From the quantitative panel, a theoretical sample of respondents was selected who were interviewed three times in three-years intervals (3 waves. These interviews, focusing on individual biographies (i.e. orientations and action strategies form the basis for constructing a typology. Methodological innovations concern the modeling of the sequence of occupational actions and orientations as life-course sequences and the case-specific and case-comparing analysis of interview transcripts. This was done—based on a data bank containing the interview material—by means of a detailed scheme of categories. The integration of quantitative and qualitative longitudinal data presents a theoretical and methodological challenge. Our focus is on biography and life-course research which suggests an interdisciplinary approach. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002178

  10. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Elo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative content analysis is commonly used for analyzing qualitative data. However, few articles have examined the trustworthiness of its use in nursing science studies. The trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis is often presented by using terms such as credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability, and authenticity. This article focuses on trustworthiness based on a review of previous studies, our own experiences, and methodological textbooks. Trustworthiness was described for the main qualitative content analysis phases from data collection to reporting of the results. We concluded that it is important to scrutinize the trustworthiness of every phase of the analysis process, including the preparation, organization, and reporting of results. Together, these phases should give a reader a clear indication of the overall trustworthiness of the study. Based on our findings, we compiled a checklist for researchers attempting to improve the trustworthiness of a content analysis study. The discussion in this article helps to clarify how content analysis should be reported in a valid and understandable manner, which would be of particular benefit to reviewers of scientific articles. Furthermore, we discuss that it is often difficult to evaluate the trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis studies because of defective data collection method description and/or analysis description.

  11. The Invisible Work of Closeting: A Qualitative Study About Strategies Used by Lesbian and Gay Persons to Conceal Their Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Bjorkman, Mari

    2016-10-01

    The last decades have offered substantial improvement regarding human rights for lesbian and gay (LG) persons. Yet LG persons are often in the closet, concealing their sexual orientation. We present a qualitative study based on 182 histories submitted from 161 LG individuals to a Web site. The aim was to explore experiences of closeting among LG persons in Norway. A broad range of strategies was used for closeting, even among individuals who generally considered themselves to be out of the closet. Concealment was enacted by blunt denial, clever avoidance, or subtle vagueness. Other strategies included changing or eliminating the pronoun or name of the partner in ongoing conversations. Context-dependent concealment, differentiating between persons, situations, or arenas, was repeatedly applied for security or convenience. We propose a shift from "being in the closet" to "situated concealment of sexual orientation."

  12. A Qualitative Investigation into How Problem-Based Learning Impacts on the Development of Team-Working Skills in Occupational Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Alison

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that problem-based learning (PBL) has a positive impact on the team-working skills of medical, health and social care students. These skills are important for graduates to master to enable effective collaborative working in today's diverse health and social care settings. What is not clear from the literature is how…

  13. Combining clinical practice and academic work in nursing: a qualitative study about perceived importance, facilitators and barriers regarding clinical academic careers for nurses in university hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, C.J. van; Goedhart, N.S.; Francke, A.L.; Vermeulen, H.

    2017-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To obtain in-depth insight into the perceptions of nurse aca- demics and other stakeholders regarding the importance, facilitators and barriers for nurses combining clinical and academic work in university hospitals. Background: Combining clinical practice and academic work

  14. AGGRESSION IN PSYCHIATRY - A QUALITATIVE STUDY FOCUSING ON THE CHARACTERIZATION AND PERCEPTION OF PATIENT AGGRESSION BY NURSES WORKING ON PSYCHIATRIC-WARDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FINNEMA, EJ; DASSEN, T; HALFENS, R

    The present study focuses on the characterization and perception of patient aggression by nurses working in a psychiatric hospital in The Netherlands. Data have been collected by interviewing nurses working on open and closed wards. The results have been compared and related to the existing

  15. Different views about work-hour limitations in medicine: a qualitative content analysis of surgeons', lawyers', and pilots' positive and negative arguments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P Businger

    Full Text Available Whereas work-hour regulations have been taken for granted since 1940 in other occupational settings, such as commercial aviation, they have been implemented only recently in medical professions, where they lead to a lively debate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate arguments in favour of and against work-hour limitations in medicine given by Swiss surgeons, lawyers, and pilots.An electronic questionnaire survey with four free-response items addressing the question of what arguments speak in favour of or against work-hour limitations in general and in medicine was sent to a random sample of board-certified surgeons, lawyers in labour law, and pilots from SWISS International Airlines Ltd.In all, 279/497 (56% of the respondents answered the survey: 67/117 surgeons, 92/226 lawyers, and 120/154 pilots. Support for work-hour limitations in general and in medicine was present and higher among lawyers and pilots than it was in surgeons (p<0.001. The latter agreed more with work-hour limitations in general than in medicine (p<0.001. The most often cited arguments in favour of work-hour limitations were "quality and patient safety," "health and fitness," and "leisure and work-family balance," whereas the lack of "flexibility" was the most important argument against. Surgeons expected more often that their "education" and the "quality of their work" would be threatened (p<0.001.Work-hour limitations should be supported in medicine also, but a way must be found to reduce problems resulting from discontinuity in patient care and to minimise the work in medicine, which has no education value.

  16. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...... and the process of thinking, e.g. the ontology and the epistemology. Keywords: qualitative, interaction, process, organizing, thinking, perspective, epistemology....

  17. Situating methodology within qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer-Kile, Marnie L

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative nurse researchers are required to make deliberate and sometimes complex methodological decisions about their work. Methodology in qualitative research is a comprehensive approach in which theory (ideas) and method (doing) are brought into close alignment. It can be difficult, at times, to understand the concept of methodology. The purpose of this research column is to: (1) define qualitative methodology; (2) illuminate the relationship between epistemology, ontology and methodology; (3) explicate the connection between theory and method in qualitative research design; and 4) highlight relevant examples of methodological decisions made within cardiovascular nursing research. Although there is no "one set way" to do qualitative research, all qualitative researchers should account for the choices they make throughout the research process and articulate their methodological decision-making along the way.

  18. Different views about work-hour limitations in medicine: a qualitative content analysis of surgeons', lawyers', and pilots' positive and negative arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businger, Adrian P; Kaderli, Reto M

    2014-01-01

    Whereas work-hour regulations have been taken for granted since 1940 in other occupational settings, such as commercial aviation, they have been implemented only recently in medical professions, where they lead to a lively debate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate arguments in favour of and against work-hour limitations in medicine given by Swiss surgeons, lawyers, and pilots. An electronic questionnaire survey with four free-response items addressing the question of what arguments speak in favour of or against work-hour limitations in general and in medicine was sent to a random sample of board-certified surgeons, lawyers in labour law, and pilots from SWISS International Airlines Ltd. In all, 279/497 (56%) of the respondents answered the survey: 67/117 surgeons, 92/226 lawyers, and 120/154 pilots. Support for work-hour limitations in general and in medicine was present and higher among lawyers and pilots than it was in surgeons (pwork-family balance," whereas the lack of "flexibility" was the most important argument against. Surgeons expected more often that their "education" and the "quality of their work" would be threatened (p<0.001). Work-hour limitations should be supported in medicine also, but a way must be found to reduce problems resulting from discontinuity in patient care and to minimise the work in medicine, which has no education value.

  19. A Qualitative Study from Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nineteen interviews with doctors working at different public and private hospitals in. Islamabad and ... problems due to polypharmacy, overuse of antibiotics ... Study design. A qualitative ..... drug selection, procurement and dispensing he is the ...

  20. The league of extraordinary generalists: a qualitative study of professional identity and perceptions of role of GPs working on a national after hours helpline in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Rosemary; Williamson, Michelle

    2016-04-22

    Telephone triage and advice services (TTAS) have become commonplace in western health care systems particularly as an aid to patient access and demand management in the after hours period. In 2011 an after hours general practitioner (GP) helpline was established as a supplementary service to existing 24-h nurse-TTAS in Australia. Callers to the service in the after hours period who are triaged by a nurse as needing to see a GP immediately or within 24 h may speak with a GP on the line to obtain further assessment and advice. While much research has been undertaken on the roles of nurses in TTAS and the professional identities and attitudes to new technology of community-based GPs, little is known of the perceptions of role and identity of GPs providing after hours advice on primary care helplines. This qualitative study explored the perceptions of professional identity and role, motivations and contributions to the health system of GPs employed on the Australian afterhours GP helpline in 2011-2013. The study took a phenomenographic approach seeking to understand the essence of being a telephone GP, probing professional identity while also exploring role tensions. Twelve GPs, or 15% of the helpline GP workforce participated in the qualitative study. The GPs experienced both personal and professional benefits and believed they were strengthening patient care and the Australian health system. However the role required a re-alignment of practice that challenged professional autonomy, the doctor-patient relationship and commitment to continuity of care. Some GPs made this role realignment more readily than others and were well suited to the helpline role. There was a strong collegial bond amongst the helpline GPs which facilitated the maintenance of professional autonomy. Telephone GP assessment and advice does not demonstrate the same breadth as face-to-face practice and provides little opportunity for continuity of care, but this has not prevented those performing the

  1. Can You Work with Me? Using a Qualitative Meta Analytic Review to Understand the Effects of Culture on the Formation of Swift Trust within Global Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    individualistic culture , it is ‘Can you work with me?’ and for the collectivistic culture , it is ‘Can we work together’. These evidently have important...comparison of individualistic and collectivistic cultures , Academy of Management Review, 22: 730-757. Kiffin-Petersen, S.A., and Cordery, J.L. (2003...that when a team member is perceived as in-group, the collectivists evaluated him or her more generously as compared to individualists . Moreover

  2. Different Views about Work-Hour Limitations in Medicine: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Surgeons', Lawyers', and Pilots' Positive and Negative Arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Businger, Adrian P.; Kaderli, Reto M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Whereas work-hour regulations have been taken for granted since 1940 in other occupational settings, such as commercial aviation, they have been implemented only recently in medical professions, where they lead to a lively debate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate arguments in favour of and against work-hour limitations in medicine given by Swiss surgeons, lawyers, and pilots. Methods An electronic questionnaire survey with four free-response items addressing the questio...

  3. A qualitative study of the interactions among the psychosocial work environment and family, community and services for workers with low mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine R; Keuskamp, Dominic; Ziersch, Anna M; Baum, Fran E; Popay, Jennie

    2013-09-03

    The psychosocial work environment can benefit and harm mental health. Poor psychosocial work environments and high level work-family conflict are both associated with poor mental health, yet little is known about how people with poor mental health manage the interactions among multiple life domains. This study explores the interfaces among paid work, family, community and support services and their combined effects on mental health. We conducted 21 in-depth semi-structured interviews with people identified as having poor mental health to examine their experiences of paid employment and mental health and wellbeing in the context of their daily lives. The employment-related psychosocial work environment, particularly workplace relationships, employment security and degree of control over hours, strongly affected participants' mental health. The interfaces among the life domains of family, community and access to support services suggest that effects on mental health differ according to: time spent in each domain, the social, psychological and physical spaces where domain activities take place, life stage and the power available to participants in their multiple domains. This paper is based on a framework analysis of all the interviews, and vignettes of four cases. Cases were selected to represent different types of relationships among the domains and how interactions among them either mitigated and/or exacerbated mental health effects of psychosocial work environments. Examining domain interactions provides greater explanatory capacity for understanding how people with low mental health manage their lives than restricting the research to the separate impacts of the psychosocial work environment or work-family conflict. The extent to which people can change the conditions under which they engage in paid work and participate in family and social life is significantly affected by the extent to which their employment position affords them latitude. Policies that provide

  4. A qualitative systematic review of published work on disclosure and help-seeking for domestic violence and abuse among women from ethnic minority populations in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femi-Ajao, Omolade; Kendal, Sarah; Lovell, Karina

    2018-03-07

    Domestic violence and abuse has been recognised as an international public health problem. However, the pervasiveness of the problem is unknown due in part to underreporting, especially among women from ethnic minority populations. In relation to this group, this review seeks to explore: (1) the barriers to disclosure; (2) the facilitators of help-seeking; and (3) self-perceived impacts of domestic violence. We systematically identified published qualitative studies conducted among women from ethnic minority populations in the UK. Data analysis was completed using thematic analysis approach. 562 papers were identified and eight papers from four studies conducted among women from ethnic minority populations in the UK met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Barriers to disclosure include: Immigration status, community influences, problems with language and interpretation, and unsupportive attitudes of staff within mainstream services. Facilitators of help-seeking were: escalation of abuse and safety of children. Self-perceived impact of abuse includes: shame, denial, loss of identity and lack of choice. There is an on-going need for staff from domestic violence services to be aware of the complexities within which women from ethnic minority populations experience domestic violence and abuse.

  5. How do workplaces, working practices and colleagues affect UK doctors' career decisions? A qualitative study of junior doctors' career decision making in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Sharon; Pearson, Emma; Gibson, Jonathan; Checkland, Kath

    2017-10-25

    This study draws on an in-depth investigation of factors that influenced the career decisions of junior doctors. Junior doctors in the UK can choose to enter specialty training (ST) programmes within 2 years of becoming doctors. Their specialty choices contribute to shaping the balance of the future medical workforce, with views on general practice (GP) careers of particular interest because of current recruitment difficulties. This paper examines how experiences of medical work and perceptions about specialty training shape junior doctors' career decisions. Twenty doctors in the second year of a Foundation Training Programme in England were recruited. Purposive sampling was used to achieve a diverse sample from respondents to an online survey. Narrative interviewing techniques encouraged doctors to reflect on how experiences during medical school and in medical workplaces had influenced their preferences and perceptions of different specialties. They also spoke about personal aspirations, work priorities and their wider future.Junior doctors' decisions were informed by knowledge about the requirements of ST programmes and direct observation of the pressures under which ST doctors worked. When they encountered negative attitudes towards a specialty they had intended to choose, some became defensive while others kept silent. Achievement of an acceptable work-life balance was a central objective that could override other preferences.Events linked with specific specialties influenced doctors' attitudes towards them. For example, findings confirmed that while early, positive experiences of GP work could increase its attractiveness, negative experiences in GP settings had the opposite effect. Junior doctors' preferences and perceptions about medical work are influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors and experiences. This paper highlights the importance of understanding how perceptions are formed and preferences are developed, as a basis for generating

  6. How do workplaces, working practices and colleagues affect UK doctors’ career decisions? A qualitative study of junior doctors’ career decision making in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Emma; Gibson, Jonathan; Checkland, Kath

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study draws on an in-depth investigation of factors that influenced the career decisions of junior doctors. Setting Junior doctors in the UK can choose to enter specialty training (ST) programmes within 2 years of becoming doctors. Their specialty choices contribute to shaping the balance of the future medical workforce, with views on general practice (GP) careers of particular interest because of current recruitment difficulties. This paper examines how experiences of medical work and perceptions about specialty training shape junior doctors’ career decisions. Participants Twenty doctors in the second year of a Foundation Training Programme in England were recruited. Purposive sampling was used to achieve a diverse sample from respondents to an online survey. Results Narrative interviewing techniques encouraged doctors to reflect on how experiences during medical school and in medical workplaces had influenced their preferences and perceptions of different specialties. They also spoke about personal aspirations, work priorities and their wider future. Junior doctors’ decisions were informed by knowledge about the requirements of ST programmes and direct observation of the pressures under which ST doctors worked. When they encountered negative attitudes towards a specialty they had intended to choose, some became defensive while others kept silent. Achievement of an acceptable work-life balance was a central objective that could override other preferences. Events linked with specific specialties influenced doctors’ attitudes towards them. For example, findings confirmed that while early, positive experiences of GP work could increase its attractiveness, negative experiences in GP settings had the opposite effect. Conclusions Junior doctors’ preferences and perceptions about medical work are influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors and experiences. This paper highlights the importance of understanding how perceptions are formed

  7. Mixing quantitative with qualitative methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Viller, Stephen; Heck, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    with or are considering, researching, or working with both quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods (in academia or industry), join us in this workshop. In particular, we look at adding quantitative to qualitative methods to build a whole picture of user experience. We see a need to discuss both quantitative...... and qualitative research because there is often a perceived lack of understanding of the rigor involved in each. The workshop will result in a White Paper on the latest developments in this field, within Australia and comparative with international work. We anticipate sharing submissions and workshop outcomes...

  8. "They all work...when you stick to them": A qualitative investigation of dieting, weight loss, and physical exercise, in obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausman Rick

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the extent to which people living with obesity have attempted to lose weight, their attitudes towards dieting, physical exercise and weight loss solutions, why their weight loss attempts have failed, and their opinions about what would be most beneficial to them in their struggle with their weight. Method Qualitative study, using open-ended interviews, of 76 people living with obesity in Victoria, Australia in 2006/7. Individuals with a BMI of 30 or over were recruited using articles in local newspapers, convenience sampling, and at a later stage purposive sampling techniques to diversify the sample. Data analysis was conducted by hand using a constant, comparative method to develop and test analytical categories. Data were interpreted both within team meetings and through providing research participants the chance to comment on the study findings. Results Whilst participants repeatedly turned to commercial diets in their weight loss attempts, few had used, or were motivated to participate in physical activity. Friends or family members had introduced most individuals to weight loss techniques. Those who took part in interventions with members of their social network were more likely to report feeling accepted and supported. Participants blamed themselves for being unable to maintain their weight loss or 'stick' to diets. Whilst diets did not result in sustained weight loss, two thirds of participants felt that dieting was an effective way to lose weight. Conclusion Individuals with obesity receive numerous instructions about what to do to address their weight, but very few are given appropriate long term guidance or support with which to follow through those instructions. Understanding the positive role of social networks may be particularly important in engaging individuals in physical activity. Public health approaches to obesity must engage and consult with those currently living with obesity, if patterns of

  9. 'There are a lot of new people in town: but they are here for soccer, not for business' a qualitative inquiry into the impact of the 2010 soccer world cup on sex work in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Marlise L; Scorgie, Fiona; Chersich, Matthew F; Luchters, Stanley

    2014-06-10

    Sports mega-events have expanded in size, popularity and cost. Fuelled by media speculation and moral panics, myths proliferate about the increase in trafficking into forced prostitution as well as sex work in the run-up to such events. This qualitative enquiry explores the perceptions of male, female and transgender sex workers of the 2010 Soccer World Cup held in South Africa, and the impact it had on their work and private lives. A multi-method study design was employed. Data consisted of 14 Focus Group Discussions, 53 sex worker diaries, and responses to two questions in surveys with 1059 male, female and transgender sex workers in three cities. Overall, a minority of participants noted changes to the sex sector due to the World Cup and nothing emerged on the feared increases in trafficking into forced prostitution. Participants who observed changes in their work mainly described differences, both positive and negative, in working conditions, income and client relations, as well as police harassment. The accounts of changes were heterogeneous - often conflicting in the same research site and across sites. No major shifts occurred in sex work during the World Cup, and only a few inconsequential changes were noted. Sports mega-events provide strategic opportunities to expand health and human rights programmes to sex workers. The 2010 World Cup missed that opportunity.

  10. ‘There are a lot of new people in town: but they are here for soccer, not for business’ a qualitative inquiry into the impact of the 2010 soccer world cup on sex work in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Sports mega-events have expanded in size, popularity and cost. Fuelled by media speculation and moral panics, myths proliferate about the increase in trafficking into forced prostitution as well as sex work in the run-up to such events. This qualitative enquiry explores the perceptions of male, female and transgender sex workers of the 2010 Soccer World Cup held in South Africa, and the impact it had on their work and private lives. Methods A multi-method study design was employed. Data consisted of 14 Focus Group Discussions, 53 sex worker diaries, and responses to two questions in surveys with 1059 male, female and transgender sex workers in three cities. Results Overall, a minority of participants noted changes to the sex sector due to the World Cup and nothing emerged on the feared increases in trafficking into forced prostitution. Participants who observed changes in their work mainly described differences, both positive and negative, in working conditions, income and client relations, as well as police harassment. The accounts of changes were heterogeneous - often conflicting in the same research site and across sites. Conclusions No major shifts occurred in sex work during the World Cup, and only a few inconsequential changes were noted. Sports mega-events provide strategic opportunities to expand health and human rights programmes to sex workers. The 2010 World Cup missed that opportunity. PMID:24915943

  11. Work Integrated Learning: What do the students want? A qualitative study of Health Sciences students’ experiences of a non-competency based placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Abery

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Work Integrated Learning (WIL offers students the opportunity to explore and expand on theoretical concepts encountered throughout their academic studies in an applied real-life context. WIL also assists students in their transition from educational to professional practice informed by experience, engagement and reflection. Traditionally, disciplines such as Medicine, Nursing, Education, and Law have incorporated WIL into their programs. Literature outlines the benefits of a WIL placement to measure learned competencies, which are integral to such fields of practice. Currently, the scope for a WIL experience is expanding into other non-clinical courses due to increasing pressure for universities to produce “work ready” graduates. However, in generalist degrees such as Health Sciences, where clinical or explicit skill competencies are not required, the WIL experience is generic. This study sought the perceptions of past Health Sciences students’ WIL experiences in order to develop appropriate resources for future students.  

  12. Auditing the socio-environmental determinants of motivation towards physical activity or sedentariness in work-aged adults: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Richard; Middleton, Geoff; Henderson, Hannah; Girling, Mica

    2016-05-26

    There is a lack of understanding of work aged adults' (30-60 years old) perspectives on the motivation of physical activity versus sedentariness. This study aims to: (1) identify which socio-environmental factors motivate physical activity and/or sedentary behavior, in adults aged 30-60 years; and (2) explore how these motivators interact and combine. Fifteen work-aged adults who, were able to engage in physical activity (Mean age = 43.9 years; SD 9.6, range 31-59), participated in semi-structured interviews. Inductive content analysis was used to generate an inventory of socio-environmental factors and their specific influences on motivation towards physical activity or sedentariness. Key socio-environmental agents found to influence motivation included: Spouse/partner, parents, children, siblings, whole family, grandchildren, friends, work-mates, neighbors, strangers, team-mates and class-mates, instructors, health care professionals, employers, gyms and health companies, governments, media and social media, cultural norms, and the physical environment. Mechanisms fell into five broad themes of socio-environmental motivation for both physical activity and sedentariness: (1) competence and progress; (2) informational influences, (3) emotional influences, (4) pragmatics and logistics, and (5) relationships. Similar socio-environmental factors were frequently reported as able to motivate both activity and sedentariness. Likewise, individual categories of influence could also motivate both behaviors, depending on context. The findings of this paper 'unpack' theoretical concepts into specific and targeted behavioral recommendations. The data suggested no simple solutions for promoting physical activity or reducing sedentariness, but rather complex and interacting systems surrounding work-aged adults. Findings also suggest that health professionals should be encouraged to support adults' health by examining the socio-environmental motivational influences, or

  13. Auditing the socio-environmental determinants of motivation towards physical activity or sedentariness in work-aged adults: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Keegan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of understanding of work aged adults’ (30–60 years old perspectives on the motivation of physical activity versus sedentariness. This study aims to: (1 identify which socio-environmental factors motivate physical activity and/or sedentary behavior, in adults aged 30–60 years; and (2 explore how these motivators interact and combine. Method Fifteen work-aged adults who, were able to engage in physical activity (Mean age = 43.9 years; SD 9.6, range 31–59, participated in semi-structured interviews. Inductive content analysis was used to generate an inventory of socio-environmental factors and their specific influences on motivation towards physical activity or sedentariness. Results Key socio-environmental agents found to influence motivation included: Spouse/partner, parents, children, siblings, whole family, grandchildren, friends, work-mates, neighbors, strangers, team-mates and class-mates, instructors, health care professionals, employers, gyms and health companies, governments, media and social media, cultural norms, and the physical environment. Mechanisms fell into five broad themes of socio-environmental motivation for both physical activity and sedentariness: (1 competence and progress; (2 informational influences, (3 emotional influences, (4 pragmatics and logistics, and (5 relationships. Similar socio-environmental factors were frequently reported as able to motivate both activity and sedentariness. Likewise, individual categories of influence could also motivate both behaviors, depending on context. Conclusion The findings of this paper ‘unpack’ theoretical concepts into specific and targeted behavioral recommendations. The data suggested no simple solutions for promoting physical activity or reducing sedentariness, but rather complex and interacting systems surrounding work-aged adults. Findings also suggest that health professionals should be encouraged to support adults’ health

  14. Both sides of the couch: a qualitative exploration of the experiences of female healthcare professionals returning to work after treatment for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to explore the experiences of healthcare professionals (HCPs) who had treatment for cancer and then returned to work. The intention was to identify how HCPs' experiences differed to those of the general public with cancer, and also to explore how HCPs were reintegrated into the workplace following treatment. An interpretive phenomenological approach was employed and conversational interviews were undertaken with 13 women volunteers from a variety of healthcare disciplines including nursing, midwifery, social work, physiotherapy, radiography and general practice. During analysis 59 categories were constructed which were accommodated within 14 themes; six of which are reported here. Participants used knowledge to make sense of their diagnosis, severity and extent of cancer. Several participants covertly accessed their medical records to find out more about their clinical condition. Familiarity with both the environment and oncology personnel resulted in benefits and disadvantage in equal measure. Managers responded to participants' return to work in a variety of ways, and involvement of Occupational Health Departments was inconsistent. Healthcare professionals had distinctly unique experiences because of being patient and provider, and each made personal decisions about sharing their cancer experiences with patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Exploring Working Relationships in Mental Health Care via an E-Recovery Portal: Qualitative Study on the Experiences of Service Users and Health Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Monica; Gammon, Deede; Eng, Lillian Sofie; Ruland, Cornelia

    2017-11-14

    The quality of working relationships between service users and health providers is fundamental in the processes of recovery in mental health. How Internet-based interventions will influence these relationships for persons with long-term care needs, and the measures that can be taken to maintain and enhance working relationships through Internet, is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to gain insights into how service users and health providers experience their working relationships when they are offered the option of supplementing ongoing collaboration with an e-recovery portal. In this exploratory and descriptive study, an e-recovery portal was used by service users and their health providers in 2 mental health communities in Norway for at least 6 months and at most 12 months (2015-2016). The portal consists of secure messaging, a peer support forum, and a toolbox of resources for working with life domains including status, goals and activities, network map, crisis plan, and exercises. The portal was owned and managed by the service user while health providers could remotely access parts of the service user-generated content. The participants could use the portal in whatever way they wished, to suit their collaboration. Data from 6 focus groups, 17 individual interviews, and an interview with 1 dyad about their experiences of use of the portal over the study period were inductively coded and thematically analyzed. The thematic analysis resulted in 2 main themes: (1) new relational avenues and (2) out of alignment, illustrated by 8 subthemes. The first main theme is about dyads who reported new and enriching ways of working together through the portal, particularly related to written communication and use of the goal module. Illustrative subthemes are ownership, common ground, goals and direction, and sense of presence and availability. The second main theme illuminates the difficulties that arose when service users' and health providers

  16. Qualitative cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalatnikov, I.M.; Belinskij, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    Application of the qualitative theory of dynamic systems to analysis of homogeneous cosmological models is described. Together with the well-known cases, requiring ideal liquid, the properties of cosmological evolution of matter with dissipative processes due to viscosity are considered. New cosmological effects occur, when viscosity terms being one and the same order with the rest terms in the equations of gravitation or even exceeding them. In these cases the description of the dissipative process by means of only two viscosity coefficients (volume and shift) may become inapplicable because all the rest decomposition terms of dissipative addition to the energy-momentum in velocity gradient can be large application of equations with hydrodynamic viscosty should be considered as a model of dissipative effects in cosmology

  17. "Smoking in Children's Environment Test": a qualitative study of experiences of a new instrument applied in preventive work in child health care

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Noomi; Alehagen, Siw; Andersson G?re, Boel; Johansson, AnnaKarin

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite knowledge of the adverse health effects of passive smoking, children are still   being exposed. Children's nurses play an important role in tobacco preventive work   through dialogue with parents aimed at identifying how children can be protected from   environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. The study describes the experiences of   Child Health Care (CHC) nurses when using the validated instrument SiCET (Smoking   in Children's Environment Test) in dialogue with parent...

  18. A Qualitative Inquiry of the Lived Experiences of Music Therapists Who Have Survived Cancer Who Are Working with Medical and Hospice Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a debilitating illness that affects more than one in every three Americans at sometime in their life time regardless of their social, cultural, ethnic, religious, or economic status. A few studies in the psychotherapy literature have investigated the impact of cancer on the personal and professional lives of psychotherapists. However, such investigations are yet unknown in medical or music therapy literature. In this descriptive phenomenological study, the researcher interviewed five American music therapists who have survived cancer and also work with patients in medical hospitals or hospice settings. The purpose of this study was to fully describe their lived experience of surviving cancer and examine how the cancer experience affected their clinical work thereafter. The data was analyzed using an open coding method from grounded theory which identified four major themes: (a) personal significance; (b) relational significance; (c) musical significance and (d) professional significance. The descriptions provided by these participants of their cancer experience as patients, survivors, and cancer surviving therapists, have revealed various psychosocial and physical issues encountered, and numerous coping methods they employed, and poignantly explained how their clinical approach evolved and expanded due to the personal experience of cancer. Specific issues in relation to countertransference, self-disclosure, and ways of developing empathic approaches without having such personal experience were discussed in addition to suggestions for future research.

  19. A Qualitative Inquiry of the Lived Experiences of Music Therapists who have Survived Cancer who are Working with Medical and Hospice Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyung Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a debilitating illness that affects more than one in every three Americans at sometime in their life time regardless of their social, cultural, ethnic, religious, or economic status. A few studies in the psychotherapy literature have investigated the impact of cancer on the personal and professional lives of psychotherapists. However, such investigations are yet unknown in medical or music therapy literature. In this descriptive phenomenological study, the researcher interviewed five American music therapists who have survived cancer and also work with patients in medical hospitals or hospice settings. The purpose of this study was to fully describe their lived experience of surviving cancer and examine how the cancer experience affected their clinical work thereafter. The data was analyzed using an open coding method from grounded theory which identified four major themes: (a personal significance; (b relational significance; (c musical significance and (d professional significance. The descriptions provided by these participants of their cancer experience as patients, survivors, and cancer surviving therapists, have revealed various psychosocial and physical issues encountered, and numerous coping methods they employed, and poignantly explained how their clinical approach evolved and expanded due to the personal experience of cancer. Specific issues in relation to countertransference, self-disclosure, and ways of developing empathic approaches without having such personal experience were discussed in addition to suggestions for future research.

  20. Importance of a patient-centred approach in ensuring quality of post-fracture rehabilitation for working aged people: A qualitative study of therapists' and patients' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Marianne; Teljigović, Sanel; Heegaard Jensen, Lars; Hvalsoe, Berit; Juneja, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Quality in rehabilitation is important for recovery and return to work for people at working age, who sustain fractures, but there is limited information about what constitutes quality in rehabilitation. To identify factors that therapists and patients define as quality in the rehabilitation process for working population after simple or multiple fractures. The study is a qualitative study based on grounded theory approach with semi-structured interviews conducted individually or in focus groups. Seven patients with fractures, 15 physiotherapists and eight occupational therapists from hospitals, municipalities and private practice were included in the study. Grounded theory was used to analyze data and develop a theory about quality in the rehabilitation process. Partnership was identified as the core category with continuity of rehabilitation and patient-centred approach as its dimensions. Themes in the patient-centred approach were Biopsychosocial understanding and Professionalism. The patient's perceived control enhanced when the therapist addressed the whole situation, especially return to work. Therapist's individual considerations and patient's involvement in decisions about the therapeutic methods had the same effect. Quality in rehabilitation was enhanced in all its dimensions namely structure, process and outcome when therapists used the patient-centred approach and addressed the patient's overall situation.

  1. Staff nurse perceptions of the impact of mentalization-based therapy skills training when working with borderline personality disorder in acute mental health: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrender, D

    2015-10-01

    People diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are highly prevalent in acute mental health wards, with staff nurses identifying a challenge in working with people who can be significantly distressed. This has contributed to a negative stereotype verging on stigmatization. Mentalization-based therapy (MBT) is a psychological therapy which has been shown to be of benefit to people with a diagnosis of BPD, yet it has been utilized and evaluated only in partial hospitalization and outpatient settings. Despite this, most people diagnosed with BPD will continue to be treated in generic inpatient settings such as acute mental health. Mentalization-based therapy skills training (MBT-S) is a new and cost-effective 2-day workshop aiming to provide generalist practitioners with MBT skills for use in generic settings. This study aimed to capture staff perceptions of the impact of MBT-S on their practice when working with people with a diagnosis of BPD in acute mental health. Through two focus groups, this study assessed the perceptions of nine staff nurses. An interpretive phenomenological approach was utilized in data analysis. Participants found the approach easy to grasp, improving of consistency between staff and flexible in its use in planned or 'off the cuff' discussions. MBT-S promoted empathy and humane responses to self-harm, impacted on participants ability to tolerate risk and went some way to turning the negative perception of BPD through changing the notion of patients as 'deliberately difficult'. Staff felt empowered and more confident in working with people with a diagnosis of BPD. The positive implication for practice was the ease in which the approach was adopted and participants perception of MBT-S as an empowering skill set which also contributed to attitudinal change. In acute mental health environments, which may not have the resources to provide long-term structured treatments to patients, MBT-S could be viewed as ideal as participants

  2. "Smoking in Children's Environment Test": a qualitative study of experiences of a new instrument applied in preventive work in child health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsson Noomi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite knowledge of the adverse health effects of passive smoking, children are still being exposed. Children's nurses play an important role in tobacco preventive work through dialogue with parents aimed at identifying how children can be protected from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure. The study describes the experiences of Child Health Care (CHC nurses when using the validated instrument SiCET (Smoking in Children's Environment Test in dialogue with parents. Method In an intervention in CHC centres in south-eastern Sweden nurses were invited to use the SiCET. Eighteen nurses participated in focus group interviews. Transcripts were reviewed and their contents were coded into categories by three investigators using the method described for focus groups interviews. Results The SiCET was used in dialogue with parents in tobacco preventive work and resulted in focused discussions on smoking and support for behavioural changes among parents. The instrument had both strengths and limitations. The nurses experienced that the SiCET facilitated dialogue with parents and gave a comprehensive view of the child's ETS exposure. This gave nurses the possibility of taking on a supportive role by offering parents long-term help in protecting their child from ETS exposure and in considering smoking cessation. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the SiCET supports nurses in their dialogue with parents on children's ETS exposure at CHC. There is a need for more clinical use and evaluation of the SiCET to determine its usefulness in clinical practice under varying circumstances.

  3. Descriptive analysis of work and trends in anaesthesiology from 2005 to 2006: Quantitative and qualitative aspects of effects and evaluation of anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Valentina V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In anaesthesiology, economic aspects have been insufficiently studied. Objective. The aim of this paper was the assessment of rational choice of the anaesthesiological services based on the analysis of the scope, distribution, trend and cost. Methods. The costs of anaesthesiological services were counted based on “unit” prices from the Republic Health Insurance Fund. Data were analysed by methods of descriptive statistics and statistical significance was tested by Student’s t-test and χ2-test. Results. The number of general anaesthesia was higher and average time of general anaesthesia was shorter, without statistical significance (t-test, p=0.436 during 2006 compared to the previous year. Local anaesthesia was significantly higher (χ2-test, p=0.001 in relation to planned operation in emergency surgery. The analysis of total anaesthesiological procedures revealed that a number of procedures significantly increased in ENT and MFH surgery, and ophthalmology, while some reduction was observed in general surgery, orthopaedics and trauma surgery and cardiovascular surgery (χ2-test, p=0.000. The number of analgesia was higher than other procedures (χ2-test, p=0.000. The structure of the cost was 24% in neurosurgery, 16% in digestive (general surgery,14% in gynaecology and obstetrics,13% in cardiovascular surgery and 9% in emergency room. Anaesthesiological services costs were the highest in neurosurgery, due to the length anaesthesia, and digestive surgery due to the total number of general anaesthesia performed. Conclusion. It is important to implement pharmacoeconomic studies in all departments, and to separate the anaesthesia services for emergency and planned operations. Disproportions between the number of anaesthesia, surgery interventions and the number of patients in surgical departments gives reason to design relation database.

  4. “There is hunger in my community”: a qualitative study of food security as a cyclical force in sex work in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence in the world – 32% of adults are currently living with HIV — and many Swazis are chronically food insecure — in 2011 one in four Swazis required food aid from the World Food Programme. In southern Africa, food insecurity has been linked to high-risk sexual behaviors, difficulty with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, higher rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission, and more rapid HIV progression. Sex workers in Swaziland are a population that is most at risk of HIV. Little is known about the context and needs of sex workers in Swaziland who are living with HIV, nor how food insecurity may affect these needs. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers who are living with HIV in Swaziland. Interviews took place in four different regions of the country, and were designed to learn about context, experiences, and health service needs of Swazi sex workers. Results Hunger was a major and consistent theme in our informants’ lives. Women cited their own hunger or that of their children as the impetus to begin sex work, and as a primary motivation to continue to sell sex. Informants used good nutrition and the ability to access “healthy” foods as a strategy to manage their HIV infection. Informants discussed difficulty in adhering to ART when faced with the prospect of taking pills on an empty stomach. Across interviews, discussions of CD4 counts and ART adherence intertwined with discussions of poverty, hunger and healthy foods. Some sex workers felt that they had greater trouble accessing food through social networks as result of both their HIV status and profession. Conclusions Informants described a risk cycle of hunger, sex work, and HIV infection. The two latter drive an increased need for ‘healthy foods’ and an alienation from social networks that offer material and emotional support against hunger. Services and interventions for sex workers which address the pathways

  5. "There is hunger in my community": a qualitative study of food security as a cyclical force in sex work in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Mnisi, Zandile; Adams, Darrin; Baral, Stefan; Kennedy, Caitlin

    2014-01-25

    Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence in the world - 32% of adults are currently living with HIV - and many Swazis are chronically food insecure - in 2011 one in four Swazis required food aid from the World Food Programme. In southern Africa, food insecurity has been linked to high-risk sexual behaviors, difficulty with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, higher rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission, and more rapid HIV progression. Sex workers in Swaziland are a population that is most at risk of HIV. Little is known about the context and needs of sex workers in Swaziland who are living with HIV, nor how food insecurity may affect these needs. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers who are living with HIV in Swaziland. Interviews took place in four different regions of the country, and were designed to learn about context, experiences, and health service needs of Swazi sex workers. Hunger was a major and consistent theme in our informants' lives. Women cited their own hunger or that of their children as the impetus to begin sex work, and as a primary motivation to continue to sell sex. Informants used good nutrition and the ability to access "healthy" foods as a strategy to manage their HIV infection. Informants discussed difficulty in adhering to ART when faced with the prospect of taking pills on an empty stomach. Across interviews, discussions of CD4 counts and ART adherence intertwined with discussions of poverty, hunger and healthy foods. Some sex workers felt that they had greater trouble accessing food through social networks as result of both their HIV status and profession. Informants described a risk cycle of hunger, sex work, and HIV infection. The two latter drive an increased need for 'healthy foods' and an alienation from social networks that offer material and emotional support against hunger. Services and interventions for sex workers which address the pathways through which food insecurity generates vulnerability

  6. Execution of a participatory supportive return to work program within the Dutch social security sector: a qualitative evaluation of stakeholders' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerts, Lieke; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; van Mechelen, Willem; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-04-14

    A process evaluation of a participatory supportive return to work program, aimed at workers without a (permanent) employment contract who are sick-listed due to a common mental disorder, revealed that this program was executed less successfully than similar programs evaluated in earlier studies. The program consisted of a participatory approach, integrated care and direct placement in competitive employment. Aim of this study was to get a better understanding of the execution of the program by evaluating stakeholders' perceptions. In the absence of an employer, the program was applied by the Dutch Social Security Agency, in collaboration with vocational rehabilitation agencies. Together with the sick-listed workers, these were the main stakeholders. Our research questions involved stakeholders' perceptions of the function(s) of the program, and their perceptions of barriers and facilitators for a successful execution of the program within the Dutch social security sector. Semi-structured interviews were held with five sick-listed workers, eight professionals of the Social Security Agency, and two case managers of vocational rehabilitation agencies. Interview topics were related to experiences with different components of the program. Selection of respondents was based on purposive sampling and continued until data saturation was reached. Content analysis was applied to identify patterns in the data. Two researchers developed a coding system, based on predefined topics and themes emerging from the data. Although perceived functions of some components of the program were as intended, all stakeholders stressed that the program often had not resulted in return to work. Perceived barriers for a successful execution were related to a poor collaboration between the Dutch Social Security Agency, vocational rehabilitation agencies and healthcare providers, the type of experienced (health) problems, time constraints, and limited job opportunities. For future implementation

  7. The invisible work of personal health information management among people with multiple chronic conditions: qualitative interview study among patients and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Jessica S; Witteman, Holly O; Hafeez, Baria; Provencher, Thierry; Van de Graaf, Mary; Wei, Esther

    2015-06-04

    A critical problem for patients with chronic conditions who see multiple health care providers is incomplete or inaccurate information, which can contribute to lack of care coordination, low quality of care, and medical errors. As part of a larger project on applications of consumer health information technology (HIT) and barriers to its use, we conducted a semistructured interview study with patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCC) with the objective of exploring their role in managing their personal health information. Semistructured interviews were conducted with patients and providers. Patients were eligible if they had multiple chronic conditions and were in regular care with one of two medical organizations in New York City; health care providers were eligible if they had experience caring for patients with multiple chronic conditions. Analysis was conducted from a grounded theory perspective, and recruitment was concluded when saturation was achieved. A total of 22 patients and 7 providers were interviewed; patients had an average of 3.5 (SD 1.5) chronic conditions and reported having regular relationships with an average of 5 providers. Four major themes arose: (1) Responsibility for managing medical information: some patients perceived information management and sharing as the responsibility of health care providers; others—particularly those who had had bad experiences in the past—took primary responsibility for information sharing; (2) What information should be shared: although privacy concerns did influence some patients' perceptions of sharing of medical data, decisions about what to share were also heavily influenced by their understanding of health and disease and by the degree to which they understood the health care system; (3) Methods and tools varied: those patients who did take an active role in managing their records used a variety of electronic tools, paper tools, and memory; and (4) Information management as invisible work

  8. The Work behind Weight-Loss Surgery: A Qualitative Analysis of Food Intake after the First Two Years Post-Op.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Angela A; Brunt, Ardith; Marihart, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. and has nearly doubled worldwide since 1980. Bariatric surgery is on the rise, but little focus has been placed on the psychosocial impacts of surgery. The purpose of this study was to explore experiences of patients who have undergone bariatric surgery at least two years before to gain an understanding of the successes and challenges they have faced since surgery. Methods. This study used a phenomenological approach, to investigate the meaning and essence of bariatric patients with food after surgery. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on a sample of nine participants who had undergone surgery at least two years prior. Findings. Two main themes regarding food intake emerged from the data: (a) food after the first year post-surgery and (b) bariatric surgery is not a magic pill. Upon further analysis, food after the first year post-surgery had four subthemes emerge: diet adherence after the first year post-surgery, food intolerances, amount of food, and tendencies toward coping with food do not magically disappear. Conclusion. Findings revealed that post-operative diet and exercise adherence becomes increasingly difficult as weight loss slows. Many participants find that only after the first year after surgery the work really begins.

  9. Visual impairment, coping strategies and impact on daily life: a qualitative study among working-age UK ex-service personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevelink, Sharon A M; Malcolm, Estelle M; Fear, Nicola T

    2015-11-12

    Sustaining a visual impairment may have a substantial impact on various life domains such as work, interpersonal relations, mobility and social and mental well-being. How to adjust to the loss of vision and its consequences might be a challenge for the visually impaired person. The purpose of the current study was to explore how younger male ex-Service personnel cope with becoming visually impaired and how this affects their daily life. Semi-structured interviews with 30 visually impaired male ex-Service personnel, all under the age of 55, were conducted. All participants are members of the charity organisation Blind Veterans UK. Interviews were analysed thematically. Younger ex-Service personnel applied a number of different strategies to overcome their loss of vision and its associated consequences. Coping strategies varied from learning new skills, goal setting, integrating the use of low vision aids in their daily routine, to social withdrawal and substance misuse. Vision loss affected on all aspects of daily life and ex-Service personnel experienced an on-going struggle to accept and adjust to becoming visually impaired. Health care professionals, family and friends of the person with the visual impairment need to be aware that coping with a visual impairment is a continuous struggle; even after a considerable amount of time has passed, needs for emotional, social, practical and physical support may still be present.

  10. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  11. Contradictions in qualitative management research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Richard; Dorland, Jens

    2016-01-01

    and remove them from the analytical work. The purpose of this paper is to re-visit and re-introduce a dissensus-based management research strategy in order to analytically be able to work with what appear to be contradictions and misinformation in qualitative research accounts, and give them a more profound...

  12. Application of the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel to Understand Physicians' Behaviors and Behavior Change in Using Temporary Work Modifications for Return to Work: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horppu, Ritva; Martimo, K P; MacEachen, E; Lallukka, T; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2018-03-01

    Purpose Applying the theoretical domains framework (TDF) and the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) to understand physicians' behaviors and behavior change in using temporary work modifications (TWMs) for return to work (RTW). Methods Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 15 occupational physicians (OPs). Responses were coded using the TDF and the BCW. Results Key behaviors related to applying TWMs were initiating the process with the employee, making recommendations to the workplace, and following up the process. OP behaviors were influenced by several factors related to personal capability and motivation, and opportunities provided by the physical and social environment. Capability comprised relevant knowledge and skills related to applying TWMs, remembering to initiate TWMS and monitor the process, and being accustomed to reflective practice. Opportunity comprised physical resources (e.g., time, predefined procedures, and availability of modified work at companies), and social pressure from stakeholders. Motivation comprised conceptions of a proper OP role, confidence to carry out TWMs, personal RTW-related goals, beliefs about the outcomes of one's actions, feedback received from earlier cases, and feelings related to applying TWMs. OPs' perceived means to target these identified factors were linked to the following BCW intervention functions: education, training, persuasion, environmental restructuring, and enablement. The results suggest that at least these functions should be considered when designing future interventions. Conclusions Our study illustrates how theoretical frameworks TDF and BCW can be utilized in a RTW context to understand which determinants of physicians' behavior need to be targeted, and how, to promote desired behaviors.

  13. Qualitative Functional Decomposition Analysis of Evolved Neuromorphic Flight Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K. Boddhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous work, it was demonstrated that one can effectively employ CTRNN-EH (a neuromorphic variant of EH method methodology to evolve neuromorphic flight controllers for a flapping wing robot. This paper describes a novel frequency grouping-based analysis technique, developed to qualitatively decompose the evolved controllers into explainable functional control blocks. A summary of the previous work related to evolving flight controllers for two categories of the controller types, called autonomous and nonautonomous controllers, is provided, and the applicability of the newly developed decomposition analysis for both controller categories is demonstrated. Further, the paper concludes with appropriate discussion of ongoing work and implications for possible future work related to employing the CTRNN-EH methodology and the decomposition analysis techniques presented in this paper.

  14. Conducting qualitative research in audiology: a tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Line V; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Jones, Lesley; Preminger, Jill E; Nielsen, Claus; Lunner, Thomas; Hickson, Louise; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E

    2012-02-01

    Qualitative research methodologies are being used more frequently in audiology as it allows for a better understanding of the perspectives of people with hearing impairment. This article describes why and how international interdisciplinary qualitative research can be conducted. This paper is based on a literature review and our recent experience with the conduction of an international interdisciplinary qualitative study in audiology. We describe some available qualitative methods for sampling, data collection, and analysis and we discuss the rationale for choosing particular methods. The focus is on four approaches which have all previously been applied to audiologic research: grounded theory, interpretative phenomenological analysis, conversational analysis, and qualitative content analysis. This article provides a review of methodological issues useful for those designing qualitative research projects in audiology or needing assistance in the interpretation of qualitative literature.

  15. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  16. Translational Science Project Team Managers: Qualitative Insights and Implications from Current and Previous Postdoctoral Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kevin C; Dann, Sara M; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    The development of leadership and project management skills is increasingly important to the evolution of translational science and team-based endeavors. Team science is dependent upon individuals at various stages in their careers, inclusive of postdocs. Data from case histories, as well as from interviews with current and former postdocs, and those supervising postdocs, indicate six essential tasks required of project managers in multidisciplinary translational teams, along with eight skill-related themes critical to their success. To optimize the opportunities available and to ensure sequential development of team project management skills, a life cycle model for the development of translational team skills is proposed, ranging from graduate trainees, postdocs, assistant professors, and finally to mature scientists. Specific goals, challenges and project management roles and tasks are recommended for each stage for the life cycle.

  17. Good Work for dentists - a qualitative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Hanne; Hjalmers, Karin; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2010-01-01

    with the patient and from the opportunity to carry out high quality odontological handicraft. Social relations at the workplace, as well as organizational values and conditions were perceived as influencing the opportunities to achieve the rewarding aspects from the clinical encounter. CONCLUSIONS: The results...

  18. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  19. Performative Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beunza, Daniel; Ferraro, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    by attending to the normative and regulative associations of the device. We theorize this route to performativity by proposing the concept of performative work, which designates the necessary institutional work to enable translation and the subsequent adoption of the device. We conclude by considering...... the implications of performative work for the performativity and the institutional work literatures.......Callon’s performativity thesis has illuminated how economic theories and calculative devices shape markets, but has been challenged for its neglect of the organizational, institutional and political context. Our seven-year qualitative study of a large financial data company found that the company...

  20. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  1. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  2. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  3. Using Qualitative Research to Inform Development of Professional Guidelines: A Case Study of the Society of Critical Care Medicine Family-Centered Care Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Maureen A; Davidson, Judy E; Nunnally, Mark E; Wickline, Mary A; Curtis, J Randall

    2017-08-01

    To explore the importance, challenges, and opportunities using qualitative research to enhance development of clinical practice guidelines, using recent guidelines for family-centered care in the ICU as an example. In developing the Society of Critical Care Medicine guidelines for family-centered care in the neonatal ICU, PICU, and adult ICU, we developed an innovative adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations, Assessments, Development and Evaluations approach to explicitly incorporate qualitative research. Using Grading of Recommendations, Assessments, Development and Evaluations and the Council of Medical Specialty Societies principles, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to establish family-centered domains and outcomes. Thematic analyses were undertaken on study findings and used to support Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome question development. We identified and employed three approaches using qualitative research in these guidelines. First, previously published qualitative research was used to identify important domains for the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome questions. Second, this qualitative research was used to identify and prioritize key outcomes to be evaluated. Finally, we used qualitative methods, member checking with patients and families, to validate the process and outcome of the guideline development. In this, a novel report, we provide direction for standardizing the use of qualitative evidence in future guidelines. Recommendations are made to incorporate qualitative literature review and appraisal, include qualitative methodologists in guideline taskforce teams, and develop training for evaluation of qualitative research into guideline development procedures. Effective methods of involving patients and families as members of guideline development represent opportunities for future work.

  4. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  5. Qualitative Research David Silverman Qualitative Research Sage Publications £26.99 464pp 9781849204170 1849204179 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    DAVID SILVERMAN'S latest book builds on previous editions to provide up-to-date development in qualitative research and offers an overview of theoretical and practical considerations. Unlike many other qualitative research methodology books there is an emphasis on the function of qualitative research to articulate meaning.

  6. Bracketing as a skill in conducting unstructured qualitative interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsa, Minna Anneli; Kiikkala, Irma; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2015-03-01

    To provide an overview of bracketing as a skill in unstructured qualitative research interviews. Researchers affect the qualitative research process. Bracketing in descriptive phenomenology entails researchers setting aside their pre-understanding and acting non-judgementally. In interpretative phenomenology, previous knowledge is used intentionally to create new understanding. A literature search of bracketing in phenomenology and qualitative research. This is a methodology paper examining the researchers' impact in creating data in creating data in qualitative research. Self-knowledge, sensitivity and reflexivity of the researcher enable bracketing. Skilled and experienced researchers are needed to use bracketing in unstructured qualitative research interviews. Bracketing adds scientific rigour and validity to any qualitative study.

  7. Qualitative Inquiry in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    This book is a 'survival guide' for students and researchers who would like to conduct a qualitative study with limited resources. Brinkmann shows how everyday life materials such as books, television, the internet, the media and everyday conversations and interactions can help us to understand...... larger social issues. As living human beings in cultural worlds, we are constantly surrounded by 'data' that call for analysis, and as we cope with the different situations and episodes of our lives, we are engaged in understanding and interpreting the world as a form of qualitative inquiry. The book...... helps its reader develop a disciplined and analytic awareness informed by theory, and shows how less can be more in qualitative research. Each chapter introduces theoretical tools to think with, and demonstrates how they can be put to use in working concretely with everyday life materials....

  8. [Qualitative translational science in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Pei-Fan

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative translational research refers to the "bench-to-bedside" enterprise of harnessing knowledge from the basic sciences to produce new treatment options or nursing interventions for patients. Three evidence-based translational problems related to qualitative translational research discussed this year address the interfaces among the nursing paradigm, the basic sciences, and clinical nursing work. This article illustrates the definition of translational science and translational blocks of evidence-based practice; discusses the qualitative research perspective in evidence synthesis, evidence translation and evidence utilization; and discusses the research questions that must be answered to solve the problems of the three translational gaps from the qualitative research perspective. Qualitative inquiry has an essential role to play in efforts to improve current healthcare-provider nursing interventions, experiences, and contexts. Thus, it is vital to introduce qualitative perspectives into evidence-based practice from the knowledge discovery through to the knowledge implementation process.

  9. HTA and synthesis of qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Eva Ulriksen; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Health technology assessment is no longer simply a question of efficacy and economics. Internationally there is growing interest in patient-related and organisational aspects and questions of why and how the technologies work. Qualitative research has established a role in answering...... these kinds of questions. Key challenges using qualitative research in HTA are related to the interpretive and small scale nature of qualitative research and how to synthesise qualitative research. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine and discuss the relevance of synthesis of qualitative...... research (SQR) in HTAs and to address its possibilities and limitations. Methods: SQR is described and discussed focusing on definition of synthesis and of qualitative versus quantitative methods, on questions of evidence and on the relevance for HTA. SQR is understood as an umbrella term for different...

  10. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  11. The qualitative orientation in medical education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer Anne

    2017-06-01

    Qualitative research is very important in educational research as it addresses the "how" and "why" research questions and enables deeper understanding of experiences, phenomena and context. Qualitative research allows you to ask questions that cannot be easily put into numbers to understand human experience. Getting at the everyday realities of some social phenomenon and studying important questions as they are really practiced helps extend knowledge and understanding. To do so, you need to understand the philosophical stance of qualitative research and work from this to develop the research question, study design, data collection methods and data analysis. In this article, I provide an overview of the assumptions underlying qualitative research and the role of the researcher in the qualitative process. I then go on to discuss the type of research objectives which are common in qualitative research, then introduce the main qualitative designs, data collection tools, and finally the basics of qualitative analysis. I introduce the criteria by which you can judge the quality of qualitative research. Many classic references are cited in this article, and I urge you to seek out some of these further reading to inform your qualitative research program.

  12. Qualitative Tourism Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina; Martini, Annaclaudia; Garcia, Luis-Manuel; Lowry, Linda

    Conducting qualitative research in tourism studies entails engaging with an entire approach, a set of methods that shape project design, conceptual frameworks, data analysis, and anticipated outcomes. Standard qualitative methods are individual interviews, focus groups and ethnography. Solicited

  13. Qualitative Data Analysis Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Greaves, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    A set of concept maps for qualitative data analysis strategies, inspired by Corbin, JM & Strauss, AL 2008, Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory, 3rd edn, Sage Publications, Inc, Thousand Oaks, California.

  14. HCG blood test - qualitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003509.htm HCG blood test - qualitative To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human ...

  15. Moessbauer methods and spectrometers specialized in qualitative and quantitative determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibicu, I.

    1981-01-01

    A portable, field analyser devoted to fast qualitative and quantitative determination of cassiterite, which is the only tin compound of economic use in industry was made. This analyser differs from other similar ones described in the literature through the fact that pulses are cumulated only as long as the vibrator speed ensures a complete cancelation of the resonance condition. A NIM analyser was also manufactured which allows a qualitative determination of 2-3 iron compounds in a given sample, as well as of the total iron content. Working in geometry transmission and constant velocity regime, this analyser joins the inconstancy of a laboratory Moessbauer spectrometer with the swiftness and simplity of a specialized Moessbauer spectrometer. Analysis of the main factor that affects the qualitative and quantitative cassiterite determinations: sample structural composition, spectrometer calibrating, a.s.o. Determination accuracy is similar to those reported in the literature. Sample structural composition must be smaller than 0.1 mm for the qualitative and quantitative determinations of iron or total iron compounds. Data accuracy is similar to those reported before, but obtained by means of area measurements. As a consequence of the previous results, we have looked for the existence of some new phases in industrial Fe-C and Fe-Si steels or some new compounds appearance in the samples subjected to coroding. (author)

  16. Qualitative methods textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Barndt, William

    2003-01-01

    Over the past few years, the number of political science departments offering qualitative methods courses has grown substantially. The number of qualitative methods textbooks has kept pace, providing instructors with an overwhelming array of choices. But how to decide which text to choose from this exhortatory smorgasbord? The scholarship desperately needs evaluated. Yet the task is not entirely straightforward: qualitative methods textbooks reflect the diversity inherent in qualitative metho...

  17. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  18. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  19. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  20. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  1. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  2. Qualitative research, tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2016-01-01

    of qualitative research has meant a need to question and redefine criteria and research standards otherwise used in tourism research, as qualitative approach does not (seek to) conform to ideals such as truth, objectivity, and validity retrieved in the positivist sciences. In order to develop new ways by which......, the understanding of qualitative research as unable (or rather unwilling) to deliver the types of outcome which “explain and predict” tourism, has impacted upon its ability to gain general acceptance. Only slowly has tourism research made room for the changes in social and cultural sciences, which since the 1960s......Qualitative research, tourism Qualitative research refers to research applying a range of qualitative methods in order to inductively explore, interpret, and understand a given field or object under study. Qualitative research in tourism takes its inspiration primarily from the cultural and social...

  3. Computer supported qualitative research

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Luís; Sousa, Francislê; Moreira, António; Lamas, David

    2017-01-01

    This book contains an edited selection of the papers accepted for presentation and discussion at the first International Symposium on Qualitative Research (ISQR2016), held in Porto, Portugal, July 12th-14th, 2016. The book and the symposium features the four main application fields Education, Health, Social Sciences and Engineering and Technology and seven main subjects: Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research (theoretical studies, critical reflection about epistemological dimensions, ontological and axiological); Systematization of approaches with Qualitative Studies (literature review, integrating results, aggregation studies, meta -analysis, meta- analysis of qualitative meta- synthesis, meta- ethnography); Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research (emphasis in research processes that build on mixed methodologies but with priority to qualitative approaches); Data Analysis Types (content analysis , discourse analysis , thematic analysis , narrative analysis , etc.); Innovative processes of Qualitative ...

  4. Qualitative research in travel behavior studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars Aicart, M.L.; Ruiz Sanchez, T.; Arroyo Lopez, M.R.

    2016-07-01

    Qualitative methodology is extensively used in a wide range of scientific areas, such as Sociology and Psychology, and it is been used to study individual and household decision making processes. However, in the Transportation Planning and Engineering domain it is still infrequent to find in the travel behavior literature studies using qualitative techniques to explore activity-travel decisions. The aim of this paper is first, to provide an overview of the types of qualitative techniques available and to explore how to correctly implement them. Secondly, to highlight the special characteristics of qualitative methods that make them appropriate to study activity-travel decision processes. Far from been an unempirical or intuitive methodology, using qualitative methods properly implies a strong foundation on theoretical frameworks, a careful design of data collection and a deep data analysis. For such a purpose, a review of the scarce activity-travel behavior literature using qualitative methods, or a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches, is presented. The use of qualitative techniques can play a role of being a supplementary way of obtaining information related to activity-travel decisions which otherwise it would be extremely difficult to find. This work ends with some conclusions about how qualitative research could help in making progress on activity-travel behavior studies. (Author)

  5. Strategically Reviewing the Research Literature in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…

  6. Arts on prescription: a qualitative outcomes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, T; Eades, M

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, participatory community-based arts activities have become a recognized and regarded method for promoting mental health. In the UK, Arts on Prescription services have emerged as a prominent form of such social prescribing. This follow-up study reports on the findings from interviews conducted with participants in an Arts on Prescription programme two years after previous interviews to assess levels of 'distance travelled'. This follow-up study used a qualitative interview method amongst participants of an Arts on Prescription programme of work. Ten qualitative one-to-one interviews were conducted in community-based arts venues. Each participant was currently using or had used mental health services, and had been interviewed two years earlier. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed. For each of the 10 participants, a lengthy attendance of Arts on Prescription had acted as a catalyst for positive change. Participants reported increased self-confidence, improved social and communication skills, and increased motivation and aspiration. An analysis of each of the claims made by participants enabled them to be grouped according to emerging themes: education: practical and aspirational achievements; broadened horizons: accessing new worlds; assuming and sustaining new identities; and social and relational perceptions. Both hard and soft outcomes were identifiable, but most were soft outcomes. Follow-up data indicating progress varied between respondents. Whilst hard outcomes could be identified in individual cases, the unifying factors across the sample were found predominately in the realm of soft outcomes. These soft outcomes, such as raised confidence and self-esteem, facilitated the hard outcomes such as educational achievement and voluntary work. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction to Sociological Methods. 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill 14. Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative...The Art of Science. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage 19. GAO (1990) Case Study...Rinehart & Winston 39. Stake, R. E. (1994) Case Studies. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage

  8. Validity in Qualitative Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Vasco Lub

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a discussion on the question of validity in qualitative evaluation. Although validity in qualitative inquiry has been widely reflected upon in the methodological literature (and is still often subject of debate), the link with evaluation research is underexplored. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Guba and Lincoln and Creswell and Miller, the article explores aspects of validity of qualitative research with the explicit objective of con...

  9. The qualitative research proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Klopper

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  10. What Is Qualitative Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The article is an in-depth explanation of qualitative research, an approach increasingly prevalent among today's research communities. After discussing its present spread within the health sciences, the author addresses: 1. Its definition. 2. Its characteristics, as well as its theoretical and procedural background. 3. Its procedures. 4. Differences between qualitative and quantitative approaches. 5. Mixed methods incorporating quantitative research. And in conclusion: 6. The importance of establishing an epistemological perspective in qualitative research.

  11. [About the turning point in a nurse's life when giving up the profession. A qualitative-empirical study on the willingness to continue to work and on the conditions for continuing to work in the post-professional phase of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöbel, Jacqueline; Rester, David; Them, Christa; Seeberger, Bernd

    2010-10-01

    Due to the increasing life expectancy and population ageing, the post-professional phase of life is becoming more and more important to the individual and to society as a whole. The perception of the potentials of elderly people and, hence, the call for self-directed and independent activities in the post-professional phase are becoming more intense. The relation between retirement and work in nurses has not been of scientific importance so far. This is primarily due to the assumption that nurses cannot or do not stay in their profession until retirement. However, nurses do manage to pursue their profession continuously and permanently until they reach the age of retirement. The aim of this qualitative research study is to investigate the post-professional phase of life of former nurses within the context of the profession pursued. The guiding research questions in this regard were: How do former nurses spend their retirement period? How do nurses use their nursing-related abilities and experiences in their postprofessional phase of life? What do nurses associate with their former profession in the post-professional phase of life? In one-to-one interviews, these questions were posed to eight retired nurses who had pursued their profession for many years. The assessment instruments used were a socio-demographic questionnaire, a guideline and a record from memory. All data were summarized and evaluated analytically with regard to their content according to Mayring (2008). The present article shows the partial results of the study on retirement and work in the post-professional life of nurses. The results indicate that the transition to retirement is often accompanied by problems, that retired nurses do not fundamentally refuse to continue to work and that the willingness to continue to work is subject to certain conditions. Reasons and conditions for and against profession-based post-professional activities were revealed. Consequentially, concepts for the systematic

  12. Validity in Qualitative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Lub

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a discussion on the question of validity in qualitative evaluation. Although validity in qualitative inquiry has been widely reflected upon in the methodological literature (and is still often subject of debate, the link with evaluation research is underexplored. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Guba and Lincoln and Creswell and Miller, the article explores aspects of validity of qualitative research with the explicit objective of connecting them with aspects of evaluation in social policy. It argues that different purposes of qualitative evaluations can be linked with different scientific paradigms and perspectives, thus transcending unproductive paradigmatic divisions as well as providing a flexible yet rigorous validity framework for researchers and reviewers of qualitative evaluations.

  13. Qualitative Methods in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermause, Roxanne; Barg, Frances K; Esmail, Laura; Edmundson, Lauren; Girard, Samantha; Perfetti, A Ross

    2017-02-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), created to fund research guided by patients, caregivers, and the broader health care community, offers a new research venue. Many (41 of 50) first funded projects involved qualitative research methods. This study was completed to examine the current state of the science of qualitative methodologies used in PCORI-funded research. Principal investigators participated in phenomenological interviews to learn (a) how do researchers using qualitative methods experience seeking funding for, implementing and disseminating their work; and (b) how may qualitative methods advance the quality and relevance of evidence for patients? Results showed the experience of doing qualitative research in the current research climate as "Being a bona fide qualitative researcher: Staying true to research aims while negotiating challenges," with overlapping patterns: (a) researching the elemental, (b) expecting surprise, and (c) pushing boundaries. The nature of qualitative work today was explicitly described and is rendered in this article.

  14. A qualitative study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismail - [2010

    Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was carried out in Adami Tulu District of East Shoa Zone – the ... to enhance teaching learning at CBE sites and facilitate ..... on good nutrition”. ... not observing any misbehavior: “The behavior of the.

  15. Scaling Qualitative Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark

    2017-01-01

    There are different approaches to qualitative probability, which includes subjective probability. We developed a representation of qualitative probability based on relational systems, which allows modeling uncertainty by probability structures and is more coherent than existing approaches. This setting makes it possible proving that any comparative probability is induced by some probability structure (Theorem 2.1), that classical probability is a probability structure (Theorem 2.2) and that i...

  16. Qualitative insights on fundamental mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardari, Ghenadie N

    2007-01-01

    The gap between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics has an important interpretive implication: the Universe must have an irreducible fundamental level, which determines the properties of matter at higher levels of organization. We show that the main parameters of any fundamental model must be theory-independent. Moreover, such models must also contain discrete identical entities with constant properties. These conclusions appear to support the work of Kaniadakis on subquantum mechanics. A qualitative analysis is offered to suggest compatibility with relevant phenomena, as well as to propose new means for verification

  17. Making Qualitative Studies Talk back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle

    2006-01-01

    care services. Visions of shared use of (electronic) data for administrative purposes, for research purposes and for performing daily health care services push the IT-development and challenges the understanding of what health care work actually is. The Achilles of ICT-mediated health care...... that qualitative studies of user-reception can inform system design and IT-development in health care. Method: The framework of analysing user-reception of IT-systems was developed on the background of an evaluation study of ICT-implementation in primary health care (Wentzer, Bygholm 2001). High standardisation...

  18. Exploring Factors of Successful Tendering Practices using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA): The Study of Organizational Repetitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekdik, Baris; Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    combinations of factors leading to particular results of tendering practices. Empirical material collected through data mining in previously completed project records (quantitative data) is supported by data obtained from project managers of a general contractor company (qualitative data) in order...... to holistically describe the combination of conditions resulting in particular tender results. As a result of the analysis, a solution set is found explaining the path leading to project contract winning; previous work experience between client and general contractor together with either previous work experience...... between architect and general contractor for design-bid-build projects or senior project responsible involvement from the contractors side in design-build projects. The analysis illustrates how QCA is a powerful strategy for exploring the complexity of project practices being able to bridge the divide...

  19. Perils and potentials in qualitative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2015-06-01

    Famously, Ebbinghaus declared that psychology has a long past, but only a short history. Psychology, as something implicit to human conduct, is as old as the human race, but the science, as an explicit investigative reflection upon that conduct, is a recent invention. Within the short history of psychology, we find an even shorter history of qualitative psychology specifically. Although most founding fathers (Freud, Piaget, Bartlett etc.) worked as "qualitative psychologists", they found no need to thematize their methods of inquiry in this manner. Since around 1980, however, a field has established itself that can be called qualitative psychology. In this paper, I discuss how this field can move sensibly into the future, and I highlight two perils and two potentials. The perils stem from neo-positivism and a threatening "McDonaldization" of qualitative research, while the potentials are related to proliferation of new forms of inquiry and a transcending of disciplinary boundaries.

  20. Perils and potentials in qualitative psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2015-01-01

    Famously, Ebbinghaus declared that psychology has a long past, but only a short history. Psychology, as something implicit to human conduct, is as old as the human race, but the science, as an explicit investigative reflection upon that conduct, is a recent invention. Within the short history...... of psychology, we find an even shorter history of qualitative psychology specifically. Although most founding fathers (Freud, Piaget, Bartlett etc.) worked as “qualitative psychologists”, they found no need to thematize their methods of inquiry in this manner. Since around 1980, however, a field has established...... itself that can be called qualitative psychology. In this paper, I discuss how this field can move sensibly into the future, and I highlight two perils and two potentials. The perils stem from neo-positivism and a threatening “McDonaldization” of qualitative research, while the potentials are related...

  1. Represented Speech in Qualitative Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...

  2. Performative Work in Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole; Jensen, Hanne Louise

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of performative work that aims to create experiences for visiting tourists. It reports on qualitative research conducted among frontline employees working in three tourist attractions on the island of Lolland in Denmark, namely Lalandia...

  3. A Guide to Writing a Qualitative Systematic Review Protocol to Enhance Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashleigh; Hall, Helen; Copnell, Beverley

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative systematic review is a rapidly developing area of nursing research. In order to present trustworthy, high-quality recommendations, such reviews should be based on a review protocol to minimize bias and enhance transparency and reproducibility. Although there are a number of resources available to guide researchers in developing a quantitative review protocol, very few resources exist for qualitative reviews. To guide researchers through the process of developing a qualitative systematic review protocol, using an example review question. The key elements required in a systematic review protocol are discussed, with a focus on application to qualitative reviews: Development of a research question; formulation of key search terms and strategies; designing a multistage review process; critical appraisal of qualitative literature; development of data extraction techniques; and data synthesis. The paper highlights important considerations during the protocol development process, and uses a previously developed review question as a working example. This paper will assist novice researchers in developing a qualitative systematic review protocol. By providing a worked example of a protocol, the paper encourages the development of review protocols, enhancing the trustworthiness and value of the completed qualitative systematic review findings. Qualitative systematic reviews should be based on well planned, peer reviewed protocols to enhance the trustworthiness of results and thus their usefulness in clinical practice. Protocols should outline, in detail, the processes which will be used to undertake the review, including key search terms, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the methods used for critical appraisal, data extraction and data analysis to facilitate transparency of the review process. Additionally, journals should encourage and support the publication of review protocols, and should require reference to a protocol prior to publication of the

  4. "He would never just hit the sofa" A narrative of non-complaining among Dutch Mothers: a qualitative study of the influences of attitudes on work preferences and employment patterns of Dutch mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Working patterns among Dutch mothers differ remarkably. This variation makes the Netherlands an interesting case to study the origins of the labour participation pattern of women and mothers in particular. This article explores the influence of mothers’ work and gender attitudes and preferences on

  5. Handling Imprecision in Qualitative Data Warehouse: Urban Building Sites Annoyance Analysis Use Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanzougarene, F.; Chachoua, M.; Zeitouni, K.

    2013-05-01

    Data warehouse means a decision support database allowing integration, organization, historisation, and management of data from heterogeneous sources, with the aim of exploiting them for decision-making. Data warehouses are essentially based on multidimensional model. This model organizes data into facts (subjects of analysis) and dimensions (axes of analysis). In classical data warehouses, facts are composed of numerical measures and dimensions which characterize it. Dimensions are organized into hierarchical levels of detail. Based on the navigation and aggregation mechanisms offered by OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) tools, facts can be analyzed according to the desired level of detail. In real world applications, facts are not always numerical, and can be of qualitative nature. In addition, sometimes a human expert or learned model such as a decision tree provides a qualitative evaluation of phenomenon based on its different parameters i.e. dimensions. Conventional data warehouses are thus not adapted to qualitative reasoning and have not the ability to deal with qualitative data. In previous work, we have proposed an original approach of qualitative data warehouse modeling, which permits integrating qualitative measures. Based on computing with words methodology, we have extended classical multidimensional data model to allow the aggregation and analysis of qualitative data in OLAP environment. We have implemented this model in a Spatial Decision Support System to help managers of public spaces to reduce annoyances and improve the quality of life of the citizens. In this paper, we will focus our study on the representation and management of imprecision in annoyance analysis process. The main objective of this process consists in determining the least harmful scenario of urban building sites, particularly in dense urban environments.

  6. [Qualitative Research in Health Services Research - Discussion Paper, Part 3: Quality of Qualitative Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, M; Güthlin, C; Holmberg, C; Karbach, U; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2015-12-01

    The third and final discussion paper of the German Network of Health Services Research's (DNVF) "Qualitative Methods Working Group" demonstrates methods for the evaluation and quality of qualitative research in health services research. In this paper we discuss approaches described in evaluating qualitative studies, including: an orientation to the general principles of empirical research, an approach-specific course of action, as well as procedures based on the research-process and criteria-oriented approaches. Divided into general and specific aspects to be considered in a qualitative study quality evaluation, the central focus of the discussion paper undertakes an extensive examination of the process and criteria-oriented approaches. The general aspects include the participation of relevant groups in the research process as well as ethical aspects of the research and data protection issues. The more specific aspects in evaluating the quality of qualitative research include considerations about the research interest, research questions, and the selection of data collection methods and types of analyses. The formulated questions are intended to guide reviewers and researchers to evaluate and to develop qualitative research projects appropriately. The intention of this discussion paper is to ensure a transparent research culture, and to reflect on and discuss the methodological and research approach of qualitative studies in health services research. With this paper we aim to initiate a discussion on high quality evaluation of qualitative health services research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers: report of previous work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Progress over the course of the Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study is reported. The derivation of the study population, the gathering of health histories, the US Navy radiation protection program, and the determination of radiation exposures is described

  8. Optiwave Refractive Analysis may not work well in patients with previous history of radial keratotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxiang Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of significant hyperopic outcome (both eyes following Optiwave Refractive Analysis (ORA intraocular lens (IOL power recommendation in a cataract patient with history of 8 cut radial keratotomy (RK in each eye. Observations: It is hypothesized that increased intraocular pressure (IOP from phacoemulsification could make the RK cuts swell, and change cornea shape intraoperatively. In this unique scenario, the corneal curvature readings from ORA could be quite different from preoperative readings or from stabilized postoperative corneal measurements. The change in corneal curvature could also affect the anterior chamber depth and axial length readings, skewing multiple parameters on which ORA bases recommendations for IOL power. Conclusions and importance: ORA has been widely used among cataract surgeons on patients with history of RK, but it's validation, unlike for laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK, has yet to be established by peer reviewed studies. Surgeons should be cautious when using ORA on RK patients. Keywords: Intraoperative aberrometry, ORA, RK, IOL power

  9. A Business Sits on Relationship:A Reflective Analysis of Previous Working Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lin

    2015-01-01

    This article is a case of study of the marketing strategy of Hua Sheng Da Zipper Manufacturing Company. This company is an example of small private enterprise trying to survive through the fierce competition all over China. By analyzing its market, this paper tries to demonstrate the mechanism of relationship in Chinese business context.

  10. Qualitative Robustness in Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nasser

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Qualitative robustness, influence function, and breakdown point are three main concepts to judge an estimator from the viewpoint of robust estimation. It is important as well as interesting to study relation among them. This article attempts to present the concept of qualitative robustness as forwarded by first proponents and its later development. It illustrates intricacies of qualitative robustness and its relation with consistency, and also tries to remove commonly believed misunderstandings about relation between influence function and qualitative robustness citing some examples from literature and providing a new counter-example. At the end it places a useful finite and a simulated version of   qualitative robustness index (QRI. In order to assess the performance of the proposed measures, we have compared fifteen estimators of correlation coefficient using simulated as well as real data sets.

  11. Qualitative Knowledge Representations for Intelligent Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Kyoungho; Huh, Young H.

    1993-01-01

    Qualitative Physics(QP) has systematically been approached to qualitative modeling of physical systems for recent two decades. Designing intelligent systems for NPP requires an efficient representation of qualitative knowledge about the behavior and structure of NPP or its components. A novel representation of qualitative knowledge also enables intelligent systems to derive meaningful conclusions from incomplete or uncertain knowledge of a plant behavior. We look mainly into representative QP works on nuclear applications and the representation of qualitative knowledge for the diagnostic model, the qualitative simulation of a mental model of NPP operator, and the qualitative interpretation of the measured raw data from NPP. We present the challenging areas for QP applications in nuclear industry. QP technology will make NPP more intelligent

  12. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 1: Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Albine; Korstjens, Irene

    2017-01-01

    In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called Frequently Asked Questions. This journal series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By ‘novice’ we mean Master’s students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research ...

  13. Asian American Career Development: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Smothers, Melissa K.; Chen, Yung-Lung; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Terry, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study used a modified version of consensual qualitative research design to examine how contextual, cultural, and personal variables influence the career choices of a diverse group of 12 Asian Americans. Seven domains of influences on career choices emerged including family, culture, external factors, career goals, role models, work values,…

  14. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  15. Disciplining Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Giardina, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative research exists in a time of global uncertainty. Around the world, governments are attempting to regulate scientific inquiry by defining what counts as "good" science. These regulatory activities raise fundamental, philosophical epistemological, political and pedagogical issues for scholarship and freedom of speech in the…

  16. Analysis of Product Buying Decision on Lazada E-commerce based on Previous Buyers’ Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Aldrin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present research are: 1 to know that product buying decision possibly occurs, 2 to know how product buying decision occurs on Lazada e-commerce’s customers, 3 how previous buyers’ comments can increase product buying decision on Lazada e-commerce. This research utilizes qualitative research method. Qualitative research is a research that investigates other researches and makes assumption or discussion result so that other analysis results can be made in order to widen idea and opinion. Research result shows that product which has many ratings and reviews will trigger other buyers to purchase or get that product. The conclusion is that product buying decision may occur because there are some processes before making decision which are: looking for recognition and searching for problems, knowing the needs, collecting information, evaluating alternative, evaluating after buying. In those stages, buying decision on Lazada e-commerce is supported by price, promotion, service, and brand.

  17. Dutch pediatricians' views on the use of neuromuscular blockers for dying neonates: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, K.; van de Vathorst, S.

    2015-01-01

    To assess Dutch pediatricians' views on neuromuscular blockers for dying neonates. Qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 10 Dutch pediatricians working with severely ill neonates. Data were analyzed using appropriate qualitative research techniques. Participants explained their view

  18. Reflecting on the role of literature in qualitative public administration research:learning from grounded theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); N. Karsten (Niels)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhen undertaking qualitative research, public administration scholars must walk a thin line between being theoretically sensitive and imposing preconceived ideas on their work. This article identifies opportunities and pitfalls in using literature in qualitative public administration

  19. Exploring generational cohort work satisfaction in hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Pamela Ann

    2017-07-03

    Purpose Although extensive research exists regarding job satisfaction, many previous studies used a more restrictive, quantitative methodology. The purpose of this qualitative study is to capture the perceptions of hospital nurses within generational cohorts regarding their work satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach A preliminary qualitative, phenomenological study design explored hospital nurses' work satisfaction within generational cohorts - Baby Boomers (1946-1964), Generation X (1965-1980) and Millennials (1981-2000). A South Florida hospital provided the venue for the research. In all, 15 full-time staff nurses, segmented into generational cohorts, participated in personal interviews to determine themes related to seven established factors of work satisfaction: pay, autonomy, task requirements, administration, doctor-nurse relationship, interaction and professional status. Findings An analysis of the transcribed interviews confirmed the importance of the seven factors of job satisfaction. Similarities and differences between the generational cohorts related to a combination of stages of life and generational attributes. Practical implications The results of any qualitative research relate only to the specific venue studied and are not generalizable. However, the information gleaned from this study is transferable and other organizations are encouraged to conduct their own research and compare the results. Originality/value This study is unique, as the seven factors from an extensively used and highly respected quantitative research instrument were applied as the basis for this qualitative inquiry into generational cohort job satisfaction in a hospital setting.

  20. Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable agricultural ... about previously disadvantaged land users involved in communal farming systems ... of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on ...

  1. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  2. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  3. Qualitative Research in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattah Hanurawan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Qualitative  research  is  a  research  method    studying  subjective meaning of participant’s world about  an object researched. Steps of qualitative research  in  psychology  are:  researchers  select  research  topic,  researchers formulate  research  questions,  researchers  design  the  study,  researchers  collect data, researchers analyses  data,  researchers  generate  findings,  researchers validate findings, and researchers write research report. Some of the qualitative research  designs  are  grounded  research,  phenomenology  research,  case  study research,  and  ethnography  research.  In  some  situations,  researchers  often  meet questions  that  reach  beyond  the  prescription  of  the  APA  ethical  guidelines concerning  human  participants.  Researchers  of  qualitative  research  in psychology  can  generalize  their  research  findings  to  other  people,  times,  or treatments  to  the  degree  to  which  they  are  similar to  other  people,  times,  or treatments in the original research (naturalistic generalization. There are some strategies  for  expanding  qualitative  research  as  a research  approach  so  the methodology  can  be  accepted  as  one  significant  method  in  understanding psychological phenomena. Keywords:qualitative research, psychology.

  4. Using Qualitative Metasummary to Synthesize Qualitative and Quantitative Descriptive Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Barroso, Julie; Voils, Corrine I.

    2007-01-01

    The new imperative in the health disciplines to be more methodologically inclusive has generated a growing interest in mixed research synthesis, or the integration of qualitative and quantitative research findings. Qualitative metasummary is a quantitatively oriented aggregation of qualitative findings originally developed to accommodate the distinctive features of qualitative surveys. Yet these findings are similar in form and mode of production to the descriptive findings researchers often ...

  5. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  6. Interviews in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kath; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Interviews are a common method of data collection in nursing research. They are frequently used alone in a qualitative study or combined with other data collection methods in mixed or multi-method research. Semi-structured interviews, where the researcher has some predefined questions or topics but then probes further as the participant responds, can produce powerful data that provide insights into the participants' experiences, perceptions or opinions.

  7. Qualitative Process Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    solving common sense reasoning mathematical reasoning naive physics aritificial intelligence * 20. ABSTRACT (Continue o,, reverse side Ift necessary and...AD-A148 987 QUALITATIVE PROCESS THEORY(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF 1/2 TEEH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB K D FORBUS JUL 84 RI-TR-789 N88814-80...NATIONAL BUREAU Of STAN ARDS IJ% A 4 I .7 Technical Report 789 Q[-----Qualitative• Process M° Theory . Kenneth Dale Forbus MIT Artificial Intelligence

  8. Qualitative description - the poor cousin of health research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Olesen, Frede; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2009-01-01

    ', relatives' or professionals' experiences with a particular topic. Another great advantage of the method is that it is suitable if time or resources are limited. SUMMARY: As a consequence of the growth in qualitative research in the health sciences, researchers sometimes feel obliged to designate their work......BACKGROUND: The knowledge and use of qualitative description as a qualitative research approach in health services research is limited.The aim of this article is to discuss the potential benefits of a qualitative descriptive approach, to identify its strengths and weaknesses and to provide examples...... of use. DISCUSSION: Qualitative description is a useful qualitative method in much medical research if you keep the limitations of the approach in mind. It is especially relevant in mixed method research, in questionnaire development and in research projects aiming to gain firsthand knowledge of patients...

  9. Section for qualitative methods (Letter)

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Z.; Madill, A.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative research methods are increasingly used in all areas of psychology. We have proposed a new Section – the Qualitative Methods in Psychology Section – for anyone with an interest in using these research methods.

  10. Fale com eles! o trabalho interpretativo e a produção de consenso na pesquisa qualitativa em saúde: inovações a partir de desenhos participativos Talk to them! the interpretative work and the production of consensus in qualitative health research: innovations from participatory design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Onocko Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir uma forma de se trabalhar com pesquisa qualitativa interpretativa, a partir de técnicas participativas, incluindo validação e produção de consenso, e a construção de narrativas. As narrativas, construídas pelos pesquisadores, seguindo os núcleos argumentais, tornam o material denso, mantendo-se fiel à história. Em um segundo momento, esta narrativa é apresentada aos sujeitos entrevistados (momento hermenêutico, com a função de validar os dados e produzir efeitos de intervenção. Estes efeitos de narratividade são evidenciados no aprofundamento das questões ou temas pouco desenvolvidos na primeira discussão. No processo de interpretação, não se buscam significados por trás do texto, senão que se procura colocar o mundo (nossas questões na frente dele, não negando com isso a existência do latente, mas optando-se pelo manifesto em virtude do posicionamento ético-político da própria pesquisa (implicação e olhar avaliativo dos sujeitos da pesquisa. Por fim, a construção de consenso é revista para se adequar aos princípios da inclusão e da diversidade, e se chega a ele via espaço de heterogeneidade de participantes, que chamamos de oficina de construção de consenso, com discussão, revisão de posicionamentos, encontros e discordâncias. Aponta-se o valor de mediação do testemunho de pacientes e familiares como uma forma especial de empoderamento.This paper aims to discuss ways of working with interpretative qualitative research, following participative techniques, including validation and consensus, and narratives construction. These narratives, extracted from argument core, increase the density of the material, keeping the reliability of the history. Then the narrative is presented to the interviewed subjects (hermeneutic moment, the function of the meet is to validate data and produce intervention effects. These narrative effects should be the deepening of issues in need

  11. Sector and Occupational Differences in Public Service Motivation: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anne Mette

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between employment sector and public service motivation remains unclear since previous studies fail to control for the occupation of the investigated employees. Based on 32 semi-structured interviews with Danish nurses and nursing assistants working in the public or private health...... sector, this study shows that occupation and employment sector have very different relationships with the separate dimensions of public service motivation. This suggests that future studies of sector differences in public service motivation should pay attention to employees' occupation as an important...... control variable, and the benefits of using a qualitative approach to measure public service motivation....

  12. [Qualitative research methodology in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, Paula; Besoain, Carolina; Reinoso, Alejandro; Zubarew, Tamara

    2017-03-01

    Health care research requires different methodological approaches such as qualitative and quantitative analyzes to understand the phenomena under study. Qualitative research is usually the least considered. Central elements of the qualitative method are that the object of study is constituted by perceptions, emotions and beliefs, non-random sampling by purpose, circular process of knowledge construction, and methodological rigor throughout the research process, from quality design to the consistency of results. The objective of this work is to contribute to the methodological knowledge about qualitative research in health services, based on the implementation of the study, “The transition process from pediatric to adult services: perspectives from adolescents with chronic diseases, caregivers and health professionals”. The information gathered through the qualitative methodology facilitated the understanding of critical points, barriers and facilitators of the transition process of adolescents with chronic diseases, considering the perspective of users and the health team. This study allowed the design of a transition services model from pediatric to adult health services based on the needs of adolescents with chronic diseases, their caregivers and the health team.

  13. Database searches for qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, David

    2002-01-01

    Interest in the role of qualitative research in evidence-based health care is growing. However, the methods currently used to identify quantitative research do not translate easily to qualitative research. This paper highlights some of the difficulties during searches of electronic databases for qualitative research. These difficulties relate to the descriptive nature of the titles used in some qualitative studies, the variable information provided in abstracts, and the differences in the ind...

  14. The Process of Identity Work: Negotiating a Work Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crafford, A.; Adams, B.G.; Saayman, T.; Vinkenburg, C.J.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Roodt, G.

    2015-01-01

    Identity work is an important process in negotiating, regulating and maintaining a coherent sense of self-(identity). In this chapter we discuss how identity work is particularly useful in establishing a work identity. The crux of the discussion in this chapter is based on the qualitative phase of

  15. Qualitative Studies in Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarker, Suprateek; Xiao, Xiao; Beaulieu, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss a review of qualitative papers on information systems (IS) published in various journals between 2001 and 2012. They explain trends related to qualitative research in the chosen journals and the key anatomical components of a qualitative research manuscript, including...

  16. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  17. QBone University and Lab Interconnect Testbed (QUALIT). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitelbaum, Benjamin

    2001-10-19

    The QUALIT grant funded two broad categories of work: (1) Project-wide QBone engineering, instrumentation, and integration; (2) Focused workshops and measurement work relating specifically to advanced university/DOE connectivity. Significant progress has been made in both areas and, to both, QUALIT funding has been a key enabling resource. This final report summarizes the accomplishments of the QUALIT project and explains changes to the technical focus of the project that, while significant, remained true to the overall project goal: to research, test, and deploy IP layer traffic differentiation to redress congestion-related end-to-end performance problems on key university-DOE lab paths.

  18. Work organisation, technology and working conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Dhondt, S.; Kraan, K.; Sloten, G. van

    2002-01-01

    The personal computer, computer networks and the Internet have brought the Union into the Information Age. These technological changes have inevitably led to changes in the work environment and the quality of working conditions. For the third time, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions has carried out a questionnaire-based survey on working conditions throughout the European Union, covering all Member States. Previous surveys were carried out in 1991 and...

  19. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing rec...... in qualitative research offers a promising avenue to advance the field in this direction.......Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  20. Transgender women and the sex work industry: roots in systemic, institutional, and interpersonal discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Kevin L; Davidoff, Kristin C; Fujii-Doe, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    Because transgender people face discrimination on systemic, institutional, and interpersonal levels, the previous literature has supported that many transgender women view the sex work industry as their only viable career option. The current article reviews the literature on discrimination against transgender people, explores how discrimination influences their participation in sex work, and discusses how institutional discrimination against transgender women manifests within the criminal justice system. Furthermore, recommendations are provided for advocating for the rights of transgender people while promoting healthy behaviors and higher quality of life. Throughout the article, quotes from previous qualitative research are used to illustrate the experiences of transgender women through their own voices and perspectives.

  1. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  2. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act and...

  3. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  4. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economistís model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  5. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economist's model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  6. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  7. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  8. A Qualitative Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Ackerman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. No in-depth qualitative research exists about the effects of therapeutic massage with children hospitalized to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT. The objective of this study is to describe parent caregivers' experience of the effects of massage/acupressure for their children undergoing HCT. Methods. We conducted a qualitative analysis of open-ended interviews with 15 parents of children in the intervention arm of a massage/acupressure trial. Children received both practitioner and parent-provided massage/acupressure. Results. Parents reported that their child experienced relief from pain and nausea, relaxation, and greater ease falling asleep. They also reported increased caregiver competence and closeness with their child as a result of learning and performing massage/acupressure. Parents supported a semistandardized massage protocol. Conclusion. Massage/acupressure may support symptom relief and promote relaxation and sleep among pediatric HCT patients if administered with attention to individual patients' needs and hospital routines and may relieve stress among parents, improve caregiver competence, and enhance the sense of connection between parent and child.

  9. Language barriers and qualitative nursing research: methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, A

    2008-09-01

    This review of the literature synthesizes methodological recommendations for the use of translators and interpreters in cross-language qualitative research. Cross-language qualitative research involves the use of interpreters and translators to mediate a language barrier between researchers and participants. Qualitative nurse researchers successfully address language barriers between themselves and their participants when they systematically plan for how they will use interpreters and translators throughout the research process. Experienced qualitative researchers recognize that translators can generate qualitative data through translation processes and by participating in data analysis. Failure to address language barriers and the methodological challenges they present threatens the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of cross-language qualitative nursing research. Through a synthesis of the cross-language qualitative methods literature, this article reviews the basics of language competence, translator and interpreter qualifications, and roles for each kind of qualitative research approach. Methodological and ethical considerations are also provided. By systematically addressing the methodological challenges cross-language research presents, nurse researchers can produce better evidence for nursing practice and policy making when working across different language groups. Findings from qualitative studies will also accurately represent the experiences of the participants without concern that the meaning was lost in translation.

  10. Hantavirus Outbreak: The Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it was aimed to research by means of qualitative research methods the contact of individuals living in the region with mice and wild animals during the examination of Hantavirus epidemic to produce. Materials and Methods: In the interviews, the contact of participants with mice and wild animals, their opinions about the climate change and their symptom history pertaining to Hantavirus infections in themselves or relatives were discussed. Results: The participants stated that they didn’t see any mouse or mouse excretion, however that they encountered such cases in areas such as woodbin, roof, terrace, forest, etc. all interviews, the increase in the number of wild boars and jackals was especially stated. In all interviews, it was stated that this year was more rainy and warmer compared to previous years. Conclusion: The findings of the study give the impression that the participant group is under the risk of Hantavirus infection. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 81-86

  11. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, A.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van der Molen, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed

  12. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  13. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  14. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study ... Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2010) > ... Results: Past experience on antenatal care service utilization did not come out as a predictor for ...

  15. A previous hamstring injury affects kicking mechanics in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navandar, Archit; Veiga, Santiago; Torres, Gonzalo; Chorro, David; Navarro, Enrique

    2018-01-10

    Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury. 45 professional players (males: n=19, previously injured players=4, age=21.16 ± 2.00 years; females: n=19, previously injured players=10, age=22.15 ± 4.50 years) performed 5 kicks each with their preferred and non-preferred limb at a target 7m away, which were recorded with a three-dimensional motion capture system. Kinematic and kinetic variables were extracted for the backswing, leg cocking, leg acceleration and follow through phases. A shorter backswing (20.20 ± 3.49% vs 25.64 ± 4.57%), and differences in knee flexion angle (58 ± 10o vs 72 ± 14o) and hip flexion velocity (8 ± 0rad/s vs 10 ± 2rad/s) were observed in previously injured, non-preferred limb kicks for females. A lower peak hip linear velocity (3.50 ± 0.84m/s vs 4.10 ± 0.45m/s) was observed in previously injured, preferred limb kicks of females. These differences occurred in the backswing and leg-cocking phases where the hamstring muscles were the most active. A variation in the functioning of the hamstring muscles and that of the gluteus maximus and iliopsoas in the case of a previous injury could account for the differences observed in the kicking pattern. Therefore, the effects of a previous hamstring injury must be considered while designing rehabilitation programs to re-educate kicking movement.

  16. Qualitative research between craftsmanship and McDonaldization. A keynote address from the 17th Qualitative Health Research Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Brinkmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although qualitative research methods remain marginalized in certain disciplines, qualitative inquiry has within the last couple of decades become generally accepted as a legitimate scientific way of working. Today, society at large is making more use of qualitative research than ever, not just in laudable social justice research, for example, but also in relation to market and consumer research and focus groups for different political parties. With this in mind, I wish to discuss three current questions for qualitative researchers: The first I will refer to as “ethical progressivism versus new ethical challenges”. Is qualitative research as such more ethical and progressive than quantitative research (as some have argued, or do qualitative researchers on the contrary face more elusive and perhaps difficult ethical challenges? The second question is called “solid evidence versus subjective anecdotes”. How should qualitative researchers respond to the current call for evidence? Should they seek legitimacy by accepting the dominant politics of evidence, or should they play by their own rules with the risk of increasing marginalization? The third question is “method versus intuition”. Should qualitative researchers strive for maximum transparency by following accepted methods, or should they proceed more intuitively like artists to create their stories? Both sides of the questions have their influential advocates today. I will argue that all three questions are handled most fruitfully by conceiving of qualitative research as a craft.

  17. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  18. Qualitative quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    The infrared limit in asymptotically free non-abelian gauge theories using recently developed non-perturbative methods which allow derivation of zero momentum theorems for Green's functions and vertices is described. These low-energy theorems are compared to the infrared behavior predicted from the renormalization group equation when the existence of an infrared fixed point is assumed. A set of objects is exhibited whose low energy theorems violate the scaling behavior predicted by the renormalization group. This shows that the assumed fixed point cannot exist and that in the Landau gauge the effective charge becomes infinite in the infrared. Qualitatively this implies that as an attempt is made to separate elementary quanta the interaction between the quanta becomes arbitrarily strong. This indicates at least that the theories studied are capable of color confinement. Results are true only for theories with large numbers of quarks. This opens the possibility that large numbers of quarks are actually necessary for confinement

  19. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  20. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  1. Mind mapping in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Christopher; Powell, Julia; Stroud, James; Pringle, Jan

    We tested a theory that mind mapping could be used as a tool in qualitative research to transcribe and analyse an interview. We compared results derived from mind mapping with those from interpretive phenomenological analysis by examining patients' and carers' perceptions of a new nurse-led service. Mind mapping could be used to rapidly analyse simple qualitative audio-recorded interviews. More research is needed to establish the extent to which mind mapping can assist qualitative researchers.

  2. Designing a qualitative methods syllabus

    OpenAIRE

    Kier, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    After some initial trepidation, I was excited about teaching a graduate seminar in qualitative methods. It could hardly be a more interesting time. The publication of King, Keohane, and Verba’s Designing Social Inquiry reinvigorated interest in qualitative methods, and I wanted to design the course to profit from this emerging debate. Whereas KKV appealed to qualitative researchers to do their best to adopt quantitative methodological guidelines, I wanted to encourage students to think about ...

  3. Review Essay: On Transparency, Epistemologies, and Positioning in Writing Introductory Qualitative Research Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audra Skukauskaite

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Building on Günter MEY's (2000, para. 2 argument that "reviews should help to promote additional perspectives … and to open up new scientific discourses," in this essay review of Carol GRBICH's (2007 "Qualitative Data Analysis," we present an approach to reading texts ethnographically that enabled us to uncover how the choices GRBICH makes in positioning readers and in choosing particular ways of representing select qualitative approaches inscribes particular worlds and possibilities for qualitative research. In her text GRBICH argues that authors position readers through the ways in which they report and write about their work. In this review essay we use this argument as a basis to uncover how GRBICH positions readers, researchers, those researched, different qualitative traditions and perspectives as well as herself as an author of the text, to lay a foundation for engaging readers of FQS in a hermeneutic dialogue (KELLY, 2006 about the authoring and reviewing processes and their inter-relationships. Through this dialogue, we seek to develop with readers of FQS a new discourse about the necessity of transparency in the position that authors and reviewers take in reporting/reviewing of research, and in representing the traditions that differ from the author's/reviewer's own tradition(s. Our goal in framing this essay review as a hermeneutical dialogue is to identify previously unexamined issues of how the writing of introductory texts is shaped by the often invisible perspectives of authors, which in turn leads to a particular inscription of what counts as qualitative research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1201233

  4. Using qualitative research methods in biomedical innovation: the case of cultured red blood cells for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Catherine; King, Emma

    2016-05-11

    Qualitative research has a key role to play in biomedical innovation projects. This article focuses on the appropriate use of robust social science methodologies (primarily focus group studies) for identifying the public's willingness and preference for emerging medical technologies. Our study was part of the BloodPharma project (now known as the Novosang project) to deliver industrially generated red blood cells for transfusion. Previous work on blood substitutes shows that the public prefers donated human blood. However, no research has been conducted concerning attitudes to stem cell derived red blood cells. Qualitative research methods including interviews and focus groups provide the methodological context for this paper. Focus groups were used to elicit views from sub-sections of the UK population about the potential use of such cultured red blood cells. We reflect on the appropriateness of that methodology in the context of the BloodPharma project. Findings are in the form of lessons transferable to other interdisciplinary, science-led teams about what a social science dimension can bring; why qualitative research should be included; and how it can be used effectively. Qualitative data collection offers the strength of exploring ambivalence and investigating the reasons for views, but not necessarily their prevalence in wider society. The inherent value of a qualitative method, such as focus groups, therefore lies in its ability to uncover new information. This contrasts with a quantitative approach to simply 'measuring' public opinion on a topic about which participants may have little prior knowledge. We discuss a number of challenges including: appropriate roles for embedded social scientists and the intricacies of doing upstream engagement as well as some of the design issues and limitations associated with the focus group method.

  5. Guidelines for Qualitative Research in Organization Studies: Controversy and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Rios Cavalcanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to tackle the controversy of establishing guidelines for qualitative research in Organization and Management Theory (OMT and to present a summary of suggestions on how to conduct good qualitative research given by methodologists on top-tier international publications. In order to do so, the article discusses: general guidelines for qualitative research; how to achieve coherence and transparency in a qualitative empirical study; the meaning and importance of the concept of reflexivity; and, finally how to establish a theoretical contribution and transferability of findings in such context. The work presents a valuable contribution because such guidelines, concepts, and approaches can be adopted by students and researchers when conducting a qualitative research proposal, and by periodic reviewers to evaluate the quality of existing empirical studies.

  6. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 1: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Albine; Korstjens, Irene

    2017-12-01

    In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called Frequently Asked Questions. This journal series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By 'novice' we mean Master's students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research for the first time. This series addresses their questions and provides researchers, readers, reviewers and editors with references to criteria and tools for judging the quality of papers reporting on qualitative research. This first article describes the key features of qualitative research, provides publications for further learning and reading, and gives an outline of the series.

  7. Promises and pitfalls of data sharing in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Kohrt, Brandon A; Matthews, Lynn T; Betancourt, Theresa S; Lee, Jooyoung K; Papachristos, Andrew V; Weiser, Sheri D; Dworkin, Shari L

    2016-11-01

    The movement for research transparency has gained irresistible momentum over the past decade. Although qualitative research is rarely published in the high-impact journals that have adopted, or are most likely to adopt, data sharing policies, qualitative researchers who publish work in these and similar venues will likely encounter questions about data sharing within the next few years. The fundamental ways in which qualitative and quantitative data differ should be considered when assessing the extent to which qualitative and mixed methods researchers should be expected to adhere to data sharing policies developed with quantitative studies in mind. We outline several of the most critical concerns below, while also suggesting possible modifications that may help to reduce the probability of unintended adverse consequences and to ensure that the sharing of qualitative data is consistent with ethical standards in research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Working time flexibilization and the redistribution of work

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Joana Adelina Madeira

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the fast pace of the transformations in the world of labour and the threat of unemployment lead us to assess the need of work redistribution measures, among which is the flexibilization of working hours. In this context, this thesis’ main aim is to investigate whether or not the flexibilization of working time is the best approach towards work redistribution. Adopting a qualitative approach, this study sets out to evaluate different flexibilization policies and to see to what extent...

  9. Work environment quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman; Busck, Ole Gunni; Lind, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how employee participation influences the quality of the work environment and workers’ well-being at 11 Danish workplaces from within six different industries. Both direct participation and representative forms of participation at the workplace level were studied. Statistical...... as well as qualitative comparative analyses reveal that work environment quality and high levels of participation go hand in hand. Within a typology of participation models the highest level of participation, including strong elements of collective participation, and also the best work environment...

  10. Review: Aglaja Przyborski & Monika Wohlrab-Sahr (2009. Qualitative Sozialforschung. Ein Arbeitsbuch [Qualitative Research. A Textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Berli

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The introductory textbook "Qualitative Sozialforschung [Qualitative Research]" by PRZYBORSKI and WOHLRAB-SAHR is addressed to students and teachers alike interested in methodology and methods. The authors aim to describe the research process as a whole in all its elements. The volume therefore includes comprehensive chapters concerning methodology, sampling procedures and displaying of results, as well as chapters dealing with special forms of generating and analyzing data (e.g. grounded theory. The authors compare the approaches presented and work out their similarities rather than differences. Although this textbook offers a sound introduction to qualitative research, in stressing similarities the authors tend to neglect important methodological differences. The chapter dealing with criteria for evaluating the quality of research is one such example of this tendency. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100325

  11. Erlotinib-induced rash spares previously irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, Irene M.; Vonk, Ernest J.A.; Koster, Mariska E.Y.; Houwing, Ronald H.

    2011-01-01

    Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor prescribed to patients with locally advanced or metastasized non-small cell lung carcinoma after failure of at least one earlier chemotherapy treatment. Approximately 75% of the patients treated with erlotinib develop acneiform skin rashes. A patient treated with erlotinib 3 months after finishing concomitant treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is presented. Unexpectedly, the part of the skin that had been included in his previously radiotherapy field was completely spared from the erlotinib-induced acneiform skin rash. The exact mechanism of erlotinib-induced rash sparing in previously irradiated skin is unclear. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon needs to be explored further, because the number of patients being treated with a combination of both therapeutic modalities is increasing. The therapeutic effect of erlotinib in the area of the previously irradiated lesion should be assessed. (orig.)

  12. Reasoning with Previous Decisions: Beyond the Doctrine of Precedent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    in different jurisdictions use previous judicial decisions in their argument, we need to move beyond the concept of precedent to a wider notion, which would embrace practices and theories in legal systems outside the Common law tradition. This article presents the concept of ‘reasoning with previous decisions...... law method’, but they are no less rational and intellectually sophisticated. The reason for the rather conceited attitude of some comparatists is in the dominance of the common law paradigm of precedent and the accompanying ‘case law method’. If we want to understand how courts and lawyers......’ as such an alternative and develops its basic models. The article first points out several shortcomings inherent in limiting the inquiry into reasoning with previous decisions by the common law paradigm (1). On the basis of numerous examples provided in section (1), I will present two basic models of reasoning...

  13. [Prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Basto-Abreu, Ana; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Zárate-Rojas, Emiliano; Villalpando, Salvador; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh

    2018-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 with previous national surveys and to describe treatment and its complications. Mexico's national surveys Ensa 2000, Ensanut 2006, 2012 and 2016 were used. For 2016, logistic regression models and measures of central tendency and dispersion were obtained. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 was 9.4%. The increase of 2.2% relative to 2012 was not significant and only observed in patients older than 60 years. While preventive measures have increased, the access to medical treatment and lifestyle has not changed. The treatment has been modified, with an increase in insulin and decrease in hypoglycaemic agents. Population aging, lack of screening actions and the increase in diabetes complications will lead to an increase on the burden of disease. Policy measures targeting primary and secondary prevention of diabetes are crucial.

  14. Making 'what works' work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    2017-01-01

    and a mattress. As such, the paper shows how DR, as an evidence-based method, is established through concrete relations, rather than abstracted and universal principals. It argues that these relations stabilising DR are never enacted once and for all, but require continual work to be held together as a method...... that ‘works’....

  15. Using Qualitative Metasummary to Synthesize Qualitative and Quantitative Descriptive Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Barroso, Julie; Voils, Corrine I.

    2008-01-01

    The new imperative in the health disciplines to be more methodologically inclusive has generated a growing interest in mixed research synthesis, or the integration of qualitative and quantitative research findings. Qualitative metasummary is a quantitatively oriented aggregation of qualitative findings originally developed to accommodate the distinctive features of qualitative surveys. Yet these findings are similar in form and mode of production to the descriptive findings researchers often present in addition to the results of bivariate and multivariable analyses. Qualitative metasummary, which includes the extraction, grouping, and formatting of findings, and the calculation of frequency and intensity effect sizes, can be used to produce mixed research syntheses and to conduct a posteriori analyses of the relationship between reports and findings. PMID:17243111

  16. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile non-invasive imaging modality that serves a broad spectrum of indications in clinical cardiology and has proven evidence. Most of the numerous applications are appropriate in patients with previous cardiovascular surgery in the same manner as in non-surgical subjects. However, some specifics have to be considered. This review article is intended to provide information about the application of CMR in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery. In particular, the two main scenarios, i.e. following coronary artery bypass surgery and following heart valve surgery, are highlighted. Furthermore, several pictorial descriptions of other potential indications for CMR after cardiovascular surgery are given.

  17. [Qualitative research in health services research - discussion paper, Part 2: Qualitative research in health services research in Germany - an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbach, U; Stamer, M; Holmberg, C; Güthlin, C; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2012-08-01

    This is the second part of a 3-part discussion paper by the working group on "Qualitative Methods" in the German network of health services research (DNVF) that shall contribute to the development of a memorandum concerning qualitative health services research. It aims to depict the different types of qualitative research that are conducted in health services research in Germany. In addition, the authors present a specific set of qualitative data collection and analysis tools to demonstrate the potential of qualitative research for health services research. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH - AN OVERVIEW: To give an overview of the types of qualitative research conducted in German health services research, the abstracts of the 8th German Conference on Health Services Research were filtered to identify qualitative or mixed-methods studies. These were then analysed by looking at the context which was studied, who was studied, the aims of the studies, and what type of methods were used. Those methods that were mentioned most often for data collection and analysis are described in detail. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AT THE CONFERENCE FOR HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH 2009: Approximately a fifth of all abstracts (n=74) had a qualitative (n=47) or a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative methods (n=27). Research aims included needs assessment (41%), survey development (36%), evaluation (22%), and theorizing (1%). Data collection mostly consisted of one-on-one interviews (n=45) and group discussions (n=29). Qualitative content analysis was named in 35 abstracts, 30 abstracts did not reference their method of analysis. In addition to a quantitative summary of the abstract findings, the diversity of fields addressed by qualitative methods is highlighted. Although drawing conclusions on the use of qualitative methods in German health services research from the analysis of conference abstracts is not possible, the overview we present demonstrates the

  18. The Quality of Work in the Belgian Service Voucher System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousaid, Sarah; Huegaerts, Kelly; Bosmans, Kim; Julià, Mireia; Benach, Joan; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Several European countries implemented initiatives to boost the growth of the domestic cleaning sector. Few studies investigated the quality of work in these initiatives, although effects on workers' health and on social health inequalities can be expected. This study contributes to the scant research on this subject, by investigating the quality of work in the Belgian service voucher system - a subsidized system for domestic work. The applied research methodology includes a qualitative content analysis of parliamentary debates, legislation and previous research about the service voucher system and of 40 in-depth interviews with service voucher workers. The study shows that the legal framework that regulates the system must be further enhanced in order to improve the quality of work in the service voucher system. In addition, the actors involved must be better controlled, and sanctioned in case of non-compliance with legislation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. The Dynamic of Work Meaning on the Privatization Imminence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Prezotti Palassi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the dynamic of the work meaning on the privatization imminence of a Brazilian sanitation company. The discussion is based on the (MOW, 1987 ideas about construction of work meaning and Tajfel (1981 about to belong to social groups. The emphasis on imminence is based on the Figueiredo and Viana (1982 understanding that the continuous expectation of frustration generates a differentiated impact related to a previously defined situation. Data collection procedure was carried out through participant observation and questionnaires. Quantitative data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and qualitative data by using content analysis. The results revealed a dynamic that fragments the work meanings on the imminence of privatization and presents itself associated with different meanings and aspects of the situation. It is proposed that the fragmentation of work meaning on the imminence of certain situations can be repeated in other contemporary contexts.

  20. Ethical competency of nurse leaders: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Maasoumeh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Foroozan

    2018-02-01

    Ethics play an important role in activating the manpower and achieving the organizational goals. The nurse leaders' ethical behavior can promote the care quality by affecting the nurses' performance and bringing up several positive consequences for the organization. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the ethical competency of nurse leaders in cultural domains and the working conditions of the Iranian healthcare setting to arrive at a more comprehensive and specific perspective. This was a qualitative conventional content analysis study conducted with the participation of 14 nurse leaders at various levels. The participants were selected using the purposive sampling method, and the required data were collected using deep interview and also semi-structured interview. A deductive method of content analysis was applied in data analysis. Ethical considerations: This study was conducted in accord with the principles of research ethics and national rules and regulations relating to informed consent and confidentiality. Data analysis resulted in 17 subcategories that were subsequently grouped into three major categories including empathetic interactions, ethical behavior, and exalted manners. Our findings are consistent with previous ones, yet presenting a more complete knowledge about aspects of ethical competency of nurse leaders. The nurse leaders can provide a proper behavioral model for the work environment through the use of new information. The nurse leaders introduced various aspects of ethical competency, so the leaders' ethical competency could be promoted via planning and managing some ethical development programs. More future research is needed regarding the experiences of the subordinates and other related parties.

  1. Health-promoting collaboration in anesthesia nursing: a qualitative study of nurse anesthetists in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averlid, Gertrud; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari

    2012-08-01

    Perceived stress of nurse anesthetists and their work environment has been the focus of several previous studies. This article presents a study of different factors that may contribute positively or negatively to the work environment of nurse anesthetists in Norway. It focuses on factors that nurse anesthetists perceive as health promoting at work and indicates how a healthy work environment can be created. A qualitative method was used, which included interviews with a strategic sample of 14 nurse anesthetists working in anesthesia departments. The data were collected in 2008. A grounded theory approach was used as the method of analysis. From the data analysis emerged 1 core category, Collaboration for better or worse-the fate of nurse anesthetists at the workplace. There were also 3 categories, Management as organizer of conditions, Well-being in an operating theater, and Clarity of role, and a number of subcategories. Collaboration through teamwork emerged as a crucial factor in the work environment of nurse anesthetists, while management was considered an important factor for creating a healthy work environment. Production pressure and communication difficulties were perceived as negative for the work environment. Management should therefore be actively involved and oriented toward creating favorable conditions for collaboration.

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation

  3. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  4. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  5. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged ..... I am still riding the cloud … I hope it lasts. .... as a way of creating a climate and culture in schools where individuals are willing to explore.

  6. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...

  7. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  8. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  9. Investigation of previously derived Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    New Hyades polarimetry and field star photometry have been obtained to check the Hyades reddening, which was found to be nonzero in a previous paper. The new Hyades polarimetry implies essentially zero reddening; this is also true of polarimetry published by Behr (which was incorrectly interpreted in the previous paper). Four photometric techniques which are presumed to be insensitive to blanketing are used to compare the Hyades to nearby field stars; these four techniques also yield essentially zero reddening. When all of these results are combined with others which the author has previously published and a simultaneous solution for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings is made, the results are E (B-V) =3 +- 2 (sigma) mmag, -1 +- 3 (sigma) mmag, and 46 +- 6 (sigma) mmag, respectively. No support for a nonzero Hyades reddening is offered by the new results. When the newly obtained reddenings for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 are compared with results from techniques given by Crawford and by users of the David Dunlap Observatory photometric system, no differences between the new and other reddenings are found which are larger than about 2 sigma. The author had previously found that the M67 main-sequence stars have about the same blanketing as that of Coma and less blanketing than the Hyades; this conclusion is essentially unchanged by the revised reddenings

  10. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJ