WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous language experience

  1. A Latin Functionalist Dictionary as a Self-Learning Language Device: Previous Experiences to Digitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Manuel Márquez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of a methodology based on S.C. Dik’s Functionalist Grammar linguistic principles, which is addressed to the teaching of Latin to secondary students, has resulted in a quantitative improvement in students’ acquisition process of knowledge. To do so, we have used a self-learning tool, an ad hoc dictionary, of which the use in different practices has made students understand, at a basic level, the functioning of this language.

  2. Language and the newborn brain: Does prenatal language experience shape the neonate neural response to speech?

    OpenAIRE

    Lillian eMay; Krista eByers-Heinlein; Judit eGervain; Janet F Werker

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that by the time of birth, the neonate brain responds specially to the native language when compared to acoustically similar non-language stimuli. In the current study, we use Near Infrared Spectroscopy to ask how prenatal language experience might shape the brain response to language in newborn infants. To do so, we examine the neural response of neonates when listening to familiar versus unfamiliar language, as well as to non-linguistic backwards language. Twenty...

  3. Language experience changes subsequent learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510

  4. Language experience changes subsequent learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-02-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  6. Specific Previous Experience Affects Perception of Harmony and Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior knowledge shapes our experiences, but which prior knowledge shapes which experiences? This question is addressed in the domain of music perception. Three experiments were used to determine whether listeners activate specific musical memories during music listening. Each experiment provided listeners with one of two musical contexts that was…

  7. Language proficiency and the international postgraduate student experience

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, M

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly competitive environment, with reduced government funding, full fee-paying international students are an important source of revenue for higher education institutions (HEIs). Although many previous studies have focused on the role of English language proficiency on academic success, there is little known about the extent to which levels of English language proficiency affect these non-native English speaking students’ overall course experience. There have been a wealth of st...

  8. Chemical education experiences from the English language learner perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Annette

    2011-12-01

    The Rio Grande Valley (RGV) is a region populated by Spanish-speaking immigrants and their descendants producing a large English Language Learner (ELL) student population. ELLs have historically had low literacy rates and achievement levels when compared to their counterparts. In order to address this achievement gap, previous research efforts and curriculum interventions have focused on language acquisition as being the determining factor in ELL education, with little attention given to academic content acquisition. More current research efforts have transitioned into English language acquisition through academic content instruction; this present research study specifically focuses on ELL experiences in chemistry. Participants were high school chemistry students who identified as ELL or had recently exited out of ELL status. Students were interviewed to identify factors that attributed to their experiences in chemistry. Findings indicate code-switching as a key to learning chemistry in English but also the deterrent in English language acquisition.

  9. Mobile Assisted Language Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daesang; Ruecker, Daniel; Kim, Dong-Joong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of learning with mobile technology for TESOL students and to explore their perceptions of learning with this type of technology. The study provided valuable insights on how students perceive and adapt to learning with mobile technology for effective learning experiences for both students…

  10. Storytelling: Language Experience for Meaning Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Olga

    1989-01-01

    Describes how storytelling can enhance both literal and inferential comprehension, motivate oral discussion, increase perceptual knowledge of metaphor, explain and promote interesting language usage, instill deeper meaning to children's personal experiences, and excite children about literature, storytelling, and creative interpretations of story.…

  11. Language Attitudes, Language Learning Experiences and Individual Strategies What Does School Offer and What Does It Lack?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tódor Erika-Mária

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Language learners’ attitudes towards the language and its speakers greatly influence the language learning process and the learning outcomes. Previous research and studies on attitudes and motivation in language learning (Csizér 2007, Dörnyei 2009 show that attitudes and motivation are strongly intertwined. Positive attitude towards the language and its speakers can lead to increased motivation, which then results in better learning achievement and a positive attitude towards learning the language. The aim of the present study was to get a better insight into what regards the language attitudes of students attending Hungarian minority schools in Romania. The interest of the study lies in students’ attitudes towards the different languages, the factors/criteria along which they express their language attitudes, students’ learning experiences and strategies that they consider efficient and useful in order to acquire a language. Results suggest that students’ attitudes are determined by their own experiences of language use, and in this sense we can differentiate between a language for identification – built upon specific emotional, affective, and cognitive factors – and language for communication.

  12. Java decaffeinated: experiences building a programming language from components

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Simon; Farragher, Linda

    2000-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Most modern programming languages are complex and feature rich. Whilst this is (sometimes) an advantage for industrial-strength applications, it complicates both language teaching and language research. We describe our experiences in the design of a reduced sub-set of the Java language and its implementation using the Vanilla language development framework. We argue that Vanilla???s component-based approach allows the language???s feature set to be varied quickly and simp...

  13. The language of 'experience' in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David; Cloyes, Kristin

    2005-06-01

    This paper is an analysis of how the signifier 'experience' is used in nursing research. We identify a set of issues we believe accompany the use of experience but are rarely addressed. These issues are embedded in a spectrum that includes ontological commitments, visions of the person/self and its relation to 'society', understandings of research methodology and the politics of nursing. We argue that a poststructuralist understanding of the language of experience in research opens up additional ways to analyze the relationship between the conduct of nursing research and cultural/political commitments.

  14. Modeling the Formation of Language: Embodied Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steels, Luc

    This chapter gives an overview of different experiments that have been performed to demonstrate how a symbolic communication system, including its underlying ontology, can arise in situated embodied interactions between autonomous agents. It gives some details of the Grounded Naming Game, which focuses on the formation of a system of proper names, the Spatial Language Game, which focuses on the formation of a lexicon for expressing spatial relations as well as perspective reversal, and an Event Description Game, which concerns the expression of the role of participants in events through an emergent case grammar. For each experiment, details are provided how the symbolic system emerges, how the interaction is grounded in the world through the embodiment of the agent and its sensori-motor processing, and how concepts are formed in tight interaction with the emerging language.

  15. ARM assembly language with hardware experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Elahi, Ata

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on approach to learning ARM assembly language with the use of a TI microcontroller. The book starts with an introduction to computer architecture and then discusses number systems and digital logic. The text covers ARM Assembly Language, ARM Cortex Architecture and its components, and Hardware Experiments using TILM3S1968. Written for those interested in learning embedded programming using an ARM Microcontroller. ·         Introduces number systems and signal transmission methods   ·         Reviews logic gates, registers, multiplexers, decoders and memory   ·         Provides an overview and examples of ARM instruction set   ·         Uses using Keil development tools for writing and debugging ARM assembly language Programs   ·         Hardware experiments using a Mbed NXP LPC1768 microcontroller; including General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) configuration, real time clock configuration, binary input to 7-segment display, creating ...

  16. Analysis of previous perceptual and motor experience in breaststroke kick learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Bettina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the variables that influence motor learning is the learner’s previous experience, which may provide perceptual and motor elements to be transferred to a novel motor skill. For swimming skills, several motor experiences may prove effective. Purpose. The aim was to analyse the influence of previous experience in playing in water, swimming lessons, and music or dance lessons on learning the breaststroke kick. Methods. The study involved 39 Physical Education students possessing basic swimming skills, but not the breaststroke, who performed 400 acquisition trials followed by 50 retention and 50 transfer trials, during which stroke index as well as rhythmic and spatial configuration indices were mapped, and answered a yes/no questionnaire regarding previous experience. Data were analysed by ANOVA (p = 0.05 and the effect size (Cohen’s d ≥0.8 indicating large effect size. Results. The whole sample improved their stroke index and spatial configuration index, but not their rhythmic configuration index. Although differences between groups were not significant, two types of experience showed large practical effects on learning: childhood water playing experience only showed major practically relevant positive effects, and no experience in any of the three fields hampered the learning process. Conclusions. The results point towards diverse impact of previous experience regarding rhythmic activities, swimming lessons, and especially with playing in water during childhood, on learning the breaststroke kick.

  17. Do emotional intelligence and previous caring experience influence student nurse performance? A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhouse, Rosie; Snowden, Austyn; Young, Jenny; Carver, Fiona; Carver, Hannah; Brown, Norrie

    2016-08-01

    Reports of poor nursing care have focused attention on values based selection of candidates onto nursing programmes. Values based selection lacks clarity and valid measures. Previous caring experience might lead to better care. Emotional intelligence (EI) might be associated with performance, is conceptualised and measurable. To examine the impact of 1) previous caring experience, 2) emotional intelligence 3) social connection scores on performance and retention in a cohort of first year nursing and midwifery students in Scotland. A longitudinal, quasi experimental design. Adult and mental health nursing, and midwifery programmes in a Scottish University. Adult, mental health and midwifery students (n=598) completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-short form and Schutte's Emotional Intelligence Scale on entry to their programmes at a Scottish University, alongside demographic and previous caring experience data. Social connection was calculated from a subset of questions identified within the TEIQue-SF in a prior factor and Rasch analysis. Student performance was calculated as the mean mark across the year. Withdrawal data were gathered. 598 students completed baseline measures. 315 students declared previous caring experience, 277 not. An independent-samples t-test identified that those without previous caring experience scored higher on performance (57.33±11.38) than those with previous caring experience (54.87±11.19), a statistically significant difference of 2.47 (95% CI, 0.54 to 4.38), t(533)=2.52, p=.012. Emotional intelligence scores were not associated with performance. Social connection scores for those withdrawing (mean rank=249) and those remaining (mean rank=304.75) were statistically significantly different, U=15,300, z=-2.61, p$_amp_$lt;0.009. Previous caring experience led to worse performance in this cohort. Emotional intelligence was not a useful indicator of performance. Lower scores on the social connection factor were associated

  18. Color Naming Experiment in Mongolian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Osorjamaa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous researches on color terms and names in many languages. In Mongolian language there are few doctoral theses on color naming. Cross cultural studies of color naming have demonstrated Semantic relevance in French and Mongolian color name Gerlee Sh. (2000; Comparisons of color naming across English and Mongolian Uranchimeg B. (2004; Semantic comparison between Russian and Mongolian idioms Enhdelger O. (1996; across symbolism Dulam S. (2007 and few others. Also a few articles on color naming by some Mongolian scholars are Tsevel, Ya. (1947, Baldan, L. (1979, Bazarragchaa, M. (1997 and others. Color naming studies are not sufficiently studied in Modern Mongolian. Our research is considered to be the first intended research on color naming in Modern Mongolian, because it is one part of Ph.D dissertation on color naming. There are two color naming categories in Mongolian, basic color terms and non- basic color terms. There are seven basic color terms in Mongolian. This paper aims to consider how Mongolian color names are derived from basic colors by using psycholinguistics associative experiment. It maintains the students and researchers to acquire the specific understanding of the differences and similarities of color naming in Mongolian and  English languages from the psycho-linguistic aspect.

  19. Long- term effects of previous experience determine nutrient discrimination abilities in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Kathrin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foraging behaviour is an essential ecological process linking different trophic levels. A central assumption of foraging theory is that food selection maximises the fitness of the consumer. It remains unknown, however, whether animals use innate or learned behaviour to discriminate food rewards. While many studies demonstrated that previous experience is a strong determinant of complex food choices such as diet mixing, the response to simple nutritional stimuli, such as sugar concentrations, is often believed to be innate. Results Here we show that previous experience determines the ability to track changes in sugar composition in same-aged individuals of a short-lived migratory songbird, the garden warbler (Sylvia borin. Although birds received identical foods for seven months prior to the experiment, wild-caught birds achieved higher sugar intake rates than hand-raised birds when confronted with alternative, differently coloured, novel food types. Hand-raised and wild birds did not differ in their initial colour selection or overall food intake, but wild birds were quicker to adjust food choice to varying sugar intake. Conclusion Over a period of at least seven months, broader previous experience translates into a higher plasticity of food choice leading to higher nutrient intake. Our results thus highlight the need to address previous long-term experience in foraging experiments. Furthermore, they show that hand-raised animals are often poor surrogates for testing the foraging behaviour of wild animals.

  20. The Impact of Experience Abroad and Language Proficiency on Language Learning Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy S.; Lee, Junkyu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of experience abroad and second language proficiency on foreign language classroom anxiety. Particularly, this study is an attempt to fill the gap in the literature about the affective outcomes after experiences abroad through the anxiety profiles of Korean learners of English as a foreign language (EFL)…

  1. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; Trigt, van Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree

  2. Impact of Vocational Interests, Previous Academic Experience, Gender and Age on Situational Judgement Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; van Trigt, Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-01-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the…

  3. Learning across languages: bilingual experience supports dual language statistical word segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antovich, Dylan M; Graf Estes, Katharine

    2018-03-01

    Bilingual acquisition presents learning challenges beyond those found in monolingual environments, including the need to segment speech in two languages. Infants may use statistical cues, such as syllable-level transitional probabilities, to segment words from fluent speech. In the present study we assessed monolingual and bilingual 14-month-olds' abilities to segment two artificial languages using transitional probability cues. In Experiment 1, monolingual infants successfully segmented the speech streams when the languages were presented individually. However, monolinguals did not segment the same language stimuli when they were presented together in interleaved segments, mimicking the language switches inherent to bilingual speech. To assess the effect of real-world bilingual experience on dual language speech segmentation, Experiment 2 tested infants with regular exposure to two languages using the same interleaved language stimuli as Experiment 1. The bilingual infants in Experiment 2 successfully segmented the languages, indicating that early exposure to two languages supports infants' abilities to segment dual language speech using transitional probability cues. These findings support the notion that early bilingual exposure prepares infants to navigate challenging aspects of dual language environments as they begin to acquire two languages. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Simulatedin vivoElectrophysiology Experiments Provide Previously Inaccessible Insights into Visual Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Maria; Price, Nicholas SC

    2016-01-01

    Lecture content and practical laboratory classes are ideally complementary. However, the types of experiments that have led to our detailed understanding of sensory neuroscience are often not amenable to classroom experimentation as they require expensive equipment, time-consuming surgeries, specialized experimental techniques, and the use of animals. While sometimes feasible in small group teaching, these experiments are not suitable for large cohorts of students. Previous attempts to expose students to sensory neuroscience experiments include: the use of electrophysiology preparations in invertebrates, data-driven simulations that do not replicate the experience of conducting an experiment, or simply observing an experiment in a research laboratory. We developed an online simulation of a visual neuroscience experiment in which extracellular recordings are made from a motion sensitive neuron. Students have control over stimulation parameters (direction and contrast) and can see and hear the action potential responses to stimuli as they are presented. The simulation provides an intuitive way for students to gain insight into neurophysiology, including experimental design, data collection and data analysis. Our simulation allows large cohorts of students to cost-effectively "experience" the results of animal research without ethical concerns, to be exposed to realistic data variability, and to develop their understanding of how sensory neuroscience experiments are conducted.

  5. Impact of Previous Pharmacy Work Experience on Pharmacy School Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Ellena; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R.; Knapp, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). Methods The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. Results No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Conclusions Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses. PMID:20498735

  6. Experiences with Autonomy: Learners' Voices on Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristmanson, Paula; Lafargue, Chantal; Culligan, Karla

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the experiences of Grade 12 students using a language portfolio based on the principles and guidelines of the European Language Portfolio (ELP) in their second language classes in a large urban high school. As part of a larger action-research project, focus group interviews were conducted to gather data related to…

  7. Lessons about Learning: Comparing Learner Experiences with Language Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Luke

    2011-01-01

    This is an account of how one class of English language learners compared and contrasted their language learning experiences with English language teaching (ELT) research findings during a five-week Intensive Academic Preparation course at an Australian university. It takes as its starting point the fact that learners, unlike teachers and…

  8. Stress and blood donation: effects of music and previous donation experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, E; Singh, A P; Cunningham-Snell, N

    1997-05-01

    Making a blood donation, especially for first-time donors, can be a stressful experience. These feelings of stress may inhibit donors from returning. This paper applies stress theory to this particular problem. The effects of a stress management intervention (the provision of music) and previous donor experience were examined in relation to pre- and post-donation mood, environmental appraisals and coping behaviour. Results indicated that the provision of music had detrimental effects on environmental appraisals for those who have donated up to two times previously, but beneficial effects for those who had donated three times before. These effects were, to an extent, moderated by coping processes but not perceived control. It is recommended that the provision of music is not used as a stress management technique in the context of blood donation.

  9. Important biological information uncovered in previously unaligned reads from chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments (ChIP-Seq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Wilberforce Zachary; Mejia-Guerra, Maria Katherine; Yilmaz, Alper; Pareja-Tobes, Pablo; Li, Wei; Doseff, Andrea I.; Grotewold, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the architecture of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) relies on chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) methods that provide genome-wide transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). ChIP-Seq furnishes millions of short reads that, after alignment, describe the genome-wide binding sites of a particular TF. However, in all organisms investigated an average of 40% of reads fail to align to the corresponding genome, with some datasets having as much as 80% of reads failing to align. We describe here the provenance of previously unaligned reads in ChIP-Seq experiments from animals and plants. We show that a substantial portion corresponds to sequences of bacterial and metazoan origin, irrespective of the ChIP-Seq chromatin source. Unforeseen was the finding that 30%–40% of unaligned reads were actually alignable. To validate these observations, we investigated the characteristics of the previously unaligned reads corresponding to TAL1, a human TF involved in lineage specification of hemopoietic cells. We show that, while unmapped ChIP-Seq read datasets contain foreign DNA sequences, additional TFBSs can be identified from the previously unaligned ChIP-Seq reads. Our results indicate that the re-evaluation of previously unaligned reads from ChIP-Seq experiments will significantly contribute to TF target identification and determination of emerging properties of GRNs. PMID:25727450

  10. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-05-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116). This choice was used as a proxy for vocational interest. In addition, all graduate-entry applicants for academic year 2015-2016 (n = 213) were included to examine the effect of previous academic experience on performance. We used MANCOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons tests for applicant performance on a six-scenario SJT. The MANCOVA analyses showed that for all scenarios, the independent variables were significantly related to performance (Pillai's Trace: 0.02-0.47, p performance on three scenarios (p performance on two scenarios (p performance, as was previous academic experience. Gender and age were related to performance on SJT scenarios in different settings. Especially the first effect might be helpful in selecting appropriate candidates for areas of health care in which more professionals are needed.

  11. Resiliency in Native Languages: The Tale of Three Indigenous Communities' Experiences with Language Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Dorothy; LeCompte, Margaret D.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of three Indigenous communities with language immersion models in preschool through 12th grades to revitalize and preserve their native languages through ethnographic research design and methods. The history and implementation of language instruction in three Indigenous communities are summarized. The analysis…

  12. THE ‘UNFORGETTABLE’ EXPERIENCE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANXIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morana Drakulić

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language anxiety (FLA has long been recognized as a factor that hinders the process of foreign language learning at all levels. Among numerous FLA sources identified in the literature, language classroom seems to be of particular interest and significance, especially in the formal language learning context, where the course and the teacher are often the only representatives of language. The main purpose of the study is to determine the presence and potential sources of foreign language anxiety among first year university students and to explore how high anxiety levels shape and affect students’ foreign language learning experience. In the study both the questionnaire and the interviews were used as the data collection methods. Thematic analysis of the interviews and descriptive statistics suggest that most anxiety-provoking situations stem from the language classroom itself.

  13. "My math and me": Nursing students' previous experiences in learning mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røykenes, Kari

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, 11 narratives about former experiences in learning of mathematics written by nursing students are thematically analyzed. Most students had a positive relationship with the subject in primary school, when they found mathematics fun and were able to master the subject. For some, a change occurred in the transition to lower secondary school. The reasons for this change was found in the subject (increased difficulty), the teachers (movement of teachers, numerous substitute teachers), the class environment and size (many pupils, noise), and the student him- or herself (silent and anonymous pupil). This change was also found in the transition from lower to higher secondary school. By contrast, some students had experienced changes that were positive, and their mathematics teacher was a significant factor in this positive change. The paper emphasizes the importance of previous experiences in learning mathematics to nursing students when learning about drug calculation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Reconceptulizing Language Discordance: Meanings and Experiences of Language Barriers in the U.S. and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Elaine

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with language barriers may face challenges unique to a host society. By examining and comparing the sociocultural conditions that can result in providers and patients not sharing the same language in the United States and in Taiwan, I argue that (a) language discordance is a social phenomenon that may entail diverging meanings and experiences in different countries; (b) language-discordant patients may not share similar experiences even if they are in the same country; and (c) disparities in language concordance may be confounded with other disparities and cultural particulars that are unique to a host society. In addition, because English is a dominant language in medicine, language-discordant patients' quality of care in Taiwan can be moderated by their fluency in English.

  15. Differences between previously married and never married 'gay' men: family background, childhood experiences and current attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Daryl J

    2004-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature on the development of sexual orientation, little is known about why some gay men have been (or remain) married to a woman. In the current study, a self-selected sample of 43 never married gay men ('never married') and 26 gay men who were married to a woman ('previously married') completed a self-report questionnaire. Hypotheses were based on five possible explanations for gay men's marriages: (a) differences in sexual orientation (i.e., bisexuality); (b) internalized homophobia; (c) religious intolerance; (d) confusion created because of childhood/adolescent sexual experiences; and/or (e) poor psychological adjustment. Previously married described their families' religious beliefs as more fundamentalist than never married. No differences were found between married' and never married' ratings of their sexual orientation and identity, and levels of homophobia and self-depreciation. Family adaptability and family cohesion and the degree to which respondents reported having experienced child maltreatment did not distinguish between previously married and never married. The results highlight how little is understood of the reasons why gay men marry, and the need to develop an adequate theoretical model.

  16. Impact of second-language experience in infancy: brain measures of first- and second-language speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, Barbara T; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2011-03-01

    Language experience 'narrows' speech perception by the end of infants' first year, reducing discrimination of non-native phoneme contrasts while improving native-contrast discrimination. Previous research showed that declines in non-native discrimination were reversed by second-language experience provided at 9-10 months, but it is not known whether second-language experience affects first-language speech sound processing. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we examined learning-related changes in brain activity to Spanish and English phoneme contrasts in monolingual English-learning infants pre- and post-exposure to Spanish from 9.5-10.5 months of age. Infants showed a significant discriminatory ERP response to the Spanish contrast at 11 months (post-exposure), but not at 9 months (pre-exposure). The English contrast elicited an earlier discriminatory response at 11 months than at 9 months, suggesting improvement in native-language processing. The results show that infants rapidly encode new phonetic information, and that improvement in native speech processing can occur during second-language learning in infancy.

  17. Infant ability to tell voices apart rests on language experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, E.K.; Westrek, E.S.M.; Nazzi, T.; Cutler, A.

    2011-01-01

    A visual fixation study tested whether 7-month-olds can discriminate between different talkers. The infants were first habituated to talkers producing sentences in either a familiar or unfamiliar language, then heard test sentences from previously unheard speakers, either in the language used for

  18. Reciprocity, culture and human cooperation: previous insights and a new cross-cultural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt

    2009-03-27

    Understanding the proximate and ultimate sources of human cooperation is a fundamental issue in all behavioural sciences. In this paper, we review the experimental evidence on how people solve cooperation problems. Existing studies show without doubt that direct and indirect reciprocity are important determinants of successful cooperation. We also discuss the insights from a large literature on the role of peer punishment in sustaining cooperation. The experiments demonstrate that many people are 'strong reciprocators' who are willing to cooperate and punish others even if there are no gains from future cooperation or any other reputational gains. We document this in new one-shot experiments, which we conducted in four cities in Russia and Switzerland. Our cross-cultural approach allows us furthermore to investigate how the cultural background influences strong reciprocity. Our results show that culture has a strong influence on positive and in especially strong negative reciprocity. In particular, we find large cross-cultural differences in 'antisocial punishment' of pro-social cooperators. Further cross-cultural research and experiments involving different socio-demographic groups document that the antisocial punishment is much more widespread than previously assumed. Understanding antisocial punishment is an important task for future research because antisocial punishment is a strong inhibitor of cooperation.

  19. The relationship of previous training and experience of journal peer reviewers to subsequent review quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Callaham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peer review is considered crucial to the selection and publication of quality science, but very little is known about the previous experiences and training that might identify high-quality peer reviewers. The reviewer selection processes of most journals, and thus the qualifications of their reviewers, are ill defined. More objective selection of peer reviewers might improve the journal peer review process and thus the quality of published science. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 306 experienced reviewers (71% of all those associated with a specialty journal completed a survey of past training and experiences postulated to improve peer review skills. Reviewers performed 2,856 reviews of 1,484 separate manuscripts during a four-year study period, all prospectively rated on a standardized quality scale by editors. Multivariable analysis revealed that most variables, including academic rank, formal training in critical appraisal or statistics, or status as principal investigator of a grant, failed to predict performance of higher-quality reviews. The only significant predictors of quality were working in a university-operated hospital versus other teaching environment and relative youth (under ten years of experience after finishing training. Being on an editorial board and doing formal grant (study section review were each predictors for only one of our two comparisons. However, the predictive power of all variables was weak. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that there are no easily identifiable types of formal training or experience that predict reviewer performance. Skill in scientific peer review may be as ill defined and hard to impart as is "common sense." Without a better understanding of those skills, it seems unlikely journals and editors will be successful in systematically improving their selection of reviewers. This inability to predict performance makes it imperative that all but the smallest journals implement routine review ratings

  20. The Importance of Business Model Factors for Cloud Computing Adoption: Role of Previous Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogataj Habjan Kristina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Bringing several opportunities for more effective and efficient IT governance and service exploitation, cloud computing is expected to impact the European and global economies significantly. Market data show that despite many advantages and promised benefits the adoption of cloud computing is not as fast and widespread as foreseen. This situation shows the need for further exploration of the potentials of cloud computing and its implementation on the market. The purpose of this research was to identify individual business model factors with the highest impact on cloud computing adoption. In addition, the aim was to identify the differences in opinion regarding the importance of business model factors on cloud computing adoption according to companies’ previous experiences with cloud computing services.

  1. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...

  2. Sexual Liberalism-Conservatism: the effect of human values, gender, and previous sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Valeschka M; Gouveia, Valdiney V; Sousa, Deliane M; Lima, Tiago J; Freires, Leogildo A

    2012-08-01

    Despite theoretical associations, there is a lack of empirical studies on the axiological basis of sexual liberalism-conservatism. Two studies demonstrated important associations between these constructs for young adults. In Study 1, participants were 353 undergraduate students with a mean age of 20.13 (SD = 1.84), who completed the Sexual Liberalism-Conservatism Scale and the Basic Values Survey. In Study 2, participants were 269 undergraduate students, with a mean age of 20.3 (SD = 1.82), who completed a social desirability scale in addition to Study 1 instruments. Results showed how values can predict sexual liberalism-conservatism after controlling for social desirability. Attitudes towards one's own sexual behavior were more conservative whereas attitudes towards other's sexual behavior were more liberal. Gender was not a significant predictor of sexual attitudes whereas previous sexual experience showed a significant association to this construct. In general, results corroborated previous findings, showing that participants with a tendency to present socially desirable answers also tended to present themselves as sexually conservative.

  3. Students' Evaluation of Their English Language Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizatulliza, M.; Kiely, R.

    2017-01-01

    In the field of English language teaching and learning, there is a long history of investigating students' performance while they are undergoing specific learning programmes. This research study, however, focused on students' evaluation of their English language learning experience after they have completed their programme. The data were gathered…

  4. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  5. Subtitles and language learning principles, strategies and practical experiences

    CERN Document Server

    Mariotti, Cristina; Caimi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    The articles collected in this publication combine diachronic and synchronic research with the description of updated teaching experiences showing the educational role of subtitled audiovisuals in various foreign language learning settings.

  6. Foreign language learning experience, foreign language learning motivation and European multilingualism

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Konrad

    1991-01-01

    Foreign language learning experience, foreign language learning motivation and European multilingualism : an Irish approach with reference to findings in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom / Fionnuala Kennedy ; Konrad Schröder. - In: Fremdsprachen im europäischen Haus / hrsg. von Konrad Schröder. - Frankfurt am Main : Diesterweg, 1992. - S. 434-452. - (Die neueren Sprachen ; 91/4-5)

  7. Native Language Experience Shapes Neural Basis of Addressed and Assembled Phonologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Zhang, Mingxia; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of addressed and assembled phonologies in reading Chinese and alphabetic languages (e.g., English) and the modulatory role of native language in learning to read a second language. However, it is not clear whether native language experience shapes the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies. To address this question, we trained native Chinese and native English speakers to read the same artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) either through addressed (i.e., whole-word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. We found that, for both native Chinese and native English speakers, addressed phonology relied on the regions in the ventral pathway, whereas assembled phonology depended on the regions in the dorsal pathway. More importantly, we found that the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies were shaped by native language experience. Specifically, two key regions for addressed phonology (i.e., the left middle temporal gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus) showed greater activation for addressed phonology in native Chinese speakers, while one key region for assembled phonology (i.e., the left supramarginal gyrus) showed more activation for assembled phonology in native English speakers. These results provide direct neuroimaging evidence for the effect of native language experience on the neural mechanisms of phonological access in a new language and support the assimilation-accommodation hypothesis. PMID:25858447

  8. Usage of the Python programming language in the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, R; Hegner, B; Jones, C D

    2010-01-01

    Being a highly dynamic language and allowing reliable programming with quick turnarounds, Python is a widely used programming language in CMS. Most of the tools used in workflow management and the GRID interface tools are written in this language. Also most of the tools used in the context of release management: integration builds, release building and deploying, as well as performance measurements are in Python. With an interface to the CMS data formats, rapid prototyping of analyses and debugging is an additional use case. Finally in 2008 the CMS experiment switched to using Python as its configuration language. This paper will give an overview of the general usage of Python in the CMS experiment and discuss which features of the language make it well-suited for the existing use cases.

  9. Decomposing experience-driven attention: opposite attentional effects of previously predictive cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhicheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A central function of the brain is to track the dynamic statistical regularities in the environment—such as what predicts what over time. How does this statistical learning process alter sensory and attentional processes? Drawing upon animal conditioning and predictive coding, we developed a learning procedure that revealed two distinct components through which prior learning-experience controls attention. During learning, a visual search task was used in which the target randomly appeared at one of several locations but always inside an encloser of a particular color—the learned color served to direct attention to the target location. During test, the color no longer predicted the target location. When the same search task was used in the subsequent test, we found that the learned color continued to attract attention despite the behavior being counterproductive for the task and despite the presence of a completely predictive cue. However, when tested with a flanker task that had minimal location uncertainty—the target was at the fixation surrounded by a distractor—participants were better at ignoring distractors in the learned color than other colors. Evidently, previously predictive cues capture attention in the same search task but can be better suppressed in a flanker task. These results demonstrate opposing components—capture and inhibition—in experience-driven attention, with their manifestations crucially dependent on task context. We conclude that associative learning enhances context-sensitive top-down modulation while reduces bottom-up sensory drive and facilitates suppression, supporting a learning-based predictive coding account. PMID:27068051

  10. Do previous sports experiences influence the effect of an enrichment programme in basketball skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Mateus, Nuno; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an enrichment programme in motor, technical and tactical basketball skills, when accounting for the age of youth sport specialisation. Seventy-six college students (age: M = 20.4, SD = 1.9) were allocated according to three different paths: (i) non-structured (n = 14), (ii) early specialisation (n = 34), and (iii) late specialisation (n = 28), according to information previously provided by the participants about the quantity and type of sporting activities performed throughout their sporting careers. Then, the participants of each path were randomly distributed across control and experimental groups. Variables under study included agility, technical skills circuit, as well as tactical actions performed in a 4-on-4 full-court basketball game. The results indicated improvements in the early and late specialisation paths namely in the experimental training groups. However, the late specialisation path revealed larger benefits, in contrast with the non-structured path, which showed less sensitivity to the enrichment programme, mostly sustained in physical literacy and differential learning. Higher improvements were observed in agility, and also in reducing the number of unsuccessful actions performed during the game. Overall, this study provided evidence of how early sports experiences affect basketball skill acquisition and contribute to adapt to new contexts with motor and technical-tactical challenges. In addition, a path supported by late specialisation might present several advantages in sport performance achievement.

  11. Understanding foreign language teachers' practical knowledge: What's the role of prior language learning experience?

    OpenAIRE

    Arıoğul, Sibel

    2007-01-01

    Teachers’ practical knowledge is considered as teachers’ general knowledge, beliefs and thinking (Borg, 2003) which can be traced in teachers’ practices (Connelly & Clandinin, 1988) and shaped by various background sources (Borg, 2003; Grossman, 1990; Meijer, Verloop, and Beijard, 1999). This paper initially discusses how language teachers are influenced by three background sources: teachers’ prior language learning experiences, prior teaching experience, and professional coursework in pr...

  12. The Role of Experience in Children's Discrimination of Unfamiliar Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Potter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Five- and six-year-old children (n=160 participated in three studies designed to explore language discrimination. After an initial exposure period (during which children heard either an unfamiliar language, a familiar language, or music, children performed an ABX discrimination task involving two unfamiliar languages that were either similar (Spanish vs. Italian or different (Spanish vs. Mandarin. On each trial, participants heard two sentences spoken by two individuals, each spoken in an unfamiliar language. The pair was followed by a third sentence spoken in one of the two languages. Participants were asked to judge whether the third sentence was spoken by the first speaker or the second speaker. Across studies, both the difficulty of the discrimination contrast and the relation between exposure and test materials affected children’s performance. In particular, language discrimination performance was facilitated by an initial exposure to a different unfamiliar language, suggesting that experience can help tune children’s attention to the relevant features of novel languages.

  13. Speech and language therapy intervention with a group of persistent and prolific young offenders in a non-custodial setting with previously undiagnosed speech, language and communication difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Juliette; Bryan, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children with behaviour and school problems (related to both academic achievement and social participation) are recognized as having undiagnosed speech, language and communication difficulties. Both speech, language and communication difficulties and school failure are risk factors for offending. To investigate the prevalence of speech, language and communication difficulties in a group of persistent and prolific young offenders sentenced to the Intensive Supervision and Surveillance Programme (ISSP), and to provide a preliminary evaluation of the impact of speech and language therapy (SLT) intervention. Seventy-two entrants to ISSP over 12 months were screened by the speech and language therapist. Those showing difficulties then had a detailed language assessment followed by intervention delivered jointly by the speech and language therapist and the youth offending team staff. Reassessment occurred at programme completion. A total of 65% of those screened had profiles indicating that they had language difficulties and might benefit from speech and language therapy intervention. As a cohort, their language skills were lower than those of the general population, and 20% scored at the 'severely delayed' level on standardized assessment. This is the first study of speech and language therapy within community services for young offenders, and is the first to demonstrate language improvement detectable on standardized language tests. However, further research is needed to determine the precise role of speech and language therapy within the intervention programme. Children and young people with behavioural or school difficulties coming into contact with criminal justice, mental health, psychiatric, and social care services need to be systematically assessed for undiagnosed speech, language and communication difficulties. Appropriate interventions can then enable the young person to engage with verbally mediated interventions. © 2011 Royal College

  14. TU-CD-BRD-01: Making Incident Learning Practical and Useful: Challenges and Previous Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzell, G.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiences to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample time set

  15. Previous experience of family violence and intimate partner violence in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bernarda Ludermir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. METHODS A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18–49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. RESULTS Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89–3.63 and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01–2.13, sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68–6.38 and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 – 2.12. The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43–3.02 and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07–2.47, who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86–8.27, and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57–16.45. CONCLUSIONS Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help

  16. Previous experience of family violence and intimate partner violence in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de; Valongueiro, Sandra Alves; Muniz, Maria Luísa Corrêa; Silva, Elisabete Pereira

    2017-01-01

    To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89-3.63) and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01-2.13), sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68-6.38) and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 - 2.12). The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43-3.02) and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07-2.47), who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86-8.27), and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57-16.45). Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help policymakers and health service managers to develop intervention strategies.

  17. The Impact of an International Cultural Experience on Previously Held Stereotypes by American Student Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Loretta; Bengiamin, Marlene; Downey, Vicki Wessman

    2001-01-01

    Examined stereotypes held by U.S. student nurses before and after participating in an educational experience in Russia. The experience was intended to prepare them to be effective nurses in multicultural health care settings. Data from student interviews indicated that the experience changed students' stereotyped attitudes about Russian culture…

  18. Cross-Pollination -- An Experiment in Language Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breach, H. T.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment with a second-year class of about 35 pupils in teaching English, French and Indonesian in an interconnected way, involving art and social studies as well as language and literature. Although the experiment is as yet unevaluated, the general effect was considered encouraging. (KM)

  19. Previous Experiences with Epilepsy and Effectiveness of Information to Change Public Perception of Epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, Jan M.; Seydel, E.R.; Wiegman, O.

    1986-01-01

    Differences with regard to the effectiveness of health information and attitude change are suggested between people with direct, behavioral experiences with a health topic and people with indirect, nonbehavioral experiences. The effects of three different methods of health education about epilepsy,

  20. A Latin Functionalist Dictionary as a Self-Learning Language Device: Previous Experiences to Digitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Manuel; Chaves, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The application of a methodology based on S.C. Dik's Functionalist Grammar linguistic principles, which is addressed to the teaching of Latin to secondary students, has resulted in a quantitative improvement in students' acquisition process of knowledge. To do so, we have used a self-learning tool, an ad hoc dictionary, of which the use in…

  1. Language and verbal reasoning skills in adolescents with 10 or more years of cochlear implant experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geers, Ann E; Sedey, Allison L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify factors predictive of successful English language outcomes in adolescents who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 2 and 5 yrs of age. All 112 participants had been part of a previous study examining English language outcomes at the age of 8 and 9 yrs with CIs. The participants were given a battery of language and verbal reasoning tests in their preferred communication mode along with measures of working memory (digit span) and verbal rehearsal speed (sentence repetition duration). The degree to which students' language performance was enhanced when sign was added to spoken language was estimated at both test sessions. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to document factors contributing to overall language outcomes. A substantial proportion of the adolescents obtained test scores within or above 1SD compared with hearing age-mates in the tests' normative samples: 71% on a verbal intelligence test, 68% on a measure of language content, 71% on receptive vocabulary, and 74% on expressive vocabulary. Improvement in verbal intelligence scores over an 8-yr interval exceeded expectation based on age-mates in the test's normative sample. Better English language outcomes were associated with shorter duration of deafness before cochlear implantation, higher nonverbal intelligence, higher family socioeconomic status, longer digit spans, and faster verbal rehearsal speed as measured by sentence repetition rate. Students whose current receptive vocabulary scores were not enhanced by the addition of signs also exhibited higher English language scores than those without sign enhancement; however, sign enhancement demonstrated in the elementary school years was not predictive of later high-school language skills. Results of this study support the provision of CIs to children at the youngest age possible. In addition, it highlights the substantial role that cognition plays in later language outcomes. Although the students' use

  2. Transnational Experience, Aspiration and Family Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zhu; Wei, Li

    2016-01-01

    Transnational and multilingual families have become commonplace in the twenty-first century. Yet relatively few attempts have been made from applied and socio-linguistic perspectives to understand what is going on "within" such families; how their transnational and multilingual experiences impact on the family dynamics and their everyday…

  3. The Pakistan Experiment and the Language Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, W.; Guhathakurta, M.; van Schendel, W.

    2013-01-01

    The partition of 1947 created two new independent states, India and Pakistan. The eastern part of Bengal joined Pakistan. Pakistan was a highly ambitious experiment in twentieth-century state making. And yet, from the beginning the state was beset with enormous challenges. This excerpt from a recent

  4. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs

  5. Transnational experience, aspiration and family language policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, H.; Li, W.

    2016-01-01

    Transnational and multilingual families have become commonplace in the twenty-first century. Yet relatively few attempts have been made from applied and socio-linguistic perspectives to understand what is going on within such families; how their transnational and multilingual experiences impact on the family dynamics and their everyday life; how they cope with the new and ever-changing environment, and how they construct their identities and build social relations. In this article, we start f...

  6. The Interstitial Language and Transnational Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bartoloni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I argue that the idea of inhabiting, and of human individuality as the house of being, are fruitful ideas if located in a space defined by movement, porosity, interstitiality, and in an urban and architectural paradigm which is based on openness and inclusiveness. Transnational experiences and localities can be, to this end, extremely instructive. It is essential to articulate the notion of dwelling within an urban context in which building is the result of complex cultural and social interactions, which are characterised not only by the negotiation of space and materials but also, and more importantly, by a range of symbolic values. The symbolism that I refer to here is the product of mnemonic and emotional experiences marked by time and space, which in the case of the migratory and transnational experiences is arrived at through a delicate negotiation of the past and the present, and the ‘here’ (the current locality and the ‘there’ (the native locality. The dwelling that I speak of is, therefore, a double dwelling divided between the present at-hand and the remembered past, and as such it inhabits a space, which is both interstitial and liminal, simultaneously in and out-of-place. I have chosen the Italian Forum in Sydney as a working sample of the place-out-of-place

  7. The Role of Previous Experience and Attitudes toward Statistics in Statistics Assessment Outcomes among Undergraduate Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Martin; McCorry, Noleen K.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that students' cognitions about statistics are related to their performance in statistics assessments. The purpose of this research is to examine the nature of the relationships between undergraduate psychology students' previous experiences of maths, statistics and computing; their attitudes toward statistics;…

  8. Areas Recruited during Action Understanding Are Not Modulated by Auditory or Sign Language Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuxing; Chen, Quanjing; Lingnau, Angelika; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2016-01-01

    The observation of other people's actions recruits a network of areas including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG). These regions have been shown to be activated through both visual and auditory inputs. Intriguingly, previous studies found no engagement of IFG and IPL for deaf participants during non-linguistic action observation, leading to the proposal that auditory experience or sign language usage might shape the functionality of these areas. To understand which variables induce plastic changes in areas recruited during the processing of other people's actions, we examined the effects of tasks (action understanding and passive viewing) and effectors (arm actions vs. leg actions), as well as sign language experience in a group of 12 congenitally deaf signers and 13 hearing participants. In Experiment 1, we found a stronger activation during an action recognition task in comparison to a low-level visual control task in IFG, IPL and pMTG in both deaf signers and hearing individuals, but no effect of auditory or sign language experience. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of the first experiment using a passive viewing task. Together, our results provide robust evidence demonstrating that the response obtained in IFG, IPL, and pMTG during action recognition and passive viewing is not affected by auditory or sign language experience, adding further support for the supra-modal nature of these regions.

  9. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer: single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocvirk Janja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC is mainly a disease of elderly, however, geriatric population is underrepresented in clinical trials. Patient registries represent a tool to assess and follow treatment outcomes in this patient population. The aim of the study was with the help of the patients’ register to determine the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients who had previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer.

  10. When Language Experience Fails to Explain Word Reading Development: Early Cognitive and Linguistic Profiles of Young Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Although language experience is a key factor in successful foreign language (FL) learning, many FL learners fail to achieve performance levels that were predicted on the basis of their FL experience. This retrospective study investigated early cognitive and linguistic correlates of learning English as a foreign language (FL) in a group of…

  11. Language experiences and vocabulary development in Dominican and Mexican infants across the first 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lulu; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Wu, Irene

    2012-07-01

    We longitudinally investigated parental language context and infants' language experiences in relation to Dominican American and Mexican American infants' vocabularies. Mothers provided information on parental language context, comprising measures of parents' language background (i.e., childhood language) and current language use during interviews at infants' birth. Infants' language experiences were measured at ages 14 months and 2 years through mothers' reports of mothers' and fathers' engagement in English and Spanish literacy activities with infants and mothers' English and Spanish utterances during videotaped mother-infant interactions. Infants' vocabulary development at 14 months and 2 years was examined using standardized vocabulary checklists in English and Spanish. Both parental language context and infants' language experiences predicted infants' vocabularies in each language at both ages. Furthermore, language experiences mediated associations between parental language context and infants' vocabularies. However, the specific mediation mechanisms varied by language.

  12. Second language experience modulates functional brain network for the native language production in bimodal bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lijuan; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zinszer, Benjamin; Yan, Xin; Shu, Hua; Peng, Danling; Ding, Guosheng

    2012-09-01

    The functional brain network of a bilingual's first language (L1) plays a crucial role in shaping that of his or her second language (L2). However, it is less clear how L2 acquisition changes the functional network of L1 processing in bilinguals. In this study, we demonstrate that in bimodal (Chinese spoken-sign) bilinguals, the functional network supporting L1 production (spoken language) has been reorganized to accommodate the network underlying L2 production (sign language). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a picture naming task, we find greater recruitment of the right supramarginal gyrus (RSMG), the right temporal gyrus (RSTG), and the right superior occipital gyrus (RSOG) for bilingual speakers versus monolingual speakers during L1 production. In addition, our second experiment reveals that these regions reflect either automatic activation of L2 (RSOG) or extra cognitive coordination (RSMG and RSTG) between both languages during L1 production. The functional connectivity between these regions, as well as between other regions that are L1- or L2-specific, is enhanced during L1 production in bimodal bilinguals as compared to their monolingual peers. These findings suggest that L1 production in bimodal bilinguals involves an interaction between L1 and L2, supporting the claim that learning a second language does, in fact, change the functional brain network of the first language. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Impact of Previous Online Course Experience RN Students' Perceptions of Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixon, Emily; Barczyk, Casimir; Ralston-Berg, Penny; Buckenmeyer, Janet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore whether experienced online students (who have completed seven or more online courses) perceive the quality of their courses differently than novice online students (who have completed three or fewer online courses) or students with an intermediate level of online course experience (those who have completed…

  14. Is the ability to perform transurethral resection of the prostate influenced by the surgeon's previous experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cury

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of the urologist's experience on the surgical results and complications of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate without the use of a video camera were randomly allocated into three groups according to the urologist's experience: a urologist having done 25 transurethral resections of the prostate (Group I - 24 patients; a urologist having done 50 transurethral resections of the prostate (Group II - 24 patients; a senior urologist with vast transurethral resection of the prostate experience (Group III - 19 patients. The following were recorded: the weight of resected tissue, the duration of the resection procedure, the volume of irrigation used, the amount of irrigation absorbed and the hemoglobin and sodium levels in the serum during the procedure. RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups in the amount of irrigation fluid used per operation, the amount of irrigation fluid absorbed or hematocrit and hemoglobin variation during the procedure. The weight of resected tissue per minute was approximately four times higher in group III than in groups I and II. The mean absorbed irrigation fluid was similar between the groups, with no statistical difference between them (p=0.24. Four patients (6% presented with TUR syndrome, without a significant difference between the groups. CONCLUSION: The senior urologist was capable of resecting four times more tissue per time unit than the more inexperienced surgeons. Therefore, a surgeon's experience may be important to reduce the risk of secondary TURP due to recurring adenomas or adenomas that were incompletely resected. However, the incidence of complications was the same between the three groups.

  15. Faith, language and experience: An analysis of the feeling of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article deals with the essence of religion proposed by Schleiermacher, namely 'the feeling of absolute dependence upon the Infinite'. In his theory of religious experience, and the language he used to express it, he claimed his work to be independent of concepts and beliefs. Epistemologically this is incompatible.

  16. Birth Order and the Language Experience of Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the language experience of second-generation immigrant Korean American school-age children (4-18 years) by surveying their parents. Reports responses to a small portion of the questionnaire that specifically addressed the issue of birth order. (Author/VWL)

  17. An Experiment on Creating Enterprise Specific BPM Languages and Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Steen

    and automation to BPM tools through a tool experiment in Danske Bank, a large financial institute; We develop business process modeling languages, tools and transformations that capture Danske Banks specific modeling concepts and use of technology, and which automate the generation of code. An empirical...... evaluation shows that Danske Bank will possibly gain remarkable improvements in development productivity and the quality of the implemented code.This leads us to the conclusion that BPM tools should provide flexibility to allow customization of languages, tools and transformations to the specific needs...

  18. Doodling the Nerves: Surfacing Language Anxiety Experiences in an English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagto-Wakat, Geraldine

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the use of doodling to surface experiences in the psychological phenomenon of language anxiety in an English classroom. It treated the doodles of 192 freshmen from a premier university in Northern Luzon, Philippines. Further, it made use of phenomenological reduction in analysing the data gathered. Findings reveal…

  19. Traveling through Languages: Reports on Language Experiences in Tourists' Travel Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethals, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to gain insight into (Spanish) tourists' multilingual experiences by analyzing spontaneously written online travel diaries. Using the conceptual framework of Rapport Management Theory (RMT; Spencer-Oatey 2008), I analyze reports on the tourists' mother tongue, local languages, and English as lingua franca in order to examine the…

  20. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Płowaś-Goral, Małgorzata; Nogalski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  1. DPMine Graphical Language for Automation of Experiments in Process Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shershakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Process mining is a new direction in the field of modeling and analysis of processes, where the use of information from event logs describing the history of the system behavior plays an important role. Methods and approaches used in the process mining are often based on various heuristics, and experiments with large event logs are crucial for the study and comparison of the developed methods and algorithms. Such experiments are very time consuming, so automation of experiments is an important task in the field of process mining. This paper presents the language DPMine developed specifically to describe and carry out experiments on the discovery and analysis of process models. The basic concepts of the DPMine language as well as principles and mechanisms of its extension are described. Ways of integration of the DPMine language as dynamically loaded components into the VTMine modeling tool are considered. An illustrating example of an experiment for building a fuzzy model of the process discovered from the log data stored in a normalized database is given.

  2. The role of previous experience and attitudes toward statistics in statistics assessment outcomes among undergraduate psychology students

    OpenAIRE

    Dempster, Martin; McCorry, Noleen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that students’ cognitions about statistics are related to their performance in statistics assessments. The purpose of this research is to examine the nature of the relationships between undergraduate psychology students’ previous experiences of maths, statistics and computing; their attitudes toward statistics; and assessment on a statistics course. Of the variables examined, the strongest predictor of assessment outcome was students’ attitude about their in...

  3. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain’s capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  4. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer: single center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocvirk, Janja; Moltara, Maja Ebert; Mesti, Tanja; Boc, Marko; Rebersek, Martina; Volk, Neva; Benedik, Jernej; Hlebanja, Zvezdana

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is mainly a disease of elderly, however, geriatric population is underrepresented in clinical trials. Patient registries represent a tool to assess and follow treatment outcomes in this patient population. The aim of the study was with the help of the patients’ register to determine the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients who had previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. The registry of patients with mCRC was designed to prospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy as well as selection of patients in routine clinical practice. Patient baseline clinical characteristics, pre-specified bevacizumab-related adverse events, and efficacy data were collected, evaluated and compared according to the age categories. Between January 2008 and December 2010, 210 patients with mCRC (median age 63, male 61.4%) started bevacizumab-containing therapy in the 1 st line setting. Majority of the 210 patients received irinotecan-based chemotherapy (68%) as 1 st line treatment and 105 patients (50%) received bevacizumab maintenance therapy. Elderly (≥ 70 years) patients presented 22.9% of all patients and they had worse performance status (PS 1/2, 62.4%) than patients in < 70 years group (PS 1/2, 35.8%). Difference in disease control rate was mainly due to inability to assess response in elderly group (64.6% in elderly and 77.8% in < 70 years group, p = 0.066). The median progression free survival was 10.2 (95% CI, 6.7–16.2) and 11.3 (95% CI, 10.2–12.6) months in elderly and < 70 years group, respectively (p = 0.58). The median overall survival was 18.5 (95% CI, 12.4–28.9) and 27.4 (95% CI, 22.7–31.9) months for elderly and < 70 years group, respectively (p = 0.03). Three-year survival rate was 26% and 37.6% in elderly vs. < 70 years group (p = 0.03). Overall rates of bevacizumab-related adverse events were similar in both groups: proteinuria 21

  5. Language experience narratives and the role of autobiographical reasoning in becoming an urban science teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Maulucci, Maria S.

    2011-06-01

    One of the central challenges globalization and immigration present to education is how to construct school language policies, procedures, and curricula to support academic success of immigrant youth. This case-study compares and contrasts language experience narratives along Elena's developmental trajectory of becoming an urban science teacher. Elena reflects upon her early language experiences and her more recent experiences as a preservice science teacher in elementary dual language classrooms. The findings from Elena's early schooling experiences provide an analysis of the linkages between Elena's developing English proficiency, her Spanish proficiency, and her autobiographical reasoning. Elena's experiences as a preservice teacher in two elementary dual language classrooms indicates ways in which those experiences helped to reframe her views about the intersections between language learning and science learning. I propose the language experience narrative, as a subset of the life story, as a way to understand how preservice teachers reconstruct past language experiences, connect to the present, and anticipate future language practices.

  6. Validation of the Danish language Injustice Experience Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Peter; Schultz, Rikke; Smith, Anne Agerskov

    2017-01-01

    The Injustice Experience Questionnaire has shown promising ability to predict problematic rehabilitation in pain conditions, especially concerning work status. A Danish language version of the Injustice Experience Questionnaire was developed and completed by 358 patients with long-lasting pain....../somatoform symptoms. These patients also completed questionnaires concerning sociodemographics, anxiety and depression, subjective well-being, and overall physical and mental functioning. Our results showed satisfactory interpretability and face validity, and high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .90......). The original one-factor structure was confirmed, but subscales should be interpreted cautiously. The Danish version of the Injustice Experience Questionnaire is found to be valid and reliable....

  7. Validation of the Danish language Injustice Experience Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Cour, Peter; Smith, Anne Agerskov; Schultz, Rikke

    2017-06-01

    The Injustice Experience Questionnaire has shown promising ability to predict problematic rehabilitation in pain conditions, especially concerning work status. A Danish language version of the Injustice Experience Questionnaire was developed and completed by 358 patients with long-lasting pain/somatoform symptoms. These patients also completed questionnaires concerning sociodemographics, anxiety and depression, subjective well-being, and overall physical and mental functioning. Our results showed satisfactory interpretability and face validity, and high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .90). The original one-factor structure was confirmed, but subscales should be interpreted cautiously. The Danish version of the Injustice Experience Questionnaire is found to be valid and reliable.

  8. Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners' Experiences in High School Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Annette; Smith, K. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the experiences of Spanish-speaking English language learners in high school chemistry courses, focusing largely on experiences in learning the English language, experiences learning chemistry, and experiences learning chemistry in the English language. The findings illustrate the cognitive processes the students undertake…

  9. APPLICATION OF THE EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS’ TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Barkasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the role of the European experience in the foreign language teachers` training in the modern society, the use of International relations in education. The concept of common European education is analyzed. Due to this concept teaching and learning standards, educational models, and teaching objectives are brought together with the aim to create the common all-European educational system. In order to join this all-European scheme Ukraine needs to make modifications in its educational system. The fundamental idea is to use blended learning as the dominant instructional mode in higher education. The authors examine how the study of the leading European powers` educational experience helps to approach the problems of education in Ukraine critically. English Language Department of Mykolaiv V. Sukhomlynsky National University as a part of the consortium, composed of ten higher education institutions, takes part in the TEMPUS-project «Improving teaching European languages through the introduction of on-line technology (blended learning to train teachers." Blended learning is a powerful technology to be implemented into the modern model of Ukrainian education in order to get the level of European educational system. The article highlights how participation in the implementation of TEMPUS-project can be an effective tool for improving the training of the foreign languages teachers.

  10. The relationship between emotional intelligence, previous caring experience and successful completion of a pre-registration nursing/midwifery degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Austyn; Stenhouse, Rosie; Duers, Lorraine; Marshall, Sarah; Carver, Fiona; Brown, Norrie; Young, Jenny

    2018-02-01

    To examine the relationship between baseline emotional intelligence and prior caring experience with completion of pre-registration nurse and midwifery education. Selection and retention of nursing students is a global challenge. Emotional intelligence is well-conceptualized, measurable and an intuitive prerequisite to nursing values and so might be a useful selection criterion. Previous caring experience may also be associated with successful completion of nurse training. Prospective longitudinal study. Self-report trait and ability emotional intelligence scores were obtained from 876 student nurses from two Scottish Universities before they began training in 2013. Data on previous caring experience were recorded. Relationships between these metrics and successful completion of the course were calculated in SPSS version 23. Nurses completing their programme scored significantly higher on trait emotional intelligence than those that did not complete their programme. Nurses completing their programme also scored significantly higher on social connection scores than those that did not. There was no relationship between "ability" emotional intelligence and completion. Previous caring experience was not statistically significantly related to completion. Students with higher baseline trait emotional intelligence scores were statistically more likely to complete training than those with lower scores. This relationship also held using "Social connection" scores. At best, previous caring experience made no difference to students' chances of completing training. Caution is urged when interpreting these results because the headline findings mask considerable heterogeneity. Neither previous caring experience or global emotional intelligence measures should be used in isolation to recruit nurses. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Linguistic Identity Positioning in Facebook Posts during Second Language Study Abroad: One Teen's Language Use, Experience, and Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita; Dressler, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Teens who post on the popular social networking site Facebook in their home environment often continue to do so on second language study abroad sojourns. These sojourners use Facebook to document and make sense of their experiences in the host culture and position themselves with respect to language(s) and culture(s). This study examined one…

  12. Long-Term Experience with Chinese Language Shapes the Fusiform Asymmetry of English Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Wei, Miao; He, Qinghua; Dong, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of the bilateral fusiform gyrus in the processing of Chinese and English. The present study tested the possibility that long-term experience with Chinese language affects the fusiform laterality of English reading by comparing three samples: Chinese speakers, English speakers with Chinese experience, and English speakers without Chinese experience. We found that, when reading words in their respective native language, Chinese and English speakers without Chinese experience differed in functional laterality of the posterior fusiform region (right laterality for Chinese speakers, but left laterality for English speakers). More importantly, compared with English speakers without Chinese experience, English speakers with Chinese experience showed more recruitment of the right posterior fusiform cortex for English words and pseudowords, which is similar to how Chinese speakers processed Chinese. These results suggest that long-term experience with Chinese shapes the fusiform laterality of English reading and have important implications for our understanding of the cross-language influences in terms of neural organization and of the functions of different fusiform subregions in reading. PMID:25598049

  13. Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates' Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo Moon, Hyoung; Kwon Choi, Byoung; Shik Jung, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Although various antecedents of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment have been addressed, previous international experience, predeparture cross-cultural training, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have been most frequently examined. However, there are few attempts that explore the effects of these antecedents simultaneously or consider the possible…

  14. Pain related to mandibular block injections and its relationship with anxiety and previous experiences with dental anesthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, A.; Lindeboom, J.A.; de Jongh, A.; Tuk, J.G.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Anesthetic injections should reassure patients with the prospect of painless treatment, but for some patients it is the main source of their fear. We investigated pain resulting from mandibular block injections in relation to anxiety and previous experience with receiving injections.

  15. Bilinguals' Plausibility Judgments for Phrases with a Literal vs. Non-literal Meaning: The Influence of Language Brokering Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belem G. López

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that prior experience in language brokering (informal translation may facilitate the processing of meaning within and across language boundaries. The present investigation examined the influence of brokering on bilinguals' processing of two word collocations with either a literal or a figurative meaning in each language. Proficient Spanish-English bilinguals classified as brokers or non-brokers were asked to judge if adjective+noun phrases presented in each language made sense or not. Phrases with a literal meaning (e.g., stinging insect were interspersed with phrases with a figurative meaning (e.g., stinging insult and non-sensical phrases (e.g., stinging picnic. It was hypothesized that plausibility judgments would be facilitated for literal relative to figurative meanings in each language but that experience in language brokering would be associated with a more equivalent pattern of responding across languages. These predictions were confirmed. The findings add to the body of empirical work on individual differences in language processing in bilinguals associated with prior language brokering experience.

  16. The Effect of Previous Co-Worker Experience on the Survival of Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of previous co-worker experience on the survival of knowledge intensive start-ups. For the empirical analysis I use the Danish Integrated Database of Labor Market Research (IDA). This longitudinal employer-employee database allows me to identify co-worker...... experience among all members of the firm. In addition, I will make a distinction between ordinary start-ups and entrepreneurial spin-offs. The results show that previous co-worker experience has a positive effect on new firm survival. This effect appears to be valid predominantly for ordinary start-ups than...

  17. The relationship between emotional intelligence, previous caring experience and mindfulness in student nurses and midwives: a cross sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Austyn; Stenhouse, Rosie; Young, Jenny; Carver, Hannah; Carver, Fiona; Brown, Norrie

    2015-01-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI), previous caring experience and mindfulness training may have a positive impact on nurse education. More evidence is needed to support the use of these variables in nurse recruitment and retention. To explore the relationship between EI, gender, age, programme of study, previous caring experience and mindfulness training. Cross sectional element of longitudinal study. 938year one nursing, midwifery and computing students at two Scottish Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) who entered their programme in September 2013. Participants completed a measure of 'trait' EI: Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue-SF); and 'ability' EI: Schutte's et al. (1998) Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS). Demographics, previous caring experience and previous training in mindfulness were recorded. Relationships between variables were tested using non-parametric tests. Emotional intelligence increased with age on both measures of EI [TEIQ-SF H(5)=15.157 p=0.001; SEIS H(5)=11.388, p=0.044]. Females (n=786) scored higher than males (n=149) on both measures [TEIQ-SF, U=44,931, z=-4.509, pintelligence. Mindfulness training was associated with higher 'ability' emotional intelligence. Implications for recruitment, retention and further research are explored. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Second Language Experience Facilitates Statistical Learning of Novel Linguistic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christine E; Wang, Tianlin; Saffran, Jenny R

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has begun to explore individual differences in statistical learning, and how those differences may be related to other cognitive abilities, particularly their effects on language learning. In this research, we explored a different type of relationship between language learning and statistical learning: the possibility that learning a new language may also influence statistical learning by changing the regularities to which learners are sensitive. We tested two groups of participants, Mandarin Learners and Naïve Controls, at two time points, 6 months apart. At each time point, participants performed two different statistical learning tasks: an artificial tonal language statistical learning task and a visual statistical learning task. Only the Mandarin-learning group showed significant improvement on the linguistic task, whereas both groups improved equally on the visual task. These results support the view that there are multiple influences on statistical learning. Domain-relevant experiences may affect the regularities that learners can discover when presented with novel stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S

    2015-06-23

    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  20. Korean speech-language pathologists' attitudes toward stuttering according to clinical experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjae

    2014-11-01

    Negative attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are found in various groups of people in many regions. However the results of previous studies examining the influence of fluency coursework and clinical certification on the attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward PWS are equivocal. Furthermore, there have been few empirical studies on the attitudes of Korean SLPs toward stuttering. To determine whether the attitudes of Korean SLPs and speech-language pathology students toward stuttering would be different according to the status of clinical certification, stuttering coursework completion and clinical practicum in stuttering. Survey data from 37 certified Korean SLPs and 70 undergraduate students majoring in speech-language pathology were analysed. All the participants completed the modified Clinician Attitudes Toward Stuttering (CATS) Inventory. Results showed that the diagnosogenic view was still accepted by many participants. Significant differences were found in seven out of 46 CATS Inventory items according to the certification status. In addition significant differences were also found in three items and one item according to stuttering coursework completion and clinical practicum experience in stuttering, respectively. Clinical and educational experience appears to have mixed influences on SLPs' and students' attitudes toward stuttering. While SLPs and students may demonstrate more appropriate understanding and knowledge in certain areas of stuttering, they may feel difficulty in their clinical experience, possibly resulting in low self-efficacy. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  1. PENERAPAN LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE APPROACH DALAM PEMBELAJARAN KETERAMPILAN BERBICARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Sri Uswati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available If a person has good speech skills, he or she will gain both social and professional benefits. In the implementation of Indonesian language learning in schools, teachers do not invite students to be more active in listening, speaking, reading and writing. This condition results in low student speaking ability. This study aims to improve speaking skills on the competence of retelling the contents of the short story by applying the Language Experience Approach (LEA. This class action research (PTK is conducted in MAN 2 Kota Cirebon. Data collection techniques, including: questionnaires, observations, interviews, and skills test storytelling. The results showed that the implementation of LEA strategy can improve the storytelling skills. The improvement is reflected in the quality of learning reflected in liveliness, attention and concentration, interest during learning, and the courage of students telling stories in front of the class.

  2. Experience with a Spanish-language laparoscopy website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Sanz, Carlos; Seoane-González, Jose B

    2006-02-01

    Although there are no clearly defined electronic tools for continuing medical education (CME), new information technologies offer a basic platform for presenting training content on the internet. Due to the shortage of websites about minimally invasive surgery in the Spanish language, we set up a topical website in Spanish. This study considers the experience with the website between April 2001 and January 2005. To study the activity of the website, the registry information was analyzed descriptively using the log files of the server. To study the characteristics of the users, we searched the database of registered users. We found a total of 107,941 visits to our website and a total of 624,895 page downloads. Most visits to the site were made from Spanish-speaking countries. The most frequent professional profile of the registered users was that of general surgeon. The development, implementation, and evaluation of Spanish-language CME initiatives over the internet is promising but presents challenges.

  3. An Experiment on Creating Enterprise Specific BPM Languages and Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Steen

    Many enterprises use their own domain concepts in modeling business process and use technology in specialized ways when they implement them in a Business Process Management (BPM) system.In contrast, BPM tools used for modeling and implementing business processes often provide a standard modeling...... and automation to BPM tools through a tool experiment in Danske Bank, a large financial institute; We develop business process modeling languages, tools and transformations that capture Danske Banks specific modeling concepts and use of technology, and which automate the generation of code. An empirical...... evaluation shows that Danske Bank will possibly gain remarkable improvements in development productivity and the quality of the implemented code.This leads us to the conclusion that BPM tools should provide flexibility to allow customization of languages, tools and transformations to the specific needs...

  4. Grounding meaning in experience: A broad perspective on embodied language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, Giovanni; Colagè, Ivan; Gobbi, Nicola; Bonaccorso, Giorgio

    2016-10-01

    This work reviews key behavioural, neurophysiological and neuroimaging data on the neural substrates for processing the meaning of linguistic material, and tries to articulate the picture emerging from those findings with the notion of meaning coming from specific approaches in philosophy of language (the "internalist" view) and linguistics (words point at experiential clusters). The reviewed findings provide evidence in favour of a causal role of brain neural structures responsible for sensory, motor and even emotional experiences in attributing meaning to words expressing those experiences and, consequently, lend substantial support to an embodied and "internalist" conception of linguistic meaning. Key evidence concern verbs, nouns and adjectives with a concrete content, but the challenge that abstract domains pose to the embodied approach to language is also discussed. This work finally suggests that the most fundamental role of embodiment might be that of establishing commonalities among individual experiences of different members of a linguistic community, and that those experiences ground shared linguistic meanings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Perceptual Saliency Hierarchy on Learning of Language Structures: An Artificial Language Learning Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Lam, Yau W.; Shuai, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Psychological experiments have revealed that in normal visual perception of humans, color cues are more salient than shape cues, which are more salient than textural patterns. We carried out an artificial language learning experiment to study whether such perceptual saliency hierarchy (color > shape > texture) influences the learning of orders regulating adjectives of involved visual features in a manner either congruent (expressing a salient feature in a salient part of the form) or incongruent (expressing a salient feature in a less salient part of the form) with that hierarchy. Results showed that within a few rounds of learning participants could learn the compositional segments encoding the visual features and the order between them, generalize the learned knowledge to unseen instances with the same or different orders, and show learning biases for orders that are congruent with the perceptual saliency hierarchy. Although the learning performances for both the biased and unbiased orders became similar given more learning trials, our study confirms that this type of individual perceptual constraint could contribute to the structural configuration of language, and points out that such constraint, as well as other factors, could collectively affect the structural diversity in languages. PMID:28066281

  6. Lexical and Grammatical Abilities in Deaf Italian Preschoolers: The Role of Duration of Formal Language Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated language development in deaf Italian preschoolers with hearing parents, taking into account the duration of formal language experience (i.e., the time elapsed since wearing a hearing aid and beginning language education) and different methods of language education. Twenty deaf children were matched with 20 hearing children for age and…

  7. Exploring English Language Learners (ELL) experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algee, Lisa M.

    English Language Learners (ELL) are often at a distinct disadvantage from receiving authentic science learning opportunites. This study explored English Language Learners (ELL) learning experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context. This research was theoretically informed by sociocultural theory and literature on student learning and science teaching for ELL. A qualitative, case study was used to explore students' learning experiences. Data from multiple sources was collected: student interviews, science letters, an assessment in another context, field-notes, student presentations, inquiry assessment, instructional group conversations, parent interviews, parent letters, parent homework, teacher-researcher evaluation, teacher-researcher reflective journal, and student ratings of learning activities. These data sources informed the following research questions: (1) Does participation in an out-of-school contextualized inquiry science project increase ELL use of scientific language? (2) Does participation in an out-of-school contextualized inquiry science project increase ELL understanding of scientific inquiry and their motivation to learn? (3) What are parents' funds of knowledge about the local ecology and does this inform students' experiences in the science project? All data sources concerning students were analyzed for similar patterns and trends and triangulation was sought through the use of these data sources. The remaining data sources concerning the teacher-researcher were used to inform and assess whether the pedagogical and research practices were in alignment with the proposed theoretical framework. Data sources concerning parental participation accessed funds of knowledge, which informed the curriculum in order to create continuity and connections between home and school. To ensure accuracy in the researchers' interpretations of student and parent responses during interviews, member checking was employed. The findings

  8. Language and Literacy: Children’s Experiences in Multilingual Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Sneddon, Raymonde

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigates the language use and literacy practices of 36 children (aged three-and-a-half, seven and 11) from a Gujerati and Urdu-speaking Muslim community in north-east London. These experiences are explored in the children’s three-generation families, in the community and in school through interviews, recordings and observations. They are related to the children’s educational achievement and whether or not they make use of a local community cultural and religious centre. ...

  9. The experiences and perspectives of overseas trained speech and language therapists working in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Naomi; Cruice, Madeline

    2010-06-01

    There is a growing body of research which has investigated the experience of the migrant health worker. However, only one of these studies has included speech and language therapists thus far, and then only with extremely small numbers. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and perspectives of migrant speech and language therapists living in the UK. Twenty-three overseas qualified speech and language therapists living in the UK completed an online survey consisting of 36 questions (31 closed question, 5 open-ended questions). The majority of participants came from Australia or the USA and moved to the UK early in their careers. Participants reported a range of benefits from working in another country and more specifically working in the UK. The findings were consistent with other research on migrant health workers regarding known pull factors of travel, finance, and career. This study suggests additional advantages to working in the UK were realized once participants had started working in the UK, such as the UK job lifestyle. Finally, the migrant speech and language therapists were similar in profile to other migrant health workers in terms of age and country of origin previously reported in the literature.

  10. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-02-26

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8-27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs.

  11. A 20-year experience with liver transplantation for polycystic liver disease: does previous palliative surgical intervention affect outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, John T; Hiatt, Jonathan R; Busuttil, Ronald W; Agopian, Vatche G

    2014-10-01

    Although it is the only curative treatment for polycystic liver disease (PLD), orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has been reserved for severely symptomatic, malnourished, or refractory patients who are not candidates for palliative disease-directed interventions (DDI). Data on the effect of previous DDIs on post-transplant morbidity and mortality are scarce. We analyzed the outcomes after OLT for PLD recipients, and determined the effects of previous palliative surgical intervention on post-transplantation morbidity and mortality. We performed a retrospective analysis of factors affecting perioperative outcomes after OLT for PLD between 1992 and 2013, including comparisons of recipients with previous major open DDIs (Open DDI, n = 12) with recipients with minimally invasive or no previous DDIs (minimal DDI, n = 16). Over the 20-year period, 28 recipients underwent OLT for PLD, with overall 30-day, 1-, and 5-year graft and patient survivals of 96%, 89%, 75%, and 96%, 93%, 79%, respectively. Compared with the minimal DDI group, open DDI recipients accounted for all 5 deaths, had inferior 90-day and 1- and 5-year survivals (83%, 83%, and 48% vs 100%, 100%, 100%; p = 0.009), and greater intraoperative (42% vs 0%; p = 0.003), total (58% vs 19%; p = 0.031), and Clavien grade IV or greater (50% vs 6%; p = 0.007) postoperative complications, more unplanned reoperations (50% vs 13%; p = 0.003), and longer total hospital (27 days vs 17 days; p = 0.035) and ICU (10 days vs 4 days; p = 0.045) stays. In one of the largest single-institution experiences of OLT for PLD, we report excellent long-term graft and patient survival. Previous open DDIs are associated with increased risks of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Improved identification of PLD patients bound for OLT may mitigate perioperative complications and potentially improve post-transplantation outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Uses of Formal and Informal Assessments of English Language Learners in a Language Experience Class, School Year 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will compare the uses of selected formal and informal assessments of English language learners (ELLs) in the Language Experience class [TRANSLANGEXP7(&8)-008] at Kimball Middle School, Illinois School District U-46, Elgin, Illinois, during school year 2007- 2008. See figure 1 (page 14) for a graphic display of these assessments…

  13. Does Previous Experience of Floods Stimulate the Adoption of Coping Strategies? Evidence from Cross Sectional Surveys in Nigeria and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A. Boamah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, hydro-meteorological related disasters, such as floods, account for the majority of the total number of natural disasters. Over the past century, floods have affected 38 million people, claimed several lives and caused substantial economic losses in the region. The goal of this paper is to examine how personality disposition, social network, and socio-demographic factors mitigate the complex relationship between stressful life experiences of floods and ocean surges and the adoption of coping strategies among coastal communities in Nigeria and Tanzania. Generalized linear models (GLM were fitted to cross-sectional survey data on 1003 and 1253 individuals in three contiguous coastal areas in Nigeria and Tanzania, respectively. Marked differences in the type of coping strategies were observed across the two countries. In Tanzania, the zero-order relationships between adoption of coping strategies and age, employment and income disappeared at the multivariate level. Only experience of floods in the past year and social network resources were significant predictors of participants’ adoption of coping strategies, unlike in Nigeria, where a plethora of factors such as experience of ocean surges in the past one year, personality disposition, age, education, experience of flood in the past one year, ethnicity, income, housing quality and employment status were still statistically significant at the multivariate level. Our findings suggest that influence of previous experience on adoption of coping strategies is spatially ubiquitous. Consequently, context-specific policies aimed at encouraging the adoption of flood-related coping strategies in vulnerable locations should be designed based on local needs and orientation.

  14. High/Scope Preschool Key Experiences: Language and Literacy. [with]Curriculum Videotape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Nancy A.

    During the preschool years, children experience great strides in their ability to use language. This booklet and companion videotape help teachers and parents recognize and support six High/Scope key experiences in language and literacy: (1) talking with others about personally meaningful experiences; (2) describing objects, events, and relations;…

  15. The Impact of Previous Action on Bargaining—An Experiment on the Emergence of Preferences for Fairness Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Neumann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The communication of participants to identify an acceptable bargaining outcome in the Nash bargaining game is all about fairness norms. Participants introduce fairness norms which yield a better outcome for themselves in order to convince the other participant of their bargaining proposal. Typically, these fairness norms are in line with theoretical predictions, which support a wide variety of different but fair outcomes the participants can choose from. In this experiment, we play two treatments of the Nash bargaining game: in one treatment, the participants play a dictator game prior to bargaining, and in the other treatment they do not. We find that participants who have not played the dictator game intensively discuss the outcome of the game and come to solutions closer to the equal split of the pie the longer they chat. This effect vanishes as soon as the participants have previous experience from a dictator game: instead of chatting, they establish the fairness norm introduced in the dictator game. Remarkably, if the dictator is unfair in the dictator game, he also gets a higher share of the pie in the Nash bargaining game.

  16. Professional Training of Language Teachers in the Context of British Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyanenko, Kateryna

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with revealing the peculiarities of language teachers' professional training in the context of British experience. The notions of philology, linguistics, philologist, linguist, language studies have been outlined and specified in the article. The titles of the curricula and their meanings in reference to language training have…

  17. The Impact of Integrating Technology and Social Experience in the College Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulin

    2013-01-01

    Technology has been used widely in the field of education for a long period of time. It is a useful tool which could be a mediation to help language learners to learn the target language. In order to investigate how technology and social experience can be integrated into courses to promote language learners' desire to learn English, the researcher…

  18. Learners' Perceptions of the Use of Mobile Technology in a Task-Based Language Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrich, Simone L.

    2016-01-01

    This research explored perceptions of learners studying English in private language schools regarding the use of mobile technology to support language learning. Learners were first exposed to both a mobile assisted and a mobile unassisted language learning experience, and then asked to express their thoughts on the incorporation of mobile devices…

  19. Understanding the Nature of Learners' Out-of-Class Language Learning Experience with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Hu, Xiao; Lyu, Boning

    2018-01-01

    Out-of-class learning with technology comprises an essential context of second language development. Understanding the nature of out-of-class language learning with technology is the initial step towards safeguarding its quality. This study examined the types of learning experiences that language learners engaged in outside the classroom and the…

  20. Language Core Values in a Multicultural Setting: An Australian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolicz, Jerzy J.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews European Community and Australian language policies. Considers cultural-economic interface in Australia with respect to current interest in teaching Asian languages for trade purposes. Discusses Australia's growing acceptance of languages other than English and its affect on Aboriginal people. Urges the better utilization of the country's…

  1. The Impact of Language Experience on Language and Reading: A Statistical Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Mark S.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews the important role of statistical learning for language and reading development. Although statistical learning--the unconscious encoding of patterns in language input--has become widely known as a force in infants' early interpretation of speech, the role of this kind of learning for language and reading comprehension in…

  2. Language, Identity, and Power: Navajo and Pueblo Young Adults' Perspectives and Experiences with Competing Language Ideologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tiffany S.

    2009-01-01

    Native American languages, contemporary youth identity, and powerful messages from mainstream society and Native communities create complex interactions that require deconstruction for the benefit of Native-language revitalization. This study showed how Native youth negotiate mixed messages such as the necessity of Indigenous languages for…

  3. PROPOSING A LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE AND SELF-ASSESSMENT OF PROFICIENCY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR BILINGUAL BRAZILIAN SIGN LANGUAGE/PORTUGUESE HEARING TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid FINGER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a language experience and self-assessment of proficiency questionnaire for hearing teachers who use Brazilian Sign Language and Portuguese in their teaching practice. By focusing on hearing teachers who work in Deaf education contexts, this questionnaire is presented as a tool that may complement the assessment of linguistic skills of hearing teachers. This proposal takes into account important factors in bilingualism studies such as the importance of knowing the participant’s context with respect to family, professional and social background (KAUFMANN, 2010. This work uses as model the following questionnaires: LEAP-Q (MARIAN; BLUMENFELD; KAUSHANSKAYA, 2007, SLSCO – Sign Language Skills Classroom Observation (REEVES et al., 2000 and the Language Attitude Questionnaire (KAUFMANN, 2010, taking into consideration the different kinds of exposure to Brazilian Sign Language. The questionnaire is designed for bilingual bimodal hearing teachers who work in bilingual schools for the Deaf or who work in the specialized educational department who assistdeaf students.

  4. The experiences and perspectives of overseas trained speech and language therapists working in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Cocks, N.; Cruice, M.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing body of research which has investigated the experience of the migrant health worker. However, only one of these studies has included speech and language therapists thus far, and then only with extremely small numbers. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and perspectives of migrant speech and language therapists living in the UK. Twenty-three overseas qualified speech and language therapists living in the UK completed an online survey consisting of 36 questi...

  5. Using Visual Literacy to Teach Science Academic Language: Experiences from Three Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Jackson, Charlease; Delacruz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    This original pedagogical study captured three preservice teachers' experiences using visual literacy strategies as an approach to teaching English language learners (ELLs) science academic language. The following research questions guided this study: (1) What are the experiences of preservice teachers' use of visual literacy to teach science…

  6. Open Source Software Development with Your Mother Language : Intercultural Collaboration Experiment 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nomura, Saeko; Ishida, Saeko; Jensen, Mika Yasuoka

    2002-01-01

    ”Open Source Software Development with Your Mother Language: Intercultural Collaboration Experiment 2002,” 10th International Conference on Human – Computer Interaction (HCII2003), June 2003, Crete, Greece.......”Open Source Software Development with Your Mother Language: Intercultural Collaboration Experiment 2002,” 10th International Conference on Human – Computer Interaction (HCII2003), June 2003, Crete, Greece....

  7. Second Language Experience Facilitates Statistical Learning of Novel Linguistic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christine E.; Wang, Tianlin; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has begun to explore individual differences in statistical learning, and how those differences may be related to other cognitive abilities, particularly their effects on language learning. In this research, we explored a different type of relationship between language learning and statistical learning: the possibility that learning…

  8. Modern Approaches to Foreign Language Teaching: World Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumskyi, Oleksandr

    2016-01-01

    The problem of applying communicative approach to foreign language teaching of students in non-language departments of higher education institutions in a number of countries has been analyzed in the paper. The brief overview of main historic milestones in the development of communicative approach has been presented. It has been found out that…

  9. Learner Perceptions and Experiences of Pride in Second Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Andrew S.; Stracke, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Within applied linguistics, understanding of motivation and cognition has benefitted from substantial attention for decades, but the attention received by language learner emotions has not been comparable until recently when interest in emotions and the role they can play in language learning has increased. Emotions are at the core of human…

  10. Multiple Schools, Languages, Experiences and Affiliations: Ideological Becomings and Positionings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Mary H.; Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the identity accounts of a group of Chinese children who attend a heritage language school. Bakhtin's concepts of ideological becoming, and authoritative and internally persuasive discourse, frame our exploration. Taking a dialogic view of language and learning raises questions about schools as socializing spaces and…

  11. Leading the Proverbial Thirsty Horse to Water: ESL Learners’ Experience with Language Learning Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Ismail

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is agreement among language educators that the process of language teaching and learning should aim to develop autonomous language learners. While the advantages of autonomy seem to be quite obvious, fostering autonomy in practice can prove to be difficult for some language learners. This paper describes the use of learning contracts as a strategy for enhancing learner autonomy among a group of ESL learners in a Malaysian university. Through learners’ account of their experiences with the contracts, the study concludes that the learning contract has potential use for language learning and that learners’ positive learning experience remains the key to the success of any endeavour seeking to promote learner autonomy. The paper ends with some implications for teachers and learners who wish to use the contracts as a strategy for language teaching and learning.

  12. The Experiences of Immigrants from Mexico Who Speak Indigenous Languages: A Sociocultural and Postcolonial Perspective on Language, Culture, and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Frausto, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This study dealt with the experiences of immigrants from Latin America, specifically Mexico, who speak indigenous languages. This study was guided by a theoretical framework in terms of issues such as power struggle, cultural hierarchy, and identity ambiguity, which are social realities of indigenous people who have immigrated to the United…

  13. Acculturation strategy and language experience in expert ESL speakers: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Waniek-Klimczak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation and language proficiency have been found to be inter-related both from the perspective of second language acquisition (Schumann, 1978, 1986 and socio-psychological adaptation in cross-cultural contacts (Ward, Bochner, & Furnham, 2001. However, the predictions as to the effect of a particular strategy on success differ, with assimilation believed to create most favourable conditions for SLA and integration for general well-being. The present study explores acculturation patterns in three expert users of English as a second language, recent Polish immigrants to the UK, in relation to their language experience. The qualitative data were collected with the use of a questionnaire and analysed with respect to language experience and socio-affective factors. The analysis aimed at better understanding of the relationship between language learning in a formal context and language use in a natural setting on the one hand and the relationship between language expertise and acculturation strategy choice on the other. The results show that in spite of individual differences, expert language users tend to adopt an assimilation rather than integration acculturation strategy. This may suggest that attitudes are related to expertise in English as a second language in a more conservative way than advocated by cross-cultural approaches.

  14. Experience-Dependent Brain Development as a Key to Understanding the Language System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Gert

    2016-04-01

    An influential view of the nature of the language system is that of an evolved biological system in which a set of rules is combined with a lexicon that contains the words of the language together with a representation of their context. Alternative views, usually based on connectionist modeling, attempt to explain the structure of language on the basis of complex associative processes. Here, I put forward a third view that stresses experience-dependent structural development of the brain circuits supporting language as a core principle of the organization of the language system. In this view, embodied in a recent neuroconstructivist neural network of past tense development and processing, initial domain-general predispositions enable the development of functionally specialized brain structures through interactions between experience-dependent brain development and statistical learning in a structured environment. Together, these processes shape a biological adult language system that appears to separate into distinct mechanism for processing rules and exceptions, whereas in reality those subsystems co-develop and interact closely. This view puts experience-dependent brain development in response to a specific language environment at the heart of understanding not only language development but adult language processing as well. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. The effects of ethnicity, musicianship, and tone language experience on pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Samuel, Arthur G

    2018-02-01

    Language and music are intertwined: music training can facilitate language abilities, and language experiences can also help with some music tasks. Possible language-music transfer effects are explored in two experiments in this study. In Experiment 1, we tested native Mandarin, Korean, and English speakers on a pitch discrimination task with two types of sounds: speech sounds and fundamental frequency (F0) patterns derived from speech sounds. To control for factors that might influence participants' performance, we included cognitive ability tasks testing memory and intelligence. In addition, two music skill tasks were used to examine general transfer effects from language to music. Prior studies showing that tone language speakers have an advantage on pitch tasks have been taken as support for three alternative hypotheses: specific transfer effects, general transfer effects, and an ethnicity effect. In Experiment 1, musicians outperformed non-musicians on both speech and F0 sounds, suggesting a music-to-language transfer effect. Korean and Mandarin speakers performed similarly, and they both outperformed English speakers, providing some evidence for an ethnicity effect. Alternatively, this could be due to population selection bias. In Experiment 2, we recruited Chinese Americans approximating the native English speakers' language background to further test the ethnicity effect. Chinese Americans, regardless of their tone language experiences, performed similarly to their non-Asian American counterparts in all tasks. Therefore, although this study provides additional evidence of transfer effects across music and language, it casts doubt on the contribution of ethnicity to differences observed in pitch perception and general music abilities.

  16. The Working Practices and Clinical Experiences of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapists: A National UK Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pring, Tim; Flood, Emma; Dodd, Barbara; Joffe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Background: The majority of speech and language therapists (SLTs) work with children who have speech, language and communication needs. There is limited information about their working practices and clinical experience and their views of how changes to healthcare may impact upon their practice. Aims: To investigate the working practices and…

  17. Opportunities and Constraints with Ethnography in Examining the Home Literacy Experiences of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zihan

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended for researchers considering using ethnography as a methodology to investigate home literacy experiences of children learning English as a Second Language (ESL). After briefly setting ethnographic study in the context of English language learners' home literacy practices, I identify five opportunities and five potential…

  18. An Appraisal of the Importance of Graduates' Language Skills and ERASMUS Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Delfina

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of graduates' language skills and their European Regional Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS) experiences. The purpose of the research is to establish whether the potential benefits of ERASMUS participation for employability, particularly with regard to language skills, mean that…

  19. Learning a Generative Probabilistic Grammar of Experience: A Process-Level Model of Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given…

  20. The Impact of Previous Schooling Experiences on a Quaker High School's Graduating Students' College Entrance Exam Scores, Parents' Expectations, and College Acceptance Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galusha, Debbie K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the impact of previous private, public, home, or international schooling experiences on a Quaker high school's graduating students' college entrance composite exam scores, parents' expectations, and college attendance outcomes. The study's results suggest that regardless of previous private, public, home,…

  1. Neural systems supporting linguistic structure, linguistic experience, and symbolic communication in sign language and gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Aaron J; Supalla, Ted; Fernandez, Nina; Newport, Elissa L; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-09-15

    Sign languages used by deaf communities around the world possess the same structural and organizational properties as spoken languages: In particular, they are richly expressive and also tightly grammatically constrained. They therefore offer the opportunity to investigate the extent to which the neural organization for language is modality independent, as well as to identify ways in which modality influences this organization. The fact that sign languages share the visual-manual modality with a nonlinguistic symbolic communicative system-gesture-further allows us to investigate where the boundaries lie between language and symbolic communication more generally. In the present study, we had three goals: to investigate the neural processing of linguistic structure in American Sign Language (using verbs of motion classifier constructions, which may lie at the boundary between language and gesture); to determine whether we could dissociate the brain systems involved in deriving meaning from symbolic communication (including both language and gesture) from those specifically engaged by linguistically structured content (sign language); and to assess whether sign language experience influences the neural systems used for understanding nonlinguistic gesture. The results demonstrated that even sign language constructions that appear on the surface to be similar to gesture are processed within the left-lateralized frontal-temporal network used for spoken languages-supporting claims that these constructions are linguistically structured. Moreover, although nonsigners engage regions involved in human action perception to process communicative, symbolic gestures, signers instead engage parts of the language-processing network-demonstrating an influence of experience on the perception of nonlinguistic stimuli.

  2. Seeing conflict and engaging control: Experience with contrastive language benefits executive function in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebel, Sabine; Zelazo, Philip David

    2016-12-01

    Engaging executive function often requires overriding a prepotent response in favor of a conflicting but adaptive one. Language may play a key role in this ability by supporting integrated representations of conflicting rules. We tested whether experience with contrastive language that could support such representations benefits executive function in 3-year-old children. Children who received brief experience with language highlighting contrast between objects, attributes, and actions showed greater executive function on two of three 'conflict' executive function tasks than children who received experience with contrasting stimuli only and children who read storybooks with the experimenter, controlling for baseline executive function. Experience with contrasting stimuli did not benefit executive function relative to reading books with the experimenter, indicating experience with contrastive language, rather than experience with contrast generally, was key. Experience with contrastive language also boosted spontaneous attention to contrast, consistent with improvements in representing contrast. These findings indicate a role for language in executive function that is consistent with the Cognitive Complexity and Control theory's key claim that coordinating conflicting rules is critical to overcoming perseveration, and suggest new ideas for testing theories of executive function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Addressing Pedagogical Dilemmas in a Constructivist Language Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    Educational constructivism has long been associated with advanced pedagogy on the basis that, it champions a learner-centered approach to teaching, advocates learning in meaningful contexts and promotes problem-based activities where learners construct their knowledge through interaction with their peers. Involving language learners in video…

  4. Ancient Language as an Educational Tool: Report on an Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresky, Jeffrey

    A course in introductory Greek was introduced as part of a freshman seminar program at William Patterson College of New Jersey. The course was distinctive in that the instructor undertook to learn the subject along with the students. The goal of the course was that the students would learn something about Greek, about language in general and about…

  5. Language core values in a multicultural setting: An Australian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolicz, Jerzy J.

    1991-03-01

    While it has been agreed by the members of the European Community (except the UK) that all secondary students should study two EC languages in addition to their own, in Australia the recent emphasis has been on teaching languages for external trade, particularly in the Asian region. This policy over-looks the 13 per cent of the Australian population who already speak a language other than English at home (and a greater number who are second generation immigrants), and ignores the view that it is necessary to foster domestic multiculturalism in order to have fruitful links with other cultures abroad. During the 1980s there have been moves to reinforce the cultural identity of Australians of non-English speaking background, but these have sometimes been half-hearted and do not fully recognise that cultural core values, including language, have to achieve a certain critical mass in order to be sustainable. Without this recognition, semi-assimilation will continue to waste the potential cultural and economic contributions of many citizens, and to lead to frustration and eventual violence. The recent National Agenda for a Multicultural Australia addresses this concern.

  6. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Experiences in Teaching English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takahiro; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe and explain the views on teaching English Language Learners (ELLs) held by six elementary physical education (PE) teachers in the Midwest region of the United States. Situated in positioning theory, the research approach was descriptive-qualitative. The primary sources of data were face-to-face…

  7. The interaction between acoustic salience and language experience in developmental speech perception: evidence from nasal place discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Chandan R; Werker, Janet F; Beddor, Patrice Speeter

    2010-05-01

    Previous research suggests that infant speech perception reorganizes in the first year: young infants discriminate both native and non-native phonetic contrasts, but by 10-12 months difficult non-native contrasts are less discriminable whereas performance improves on native contrasts. In the current study, four experiments tested the hypothesis that, in addition to the influence of native language experience, acoustic salience also affects the perceptual reorganization that takes place in infancy. Using a visual habituation paradigm, two nasal place distinctions that differ in relative acoustic salience, acoustically robust labial-alveolar [ma]-[na] and acoustically less salient alveolar-velar [na]-[ enga], were presented to infants in a cross-language design. English-learning infants at 6-8 and 10-12 months showed discrimination of the native and acoustically robust [ma]-[na] (Experiment 1), but not the non-native (in initial position) and acoustically less salient [na]-[ enga] (Experiment 2). Very young (4-5-month-old) English-learning infants tested on the same native and non-native contrasts also showed discrimination of only the [ma]-[na] distinction (Experiment 3). Filipino-learning infants, whose ambient language includes the syllable-initial alveolar (/n/)-velar (/ eng/) contrast, showed discrimination of native [na]-[ enga] at 10-12 months, but not at 6-8 months (Experiment 4). These results support the hypothesis that acoustic salience affects speech perception in infancy, with native language experience facilitating discrimination of an acoustically similar phonetic distinction [na]-[ enga]. We discuss the implications of this developmental profile for a comprehensive theory of speech perception in infancy.

  8. Language Anxiety: A Case Study of the Perceptions and Experiences of Students of English as a Foreign Language in a Higher Education Institution in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lababidi, Rola Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores and investigates the perceptions and experiences of foreign language anxiety (FLA) among students of English as a Foreign Language in a Higher Education Institution in the United Arab Emirates. The first phase explored the scope and severity of language anxiety among all Foundation level male students at a college in the…

  9. Who can communicate with whom? Language experience affects infants' evaluation of others as monolingual or multilingual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Casey E; Onishi, Kristine H; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2015-01-01

    Adults recognize that people can understand more than one language. However, it is unclear whether infants assume other people understand one or multiple languages. We examined whether monolingual and bilingual 20-month-olds expect an unfamiliar person to understand one or more than one language. Two speakers told a listener the location of a hidden object using either the same or two different languages. When different languages were spoken, monolinguals looked longer when the listener searched correctly, bilinguals did not; when the same language was spoken, both groups looked longer for incorrect searches. Infants rely on their prior language experience when evaluating the language abilities of a novel individual. Monolingual infants assume others can understand only one language, although not necessarily the infants' own; bilinguals do not. Infants' assumptions about which community of conventions people belong to may allow them to recognize effective communicative partners and thus opportunities to acquire language, knowledge, and culture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Language Learners Perceptions and Experiences on the Use of Mobile Applications for Independent Language Learning in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Niño

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread use of mobile phones and portable devices it is inevitable to think of Mobile Assisted Language Learning as a means of independent learning in Higher Education. Nowadays many learners are keen to explore the wide variety of applications available in their portable and always readily available mobile phones and tablets. The fact that they are keen to take control of their learning and autonomy is thought to lead to greater motivation and engagement, and the link with games-based learning suggests that the fun factor involved should not be overseen. This paper focuses on the use of mobile applications for independent language learning in higher education. It investigates how learners use mobile apps in line with their classes to enhance their learning experience. We base our analysis on a survey carried out in autumn 2013 in which 286 credited and non-credited language students from various levels of proficiency at The University of Manchester express their perceptions on the advantages and disadvantages of the use of mobile applications for independent language learning, together with examples of useful apps and suggestions of how these could be integrated in the language class.

  11. Deaf children’s non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe eMarshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but do not say whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children’s reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come from (1 tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2 involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities. A more direct test of how the type and quality of language exposure impacts working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6-11 years: hearing children (n=27, deaf native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n=7, and deaf children non native signers (n=19. We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and if language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two NVWM tasks, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the vocabulary measure predicted scores on NVWM tasks. Our results suggest that whatever the language modality – spoken or signed – rich language experience from birth, and the good language skills that result from this early age of aacquisition, play a critical role in the development of NVWM and in performance on NVWM

  12. Influence of Previous Crop on Durum Wheat Yield and Yield Stability in a Long-term Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Stellacci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term experiments are leading indicators of sustainability and serve as an early warning system to detect problems that may compromise future productivity. So the stability of yield is an important parameter to be considered when judging the value of a cropping system relative to others. In a long-term rotation experiment set up in 1972 the influence of different crop sequences on the yields and on yield stability of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. was studied. The complete field experiment is a split-split plot in a randomized complete block design with two replications; the whole experiment considers three crop sequences: 1 three-year crop rotation: sugar-beet, wheat + catch crop, wheat; 2 one-year crop rotation: wheat + catch crop; 3 wheat continuous crop; the split treatments are two different crop residue managements; the split-split plot treatments are 18 different fertilization formulas. Each phase of every crop rotation occurred every year. In this paper only one crop residue management and only one fertilization treatment have been analized. Wheat crops in different rotations are coded as follows: F1: wheat after sugar-beet in three-year crop rotation; F2: wheat after wheat in three-year crop rotation; Fc+i: wheat in wheat + catch crop rotation; Fc: continuous wheat. The following two variables were analysed: grain yield and hectolitre weight. Repeated measures analyses of variance and stability analyses have been perfomed for the two variables. The stability analysis was conducted using: three variance methods, namely the coefficient of variability of Francis and Kannenberg, the ecovalence index of Wricke and the stability variance index of Shukla; the regression method of Eberhart and Russell; a method, proposed by Piepho, that computes the probability of one system outperforming another system. It has turned out that each of the stability methods used has enriched of information the simple variance analysis. The Piepho

  13. Ipilimumab in the real world: the UK expanded access programme experience in previously treated advanced melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saif S; Qian, Wendi; Ellis, Sarah; Mason, Elaine; Khattak, Muhammad A; Gupta, Avinash; Shaw, Heather; Quinton, Amy; Kovarikova, Jarmila; Thillai, Kiruthikah; Rao, Ankit; Board, Ruth; Nobes, Jenny; Dalgleish, Angus; Grumett, Simon; Maraveyas, Anthony; Danson, Sarah; Talbot, Toby; Harries, Mark; Marples, Maria; Plummer, Ruth; Kumar, Satish; Nathan, Paul; Middleton, Mark R; Larkin, James; Lorigan, Paul; Wheater, Matthew; Ottensmeier, Christian H; Corrie, Pippa G

    2015-10-01

    Before licensing, ipilimumab was first made available to previously treated advanced melanoma patients through an expanded access programme (EAP) across Europe. We interrogated data from UK EAP patients to inform future clinical practice. Clinicians registered in the UK EAP provided anonymized patient data using a prespecified variable fields datasheet. Data collected were baseline patient characteristics, treatment delivered, toxicity, response, progression-free survival and overall survival (OS). Data were received for 193 previously treated metastatic melanoma patients, whose primary sites were cutaneous (82%), uveal (8%), mucosal (2%), acral (3%) or unknown (5%). At baseline, 88% of patients had a performance status (PS) of 0-1 and 20% had brain metastases. Of the patients, 53% received all four planned cycles of ipilimumab; the most common reason for stopping early was disease progression, including death from melanoma. Toxicity was recorded for 171 patients, 30% of whom experienced an adverse event of grade 3 or higher, the most common being diarrhoea (13%) and fatigue (9%). At a median follow-up of 23 months, the median progression-free survival and OS were 2.8 and 6.1 months, respectively; the 1-year and 2-year OS rates were 31 and 14.8%, respectively. The 2-year OS was significantly lower for patients with poorer PS (P<0.0001), low albumin concentrations (P<0.0001), the presence of brain metastases (P=0.007) and lactate dehydrogenase levels more than two times the upper limit of normal (P<0.0001) at baseline. These baseline characteristics are negative predictors of benefit from ipilimumab and should be taken into consideration before prescription.

  14. Learning across Languages: Bilingual Experience Supports Dual Language Statistical Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antovich, Dylan M.; Graf Estes, Katharine

    2018-01-01

    Bilingual acquisition presents learning challenges beyond those found in monolingual environments, including the need to segment speech in two languages. Infants may use statistical cues, such as syllable-level transitional probabilities, to segment words from fluent speech. In the present study we assessed monolingual and bilingual 14-month-olds'…

  15. The challenge of linguistic and cultural diversity: Does length of experience affect South African speech-language therapists’ management of children with language impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frenette Southwood

    2015-02-01

    Aims: To investigate whether length of clinical experience influenced: number of bilingual children treated, languages spoken by these children, languages in which assessment and remediation can be offered, assessment instrument(s favoured, and languages in which therapy material is required. Method: From questionnaires completed by 243 Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA-registered SLTs who treat children with language problems, two groups were drawn:71 more experienced (ME respondents (20+ years of experience and 79 less experienced (LE respondents (maximum 5 years of experience. Results: The groups did not differ significantly with regard to (1 number of children(monolingual or bilingual with language difficulties seen, (2 number of respondents seeing child clients who have Afrikaans or an African language as home language, (3 number of respondents who can offer intervention in Afrikaans or English and (4 number of respondents who reported needing therapy material in Afrikaans or English. However, significantly more ME than LE respondents reported seeing first language child speakers of English, whereas significantly more LE than ME respondents could provide services, and required therapymaterial, in African languages. Conclusion: More LE than ME SLTs could offer remediation in an African language, but there were few other significant differences between the two groups. There is still an absence of appropriate assessment and remediation material for Afrikaans and African languages, but the increased number of African language speakers entering the profession may contribute to better service delivery to the diverse South African population.

  16. Longitudinal measurement equivalence of subjective language brokering experiences scale in Mexican American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Hou, Yang; Shen, Yishan; Zhang, Minyu

    2017-04-01

    Language brokering occurs frequently in immigrant families and can have significant implications for the well-being of family members involved. The present study aimed to develop and validate a measure that can be used to assess multiple dimensions of subjective language brokering experiences among Mexican American adolescents. Participants were 557 adolescent language brokers (54.2% female, Mage.wave1 = 12.96, SD = .94) in Mexican American families. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, we were able to identify 7 reliable subscales of language brokering: linguistic benefits, socioemotional benefits, efficacy, positive parent-child relationships, parental dependence, negative feelings , and centrality . Tests of factorial invariance show that these subscales demonstrate, at minimum, partial strict invariance across time and across experiences of translating for mothers and fathers, and in most cases, also across adolescent gender, nativity, and translation frequency. Thus, in general, the means of the subscales and the relations among the subscales with other variables can be compared across these different occasions and groups. Tests of criterion-related validity demonstrated that these subscales correlated, concurrently and longitudinally, with parental warmth and hostility, parent-child alienation, adolescent family obligation, depressive symptoms, resilience, and life meaning. This reliable and valid subjective language brokering experiences scale will be helpful for gaining a better understanding of adolescents' language brokering experiences with their mothers and fathers, and how such experiences may influence their development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The Impact of Previous Athletic Experience on Current Physical Fitness in Former Collegiate Athletes and Noncollegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Janet E; Docherty, Carrie L

    Physical activity performed at moderate intensity is associated with reduced risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and some types of cancers. However, vigorous physical activity during participation in college athletics may increase the risk of injury, which might limit future physical activity levels. To evaluate differences in current physical fitness levels between former Division I athletes and noncollegiate athletes. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. The sample was recruited from a large midwestern university alumni database and consisted of 2 cohorts: (1) former Division I athletes (n = 100; mean age, 53.1 ± 7.4 years) and (2) nonathletes who were active in college (n = 100; age, 51.4 ± 7.3 years). Individuals answered a demographics questionnaire and completed a physical fitness assessment consisting of 7 measures: percent body fat, 1-mile walk, sit-to-stand test, push-up, half sit-up test, sit and reach test, and back scratch test. Performance was significantly worse for former Division I athletes compared with nonathletes for percent body fat (mean difference, 7.58%; F (1, 198) = 59.91; P sit-to-stand test (mean difference, 4.3 repetitions; F (1, 198) = 6.59; P = 0.01), and push-up test (mean difference, 8.9 repetitions; F (1, 198) = 7.35; P = 0.01). Former Division I athletes may be limited because of previous injury, inhibiting their ability to stay active later in life. It is imperative that clinicians, coaches, and strength and conditioning specialists understand the possible future repercussions from competing at the Division I level.

  18. Neurolinguistic development in deaf children: the effect of early language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leybaert, Jacqueline; D'Hondt, Murielle

    2003-07-01

    Recent investigations have indicated a relationship between the development of cerebral lateralization for processing language and the level of development of linguistic skills in hearing children. The research on cerebral lateralization for language processing in deaf persons is compatible with this view. We have argued that the absence of appropriate input during a critical time window creates a risk for deaf children that the initial bias for left-hemisphere specialization will be distorted or disappear. Two experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis The results of these investigations showed that children educated early and intensively with cued speech or with sign language display more evidence of left-hemisphere specialization for the processing of their native language than do those who have been exposed later and less intensively to those languages.

  19. SADE: system of acquisition of experimental data. Definition and analysis of an experiment description language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagniere, Jean-Michel

    1983-01-01

    This research thesis presents a computer system for the acquisition of experimental data. It is aimed at acquiring, at processing and at storing information from particle detectors. The acquisition configuration is described by an experiment description language. The system comprises a lexical analyser, a syntactic analyser, a translator, and a data processing module. It also comprises a control language and a statistics management and plotting module. The translator builds up series of tables which allow, during an experiment, different sequences to be executed: experiment running, calculations to be performed on this data, building up of statistics. Short execution time and ease of use are always looked for [fr

  20. Content and Language Integrating Learning with Technologies: an online global training experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Cinganotto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this report is the link between CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning and CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning, and in particular, the added value technologies can bring to the learning/ teaching of a foreign language and to the delivery of subject content through a foreign language. An example of a free online global training initiative on these topics will be described: “Techno-CLIL for EVO 2016”. An overview of the course will be offered, detailing some of the asynchronous and synchronous activities proposed during the five-week training experience which registered about 5000 participants from all over the world. Special attention will be devoted to the feedback from the teachers on how this experience helped their professional growth as reflective practitioners.

  1. Postschool Educational and Employment Experiences of Young People with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the postschool educational and employment experiences of young people with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Nineteen-year-olds with (n = 50) and without (n = 50) SLI were interviewed on their education and employment experiences since finishing compulsory secondary education. Results: On average,…

  2. The M-Learning Experience of Language Learners in Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendurur, Emine; Efendioglu, Esra; Çaliskan, Neslihan Yondemir; Boldbaatar, Nomin; Kandin, Emine; Namazli, Sevinç

    2017-01-01

    This study is designed to understand the informal language learners' experiences of m-learning applications. The aim is two-folded: (i) to extract the reasons why m-learning applications are preferred and (ii) to explore the user experience of Duolingo m-learning application. We interviewed 18 voluntary Duolingo users. The findings suggest that…

  3. In-service English language training for Italian Primary School Teachers An experience in syllabus design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dawes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report on an in-service English Language Teacher Training Programme devised for the Government project to equip Italian primary school teachers  with the skills to teach English. The paper focuses on the first phase of the project which envisaged research into the best training models and the preparation of appropriate  English Language syllabuses. In  the first three sections of the paper we report on the experience of designing the language syllabus. In the last section we suggest ways of using the syllabus as a tool for self reflective professional development.

  4. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    measure predicted scores on those two executive-loaded NVWM tasks (with age and non-verbal reasoning partialled out). Our results suggest that whatever the language modality—spoken or signed—rich language experience from birth, and the good language skills that result from this early age of acquisition, play a critical role in the development of NVWM and in performance on NVWM tasks. PMID:25999875

  5. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    predicted scores on those two executive-loaded NVWM tasks (with age and non-verbal reasoning partialled out). Our results suggest that whatever the language modality-spoken or signed-rich language experience from birth, and the good language skills that result from this early age of acquisition, play a critical role in the development of NVWM and in performance on NVWM tasks.

  6. Beyond Technology in Computer Assisted Language Learning: Learners' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, Mar Gutiérrez-Colon; Ballester, Elisabet Pladevall

    2009-01-01

    The present study is based on a previous pilot study (Gutiérrez-Colon, 2008). The present study aimed at widening the scope of the pilot study increasing the sample size in number of participants, degree courses and number of universities. This time, four Spanish universities were involved, and the number of participants was 197, who were…

  7. The challenge of linguistic and cultural diversity: Does length of experience affect South African speech-language therapists' management of children with language impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, Frenette; Van Dulm, Ondene

    2015-02-10

    South African speech-language therapists (SLTs) currently do not reflect the country's linguistic and cultural diversity. The question arises as to who might be better equipped currently to provide services to multilingual populations: SLTs with more clinical experience in such contexts, or recently trained SLTs who are themselves linguistically and culturally diverse and whose training programmes deliberately focused on multilingualism and multiculturalism? To investigate whether length of clinical experience influenced: number of bilingual children treated, languages spoken by these children, languages in which assessment and remediation can be offered, assessment instrument(s) favoured, and languages in which therapy material is required. From questionnaires completed by 243 Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA)-registered SLTs who treat children with language problems, two groups were drawn:71 more experienced (ME) respondents (20+ years of experience) and 79 less experienced (LE) respondents (maximum 5 years of experience). The groups did not differ significantly with regard to (1) number of children(monolingual or bilingual) with language difficulties seen, (2) number of respondents seeing child clients who have Afrikaans or an African language as home language, (3) number of respondents who can offer intervention in Afrikaans or English and (4) number of respondents who reported needing therapy material in Afrikaans or English. However, significantly more ME than LE respondents reported seeing first language child speakers of English, whereas significantly more LE than ME respondents could provide services, and required therapy material, in African languages. More LE than ME SLTs could offer remediation in an African language, but there were few other significant differences between the two groups. There is still an absence of appropriate assessment and remediation material for Afrikaans and African languages, but the increased number of African

  8. The challenge of linguistic and cultural diversity: Does length of experience affect South African speech-language therapists’ management of children with language impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, Frenette; van Dulm, Ondene

    2015-01-01

    Background South African speech-language therapists (SLTs) currently do not reflect the country's linguistic and cultural diversity. The question arises as to who might be better equipped currently to provide services to multilingual populations: SLTs with more clinical experience in such contexts, or recently trained SLTs who are themselves linguistically and culturally diverse and whose training programmes deliberately focused on multilingualism and multiculturalism? Aims To investigate whether length of clinical experience influenced: number of bilingual children treated, languages spoken by these children, languages in which assessment and remediation can be offered, assessment instrument(s) favoured, and languages in which therapy material is required. Method From questionnaires completed by 243 Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA)-registered SLTs who treat children with language problems, two groups were drawn: 71 more experienced (ME) respondents (20+ years of experience) and 79 less experienced (LE) respondents (maximum 5 years of experience). Results The groups did not differ significantly with regard to (1) number of children (monolingual or bilingual) with language difficulties seen, (2) number of respondents seeing child clients who have Afrikaans or an African language as home language, (3) number of respondents who can offer intervention in Afrikaans or English and (4) number of respondents who reported needing therapy material in Afrikaans or English. However, significantly more ME than LE respondents reported seeing first language child speakers of English, whereas significantly more LE than ME respondents could provide services, and required therapy material, in African languages. Conclusion More LE than ME SLTs could offer remediation in an African language, but there were few other significant differences between the two groups. There is still an absence of appropriate assessment and remediation material for Afrikaans and African

  9. Teachers' experiences of English-language-taught degree programs within health care sector of Finnish polytechnics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkajarvi, Marianne; Eriksson, Elina; Kekki, Pertti

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to research teachers' experiences of the English-Language-Taught Degree Programs in the health care sector of Finnish polytechnics. More specifically, the focus was on teachers' experiences of teaching methods and clinical practice. The data were collected from eighteen teachers in six polytechnics through focus group interviews. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. The results suggested that despite the positive interaction between students and teachers, choosing appropriate teaching methods provided a challenge for teachers, due to cultural diversity of students as well as to the use of a foreign language in tuition. Due to students' language-related difficulties, clinical practice was found to be the biggest challenge in the educational process. Staffs' attitudes were perceived to be significant for students' clinical experience. Further research using stronger designs is needed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasticity in early language acquisition: the effects of prenatal and early childhood experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervain, Judit

    2015-12-01

    Early experience with speech and language, starting in the womb, has been shown to shape perceptual and learning abilities, paving the way for language development. Indeed, recent studies suggest that prenatal experience with speech, which consists mainly of prosodic information, already impacts how newborns perceive speech and produce communicative sounds. Similarly, the newborn brain already shows specialization for speech processing, resembling that of the adult brain. Yet, newborns' early preparedness for speech is broad, comprising many universal perceptual abilities. During the first years of life, experience narrows down speech perception, allowing the child to become a native listener and speaker. Concomitantly, the neural correlates of speech and language processing become increasingly specialized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experiments in Language Translation: Technical English-to-Vietnamese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, H. Wallace; Brislin, Richard W.

    This paper documents the results of a series of experiments conducted by the Institute for Defense Analyses on translating technical material from English to Vietnamese. The work was accomplished in support of the Office of the Deputy Director, Research and Engineering, Deputy Director for Southeast Asia Matters. The paper addresses the question…

  12. Korean Speech-Language Pathologists' Attitudes toward Stuttering According to Clinical Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Negative attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are found in various groups of people in many regions. However the results of previous studies examining the influence of fluency coursework and clinical certification on the attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward PWS are equivocal. Furthermore, there…

  13. Teachers’ attitudes, perceptions and experiences in CLIL: A look at content and language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermaine S. McDougald

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a preliminary report on the “CLIL State-of-the-Art” project in Colombia, drawing on data collected from 140 teachers’ regarding their attitudes toward, perceptions of and experiences with CLIL (content and language integrated learning. The term CLIL is used here to refer to teaching contexts in which a foreign language (in these cases, English is the medium for the teaching and learning of non-language subjects. The data that has been gathered thus far reveals that while teachers presently know very little about CLIL, they are nevertheless actively seeking informal and formal instruction on CLIL. Many of the surveyed teachers are currently teaching content areas through English; approximately half of them reported having had positive experiences teaching content and language together, though the remainder claimed to lack sufficient knowledge in content areas. Almost all of the participants agreed that the CLIL approach can benefit students, helping them develop both language skills and subject knowledge (meaningful communication. However, there is still considerable uncertainty as to the actual state-of-the-art of CLIL in Colombia; greater clarity here will enable educators and decision-makers to make sound decisions for the future of general and language education.

  14. Experience gained in running the EPRI MMS code with an in-house simulation language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The EPRI Modular Modeling System (MMS) code represents a collection of component models and a steam/water properties package. This code has undergone extensive verification and validation testing. Currently, the code requires a commercially available simulation language to run. The Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO) has been modeling power plant systems for over the past sixteen years. As a result, an extensive number of models have been developed. In addition, an extensive amount of experience has been developed and gained using an in-house simulation language. The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of developing an MMS pre-processor which would allow the use of the MMS package with other simulation languages such as the PECO in-house simulation language

  15. Language Skills and Level of Experience among Arabic-Speaking Healthcare Interpreters in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itani, Nada; Khalil, Mohammad; Sodemann, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Background: Denmark has become a multicultural society over the past three decades, with 12.8% of the population being immigrants and their descendants. Many of these risk inequality in access to health and in health outcomes because of language barriers. The quality of healthcare interpreting se...... for healthcare interpretation. Those eligible should receive additional training, including technical language skills. All interpreters should be required to undergo testing of their linguistic skills to work professionally as healthcare interpreters....... services has recently been discussed by politicians and the media. The present explorative study investigated the sociodemographic characteristics, level of experience and linguistic skills of Arabic-speaking healthcare interpreters in Denmark. Method: Snowball sampling (including social media) was used...... to recruit interpreters. Data were collected through individual telephone interviews based on an interview guide containing structured and semi-structured questions. Interpreters’ language skills were assessed subjectively based on the flow of the interview and preferred interview language. Results...

  16. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance...... on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis...... of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key ‘‘lessons learned’’ from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches...

  17. Assessment of the Relationship between Recurrent High-risk Pregnancy and Mothers’ Previous Experience of Having an Infant Admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Hantoosh Zadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:  High-risk pregnancies increase the risk of Intensive Care Unit (ICU and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU admission in mothers and their newborns. In this study, we aimed to identify the association between the recurrence of high-risk pregnancy and mothers’ previous experience of having an infant admitted to NICU. Methods:We performed a cohort, retrospective study to compare subsequent pregnancy outcomes among 232 control subjects and 200 female cases with a previous experience of having a newborn requiring NICU admission due to intrauterine growth retardation, preeclampsia, preterm birth, premature rupture of membranes, and asphyxia. The information about the prevalence of subsequent high-risk pregnancies was gathered via phone calls. Results: As the results indicated, heparin, progesterone, and aspirin were more frequently administered in the case group during subsequent pregnancies, compared to the control group (P

  18. Experiences of clinical tutors with English as an additional language (EAL) students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongyan; Maithus, Caroline

    2012-11-01

    Clinical tutors, referred to in the international literature as clinical supervisors, facilitators, mentors or instructors, are responsible for providing and supervising workplace learning opportunities for groups of Bachelor of Nursing (BN) students. They also play a key role in assessing students. The role modeling and support provided by both clinical tutors and registered nurses (RN) or nurse preceptors helps students become familiar with the language in which nursing work is realised. As BN student cohorts in New Zealand have become more diverse in terms of cultures, ethnicities and language backgrounds, clinical tutors have to directly facilitate the development of context-specific and client-focused communication skills for students who speak English as an additional language. We undertook a study which looked at the perceptions of new nursing graduates with English as an additional language (EAL) on the development of spoken language skills for the clinical workplace. As well as interviewing graduates, we spoke to four clinical tutors in order to elicit their views on the language development of EAL students in previous cohorts. This article reports on the themes which emerged from the interviews with the tutors. These include goal setting for communication, integrating students into nursing work, making assessment less stressful, and endorsing independent learning strategies. Based on their observations and on other published research we make some suggestions about ways both clinical tutors and EAL students within their teaching groups could be supported in the development of communication skills for clinical practice.

  19. Raising Bilingual Children : Russian Mothers' experience in motivating Russian language and bilingualism in their Russian-Norwegian children

    OpenAIRE

    Vaynam, Margaret Judith

    2013-01-01

    The following thesis investigates Russian mothers’ experience of motivating Russian language learning and bilingualism in their Russian-Norwegian children in Norway. The purpose of this study is to look at the motivating factors that influence parents to teach their children their own language, as well as support the bilingual situation. Although the study focuses on the minority language, as it is the language spoken by the mothers, the bilingual situation is used to further analysis on moti...

  20. Linguistic Identity Positioning in Facebook Posts During Second Language Study Abroad: One Teen’s Language Use, Experience, and Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roswita Dressler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Teens who post on the popular social networking site Facebook in their home environment often continue to do so on second language study abroad sojourns. These sojourners use Facebook to document and make sense of their experiences in the host culture and position themselves with respect to language(s and culture(s. This study examined one teen’s identity positioning through her Facebook posts from two separate study abroad experiences in Germany. Data sources included her Facebook posts from both sojourns and a written reflection completed upon return from the second sojourn. Findings revealed that this teen used Facebook posts to position herself as a German-English bilingual and a member of an imagined community of German-English bilinguals by making a choice on which language(s to use, reporting her linguistic successes and challenges, and indicating growing language awareness. This study addresses the call by study abroad researchers (Coleman, 2013; Kinginger, 2009, 2013; Mitchell, Tracy-Ventura, & McManus, 2015 to investigate the effects of social media, such as Facebook, as part of the contemporary culture of study abroad, and sheds light on the role it plays, especially regarding second language identity positioning. Résumé Les adolescents qui affichent sur le site social Facebook dans leur environnement familial continuent à le faire pendant leur séjour à l'étranger. Ces adolescents utilisent Facebook pour documenter et réfléchir sur leurs expériences dans le pays hôte et pour se positionner par rapport à leur langue et à leur culture ou aux langues et aux cultures. Cette étude a examiné le positionnement d'une adolescente par rapport à son identité à travers des messages Facebook lors de deux séjours différents en Allemagne. Les données de ces expériences incluent des messages Facebook provenant des deux séjours et une réflexion écrite complétée à son retour du deuxième séjour. Les résultats ont

  1. Musicianship and Tone Language Experience Are Associated with Differential Changes in Brain Signal Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutka, Stefanie; Carpentier, Sarah M; Bidelman, Gavin M; Moreno, Sylvain; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2016-12-01

    Musicianship has been associated with auditory processing benefits. It is unclear, however, whether pitch processing experience in nonmusical contexts, namely, speaking a tone language, has comparable associations with auditory processing. Studies comparing the auditory processing of musicians and tone language speakers have shown varying degrees of between-group similarity with regard to perceptual processing benefits and, particularly, nonlinguistic pitch processing. To test whether the auditory abilities honed by musicianship or speaking a tone language differentially impact the neural networks supporting nonlinguistic pitch processing (relative to timbral processing), we employed a novel application of brain signal variability (BSV) analysis. BSV is a metric of information processing capacity and holds great potential for understanding the neural underpinnings of experience-dependent plasticity. Here, we measured BSV in electroencephalograms of musicians, tone language-speaking nonmusicians, and English-speaking nonmusicians (controls) during passive listening of music and speech sound contrasts. Although musicians showed greater BSV across the board, each group showed a unique spatiotemporal distribution in neural network engagement: Controls had greater BSV for speech than music; tone language-speaking nonmusicians showed the opposite effect; musicians showed similar BSV for both domains. Collectively, results suggest that musical and tone language pitch experience differentially affect auditory processing capacity within the cerebral cortex. However, information processing capacity is graded: More experience with pitch is associated with greater BSV when processing this cue. Higher BSV in musicians may suggest increased information integration within the brain networks subserving speech and music, which may be related to their well-documented advantages on a wide variety of speech-related tasks.

  2. Supporting Academic Language Development in Elementary Science: A Classroom Teaching Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Karl Gerhard

    Academic language is the language that students must engage in while participating in the teaching and learning that takes place in school (Schleppegrell, 2012) and science as a content area presents specific challenges and opportunities for students to engage with language (Buxton & Lee, 2014; Gee, 2005). In order for students to engage authentically and fully in the science learning that will take place in their classrooms, it is important that they develop their abilities to use science academic language (National Research Council, 2012). For this to occur, teachers must provide support to their students in developing the science academic language they will encounter in their classrooms. Unfortunately, this type of support remains a challenge for many teachers (Baecher, Farnsworth, & Ediger, 2014; Bigelow, 2010; Fisher & Frey, 2010) and teachers must receive professional development that supports their abilities to provide instruction that supports and scaffolds students' science academic language use and development. This study investigates an elementary science teacher's engagement in an instructional coaching partnership to explore how that teacher planned and implemented scaffolds for science academic language. Using a theoretical framework that combines the literature on scaffolding (Bunch, Walqui, & Kibler, 2015; Gibbons, 2015; Sharpe, 2001/2006) and instructional coaching (Knight, 2007/2009), this study sought to understand how an elementary science teacher plans and implements scaffolds for science academic language, and the resources that assisted the teacher in planning those scaffolds. The overarching goal of this work is to understand how elementary science teachers can scaffold language in their classroom, and how they can be supported in that work. Using a classroom teaching experiment methodology (Cobb, 2000) and constructivist grounded theory methods (Charmaz, 2014) for analysis, this study examined coaching conversations and classroom

  3. Experiences of Student Speech-Language Pathology Clinicians in the Initial Clinical Practicum: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    Speech-language pathology literature is limited in describing the clinical practicum process from the student perspective. Much of the supervision literature in this field focuses on quantitative research and/or the point of view of the supervisor. Understanding the student experience serves to enhance the quality of clinical supervision. Of…

  4. Language learning experience in school context and metacognitive awareness of multilingual children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Pichon Vorstman, E.; de Swart, H.; Ceginskas, V.; van den Bergh, H.

    2009-01-01

    What is the influence of a language learning experience (LLE) in a school context on the metacognitive development of children? To answer that question, we presented 54 multilingual preschoolers with two movie clips and examined their reactions to an exolingual situation of communication. These

  5. Language Anxiety: Experiences of Chinese Graduate Students at U.S. Higher Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui; Erben, Antony

    2012-01-01

    It is very common for Chinese graduate students to experience language anxiety in the U.S. higher institutions, yet the literature on this topic is limited. This research study focused on the influence of the length of stay in U.S. higher institutions, various programs, gender, and acculturation process on Chinese graduate students' language…

  6. What Is the Participant Learning Experience Like Using YouTube to Study a Foreign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yuan-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    This research is to explore and understand participants' experience using YouTube to learn a foreign language. YouTube and learning has become more and more popular in the recent years. The finding of this research will be adding more understanding to the emerging body of knowledge of YouTube phenomenon. In this research, there are three…

  7. The Invisible Hand: The Power of Language in Creating Welcoming Postsecondary Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Lisa C.; Higbee, Jeanne L.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript discusses from the joint perspectives of an undergraduate student and a faculty member the often invisible role that language can play in providing postsecondary learning experiences that can either include or exclude students on the basis of social identity. The authors discuss ignorance, uncertainty, and political correctness as…

  8. Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

  9. Word learning in adults with second-language experience: effects of phonological and referent familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: in which phonologically unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults.

  10. Enhancing Children's Language Learning and Cognition Experience through Interactive Kinetic Typography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Newman M. L.; Chu, Veni H. T.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed at investigating the method of using kinetic typography and interactive approach to conduct a design experiment for children to learn vocabularies. Typography is the unique art and technique of arranging type in order to make language visible. By adding animated movement to characters, kinetic typography expresses language…

  11. Language, Institutional Identity and Integration: Lived Experiences of ESL Teachers in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotovatian, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation and increased patterns of immigration have turned workplace interactions to arenas for intercultural communication entailing negotiation of identity, membership and "social capital". For many newcomer immigrants, this happens in an additional language and culture--English. This paper presents interaction experiences of four…

  12. Genetic Predisposition and Sensory Experience in Language Development: Evidence from Cochlear-Implanted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coene, Martine; Schauwers, Karen; Gillis, Steven; Rooryck, Johan; Govaerts, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent neurobiological studies have advanced the hypothesis that language development is not continuously plastic but is governed by biological constraints that may be modified by experience within a particular time window. This hypothesis is tested based on spontaneous speech data from deaf cochlear-implanted (CI) children with access to…

  13. Patient's anxiety and fear of anesthesia: effect of gender, age, education, and previous experience of anesthesia. A survey of 400 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridou, Paraskevi; Dimitriou, Varvara; Manataki, Adamantia; Arnaoutoglou, Elena; Papadopoulos, Georgios

    2013-02-01

    Patients express high anxiety preoperatively, because of fears related to anesthesia and its implications. The purpose of this survey was to gain insight into these fears and to study whether they are affected by patients' sex, age, education, or previous experience of anesthesia. Questionnaires with fixed questions were distributed to consenting, consecutive surgical patients before the pre-anesthetic visit. The questionnaires included patients' demographics and questions related to their fears about anesthesia. Four-hundred questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Eighty-one percent of patients experience preoperative anxiety. The main sources of their anxiety were fear of postoperative pain (84 %), of not waking up after surgery (64.8 %), of being nauseous or vomiting (60.2 %), and of drains and needles (59.5 %). Patients are less concerned about being paralyzed because of anesthesia (33.5 %) or of revealing personal issues (18.8 %). Gender seems to affect patients fears, with women being more afraid (85.3 vs. 75.6 % of men, p = 0.014). The effects of patients' age, level of education, and previous experience of anesthesia are minor, except for individual questions. Sixty-three percent of our patients (mostly women 67.4 vs. 57.4 % of men, p = 0.039) talk about these fears with their relatives, although a vast majority of 95.5 % would prefer to talk with the anesthesiologist and be reassured by him. All patients, mostly women, express fears about anesthesia; this fear leads to preoperative anxiety. Slight differences are observed for some individual questions among patients of different sex, education level, and previous experience of anesthesia.

  14. Language development of internationally adopted children: Adverse early experiences outweigh the age of acquisition effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Hein, Sascha; Doyle, Niamh; Hart, Lesley; Macomber, Donna; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Tan, Mei; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2015-01-01

    We compared English language and cognitive skills between internationally adopted children (IA; mean age at adoption=2.24, SD=1.8) and their non-adopted peers from the US reared in biological families (BF) at two time points. We also examined the relationships between outcome measures and age at initial institutionalization, length of institutionalization, and age at adoption. On measures of general language, early literacy, and non-verbal IQ, the IA group performed significantly below their age-peers reared in biological families at both time points, but the group differences disappeared on receptive vocabulary and kindergarten concept knowledge at the second time point. Furthermore, the majority of children reached normative age expectations between 1 and 2 years post-adoption on all standardized measures. Although the age at adoption, age of institutionalization, length of institutionalization, and time in the adoptive family all demonstrated significant correlations with one or more outcome measures, the negative relationship between length of institutionalization and child outcomes remained most robust after controlling for the other variables. Results point to much flexibility and resilience in children's capacity for language acquisition as well as the potential primacy of length of institutionalization in explaining individual variation in IA children's outcomes. (1) Readers will be able to understand the importance of pre-adoption environment on language and early literacy development in internationally adopted children. (2) Readers will be able to compare the strength of the association between the length of institutionalization and language outcomes with the strength of the association between the latter and the age at adoption. (3) Readers will be able to understand that internationally adopted children are able to reach age expectations on expressive and receptive language measures despite adverse early experiences and a replacement of their first

  15. Assessing Language Attitudes through a Matched-Guise Experiment: The Case of Consonantal Deletion in Venezuelan Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Campos, Manuel; Killam, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This investigation contributes to the understanding of language attitudes toward consonantal deletion by examining its perception using a matched-guise experiment (Casesnoves and Sankoff 2004; Lambert, Hodgson, Gardner, and Fillenbaum 1960) with fifteen listeners. Two experiments were designed for testing language attitudes, one toward…

  16. Explaining infant feeding: The role of previous personal and vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and breastfeeding outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartle, Naomi C; Harvey, Kate

    2017-11-01

    Breastfeeding confers important health benefits to both infants and their mothers, but rates are low in the United Kingdom and other developed countries despite widespread promotion. This study examined the relationships between personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding, self-efficacy, the theory of planned behaviour variables of attitudes and subjective norm, and the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks post-natally. A prospective questionnaire study of both first-time mothers (n = 77) and experienced breastfeeders (n = 72) recruited at an antenatal clinic in South East England. Participants completed a questionnaire at 32 weeks pregnant assessing personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding (breastfeeding, formula-feeding, and maternal grandmother's experience of breastfeeding), perceived control, self-efficacy, intentions, attitudes (to breastfeeding and formula-feeding), and subjective norm. Infant feeding behaviour was recorded at 6-8 weeks post-natally. Multiple linear regression modelled the influence of vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy (but not perceived control) and modelled the influence of attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and past experience on intentions to breastfeed. Logistic regression modelled the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks. Previous experience (particularly personal experience of breastfeeding) explained a significant amount of variance in attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy. Intentions to breastfeed were predicted by subjective norm and attitude to formula-feeding and, in experienced mothers, self-efficacy. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks was predicted by intentions and vicarious experience of formula-feeding. Vicarious experience, particularly of formula-feeding, has been shown to influence the behaviour of first-time and experienced mothers both directly and indirectly via attitudes and subjective norm. Interventions that reduce exposure to formula

  17. Response to dynamic language tasks among typically developing Latino preschool children with bilingual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Janet L; Rodríguez, Barbara L; Dale, Philip S

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether typically developing preschool children with bilingual experience show evidence of learning within brief dynamic assessment language tasks administered in a graduated prompting framework. Dynamic assessment has shown promise for accurate identification of language impairment in bilingual children, and a graduated prompting approach may be well-suited to screening for language impairment. Three dynamic language tasks with graduated prompting were presented to 32 typically developing 4-year-olds in the language to which the child had the most exposure (16 Spanish, 16 English). The tasks were a novel word learning task, a semantic task, and a phonological awareness task. Children's performance was significantly higher on the last 2 items compared with the first 2 items for the semantic and the novel word learning tasks among children who required a prompt on the 1st item. There was no significant difference between the 1st and last items on the phonological awareness task. Within-task improvements in children's performance for some tasks administered within a brief, graduated prompting framework were observed. Thus, children's responses to graduated prompting may be an indicator of modifiability, depending on the task type and level of difficulty.

  18. Language processing abnormalities in adolescents with psychotic-like experiences: An event related potential study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Jennifer

    2012-05-01

    Language impairments are a well established finding in patients with schizophrenia and in individuals at-risk for psychosis. A growing body of research has revealed shared risk factors between individuals with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) from the general population and patients with schizophrenia. In particular, adolescents with PLEs have been shown to be at an increased risk for later psychosis. However, to date there has been little information published on electrophysiological correlates of language comprehension in this at-risk group. A 64 channel EEG recorded electrical activity while 37 (16 At-Risk; 21 Controls) participants completed the British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS-II) receptive vocabulary task. The P300 component was examined as a function of language comprehension. The at-risk group were impaired behaviourally on receptive language and were characterised by a reduction in P300 amplitude relative to the control group. The results of this study reveal electrophysiological evidence for receptive language deficits in adolescents with PLEs, suggesting that the earliest neurobiological changes underlying psychosis may be apparent in the adolescent period.

  19. The growth of language: Universal Grammar, experience, and principles of computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Charles; Crain, Stephen; Berwick, Robert C; Chomsky, Noam; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2017-10-01

    Human infants develop language remarkably rapidly and without overt instruction. We argue that the distinctive ontogenesis of child language arises from the interplay of three factors: domain-specific principles of language (Universal Grammar), external experience, and properties of non-linguistic domains of cognition including general learning mechanisms and principles of efficient computation. We review developmental evidence that children make use of hierarchically composed structures ('Merge') from the earliest stages and at all levels of linguistic organization. At the same time, longitudinal trajectories of development show sensitivity to the quantity of specific patterns in the input, which suggests the use of probabilistic processes as well as inductive learning mechanisms that are suitable for the psychological constraints on language acquisition. By considering the place of language in human biology and evolution, we propose an approach that integrates principles from Universal Grammar and constraints from other domains of cognition. We outline some initial results of this approach as well as challenges for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vietnamese American Experiences of English Language Learning: Ethnic Acceptance and Prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey LaBelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the effects of ethnic acceptance and prejudice on English language learning among immigrant nonnative speakers. During 2004 and 2005, the author conducted participatory dialogues among six Vietnamese and Mexican adult immigrant English language learners. The researcher sought to answer five questions: (1 What are some nonnative English speakers’ experience regarding the way native speakers treat them? (2 How have nonnative English speakers’ experiences of ethnic acceptance or ethnic prejudice affected their learning of English? (3 What do nonnative English speakers think they need in order to lower their anxiety as they learn a new language? (4 What can native English speakers do to lower nonnative speakers’ anxiety? (5 What can nonnative English speakers do to lower their anxiety with native English speakers? Even though many of the adult immigrant participants experienced ethnic prejudice, they developed strategies to overcome anxiety, frustration, and fear. The dialogues generated themes of acceptance, prejudice, power, motivation, belonging, and perseverance, all factors essential to consider when developing English language learning programs for adult immigrants.

  1. Learning a generative probabilistic grammar of experience: a process-level model of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in this manner takes the form of a directed weighted graph, whose nodes are recursively (hierarchically) defined patterns over the elements of the input stream. We evaluated the model in seventeen experiments, grouped into five studies, which examined, respectively, (a) the generative ability of grammar learned from a corpus of natural language, (b) the characteristics of the learned representation, (c) sequence segmentation and chunking, (d) artificial grammar learning, and (e) certain types of structure dependence. The model's performance largely vindicates our design choices, suggesting that progress in modeling language acquisition can be made on a broad front-ranging from issues of generativity to the replication of human experimental findings-by bringing biological and computational considerations, as well as lessons from prior efforts, to bear on the modeling approach. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko; Christensen, Frans; Baun, Anders; Olsen, Stig I.

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key “lessons learned” from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: “LC-based RA” (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and “RA-complemented LCA” (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

  3. "Connecting to My Roots": Filipino American Students' Language Experiences in the U.S. and in the Heritage Language Class

    OpenAIRE

    Angeles, Bianca C.

    2015-01-01

    Filipinos are one of the biggest minority populations in California, yet there are limited opportunities to learn the Filipino language in public schools. Further, schools are not able to nurture students’ heritage languages because of increased emphasis on English-only proficiency. The availability of heritage language classes at the university level – while scarce – therefore becomes an important space for Filipino American students to (re)learn and (re)discover their language and identity....

  4. What can a geography as dancing body? language-experience 'gesture-movement-affection' (fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Queiroz Filho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Made of fragments, this paper proposes to think about relations and possible repercussions existing between language and experience from the perspective of some post-structuralist authors. I sought in reflection about body and dance a way to discuss this issue and at the same time, making a geography as something that produces in us affections. “What can a Geography as dancing body?” is beyond a question, an invitation, a proposition: a ballerina geography.

  5. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 3 (L1V3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; König, Matthias; Moraru, Ion; Nickerson, David; Le Novère, Nicolas; Olivier, Brett G; Sahle, Sven; Smith, Lucian; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2018-03-19

    The creation of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research poses challenges to reproduce, annotate, archive, and share such experiments. Efforts such as SBML or CellML standardize the formal representation of computational models in various areas of biology. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) describes what procedures the models are subjected to, and the details of those procedures. These standards, together with further COMBINE standards, describe models sufficiently well for the reproduction of simulation studies among users and software tools. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) is an XML-based format that encodes, for a given simulation experiment, (i) which models to use; (ii) which modifications to apply to models before simulation; (iii) which simulation procedures to run on each model; (iv) how to post-process the data; and (v) how these results should be plotted and reported. SED-ML Level 1 Version 1 (L1V1) implemented support for the encoding of basic time course simulations. SED-ML L1V2 added support for more complex types of simulations, specifically repeated tasks and chained simulation procedures. SED-ML L1V3 extends L1V2 by means to describe which datasets and subsets thereof to use within a simulation experiment.

  6. Building Bridges - How secondary school pupils bring their informal learning experiences into a Content and Language Integrated (CLIL) classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Jakonen, Teppo

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how students’ informal language learning experiences with English find their way into the formal context of content-based language teaching (CLIL). The analysis is focused on stretches of classroom talk in which native Finnish-speaking students draw on their expertise of English-language popular culture, and use their knowledge as a semiotic resource for producing various types of actions. Based on the data, it is argued that the organisation of peer group talk in the la...

  7. Reflections on My Experience as a Learner of Languages and on How That Experience May Have Influenced My Teaching Style and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Riva de la Rosa, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The following article is an introspection into my childhood and early youth memories in relation to language acquisition and learning of foreign languages. This analysis will help me determine to what extent these experiences, positive and negative ones, may have influenced my teaching methods and style to the present day. (Contains…

  8. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  9. Self-Assessment of Japanese as a Second Language: The Role of Experiences in the Naturalistic Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Self-assessment has been used to assess second language proficiency; however, as sources of measurement errors vary, they may threaten the validity and reliability of the tools. The present paper investigated the role of experiences in using Japanese as a second language in the naturalistic acquisition context on the accuracy of the…

  10. Functional connectivity in task-negative network of the Deaf: effects of sign language experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie Malaia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies investigating cortical processing in Deaf signers suggest that life-long experience with sign language and/or auditory deprivation may alter the brain’s anatomical structure and the function of brain regions typically recruited for auditory processing (Emmorey et al., 2010; Pénicaud et al., 2013 inter alia. We report the first investigation of the task-negative network in Deaf signers and its functional connectivity—the temporal correlations among spatially remote neurophysiological events. We show that Deaf signers manifest increased functional connectivity between posterior cingulate/precuneus and left medial temporal gyrus (MTG, but also inferior parietal lobe and medial temporal gyrus in the right hemisphere- areas that have been found to show functional recruitment specifically during sign language processing. These findings suggest that the organization of the brain at the level of inter-network connectivity is likely affected by experience with processing visual language, although sensory deprivation could be another source of the difference. We hypothesize that connectivity alterations in the task negative network reflect predictive/automatized processing of the visual signal.

  11. Use of the PASKAL' language for programming in experiment automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrovnoj, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    A complex of standard solutions intended for realization of the main functions is suggested; execution of these solutions is provided by any system for experiment automation. They include: recording and accumulation of experimental data; visualization and preliminary processing of incoming data, interaction with the operator and system control; data filing. It is advisable to use standard software, to represent data processing algorithms as parallel processes, to apply the PASCAL' language for programming. Programming using CAMAC equipment is provided by complex of procedures similar to the set of subprograms in the FORTRAN language. Utilization of a simple data file in accumulation and processing programs ensures unified representation of experimental data and uniform access to them on behalf of a large number of programs operating both on-line and off-line regimes. The suggested approach is realized when developing systems on the base of the SM-3, SM-4 and MERA-60 computers with RAFOS operating system

  12. Foreign-language experience in infancy: effects of short-term exposure and social interaction on phonetic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Patricia K; Tsao, Feng-Ming; Liu, Huei-Mei

    2003-07-22

    Infants acquire language with remarkable speed, although little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the acquisition process. Studies of the phonetic units of language have shown that early in life, infants are capable of discerning differences among the phonetic units of all languages, including native- and foreign-language sounds. Between 6 and 12 mo of age, the ability to discriminate foreign-language phonetic units sharply declines. In two studies, we investigate the necessary and sufficient conditions for reversing this decline in foreign-language phonetic perception. In Experiment 1, 9-mo-old American infants were exposed to native Mandarin Chinese speakers in 12 laboratory sessions. A control group also participated in 12 language sessions but heard only English. Subsequent tests of Mandarin speech perception demonstrated that exposure to Mandarin reversed the decline seen in the English control group. In Experiment 2, infants were exposed to the same foreign-language speakers and materials via audiovisual or audio-only recordings. The results demonstrated that exposure to recorded Mandarin, without interpersonal interaction, had no effect. Between 9 and 10 mo of age, infants show phonetic learning from live, but not prerecorded, exposure to a foreign language, suggesting a learning process that does not require long-term listening and is enhanced by social interaction.

  13. Effects of Music and Tonal Language Experience on Relative Pitch Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L; Strybel, Thomas Z

    2016-01-01

    We examined the interaction between music and tone language experience as related to relative pitch processing by having participants judge the direction and magnitude of pitch changes in a relative pitch task. Participants' performance on this relative pitch task was assessed using the Cochran-Weiss-Shanteau (CWS) index of expertise, based on a ratio of discrimination over consistency in participants' relative pitch judgments. Testing took place in 2 separate sessions on different days to assess the effects of practice on participants' performance. Participants also completed the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA), an existing measure comprising subtests aimed at evaluating relative pitch processing abilities. Musicians outperformed nonmusicians on both the relative pitch task, as measured by the CWS index, and the MBEA, but tonal language speakers outperformed non-tonal language speakers only on the MBEA. A closer look at the discrimination and consistency component scores of the CWS index revealed that musicians were better at discriminating different pitches and more consistent in their assessments of the direction and magnitude of relative pitch change.

  14. Chinese American Adolescents’ Perceptions of the Language Brokering Experience as a Sense of Burden and Sense of Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nina H.

    2009-01-01

    Children of immigrants who do translations and who interpret for others using their heritage language and English are known as language brokers. Although prior research suggests that children of immigrants’ perceptions of the language brokering experience vary greatly—from feeling a sense of efficacy to feeling a sense of burden—what remains unanswered in the literature is identification of the antecedents and processes that help to explain the varying psychological experience of language brokers. Using data from a two-wave prospective longitudinal study of 256 Chinese American adolescents, the present study tested potential mechanisms that may be responsible for adolescents’ perceptions of the language brokering experience as a sense or burden or sense of efficacy. The results demonstrate that adolescents’ Chinese orientation sets in motion a family process that is linked to variations in the perceptions of adolescents’ language brokering experience. Adolescents who are more Chinese oriented have a stronger sense of familial obligation, and these adolescents are more likely to perceive that they matter to their parents. Adolescents’ perceived sense of mattering to parents, in turn, is associated positively with a sense efficacy, and negatively with a sense of burden as language brokers. Those adolescents who are less Chinese oriented have a weaker sense of familial obligation, and these adolescents are more likely to feel a sense of alienation from their parents. Adolescents’ sense of perceived alienation from parents, in turn, is associated with a sense of burden as language brokers. Implications for developing interventions for children who act as language brokers for their parents are discussed. PMID:19636765

  15. Chinese American adolescents' perceptions of the language brokering experience as a sense of burden and sense of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nina H; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-05-01

    Children of immigrants who do translations and who interpret for others using their heritage language and English are known as language brokers. Although prior research suggests that children of immigrants' perceptions of the language brokering experience vary greatly-from feeling a sense of efficacy to feeling a sense of burden-what remains unanswered in the literature is identification of the antecedents and processes that help to explain the varying psychological experience of language brokers. Using data from a two-wave prospective longitudinal study of 256 Chinese American adolescents, the present study tested potential mechanisms that may be responsible for adolescents' perceptions of the language brokering experience as a sense or burden or sense of efficacy. The results demonstrate that adolescents' Chinese orientation sets in motion a family process that is linked to variations in the perceptions of adolescents' language brokering experience. Adolescents who are more Chinese oriented have a stronger sense of familial obligation, and these adolescents are more likely to perceive that they matter to their parents. Adolescents' perceived sense of mattering to parents, in turn, is associated positively with a sense efficacy, and negatively with a sense of burden as language brokers. Those adolescents who are less Chinese oriented have a weaker sense of familial obligation, and these adolescents are more likely to feel a sense of alienation from their parents. Adolescents' sense of perceived alienation from parents, in turn, is associated with a sense of burden as language brokers. Implications for developing interventions for children who act as language brokers for their parents are discussed.

  16. The foreign language effect on the self-serving bias: A field experiment in the high school classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hugten, Joeri; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2018-01-01

    The rise of bilingual education triggers an important question: which language is preferred for a particular school activity? Our field experiment (n = 120) shows that students (aged 13-15) who process feedback in non-native English have greater self-serving bias than students who process feedback in their native Dutch. By contrast, literature on the foreign-language emotionality effect suggests a weaker self-serving bias in the non-native language, so our result adds nuance to that literature. The result is important to schools as it suggests that teachers may be able to reduce students' defensiveness and demotivation by communicating negative feedback in the native language, and teachers may be able to increase students' confidence and motivation by communicating positive feedback in the foreign language.

  17. The foreign language effect on the self-serving bias: A field experiment in the high school classroom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri van Hugten

    Full Text Available The rise of bilingual education triggers an important question: which language is preferred for a particular school activity? Our field experiment (n = 120 shows that students (aged 13-15 who process feedback in non-native English have greater self-serving bias than students who process feedback in their native Dutch. By contrast, literature on the foreign-language emotionality effect suggests a weaker self-serving bias in the non-native language, so our result adds nuance to that literature. The result is important to schools as it suggests that teachers may be able to reduce students' defensiveness and demotivation by communicating negative feedback in the native language, and teachers may be able to increase students' confidence and motivation by communicating positive feedback in the foreign language.

  18. Content and Language Integrated Learning with Technologies: A Global Online Training Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinganotto, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this report is the link between CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) and CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning), and in particular, the added value technologies can bring to the learning/teaching of a foreign language and to the delivery of subject content through a foreign language. An example of a free online global…

  19. Revitalisation of Indigenous Languages in Education: Contextualising the Papua New Guinea Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove

    2003-01-01

    Situates two papers on Papua New Guinea in the context of discussion about maintenance and revitalization of endangered languages and about education through the medium of indigenous and minority languages. The articles are "What Is Our Culture? What Is Our Language? Dialogue Towards the Maintenance of Indigenous Culture and Language in Papua…

  20. Experiences, Perceptions and Attitudes on ICT Integration: A Case Study among Novice and Experienced Language Teachers in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, John Paul Obillos

    2016-01-01

    The influence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in developing ways on how to better deliver instruction has been regarded as beneficial in education. In language teaching, the use of ICT is an impactful experience. It is therefore the purpose of this study to delve into the experiences, perceptions and attitudes of a novice and an…

  1. Focusing the lens of language experience: perception of Ma'di stops by Greek and English bilinguals and monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Mark; Best, Catherine T; Tyler, Michael D

    2013-04-01

    Monolingual listeners are constrained by native language experience when categorizing and discriminating unfamiliar non-native contrasts. Are early bilinguals constrained in the same way by their two languages, or do they possess an advantage? Greek-English bilinguals in either Greek or English language mode were compared to monolinguals on categorization and discrimination of Ma'di stop-voicing distinctions that are non-native to both languages. As predicted, English monolinguals categorized Ma'di prevoiced plosive and implosive stops and the coronal voiceless stop as English voiced stops. The Greek monolinguals categorized the Ma'di short-lag voiceless stops as Greek voiceless stops, and the prevoiced implosive stops and the coronal prevoiced stop as Greek voiced stops. Ma'di prenasalized stops were uncategorized. Greek monolinguals discriminated the non-native voiced-voiceless contrasts very well, whereas the English monolinguals did poorly. Bilinguals were given all oral and written instructions either in English or in Greek (language mode manipulation). Each language mode subgroup categorized Ma'di stop-voicing comparably to the corresponding monolingual group. However, the bilinguals' discrimination was unaffected by language mode: both subgroups performed intermediate to the monolinguals for the prevoiced-voiceless contrast. Thus, bilinguals do not possess an advantage for unfamiliar non-native contrasts, but are nonetheless uniquely configured language users, differing from either monolingual group.

  2. Language knowledge and event knowledge in language use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Jon A; Amato, Michael S; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines how semantic knowledge is used in language comprehension and in making judgments about events in the world. We contrast knowledge gleaned from prior language experience ("language knowledge") and knowledge coming from prior experience with the world ("world knowledge"). In two corpus analyses, we show that previous research linking verb aspect and event representations have confounded language and world knowledge. Then, using carefully chosen stimuli that remove this confound, we performed four experiments that manipulated the degree to which language knowledge or world knowledge should be salient and relevant to performing a task, finding in each case that participants use the type of knowledge most appropriate to the task. These results provide evidence for a highly context-sensitive and interactionist perspective on how semantic knowledge is represented and used during language processing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The role of language in the experience and perception of emotion: a neuroimaging meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeffrey A; Shablack, Holly; Gendron, Maria; Satpute, Ajay B; Parrish, Michael H; Lindquist, Kristen A

    2017-02-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that labeling one's emotional experiences and perceptions alters those states. Here, we used a comprehensive meta-analysis of the neuroimaging literature to systematically explore whether the presence of emotion words in experimental tasks has an impact on the neural representation of emotional experiences and perceptions across studies. Using a database of 386 studies, we assessed brain activity when emotion words (e.g. 'anger', 'disgust') and more general affect words (e.g. 'pleasant', 'unpleasant') were present in experimental tasks vs not present. As predicted, when emotion words were present, we observed more frequent activations in regions related to semantic processing. When emotion words were not present, we observed more frequent activations in the amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus, bilaterally. The presence of affect words did not have the same effect on the neural representation of emotional experiences and perceptions, suggesting that our observed effects are specific to emotion words. These findings are consistent with the psychological constructionist prediction that in the absence of accessible emotion concepts, the meaning of affective experiences and perceptions are ambiguous. Findings are also consistent with the regulatory role of 'affect labeling'. Implications of the role of language in emotion construction and regulation are discussed. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Language and the experience of patients' values in nursing care: a theoretical exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austgard, Kitt

    2007-02-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between language and the acquisition of knowledge concerning patients' values in nursing care. It delineates the difference between a theory of learning, based on first-hand experience and second-hand information, and the consequences that either form of learning may have for the nurses' particular experience in practise. Critical questions are raised in relation to the definition of the first period of nursing as an apprentice-type of education. The experience of patients' values requires an openness to meet the patient in a way such that the patient and the patient's issues can be understood on their own terms. The experience is not a wordless enterprise, nor was it in the time of the pioneers. It can be argued that a caring philosophy, as second-hand information, may help to bridge the gap between what is already known and any radically new knowledge, both in general and particular, and in individual knowledge concerning patients' values.

  5. Uncovering young children's emerging identities related to their literacy experiences: Suggestions to strengthen language education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moen, Melanie Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study explored how young children’s identities emerged from their drawings and accounts of their favourite stories as we argue the importance of understanding children in the context of school and language education. Sixty-six (n=66 children of two urban schools in Pretoria, South Africa were asked to write about and draw their favourite story. The participants were between the ages of six and seven years. Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory and Chen’s theory of the construction of identity in a social context were used as conceptual framework. This conceptual framework could be linked to the findings which suggested that the children related their drawings and versions of their favourite stories to their interpretations of their life worlds. The prominent themes from the data could be associated with the self, the family, familiar objects and known animals. Their literacy experiences and the socio-cultural influences on the children’s construction of their identities were apparent in their work. We argue that teachers need to better understand how children understand themselves in relation to the world around them when making decisions about effective language education.

  6. Use of Intracervical Foley Catheter for Induction of Labour in Cases of Previous Caesarean Section: Experience of a single tertiary centre in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Hazel; Al-Riyami, Nihal; Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Gowri, Vaidayanathan; Al-Azri, Mohammed; Salahuddin, Ayesha

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate rates of success and perinatal complications of labour induction using an intracervical Foley catheter among women with a previous Caesarean delivery at a tertiary centre in Oman. This retrospective cohort study included 68 pregnant women with a history of a previous Caesarean section who were admitted for induction via Foley catheter between January 2011 and December 2013 to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Patient data were collected from electronic and delivery ward records. Most women were 25-35 years old (76.5%) and 20 women had had one previous vaginal delivery (29.4%). The most common indication for induction of labour was intrauterine growth restriction with oligohydramnios (27.9%). Most women delivered after 40 gestational weeks (48.5%) and there were no neonatal admissions or complications. The majority experienced no complications during the induction period (85.3%), although a few had vaginal bleeding (5.9%), intrapartum fever (4.4%), rupture of the membranes (2.9%) and cord prolapse shortly after insertion of the Foley catheter (1.5%). However, no cases of uterine rupture or scar dehiscence were noted. Overall, the success rate of vaginal birth after a previous Caesarean delivery was 69.1%, with the remaining patients undergoing an emergency Caesarean section (30.9%). The use of a Foley catheter in the induction of labour in women with a previous Caesarean delivery appears a safe option with a good success rate and few maternal and fetal complications.

  7. Effects of language experience on the discrimination of the Portuguese palatal lateral by nonnative listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Oliveira, Daniela; Casenhiser, Devin M; Hedrick, Mark; Teixeira, António; Bunta, Ferenc

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether manner or place takes precedence over the other during a phonological category discrimination task and (2) whether this pattern of precedence persists during the early stages of acquisition of the L2. In doing so, we investigated the Portuguese palatal lateral approximant /ʎ/ since it differs from English /l/ only by the place of articulation, and from English /j/ only by the manner of articulation. Our results indicate that monolinguals' perception of the non-native sound is dominated by manner while Portuguese learners show a different pattern of results. The results are interpreted as being consistent with evidence suggesting that manner may be neurophysiologically dominant over place of articulation. The study adds further details to the literature on the effects of experience on language acquisition, and has significant clinical implications for bilingualism in general, and foreign accent training, in particular.

  8. Is Motor Simulation Involved During Foreign Language Learning? A Virtual Reality Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Repetto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study performed to investigate the role of simulation in second language learning while using a virtual environment. Participants were asked to explore a virtual park while learning 15 new Czech verbs (action verbs that describe movements performed with either the hand or the foot, and abstract verbs. This learning condition was compared with a baseline condition, where movements (either virtual or real were not allowed. The goal was to investigate whether the virtual action (performed with the feet would promote or interfere with the learning of verbs describing actions that were performed with the same or a different effector. The number of verbs correctly remembered in a free recall task was computed, along with reaction times and number of errors during a recognition task. Results show that the simulation per se has no effect in verbal learning, but the features of the virtual experience mediate it.

  9. The acculturation, language and learning experiences of international nursing students: Implications for nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Creina; Del Fabbro, Letitia; Shaw, Julie

    2017-09-01

    International or foreign students are those who enrol in universities outside their country of citizenship. They face many challenges acculturating to and learning in a new country and education system, particularly if they study in an additional language. This qualitative inquiry aimed to explore the learning and acculturating experiences of international nursing students to identify opportunities for teaching innovation to optimise the experiences and learning of international nursing students. Undergraduate and postgraduate international nursing students were recruited from one campus of an Australian university to take part in semi-structured interviews. A purposive and theoretically saturated sample of 17 students was obtained. Interviews were audio-recorded and field notes and interview data were thematically analysed. Expressing myself and Finding my place were the two major themes identified from the international student data. International nursing students identified that it took them longer to study in comparison with domestic students and that stress negatively influenced communication, particularly in the clinical setting. Additionally international nursing students identified the need to find supportive opportunities to speak English to develop proficiency. Clinical placement presented the opportunity to speak English and raised the risk of being identified as lacking language proficiency or being clinically unsafe. Initially, international nursing students felt isolated and it was some time before they found their feet. In this time, they experienced otherness and discrimination. International nursing students need a safe place to learn so they can adjust and thrive in the university learning community. Faculty and clinical educators must be culturally competent; they need to understand international nursing students' needs and be willing and able to advocate for and create an equitable environment that is appropriate for international nursing

  10. The experiences of students with English as a second language in a baccalaureate nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Susan; Wilson, Astrid

    2008-10-01

    Teaching nursing students with English as a second language (ESL) can be a challenge for nursing faculty in many English speaking countries. This qualitative study purported to answer the research question, "How do students with ESL describe their experiences in a nursing program"? to develop a better understanding of the reasons for their course failure. Seidman's Model of in-depth interviewing (1998) consisting of three successive interviews with the same participant was used. The first interview focused on the students' life histories, the second allowed the participants to reconstruct the details of their experiences, and the third encouraged the students to reflect on the meaning of their experiences. Three themes emerged, "walking the straight and narrow", "an outsider looking in", and "doing whatever it takes to be successful." Although each participant shared instances where ESL may have contributed to his/her academic difficulty, the participants did not perceive that ESL was the primary reason for course failure, but attributed it to the discrimination and stereotyping they experienced. In spite of the discrimination and stereotyping, participants reported a strong desire to persist in the nursing program. Findings from this study provided an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of three nursing students with ESL. Also, the findings are applicable to nursing faculty in that a better understanding of students with ESL can enhance their learning.

  11. Assessing the impact of previous experience, and attitudes towards technology, on levels of engagement in a virtual reality based occupational therapy intervention for spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCaughey, Manus Dr.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current research project was to determine if there were significant differences between patients with higher or lower levels of experience with technology in terms of their level of engagement with virtual reality (VR) in occupational therapy, their future uptake of VR technology in therapy, and their attitudes towards technology. Patients’ experience of technology was also examined in relation to demographic characteristics such as age and education level.\\r\

  12. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-07-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  13. Relation between language experiences in preschool classrooms and children's kindergarten and fourth-grade language and reading abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David K; Porche, Michelle V

    2011-01-01

    Indirect effects of preschool classroom indexes of teacher talk were tested on fourth-grade outcomes for 57 students from low-income families in a longitudinal study of classroom and home influences on reading. Detailed observations and audiotaped teacher and child language data were coded to measure content and quantity of verbal interactions in preschool classrooms. Preschool teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary during free play predicted fourth-grade reading comprehension and word recognition (mean age=9; 7), with effects mediated by kindergarten child language measures (mean age=5; 6). In large group preschool settings, teachers' attention-getting utterances were directly related to later comprehension. Preschool teachers' correcting utterances and analytic talk about books, and early support in the home for literacy predicted fourth-grade vocabulary, as mediated by kindergarten receptive vocabulary. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Use of Intracervical Foley Catheter for Induction of Labour in Cases of Previous Caesarean Section; Experience of a single tertiary centre in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Gonsalves

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate rates of success and perinatal complications of labour induction using an intracervical Foley catheter among women with a previous Caesarean delivery at a tertiary centre in Oman. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 68 pregnant women with a history of a previous Caesarean section who were admitted for induction via Foley catheter between January 2011 and December 2013 to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Patient data were collected from electronic and delivery ward records. Results: Most women were 25–35 years old (76.5% and 20 women had had one previous vaginal delivery (29.4%. The most common indication for induction of labour was intrauterine growth restriction with oligohydramnios (27.9%. Most women delivered after 40 gestational weeks (48.5% and there were no neonatal admissions or complications. The majority experienced no complications during the induction period (85.3%, although a few had vaginal bleeding (5.9%, intrapartum fever (4.4%, rupture of the membranes (2.9% and cord prolapse shortly after insertion of the Foley catheter (1.5%. However, no cases of uterine rupture or scar dehiscence were noted. Overall, the success rate of vaginal birth after a previous Caesarean delivery was 69.1%, with the remaining patients undergoing an emergency Caesarean section (30.9%. Conclusion: The use of a Foley catheter in the induction of labour in women with a previous Caesarean delivery appears a safe option with a good success rate and few maternal and fetal complications.

  15. Mimicking Infants' Early Language Experience Does Not Improve Adult Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson Kam, Carla L.

    2018-01-01

    Adult learners know that language is for communicating and that there are patterns in the language that need to be learned. This affects the way they engage with language input; they search for form-meaning linkages, and this effortful engagement could interfere with their learning, especially for things like grammatical gender that often have at…

  16. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.

  17. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomi S Asaridou

    Full Text Available We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch. We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel. We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.

  18. Functional changes in people with different hearing status and experiences of using Chinese sign language: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Xia, Shuang; Zhao, Fei; Qi, Ji

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess functional changes in the cerebral cortex in people with different sign language experience and hearing status whilst observing and imitating Chinese Sign Language (CSL) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 50 participants took part in the study, and were divided into four groups according to their hearing status and experience of using sign language: prelingual deafness signer group (PDS), normal hearing non-signer group (HnS), native signer group with normal hearing (HNS), and acquired signer group with normal hearing (HLS). fMRI images were scanned from all subjects when they performed block-designed tasks that involved observing and imitating sign language stimuli. Nine activation areas were found in response to undertaking either observation or imitation CSL tasks and three activated areas were found only when undertaking the imitation task. Of those, the PDS group had significantly greater activation areas in terms of the cluster size of the activated voxels in the bilateral superior parietal lobule, cuneate lobe and lingual gyrus in response to undertaking either the observation or the imitation CSL task than the HnS, HNS and HLS groups. The PDS group also showed significantly greater activation in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus which was also found in the HNS or the HLS groups but not in the HnS group. This indicates that deaf signers have better sign language proficiency, because they engage more actively with the phonetic and semantic elements. In addition, the activations of the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule were only found in the PDS group and HNS group, and not in the other two groups, which indicates that the area for sign language processing appears to be sensitive to the age of language acquisition. After reading this article, readers will be able to: discuss the relationship between sign language and its neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  19. An experience in Language Teaching Seminar of Primary Education Degree through the Seventh Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela GARCÍA-MANSO

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the Seminar «Language Skills and Seventh Art» developed at the University of Extremadura in the course 2015-2016. Through the analysis of ten films, we deal with professional competences of future Primary teachers from unique situations, for example disabilities such as blind and deaf people, autism or dyslexia, questions about the origin of the language and artificial languages, or cultural issues such as the wild child or within situations of isolation or loneliness. In addition to the specific considerations of each film, the active use of Cinema in different areas of learning foreign languages and ELE (Spanish as Foreign Language is postulated

  20. International students in speech-language pathology clinical education placements: Perceptions of experience and competency development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Stacie; Lincoln, Michelle; McAllister, Sue

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to describe perceptions of clinical placement experiences and competency development for international speech-language pathology students and to determine if these perceptions were different for domestic students. Domestic and international students at two Australian universities participated in nine focus group interviews. Thematic analysis led to the identification of two themes shared by international and domestic students and several separate themes. Shared themes identified the important influence of students' relationships with clinical educators, unique opportunities and learning that occurs on placement. International student themes included concerns about their communication skills and the impact of these skills on client progress. They also explored their adjustment to unfamiliar placement settings and relationships, preferring structured placements to assist this adjustment. Domestic student themes explored the critical nature of competency attainment and assessment on placement, valuing placements that enabled them to achieve their goals. The findings of this study suggest that international students experience additional communication, cultural and contextual demands on clinical placement, which may increase their learning requirements. Clinical education practices must be responsive to the learning needs of diverse student populations. Strategies are suggested to assist all students to adjust to the professional and learning expectations of clinical education placements.

  1. Service Learning & Teaching: A Cross-Cultural Experience--Analysis of Languages in a Private School in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins-Gillispie, Delphina

    2012-01-01

    The service learning immersion experience in Central America benefitted preservice teachers, which resulted in a collaborative project on the analysis of languages spoken at the primary to middle school level. This study researches, collects data, and analyzes results from one school system in the country of Nicaragua in hopes of acquiring…

  2. Language and Academic Identity: A Study of the Experiences of Non-Native English Speaking International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halic, Olivia; Greenberg, Katherine; Paulus, Trena

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores the experiences of non-native English-speaking international students regarding language, culture and identity in the context of their graduate studies. Interviews were conducted with each of the eight participants. Interpretive analysis was used within a constructivist frame. The findings of this study are…

  3. How Preservice Teachers' Study Abroad Experiences Lead to Changes in Their Perceptions of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Adriana L.; Hathaway, Jennifer I.; Pilonieta, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Teacher attitudes toward English language learners (ELLs) can affect what these students will learn. It has been noted that teachers with personal multicultural experiences are likelier to have a more positive attitude towards teaching ELLs (Youngs and Youngs, 2001). Thus, preparing future teachers is vital. This cannot be solely accomplished…

  4. Disciplinary Enculturation Experiences of Five East Asian Doctoral Students in US-Based Second Language Studies Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seonhee

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the non-discursive aspects of the disciplinary enculturation experiences of five international doctoral students from East Asia in three Second Language studies graduate programmes in the United States. Based largely on interview data, this study examined how students participate in their graduate discourse communities and…

  5. The Impact of a Study Abroad Experience on Preservice Teachers' Dispositions and Plans for Teaching English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilonieta, Paola; Medina, Adriana L.; Hathaway, Jennifer I.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored how a study abroad experience affected preservice teachers' (PSTs') dispositions towards and plans for teaching English Language Learners (ELLs). This qualitative study involved 16 elementary education initial licensure PSTs who participated in a 2-month study abroad trip to Germany. Data in the form of surveys, interviews, and…

  6. Language Brokering and Self-Concept: An Exploratory Study of Latino Students' Experiences in Middle and High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Kate; Kumpiene, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationships among individual characteristics, language brokering experiences and attitudes, and multiple dimensions of self-concept among a sample of Latino adolescents. The sample was comprised of 66 Latino students in 6th through 11th grades who were proficient in both Spanish and English. Results from…

  7. Prescription of oral anticoagulation for patients with atrial fibrillation and previous hospitalization in a cardiology department. Experience in actual practice in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabregat-Andrés, Ó; Cubillos-Arango, A; Chacón-Hernández, N; Montagud, V; Morell, S; Fácila, L

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the main reason for oral anticoagulation in our community. New oral anticoagulants (NOACs) overcome the disadvantages of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), although there are scarce data on its use in our community. The aim of our study was to assess the use of NOACs and anticoagulation control using VKA as measured by the time within the therapeutic range (TTR) in an actual clinical scenario. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of 816 patients admitted to cardiology over a period of 3 years, with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation and anticoagulant treatment at discharge. We assessed the percentage of patients prescribed NOACs and the TTR with VKA. We compared safety and efficacy events during the 15-month follow-up among the patients prescribed NOAC, those prescribed VKA with a good TTR and those with a poor TTR. The percentage of patients prescribed NOAC was 7.6%. Serial INR measurements found that 71.3% of patients had a poor TTR. Although the groups were not comparable, a higher incidence of the combined event was observed in those treated with VKA and a poor TTR compared with those prescribed NOAC (p=.01). For patients with a previous hospitalization in cardiology in a tertiary hospital and a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, the rate of NOAC prescription is low, and the TTR with VKA was poor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  8. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  9. Subjective Experiences of Speech and Language Therapy in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Spurgeon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Parkinson’s disease can produce a range of speech-language pathologies, which may require intervention. While evaluations of speech-language therapy have been undertaken, no work has been undertaken to capture patients’ experiences of therapy. This was the aim of the present study. Methods. Semistructured interviews, using themes derived from the literature, were conducted with nine Parkinson’s disease patients, all of whom had undergone speech-language therapy. Participants’ responses were analysed in accordance with Thematic Network Analysis. Results. Four themes emerged: emotional reactions (frustration, embarrassment, lack of confidence, disappointment, and anxiety; physical impact (fatigue, breathing and swallowing, and word production; practical aspects (cost of treatment, waiting times, and the actual clinical experience; and expectations about treatment (met versus unmet. Conclusions. While many benefits of speech-language therapy were reported, several negative issues emerged which could impact adversely on rehabilitation. Parkinson’s disease is associated with a range of psychological and physical sequelae, such as fatigue and depression; recognising any individual experiences which could exacerbate the existing condition and incorporating these into treatment planning may improve rehabilitation outcomes.

  10. Native experience with a tone language enhances pitch discrimination and the timing of neural responses to pitch change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Giuliano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Native tone language experience has been linked with alterations in the production and perception of pitch in language, as well as with the brain response to linguistic and non-linguistic tones. Here we use two experiments to address whether these changes apply to the discrimination of simple pitch changes and pitch intervals. ERPs were recorded from native Mandarin speakers and a control group during a same/different task with pairs of pure tones differing only in pitch height, and with pure tone pairs differing only in interval distance. Behaviorally, Mandarin speakers were more accurate than controls at detecting both pitch and interval changes, showing a sensitivity to small pitch changes and interval distances that was absent in the control group. Converging evidence from ERPs obtained during the same tasks revealed an earlier response to change relative to no-change trials in Mandarin speakers, as well as earlier differentiation of trials by change direction relative to controls. These findings illustrate the cross-domain influence of language experience on the perception of pitch, suggesting that the native use of tonal pitch contours in language leads to a general enhancement in the acuity of pitch representations.

  11. Comparing Local and International Chinese Students' English Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Margreat Aloysious; Ganesen, Sree Nithya

    2012-01-01

    According to Horwitz (1987) learners' belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different…

  12. Explaining Research Utilization Among 4-H Faculty, Staff, and Volunteers: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Learning Goal Orientation, Training, and Previous Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Tillman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of factors that facilitate the utilization of research evidence among faculty, staff, and volunteers in the 4-H Youth Development Program is presented in this paper. Participants (N= 368; 86 4-H faculty, 153 staff, and 129 volunteers represented 35 states; structural equation modeling was utilized in the analyses. Results of the path analysis explained 56% of variance in research utilization and 28% in research utilization self-efficacy. Among the factors impacting research utilization, self-efficacy played the most important role. In turn, self-efficacy for research utilization was positively influenced by participants’ learning goal orientation, frequency of 4-H training during the last 12 months, education in research-related areas, and investigative career interests. In addition, 4-H staff who were exposed to research at higher levels reported higher research utilization self-efficacy. The findings reinforce the importance of fostering research utilization self-efficacy among 4-H faculty, staff, and volunteers. Among the suggestions presented are regular 4-H training opportunities and on-going exposure to program evaluation and program improvement experiences.

  13. Influence of previous experience on the preference, food utilization and performance of Ascia monuste orseis wild larvae (Godart) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) for three different hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, A F K; Zucoloto, F S

    2011-01-01

    The exhaustion of food resources which occurs during the ontogenetic growth of Ascia monuste orseis (Godart) results in the dispersion of older larvae to nearby plants in order to complete their development, which might expose these animals to the nutritional variation of the hosts found. This study aimed to verify whether the food ingested in the beginning of the development influences the larvae host preference and whether the shift to a new host can affect the digestion and performance of A. monuste orseis, using two natural hosts: kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and rocket (Eruca sativa), or kale and cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata). Larvae were reared throughout their larval development on a single host or on two different hosts. When a host change was tested, larvae were reared for four instars on a host, and offered the other host plant in the fifth instar. Development time, percentage of pupation and emergence, pupal weight, fecundity and digestive indices were evaluated. The change in feeding preference for kale and for rocket in the fourth instar, when those were the original hosts, respectively, shows that prior experience plays a major role in food preference of immature A. monuste orseis. The shift can be beneficial for larval development, depending on the order of the hosts; in general, larvae fed on kale at the end of the development showed better performance. Our results presented strong evidence of a considerable phenotypic plasticity in A. monuste orseis for host preferences.

  14. Ontology Language to Support Description of Experiment Control System Semantics, Collaborative Knowledge-Base Design and Ontology Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyurjyan, Vardan; Abbott, D.; Heyes, G.; Jastrzembski, E.; Moffit, B.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the control domain specific ontology that is built on top of the domain-neutral Resource Definition Framework (RDF). Specifically, we will discuss the relevant set of ontology concepts along with the relationships among them in order to describe experiment control components and generic event-based state machines. Control Oriented Ontology Language (COOL) is a meta-data modeling language that provides generic means for representation of physics experiment control processes and components, and their relationships, rules and axioms. It provides a semantic reference frame that is useful for automating the communication of information for configuration, deployment and operation. COOL has been successfully used to develop a complete and dynamic knowledge-base for experiment control systems, developed using the AFECS framework.

  15. Ontology Language to Support Description of Experiment Control System Semantics, Collaborative Knowledge-Base Design and Ontology Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardan Gyurjyan, D Abbott, G Heyes, E Jastrzembski, B Moffit, C Timmer, E Wolin

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we discuss the control domain specific ontology that is built on top of the domain-neutral Resource Definition Framework (RDF). Specifically, we will discuss the relevant set of ontology concepts along with the relationships among them in order to describe experiment control components and generic event-based state machines. Control Oriented Ontology Language (COOL) is a meta-data modeling language that provides generic means for representation of physics experiment control processes and components, and their relationships, rules and axioms. It provides a semantic reference frame that is useful for automating the communication of information for configuration, deployment and operation. COOL has been successfully used to develop a complete and dynamic knowledge-base for experiment control systems, developed using the AFECS framework.

  16. Disparities by ethnicity, language, and immigrant status in occupational health experiences among Las Vegas hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, Stéphanie; Krause, Niklas

    2010-10-01

    We examined disparities in workers' occupational health experiences. We surveyed 941 unionized Las Vegas hotel room cleaners about their experiences with work-related pain and with employers, physicians, and workers' compensation. Data were analyzed for all workers and by ethnicity, language, and immigrant status. Hispanic and English as second language (ESL) workers were more likely than their counterparts to report work-related pain and, along with immigrant workers, to miss work because of this pain. Hispanic, ESL, and immigrant workers were not consistently at a disadvantage with regard to their own responses to work-related pain but were so with respect to reported responses by workers' compensation, physicians, and employers. There are indications of disparities in occupational health experiences within this job title. The use of different group classifications, while implying different mechanisms, produced similar results. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Learner Contribution to English Language Learning: Chinese Research Students' Agency and Their Transitional Experiences in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the role of agency for the English language development of three Chinese research students with high English proficiency sojourning in Australia. The focus is on the various approaches the learners employed to strengthen their sense of confidence in their language use in Australia. The data were obtained through in-depth…

  18. Teaching the Interlanguage: Some Experiments. Lektos: Interdisciplinary Working Papers in Language Sciences, Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard E.

    Second language instruction in the U.S. and Europe is in difficulties. The choice of a second language is artibrary and the motivation dubious. In Europe and now also in the U.S., attention has turned to the planned interlanguage Esperanto, which offers a maximally regularized structure, is considered "easy" by learners, and has the…

  19. The Flipped Experience for Chinese University Students Studying English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doman, Evelyn; Webb, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Many educators worldwide are aware that traditional teacher-fronted instruction and lecture-based learning often lead students to become passive in the classroom. In the language classroom, particularly in classrooms for English as a second or foreign language, the flipped model of education drives students to become more responsive and more…

  20. Technology and Indigenous Language Revitalization: Analyzing the Experience of Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschauer, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Reports two years of ethnographic research on efforts to use online technologies in Hawaiian language revitalization programs. Issues discussed include the Internet's role in promoting or hindering language diversity, relationship of multimedia computing to non-Western patterns of civilization, Internet use for exploring cultural and social…

  1. The effect of enhanced lexical retrieval on second language writing : A classroom experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellings, P; de Glopper, Kees; van Gelderen, A.

    Lexical retrieval is an essential subprocess in language production, and its efficiency is crucial for writing. To improve writing quality in a second language, we developed an experimental, computerized training for improving fluency of lexical retrieval in a classroom setting, applying techniques

  2. The effect of enhanced lexical retrieval on second language writing: a classroom experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellings, P.; van Gelderen, A.; de Glopper, K.

    2004-01-01

    Lexical retrieval is an essential subprocess in language production, and its efficiency is crucial for writing. To improve writing quality in a second language, we developed an experimental, computerized training for improving fluency of lexical retrieval in a classroom setting, applying techniques

  3. Language, Experience and Professional Learning (What Walter Benjamin Can Teach Us)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doecke, Brenton; Pereira, Iris Susana Pires

    2012-01-01

    This essay raises questions about how language educators might construct and further develop their epistemology of practice in and through the situations in which they work from day to day. The occasion for this paper is our work as guest editors of a special issue of "L-1: Educational Studies in Language and Literature," when we invited…

  4. From Seeing Adverbs to Seeing Verbal Morphology: Language Experience and Adult Acquisition of L2 Tense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarra, Nuria; Ellis, Nick C.

    2013-01-01

    Adult learners have persistent difficulty processing second language (L2) inflectional morphology. We investigate associative learning explanations that involve the blocking of later experienced cues by earlier learned ones in the first language (L1; i.e., transfer) and the L2 (i.e., proficiency). Sagarra (2008) and Ellis and Sagarra (2010b) found…

  5. Learners' Experience of Teaching and Learning in a Second or Third Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Oerson; Poggenpoel, M.; Van Rensburg, W.

    2004-01-01

    Teaching and learning in a second or third language has become a common phenomenon in South African schools. This phenomenon leads to learners finding themselves in schools where the language of instruction is not known well to them. One of the main contributing factors as to why this is happening could be attributed to the challenges in the South…

  6. From Action to Insight: A Professional Learning Community’s Experiences with the European Language Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Lee Kristmanson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper focuses on an action research project set in the context of one professional learning community‟s (PLC‟s exploration of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR and the European Language Portfolio (ELP. Teachers of second and foreign languages in a large urban high school examined the potential of principles and tools related to the CEFR and ELP and shared their experiences during PLC meetings. This study examines data collected as part of the PLC discussions and deliberations and presents two particular pedagogical results emerging from this work: the development of a philosophical stance and an action plan. The paper concludes with a discussion of the process in which teachers engaged as they co-constructed understanding and explored pedagogical implications of their professional dialogue. Résumé Cet article traite d'un projet de recherche action mené dans le contexte d'une communauté d'apprentissage professionnelle (CAP qui a exploré le Cadre européen commun de référence (CECR et le Portfolio européen des langues (PEL et comment la CAP les a mis en oeuvre dans des classes de langue. Les enseignants des langues secondes et étrangères situés à une école secondaire urbaine ont partagé leurs expériences lors des réunions de CAP. Cette étude analyse les données recueillies lors des discussions et des délibérations de la CAP et elle présente deux résultats pédagogiques particuliers émergeant de ce travail— le développement d‟une approche philosophique et un plan d‟action. L'article se termine sur une discussion des processus vécus par les enseignants en co-construisant leurs connaissances pédagogiques par l‟entremise du dialogue professionnel.

  7. Language preference in monolingual and bilingual infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valji, Ayasha; Polka, Linda

    2004-05-01

    Previous research shows that infants being raised in single-language families have some basic language discrimination abilities at birth, that these skills improve over the first 6 months of life, and that infants are attending to the rhythmic properties of language to perform these skills. Research has also revealed that newborns and older babies from monolingual families prefer listening to their native language over an unfamiliar language. Data on language discrimination and preference in bilingual infants is very limited but is necessary to determine if the patterns and rate of bilingual language development parallel those of monolingual development, or if exposure to more than one language modifies developmental patterns. The present study addresses this issue by comparing language preference in monolingual English, monolingual French, and bilingual English-French infants between 3 and 10 months of age. Infant preference to listen to passages in three rhythmically different languages (English, French, Japanese) was assessed using a visual fixation procedure. Passages were produced by three female native speakers of each language. Findings will show how native language preference is affected by age and language experience in infants who experience monolingual and bilingual language exposure.

  8. How language production shapes language form and comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryellen C MacDonald

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Language production processes can provide insight into how language comprehension works and language typology—why languages tend to have certain characteristics more often than others. Drawing on work in memory retrieval, motor planning, and serial order in action planning, the Production-Distribution-Comprehension (PDC account links work in the fields of language production, typology, and comprehension: 1 faced with substantial computational burdens of planning and producing utterances, language producers implicitly follow three biases in utterance planning that promote word order choices that reduce these burdens, thereby improving production fluency. 2 These choices, repeated over many utterances and individuals, shape the distributions of utterance forms in language. The claim that language form stems in large degree from producers’ attempts to mitigate utterance planning difficulty is contrasted with alternative accounts in which form is driven by language use more broadly, language acquisition processes, or producers’ attempts to create language forms that are easily understood by comprehenders. 3 Language perceivers implicitly learn the statistical regularities in their linguistic input, and they use this prior experience to guide comprehension of subsequent language. In particular, they learn to predict the sequential structure of linguistic signals, based on the statistics of previously-encountered input. Thus key aspects of comprehension behavior are tied to lexico-syntactic statistics in the language, which in turn derive from utterance planning biases promoting production of comparatively easy utterance forms over more difficult ones. This approach contrasts with classic theories in which comprehension behaviors are attributed to innate design features of the language comprehension system and associated working memory. The PDC instead links basic features of comprehension to a different source: production processes that shape

  9. Mother-Tongue Diversity in the Foreign Language Classroom: Perspectives on the Experiences of Non-Native Speakers of English Studying Foreign Languages in an English-Medium University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruen, Jennifer; Kelly, Niamh

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the position of university language students whose mother tongue is other than the medium of instruction. Specifically, it investigates the attitudes and experiences of non-native English speakers studying either German or Japanese as foreign languages at an English-medium university. The findings indicate that the non-native…

  10. Neural Activity During Mental Rotation in Deaf Signers: The Influence of Long-Term Sign Language Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Hui-Hong; Wu, Qiu-Lin; Zhang, Jiong; Yin, Jing-Jing; Ma, Shu-Hua

    2018-01-02

    Mental rotation is the brain's visuospatial understanding of what objects are and where they belong. Previous research indicated that deaf signers showed behavioral enhancement for nonlinguistic visual tasks, including mental rotation. In this study, we investigated the neural difference of mental rotation processing between deaf signers and hearing nonsigners using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The participants performed a block-designed experiment, consisting of alternating blocks of comparison and rotation periods, separated by a baseline or fixation period. Mental rotation tasks were performed using three-dimensional figures. fMRI images were acquired during the entire experiment, and the fMRI data were analyzed with Analysis of Functional NeuroImages. A factorial design analysis of variance was designed for fMRI analyses. The differences of activation were analyzed for the main effects of group and task, as well as for the interaction of group by task. The study showed differences in activated areas between deaf signers and hearing nonsigners on the mental rotation of three-dimensional figures. Subtracting activations of fixation from activations of rotation, both groups showed consistent activation in bilateral occipital lobe, bilateral parietal lobe, and bilateral posterior temporal lobe. There were different main effects of task (rotation versus comparison) with significant activation clusters in the bilateral precuneus, the right middle frontal gyrus, the bilateral medial frontal gyrus, the right interior frontal gyrus, the right superior frontal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate, and the bilateral posterior cingulate. There were significant interaction effects of group by task in the bilateral anterior cingulate, the right inferior frontal gyrus, the left superior frontal gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, the left middle temporal gyrus, and the right inferior parietal lobe. In simple effects of deaf

  11. Experience in programming Assembly language of CDC CYBER 170/750 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldeira, A.D.

    1987-10-01

    Aiming to optimize processing time of BCG computer code in the CDC CYBER 170/750 computer, the FORTRAN-V language of INTERP subroutine was converted to Assembly language. The BCG code was developed for solving neutron transport equation by iterative method, and the INTERP subroutine is innermost loop of the code carrying out 5 interpolation types. The central processor unit Assembly language of the CDC CYBER 170/750 computer and its application in implementing the interpolation subroutine of BCG code are described. (M.C.K.)

  12. Intercultural Communication in English Language Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogancay-Aktuna, Seran

    2005-01-01

    As a result of their sociocultural backgrounds and previous educational experiences, both language learners and teachers bring to the classroom certain norms and expectations concerning appropriate teacher and learner roles and the learning-teaching practices they believe to be conducive to language learning. To prevent frustrations and failure…

  13. Embodied experiences for science learning: A cognitive linguistics exploration of middle school students' language in learning about water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Barrios, Ivan Eduardo

    I investigated linguistic patterns in middle school students' writing to understand their relevant embodied experiences for learning science. Embodied experiences are those limited by the perceptual and motor constraints of the human body. Recent research indicates student understanding of science needs embodied experiences. Recent emphases of science education researchers in the practices of science suggest that students' understanding of systems and their structure, scale, size, representations, and causality are crosscutting concepts that unify all scientific disciplinary areas. To discern the relationship between linguistic patterns and embodied experiences, I relied on Cognitive Linguistics, a field within cognitive sciences that pays attention to language organization and use assuming that language reflects the human cognitive system. Particularly, I investigated the embodied experiences that 268 middle school students learning about water brought to understanding: i) systems and system structure; ii) scale, size and representations; and iii) causality. Using content analysis, I explored students' language in search of patterns regarding linguistic phenomena described within cognitive linguistics: image schemas, conceptual metaphors, event schemas, semantical roles, and force-dynamics. I found several common embodied experiences organizing students' understanding of crosscutting concepts. Perception of boundaries and change in location and perception of spatial organization in the vertical axis are relevant embodied experiences for students' understanding of systems and system structure. Direct object manipulation and perception of size with and without locomotion are relevant for understanding scale, size and representations. Direct applications of force and consequential perception of movement or change in form are relevant for understanding of causality. I discuss implications of these findings for research and science teaching.

  14. Starting over: international adoption as a natural experiment in language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedeker, Jesse; Geren, Joy; Shafto, Carissa L

    2007-01-01

    Language development is characterized by predictable shifts in the words children produce and the complexity of their utterances. Because acquisition typically occurs simultaneously with maturation and cognitive development, it is difficult to determine the causes of these shifts. We explored how acquisition proceeds in the absence of possible cognitive or maturational roadblocks, by examining the acquisition of English in internationally adopted preschoolers. Like infants, and unlike other second-language learners, these children acquire language from child-directed speech, without access to bilingual informants. Parental reports and speech samples were collected from 27 preschoolers, 3 to 18 months after they were adopted from China. These children showed the same developmental patterns in language production as monolingual infants (matched for vocabulary size). Early on, their vocabularies were dominated by nouns, their utterances were short, and grammatical morphemes were generally omitted. Children at later stages had more diverse vocabularies and produced longer utterances with more grammatical morphemes.

  15. How Defensible Is Writing as an Objective in Short-Term Foreign Language Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyanovich, John

    1974-01-01

    Advocates the abandonment of writing and written tests as the sole criteria of academic achievement in language courses in favor of programs which emphasize aural skills at all levels of competence. (RL)

  16. Acculturation strategy and language experience in expert ESL speakers: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Waniek-Klimczak, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    Acculturation and language proficiency have been found to be inter-related both from the perspective of second language acquisition (Schumann, 1978, 1986) and socio-psychological adaptation in cross-cultural contacts (Ward, Bochner, & Furnham, 2001). However, the predictions as to the effect of a particular strategy on success differ, with assimilation believed to create most favourable conditions for SLA and integration for general well-being. The present study explores acculturation pat...

  17. Toward a generative theory of language transfer: Experiment and modeling of sC prothesis in L2 Spanish

    OpenAIRE

    Daland Robert; Norrmann-Vigil Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    When native Spanish speakers produce English words with initial [s]-consonant clusters (sC), they sometimes produce a prothetic vowel, e.g. stigma > estigma. This paper reports a production experiment on this phenomena, as well as computational modelling of the experimental results. Carlisle (1991a) proposed the ‘resyllabification account’ in which prothesis is a language transfer effect, whose essential motivation is to satisfy L1/Spanish syllable phonotactics. Replicating all pr...

  18. What Matters Most to Whom: Racial, Ethnic, and Language Differences in the Health Care Experiences Most Important to Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L; Haas, Ann; Haviland, Amelia M; Elliott, Marc N

    2017-11-01

    Some aspects of patient experience are more strongly related to overall ratings of care than others, reflecting their importance to patients. However, little is known about whether the importance of different aspects of this experience differs across subgroups. To determine whether the aspects of health care most important to patients differ according to patient race, ethnicity, and language preference. In response to the 2013 Medicare Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Study (CAHPS) survey, patients rated their overall health care and completed items measuring five patient experience domains. We estimated a linear regression model to assess associations between overall rating of care and the 5 domains, testing for differences in these relationships for race/ethnicity/language groups, controlling for covariates. In total 242,782 Medicare beneficiaries, age 65 years or older. Overall rating of health care, composite patient experience scores for: doctor communication, getting needed care, getting care quickly, customer service, and care coordination. A joint test of the interactions between the composite scores and the 5 largest racial/ethnic/language subgroups was statistically significant (P <0.0001), suggesting the importance of domains varied across subgroups. Doctor communication had the strongest relationship with care ratings for non-Hispanic whites and English-preferring Hispanics. Getting needed care had the strongest relationship for Spanish-preferring Hispanics and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Doctor communication and getting care quickly were strongest for African Americans. Tailoring quality improvement programs to the factors most important to the racial, ethnic, and language mix of the patient population of the practice, hospital, or plan may more efficiently reduce disparities and improve quality.

  19. Cross-domain effects of music and language experience on the representation of pitch in the human auditory brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Gandour, Jackson T; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan

    2011-02-01

    Neural encoding of pitch in the auditory brainstem is known to be shaped by long-term experience with language or music, implying that early sensory processing is subject to experience-dependent neural plasticity. In language, pitch patterns consist of sequences of continuous, curvilinear contours; in music, pitch patterns consist of relatively discrete, stair-stepped sequences of notes. The primary aim was to determine the influence of domain-specific experience (language vs. music) on the encoding of pitch in the brainstem. Frequency-following responses were recorded from the brainstem in native Chinese, English amateur musicians, and English nonmusicians in response to iterated rippled noise homologues of a musical pitch interval (major third; M3) and a lexical tone (Mandarin tone 2; T2) from the music and language domains, respectively. Pitch-tracking accuracy (whole contour) and pitch strength (50 msec sections) were computed from the brainstem responses using autocorrelation algorithms. Pitch-tracking accuracy was higher in the Chinese and musicians than in the nonmusicians across domains. Pitch strength was more robust across sections in musicians than in nonmusicians regardless of domain. In contrast, the Chinese showed larger pitch strength, relative to nonmusicians, only in those sections of T2 with rapid changes in pitch. Interestingly, musicians exhibited greater pitch strength than the Chinese in one section of M3, corresponding to the onset of the second musical note, and two sections within T2, corresponding to a note along the diatonic musical scale. We infer that experience-dependent plasticity of brainstem responses is shaped by the relative saliency of acoustic dimensions underlying the pitch patterns associated with a particular domain.

  20. Previous Experience a Model of Practice UNAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Ormary Barberi; Pesántez Palacios, María Dolores

    2017-01-01

    The statements presented in this article represents a preliminary version of the proposed model of pre-professional practices (PPP) of the National University of Education (UNAE) of Ecuador, an urgent institutional necessity is revealed in the descriptive analyzes conducted from technical support - administrative (reports, interviews, testimonials), pedagogical foundations of UNAE (curricular directionality, transverse axes in practice, career plan, approach and diagnostic examination as subj...

  1. Previous experiences shape adaptive mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, Tim W.; Bleay, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Existing models of mate choice assume that individuals have perfect knowledge of their own ability to attract a mate and can adjust their preferences accordingly. However, real animals will typically be uncertain of their own attractiveness. A potentially useful source of information on this is the

  2. A picture is worth a thousand words: Portraying language learning experiences in a bilingual school in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Bettney

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explored the experience of students learning English in an early partial one-way immersion program in Honduras. While immersion research is well-established in various parts of the world, scarce research has focused on programs in Central America. It is important to consider this geographical context as models of bilingual education must be adapted to the local student population (de Mejía, 2002. To address this research gap, written reflections were collected from 203 Grades 1 to 11 students in a one-way immersion program. Through pictures and words, students portrayed their experiences learning English. Two main themes emerged: 1 students’ views of their language learning process, and 2 perceived factors which contributed to the learning of English. These themes are discussed in light of key immersion research on student language proficiency, maximizing output, and meaningful language use. This study confirmed results from other immersion studies in certain areas such as the importance of maximizing output, while also demonstrating the importance of continuing to explore students’ learning experiences within the Latin American context.

  3. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  4. Efficient Measurement of the User Experience of Interactive Products. How to use the User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ.Example: Spanish Language Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rauschenberger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Developer, manager and user feedback is needed to optimize products. Besides the basic Software qualities – usability and user experience are important properties for improving your product.Usability is well known and can be tested with e.g. a usability test or an expert review. In contrast user experience describes the whole impact a product has on the end-user. The timeline goes from before, while and after the use of a product. We present a tool that allows you to evaluate the user experience of a product with little effort. Furthermore the tool is available in different languages and we are using the new Spanish Version. We show how this tool can be used for a continuous user experience assessment.

  5. Language and Cognition Interaction Neural Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Perlovsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available How language and cognition interact in thinking? Is language just used for communication of completed thoughts, or is it fundamental for thinking? Existing approaches have not led to a computational theory. We develop a hypothesis that language and cognition are two separate but closely interacting mechanisms. Language accumulates cultural wisdom; cognition develops mental representations modeling surrounding world and adapts cultural knowledge to concrete circumstances of life. Language is acquired from surrounding language “ready-made” and therefore can be acquired early in life. This early acquisition of language in childhood encompasses the entire hierarchy from sounds to words, to phrases, and to highest concepts existing in culture. Cognition is developed from experience. Yet cognition cannot be acquired from experience alone; language is a necessary intermediary, a “teacher.” A mathematical model is developed; it overcomes previous difficulties and leads to a computational theory. This model is consistent with Arbib's “language prewired brain” built on top of mirror neuron system. It models recent neuroimaging data about cognition, remaining unnoticed by other theories. A number of properties of language and cognition are explained, which previously seemed mysterious, including influence of language grammar on cultural evolution, which may explain specifics of English and Arabic cultures.

  6. Language and cognition interaction neural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    How language and cognition interact in thinking? Is language just used for communication of completed thoughts, or is it fundamental for thinking? Existing approaches have not led to a computational theory. We develop a hypothesis that language and cognition are two separate but closely interacting mechanisms. Language accumulates cultural wisdom; cognition develops mental representations modeling surrounding world and adapts cultural knowledge to concrete circumstances of life. Language is acquired from surrounding language "ready-made" and therefore can be acquired early in life. This early acquisition of language in childhood encompasses the entire hierarchy from sounds to words, to phrases, and to highest concepts existing in culture. Cognition is developed from experience. Yet cognition cannot be acquired from experience alone; language is a necessary intermediary, a "teacher." A mathematical model is developed; it overcomes previous difficulties and leads to a computational theory. This model is consistent with Arbib's "language prewired brain" built on top of mirror neuron system. It models recent neuroimaging data about cognition, remaining unnoticed by other theories. A number of properties of language and cognition are explained, which previously seemed mysterious, including influence of language grammar on cultural evolution, which may explain specifics of English and Arabic cultures.

  7. Trilinguals' language switching: A strategic and flexible account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Michela

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how trilinguals select the language they intend to use in a language switching context. Two accounts are examined: (a) a language-specific account, according to which language selection considers the activation level of words of the intended language only (i.e., language co-activation without language competition), and (b) a language non-specific account, where activated words from both the intended and non-intended languages compete for selection (i.e., language co-activation with language competition). Results showed that, in both groups, all three languages competed for selection and that selection was achieved by inhibiting the currently non-relevant languages. Moreover, extending findings from previous research, the study reveals that, in both Experiments 1 and 2, the amount of inhibition was influenced not only by language proficiency but also by the typological similarity between languages. Overall, the study shows that language switching performance can be accounted for by a strategic and flexible inhibitory account. In particular, the controlling system is "strategic" in the sense that it aims at preventing potential conflicting situations, such as typological closeness between languages, and it is "flexible" in that it adjusts languages' activation levels, depending on the conflict to be solved.

  8. Experiments with Cross-Language Information Retrieval on a Health Portal for Psychology and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrenucci, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have been performed within cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) in the field of psychology and psychotherapy. The aim of this paper is to to analyze and assess the quality of available query translation methods for CLIR on a health portal for psychology. A test base of 100 user queries, 50 Multi Word Units (WUs) and 50 Single WUs, was used. Swedish was the source language and English the target language. Query translation methods based on machine translation (MT) and dictionary look-up were utilized in order to submit query translations to two search engines: Google Site Search and Quick Ask. Standard IR evaluation measures and a qualitative analysis were utilized to assess the results. The lexicon extracted with word alignment of the portal's parallel corpus provided better statistical results among dictionary look-ups. Google Translate provided more linguistically correct translations overall and also delivered better retrieval results in MT.

  9. Theopathic Experience and Theophanic Language. The Boundary Condition of Aesthetic Beauty in Teresa of Avila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Inés Avenatti de Palumbo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to suggest that beyond the explicit source Augustinian Patristic figures of Beauty and the interior Master and the hypothetical influence of Sufi poetry of pure love that dwells in the hearts, Teresa of Avila constructed as writer, a record that has a symbolic own paradoxical tension between the “apophatic way” of indifference and silence of all that is not God and the affirmation of the soul as a castle whose concentric crystalline inhabits interiority “Beauty theophanic”. So Teresian proposal is considered near-mystical poetic languages of waiting and emptiness of our time, to the extent that through the symbolic language provides tracing and mystical aesthetics of nudity, in which the Master inside reveal the pristine beauty of pure light as the goal of man’s way to the encounter with God.Keywords: aesthetic - Teresa of Avila - Interior Master - theophanic language.

  10. Multimedia-Assisted Instruction in Developing the English Language Skills:CBSUA Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CECILIA B. FAJARDO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available - This study identified the multimedia-assisted instruction used by the respondents in teaching English and determined the extent of using the same in developing the relevant language skills.This study was premised on the assumption that multimedia-assisted instruction in English has been applied in developing the English language skills of college students; specifically, this involved the teacher’s manipulation of print media, audio and audio-visual aids as well as internet materials. The Central Bicol State University of Agriculture-Main campus in Pili, including its campuses in Pasacao, Sipocot and Calabanga, all in Camarines Sur, served as the venue of this study. The college instructors, deans and language educators as well as experts of English from the said university served as respondents.The descriptive method of research was applied. The statistical tools used were the weighted mean and the Likert’s validation scale. The data were subjected to an in-depth analysis and interpretation to find concretely the specific multimedia-assisted instruction in English used by college instructors, the extent of using it in teaching, as well as the extent of using the same to language skills development. Based on the findings, the college instructors were using much of the multimedia available in their campuses, while frequently applying multimedia-assisted instruction in related English language skills development. It also proposed an instructional tool entitled “PowerPoint for Better English Language Teaching” which was prepared and validated. The findings helpedinstructors, administrators, and educational leaders to augment university budget, to purchase updated teaching devicesand to conduct teacher-training programs.

  11. [Overcoming language barriers with telephone interpreters: first experiences at a German children's hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Thorsten; Wirth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Language barriers in the care for patients with limited German language proficiency contribute to impaired quality of care, more frequent medical errors and decreased patient satisfaction. However, professional interpreters are not systematically used in Germany. We conducted a pilot study in a German paediatric hospital to explore the demand for an interpreter by conducting a survey among parents and to test the use of telephone interpreters. Eight percent of the respondents said they were interested in interpreter support. All physicians and parents using a telephone interpreter were very satisfied with the quality and the organisation of the service. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Teaching with images: the graphic language used in presenting the experiment on photosynthesis in the elodea plant in Brazilian textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Garcia-Gomes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental activities reported in textbooks often have images that complement the verbal language, assisting in the demonstration of materials, steps and procedures. This article has used Michael Twyman’s writings on the theory of graphic language to analyze 13 images representing the same experiment on photosynthesis in the water plant elodea. All images were taken from Brazilian textbooks published during seven decades of the XX and XXI centuries. The article’s main goal was to contribute to the interaction between designers, teachers and other professionals involved in the creation of learning materials. The analysis of images allowed us to relate design choices with teaching strategies. One of the points observed, for example, was that the reason why some of the textbooks do not use images composed of different elements can originate from a pedagogical strategy legitimated by the theory of constructivist learning.

  13. Creating Learning Objects to Enhance the Educational Experiences of American Sign Language Learners: An Instructional Development Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Conceição

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been given to involving the deaf community in distance teaching and learning or in designing courses that relate to their language and culture. This article reports on the design and development of video-based learning objects created to enhance the educational experiences of American Sign Language (ASL hearing participants in a distance learning course and, following the course, the creation of several new applications for use of the learning objects. The learning objects were initially created for the web, as a course component for review and rehearsal. The value of the web application, as reported by course participants, led us to consider ways in which the learning objects could be used in a variety of delivery formats: CD-ROM, web-based knowledge repository, and handheld device. The process to create the learning objects, the new applications, and lessons learned are described.

  14. The Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Certificate in German as a Foreign Language): An Alabama Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Oliver Finley

    1980-01-01

    Describes the benefits derived by the University of Alabama at a time of declining enrollment from offering the Goethe Institute exam for the "Certificate in German as a Foreign Language." Also mentions other innovations introduced by the German department: an intensive first year course and a German House on campus. (MES)

  15. Mobile Immersion: An Experiment Using Mobile Instant Messenger to Support Second-Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Immersion has been an acclaimed approach for second-language acquisition, but is not available to most students. The idea of this study was to create a mobile immersion environment on a smartphone using a mobile instant messenger, WhatsApp™. Forty-five Form-1 (7th grade) students divided into the Mobile Group and Control Group participated in a…

  16. Case Study Investigation of a Videoconferencing Experiment in Primary Schools, Teaching Modern Foreign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Alan; Hunt, Marilyn; Barnes, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The "MustLearnIT" European-funded research project with partners in Greece, Poland, Cyprus, Finland and the UK aimed to investigate ways of teaching and learning modern foreign languages (MFL) to early learners in small/remote primary schools where there were no specialist MFL teachers. This was to be carried out through new technologies…

  17. A Double Dose of Disadvantage: Language Experiences for Low-Income Children in Home and School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley M.

    2018-01-01

    There is a virtual consensus regarding the types of language processes, interactions, and material supports that are central for young children to become proficient readers and writers (Shanahan et al., 2008). In this study, we examine these supports in both home and school contexts during children's critical transitional kindergarten year.…

  18. Learning a Tonal Language by Attending to the Tone: An In Vivo Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, M.; Perfetti, C.A.; Brubaker, B.; Wu, S.M.; MacWhinney, B.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the Chinese tone system is a major challenge to students of Chinese as a second or foreign language. Part of the problem is that the spoken Chinese syllable presents a complex perceptual input that overlaps tone with segments. This complexity can be addressed through directing attention to

  19. Language Difficulties of International Students in Australia: The Effects of Prior Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawir, Erlenawati

    2005-01-01

    Globalisation has placed a growing importance on English language speaking and listening. Prior research indicates that many international students from Asia, studying in Australia, face serious learning difficulties and lack confidence in speaking and taking a proactive role in classrooms. The paper reports on data gathered in interviews with…

  20. Development of a Language for International Law: The Experience of Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the history of interest in developing Esperanto as a lingua franca for international law and diplomacy, beginning with Zamenhof's development of Esperanto and proceeding through the development of a lexicon for the language and through its application to legal issues. Prospects for the future of Esperanto are discussed. (DJD)

  1. Relationships among Teachers' Attitudes, Behaviors toward English Language Learners, Experience, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Public school teachers must meet the unique needs of English language learners (ELLs) in the general education classroom. There is a need to understand teacher attitudes toward ELLs because attitudes can explain and influence teacher behavior and professional practice. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationships between…

  2. The Hundred Languages of Children: The Reggio Emilia Experience in Transformation. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Carolyn, Ed.; Gandini, Lella, Ed.; Forman, George, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Why does the city of Reggio Emilia in northern Italy feature one of the best public systems of early education in the world? This book documents the comprehensive and innovative approach that utilizes the "hundred languages of children" to support their well-being and foster their intellectual development. Reggio Emilia is a fast-growing…

  3. The Experience of Burnout among English Language Teachers in Iran: Self and Other Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Karim; Khezrlou, Sima

    2016-01-01

    Burnout in teachers is an important concern since it adversely impacts their instruction as well as their psychological, mental, and physical health. The present study examined the levels of burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) experienced by Iranian English language teachers. Specifically,…

  4. Language Personality in the Conditions of Cross-Cultural Communication: Case-Study Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Khyhniak, Kateryna

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of identification of a language personality's traits under conditions of cross-cultural communication. It is shown that effective cross-cultural communication is revised under globalization and increasingly intensive social interactions. The results of the authors' research prove that it is possible to develop…

  5. Assessment of Programming Language Learning Based on Peer Code Review Model: Implementation and Experience Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Li, Hang; Feng, Yuqiang; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The traditional assessment approach, in which one single written examination counts toward a student's total score, no longer meets new demands of programming language education. Based on a peer code review process model, we developed an online assessment system called "EduPCR" and used a novel approach to assess the learning of computer…

  6. Skirting the Issue: Teachers' Experiences "Addressing Sexuality in Middle School Language Arts"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, Laurel; Klein, Nicole Aydt

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine perceptions, attitudes, and reported practices of a group of middle level Language Arts teachers concerning sexuality-related issues. Through interviews with 15 teachers, the study found that sexuality was in one sense pervasive, as it came up frequently in the teachers' practice. Yet at the same time the…

  7. The influence of military contacts on French loanwords in the English language

    OpenAIRE

    MITCHELL PETER J.; AKHTAMBAEV ROMAN P.; IGNATOV A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the problem of French words as loanwords in the English language, as a result of various armed conflicts and military contacts in the previous millennium. Loanwords are an important component of any language and, indeed, the vast majority of languages are heavily influenced by loanwords. War and armed conflicts in general, together with military cooperation, provide ''ideal'' conditions for the emergence of loanwords in foreign languages. The English language experience ...

  8. Learning to write in science: A study of English language learners' writing experience in sixth-grade science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yang

    Writing is a predictor of academic achievement and is essential for student success in content area learning. Despite its importance, many students, including English language learners (ELLs), struggle with writing. There is thus a need to study students' writing experience in content area classrooms. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined 11 ELL students' writing experience in two sixth grade science classrooms in a southeastern state of the United States, including what they wrote, how they wrote, and why they wrote in the way they did. The written products produced by these students over one semester were collected. Also collected were teacher interviews, field notes from classroom observations, and classroom artifacts. Student writing samples were first categorized into extended and nonextended writing categories, and each extended essay was then analyzed with respect to its schematic structure and grammatical features. Teacher interviews and classroom observation notes were analyzed thematically to identify teacher expectations, beliefs, and practices regarding writing instruction for ELLs. It was found that the sixth-grade ELLs engaged in mostly non-extended writing in the science classroom, with extended writing (defined as writing a paragraph or longer) constituting roughly 11% of all writing assignments. Linguistic analysis of extended writing shows that the students (a) conveyed information through nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbial groups and prepositional phrases; (b) constructed interpersonal context through choices of mood, modality, and verb tense; and (c) structured text through thematic choices and conjunctions. The appropriateness of these lexicogrammatical choices for particular writing tasks was related to the students' English language proficiency levels. The linguistic analysis also uncovered several grammatical problems in the students' writing, including a limited range of word choices, inappropriate use of mood

  9. Comparing Local and International Chinese Students’ English Language Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Margreat Aloysious Anthony; Sree Nithya Ganesen

    2012-01-01

    According to Horwitz (1987) learners’ belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different learning experiences. Given the significant number of local and international Chinese students enrolled in educational institutions, there is a need to und...

  10. Inquiry experiences and the development of science vocabulary and concepts with English language learners (ELLs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Tammy Deneene

    The primary objective of this project was to analyze the change in use of academic science vocabulary and conceptual understanding of erosion by the ELLs participating in the Math, Science and Language (MSL) camp conducted in 2008. The researcher examined archival data in the form of student journals collected during the MSL camp of 2008. Current assessments are not developed to assess both vocabulary development and conceptual understanding. The researcher developed a new assessment tool named JASTO that allowed assessment of both vocabulary and conceptual understanding parallel to one another. JASTO was used to analyze the science journals of the MSL camp of 2008. Data indicate an increase in conceptual understanding of the erosion topic. Some students expressed their understanding using everyday vocabulary and others using academic vocabulary. The type of vocabulary usage was dependent on the English language proficiency of the student.

  11. Strategies for Aging in Place: The Experience of Language-Minority Seniors With Loss of Independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis-Blanchard, Suzanne; Gould, Odette N; Gibbons, Caroline; Simard, Majella; Éthier, Sophie; Villalon, Lita

    2015-01-01

    For healthy and independent older adults, aging in place can be seen as identical to any other adult living at home. Little is known about how frail seniors, particularly those who speak a minority language, manage the challenges of aging in place. The present qualitative descriptive study explores the strategies that Canadian French-speaking seniors have put in place to counter their loss of independence and promote their ability to stay in their home. Semistructured individual interviews were conducted with 39 older adults and transcribed, followed by content analysis to identify common themes related to study objectives. Six themes emerged in response to strategies described for aging in place. Findings reveal the limited extent to which language issues were perceived as a barrier by participants. In conclusion, the results of this study provide us with fruitful insights to guide community nursing practice, future research, and public policy.

  12. Mystical experience relational language as a way of Teresa sanjuanista loving openness to others. Interview with Maximiliano Garcia Herraiz, OCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALALITE Argentina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Maximiliano Herraiz García OCD, Carmelite saints founders specialist and writer career and international recognition, Spanish by birth lived for ten years in Africa, and has traveled five continents evangelizing through the Carmelite mystics in dialogue with universal mysticism, now convinced of experiential dimension of faith. In this interview he reflects on the relationship between mystical experience and language, linking mission and mystical literature. As part of the preparation for the Fifth Centenary of the Birth of Teresa of Avila, highlights the urgency of considering his theology of friendship and ascetic mysticism as roads for the current century Christianity.

  13. The effect of qualifying language on perceptions of drug appeal, drug experience, and estimates of side-effect incidence in DTC advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joel

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how the use of qualifying language in direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising affects consumers' perceptions of drug appeal, anticipated pleasantness of drug usage, and the expected incidence of side-effect occurrence. A sample of 669 individuals participated in a 2 x 8 complete factorial design. The design manipulated the number of side effects associated with drug use and the type of qualifying language used to describe the side effects. The eight experimental qualifying language cells represented one control condition (no qualifying language), three cells where each of three types of qualifying language were presented individually, and four cells where qualifying language was combined. The results indicate that qualifying language has a profound effect on drug perceptions, especially when used in combination. Drug appeal and the anticipated drug-using experience almost always were more positive in the presence of qualifying language. Qualifying language appears to exert its influence by causing individuals to reduce their estimate of the likelihood of experiencing individual side effects. Policy implications of the research, particularly for evaluation of "fair balance" and the reporting of side effects, are presented.

  14. Experiences in adapting post-byzantine chant into foreign languages: Research and praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkinuora Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the current state of the research and practical methodology of the adaptation of Byzantine melodies written in the “New Method” into foreign languages, with Romanian, English and Finnish serving as examples. The adaptation of independent, “fixed” melodies as well as metrical liturgical texts (prosomoia and canons are examined. The challenges emerging in adapting Byzantine chant into Finnish are also discussed. The author also suggests some future subjects for research, which include the synthesis of examining arrangements in both “Old” and “New Method”.

  15. Uncovering young children's emerging identities related to their literacy experiences: Suggestions to strengthen language education

    OpenAIRE

    Moen, Melanie Carmen; Joubert, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The study explored how young children’s identities emerged from their drawings and accounts of their favourite stories as we argue the importance of understanding children in the context of school and language education. Sixty-six (n=66) children of two urban schools in Pretoria, South Africa were asked to write about and draw their favourite story. The participants were between the ages of six and seven years. Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory and Chen’s theory of the construction of identity...

  16. Experiência e linguagem como estratégias de resistência Experience and language as resistance strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Debieux Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo visamos apontar, apoiadas em W. Benjamim e G. Agamben, a fragilização do registro da experiência e sua incidência na lógica do poder/violência. Analisamos, pretendendo desmistificar a eficácia dos discursos mortificadores da experiência, a figura do "mulçumano"; - nome que designava os mortos-vivos nos campos de concentração, conforme relato de Primo Levi e outros. Tal figura é emblemática do estado limite a que chegaram algumas pessoas e podem expressar o destino de alguns sujeitos na contemporaneidade. Pudemos identificar nessa posição tanto um movimento na direção da perda do laço identificatório com o semelhante, como uma forma de resistência à violência perpetrada pelo discurso social. Tal resistência consiste em operar uma mimese ao objeto resto, o que permite ao sujeito a manutenção da estrutura fantasmática. Indicamos que, apesar das estratégias do poder, o sujeito reinventa modos de se situar na relação ao Outro, nos quais se fazem importantes a presença e a palavra, incluindo aí a experiência psicanalítica.Drawing on Walter Benjamin and Giorgio Agamben, this article points out the fragilization of the registration of the experience and its incidence in the logic of power / violence. Seeking to demythify the efficacy of discourses that mortify experiences, it analyzes the figure of the "Muslim"; (Muselmänn - name that conveyed the walking dead in the Nazi concentration camps, according to accounts by Primo Levi and others. Such figure is emblematic of the limit condition some people have reached and can express the fate of some subjects in contemporary society. This position allows identifying both a movement toward the loss of an identifying bond with one's kind and a means to resist the violence perpetrated by the social discourse. This resistance consists in operating a mimesis of the object-rest, which permits the subject to maintain the phantasmatic structure. The article indicates

  17. Open Data and Official Language Regimes: An Examination of the Canadian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The open data moving is gathering steam globally, and it has the potential to transform relationships between citizens, the private sector and government. To date, little or no attention has been given to the particular challenge of realizing the benefits of open data within in an officially bi- or multi-lingual jurisdiction. Using the efforts and obligations of the Canadian federal government as a case study, the authors identify the challenges posed by developing and implementing an open data agenda within an officially bilingual state. Key concerns include (1 whether governments may use open data to outsource some information analysis and information services to an unregulated private sector through open data initiatives, thus directly or indirectly avoiding obligations to provide information analysis and information tools in official languages; and (2 whether the rush by governments to support the innovation agenda of open data may leave minority language communities both underserved and under-included in the development and use of open data.

  18. MT Post-editing: A Text Repair Experience for the Foreign Language Class.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Niño

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Communication also means having to sort out the problems involved in learning a foreign language, especially with regards to production rather than reception. These learning strategies or skills can also be applied to translation teaching methodology, where students put in practice their risk taking, avoidance, reduction and/ or compensatory strategies in getting the message across. We acknowledge translation as a writing task constrained by the source text. In addition, the translation and the writing cycles have in common a generation stage and a revision stage where grammatical, lexical and stylistic correctness is assessed. Somewhere in the middle between translation and writing skills lies MT (Machine Translation post-editing that involves correcting the raw MT output with the aim of providing a quality text according to the intended purpose. Our research is intended to test the suitability of MT post-editing as an activity to promote error correction and, subsequently, to enhance written production in second and foreign language teaching.

  19. Adaptation of nasometry to Hungarian language and experiences with its clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Jeno; Bók, Szilvia; Juhász, Márta; Trenovszki, Zsuzsa; Votisky, Péter; Hirschberg, Andor

    2006-05-01

    (1) To adopt the nasometry for the Hungarian language and to obtain normative nasalance scores. (2) To compare our results with the data of other languages and to evaluate the correlation between nasalance scores and perceptual ratings of nasality. (3) To use the nasometry in various fields of the otolaryngological, phoniatric, and logopedic diagnostics, therapy and documentation. (1) To determine the normative nasalance scores regarding the Hungarian language, we included 30 children aged 5-7 years and 45 adults in the 20-25 years age group. In the latter group 15 subjects were speech therapists and 30 phonetically untrained people-15 males and 15 females. phonation of isolated vowels, articulation of spirants, cyclical repetition of affricates, pronunciation of various (oral, nasal, mixed type) sentences and evaluation of the nasalance score in continuous speech. (2) Thirty-six persons (12 speech pathologists, 12 logopedic students, 12 phonetically uneducated individuals) evaluated the children's physiological and nasal speech recordings with a 3-point scale. (3) Two hundred and forty-eight children of kindergarten age were examined, 20 infants and 6 adult singers in the following fields: evaluation of hypernasality due to cleft palate or velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI), and of the success of the therapy; examination of hyponasality in cases of enlarged adenoid and allergic rhinitis; evaluation of the speech of hard-of-hearing people; differentiation between nasal sigmatism and hyperrhinophony; testing of the resonance in professional singers; examination of infant cry; application of nasometry in the therapy. The mean value of the nasalance score using the oral sentence: "Zsuzsi kutyája ugat" is 11-13%, in the nasal sentence ("A majom banánt enne") 56%, while that of the mixed sentence representing the Hungarian language ("Jó napot kívánok!") falls in the 30-40% range. The resonance grows with aging and there is no significant difference between genders

  20. Second-Language Experience Modulates Eye Movements during First- and Second-Language Sentence Reading: Evidence from a Gaze-Contingent Moving Window Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Eye movement measures demonstrate differences in first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) paragraph-level reading as a function of individual differences in current L2 exposure among bilinguals (Whitford & Titone, 2012). Specifically, as current L2 exposure increases, the ease of L2 word processing increases, but the ease of L1 word…

  1. "Language Must Be Raked": Experience, Race, and the Pressure of Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This article begins by clarifying the notion of what Stanley Cavell has called "Emersonian moral perfectionism." It goes on to explore this through close analysis of aspects of Emerson's essay "Experience," in which ideas of trying or attempting or experimenting bring out the intimate relation between perfectionism and styles…

  2. Thinking as They Create: Do Children Have Similar Experiences in Dance and in Language Arts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the cognitive experiences of children as they engage in creative projects in both dance and poetry. The data includes interviews with fifth graders from an elementary School in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, about their lived experience of writing poetry and creating dances. Students interviewed for this study participated in a…

  3. Another country, another language and a new baby: A quantitative study of the postnatal experiences of migrant women in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennegan, Julie; Redshaw, Maggie; Kruske, Sue

    2015-12-01

    Governments and service providers have consistently acknowledged the importance of support for women and families in the transition to parenthood. Lower levels of satisfaction and concern about postnatal depression have highlighted women's needs at this time. Migrant women may also face relocation, distant family and support networks, language barriers and potentially discriminatory or culturally insensitive care. The present study evaluates the unique contribution of migrant status, comparing the experience of this group to that of native-born English-speaking women. Secondary analysis of data from a population-based survey of maternity care in Queensland. Experiences of 233 women born outside Australia who spoke another language at home were compared to 2722 Australian-born English-speaking women with adjustment for demographic differences. After adjustment, differences between the groups included physical, psychological aspects and perceptions of care. Women born outside Australia were less likely to report pain after birth was manageable, or rate overall postnatal physical health positively. They more frequently reported having painful stitches, distressing flashbacks and feeling depressed in the postnatal period. Few differences in ratings of care providers were found, however, women born outside Australia were less likely to feel involved in decisions and to understand their options for care. However, they were more likely to report being visited by a care provider at home after birth. The findings represent an important addition to existing qualitative reports of the experiences of migrant women, reflecting poorer postnatal health, issues associated with migration and parenthood and highlighting areas for care improvement. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Language Brokering in Latino Families: Direct Observations of Brokering Patterns, Parent-Child Interactions, and Relationship Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Straits, Kee J. E.

    2010-01-01

    With the growing percentage of immigrant families in the USA, language transition is a common immigrant experience and can occur rapidly from generation to generation within a family. Child language brokering appears to occur within minority language families as one way of negotiating language and cultural differences; however, the phenomenon of children translating or mediating language interactions for parents has previously been hypothesized to contribute to negative outcomes for children,...

  5. The lived experience of being a speech-language therapist in the Western Cape public health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Jocelyn A; Mayers, Patricia; Kathard, Harsha

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the lived experience of being a Speech-Language Therapist (S-L Therapist) in the South African Western Cape public health service. The lived experience of seven S-L Therapists with varied clinical experience was illuminated using a qualitative phenomenological research design. S-L Therapists, working in the three Western Cape tertiary hospitals, provided an in-depth account of their experiences as S-L Therapists. The audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an adaptation of Colaizzi's (1978) method of analysis. The rigour and trustworthiness of the research process was informed by consideration of issues of credibility, applicability, confirmability and dependability as they relate to phenomenological design. Five main themes emerged from data analysis: expectations of practice and practice realities; being part of the "underdog" profession: role definition and status; being connected; the holistic nature of the S-L Therapist's practice; and erosion or promotion.The implications for training and support of S-L Therapists by managers and policymakers and peers are highlighted.

  6. The perception of speech modulation cues in lexical tones is guided by early language-specific experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurianne eCabrera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies showed that infants reorganize their perception of speech sounds according to their native language categories during their first year of life. Still, information is lacking about the contribution of basic auditory mechanisms to this process. This study aimed to evaluate when native language experience starts to noticeably affect the perceptual processing of basic acoustic cues (i.e., frequency-modulation (FM and amplitude-modulation (AM information known to be crucial for speech perception in adults. The discrimination of a lexical-tone contrast (rising versus low was assessed in 6- and 10-month-old infants learning either French or Mandarin using a visual habituation paradigm. The lexical tones were presented in two conditions designed to either keep intact or to severely degrade the FM and fine spectral cues needed to accurately perceive voice-pitch trajectory. A third condition was designed to assess the discrimination of the same voice-pitch trajectories using click trains containing only the FM cues related to the fundamental-frequency (F0 in French- and Mandarin-learning 10-month-old infants. Results showed that the younger infants of both language groups and the Mandarin-learning 10-month-olds discriminated the intact lexical-tone contrast while French-learning 10-month-olds failed. However, only the French 10-month-olds discriminated degraded lexical tones when FM, and thus voice-pitch cues were reduced. Moreover, Mandarin-learning 10-month-olds were found to discriminate the pitch trajectories as presented in click trains better than French infants. Altogether, these results reveal that the perceptual reorganization occurring during the first year of life for lexical tones is coupled with changes in the auditory ability to use speech modulation cues.

  7. Experiments on the Impact of language Problems in the Multi-cultural Operation of NPPs' Emergency Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Kim, Taehoon; Seong, Poong Hyun; Ha, Jun Su

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, The Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) was awarded a multi-billion dollar bid to construct the first nuclear power plant in Barakah, UAE. One must keep in mind however, that with technology transfer and international cooperation comes a host of potential problems arising from cultural differences such as language, everyday habitudes and workplace expectation. As of now, how problematic these potential issues may become is unknown. Of the aforementioned factors, communication is perhaps of foremost importance. We investigated UAE culture-related issues through analysis of operating experience reviews (OERs) and came to the conclusion that the language barrier needed utmost attention. Korean nuclear power plant operators will work in UAE and will operate the NPPs with operators and managers of other nationalities as well. The purpose of this paper is firstly to confirm that operators are put under mental stress, and secondly to demonstrate the decline in accuracy when they must work in English. Reducing human error is quite important to make nuclear power plants safer. As the mental workload of human operator is increased, the probability of a human error occurring also increases. It will have a negative influence on the plant’s safety. There are many factors which can potentially increase mental workload. We focused on communication problem which is a key factor of increasing mental workload because many Korean operators will work in UAE nuclear power plants and may work together with UAE operators. From these experiments we compared how performance of both Korean and UAE subjects were decreased when they use English. We designed experimental methods to be able to check this problem qualitatively and quantitatively. We analyzed four factors to find the communication problems from the experiments which are accuracy, efficiency, NASA-TLX, and brain wave. Accuracy, efficiency, brain wave are quantitative factors, and NASA-TLX is qualitative factor. To

  8. Experiments on the Impact of language Problems in the Multi-cultural Operation of NPPs' Emergency Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Kim, Taehoon; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jun Su [KUSTAR, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-10-15

    In 2010, The Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) was awarded a multi-billion dollar bid to construct the first nuclear power plant in Barakah, UAE. One must keep in mind however, that with technology transfer and international cooperation comes a host of potential problems arising from cultural differences such as language, everyday habitudes and workplace expectation. As of now, how problematic these potential issues may become is unknown. Of the aforementioned factors, communication is perhaps of foremost importance. We investigated UAE culture-related issues through analysis of operating experience reviews (OERs) and came to the conclusion that the language barrier needed utmost attention. Korean nuclear power plant operators will work in UAE and will operate the NPPs with operators and managers of other nationalities as well. The purpose of this paper is firstly to confirm that operators are put under mental stress, and secondly to demonstrate the decline in accuracy when they must work in English. Reducing human error is quite important to make nuclear power plants safer. As the mental workload of human operator is increased, the probability of a human error occurring also increases. It will have a negative influence on the plant’s safety. There are many factors which can potentially increase mental workload. We focused on communication problem which is a key factor of increasing mental workload because many Korean operators will work in UAE nuclear power plants and may work together with UAE operators. From these experiments we compared how performance of both Korean and UAE subjects were decreased when they use English. We designed experimental methods to be able to check this problem qualitatively and quantitatively. We analyzed four factors to find the communication problems from the experiments which are accuracy, efficiency, NASA-TLX, and brain wave. Accuracy, efficiency, brain wave are quantitative factors, and NASA-TLX is qualitative factor. To

  9. Local Villages and Global Networks: The Language and Migration Experiences of African Skilled Migrant Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    African skilled migrants and their circular and return migration strategies have received relatively little attention in the literature, with the previous focus of much African migration literature being on the net loss of skills to countries with developed economies in the global north. This article considers 13 interviews with African skilled…

  10. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W Quin; Li, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition) on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-years-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function (EF) tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching, and n-back task) that measure the EF components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages) on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only), indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related EFs such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global set-shifting.

  11. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: Why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Quin eYow

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-year-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching and n-back task that measure the executive function components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only, indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related executive functions such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global

  12. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: why variations in bilingual experiences matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W. Quin; Li, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition) on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-years-old English–Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function (EF) tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number–letter switching, and n-back task) that measure the EF components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages) on the Stroop and number–letter task (mixing cost only), indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related EFs such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global set-shifting. PMID:25767451

  13. A Resource-Oriented Functional Approach to English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia

    2018-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that investigates the learning preferences and strategies of Chinese students learning English as a second language (ESL) in Canadian school settings. It focuses on the interaction between second language (L2) learning methods that the students have adopted from their previous learning experience in China and…

  14. Fostering of Less Commonly Taught Language Initiatives — The Minnesota Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Anthony Polakiewicz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available First, let me express my sincere gratitude to NCOLCTL for awarding me this prestigious recognition bearing the name of a man who was responsible for many important initiatives and contributions relating to the promotion of the interests of LCTLs. Although for the past 36 years I have been teaching Russian and Polish, in my discussion today I will focus mainly on Polish, the less common of my less commonly taught languages. We can view the future of LCTLs in two ways: paraphrasing Anton Chekhov—one is the view that everything passes and nothing matters; the other view is that nothing passes and everything matters. If we are guided by the first outlook in assessing the present and future status of LCTLs we will conclude that despite all of our initiatives to promote and safeguard the interests of LCTLs, in the final analysis developments beyond our control will threaten the survival of LCTLs as part of institutionalized curriculum at many institutions. Thus, all of our efforts will prove to be in vain.

  15. The experiences of English as second language radiation therapy students in the undergraduate clinical program: Perceptions of staff and students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolderston, Amanda; Palmer, Cathryne; Flanagan, Wendy; McParland, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: This qualitative study explores the experiences of undergraduate radiation therapy students who have English as a second language (ESL) in the clinical environment, as well as the experiences of staff members who teach these students. Specific study aims were to increase understanding of the issues faced by this subset of students, including identifying potential barriers to clinical learning. Methods and design: A qualitative methodology was utilized with focus groups as the data collection tool to gain insights from students/recent graduates whose primary language was not English, as well as from staff members who educate this group of students in the clinical environment. Two focus groups were conducted; Group 1 (n = 6) consisted of ESL graduates/students and Group 2 (n = 5) consisted of radiation therapy staff members and clinical coordinators who are actively involved in the education of ESL students. Comparative data analysis of the transcribed discussions was carried out using content analysis and categorized according to the emergent themes. Results: Three overarching themes were identified for both groups, 'Communication', 'Differences' and 'Dealing with it...' The primary barrier for ESL students was seen as proficiency in English, which manifested in a number of ways. This resulted in a lack of confidence and a subsequent sense of alienation. External challenges identified were unfamiliarity with Canadian systems and cultural differences. Support strategies identified included the use of mentorship, professional development and external support for teaching staff and journaling, among others. Conclusions: There are identified challenges for ESL students in the clinical environment, thus it is important to provide support for this population to improve learning outcomes. Recommendations for practice, arising from the study as well as the available literature included: allowing extra time, assisting with improving English proficiency

  16. The experiences of English as second language radiation therapy students in the undergraduate clinical program: Perceptions of staff and students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolderston, Amanda [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Department of Radiation Oncology, Room 5-969, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)], E-mail: amanda.bolderston@rmp.uhn.on.ca; Palmer, Cathryne; Flanagan, Wendy; McParland, Neil [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Department of Radiation Oncology, Room 5-969, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    Introduction: This qualitative study explores the experiences of undergraduate radiation therapy students who have English as a second language (ESL) in the clinical environment, as well as the experiences of staff members who teach these students. Specific study aims were to increase understanding of the issues faced by this subset of students, including identifying potential barriers to clinical learning. Methods and design: A qualitative methodology was utilized with focus groups as the data collection tool to gain insights from students/recent graduates whose primary language was not English, as well as from staff members who educate this group of students in the clinical environment. Two focus groups were conducted; Group 1 (n = 6) consisted of ESL graduates/students and Group 2 (n = 5) consisted of radiation therapy staff members and clinical coordinators who are actively involved in the education of ESL students. Comparative data analysis of the transcribed discussions was carried out using content analysis and categorized according to the emergent themes. Results: Three overarching themes were identified for both groups, 'Communication', 'Differences' and 'Dealing with it...' The primary barrier for ESL students was seen as proficiency in English, which manifested in a number of ways. This resulted in a lack of confidence and a subsequent sense of alienation. External challenges identified were unfamiliarity with Canadian systems and cultural differences. Support strategies identified included the use of mentorship, professional development and external support for teaching staff and journaling, among others. Conclusions: There are identified challenges for ESL students in the clinical environment, thus it is important to provide support for this population to improve learning outcomes. Recommendations for practice, arising from the study as well as the available literature included: allowing extra time, assisting with

  17. Powerful Learning Tools for ELLs: Using Native Language, Familiar Examples, and Concept Mapping to Teach English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu Ren

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights how English language learners' (ELLs) prior knowledge can be used to help learn science vocabulary. The article explains that the concept of prior knowledge needs to encompass the ELL student's native language, previous science learning, native literacy skills, and native cultural knowledge and life experiences.…

  18. Developing Reading Comprehension and Academic Vocabulary for English Language Learners through Science Content: A Formative Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Ana; Rutherford, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This formative experiment explored the extent to which two instructional frameworks that varied in the explicitness of academic vocabulary instruction, comprehension strategy instruction, and supports for student autonomy influenced reading comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, perceptions of autonomy supports, and reading engagement in…

  19. Poetry Performances and Academic Identity Negotiations in the Literacy Experiences of Seventh Grade Language Arts Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ann Marie

    2010-01-01

    This case study explores seventh grade students' experiences with writing and performing poetry. Teacher and student interviews along with class observations provide insight into how the teacher and students viewed spoken word poetry and identity. The researcher recommends practices for the teaching of critical literacy using spoken word and…

  20. Masked Translation Priming: Varying Language Experience and Word Type with Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Garcia-Albea, Jose E.; Guasch, Marc; Molero, Margarita; Ferre, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Spanish-English bilingual lexical organization was investigated using masked cognate and non-cognate priming with the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, three groups of bilinguals (Spanish dominant, English dominant and Balanced) and a single group of beginning bilinguals (Spanish) were tested with Spanish and English targets primed by…

  1. A Survey on Chinese Students' Online English Language Learning Experience through Synchronous Web Conferencing Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi

    2016-01-01

    The online education industry has had a rapid economic development in China since 2013, but this area received little attention in research. This study investigates Chinese undergraduate students' online English learning experiences and online teacher-learner interaction in synchronous web conferencing classes. This article reports the findings…

  2. Language, Empathy, Archetype: Action-Metaphors of the Transcendental in Musical Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory to explain the remarkable emotional power of our response to abstract music. It reviews and rejects metaphysical arguments derived from notions of a divine spiritual realm and from absolute forms of human reason. Its conclusion is that musical experience is always essentially inter-subjective and potentially…

  3. "You never know who are Sami or speak Sami" Clinicians' experiences with language-appropriate care to Sami-speaking patients in outpatient mental health clinics in Northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsvold, Inger; Møllersen, Snefrid; Stordahl, Vigdis

    2016-01-01

    The Indigenous population in Norway, the Sami, have a statutory right to speak and be spoken to in the Sami language when receiving health services. There is, however, limited knowledge about how clinicians deal with this in clinical practice. This study explores how clinicians deal with language-appropriate care with Sami-speaking patients in specialist mental health services. This study aims to explore how clinicians identify and respond to Sami patients' language data, as well as how they experience provision of therapy to Sami-speaking patients in outpatient mental health clinics in Sami language administrative districts. Data were collected using qualitative method, through individual interviews with 20 therapists working in outpatient mental health clinics serving Sami populations in northern Norway. A thematic analysis inspired by systematic text reduction was employed. Two themes were identified: (a) identification of Sami patients' language data and (b) experiences with provision of therapy to Sami-speaking patients. Findings indicate that clinicians are not aware of patients' language needs prior to admission and that they deal with identification of language data and offer of language-appropriate care ad hoc when patients arrive. Sami-speaking participants reported always offering language choice and found more profound understanding of patients' experiences when Sami language was used. Whatever language Sami-speaking patients may choose, they are found to switch between languages during therapy. Most non-Sami-speaking participants reported offering Sami-speaking services, but the patients chose to speak Norwegian. However, a few of the participants maintained language awareness and could identify language needs despite a patient's refusal to speak Sami in therapy. Finally, some non-Sami-speaking participants were satisfied if they understood what the patients were saying. They left it to patients to address language problems, only to discover patients

  4. “You never know who are Sami or speak Sami” Clinicians’ experiences with language-appropriate care to Sami-speaking patients in outpatient mental health clinics in Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsvold, Inger; Møllersen, Snefrid; Stordahl, Vigdis

    2016-01-01

    Background The Indigenous population in Norway, the Sami, have a statutory right to speak and be spoken to in the Sami language when receiving health services. There is, however, limited knowledge about how clinicians deal with this in clinical practice. This study explores how clinicians deal with language-appropriate care with Sami-speaking patients in specialist mental health services. Objectives This study aims to explore how clinicians identify and respond to Sami patients’ language data, as well as how they experience provision of therapy to Sami-speaking patients in outpatient mental health clinics in Sami language administrative districts. Method Data were collected using qualitative method, through individual interviews with 20 therapists working in outpatient mental health clinics serving Sami populations in northern Norway. A thematic analysis inspired by systematic text reduction was employed. Findings Two themes were identified: (a) identification of Sami patients’ language data and (b) experiences with provision of therapy to Sami-speaking patients. Conclusion Findings indicate that clinicians are not aware of patients’ language needs prior to admission and that they deal with identification of language data and offer of language-appropriate care ad hoc when patients arrive. Sami-speaking participants reported always offering language choice and found more profound understanding of patients’ experiences when Sami language was used. Whatever language Sami-speaking patients may choose, they are found to switch between languages during therapy. Most non-Sami-speaking participants reported offering Sami-speaking services, but the patients chose to speak Norwegian. However, a few of the participants maintained language awareness and could identify language needs despite a patient's refusal to speak Sami in therapy. Finally, some non-Sami-speaking participants were satisfied if they understood what the patients were saying. They left it to patients

  5. “You never know who are Sami or speak Sami” Clinicians’ experiences with language-appropriate care to Sami-speaking patients in outpatient mental health clinics in Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Dagsvold

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Indigenous population in Norway, the Sami, have a statutory right to speak and be spoken to in the Sami language when receiving health services. There is, however, limited knowledge about how clinicians deal with this in clinical practice. This study explores how clinicians deal with language-appropriate care with Sami-speaking patients in specialist mental health services. Objectives: This study aims to explore how clinicians identify and respond to Sami patients’ language data, as well as how they experience provision of therapy to Sami-speaking patients in outpatient mental health clinics in Sami language administrative districts. Method: Data were collected using qualitative method, through individual interviews with 20 therapists working in outpatient mental health clinics serving Sami populations in northern Norway. A thematic analysis inspired by systematic text reduction was employed. Findings: Two themes were identified: (a identification of Sami patients’ language data and (b experiences with provision of therapy to Sami-speaking patients. Conclusion: Findings indicate that clinicians are not aware of patients’ language needs prior to admission and that they deal with identification of language data and offer of language-appropriate care ad hoc when patients arrive. Sami-speaking participants reported always offering language choice and found more profound understanding of patients’ experiences when Sami language was used. Whatever language Sami-speaking patients may choose, they are found to switch between languages during therapy. Most non-Sami-speaking participants reported offering Sami-speaking services, but the patients chose to speak Norwegian. However, a few of the participants maintained language awareness and could identify language needs despite a patient's refusal to speak Sami in therapy. Finally, some non-Sami-speaking participants were satisfied if they understood what the patients were saying

  6. E-LEARNING EXPERIENCE WITH ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SUPPORTED SOFTWARE: An International Application on English Language Courses

    OpenAIRE

    KOSE, Utku; ARSLAN, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, artificial intelligence supported e-learning scenarios are widely employed by educational institutions in order to ensure better teaching and learning experiences along educational activities. In the context of performed scientific studies, positive results often encourage such institutions to apply their intelligent e-learning systems on different types of courses and report advantages of artificial intelligent in especially education field. It seems that the future of education w...

  7. What can we talk about, in which language, in what way and with whom? Sami patients' experiences of language choice and cultural norms in mental health treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Dagsvold

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Sami in Norway have a legal right to receive health services adapted to Sami language and culture. This calls for a study of the significance of language choice and cultural norms in Sami patients’ encounters with mental health services. Objectives: To explore the significance of language and cultural norms in communication about mental health topics experienced by Sami patients receiving mental health treatment to enhance our understanding of linguistic and cultural adaptation of health services. Methods: Data were collected through individual interviews with 4 Sami patients receiving mental health treatment in Northern Norway. A systematic text reduction and a thematic analysis were employed. Findings: Two themes were identified:(I Language choice is influenced by language competence, with whom one talks and what one talks about.Bilingualism was a resource and natural part of the participants’ lives, but there were limited possibilities to speak Sami in encounters with health services. A professional working relationship was placed on an equal footing with the possibility to speak Sami.(II Cultural norms influence what one talks about, in what way and to whom.However, norms could be bypassed, by talking about norm-regulated topics in Norwegian with health providers. Conclusion: Sami patients’ language choice in different communication situations is influenced by a complexity of social and cultural factors. Sami patients have varying opinions about and preferences for what they can talk about, in which language, in what way and with whom. Bilingualism and knowledge about both Sami and Norwegian culture provide latitude and enhanced possibilities for both patients and the health services. The challenge for the health services is to allow for and safeguard such individual variations within the cultural framework of the patients.

  8. Nociones de la programacion de lenguas extranjeras: ensayo metodologico (Notions on the Programming of Foreign Languages: Methodological Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David

    1975-01-01

    Presents a computerized program for foreign language learning giving drills for all the major language skills. The drills are followed by an extensive bibliography of documents in some way dealing with computer based instruction, particularly foreign language instruction. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  9. Involuntary Rehearsal of Second Language at the Elementary Level: Do Elementary School Children Experience the Din in the Head?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, Jennifer M.

    1996-01-01

    Documents the occurrence of involuntary rehearsal of second-language words and sentences in elementary school children. Results of the study suggest that regardless of language background, sex, or age of an individual, we all acquire language in the same way. (six references) (Author/CK)

  10. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaridou, S.S.; Hagoort, P.; McQueen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs,

  11. A second soul: exploring the teaching beliefs of migrant Chinese language teachers in Chinese community languages schools in Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Fei

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the teaching beliefs of Chinese language teachers who migrated from China to Australia and who have been teaching in Chinese Community Languages Schools in the state of Victoria, Australia. The thesis argues that the teaching beliefs of these migrant language teachers are strongly influenced by their previous learning and teaching experiences and that their choices of teaching content and practice in their current Australian classrooms reflect these beliefs. Because la...

  12. Experience with a high order programming language on the development of the Nova distributed control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suski, G.J.; Holloway, F.W.; Duffy, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of an HOL on the development of the distributed computer control system for Nova laser fusion facility. As the world's most powerful glass laser, Nova will generate 150 trillion watt pulses of infrared light focused onto fusion targets a few millimeters in diameter. It will perform experiments designed to explore the feasibility of fusion as an energy source of the future. Nova will utilize fifty microcomputers and four VAX-11/780's in a distributed process control computer system architecture

  13. Experience with a high order programming language on the development of the Nova distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suski, G.J.; Holloway, F.W.; Duffy, J.M.

    1983-05-10

    This paper explores the impact of an HOL on the development of the distributed computer control system for Nova laser fusion facility. As the world's most powerful glass laser, Nova will generate 150 trillion watt pulses of infrared light focused onto fusion targets a few millimeters in diameter. It will perform experiments designed to explore the feasibility of fusion as an energy source of the future. Nova will utilize fifty microcomputers and four VAX-11/780's in a distributed process control computer system architecture.

  14. AUX: a scripting language for auditory signal processing and software packages for psychoacoustic experiments and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bomjun J

    2012-06-01

    This article introduces AUX (AUditory syntaX), a scripting syntax specifically designed to describe auditory signals and processing, to the members of the behavioral research community. The syntax is based on descriptive function names and intuitive operators suitable for researchers and students without substantial training in programming, who wish to generate and examine sound signals using a written script. In this article, the essence of AUX is discussed and practical examples of AUX scripts specifying various signals are illustrated. Additionally, two accompanying Windows-based programs and development libraries are described. AUX Viewer is a program that generates, visualizes, and plays sounds specified in AUX. AUX Viewer can also be used for class demonstrations or presentations. Another program, Psycon, allows a wide range of sound signals to be used as stimuli in common psychophysical testing paradigms, such as the adaptive procedure, the method of constant stimuli, and the method of adjustment. AUX Library is also provided, so that researchers can develop their own programs utilizing AUX. The philosophical basis of AUX is to separate signal generation from the user interface needed for experiments. AUX scripts are portable and reusable; they can be shared by other researchers, regardless of differences in actual AUX-based programs, and reused for future experiments. In short, the use of AUX can be potentially beneficial to all members of the research community-both those with programming backgrounds and those without.

  15. Do Experiences with Medicare Managed Care Vary According to the Proportion of Same-Race/Ethnicity/Language Individuals Enrolled in One's Contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca Anhang; Haviland, Amelia M; Hambarsoomian, Katrin; Dembosky, Jacob W; Gaillot, Sarah; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Williams, Malcolm V; Elliott, Marc N

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether care experiences and immunization for racial/ethnic/language minority Medicare beneficiaries vary with the proportion of same-group beneficiaries in Medicare Advantage (MA) contracts. Data Sources/Study Setting Exactly 492,495 Medicare beneficiaries responding to the 2008–2009 MA Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) Survey. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Mixed-effect regression models predicted eight CAHPS patient experience measures from self-reported race/ethnicity/language preference at individual and contract levels, beneficiary-level case-mix adjustors, along with contract and geographic random effects. Principal Findings As a contract's proportion of a given minority group increased, overall and non-Hispanic, white patient experiences were poorer on average; for the minority group in question, however, high-minority plans may score as well as low-minority plans. Spanish-preferring Hispanic beneficiaries also experience smaller disparities relative to non-Hispanic whites in plans with higher Spanish-preferring proportions. Conclusions The tendency for high-minority contracts to provide less positive patient experiences for others in the contract, but similar or even more positive patient experiences for concentrated minority group beneficiaries, may reflect cultural competency, particularly language services, that partially or fully counterbalance the poorer overall quality of these contracts. For some beneficiaries, experiences may be just as positive in some high-minority plans with low overall scores as in plans with higher overall scores. PMID:25752334

  16. The impact of language barriers and immigration status on the care experience for Spanish-speaking caregivers of patients with pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Eduardo R; Kaul, Sapna; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Gwilliam, Vannina; Jimenez, Ornella A; Morreall, Deborah K; Montenegro, Roberto E; Kinney, Anita Y; Fluchel, Mark N

    2016-12-01

    An increasing proportion of pediatric cancer patients in the United States are Latino and many have Spanish-speaking immigrant parents with limited English proficiency (LEP). Little is known about how language or undocumented immigration status impacts their care experience. A cross-sectional survey was administered to English (N = 310) and Spanish-speaking LEP (N = 56) caregivers of pediatric cancer patients. To assess differences in healthcare experiences between the language groups, t-tests and chi-square statistics were used. Multivariable logistic regression evaluated associations between primary language and knowledge of clinical trial status. Spanish-speaking caregivers were more likely to report higher rates of quitting or changing jobs as a direct result of their child's cancer, and their children were more likely to experience a delay in education. Although Spanish-speaking caregivers reported higher satisfaction with care, 32% reported feeling that their child would have received better care if English was their primary language. Spanish-speaking caregivers were more likely to incorrectly identify whether their child was on a clinical trial compared with English-speaking caregivers. The majority of Spanish-speaking caregivers reported at least one undocumented caregiver in the household and 11% of them avoided or delayed medical care for their child due to concerns over their undocumented immigration status. Language barriers and undocumented immigration status may negatively impact the quality of informed decision-making and the care experience for Spanish-speaking LEP caregivers of pediatric cancer patients. These families may benefit from culturally appropriate Spanish language resources to improve communication and open a dialogue regarding undocumented immigration status. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Current Challenges of Dialogue Theology, Aesthetics and Literature: Experience and Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALALITE - Argentina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available On August 7, 2012, while we were finishing putting together this issue of the Journal Teolitéraria, Lucio Gera Argentine theologian, teacher of generations, which illuminated the Church in Latin America, went to the house of the Father. The publication of this interview is a grateful tribute to who was the inspiration and founder of Permanent Interdisciplinary Seminar in Literature, Aesthetics and Theology (Siplet. It reflects on the mutual contributions of theology to literature and literature to theology in the context of the changes that occur both as a rmesult of the dialogue between the logic word and the aesthetic word. The interview emphasizes the role of experience as a common element to both disciplines whose role is critical to the present times.Keywords: Lucio Gera, interdisciplinary dialogue, literature and theology

  18. Blended Learning Experience in a Programming Language Course and the Effect of the Thinking Styles of the Students on Success and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagci, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    High-level thinking and problem solving skill is one requirement of computer programming that most of the students experience problems with. Individual differences such as motivation, attitude towards programming, thinking style of the student, and complexity of the programming language have influence on students' success on programming. Thus,…

  19. Mandarin Chinese vowel-plus-tone identification in noise: Effects of language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingshuang; Wang, Wenjing; Tao, Sha; Dong, Qi; Guan, Jingjing; Liu, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Several studies found better English vowel identification in English multi-talker babble (MTB) and temporally-modulated (TM) noise, but not in quiet condition for native Chinese listeners in the US (CNU) with the US residency of 1-3 years than native Chinese listeners in China (CNC) with no residency history in English speaking countries. Two possible explanations were proposed: (1) CNU listeners used temporal dips of noise more efficiently than CNC listeners; and (2) CNU listeners had less informational masking of MTB than their CNC peers. The current study explored whether the difference in noise processing between CNU and CNC listeners was also presented for their native speech perception. Chinese vowel-plus-tone identifications were measured for CNU and CNC in quiet, stationary and TM noise, babble-modulated noise, and MTB. The identification scores of CNU listeners were significantly higher than CNC listeners in most noisy backgrounds, whereas both groups had the same performance in quiet. Moreover, compared with CNC listeners, CNU listeners gained greater masking releases from the temporal modulation in TM noise at low SNRs, whereas no significant difference was found in informational masking between the two groups. In conclusion, the native English experience may improve native Chinese listeners' capacity to use temporal glimpses in TM noise, possibly depending on the modulation frequency and depth, while it may not improve their ability to resist the informational masking of babble when perceiving their native speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Beyond the Rhetoric of Empowerment: Speak the Language, Live the Experience of the Rural Poor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekoko, Rebecca Nthogo; van der Merwe, Marietjie

    2006-05-01

    Growth in rural communities, along with attendant changes in social, economic and environmental conditions, challenges members of these communities to take even more responsibility for their lives than in the past. While there is a need to promote sustainable economic prosperity, it is important that developmental approaches should not compromise the potential of citizens to meet these challenges independently. The present contribution is based on a phenomenological study that explored approaches to community development in Botswana. One of the key findings was that these were dominated by a bureaucratized welfare scheme, as the government gave free food and farming implements to poor people in an approach referred to as atlhama-o-je (`open-your-mouth-and-eat'). The present contribution reflects on the consequences of using this type of approach, arguing that instead of bringing real hope to the rural poor, it generated counterproductive attitudes. In conclusion, the authors suggest alternative strategies that take account of the life experiences of the rural poor and render them less dependent on government intervention for their well-being.

  1. Process description language: an experiment in robust programming for manufacturing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Natalie R.; Creak, G. Alan

    1998-10-01

    Maintaining stable, robust, and consistent software is difficult in face of the increasing rate of change of customers' preferences, materials, manufacturing techniques, computer equipment, and other characteristic features of manufacturing systems. It is argued that software is commonly difficult to keep up to date because many of the implications of these changing features on software details are obscure. A possible solution is to use a software generation system in which the transformation of system properties into system software is made explicit. The proposed generation system stores the system properties, such as machine properties, product properties and information on manufacturing techniques, in databases. As a result this information, on which system control is based, can also be made available to other programs. In particular, artificial intelligence programs such as fault diagnosis programs, can benefit from using the same information as the control system, rather than a separate database which must be developed and maintained separately to ensure consistency. Experience in developing a simplified model of such a system is presented.

  2. Learning a Second Language

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Caroline; Hermann, Charlotte; Andersen, Signe Hvalsøe; Grigalauskyte, Simona; Tolsgaard, Mads; Holmegaard, Thorbjørn; Hajaya, Zaedo Musa

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the concept of second language learning in Denmark with focus on how second language learners negotiate their identities in relation to language learning and integration. By investigating three language learners’ acquisition of Danish through key theories on the field of second language learning, focus is centred on the subjects’ lived experiences of the learning process within their everyday lives and in the classroom. Through interviews and observations it can be conclud...

  3. The representation of patient experience and satisfaction in physician rating sites. A criteria-based analysis of English- and German-language sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Swantje; Strech, Daniel

    2010-12-07

    Information on patient experience and satisfaction with individual physicians could play an important role for performance measures, improved health care and health literacy. Physician rating sites (PRSs) bear the potential to be a widely available source for this kind of information. However, patient experience and satisfaction are complex constructs operationalized by multiple dimensions. The way in which PRSs allow users to express and rate patient experience and satisfaction could likely influence the image of doctors in society and the self-understanding of both doctors and patients. This study examines the extent to which PRSs currently represent the constructs of patient experience and satisfaction. First, a systematic review of research instruments for measuring patient experience and satisfaction was conducted. The content of these instruments was analyzed qualitatively to create a comprehensive set of dimensions for patient experience and patient satisfaction. Second, PRSs were searched for systematically in English-language and German-language search engines of Google and Yahoo. Finally, we classified every structured question asked by the different PRS using the set of dimensions of patient experience and satisfaction. The qualitative content analysis of the measurement instruments produced 13 dimensions of patient experience and satisfaction. We identified a total of 21 PRSs. No PRSs represented all 13 dimensions of patient satisfaction and experience with its structured questions. The 3 most trafficked English-language PRS represent between 5 and 6 dimensions and the 3 most trafficked German language PRSs between 8 and 11 dimensions The dimensions for patient experience and satisfaction most frequently represented in PRSs included diversely operationalized ones such as professional competence and doctor-patient relationship/support. However, other less complex but nevertheless important dimensions such as communication skills and information

  4. The representation of patient experience and satisfaction in physician rating sites. A criteria-based analysis of English- and German-language sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strech Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on patient experience and satisfaction with individual physicians could play an important role for performance measures, improved health care and health literacy. Physician rating sites (PRSs bear the potential to be a widely available source for this kind of information. However, patient experience and satisfaction are complex constructs operationalized by multiple dimensions. The way in which PRSs allow users to express and rate patient experience and satisfaction could likely influence the image of doctors in society and the self-understanding of both doctors and patients. This study examines the extent to which PRSs currently represent the constructs of patient experience and satisfaction. Methods First, a systematic review of research instruments for measuring patient experience and satisfaction was conducted. The content of these instruments was analyzed qualitatively to create a comprehensive set of dimensions for patient experience and patient satisfaction. Second, PRSs were searched for systematically in English-language and German-language search engines of Google and Yahoo. Finally, we classified every structured question asked by the different PRS using the set of dimensions of patient experience and satisfaction. Results The qualitative content analysis of the measurement instruments produced 13 dimensions of patient experience and satisfaction. We identified a total of 21 PRSs. No PRSs represented all 13 dimensions of patient satisfaction and experience with its structured questions. The 3 most trafficked English-language PRS represent between 5 and 6 dimensions and the 3 most trafficked German language PRSs between 8 and 11 dimensions The dimensions for patient experience and satisfaction most frequently represented in PRSs included diversely operationalized ones such as professional competence and doctor-patient relationship/support. However, other less complex but nevertheless important dimensions

  5. Language Learning Attitudes: Ingrained Or Shaped In Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe DİŞLEN DAĞGÖL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Language learning has become an essential need in today’s world. From academic to social settings, humans need to communicate in a different language to survive in their community. However, despite this increasing importance of language, it is difficult to say we have attained successful language learning on a large scale since there are a lot of factors in language learning process. Language attitudes, one of these factors, influence this process both positively and negatively, depending on how we view learning a foreign language. Therefore, this study deals with the issue of language attitudes to uncover learners’ language conceptions and probable effects on their learning. Moreover, this study aims to reveal the potential role of past learning experiences on the development of language beliefs positively or negatively. Thus, 35 university students in their 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th years constitute the participants of the study. Based on mixed research design, the study is comprised of both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were gathered through Attitude Scale towards English Course, and the analyses were performed with Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS 17.0 version for Windows. The qualitative data were collected from students’ reports of their own autobiographies regarding their previous language learning experiences in elementary, secondary, high school and university years, and were subjected to the content analysis. The study showed language attitudes from behavioural, cognitive and affective perspectives and found out different factors in shaping their learning conceptions.

  6. Second-language experience and speech-in-noise recognition: effects of talker-listener accent similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Melanie; Iverson, Paul; Huckvale, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Previous work has shown that the intelligibility of speech in noise is degraded if the speaker and listener differ in accent, in particular when there is a disparity between native (L1) and nonnative (L2) accents. This study investigated how this talker-listener interaction is modulated by L2 experience and accent similarity. L1 Southern British English, L1 French listeners with varying L2 English experience, and French-English bilinguals were tested on the recognition of English sentences mixed in speech-shaped noise that was spoken with a range of accents (French, Korean, Northern Irish, and Southern British English). The results demonstrated clear interactions of accent and experience, with the least experienced French speakers being most accurate with French-accented English, but more experienced listeners being most accurate with L1 Southern British English accents. An acoustic similarity metric was applied to the speech productions of the talkers and the listeners, and significant correlations were obtained between accent similarity and sentence intelligibility for pairs of individuals. Overall, the results suggest that L2 experience affects talker-listener accent interactions, altering both the intelligibility of different accents and the selectivity of accent processing. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  7. Preserved implicit knowledge of a forgotten childhood language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S; Mattys, Sven L; Gage, Suzanne H

    2009-09-01

    Previous research suggests that a language learned during early childhood is completely forgotten when contact to that language is severed. In contrast with these findings, we report leftover traces of early language exposure in individuals in their adult years, despite a complete absence of explicit memory for the language. Specifically, native English individuals under age 40 selectively relearned subtle Hindi or Zulu sound contrasts that they once knew. However, individuals over 40 failed to show any relearning, and young control participants with no previous exposure to Hindi or Zulu showed no learning. This research highlights the lasting impact of early language experience in shaping speech perception, and the value of exposing children to foreign languages even if such exposure does not continue into adulthood.

  8. Foreign language learning using e-mail in a task-oriented perspective: Interuniversity experiments in communication and collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barson, John; Frommer, Judith; Schwartz, Michael

    1993-12-01

    From 1988 to 1990 several collaborative “cross-country” intermediate French classes at Harvard and Stanford became one class. Students combined their efforts and insights in the accomplishment of a semester-long task, in most cases the publication of a student newspaper or magazine, using the electronic mail (e-mail) network to contact each other, elaborate their plans, and bring their projects to successful conclusion. Additional experiments of a similar nature took place between Harvard and the University of Pittsburgh (in the spring of 1990) and between Stanford and the University of Pittsburgh during 1991 1993. This paper suggests that this type of task-oriented learning through distance-communication is applicable at many different course levels and has considerable merit as an approach to teaching and learning. The key phases of this task-based model are presented along with technological information regarding computers and networks, as a guide to colleagues interested in pursuing similar lines of experimental teaching. Also included are samples of student messages, with their varied and often highly colorful discourse features, which attest to the motivation of students and reveal the strong personal investment made by the participants as they join hands across the miles in a productive, communication-based enterprise. The language and learning styles generated by technology and computers fully deserve closer investigation by researchers and teaching practitioners alike. The authors summarize the experiments, discuss assessment, and present research issues, concluding that good pedagogy and quality technology must share a vision of what can be accomplished in this rapidly evolving educational work place.

  9. Understanding Language in Education and Grade 4 Reading Performance Using a "Natural Experiment" of Botswana and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Debra Lynne

    2018-01-01

    The regional and cultural closeness of Botswana and South Africa, as well as differences in their political histories and language policy stances, offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the role of language in reading outcomes. This study aims to empirically test the effect of exposure to mother tongue and English instruction on the reading…

  10. Evaluation of the validity of the Psychology Experiment Building Language tests of vigilance, auditory memory, and decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Piper

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Psychology Experimental Building Language (PEBL test battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net/ is a popular application for neurobehavioral investigations. This study evaluated the correspondence between the PEBL and the non-PEBL versions of four executive function tests. Methods. In one cohort, young-adults (N = 44 completed both the Conner’s Continuous Performance Test (CCPT and the PEBL CPT (PCPT with the order counter-balanced. In a second cohort, participants (N = 47 completed a non-computerized (Wechsler and a computerized (PEBL Digit Span (WDS or PDS both Forward and Backward. Participants also completed the Psychological Assessment Resources or the PEBL versions of the Iowa Gambling Task (PARIGT or PEBLIGT. Results. The between-test correlations were moderately high (reaction time r = 0.78, omission errors r = 0.65, commission errors r = 0.66 on the CPT. DS Forward was significantly greater than DS Backward on the WDS (p < .0005 and the PDS (p < .0005. The total WDS score was moderately correlated with the PDS (r = 0.56. The PARIGT and the PEBLIGTs showed a very similar pattern for response times across blocks, development of preference for Advantageous over Disadvantageous Decks, and Deck selections. However, the amount of money earned (score–loan was significantly higher in the PEBLIGT during the last Block. Conclusions. These findings are broadly supportive of the criterion validity of the PEBL measures of sustained attention, short-term memory, and decision making. Select differences between workalike versions of the same test highlight how detailed aspects of implementation may have more important consequences for computerized testing than has been previously acknowledged.

  11. Intercultural challenge to language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Muñoz de Cote

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a qualitative research project set to investigate the piloting process of an innovative language program for university students. It challenges traditional English language teaching courses celebrating a view centered on learning; classes become spaces for students to understand the language they are learning through the development of small projects. The approach moves from a teaching transmission paradigm to one where the most important agent is each student who has to engage with a topic of his or her interest. Students are seen as individuals whose knowledge and understanding of the world is valued and not as people whose lack of language skills prevents themfrom engaging in discussions of complex topics. The objective of this innovation is to enhance students’ understanding and use of academic English in their field of interest. In this project, we argue that knowledge and understanding of the mother tongue and culture play key roles in the development of a second language. A number of studies suggest that students who had strong first language literacy skills achieved higher proficiency levels in their second language. Based on this argument and Vygotsky’s sociocultural learning theory, we designed disciplinary content language learning workshops for first-degree students. The main tenet is that students can develop academic English given that they know about their discipline. Findings so far reveal the difficulty of students to take distance from their previous learning experiences. They also show that students’ ideas expressed in English are far more complex than what would be expected of them given their second language skills. The complexity is not only related to thecontent, but to the way they construct their paragraphs and the understanding of how the register of their field  may be used.

  12. Discount method for programming language evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtev, Svetomir; Christensen, Tommy Aagaard; Thomsen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents work in progress on developing a Discount Method for Programming Language Evaluation inspired by the Discount Usability Evaluation method (Benyon 2010) and the Instant Data Analysis method (Kjeldskov et al. 2004). The method is intended to bridge the gap between small scale...... internal language design evaluation methods and large scale surveys and quantitative evaluation methods. The method is designed to be applicable even before a compiler or IDE is developed for a new language. To test the method, a usability evaluation experiment was carried out on the Quorum programming...... language (Stefik et al. 2016) using programmers with experience in C and C#. When comparing our results with previous studies of Quorum, most of the data was comparable though not strictly in agreement. However, the discrepancies were mainly related to the programmers pre-existing expectations...

  13. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  14. Interactive Technologies of Foreign Language Teaching in Future Marine Specialists’ Training: from Experience of the Danube River Basin Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Demchenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of the interactive technologies of foreign language teaching in future marine specialists’ training in the Danube river basin universities. The author gives definitions of the most popular interactive technologies aimed to form communicative competence as a significant component of future mariners’ key competencies. Typology and analysis of some interactive technologies of foreign language teaching in future marine specialists’ training are provided.

  15. Modulation of the mismatch negativity (MMN) to vowel duration changes in native speakers of Finnish and German as a result of language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmse, Ursula; Ylinen, Sari; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti; Schröger, Erich; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    While crucial for phoneme distinctions in the Finnish language, mere vowel duration is of lower relevance as a phonetically distinctive cue in the German language. To investigate the pre-attentive processing of vowel duration between these two languages, the mismatch negativity (MMN), a component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP) that is an index of automatic auditory change detection, was measured in Finnish and German native speakers for vowel duration changes embedded in the pseudoword sasa. Vowel duration changes thereby were presented as a shortening or a lengthening of either the first- or second-syllable vowel. An additional non-speech condition measured the MMN to duration and frequency changes in tones. In both language groups, diminished MMN amplitudes for the shortening of vowel duration in the word-final syllable suggested a generally more difficult discrimination of vowel duration in a word-final position. Further, shorter MMN latencies for the Finns than the Germans for vowel duration as well as tone duration deviants suggested a generally higher sensitivity to duration contrasts in the Finnish language group. No latency difference between the groups was found for tone frequency processing. Moreover, the Finns, but not the Germans, showed a leftward shift of the MMN scalp distribution for changes in vowel duration, whereas the MMN topography was highly similar between both groups in the tone condition. An enhanced phonetic processing of vowel duration changes and possibly an enhanced processing of sound duration in general is thus indicated for the Finns as a result of their extensive linguistic experience with phonetically distinctive vowel duration contrasts in the native language.

  16. Six principles of language development: implications for second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Haruka; Kanero, Junko; Freeman, Max R; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The number of children growing up in dual language environments is increasing in the United States. Despite the apparent benefits of speaking two languages, children learning English as a second language (ESL) often face struggles, as they may experience poverty and impoverished language input at home. Early exposure to a rich language environment is crucial for ESL children's academic success. This article explores how six evidenced-based principles of language learning can be used to provide support for ESL children.

  17. Using a foreign language reduces mental imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Sayuri; Keysar, Boaz

    2018-04-01

    Mental imagery plays a significant role in guiding how we feel, think, and even behave. These mental simulations are often guided by language, making it important to understand what aspects of language contribute to imagery vividness and consequently to the way we think. Here, we focus on the native-ness of language and present evidence that using a foreign language leads to less vivid mental imagery than using a native tongue. In Experiment 1, participants using a foreign language reported less vivid imagery of sensory experiences such as sight and touch than those using their native tongue. Experiment 2 provided an objective behavioral measure, showing that muted imagery reduced accuracy when judging the similarity of shapes of imagined objects. Lastly, Experiment 3 demonstrated that this reduction in mental imagery partly accounted for the previously observed foreign language effects in moral choice. Together, the findings suggest that our mental images change when using a foreign tongue, leading to downstream consequences for how we make decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Balance Toward Language Mastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia R. Heslinga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems in attaining language mastery with students from diverse language backgrounds and levels of ability confront educators around the world. Experiments, research, and experience see positive effects of adding sign language in communication methods to pre-school and K-12 education. Augmentative, alternative, interactive, accommodating, and enriching strategies using sign language aid learners in balancing the skills needed to mastery of one language or multiple languages. Theories of learning that embrace play, drama, motion, repetition, socializing, and self-efficacy connect to the options for using sign language with learners in inclusive and mainstream classes. The methodical use of sign language by this researcher-educator over two and a half decades showed signing does build thinking skills, add enjoyment, stimulate communication, expand comprehension, increase vocabulary acquisition, encourage collaboration, and helps build appreciation for cultural diversity.

  19. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of

  20. Monitoring Different Phonological Parameters of Sign Language Engages the Same Cortical Language Network but Distinctive Perceptual Ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Velia; Orfanidou, Eleni; Kästner, Lena; Rönnberg, Jerker; Woll, Bencie; Capek, Cheryl M; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The study of signed languages allows the dissociation of sensorimotor and cognitive neural components of the language signal. Here we investigated the neurocognitive processes underlying the monitoring of two phonological parameters of sign languages: handshape and location. Our goal was to determine if brain regions processing sensorimotor characteristics of different phonological parameters of sign languages were also involved in phonological processing, with their activity being modulated by the linguistic content of manual actions. We conducted an fMRI experiment using manual actions varying in phonological structure and semantics: (1) signs of a familiar sign language (British Sign Language), (2) signs of an unfamiliar sign language (Swedish Sign Language), and (3) invented nonsigns that violate the phonological rules of British Sign Language and Swedish Sign Language or consist of nonoccurring combinations of phonological parameters. Three groups of participants were tested: deaf native signers, deaf nonsigners, and hearing nonsigners. Results show that the linguistic processing of different phonological parameters of sign language is independent of the sensorimotor characteristics of the language signal. Handshape and location were processed by different perceptual and task-related brain networks but recruited the same language areas. The semantic content of the stimuli did not influence this process, but phonological structure did, with nonsigns being associated with longer RTs and stronger activations in an action observation network in all participants and in the supramarginal gyrus exclusively in deaf signers. These results suggest higher processing demands for stimuli that contravene the phonological rules of a signed language, independently of previous knowledge of signed languages. We suggest that the phonological characteristics of a language may arise as a consequence of more efficient neural processing for its perception and production.

  1. Electronic interaction in the teaching of Portuguese as an additional foreign language: the optimization of beginners’ learning experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Rottava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses language learners’ interaction in a virtual learning environment, contemplating two interconnected aspects: the possibilities of interaction through the use of electronic resources and the configuration of teaching and learning of Portuguese as an additional language (AL. The objective is to analyse learners of Portuguese-AL’s oral and written production. The data analysed was produced in a virtual environment. The results suggest some aspects that electronic resources optimise: genuine interaction; situations in which learners risk more whist producing written and speaking work in the FL, connecting to what happens in everyday life; learning develops beyond the context of the classroom, since learners receive feedback from the tutor about language forms and uses beyond the syllabus of the course; and the granting of autonomy to learners as they can systematise their learning process.

  2. Optimizing New Language Use by Employing Young Learners' Own Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oga-Baldwin, W. L. Quint; Nakata, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    The use and appropriate amount of students' own language (OL) in foreign language classes remains a subject of debate. While exclusive new language (NL) use may not necessarily always benefit all learners, especially young language learners (YLLs), overuse of the students' OL may not provide the same range of communicative experiences as greater…

  3. Endogenous sources of variation in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chung-Hye; Musolino, Julien; Lidz, Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    A fundamental question in the study of human language acquisition centers around apportioning explanatory force between the experience of the learner and the core knowledge that allows learners to represent that experience. We provide a previously unidentified kind of data identifying children's contribution to language acquisition. We identify one aspect of grammar that varies unpredictably across a population of speakers of what is ostensibly a single language. We further demonstrate that the grammatical knowledge of parents and their children is independent. The combination of unpredictable variation and parent-child independence suggests that the relevant structural feature is supplied by each learner independent of experience with the language. This structural feature is abstract because it controls variation in more than one construction. The particular case we examine is the position of the verb in the clause structure of Korean. Because Korean is a head-final language, evidence for the syntactic position of the verb is both rare and indirect. We show that (i) Korean speakers exhibit substantial variability regarding this aspect of the grammar, (ii) this variability is attested between speakers but not within a speaker, (iii) this variability controls interpretation in two surface constructions, and (iv) it is independent in parents and children. According to our findings, when the exposure language is compatible with multiple grammars, learners acquire a single systematic grammar. Our observation that children and their parents vary independently suggests that the choice of grammar is driven in part by a process operating internal to individual learners.

  4. Neurolinguistic processing when the brain matures without language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Rachel I; Davenport, Tristan; Roth, Austin; Halgren, Eric

    2018-02-01

    The extent to which development of the brain language system is modulated by the temporal onset of linguistic experience relative to post-natal brain maturation is unknown. This crucial question cannot be investigated with the hearing population because spoken language is ubiquitous in the environment of newborns. Deafness blocks infants' language experience in a spoken form, and in a signed form when it is absent from the environment. Using anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography, aMEG, we neuroimaged lexico-semantic processing in a deaf adult whose linguistic experience began in young adulthood. Despite using language for 30 years after initially learning it, this individual exhibited limited neural response in the perisylvian language areas to signed words during the 300-400 ms temporal window, suggesting that the brain language system requires linguistic experience during brain growth to achieve functionality. The present case study primarily exhibited neural activations in response to signed words in dorsolateral superior parietal and occipital areas bilaterally, replicating the neural patterns exhibited by two previously case studies who matured without language until early adolescence (Ferjan Ramirez N, Leonard MK, Torres C, Hatrak M, Halgren E, Mayberry RI. 2014). The dorsal pathway appears to assume the task of processing words when the brain matures without experiencing the form-meaning network of a language. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sustaining Expertise through Collaborative/Peer-Mediated and Individual Reflections: The Experiences of Chinese English Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawan, Faridah; Fan, Wenfang

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory investigation of the professional development of Chinese English Language teachers (ELTs) was part of a collaboration between two teacher educators, one from the U.S. and the other from China, during the 2011-2012 academic year. We were involved in the professional development in three schools (elementary, middle and high schools)…

  6. Enhanced Awareness and Its Translation into Action: A Case Study of One Learner's Self-Directed Language Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    The fostering of learner autonomy has become an essential element of modern pedagogy and an established object of research. There are many difficulties in providing evidence of learners' development towards autonomy, however, since it is not measurable in a traditional sense. As a learning advisor (LA) at a private language university in Japan, I…

  7. Design of a Domain-Specific Language for Material Flow Analysis using Microsoft DSL tools: An Experience Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Material Flow Analysis (MFA) is the procedure of measuring and assessing the mass flows of matter (solid waste, water, food...) and substances (carbon, phosphorus ...) within a process or a system for the period of time. In this paper we propose a Domain-Specific Language (DSL) to model MFA in a ...

  8. A Common Language? The Use of Teaching Standards in the Assessment of Professional Experience: Teacher Education Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughland, Tony; Ellis, Neville

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong critique of the reductionist, technical and instrumentalist impacts of the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers from critical policy researchers in education. At the same time, advocates of the standards espouse their potential as providing a common language of teaching. We argue that both views are based on logical…

  9. Gender Identities and Female Students' Learning Experiences in Studying English as Second Language at a Pakistani University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Irfan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how female students' roles as learners are influenced by their socially constructed gender identities and gender roles in studying English as Second Language (ESL) at a public sector university of Pakistan. The aim is to understand how female students' gender identities and gender roles affect their learning. With an…

  10. “Emotional” versus “Emotioneel”: Advertising Language and Emotional Appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Puntoni, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe article contributes to current understanding of language effects in advertising by uncovering a previously ignored mechanism shaping consumer response to an increasingly globalized marketplace. Extending recent psycholinguistic research on the emotions of bilinguals, a series of experiments shows that bilingual consumers report greater perceived emotional intensity for stimuli (e.g. ads) presented in their native language than in their second language.

  11. Twitter Language Use Reflects Psychological Differences between Democrats and Republicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwester, Karolina; Purver, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that political leanings correlate with various psychological factors. While surveys and experiments provide a rich source of information for political psychology, data from social networks can offer more naturalistic and robust material for analysis. This research investigates psychological differences between individuals of different political orientations on a social networking platform, Twitter. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the language used by liberals emphasizes their perception of uniqueness, contains more swear words, more anxiety-related words and more feeling-related words than conservatives' language. Conversely, we predicted that the language of conservatives emphasizes group membership and contains more references to achievement and religion than liberals' language. We analysed Twitter timelines of 5,373 followers of three Twitter accounts of the American Democratic and 5,386 followers of three accounts of the Republican parties' Congressional Organizations. The results support most of the predictions and previous findings, confirming that Twitter behaviour offers valid insights to offline behaviour.

  12. The role of teachers’ experiences in the construction of their knowledge and beliefs: A case study of English language teaching in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Lemus-Hidalgo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article drew on a larger interpretivist case study research of the role of teachers’ knowledge and beliefs in their teaching practices. It was constructed with the participation of four teachers that studied the same BA in ELT program and worked in the same state university in Mexico. The purpose of this article is to raise awareness of the role of learning and teaching experiences in the development of teachers’ knowledge and beliefs and of their implications for language teacher education. Observations, interviews, conversations, class video recordings and teachers’ journals were the methods used for the collection of the data. The case study not only shows that teachers’ knowledge, beliefs and teaching practices inform each other persistently in a dynamic process but also illustrates the significant role that learning and teaching experiences seem to have in the development of teachers’ knowledge and as sources of their beliefs. Teachers’ teaching practices appear to be mainly supported by their experiential knowledge and driven by their core beliefs; beliefs that are grounded in experience. Awareness of these aspects in the BA in ELT curriculum and in its delivery, would enhance the education of future teachers of English as a foreign language.

  13. Unit 1003: The Language of Exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This language unit for grade 10 builds on a definition of the expository use of language developed in the two previous 10th-grade units. In a brief overview of report language, the referential language of Thomas Huxley is compared with the expressive language of Edgar Allan Poe. The writings of S. I. Hayakawa, Hans Guth, and others are examined…

  14. Increasing experiences with the act of reading in language school education: a discussion about intersubjectivity and readers formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cassol Daga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the act of reading in an approach that considers the inter-subjective and intra-subjective dimensions of the act of reading as compulsory to the reader's formation. It is an approach based on Vygotsky’s concepts of interpsychic and intrapsychic (2012 [1931], from the understanding of the author that the object of intrapsychic appropriation emerges from interpsychic relations established by the subjects in the field of culture and history. The theoretical perspective includes the articulation of literacy studies, the Bakhtinian and Vigotskyan thoughts, since we understood that these theories, even though distinct in many ways, dialogue between themselves regarding the concepts of subject and language. The goal of this paper is to present a theoretical discussion that addresses issues related to language education related to the increasing of cultural repertoire, a process made possible through reading.

  15. Evidentiality in Language and Cognition☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafragou, Anna; Li, Peggy; Choi, Youngon; Han, Chung-hye

    2006-01-01

    What is the relation between language and thought? Specifically, how do linguistic and conceptual representations make contact during language learning? This paper addresses these questions by investigating the acquisition of evidentiality (the linguistic encoding of information source) and its relation to children’s evidential reasoning. Previous studies have hypothesized that the acquisition of evidentiality is complicated by the subtleness and abstractness of the underlying concepts; other studies have suggested that learning a language which systematically (e.g. grammatically) marks evidential categories might serve as a pacesetter for early reasoning about sources of information. We conducted experimental studies with children learning Korean (a language with evidential morphology) and English (a language without grammaticalized evidentiality) in order to test these hypotheses. Our experiments compared 3- and 4-year-old Korean children’s knowledge of the semantics and discourse functions of evidential morphemes to their (non-linguistic) ability to recognize and report different types of evidential sources. They also compared Korean children’s source monitoring abilities to the source monitoring abilities of English-speaking children of the same age. We found that Korean-speaking children have considerable success in producing evidential morphology but their comprehension of such morphology is very fragile. Nevertheless, young Korean speakers are able to reason successfully about sources of information in non-linguistic tasks; furthermore, their performance in these tasks is similar to that of English-speaking peers. These results support the conclusion that the acquisition of evidential expressions poses considerable problems for learners; however, these problems are not (necessarily) conceptual in nature. Our data also suggest that, contrary to relativistic expectations, children’s ability to reason about sources of information proceeds along similar

  16. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  17. Trial participants' experiences of early enhanced speech and language therapy after stroke compared with employed visitor support: a qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alys; Gomersall, Timothy; Bowen, Audrey

    2013-02-01

    To explore trial participants' experiences of the process and outcomes of early, enhanced speech and language therapy after stroke with support from an employed visitor. Qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial. Twney-two people who, after stroke, had a diagnosis of aphasia (12), dysarthria (5) or both (5) and who participated in the ACT NoW study. Eight English NHS usual care settings. Individual interviews. Thematic content analysis assisted by a bespoke data transformation protocol for incorporating non-verbal and semantically ambiguous data. Participants highly regarded regular and sustained contact with someone outside of immediate family/friends who engaged them in deliberate activities/communication in the early months after stroke. Participants identified differences in the process of intervention between speech and language therapists and employed visitors. But no major discriminations were made between the impact or value of this contact according to whether provided by a speech and language therapist or employed visitor. Participant-defined criteria for effectiveness of contact included: impact on mood and confidence, self-recognition of progress and the meeting of individual needs. As in the randomized controlled trial, participants reported no evidence of added benefit of early communication therapy beyond that from attention control. The findings do not imply that regular contact with any non-professional can have beneficial effects for someone with aphasia or dysarthria in the early weeks following a stroke. The study points to specific conditions that would have to be met for contact to have a positive effect.

  18. Travelling among Languages – Comparing Language Learning Beliefs of Learners at Home Versus Migrant or Immigrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biró Enikő

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a qualitative approach to language learning beliefs while analysing case studies in detail to offer significant insight into these beliefs and language learning as well. A number of studies have shown that the belief system of language learners plays a decisive role in their success and failure in language learning (Bernat & Gvozdenko 2005; Horwitz 2008. The research presents the content analysis of interviews with bilingual participants. Interviews were carried out with migrant workers, other interviews with bilingual students in Romania, as well as online interviews with immigrant workers in the EU. The paper explores different beliefs learners hold regarding learning languages. By comparing migrant workers’ and students’ beliefs the complexity of positive and negative beliefs are presented. These may change due to previous and current language learning experiences, cultural-, social-, and educational background, personality traits, etc. The result of the qualitative analysis has shown that beliefs are linked to the particular language placed in a socialcultural dimension; the same beliefs may not be possible to be transferred to the next language being learnt, individual differences in beliefs regarding learning languages and their dynamic change in different language learning processes are investigated in details.

  19. A Narrative Inquiry of Chinese Immigrant Students' Educational Experiences in the United States: Language, Culture, and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuwen

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation research, I examined the overall educational experiences of Chinese immigrant students, particularly their educational experiences in the United States. Using narrative inquiry methodology in my study, I portrayed the stories of six Chinese immigrant students, including four undergraduates and two graduates in a Midwestern…

  20. A case study:Finnish ninth grade students’ and their teacher’s views on and experiences in using YouTube video content in English language learning and teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Pigg, E. (Eveliina)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this thesis is to examine how Finnish ninth grade students and their teacher view the use of YouTube in English language learning and teaching and what kind of experiences they have in using it in school and outside the normative school context. The method of the study is ethnographic and it is based on sociocultural and ecological views on language learning. The materials used in the study were ques...

  1. Second Language at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Svendsen; Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Jakobsen, Karen Sonne

    The articles in this publication discuss theoretical issues in relation to the teaching/learning of a second language in the workplace and present practical experiences from workplace language programmes for immigrant workers carried out in a number of European countries....

  2. Predictors of Successful Learning in Multilingual Older Adults Acquiring a Majority Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike K. Blumenfeld

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding language learning in later life can elucidate how linguistic experiences and age-specific cognitive skills can be leveraged for language acquisition, providing insight into how lifelong experiences configure our learning capacity. In this study, we examined to what extent acquisition and maintenance of a non-native language (English is scaffolded by cognitive skills and previous linguistic experiences in older adults; and to what extent these cognitive/linguistic factors predict older learners’ success in acquiring novel functional language. We recruited 53 participants who were native speakers of Mandarin, Spanish, Tagalog, and Somali, had continued to learn English as adults, and were currently exposed to majority-English contexts. To identify contributors to participants’ English skills, we administered a language history and self-reported proficiency interview, brief cognitive testing, and verbal fluency tasks in L1 and English. We found that digit span and orientation measures were cognitive predictors of English proficiency, while similarity of known languages to English, L1 skills, and English language exposure were linguistic predictors of English skills. To examine participants’ ability to maintain language knowledge and to learn new functional English, we also conducted a preliminary longitudinal service-based study in a subset of 19 participants using our Specific-Purpose English Communication System for Seniors (SPECSS curriculum. In this subset of SPECSS learners, we identified digit span and orientation, but not age, as cognitive predictors of short-term language maintenance. Further, better novel English learning as a result of our curriculum was observed in learners whose other known languages were less similar to English. Findings inform best practices in developing language curricula for older adults, and help generate new hypotheses on preparedness for language learning across the adult lifespan with a

  3. Hermeto Pascoal: experiência de vida e a formação de sua linguagem harmônica Hermeto Pascoal: life experience and the formation of his harmonic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Borém

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo panorâmico sobre a trajetória musical e a formação das linguagens harmônicas do compositor, arranjador e multi-instrumentista Hermeto Pascoal ao longo de suas fases musicais, linguagens que são geralmente associadas, na música erudita, ao tonalismo, modalismo, atonalismo, polimodalismo, paisagem sonora e música concreta. São observados como elementos de sua experiência de vida (cultural, social, religiosa e profissional podem ter influenciado a combinação vertical de sons na sua criação musical, bem como a sua proposta e utilização de conceitos como música universal, cifragem universal, música da aura, música dos ferros e método do corpo presente.Panoramic study about the musical trajectory and development of the harmonic languages of the Brazilian composer, arranger e multi-instrumentalist Hermeto Pascoal through his musical phases, languages which are usually associated with the "classical" terms tonalism, modalism, atonalism, polimodalism, soundscape and concrete music. It is observed how elements of his life experience (cultural, social, religious and professional may have influenced the vertical combination of sounds in his musical output as well as his proposition and usage of concepts such as universal music, universal chord notation, aura music, iron scraps music and present-body method.

  4. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, S. M.; Eparvier, F.; McCaffrey, M.; Murillo, M.

    2007-12-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement MESA) program. For many of the students, this was the only science option available to them due to language limitations. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post-assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The MESA-EVE course won recognition as a Colorado MESA Program of Excellence and is being offered again in 2007-08. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Other EVE EPO includes professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  5. Language Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt-Rutter, John

    1988-01-01

    Australia has a language paradox: great richness and great poverty of language resources. Despite its many cultures and immigrant groups, Australia emphasizes English-language assimilation and thereby endangers its chances for durable multilingualism. (MSE)

  6. The Effects of Language Experience and Speech Context on the Phonetic Accommodation of English-accented Spanish Voicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Fernando; Francis, Alexander L

    2017-03-01

    Native speakers of Spanish with different amounts of experience with English classified stop-consonant voicing (/b/ versus /p/) across different speech accents: English-accented Spanish, native Spanish, and native English. While listeners with little experience with English classified target voicing with an English- or Spanish-like voice onset time (VOT) boundary, predicted by contextual VOT, listeners familiar with English relied on an English-like VOT boundary in an English-accented Spanish context even in the absence of clear contextual cues to English VOT. This indicates that Spanish listeners accommodated English-accented Spanish voicing differently depending on their degree of familiarization with the English norm.

  7. Concept "feng shui" as a word of Chinese origin in the consciousness of native Russian language (based on the psycholinguistic experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies one borrowing from Chinese – «feng shui» with the standpoint of cognitive science and psycholinguistics. According to the statistics from «The Russian National Corpus», «YandexNews» and our experiments we can conclude that this borrowing «feng shui» is quite common in Russian language. We expand research based on the theory and method of Russian linguists: Z.D. Popova and I.A. Sternin, implying three steps for description of concept «feng shui»: 1 describe macrostructure of concept; 2 describe categorical structure of concept; 3 describe field organization of concept. According to the data of psycholinguistic experiments we can point out not only the adaptive information of «feng shui» among Russianspeakers, but also concept content. Associative experiments create a concept model of «feng shui», and divide it into the core, proximal, distal and the extreme periphery.

  8. Significant Learning Experiences for English Foreign Language Students (Experiencias significativas para estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Luz María; McNulty, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This action research examines experiences that students in a grade 10 EFL class had with redesigning a grammar-unit into a topic-based unit. Strategies were formulating significant learning goals and objectives, and implementing and reflecting on activities with three dimensions of Dee Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning: the human…

  9. "Give Me a Break--English Is Not My First Language!": Experiences of Linguistically Diverse Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eros, John

    2016-01-01

    Today's K-12 music educators interact regularly with students from culturally diverse communities and backgrounds. Although research exists on culturally diverse students, there is comparatively little research on music teachers who do, themselves, represent diverse cultures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences of three…

  10. Teaching Students from Other Cultures: An Exploration of Language Teachers' Experiences with Ethnic Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue

    2018-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study investigating a group of novice ESL teachers' teaching experiences with ethnic minority students in secondary schools in Hong Kong. It finds that, while teachers argue that society has not been tolerant enough of ethnic minorities, they nonetheless believe that ethnic minorities should comply with…

  11. Language Affirmation and Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Nicholas V.

    2008-01-01

    The author shares his experience as a professor teaching effective interpersonal relationships for the power of language or voice affirmation. When he was teaching a class that included students whose first language was Spanish, French, or Creole, the author requested his student to speak in native language during a presentation on the topic of…

  12. Language Endangerment and Language Revival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

  13. Experiencia de enseñanza multimodal en una clase de idiomas [Experience of multimodal teaching in a language classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez Lirola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Nuestra sociedad es cada vez más tecnológica y multimodal por lo que es necesario que la enseñanza se adapte a los nuevos tiempos. Este artículo analiza el modo en que la asignatura Lengua Inglesa IV de la Licenciatura en Filología Inglesa en la Universidad de Alicante combina el desarrollo de las cinco destrezas (escucha, habla, lectura, escritura e interacción evaluadas por medio de un portafolio con la multimodalidad en las prácticas docentes y en cada una de las actividades que componen el portafolio. Los resultados de una encuesta preparada al final del curso académico 2011-2012 ponen de manifiesto las competencias principales que el alumnado universitario desarrolla gracias a la docencia multimodal y la importancia de las tutorías en este tipo de enseñanza. Abstract: Our society becomes more technological and multimodal and, consequently, teaching has to be adapted to the new time. This article analyses the way in which the subject English Language IV of the degree English Studies at the University of Alicante combines the development of the five skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing and interacting evaluated through a portfolio with multimodality in the teaching practices and in each of the activities that are part of the portfolio. The results of a survey prepared at the end of the academic year 2011-2012 point out the main competences that university students develop thanks to multimodal teaching and the importance of tutorials in this kind of teaching.

  14. Comparing Local and International Chinese Students’ English Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreat Aloysious Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Horwitz (1987 learners’ belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different learning experiences. Given the significant number of local and international Chinese students enrolled in educational institutions, there is a need to understand the differences and similarities in the learning strategies of these two groups. The sample for the study comprised of 60 local and 50 international Chinese students currently enrolled at a local private college. The Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL was administered as a measure of learning strategy preferences. The study reveals that language learning experiences as well as socioeconomic status impact the learning strategy adopted by both local and international Chinese students. The findings of this study point to the need to address the needs of these students in order to enhance their English language learning experience in Malaysia.

  15. Learning to Read Words in a New Language Shapes the Neural Organization of the Prior Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Mingxia; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Learning a new language entails interactions with one's prior language(s). Much research has shown how native language affects the cognitive and neural mechanisms of a new language, but little is known about whether and how learning a new language shapes the neural mechanisms of prior language(s). In two experiments in the current study, we used an artificial language training paradigm in combination with fMRI to examine (1) the effects of different linguistic components (phonology and semantics) of a new language on the neural process of prior languages (i.e., native and second languages), and (2) whether such effects were modulated by the proficiency level in the new language. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when the training in a new language involved semantics (as opposed to only visual forms and phonology), neural activity during word reading in the native language (Chinese) was reduced in several reading-related regions, including the left pars opercularis, pars triangularis, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital gyrus. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 and further found that semantic training also affected neural activity during word reading in the subjects’ second language (English). Furthermore, we found that the effects of the new language were modulated by the subjects’ proficiency level in the new language. These results provide critical imaging evidence for the influence of learning to read words in a new language on word reading in native and second languages. PMID:25447375

  16. Integrating Digital Technologies in the German Language Classroom: A Critical Study of the Technology-Integration Experiences of Three Secondary German Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Van Orden, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    German language teachers are gaining increased access to smart classrooms and digital technologies that offer teachers and students greater access to authentic cultural and language materials and enable more student target language communication. Teaching with technology changes the teaching and learning environment in many ways. Little is known about how integrating technology into the daily German-language-teaching curriculum changes the implicit power structures embedded in all classroom i...

  17. The grammaticalization of gestures in sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, E.; Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Müller, C.; Cienki, A.; Fricke, E.; Ladewig, S.H.; McNeill, D.; Bressem, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on grammaticalization in sign languages have shown that, for the most part, the grammaticalization paths identified in sign languages parallel those previously described for spoken languages. Hence, the general principles of grammaticalization do not depend on the modality of language

  18. A experiência da maternidade e a dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem Maternal experience and language impairment mother-child dialogics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Henrich Crestani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: a experiência da maternidade e dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem. PROCEDIMENTOS: o objetivo de investigar as possíveis relações entre a constituição da experiência da maternidade e a dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem. A amostra desta pesquisa foi constituída por 4 crianças, entre 2 e 4 anos, com distúrbio de linguagem, e suas mães. As mães foram submetidas a uma entrevista semi-estruturada acerca da experiência materna e a possibilidade de a mesma ter passado por alterações emocionais tais como a depressão e/ou ansiedade. Coletou-se uma interação mãe-filho, e em um caso avó-neta, através da filmagem da díade em atividade lúdica para analisar o modo como a dialogia e a interação aconteciam na díade. RESULTADOS: demonstraram que as quatro crianças estiveram sujeitas a interações com mães e avó com índices de ansiedade (dois casos e depressão (dois casos. Apenas uma mãe não possuía tais índices e esta possuía dialogia adequada com a filha. CONCLUSÃO: os dados demonstraram relações entre a dialogia mãe-filho e a experiência materna. Houve distinções na dialogia e no brincar relacionados aos estados emocionais das mães e, em um caso, da avó.BACKGROUND: the maternal experience and language impairment mother-child dialogics. PROCEDURES: the aim was to research the possible relations between maternal experience and mother-child dialogics, in language impairment children cases. The sample was made up with four children, between two and four year old with language impairment and their mothers.The mothers answered a semi-structured interview about the maternal experience and possible mothers' emotional signs like anxiety and depression. The pairs engaged in interaction were videotaped in order to interpret the mother's speech, in one case grand-mother, and the interaction process. RESULTS: the results showed that the children were in interactions with mothers and a grandmother

  19. A picture is worth a thousand words: Portraying language learning experiences in a bilingual school in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Bettney

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the experience of students learning English in an early partial one-way immersion program in Honduras. While immersion research is well-established in various parts of the world, scarce research has focused on programs in Central America. It is important to consider this geographical context as models of bilingual education must be adapted to the local student population (de Mejía, 2002). To address this research gap, written reflections were collected from 203...

  20. Integrating Digital Technologies in the German Language Classroom: A Critical Study of the Technology-Integration Experiences of Three Secondary German Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    German language teachers are gaining increased access to smart classrooms and digital technologies that offer teachers and students greater access to authentic cultural and language materials and enable more student target language communication. Teaching with technology changes the teaching and learning environment in many ways. Little is known…

  1. Language Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Lana; Maylath, J. Bruce; Adams, Anthony; Couzijn, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Language Awareness: A History and Implementations offers teachers of mother tongue and foreign languages a view of the beginnings and the ramifications of the language-teaching movement called Language Awareness. The philosophy held in common among the teachers in this international movement is

  2. Dynamical Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin

    The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy

  3. Cross-Language Activation in Children's Speech Production: Evidence from Second Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals,…

  4. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: Evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poarch, G.J.; Hell, J.G. van

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners

  5. Retrospective checking of compliance with practice guidelines for acute stroke care: a novel experiment using openEHR’s Guideline Definition Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing scalable clinical decision support (CDS) across institutions that use different electronic health record (EHR) systems has been a challenge for medical informatics researchers. The lack of commonly shared EHR models and terminology bindings has been recognised as a major barrier to sharing CDS content among different organisations. The openEHR Guideline Definition Language (GDL) expresses CDS content based on openEHR archetypes and can support any clinical terminologies or natural languages. Our aim was to explore in an experimental setting the practicability of GDL and its underlying archetype formalism. A further aim was to report on the artefacts produced by this new technological approach in this particular experiment. We modelled and automatically executed compliance checking rules from clinical practice guidelines for acute stroke care. Methods We extracted rules from the European clinical practice guidelines as well as from treatment contraindications for acute stroke care and represented them using GDL. Then we executed the rules retrospectively on 49 mock patient cases to check the cases’ compliance with the guidelines, and manually validated the execution results. We used openEHR archetypes, GDL rules, the openEHR reference information model, reference terminologies and the Data Archetype Definition Language. We utilised the open-sourced GDL Editor for authoring GDL rules, the international archetype repository for reusing archetypes, the open-sourced Ocean Archetype Editor for authoring or modifying archetypes and the CDS Workbench for executing GDL rules on patient data. Results We successfully represented clinical rules about 14 out of 19 contraindications for thrombolysis and other aspects of acute stroke care with 80 GDL rules. These rules are based on 14 reused international archetypes (one of which was modified), 2 newly created archetypes and 51 terminology bindings (to three terminologies). Our manual compliance checks for

  6. Retrospective checking of compliance with practice guidelines for acute stroke care: a novel experiment using openEHR's Guideline Definition Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anani, Nadim; Chen, Rong; Prazeres Moreira, Tiago; Koch, Sabine

    2014-05-10

    Providing scalable clinical decision support (CDS) across institutions that use different electronic health record (EHR) systems has been a challenge for medical informatics researchers. The lack of commonly shared EHR models and terminology bindings has been recognised as a major barrier to sharing CDS content among different organisations. The openEHR Guideline Definition Language (GDL) expresses CDS content based on openEHR archetypes and can support any clinical terminologies or natural languages. Our aim was to explore in an experimental setting the practicability of GDL and its underlying archetype formalism. A further aim was to report on the artefacts produced by this new technological approach in this particular experiment. We modelled and automatically executed compliance checking rules from clinical practice guidelines for acute stroke care. We extracted rules from the European clinical practice guidelines as well as from treatment contraindications for acute stroke care and represented them using GDL. Then we executed the rules retrospectively on 49 mock patient cases to check the cases' compliance with the guidelines, and manually validated the execution results. We used openEHR archetypes, GDL rules, the openEHR reference information model, reference terminologies and the Data Archetype Definition Language. We utilised the open-sourced GDL Editor for authoring GDL rules, the international archetype repository for reusing archetypes, the open-sourced Ocean Archetype Editor for authoring or modifying archetypes and the CDS Workbench for executing GDL rules on patient data. We successfully represented clinical rules about 14 out of 19 contraindications for thrombolysis and other aspects of acute stroke care with 80 GDL rules. These rules are based on 14 reused international archetypes (one of which was modified), 2 newly created archetypes and 51 terminology bindings (to three terminologies). Our manual compliance checks for 49 mock patients were a

  7. LANGUAGE TRAVEL SUPPLY: LANGUAGE TOURISM PRODUCT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Iglesias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review of literature up to date reflects great scholarly interest in the impacts of study abroad (SA sojourns on foreign language learners’ communicative competence. This paper provides an overview on gains in sociolinguistic and pragmatic competences drawing upon research carried out in this field, which in broad terms supports the belief that both types of competences are effectively developed in SA stays. This article also offers a detailed account of the main constituents of the language tourism product -the travel component and the language learning component- with a special focus on the educational input and the language learning complements included in the latter. Thus, a fundamental part of the language tourism market system will be depicted from a supply perspective. Following an exploratory approach, a literature review was conducted in order to identify existing and missing knowledge in the field of language travel supply, and key aspects were pinpointed and classified. The taxonomy and underpinning concepts resulting from the categorisation of those key features may be considered the starting point for future investigations on SA programmes. The model offered in this exploratory study aims at constituting the underlying conceptual framework for subsequent research on the role of different SA programme design characteristics within the language tourism experience.

  8. The Language of “Juvenile Weltschmerz”. On the Results and Corrections of the “Gnostic Experience of Existence”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Stankowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the ro numerous researchers, and the direct stimulus for the present author was an extensive and well-informed study by Zbigniew Kaźmierczyk, Dzieło demiurga [Demiurge’s Work], where the critic interprets one of Miłosz’s juvenile collection Trzy zimy [Three Winters] as a record of gnostic experience of existence. Kaźmierczyk, who is a convinced proponent, and competent practitioner of the gnostic key to interpreta­tion of Miłosz’s poetry, presents a highly coherent of Miłosz’s second book of poetry, read through complicated gnostic metaphors, which prevents the critic from a definite description of Miłosz as a gnosticist. The poet is rather describes as only (or so much as a consciously selec­tive user of imagery typical for gnosticism. Incisive analyses of topics in Trzy zimy, which fill chapter after chapter of Dzieło demiurga, convinc­ingly argue that Miłosz’s juvenile foray into the world of dualistic images was not ephemeric or accidental, but rather had lasting and important consequences. Simultaneously, because of their purity and specific inwardness, they provoke a discussion of the role of this imagery, and the related convictions, in Miłosz’s post-war work, when he wrote Rescue; this issue is presented extensively in the article. The absorbing and fascinating description, fascinating in itself, of Miłosz’s juvenile imagination, presented by the author of Dzieło demiurga, is presented as a perfect background for discussion of further Manichean themes in Miłosz’s poetry. In a wider context, the article presents also the basic anthropological problems in Miłosz’s work, problems that arise from his juvenile experience of Weltschmerz, and which he radically overcame in his later years.

  9. Neural Language Processing in Adolescent First-Language Learners: Longitudinal Case Studies in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Leonard, Matthew K; Davenport, Tristan S; Torres, Christina; Halgren, Eric; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2016-03-01

    One key question in neurolinguistics is the extent to which the neural processing system for language requires linguistic experience during early life to develop fully. We conducted a longitudinal anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) analysis of lexico-semantic processing in 2 deaf adolescents who had no sustained language input until 14 years of age, when they became fully immersed in American Sign Language. After 2 to 3 years of language, the adolescents' neural responses to signed words were highly atypical, localizing mainly to right dorsal frontoparietal regions and often responding more strongly to semantically primed words (Ferjan Ramirez N, Leonard MK, Torres C, Hatrak M, Halgren E, Mayberry RI. 2014. Neural language processing in adolescent first-language learners. Cereb Cortex. 24 (10): 2772-2783). Here, we show that after an additional 15 months of language experience, the adolescents' neural responses remained atypical in terms of polarity. While their responses to less familiar signed words still showed atypical localization patterns, the localization of responses to highly familiar signed words became more concentrated in the left perisylvian language network. Our findings suggest that the timing of language experience affects the organization of neural language processing; however, even in adolescence, language representation in the human brain continues to evolve with experience. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Neural Language Processing in Adolescent First-Language Learners: Longitudinal Case Studies in American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Leonard, Matthew K.; Davenport, Tristan S.; Torres, Christina; Halgren, Eric; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2016-01-01

    One key question in neurolinguistics is the extent to which the neural processing system for language requires linguistic experience during early life to develop fully. We conducted a longitudinal anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) analysis of lexico-semantic processing in 2 deaf adolescents who had no sustained language input until 14 years of age, when they became fully immersed in American Sign Language. After 2 to 3 years of language, the adolescents' neural responses to signed words were highly atypical, localizing mainly to right dorsal frontoparietal regions and often responding more strongly to semantically primed words (Ferjan Ramirez N, Leonard MK, Torres C, Hatrak M, Halgren E, Mayberry RI. 2014. Neural language processing in adolescent first-language learners. Cereb Cortex. 24 (10): 2772–2783). Here, we show that after an additional 15 months of language experience, the adolescents' neural responses remained atypical in terms of polarity. While their responses to less familiar signed words still showed atypical localization patterns, the localization of responses to highly familiar signed words became more concentrated in the left perisylvian language network. Our findings suggest that the timing of language experience affects the organization of neural language processing; however, even in adolescence, language representation in the human brain continues to evolve with experience. PMID:25410427

  11. College teachers' perceptions of English language characteristics that identify English language learning disabled deaf students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, G P; Samar, V J; Parasnis, I

    2000-10-01

    Deaf individuals typically experience English language difficulties at all levels of linguistic knowledge. Hearing individuals with English language learning disabilities (LD) can exhibit the same kinds of English language difficulties as deaf individuals. Although the existence of deaf individuals who also have LD has long been recognized, no definite criteria for identifying them exist, partly because of the confounding effects of deafness and LD on English language development. Despite the confound, previous surveys suggest that teachers believe atypical English-language behavior is a potential diagnostic marker for LD in deaf individuals. In the present study, a survey solicited the intuitions of experienced teachers and tutors of English to deaf college students regarding the degree of difficulty deaf students with and without LD might be expected to have in dealing with 30 specific English language phenomena. Spelling knowledge and a variety of English discourse, lexical syntactic, and morphological phenomena emerged as candidates for further study as potential markers of LD in the deaf population.

  12. Recognizing the Effects of Language Mode on the Cognitive Advantages of Bilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziying Yu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For bilinguals, it is argued that a cognitive advantage can be linked to the constant management and need for conflict resolution that occurs when the two languages are co-activated (Bialystok, 2015. Language mode (Grosjean, 1998, 2001 is a significant variable that defines and shapes the language experiences of bilinguals and consequently, the cognitive advantages of bilingualism. Previous work, however, has not sufficiently tested the effects of language mode on the bilingual experience. In this brief conceptual analysis, we discuss the significance of language mode in bilingual work on speech perception, production, and reading. We offer possible explanations for conflicting findings and ways in which future work should control for its modulating effects.

  13. Recognizing the Effects of Language Mode on the Cognitive Advantages of Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ziying; Schwieter, John W.

    2018-01-01

    For bilinguals, it is argued that a cognitive advantage can be linked to the constant management and need for conflict resolution that occurs when the two languages are co-activated (Bialystok, 2015). Language mode (Grosjean, 1998, 2001) is a significant variable that defines and shapes the language experiences of bilinguals and consequently, the cognitive advantages of bilingualism. Previous work, however, has not sufficiently tested the effects of language mode on the bilingual experience. In this brief conceptual analysis, we discuss the significance of language mode in bilingual work on speech perception, production, and reading. We offer possible explanations for conflicting findings and ways in which future work should control for its modulating effects. PMID:29615949

  14. Recognizing the Effects of Language Mode on the Cognitive Advantages of Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ziying; Schwieter, John W

    2018-01-01

    For bilinguals, it is argued that a cognitive advantage can be linked to the constant management and need for conflict resolution that occurs when the two languages are co-activated (Bialystok, 2015). Language mode (Grosjean, 1998, 2001) is a significant variable that defines and shapes the language experiences of bilinguals and consequently, the cognitive advantages of bilingualism. Previous work, however, has not sufficiently tested the effects of language mode on the bilingual experience. In this brief conceptual analysis, we discuss the significance of language mode in bilingual work on speech perception, production, and reading. We offer possible explanations for conflicting findings and ways in which future work should control for its modulating effects.

  15. Academic Language in Preschool: Research and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Luna, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Developing and scaffolding academic language is an important job of preschool teachers. This Teaching Tip provides five strategies that extend the topic of academic language by integrating previous research and field-based data into classroom practice.

  16. Language universals at birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, David Maximiliano; Berent, Iris; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Cattarossi, Luigi; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of human languages is driven both by primitive biases present in the human sensorimotor systems and by cultural transmission among speakers. However, whether the design of the language faculty is further shaped by linguistic biological biases remains controversial. To address this question, we used near-infrared spectroscopy to examine whether the brain activity of neonates is sensitive to a putatively universal phonological constraint. Across languages, syllables like blif are preferred to both lbif and bdif. Newborn infants (2–5 d old) listening to these three types of syllables displayed distinct hemodynamic responses in temporal-perisylvian areas of their left hemisphere. Moreover, the oxyhemoglobin concentration changes elicited by a syllable type mirrored both the degree of its preference across languages and behavioral linguistic preferences documented experimentally in adulthood. These findings suggest that humans possess early, experience-independent, linguistic biases concerning syllable structure that shape language perception and acquisition. PMID:24706790

  17. Pervasive benefits of preparation in language switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Angela; Goldrick, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    Many theories of bilingual language production assume that when bilinguals process words in their first language, representations from their second language are coactivated. Verhoef, Roelofs, and Chwilla (2009) proposed an alternative account, assuming that the activation of second language representations is highly limited during first language production. Using a cued language-switching task, Verhoef et al. showed that allowing participants to prepare their responses failed to facilitate first language production in some contexts. Verhoef et al. argued that this reflected a lack of coactivation of second language representations in these contexts. We report two experiments with different bilingual populations that failed to confirm the predictions of this account: Preparation consistently facilitated first language production in all contexts. This suggests that in the cued switch paradigm, both first language and second language representations are consistently activated during first language production.

  18. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  19. Preference for language of instruction of an English language learner with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jeannie M; White, Pamela J; Fragale, Christina; Chan, Jeffrey Michael

    2016-06-01

    To use a preference assessment to identify the preferred language of instruction (English or Spanish) for a child with autism living in a Spanish-speaking home and receiving school services in English only. We used a concurrent chains method to evaluate the participant's preference for English or Spanish instruction. Colored microswitches represented English instruction, Spanish instruction and no instruction (control). Switch presses resulted in instruction and reinforcement in either English or Spanish, or no instruction and no reinforcement. After session 10, switches were reprogrammed to control for color bias. The participant chose Spanish instruction most frequently. The participant preferred to receive instruction in Spanish. These data support previous research indicating the importance of child preference when individualizing educational programs for children with autism and that language of instruction is an important variable when working with children with autism who experience multiple languages across home and school.

  20. Inducing asymmetrical switch costs in bilingual language comprehension by language practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, Mathieu; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    The most widely discussed observation in the language control literature is the larger cost found when switching into the first than the second language (i.e., asymmetrical switch costs), which has been determined as a marker of persisting, reactive inhibition. While this is a common effect in bilingual language production, it generally does not occur in bilingual language comprehension. In this bilingual language comprehension study, we manipulated the relative activation of languages by letting participants practice in pure language blocks prior to a mixed language block. While no effect was found of practicing second-language words, asymmetrical switch costs were observed when practicing the same (Experiments 1 and 2) or different first-language words (Experiment 3) as in the following mixed language block. These findings indicate that, similar to bilingual production, bilingual comprehension relies on persisting, reactive language control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cross-language and second language speech perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Ocke-Schwen

    2017-01-01

    in cross-language and second language speech perception research: The mapping issue (the perceptual relationship of sounds of the native and the nonnative language in the mind of the native listener and the L2 learner), the perceptual and learning difficulty/ease issue (how this relationship may or may...... not cause perceptual and learning difficulty), and the plasticity issue (whether and how experience with the nonnative language affects the perceptual organization of speech sounds in the mind of L2 learners). One important general conclusion from this research is that perceptual learning is possible at all...... ages but will be influenced by the entire language learning history of the individual....

  2. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Quam

    Full Text Available Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58, regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28, but only when words were Mandarin-like-not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context.

  3. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like-not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context.

  4. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like—not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context. PMID:28076400

  5. Who Studies Which Language and Why? : A Cross-Language Survey of First-Year College-Level Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Howard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on surveys of first-year language learners studying 19 different languages at two large East Coast Universities. The survey included questions about why students decided to study these languages, including career plans, study abroad, interest in liter-ature and culture, desire to communicate with speakers of the lan-guage, desire to speak with family members, building on previous language skills, and love of languages in general. Results were broken down by language and by language types, such as whether the lan-guages were commonly taught in the United States, how the lan-guages are politicized in the current historical context, and how the languages intersect with historical and geographic trends in immigra-tion and immigration policy. This article examines in particular the presence of heritage language learners in these language classrooms, the varying reasons that students choose to study these languages, and students’ prior attainment and exposure to the language. The pa-per discusses the political, historical, and social contexts of language study in the United States and the associated implications for effec-tive language recruitment and effective language program design.

  6. "Multiculturalism" - a dead end in conceptualizing difference, or an open-ended approach to facilitating democratic experiences in the foreign language classroom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Tornberg

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this text is on the multicultural condition, related to the foreignlanguage classroom as a possible arena for democratic experiences. However,due to the increasing ambiguity, to say the least, of the conceptions of “culture”and “multiculturalism” today, I will argue that, depending on how “multicul-turalism” is conceived, this focus may indeed either lead to a cultural andcommunicative closure, or open up the possibility of multi-vocal dialogue andcommunication. If, on the one hand, “multiculturalism” is understood asdifference, mainly constituted by a variety of categorized cultural groupings,you may end up essentializing culture to something that people “have”, andthat is imposed on them collectively from an outside position. If, on the otherhand, cultural differences are seen as constructed within human practices ofongoing narratives and negotiations between individuals and groups – acrossand beyond all kinds of cultural borders – then the hybrid, pluralistic condi-tion of a society, or even of a foreign language classroom, may offer at least anopportunity for cultural identities to co-construct a social space, where nor-mative conflicts and different viewpoints could be dealt with through multi-vocal deliberative communication.

  7. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, S. M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Eparvier, F.; Murillo, M.

    2008-05-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement (MESA) program. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post- assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built antenna and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Video footage of "The Making of a Satellite", and "All About EVE" is completed for use in the kits. Other EVE EPO includes upcoming professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  8. Language in Web Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    Having taught and carried out research in LSP and business communication for many years, I have come across, again and again, the problems arising from the inferior status of language in the business environment. Being convinced that it does not have to be so, instead of going on trying to convin...... non-linguistically trained colleagues of the importance of language via the usual arguments, I suggest that we let them experience the problems arising from the non-recognition of the importance of language via a Web communication crash course, inspired by a course taught to BA students...

  9. Hand Specific Representations in Language Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMoody-Triantis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested right-handed participants in two separate tasks that were designed to be as similar as possible to increase sensitivity of the comparison across task: an action execution go/no-go task where participants performed right or left hand actions, and a language task where participants read sentences describing the same left or right handed actions as in the execution task. We found that language-induced activity did not match the hand-specific patterns of activity found for action execution in primary somatosensory and motor cortex, but it overlapped with pre-motor and parietal regions associated with action planning. Within these pre-motor regions, both right hand actions and sentences elicited stronger activity than left hand actions and sentences - a dominant hand effect -. Importantly, both dorsal and ventral sections of the left pre-central gyrus were recruited by both tasks, suggesting different action features being recruited. These results suggest that (a language comprehension elicits motor representations that are hand-specific and akin to multimodal action plans, rather than full action re-enactments; and (b language comprehension and action execution share schematic hand-specific representations that are richer for the dominant hand, and thus linked to previous motor experience.

  10. Complementary Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Bent

    2009-01-01

    by an alternative concept that more adequately describes the realities of what adherents of ‘parallel languages' can hope for. The new concept I have dubbed ‘complementary languages' (komplementær­sproglighed). I will explain this concept in the following and contrast it both with ‘parallel languages...

  11. Native-likeness in second language lexical categorization reflects individual language history and linguistic community norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinszer, Benjamin D.; Malt, Barbara C.; Ameel, Eef; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners face a dual challenge in vocabulary learning: First, they must learn new names for the 100s of common objects that they encounter every day. Second, after some time, they discover that these names do not generalize according to the same rules used in their first language. Lexical categories frequently differ between languages (Malt et al., 1999), and successful language learning requires that bilinguals learn not just new words but new patterns for labeling objects. In the present study, Chinese learners of English with varying language histories and resident in two different language settings (Beijing, China and State College, PA, USA) named 67 photographs of common serving dishes (e.g., cups, plates, and bowls) in both Chinese and English. Participants’ response patterns were quantified in terms of similarity to the responses of functionally monolingual native speakers of Chinese and English and showed the cross-language convergence previously observed in simultaneous bilinguals (Ameel et al., 2005). For English, bilinguals’ names for each individual stimulus were also compared to the dominant name generated by the native speakers for the object. Using two statistical models, we disentangle the effects of several highly interactive variables from bilinguals’ language histories and the naming norms of the native speaker community to predict inter-personal and inter-item variation in L2 (English) native-likeness. We find only a modest age of earliest exposure effect on L2 category native-likeness, but importantly, we find that classroom instruction in L2 negatively impacts L2 category native-likeness, even after significant immersion experience. We also identify a significant role of both L1 and L2 norms in bilinguals’ L2 picture naming responses. PMID:25386149

  12. Teachers' Knowledge of Second Language and Curriculum: A Narrative Experience (Conocimiento de los profesores acerca de la segunda lengua y el currículo: una experiencia narrativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendieta Aguilar, Jenny Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out with a group of three teachers who work for the foreign languages department of a private university in Colombia. It was aimed at unveiling and characterizing the narrative knowledge these teachers hold about language teaching and learning processes as well as the role this knowledge plays in the constant construction…

  13. Stakeholder Experiences of a Dual-Language International School: A Qualitative Case Study of a Private International School in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Dual-language education has many different meanings and there is much variation to be found among international schools. Is it possible to combine both concepts to the satisfaction of all stakeholders? This article reports the findings of a qualitative study at a dual-language international school that examines the views of the students, parents…

  14. Learning to Play, Playing to Learn: Comparing the Experiences of Adult Foreign Language Learners with Off-the-Shelf and Specialized Games for Learning German

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grove, Frederik; Van Looy, Jan; Mechant, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Learning opportunities offered by digital games have become an important research topic in recent years. Language learning is one of the areas in which games could prosper but the question then is whether these should be specialized language-learning games or commercial off-the-shelf games for entertainment. The goal of this paper is to compare…

  15. Intercultural Learning in English as Foreign Language Instruction: The Importance of Teachers' Intercultural Experience and the Usefulness of Precise Instructional Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobel, Kerstin; Helmke, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The development of intercultural competence, especially in foreign language instruction, is considered a key goal of teaching in German schools. The present article sheds light on the teaching of intercultural topics in the context of English as a foreign language (EFL). It presents the results of an analysis of data from a larger study (DESI…

  16. Implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) Programmes in Public Administration: Russian Students' and Matriculants' Opinion about Their First CLIL Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtcova, Mariia; Kaisarova, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is a pedagogic approach that has developed in response to the demand for integrating education in both school/university subjects and language skills. Our paper is devoted to the implementation of CLIL programmes in Public Administration within a particular sociolinguistic context: that of Russian…

  17. Word Detection in Sung and Spoken Sentences in Children With Typical Language Development or With Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchou, Clément; Clément, Sylvain; Béland, Renée; Cason, Nia; Motte, Jacques; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that children score better in language tasks using sung rather than spoken stimuli. We examined word detection ease in sung and spoken sentences that were equated for phoneme duration and pitch variations in children aged 7 to 12 years with typical language development (TLD) as well as in children with specific language impairment (SLI ), and hypothesized that the facilitation effect would vary with language abilities. In Experiment 1, 69 children with TLD (7-10 years old) detected words in sentences that were spoken, sung on pitches extracted from speech, and sung on original scores. In Experiment 2, we added a natural speech rate condition and tested 68 children with TLD (7-12 years old). In Experiment 3, 16 children with SLI and 16 age-matched children with TLD were tested in all four conditions. In both TLD groups, older children scored better than the younger ones. The matched TLD group scored higher than the SLI group who scored at the level of the younger children with TLD . None of the experiments showed a facilitation effect of sung over spoken stimuli. Word detection abilities improved with age in both TLD and SLI groups. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis of delayed language abilities in children with SLI , and are discussed in light of the role of durational prosodic cues in words detection.

  18. Word Detection in Sung and Spoken Sentences in Children With Typical Language Development or With Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchou, Clément; Clément, Sylvain; Béland, Renée; Cason, Nia; Motte, Jacques; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported that children score better in language tasks using sung rather than spoken stimuli. We examined word detection ease in sung and spoken sentences that were equated for phoneme duration and pitch variations in children aged 7 to 12 years with typical language development (TLD) as well as in children with specific language impairment (SLI ), and hypothesized that the facilitation effect would vary with language abilities. Method: In Experiment 1, 69 children with TLD (7–10 years old) detected words in sentences that were spoken, sung on pitches extracted from speech, and sung on original scores. In Experiment 2, we added a natural speech rate condition and tested 68 children with TLD (7–12 years old). In Experiment 3, 16 children with SLI and 16 age-matched children with TLD were tested in all four conditions. Results: In both TLD groups, older children scored better than the younger ones. The matched TLD group scored higher than the SLI group who scored at the level of the younger children with TLD . None of the experiments showed a facilitation effect of sung over spoken stimuli. Conclusions: Word detection abilities improved with age in both TLD and SLI groups. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis of delayed language abilities in children with SLI , and are discussed in light of the role of durational prosodic cues in words detection. PMID:26767070

  19. Research Paper: Production of A Protocol on Early Intervention for Speech and Language Delays in Early Childhood: An Novice Experience in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Vameghi

    2016-01-01

    Results The result of this study is presented as 7 intervention packages, including the following domains of disorders: prelingual lingual speech and language hearing impairment, speech sound, dysphagia, stuttering, and dysarthria  Conclusion Most studies have confirmed the effectiveness and need for early interventions for children with speech and language impairment. However, most do not explain the details of these interventions. Before the present study, no systematic and evidence-based protocol existed for early intervention in childhood speech and language impairments, in Iran; and due to language differences, as well as possible differences in the speech and language developmental process of children of different communities, making direct use of non-Persian references was not possible and effective. Thus, there was a clear demand for the production of such a protocol.

  20. Syntactic Language Extension via an Algebra of Languages and Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus

    2010-01-01

    in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously de ned languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds of extensions....

  1. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenny; Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-05

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language.This article is part of the themed issue 'New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences'. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  3. Axiological Significance of Historical Pedagogic Expertise of Foreign Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Bulygina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with one of the most urgent problems of language teaching in Russia – the need for raising the quality of foreign language and culture teaching in compulsory secondary school. By analyzing the current normative documents and perspectives of further development, the basic values of language teaching were highlighted, correlated with the teaching experience and achievements of the pre- revolutionary era. For the first time, the issue was discussed at the regional level of one of the remote Russian territories–to the south of the Urals. The basic research methods include the historical, logical and comparative analysis of language teaching in the pre-revolutionary era reflected in some previously unknown archives documents. The updating of the historic pedagogical experience emphasized in the paper could, on the one hand, preserve the national language teaching traditions, and on the other hand, give way to innovative regional projects facilitating the language teaching, multilingualism and multicultural trends in society. 

  4. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  5. Language and cognitive outcome for high-risk neonates at the age of 2-3 years - experience from an Arab Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elsaad, Tamer; Abdel-Hady, Hesham; Baz, Hemmat; ElShabrawi, Doaa

    2017-02-08

    To investigate the effect of different neonatal risk factors on different language parameters as well as cognitive abilities among Arabic speaking Egyptian children at the age of two to three years of life and to find out which risk factor(s) had the greatest impact on language and cognitive abilities. This retrospective cohort study was conducted on 103 children with age range of 2-3 years (median age 31 mo). They were 62 males and 41 females who were exposed to different high-risk factors in the perinatal period, with exclusion of metabolic disorders, sepsis/meningitis, congenital anomalies and chromosomal aberrations. The studied children were subjected to a protocol of language assessment that included history taking, clinical and neurological examination, audiological evaluation, assessment of language using modified preschool language scale-4, IQ and mental age assessment and assessment of social age. The studied children had a median gestational age of 37 wk, median birth weight of 2.5 kg. The distribution of the high-risk factors in the affected children were prematurity in 25 children, respiratory distress syndrome in 25 children, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in 15 children, hyperbilirubinemia in 10 children, hypoglycemia in 13 children, mixed risk factors in 15 children. The results revealed that high-risk neonatal complications were associated with impairment of different language parameters and cognitive abilities ( P language and cognitive delay significantly by 3.9 fold. Arabic-speaking children aged 2-3 years who were exposed to high-risk conditions in the perinatal period are likely to exhibit delays in the development of language and impairments in cognitive abilities. The most significant risk factor associated with language and cognitive impairments was prematurity.

  6. Language-Learning Holidays: What Motivates People to Learn a Minority Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Bernadette; DePalma, Renée

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we examine the experiences of 18 Galician language learners who participated in what Garland [(2008). "The minority language and the cosmopolitan speaker: Ideologies of Irish language learners" (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of California, Santa Barbara] refers to as a "language-learning holiday" in…

  7. Factors Influencing Sensitivity to Lexical Tone in an Artificial Language: Implications for Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.; Lancaster, Alia; Ladd, D. Robert; Dediu, Dan; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether musical training, ethnicity, and experience with a natural tone language influenced sensitivity to tone while listening to an artificial tone language. The language was designed with three tones, modeled after level-tone African languages. Participants listened to a 15-min random concatenation of six 3-syllable words.…

  8. Group work in the English language curriculum sociocultural and ecological perspectives on second language classroom learning

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, P

    2014-01-01

    This book explores how using small groups in second language classrooms supports language learning. Chappell's experience as a language teacher equips him to present a clear, evidence-based argument for the powerful influence group work has upon the opportunities for learning, and how it should therefore be an integral part of language lessons.

  9. Foreign Language Anxiety of Students Studying English Language and Literature: A Sample from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    A considerable number of foreign language learners experience a feeling of anxiety in language learning process. The purpose of this research was to find out foreign language anxiety levels of students studying in the Faculty of English Language and Literature at Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey when they were in preparatory class and when…

  10. Moral Judgement and Foreign Language Effect: When the Foreign Language Becomes the Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavar, Franziska; Tytus, Agnieszka Ewa

    2018-01-01

    While making a decision facing a moral conflict, does your answer vary depending on whether you use your first language or later learned second language? A previous study conducted by Costa, Albert, Alice Foucart, Sayuri Hayakawa, Melina Aparici, Jose Apesteguia, Joy Heafner, Boaz Keysar, and Mariano Sigman [2014. "Your Morals Depend on…

  11. Core or Immersion? Canadian French-Second-Language Teacher Candidates' Perceptions and Experiences of the Best and Worst Program Options for Students with Learning Difficulties and for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Katy; Mady, Callie

    2017-01-01

    Responding to the needs of and/or including students with different need profiles has been an area of focus within Canadian French Second Language (FSL) education for many years. This study draws on quantitative data from two questionnaires (administered before and after Canadian teacher candidates in FSL education completed their practica) and on…

  12. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  13. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  14. Challenges for Contextualizing Language Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    To help facilitate language learning for immigrants or foreigners arriving to another culture and language, we propose a context-aware mobile application. To expand on the known elements like location, activity, time and identity, we investigate the challenges on including cultural awareness...... to ensure a better experience-based learning. We present methods used to collect information about everyday activities collected by immigrants or foreigners. This information will help structuring language learning assignments presented through the context-aware mobile application....

  15. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Specific Language Impairment On this page: What is specific language ... percent of children in kindergarten. What is specific language impairment? Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language ...

  16. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  17. Market Language, Moral Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Susan Dorr

    2018-01-01

    Those who advocate higher out-of-pocket spending, especially high deductibles, to keep health care costs better controlled without losing quality use market language to talk about how people should think about health care. Consumers-that is, patients-should hunt for bargains. Clip coupons. Shop around. Patients need to have more "skin in the game." Consumer-patients will then choose more carefully and prudently and use less unnecessary health care. Unfailingly, "skin" refers to having money at stake. Usually, those arguing for high deductibles express dismay or frustration that patients do not face the full ("true") cost of the health services they receive. Unfortunately, a lack of price transparency, the need to unbundle bundled groups of services to discover total price, and the challenge of validly and reliably measuring and disclosing quality make shopping for health care a challenge for even the savviest patient. Urgency, fear, and sickness that impairs peak cognitive function and other aspects of emotionally laden decision-making, even when "shared" with a physician, add obstacles to coupon clipping and tire kicking. Who has more at stake in health decisions than patients? Whose flesh is literally, not just figuratively, at risk? © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  18. Fuzzy Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahonis, George

    The theory of fuzzy recognizable languages over bounded distributive lattices is presented as a paradigm of recognizable formal power series. Due to the idempotency properties of bounded distributive lattices, the equality of fuzzy recognizable languages is decidable, the determinization of multi-valued automata is effective, and a pumping lemma exists. Fuzzy recognizable languages over finite and infinite words are expressively equivalent to sentences of the multi-valued monadic second-order logic. Fuzzy recognizability over bounded ℓ-monoids and residuated lattices is briefly reported. The chapter concludes with two applications of fuzzy recognizable languages to real world problems in medicine.

  19. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    -disciplinarily, because they work with both derivative and contributory approaches. Derivative, because specialized language retrieves its philosophy of science as well as methods from both the natural sciences, social sciences and humanistic sciences. Contributory because language results support the communication...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...

  20. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  1. Growing Languages with Metamorphic Syntax Macros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    "From now on, a main goal in designing a language should be to plan for growth." Guy Steele: Growing a Language, OOPSLA '98 invited talk.We present our experiences with a syntax macro language which we claim forms a general abstraction mechanism for growing (domain-specific) extensions of program......"From now on, a main goal in designing a language should be to plan for growth." Guy Steele: Growing a Language, OOPSLA '98 invited talk.We present our experiences with a syntax macro language which we claim forms a general abstraction mechanism for growing (domain-specific) extensions...... of programming languages. Our syntax macro language is designed to guarantee type safety and termination.A concept of metamorphisms allows the arguments of a macro to be inductively defined in a meta level grammar and morphed into the host language. We also show how the metamorphisms can be made to operate...

  2. Beliefs of Japanese teachers of English regarding language, language teaching, and language learning

    OpenAIRE

    SAKAI, Hideki; URANO, Ken; SHIOKAWA, Haruhiko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore English teachers' beliefs about language, language teaching, and language learning to answer the research question: What beliefs have been formed through teaching experience? A 28-item questionnaire was administered to 69 junior high school teachers of English in Japan and 69 Japanese-speaking university students. Results showed that the teachers think (a) that grammatical knowledge is not sufficient for communication, (b) that, in reading or writing i...

  3. Preliminary Evidence That Growth in Productive Language Differentiates Childhood Stuttering Persistence and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Kathryn A.; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Brown, Barbara; Weber, Christine M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood stuttering is common but is often outgrown. Children whose stuttering persists experience significant life impacts, calling for a better understanding of what factors may underlie eventual recovery. In previous research, language ability has been shown to differentiate children who stutter (CWS) from children who do not stutter,…

  4. Short-Term Study Abroad: Perspectives on Speaking Gains and Language Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that study abroad has a positive effect on second language (L2) learning outcomes for students who spend at least a semester abroad. It is unclear, however, whether a short-term experience also has a measurable impact on L2 development. The present study examines the relationship between speaking proficiency gains made…

  5. Critical Reading of Research Articles as Oral Activator in the Language Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an experience carried out with second course students of the School of Aeronautical Engineers at the Polytechnic University of Madrid in the subject class Modern Technical Language. In the previous years the problem in that class had been the scarce participation of the students in the oral practices. They seemed to be lead…

  6. Immediate integration of novel meanings: N400 support for an embodied view of language comprehension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chwilla, D.J.; Kolk, H.H.J.; Vissers, C.T.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    A substantial part of language understanding depends on our previous experiences, but part of it consists of the creation of new meanings. Such new meanings cannot be retrieved from memory but still have to be constructed. The goals of this article were: first, to explore the nature of new meaning

  7. Issues of Cultural Appropriateness and Pedagogical Efficacy: Exploring Peer Review in a Second Language Writing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangwei; Lam, Sandra Tsui Eu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a study designed to investigate (a) whether peer review is an effective pedagogical activity with adult Chinese students in the teaching of second language (L2) academic writing and (b) how factors such as perceptions of the influence of peer reviewers' L2 proficiency, previous experience with peer review, feedback…

  8. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  9. Abstract and concrete sentences, embodiment and languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eScorolli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges of embodied theories is accounting for meanings of abstract words. The most common explanation is that abstract words, like concrete ones, are grounded in perception and action systems. According to other explanations, abstract words, differently from concrete ones, would activate situations and introspection; alternatively, they would be represented through metaphoric mapping. However, evidence provided so far pertains to specific domains. To be able to account for abstract words in their variety we argue it is necessary to take into account not only the fact that language is grounded in the sensorimotor system, but also that language represents a linguistic-social experience. To study abstractness as a continuum we combined a concrete (C verb with both a concrete and an abstract (A noun; and an abstract verb with the same nouns previously used (grasp vs. describe a flower vs. a concept. To disambiguate between the semantic meaning and the grammatical class of the words, we focused on two syntactically different languages: German and Italian. Compatible combinations (CC, AA were processed faster than mixed ones (CA, AC. This is in line with the idea that abstract and concrete words are processed preferentially in parallel systems - abstract in the language system and concrete more in the motor system, thus costs of processing within one system are the lowest. This parallel processing takes place most probably within different anatomically predefined routes. With mixed combinations, when the concrete word preceded the abstract one (CA, participants were faster, regardless of the grammatical class and the spoken language. This is probably due to the peculiar mode of acquisition of abstract words, as they are acquired more linguistically than perceptually. Results confirm embodied theories which assign a crucial role to both perception-action and linguistic experience for abstract words.

  10. Abstract and concrete sentences, embodiment, and languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorolli, Claudia; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Roberto; Riggio, Lucia; Borghi, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges of embodied theories is accounting for meanings of abstract words. The most common explanation is that abstract words, like concrete ones, are grounded in perception and action systems. According to other explanations, abstract words, differently from concrete ones, would activate situations and introspection; alternatively, they would be represented through metaphoric mapping. However, evidence provided so far pertains to specific domains. To be able to account for abstract words in their variety we argue it is necessary to take into account not only the fact that language is grounded in the sensorimotor system, but also that language represents a linguistic-social experience. To study abstractness as a continuum we combined a concrete (C) verb with both a concrete and an abstract (A) noun; and an abstract verb with the same nouns previously used (grasp vs. describe a flower vs. a concept). To disambiguate between the semantic meaning and the grammatical class of the words, we focused on two syntactically different languages: German and Italian. Compatible combinations (CC, AA) were processed faster than mixed ones (CA, AC). This is in line with the idea that abstract and concrete words are processed preferentially in parallel systems - abstract in the language system and concrete more in the motor system, thus costs of processing within one system are the lowest. This parallel processing takes place most probably within different anatomically predefined routes. With mixed combinations, when the concrete word preceded the abstract one (CA), participants were faster, regardless of the grammatical class and the spoken language. This is probably due to the peculiar mode of acquisition of abstract words, as they are acquired more linguistically than perceptually. Results confirm embodied theories which assign a crucial role to both perception-action and linguistic experience for abstract words.

  11. The riddle of Tasmanian languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Recent work which combines methods from linguistics and evolutionary biology has been fruitful in discovering the history of major language families because of similarities in evolutionary processes. Such work opens up new possibilities for language research on previously unsolvable problems, especially in areas where information from other sources may be lacking. I use phylogenetic methods to investigate Tasmanian languages. Existing materials are so fragmentary that scholars have been unable to discover how many languages are represented in the sources. Using a clustering algorithm which identifies admixture, source materials representing more than one language are identified. Using the Neighbor-Net algorithm, 12 languages are identified in five clusters. Bayesian phylogenetic methods reveal that the families are not demonstrably related; an important result, given the importance of Tasmanian Aborigines for information about how societies have responded to population collapse in prehistory. This work provides insight into the societies of prehistoric Tasmania and illustrates a new utility of phylogenetics in reconstructing linguistic history. PMID:23015621

  12. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  13. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  14. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  16. Electrophysiological Evidence for Endogenous Control of Attention in Switching between Languages in Overt Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Kim M. W.; Roelofs, Ardi; Chwilla, Dorothee J.

    2010-01-01

    Language switching in bilingual speakers requires attentional control to select the appropriate language, for example, in picture naming. Previous language-switch studies used the color of pictures to indicate the required language thereby confounding endogenous and exogenous control. To investigate endogenous language control, our language cues…

  17. "I live in a bubble": Speech-language therapy and audiology students' expectations and experiences of a rural community work practicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, J; Barratt, J

    2013-01-01

    Locally and internationally, there have been renewed calls for equitable access to healthcare services. Simultaneously, caseloads have become more challenging and contexts more complex, which may be overwhelming to new graduates. The South African context offers a particularly interesting example of these challenges. Educators need to use innovative ways to ensure that curricula adequately prepare students for rural community work, while developing a sense of leadership that links clinical practice to theory, policy, ethics and social responsibility. Rural practica offer opportunities for sensitizing and equipping students for working in underserviced communities and a number of international studies have documented their potential usefulness. There is limited research, however, that examines how exposure to rural community work may shape students' responses to the realities of working in such contexts. This study aimed to explore the processes underlying a group of South African speech-language therapy and audiology students' appreciation and understanding of the realities of work in a rural community after a rural practicum. A four-day practicum took place in a rural community in South Africa. The practicum incorporated basic audiological tasks and structured observations. Twenty-five third-year students completed anonymous pre- and post-practicum open-ended questionnaires. The questionnaires explored their expectations and perceptions of the practicum, perceived challenges and benefits of working in rural community areas, and considerations that might need to be taken into account. The questionnaires were analysed and compared using thematic analysis principles. Results revealed a distinction between students' emotional and personal expectations of, and responses to, the practicum compared to their clinical expectations and responses. Before the practicum, students indicated a number of anxieties such as not feeling emotionally prepared or feeling anxious about

  18. First language attrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, Monika S.

    2013-01-01

    Speakers who live in an L2 environment for an extended period of time often experience change in the way in which they use their L1, a process referred to as L1 attrition. This article provides an overview of language attrition phenomena at various linguistic levels. However, attrition cannot be

  19. Measuring young children's language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, I; Schaerlaekens, A

    2000-01-01

    This article deals with the new challenges put on language diagnosis, and the growing need for good diagnostic instruments for young children. Particularly for Dutch, the original English Reynell Developmental Language Scales were adapted not only to the Dutch idiom, but some general ameliorations and changes in the original scales resulted in a new instrument named the RTOS. The new instrument was standardized on a large population, and psychometrically evaluated. In communicating the experiences with such a language/cultural/psychometric adaptation, we hope that other language-minority groups will be encouraged to undertake similar adaptations.

  20. Learning to read words in a new language shapes the neural organization of the prior languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Mingxia; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi

    2014-12-01

    Learning a new language entails interactions with one׳s prior language(s). Much research has shown how native language affects the cognitive and neural mechanisms of a new language, but little is known about whether and how learning a new language shapes the neural mechanisms of prior language(s). In two experiments in the current study, we used an artificial language training paradigm in combination with an fMRI to examine (1) the effects of different linguistic components (phonology and semantics) of a new language on the neural process of prior languages (i.e., native and second languages), and (2) whether such effects were modulated by the proficiency level in the new language. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when the training in a new language involved semantics (as opposed to only visual forms and phonology), neural activity during word reading in the native language (Chinese) was reduced in several reading-related regions, including the left pars opercularis, pars triangularis, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital gyrus. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 and further found that semantic training also affected neural activity during word reading in the subjects׳ second language (English). Furthermore, we found that the effects of the new language were modulated by the subjects׳ proficiency level in the new language. These results provide critical imaging evidence for the influence of learning to read words in a new language on word reading in native and second languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.