WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous landing sites

  1. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  2. Previous Land Use and Invasive Species Impacts on Long-term Afforestation Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Nickelson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of agricultural lands to forests has increased worldwide over the past few decades for multiple reasons including increasing forest connectivity and wildlife habitat. However, previous land cover and competing vegetation often impede afforestation. We established 219 plots in 29 Quercus plantations on four previous land cover types (LCT: Clover, Soybeans, Woody Brush, and Herbaceous Weeds. Plantations were located in Illinois, USA and were sampled 15–18 years after planting. Sampling data for all trees (planted and volunteer included species, diameter, and vine presence on the main bole of the tree. Free-to-grow status was recorded for all Quercus species and estimated cover of two invasive species, Elaeagnus umbellata and Lonicera japonica, was documented on each plot. There was a strong relationship between total tree density and invasive species cover across all sites. Stocking success was lower and E. umbellata cover was higher on Woody Brush sites compared to Clover and Soybean cover types. Additionally, significantly more free-to-grow Quercus saplings occurred in Clover and Soybean cover types compared to the Woody Brush sites. The results indicate that previous land cover plays a critical role in forest afforestation. Furthermore, while historically, volunteer tree species were thought to be detrimental to the development of planted species these results suggest that with the increasing prevalence of invasive species worldwide the role of volunteer species in afforestation should be reconsidered and silvicultural protocols adjusted accordingly.

  3. Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are vital farming requisites like recognition of indigenous knowledge, lack of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on sustainable resource use by disadvantaged land users. The need to form holistic approaches that entails all elements of sustainability is vital for the area development ...

  4. LANDSAFE: LANDING SITE RISK ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schmidt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Space Agency (ESA is planning a Lunar Lander mission in the 2018 timeframe that will demonstrate precise soft landing at the polar regions of the Moon. To ensure a safe and successful landing a careful risk analysis has to be carried out. This is comprised of identifying favorable target areas and evaluating the surface conditions in these areas. Features like craters, boulders, steep slopes, rough surfaces and shadow areas have to be identified in order to assess the risk associated to a landing site in terms of a successful touchdown and subsequent surface operation of the lander. In addition, global illumination conditions at the landing site have to be simulated and analyzed. The Landing Site Risk Analysis software framework (LandSAfe is a system for the analysis, selection and certification of safe landing sites on the lunar surface. LandSAfe generates several data products including high resolution digital terrain models (DTMs, hazard maps, illumination maps, temperature maps and surface reflectance maps which assist the user in evaluating potential landing site candidates. This paper presents the LandSAfe system and describes the methods and products of the different modules. For one candidate landing site on the rim of Shackleton crater at the south pole of the Moon a high resolution DTM is showcased.

  5. How to find the Apollo landing sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, James L

    2014-01-01

    This book is for anyone who wants to be able to connect the history of lunar exploration to the Moon visible above. It addresses what Apollo equipment and experiments were left behind and what the Apollo landings sites look like now. Each Apollo mission is examined in detail, with photos that progressively zoom-in to guide the reader in locating the Apollo landing sites. Guided by official NASA photographs from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the original Apollo missions, the reader can view the Moon with a new appreciation of the accomplishment of landing astronauts on its surface.  Countless people have gazed at the Moon in the night sky knowing the successes of the Apollo Program in landing men on the Moon. After the information in this guide, casual and serious observers can actually point out where the Apollo landings occurred as well as knowing why those sites were chosen.

  6. Land Use Baseline Report Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noah, J.C.

    1995-06-29

    This document is to serve as a resource for Savannah River Site managers, planners, and SRS stakeholders by providing a general description of the site and land-use factors important to future use decisions and plans. The intent of this document is to be comprehensive in its review of SRS and the surrounding area.

  7. Land Use Baseline Report Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noah, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is to serve as a resource for Savannah River Site managers, planners, and SRS stakeholders by providing a general description of the site and land-use factors important to future use decisions and plans. The intent of this document is to be comprehensive in its review of SRS and the surrounding area

  8. A Case Study in the Mars Landing Site Selection for Science Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haingja Seo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a crucial matter to select a landing site for landers or rovers in planning the Mars exploration. The landing site must have not only a scientific value as a landing site, but also geographical features to lead a safe landing for Mars probes. In this regard, this study analyzed landing site of Mars probes and rovers in previous studies and discussed the adequacy of the landing site to scientific missions. Moreover, this study also examined domestic studies on the Mars. The frameworks of these studies will guide the selection of exploration sites and a landing site when sending Mars probe to the Mars through our own efforts. Additionally, this paper will be used as the preliminary data for selection of exploration site and a landing site.

  9. Impacts of Current and Previous Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes for Biofuel Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, S.; Parton, W.; Adler, P.; Ogle, S.; West, T.

    2008-12-01

    Biofuel cropping systems are both a source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHG). Fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and transport, farm machinery operation, and processing of biomass into fuel all lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but the largest GHG sources for biofuel systems are often soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and loss of organic carbon as a result of land use change. However, improved land management can increase soil carbon levels and decrease N2O emissions, thus complementing the CO2 sink from displaced fossil fuel combustion. Previously cropped land, grazed land, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land is being converted to biofuel cropping. We report results for the central US because most of the land used for biofuel cropping is in the central region of the country (corn/soy belt). The primary tool for this analysis is the DAYCENT ecosystem model. The ability of the model to simulate soil GHG fluxes and crop yields is demonstrated and results from simulations of different land management scenarios are presented. Our analyses suggest that conversion of CRP or grazed land to corn ethanol cropping under conventional management leads to a net source of GHG, but that converting these lands to perennial cellulosic biofuel cropping results in a GHG sink. Previously cropped land converted to corn ethanol under conventional management is a small GHG sink, but improved management and conversion to cellulosic based crops can greatly increase this sink strength.

  10. Land contamination. Technical guidance on special sites: nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.; Steeds, J.; Slade, N.

    2001-01-01

    Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 sets out a regulatory regime for the identification and remediation of land where contamination is causing unacceptable risks to defined receptors. The Environment Agency has a number of regulatory roles under this regime. Where land is designated as a Special Site, as defined in the Contaminated Land (England) Regulations 2000, the Agency will act as the enforcing authority. It is expected that a similar regime will be introduced in Wales during 2001, but the reader should check whether definitions of Special Sites in the Welsh regulations are the same as in the English ones. The Environment Agency's approach to carrying out its regulatory responsibilities is set out in its Part RA Process Documentation,, available on the Agency website (www.environment-agency. gov.uk). This documentation sets out how the Agency intends to carry out its responsibilities under Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990, which came into force in England on 1 April 2000

  11. General geology and geomorphology of the Mars Pathfinder landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A.W.; Gaddis, L.R.; Kirk, R.L.; Soderblom, L.A.; Tanaka, K.L.; Golombek, M.P.; Parker, T.J.; Greeley, Ronald; Kuzmin, R.O.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder (MPF) spacecraft landed on relatively young (late Hesperian-early Amazonian; 3.1-0.7 Ga) plains in Chryse Planitia near the mouth of Ares Vallis. Images returned from the spacecraft reveal a complex landscape of ridges and troughs, large hills and crater rims, rocks and boulders of various sizes and shapes, and surficial deposits, indicating a complex, multistage geologic history of the landing site. After the deposition of one or more bedrock units, depositional and erosional fluvial processes shaped much of the present landscape. Multiple erosional events are inferred on the basis of observations of numerous channels, different orientations of many streamlined tails from their associated knobs and hills, and superposition of lineations and streamlines. Medium- and small-scale features, interpreted to be related to late-stage drainage of floodwaters, are recognized in several areas at the landing site. Streamlined knobs and hills seen in Viking orbiter images support this inference, as they seem to be complex forms, partly erosional and partly depositional, and may also indicate a series of scouring and depositional events that, in some cases, further eroded or partially buried these landforms. Although features such as these are cited as evidence for catastrophic flooding at Ares Vallis, some of these features may also be ascribed to alternative primary or secondary depositional processes, such as glacial or mass-wasting processes. Close inspection of the landing site reveals rocks that are interpreted to be volcanic in origin and others that may be conglomeratic. If such sedimentary rocks are confirmed, fluvial processes have had a greater significance on Mars than previously thought. For the last several hundred million to few billion years, eolian processes have been dominant. Dunes and dune-like features, ventifacts, and deflation and exhumation features around several rocks probably are the most recent landforms. The relatively pristine

  12. Geology of Potential Landing Sites for Martian Sample Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    This project involved the analysis of potential landing sites on Mars. As originally proposed, the project focused on landing sites from which samples might be returned to Earth. However, as the project proceeded, the emphasis shifted to missions that would not include sample return, because the Mars Exploration Program had deferred sample returns to the next decade. Subsequently, this project focused on the study of potential landing sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers.

  13. Seasonal defrosting of the Phoenix landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, M. L.; Mellon, M. T.; Cull, S.; Hansen, C. J.; Sizemore, H. G.

    2010-09-01

    The retreat of the seasonal polar cap at the Phoenix landing site is analyzed through observations of high resolution images and thermal modeling of the CO2 frost mass. Numerical simulations indicate that the onset of CO2 frost formation occurs around Ls = 220° at 68°N however, the polar hood prevented imaging of the surface during this time. In the late winter/early spring a continuous layer of frost coated the surface obscuring the underlying polygonal patterns; however, rocks are clearly evident indicating that the frost depth was relatively shallow. Rare dark fans originating from rocks are also observed in an image from early spring. Frost dissipated from the polygon centers first and lingered longer in polygon troughs. Polygon centers were first exposed on Ls = 13.9°, and the polygon troughs were frost free by Ls ˜57°. Frost distributions varied slightly between geologic units; however, in general, global observations at similar latitudes are consistent with what is seen in the Phoenix region. A series of hypotheses is also explored to explain the preference for the CO2 frost to linger in the troughs: lower thermal inertia material in the troughs, aeolian redistribution of frost, burial of the ice table via aeolian redistribution of dust, and shadowing. Each of these hypotheses has drawbacks to explaining this phenomenon as stand-alone components. Shadows do play a role in keeping the CO2 frost on the surface; however, this effect is small and cannot alone account for the observations.

  14. Radar Investigation of the Northeast Syrtis and Jezero Crater Mars2020 Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, L. M.; Morgan, G.; Putzig, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    Two of the potential Mars2020 landing sites, Northeast Syrtis and Jezero Crater, have not been previously studied using radar data as they were not part of the Curiosity landing site selection process or the site of a previous landing. Radar can penetrate into the surface and reveal subsurface structures, and radar reflectivity is sensitive to roughness on the wavelength scale. In the past, radar data from the 20 MHz Shallow Radar (SHARAD) instrument on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have been used to search for evidence of subsurface layering and to assess geology at potential landing sites (e.g. Putzig et al. 2014, JGR, 119, 1936). Over the past two years, we have acquired new SHARAD data of the Northeast Syrtis and Jezero sites that allow us to 1) search for subsurface interfaces that could possibly be detected by the RIMFAX ground penetrating radar instrument on Mars2020, 2) assess the surface roughness and density of the upper layers, and 3) compare with other data sets to place constraints on the upper structure and properties of the landing site and surrounding areas. Both landing site study areas are 50x50 km boxes and currently have 15-18 tracks each when counting both night and daytime observations. Both of the landing sites present challenges for SHARAD analysis due to their topography, and to date we have not found evidence of subsurface reflectors at either site, despite acquiring higher signal-to-noise "rolled spacecraft" observations. The hundreds-of-meter wide mesas within and around the Northeast Syrtis site and the walls of Jezero crater may produce off-nadir reflections (clutter) that mask any detection of layering. It is also possible that subsurface interfaces visible at SHARAD's vertical resolution do not have significant dielectric contrast to be detected. We will present the latest SHARAD observations, including new maps of the derived surface roughness, and discuss possible implications for the geology of these two landing sites.

  15. Coma chemical composition at the Abydos landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, A.; Sheridan, S.; Morgan, G.; Andrews, D.; Barber, S.; Wright, I.

    2015-10-01

    The Ptolemy instrument, onboard the Rosetta Philae Lander, made measurements of the chemical composition of the coma mid-bounce, just after the non-nominal landing on the surface, and subsequently at the Abydos landing site. This presentation will discuss Ptolemy's operations throughout this 45 hour period and the results obtained.

  16. Technical procedures for land use, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Land Use Site Study Plan including land use data acquisition, land use/land cover map compilation, verification of land use/land cover map accuracy, and land use/land cover data analysis. 22 refs., 5 figs

  17. Winds at the Phoenix landing site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Merrison, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Wind speeds and directions were measured on the Phoenix Lander by a mechanical anemometer, the so-called Telltale wind indicator. Analysis of images of the instrument taken with the onboard imager allowed for evaluation of wind speeds and directions. Daily characteristics of the wind data...... and frost formation are described and discussed. Two different mechanisms of dust lifting affecting the Phoenix site are proposed based on observations made with Mars Color Imager on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Telltale. The first is related to evaporation of the seasonal CO2 ice and is observed up...

  18. Survival of dental implants placed in sites of previously failed implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrcanovic, Bruno R; Kisch, Jenö; Albrektsson, Tomas; Wennerberg, Ann

    2017-11-01

    To assess the survival of dental implants placed in sites of previously failed implants and to explore the possible factors that might affect the outcome of this reimplantation procedure. Patients that had failed dental implants, which were replaced with the same implant type at the same site, were included. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the patients and implants; survival analysis was also performed. The effect of systemic, environmental, and local factors on the survival of the reoperated implants was evaluated. 175 of 10,096 implants in 98 patients were replaced by another implant at the same location (159, 14, and 2 implants at second, third, and fourth surgeries, respectively). Newly replaced implants were generally of similar diameter but of shorter length compared to the previously placed fixtures. A statistically significant greater percentage of lost implants were placed in sites with low bone quantity. There was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.032) in the survival rates between implants that were inserted for the first time (94%) and implants that replaced the ones lost (73%). There was a statistically higher failure rate of the reoperated implants for patients taking antidepressants and antithrombotic agents. Dental implants replacing failed implants had lower survival rates than the rates reported for the previous attempts of implant placement. It is suggested that a site-specific negative effect may possibly be associated with this phenomenon, as well as the intake of antidepressants and antithrombotic agents. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Use of geolocators reveals previously unknown Chinese and Korean scaly-sided merganser wintering sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soloveyva, Diana; Afanasiev, Vsevolod; Fox, James W.

    2012-01-01

    on freshwater habitats throughout mainland China, straddling an area 830 km E−W and 1100 km N−S. Most wintered in discrete mountainous areas with extensive timber cover, large rivers and low human population density. Three birds tracked in more than one season returned to within 25−150 km of previous wintering...... and recaptured on nests along a 40-km stretch of the Kievka River. Mean positions for brood-rearing females during the summer were on average within 61.9 km of the nest site, suggesting reasonable device accuracy for subsequent location of winter quarters. Geolocation data showed that most birds wintered...... areas in successive years, suggesting winter fidelity to catchments if not specific sites. A single female from the adjacent Avvakumovka catchment wintered on saltwater in Korea, at least 1300 km east of Chinese wintering birds. Most sea duck species (Tribe Mergini) form pairs away from breeding areas...

  20. Selection of the Mars Science Laboratory landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Kipp, D.; Vasavada, A.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Fergason, Robin L.; Bellutta, P.; Calef, F.; Larsen, K.; Katayama, Y.; Huertas, A.; Beyer, R.; Chen, A.; Parker, T.; Pollard, B.; Lee, S.; Hoover, R.; Sladek, H.; Grotzinger, J.; Welch, R.; Dobrea, E. Noe; Michalski, J.; Watkins, M.

    2012-01-01

    The selection of Gale crater as the Mars Science Laboratory landing site took over five years, involved broad participation of the science community via five open workshops, and narrowed an initial >50 sites (25 by 20 km) to four finalists (Eberswalde, Gale, Holden and Mawrth) based on science and safety. Engineering constraints important to the selection included: (1) latitude (±30°) for thermal management of the rover and instruments, (2) elevation (<-1 km) for sufficient atmosphere to slow the spacecraft, (3) relief of <100-130 m at baselines of 1-1000 m for control authority and sufficient fuel during powered descent, (4) slopes of <30° at baselines of 2-5 m for rover stability at touchdown, (5) moderate rock abundance to avoid impacting the belly pan during touchdown, and (6) a radar-reflective, load-bearing, and trafficable surface that is safe for landing and roving and not dominated by fine-grained dust. Science criteria important for the selection include the ability to assess past habitable environments, which include diversity, context, and biosignature (including organics) preservation. Sites were evaluated in detail using targeted data from instruments on all active orbiters, and especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. All of the final four sites have layered sedimentary rocks with spectral evidence for phyllosilicates that clearly address the science objectives of the mission. Sophisticated entry, descent and landing simulations that include detailed information on all of the engineering constraints indicate all of the final four sites are safe for landing. Evaluation of the traversabilty of the landing sites and target “go to” areas outside of the ellipse using slope and material properties information indicates that all are trafficable and “go to” sites can be accessed within the lifetime of the mission. In the final selection, Gale crater was favored over Eberswalde based on its greater diversity and potential habitability.

  1. Useful Radar Data for Mars 2001 Landing Site Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Slade, M. A.; Jurgens, R. F.

    1998-01-01

    Radar data, of both Doppler-only and delay-Doppler varieties, played a useful role in the landing site certification process for Mars Pathfinder. Radar provides information on the elevation of the planetary surface, on its radar reflectivity and on the surface roughness. The elevation is important for proper entry, descent and landing, as is the reflectivity if a radar altimeter is to be used on the lander. Both the reflectivity and the surface roughness can measure the rockiness of the surface, important for a safe landing, as well as for rover trafficability. The spatial resolution of this Earth-based remote sensing technique is around 10 km in longitude by some 150 km in latitude. In the case of Pathfinder the regionally averaged properties were confirmed by ground truth at the landing site in Ares Vallis. The landing site assessment for Pathfinder relied principally on data from the 1995 Mars opposition when sub-Earth latitudes on Mars ranged from 16 to 22 degrees north. Data from earlier oppositions (1992-93, 1990, 1988-89) are available and cover latitudes from 25 south to 25 north at various longitudes. The available data will be presented at the symposium. The data are of varying quality, although ranging data is available for about 20 radar tracks per opposition, reflectivity and roughness analyses may not always be possible. Some older data are also available (1982, 1980) with range-only information.

  2. Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' at the Descartes landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is part of the lunar scene at the Descartes landing site, as seen in the reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Note the U.S. flag deployed on the left. This picture was made during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2).

  3. Previous land use alters plant allocation and growth in forest herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer M. Fraterrigo; Monica G. Turner; Scott M. Pearson

    2006-01-01

    Former human practices can persistently influence forest ecosystems, particularly by altering the distribution and abundance of vegetation. Previous research has focused on the role of colonization success in governing plant community patterns in abandoned forests, but few studies have explored how changes in the performance of adult plants may contribute to...

  4. Global Land Survey Impervious Mapping Project Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeColstoun, Eric Brown; Phillips, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The Global Land Survey Impervious Mapping Project (GLS-IMP) aims to produce the first global maps of impervious cover at the 30m spatial resolution of Landsat. The project uses Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat data as its base but incorporates training data generated from very high resolution commercial satellite data and using a Hierarchical segmentation program called Hseg. The web site contains general project information, a high level description of the science, examples of input and output data, as well as links to other relevant projects.

  5. The Savannah River Site: site description, land use, and management history

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. White; Karen F. Gaines

    2000-01-01

    The 78,000-ha Savannah River Site, which is located in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina along the Savannah River, was established as a nuclear production facility in 1951 by the Atomic Energy Commission. The site's physical and vegetative characteristics, land use history, and the impacts of management and operations are described. Aboriginal and early...

  6. Pairing FLUXNET sites to validate model representations of land-use/land-cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Guo, Zhichang; Schultz, Natalie M.

    2018-01-01

    Land surface energy and water fluxes play an important role in land-atmosphere interactions, especially for the climatic feedback effects driven by land-use/land-cover change (LULCC). These have long been documented in model-based studies, but the performance of land surface models in representing LULCC-induced responses has not been investigated well. In this study, measurements from proximate paired (open versus forest) flux tower sites are used to represent observed deforestation-induced changes in surface fluxes, which are compared with simulations from the Community Land Model (CLM) and the Noah Multi-Parameterization (Noah-MP) land model. Point-scale simulations suggest the CLM can represent the observed diurnal and seasonal changes in net radiation (Rnet) and ground heat flux (G), but difficulties remain in the energy partitioning between latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat flux. The CLM does not capture the observed decreased daytime LE, and overestimates the increased H during summer. These deficiencies are mainly associated with models' greater biases over forest land-cover types and the parameterization of soil evaporation. Global gridded simulations with the CLM show uncertainties in the estimation of LE and H at the grid level for regional and global simulations. Noah-MP exhibits a similar ability to simulate the surface flux changes, but with larger biases in H, G, and Rnet change during late winter and early spring, which are related to a deficiency in estimating albedo. Differences in meteorological conditions between paired sites is not a factor in these results. Attention needs to be devoted to improving the representation of surface heat flux processes in land models to increase confidence in LULCC simulations.

  7. Site Study Plan for land use, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Land Use Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of characterization of the site; seismic survey rights-of-way and transportation and utility corridors, the vicinity, the region, future land use, and monitoring land-use change. Aerial photography will be used to characterize the site, seismic rows and transportation and utility corridors, and the vicinity. The resulting land-use maps and overlays will then be verified in the field. Interviews with farm managers and local experts will provide additional information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) and satellite imagery will be used to characterize the region, monitor land-use change, and provide information to assist with the future land use study. The site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the filed data collection procedures and equipment, the data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the personnel requirements and management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The directives and requirements that drive these studies are derived from the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 51 refs; 6 figs; 3 tabs

  8. Artificial Intelligence Support for Landing Site Selection on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongier, G.; Pankratius, V.

    2017-12-01

    Mars is a key target for planetary exploration; a better understanding of its evolution and habitability requires roving in situ. Landing site selection is becoming more challenging for scientists as new instruments generate higher data volumes. The involved engineering and scientific constraints make site selection and the anticipation of possible onsite actions into a complex optimization problem: there may be multiple acceptable solutions depending on various goals and assumptions. Solutions must also account for missing data, errors, and potential biases. To address these problems, we propose an AI-informed decision support system that allows scientists, mission designers, engineers, and committees to explore alternative site selection choices based on data. In particular, we demonstrate first results of an exploratory case study using fuzzy logic and a simulation of a rover's mobility map based on the fast marching algorithm. Our system computes favorability maps of the entire planet to facilitate landing site selection and allows a definition of different configurations for rovers, science target priorities, landing ellipses, and other constraints. For a rover similar to NASA's Mars 2020 rover, we present results in form of a site favorability map as well as four derived exploration scenarios that depend on different prioritized scientific targets, all visualizing inherent tradeoffs. Our method uses the NASA PDS Geosciences Node and the NASA/ICA Integrated Database of Planetary Features. Under common assumptions, the data products reveal Eastern Margaritifer Terra and Meridiani Planum to be the most favorable sites due to a high concentration of scientific targets and a flat, easily navigable surface. Our method also allows mission designers to investigate which constraints have the highest impact on the mission exploration potential and to change parameter ranges. Increasing the elevation limit for landing, for example, provides access to many additional

  9. Generating Customized Transgene Landing Sites and Multi-Transgene Arrays in Drosophila Using phiC31 Integrase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jon-Michael; Chung, Phuong; Simpson, Julie H.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenesis in numerous eukaryotes has been facilitated by the use of site-specific integrases to stably insert transgenes at predefined genomic positions (landing sites). However, the utility of integrase-mediated transgenesis in any system is constrained by the limited number and variable expression properties of available landing sites. By exploiting the nonstandard recombination activity exhibited by a phiC31 integrase mutant, we developed a rapid and inexpensive method for isolating landing sites that exhibit desired expression properties. Additionally, we devised a simple technique for constructing arrays of transgenes at a single landing site, thereby extending the utility of previously characterized landing sites. Using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, we demonstrate the feasibility of these approaches by isolating new landing sites optimized to express transgenes in the nervous system and by building fluorescent reporter arrays at several landing sites. Because these strategies require the activity of only a single exogenous protein, we anticipate that they will be portable to species such as nonmodel organisms, in which genetic manipulation is more challenging, expediting the development of genetic resources in these systems. PMID:25680812

  10. Selection of the InSight Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Kipp, D.; Warner, N.; Daubar, I. J.; Fergason, R.; Kirk, R. L.; Beyer, R.; Huertas, A.; Piqueux, S.; Putzig, N. E.; Campbell, B. A.; Morgan, G. A.; Charalambous, C.; Pike, W. T.; Gwinner, K.; Calef, F.; Kass, D.; Mischna, M.; Ashley, J.; Bloom, C.; Wigton, N.; Hare, T.; Schwartz, C.; Gengl, H.; Redmond, L.; Trautman, M.; Sweeney, J.; Grima, C.; Smith, I. B.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Lisano, M.; Benardini, J.; Smrekar, S.; Lognonné, P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2017-10-01

    The selection of the Discovery Program InSight landing site took over four years from initial identification of possible areas that met engineering constraints, to downselection via targeted data from orbiters (especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images), to selection and certification via sophisticated entry, descent and landing (EDL) simulations. Constraints on elevation ({≤}{-}2.5 km for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander), latitude (initially 15°S-5°N and later 3°N-5°N for solar power and thermal management of the spacecraft), ellipse size (130 km by 27 km from ballistic entry and descent), and a load bearing surface without thick deposits of dust, severely limited acceptable areas to western Elysium Planitia. Within this area, 16 prospective ellipses were identified, which lie ˜600 km north of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. Mapping of terrains in rapidly acquired CTX images identified especially benign smooth terrain and led to the downselection to four northern ellipses. Acquisition of nearly continuous HiRISE, additional Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, along with radar data confirmed that ellipse E9 met all landing site constraints: with slopes <15° at 84 m and 2 m length scales for radar tracking and touchdown stability, low rock abundance (<10 %) to avoid impact and spacecraft tip over, instrument deployment constraints, which included identical slope and rock abundance constraints, a radar reflective and load bearing surface, and a fragmented regolith ˜5 m thick for full penetration of the heat flow probe. Unlike other Mars landers, science objectives did not directly influence landing site selection.

  11. Selection of the InSight landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Kipp, D.; Warner, N.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Fergason, Robin L.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Beyer, R.; Huertas, A.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Putzig, N.E.; Campbell, B.A.; Morgan, G. A.; Charalambous, C.; Pike, W. T.; Gwinner, K.; Calef, F.; Kass, D.; Mischna, M A; Ashley, J.; Bloom, C.; Wigton, N.; Hare, T.; Schwartz, C.; Gengl, H.; Redmond, L.; Trautman, M.; Sweeney, J.; Grima, C.; Smith, I. B.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Lisano, M.; Benardini, J.; Smrekar, S.E.; Lognonne, P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2017-01-01

    The selection of the Discovery Program InSight landing site took over four years from initial identification of possible areas that met engineering constraints, to downselection via targeted data from orbiters (especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images), to selection and certification via sophisticated entry, descent and landing (EDL) simulations. Constraints on elevation (≤−2.5 km">≤−2.5 km≤−2.5 km for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander), latitude (initially 15°S–5°N and later 3°N–5°N for solar power and thermal management of the spacecraft), ellipse size (130 km by 27 km from ballistic entry and descent), and a load bearing surface without thick deposits of dust, severely limited acceptable areas to western Elysium Planitia. Within this area, 16 prospective ellipses were identified, which lie ∼600 km north of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. Mapping of terrains in rapidly acquired CTX images identified especially benign smooth terrain and led to the downselection to four northern ellipses. Acquisition of nearly continuous HiRISE, additional Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, along with radar data confirmed that ellipse E9 met all landing site constraints: with slopes <15° at 84 m and 2 m length scales for radar tracking and touchdown stability, low rock abundance (<10 %) to avoid impact and spacecraft tip over, instrument deployment constraints, which included identical slope and rock abundance constraints, a radar reflective and load bearing surface, and a fragmented regolith ∼5 m thick for full penetration of the heat flow probe. Unlike other Mars landers, science objectives did not directly influence landing site selection.

  12. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal site design for land disposal. 61.51 Section 61.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for land...

  13. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

    2007-10-01

    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  14. Opportune Landing Site Program: Opportune Landing Site Southeastern Indiana Field Data Collection and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    that were as- sessed. This field is actively farmed with the primary crops of either corn or soybeans . At the time of the initial visit in early...been on the OLS. 5 Large cluster Y Y Y Previous crop appeared to be soybeans , leaving less vegetation surface debris. OLSs oriented east-west...Outline RAS Outline North Vernon Airport Surface Features Drainage ditch with mounding on either side Mo un din gMo un din g 4-13 a. RAS Outline OLS

  15. Mars: Periglacial Morphology and Implications for Future Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Schurmeier, Lauren; McKay, Christopher; Davila, Alfonso; Stoker, Carol; Marinova, Margarita; Wilhelm, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    At the Mars Phoenix landing site and in much of the Martian northern plains, there is ice-cemented ground beneath a layer of dry permafrost. Unlike most permafrost on Earth, though, this ice is not liquid at any time of year. However, in past epochs at higher obliquity the surface conditions during summer may have resulted in warmer conditions and possible melting. This situation indicates that the ice-cemented ground in the north polar plains is likely to be a candidate for the most recently habitable place on Mars as near-surface ice likely provided adequate water activity approximately 5 Myr ago. The high elevation Dry Valleys of Antarctica provide the best analog on Earth of Martian ground ice. These locations are the only places on Earth where ice-cemented ground is found beneath dry permafrost. The Dry Valleys are a hyper-arid polar desert environment and in locations above 1500 m elevation, such as University Valley, air temperatures do not exceed 0 C. Thus, similarly to Mars, liquid water is largely absent here and instead the hydrologic cycle is dominated by frozen ice and vapor phase processes such as sublimation. These conditions make the high elevation Dry Valleys a key Mars analog location where periglacial processes and geomorphic features can be studied in situ. This talk will focus on studies of University Valley as a Mars analog for periglacial morphology and ice stability. We will review a landing site selection study encompassing this information gleaned from the Antarctic terrestrial analog studies plus Mars spacecraft data analysis to identify candidate landing sites for a future mission to search for life on Mars.

  16. Land use and demography survey for a large superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Quinlan, R.E.; Krieger, G.R.; Lau, V.

    1994-01-01

    Inconsistencies in the exposure assessment process often arise when risk assessors are forced to make assumptions about the frequency and duration of exposures in the absence of site-specific data. EPA encourages the collection of site-specific data so that risks can be more accurately assessed on a case-by-case basis. Typically, estimates of exposure frequency and duration represent the largest source of uncertainty for non-food related exposure pathways, while the largest source of uncertainty for foodchain pathways stems primarily from estimating the fraction ingested that originated from the affected area. A Land Use and Demography Survey was conducted to obtain site-specific information on: (1) the amount of time individuals spend indoors, outdoors, and on or near affected areas; (2) recreational use of surface water bodies on-site; (3) the percentage of food items consumed that were raised or produced locally; and (4) other behavioral patterns and activities that could influence their exposure to site-related chemicals. More than 300 households were randomly selected and the residents personally interviewed. A wide variety of individuals ranging from children to elderly residents with vastly different recreational, behavioral, and consumption patterns were interviewed. This paper discusses the survey results in relation to EPA standard default exposure assumptions

  17. Geology of the MER 2003 "Elysium" candidate landing site in southeastern Utopia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Carr, M.H.; Skinner, J.A.; Gilmore, M.S.; Hare, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project has been considering a landing-site ellipse designated EP78B2 in southeastern Utopia Planitia, southwest of Elysium Mons. The site appears to be relatively safe for a MER landing site because of its predicted low wind velocities in mesoscale atmospheric circulation models and its low surface roughness at various scales as indicated by topographic and imaging data sets. Previously, the site's surface rocks have been interpreted to be marine sediments or lava flows. In addition, we suggest that Late Noachian to Early Hesperian collapse and mass wasting of Noachian highland rocks contributed to the deposition of detritus in the area of the ellipse. Furthermore, we document partial Late Hesperian to Early Amazonian resurfacing of the ellipse by flows and vents that may be of mud or silicate volcanic origin. A rover investigation of the Utopia landing site using the MER Athena instrument package might address some fundamental aspects of Martian geologic evolution, such as climate change, hydrologic evolution, and magmatic and tectonic history. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Soil stabilization mat for lunar launch/landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acord, Amy L.; Cohenour, Mark W.; Ephraim, Daniel; Gochoel, Dennis; Roberts, Jefferson G.

    1990-01-01

    Facilities which are capable of handling frequent arrivals and departures of spaceships between Earth and a lunar colony are necessary. The facility must be able to provide these services with minimal interruption of operational activity within the colony. The major concerns associated with the space traffic are the dust and rock particles that will be kicked up by the rocket exhaust. As a result of the reduced gravitation of the Moon, these particles scatter over large horizontal distances. This flying debris will not only seriously interrupt the routine operations of the colony, but could cause damage to the equipment and facilities surrounding the launch site. An approach to overcome this problem is presented. A proposed design for a lunar take-off/landing mat is presented. This proposal goes beyond dealing with the usual problems of heat and load resistances associated with take-off and landing, by solving the problem of soil stabilization at the site. Through adequate stabilization, the problem of flying debris is eliminated.

  19. 77 FR 58867 - Public Land Order No. 7799; Withdrawal of Public Land for the Rock Springs Administrative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ...] Public Land Order No. 7799; Withdrawal of Public Land for the Rock Springs Administrative Site Addition..., including the United States mining laws, for a period of 20 years to protect the Rock Springs Administrative... improvements associated with development and maintenance of the Rock Springs Administrative Site addition. The...

  20. Topography and geomorphology of the Huygens landing site on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderblom, L.A.; Tomasko, M.G.; Archinal, B.A.; Becker, T.L.; Bushroe, M.W.; Cook, D.A.; Doose, L.R.; Galuszka, D.M.; Hare, T.M.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Karkoschka, E.; Kirk, R.L.; Lunine, J.I.; McFarlane, E.A.; Redding, B.L.; Rizk, B.; Rosiek, M.R.; See, C.; Smith, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) aboard the Huygens Probe took several hundred visible-light images with its three cameras on approach to the surface of Titan. Several sets of stereo image pairs were collected during the descent. The digital terrain models constructed from those images show rugged topography, in places approaching the angle of repose, adjacent to flatter darker plains. Brighter regions north of the landing site display two styles of drainage patterns: (1) bright highlands with rough topography and deeply incised branching dendritic drainage networks (up to fourth order) with dark-floored valleys that are suggestive of erosion by methane rainfall and (2) short, stubby low-order drainages that follow linear fault patterns forming canyon-like features suggestive of methane spring-sapping. The topographic data show that the bright highland terrains are extremely rugged; slopes of order of 30?? appear common. These systems drain into adjacent relatively flat, dark lowland terrains. A stereo model for part of the dark plains region to the east of the landing site suggests surface scour across this plain flowing from west to east leaving ???100-m-high bright ridges. Tectonic patterns are evident in (1) controlling the rectilinear, low-order, stubby drainages and (2) the "coastline" at the highland-lowland boundary with numerous straight and angular margins. In addition to flow from the highlands drainages, the lowland area shows evidence for more prolific flow parallel to the highland-lowland boundary leaving bright outliers resembling terrestrial sandbars. This implies major west to east floods across the plains where the probe landed with flow parallel to the highland-lowland boundary; the primary source of these flows is evidently not the dendritic channels in the bright highlands to the north. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mars Science Laboratory: Mission, Landing Site, and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzinger, John; Blake, D.; Crisp, J.; Edgett, K.; Gellert, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hassler, D.; Mahaffy, P.; Malin, M.; Meyer, M.; Mitrofanov, I.; Vasavada, A.; Wiens, R.

    2012-10-01

    Scheduled to land on August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, will conduct an investigation of modern and ancient environments. Recent mission results will be discussed. Curiosity has a lifetime of at least one Mars year ( 23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. The MSL science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere; an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity; focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color; an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry; a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals; an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith; a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables; and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation. The 155-km diameter Gale Crater was chosen as Curiosity’s field site based on several attributes: an interior mound of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mound show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate-bearing strata, separated by an unconformity from overlying likely anhydrous strata; the landing ellipse is characterized by a mixture of alluvial fan and high thermal inertia/high albedo stratified deposits; and a number of stratigraphically/geomorphically distinct fluvial features. Gale’s regional context and strong evidence for a progression through multiple potentially habitable environments, represented by a stratigraphic record of extraordinary extent, insure preservation of a rich record of the environmental history of early Mars.

  2. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows...

  3. Mineralogy and Geochemistry at the Meridiani Landing Site, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.

    2004-05-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity landed in Meridiani Planum on January 24, 2004 (PST). The scientific rationale for selecting this landing site (1.95 S, 354.47 E) centered on the discovery by the orbiting Thermal Emission Spectrometer of 10-20% grey crystalline hematite in association with basaltic rocks in this region. Formation of hematite requires either precipitation in iron-rich waters or thermal oxidation of iron-bearing volcanic rocks. Each MER rover carries instruments well suited for in situ and remote analyses of iron-rich materials. The mast-mounted visible/near-infrared multispectral Pancam system and thermal infrared Mini-TES spectrometer in combination with the arm-mounted alpha particle x-ray spectrometer (APXS), Moessbauer spectrometer (MB), Microscopic Imager (MI), and Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) deliver complementary detailed information on the morphology, mineralogy and composition of the materials at this site. The exposure of relatively high albedo bedrock materials on the western crater rim and low albedo soils in the crater have been the main focus during the first 25 sols of rover operations. Results thus far include: (1) Subtle variability in the ferric and ferrous absorption features observed by Pancam in the soil and bedrock, consistent with poorly crystalline iron phases; (2) Confirmation by Mini-TES of gray hematite-rich soils, with hematite-free soils consistent with basalt; (3) Discovery of small (1-5 mm) grayish spherules embedded in and weathering from the bedrock, with as yet undetermined composition; (4) Moessbauer spectra consistent with olivine and a weak magnetic phase in the soils; (5) APXS soil data consistent with a basaltic composition and with S and Cl levels similar to other landing sites. Among current hypotheses for the bedrock formation, some involve fine-grained basaltic sediments as starting materials that underwent either (a) cementation by minerals and growth of spherical concretions; (b) alteration by

  4. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure. 61.52 Section 61.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.52 Land disposal...

  5. 10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal. 61.50 Section 61.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.50 Disposal site...

  6. The International Lunar Network: science goals and landing site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, M. A.; Crawford, I.; Iln Site Selection Working Group

    2010-12-01

    The Moon is the only extraterrestrial object in our Solar System that has been studied by a suite of in situ geophysical instruments that included seismometers, heat flow probes, magnetometers, and laser ranging retroreflectors. Combinations of these instruments made up the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages that were deployed at the six Apollo landing sites. Data from these stations were transmitted to Earth until September 1977, and the three passive Apollo retroreflectors, in concert with two retroreflectors on the Lunokhod 1 and 2 rovers, continue to be used today. As a result of these geophysical data, our knowledge of the Moon’s origin and evolution is greatly superior to that of any other extraterrestrial object. Nevertheless, after decades of scientific analyses, fundamental questions remain concerning the structure and constitution of the Moon’s interior. For example, it was determined that the Moon is highly heterogeneous, but with only a handful of stations on the lunar nearside hemisphere, it was not possible to fully delineate the full extent of lateral and vertical variations in lunar structure and composition. In addition, part of the Moon’s internal seismic activity was found to be correlated with the tides raised on the Moon, but given that the largest tidal periodicity (18.6 years) is much greater than the data collection period of the ALSEP network, the origin and characteristics of these moonquakes remain only poorly known. It is in this context that an international partnership was created with the goal to establish a robotic set of geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The creation of a long-lived geophysical network (comprising of several nodes) is no easy undertaking for any single national space agency, and the International Lunar Network (ILN) was chartered with the goal of maximizing the scientific return obtained from individual landers operating in a network manner. As part of the ILN charter, several

  7. Patellar tendon re-rupture on the opposite end of the previous site of surgical repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Bryan Thean Howe; Sayampanathan, Andrew A; Lee, Keng Thiam

    2017-01-01

    We describe a rare case of a patellar tendon "re-rupture" at the opposite end of a previous proximal tendon repair. A 32-year-old male with a history of surgically repaired right proximal patellar tendon rupture presented with an acute non-traumatic right knee pain and instability during sports. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a complete rupture of his distal patellar tendon at the tibial tuberosity. The patellar tendon was repaired using two 5.5 mm BioCorkscrews (Arthrex) inserted into the tibial tuberosity; the tendon was stitched with the No. 2 fiberwires using Krackow technique. As the patellar tendon was degenerative, the repair was augmented with a semitendinosus tendon harvested using an open tendon stripper, leaving the distal attachment intact. At 2.6 years followup he had mild anterior knee pain, range of motion 0-130° and was able to squat. MRI scan done at followup revealed good healing of repaired patellar tendon.

  8. Patellar tendon re-rupture on the opposite end of the previous site of surgical repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Thean Howe KOH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rare case of a patellar tendon “re-rupture” at the opposite end of a previous proximal tendon repair. A 32-year-old male with a history of surgically repaired right proximal patellar tendon rupture presented with an acute non-traumatic right knee pain and instability during sports. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a complete rupture of his distal patellar tendon at the tibial tuberosity. The patellar tendon was repaired using two 5.5 mm BioCorkscrews (Arthrex inserted into the tibial tuberosity; the tendon was stitched with the No. 2 fiberwires using Krackow technique. As the patellar tendon was degenerative, the repair was augmented with a semitendinosus tendon harvested using an open tendon stripper, leaving the distal attachment intact. At 2.6 years followup he had mild anterior knee pain, range of motion 0-130[0] and was able to squat. MRI scan done at followup revealed good healing of repaired patellar tendon.

  9. Development of corrective measures and site stabilization technologies for shallow land burial facilities at semiarid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.

    1986-01-01

    The overall purpose of the corrective measures task performed for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program has been to develop and test methods that can be used to correct any actual or anticipated problems with new and existing shallow land burial (SLB) sites in a semiarid environment. These field tests have not only evaluated remedial actions, but have also investigated phenomena suspected of being a possible problem at semiarid SLB sites. The approach we have taken in developing remedial action and site closure technologies for low-level waste sites is to recognize that physical and biological processes affecting site integrity are interdependent, and therefore, cannot be treated as separate problems. The field experiments performed for this task were to identify, evaluate, and model erosion control technologies, field test second generation biointrusion barriers, determine by field experiments the extent of upward radionuclide migration due to moisture cycling, and measure the effects of subsidence on remedial action of other system components. Progress made in each of these research areas is described

  10. Lunar heat flow: Regional prospective of the Apollo landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, M. A.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    reexamine the Apollo Heat Flow Experiment in light of new orbital data. Using three-dimensional thermal conduction models, we examine effects of crustal thickness, density, and radiogenic abundance on measured heat flow values at the Apollo 15 and 17 sites. These models show the importance of regional context on heat flux measurements. We find that measured heat flux can be greatly altered by deep subsurface radiogenic content and crustal density. However, total crustal thickness and the presence of a near-surface radiogenic-rich ejecta provide less leverage, representing only minor (<1.5 mW m-2) perturbations on surface heat flux. Using models of the crust implied by Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory results, we found that a roughly 9-13 mW m-2 mantle heat flux best approximate the observed heat flux. This equates to a total mantle heat production of 2.8-4.1 × 1011 W. These heat flow values could imply that the lunar interior is slightly less radiogenic than the Earth's mantle, perhaps implying that a considerable fraction of terrestrial mantle material was incorporated at the time of formation. These results may also imply that heat flux at the crust-mantle boundary beneath the Procellarum potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus (KREEP) Terrane (PKT) is anomalously elevated compared to the rest of the Moon. These results also suggest that a limited KREEP-rich layer exists beneath the PKT crust. If a subcrustal KREEP-rich layer extends below the Apollo 17 landing site, required mantle heat flux can drop to roughly 7 mW m-2, underlining the need for future heat flux measurements outside of the radiogenic-rich PKT region.

  11. Land surface cleanup of plutonium at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeling, L.L.; Evans, R.B.; Walsh, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) covers approximately 3300 km 2 of high desert and is located approximately 100 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Soil contaminated by plutonium exists on the NTS and surrounding areas from safety tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s. About 150 curies of contamination have been measured over 1200 hectares of land surface. Most contamination is found in the top 5 cm of soil but may be found deep as 25 cm. The cost of conventional removal and disposal of the full soil volume has been estimated at over $500,000,000. This study is directed toward minimizing the volume of waste which must be further processed and disposed of by precisely controlling soil removal depth. The following soil removal machines were demonstrated at the NTS: (1) a CMI Corporation Model PR-500FL pavement profiler, (2) a CMI Corporation Model Tr-225B trimmer reclaimer, (3) a Caterpillar Model 623 elevating scraper equipped with laser depth control, (4) a Caterpillar Model 14G motor grader equipped with laser depth control, (5) a Caterpillar Model 637 auger scraper, and (6) a XCR Series Guzzler vacuum truck. 5 refs., 5 figs

  12. Characterizing the Mineralogy of Potential Lunar Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle; Head, James W., III; Mustard, Jack; Boardman, Joe; Buratti, Bonnie; Clark, Roger; Green, Rob; Head, James W, III; McCord, Thomas B.; Mustard, Jack; hide

    2006-01-01

    Many processes active on the early Moon are common to most terrestrial planets, including the record of early and late impact bombardment. The Moon's surface provides a record of the earliest era of terrestrial planet evolution, and the type and composition of minerals that comprise a planetary surface are a direct result of the initial composition and subsequent thermal and physical processing. Lunar mineralogy seen today is thus a direct record of the early evolution of the lunar crust and subsequent geologic processes. Specifically, the distribution and concentration of specific minerals is closely tied to magma ocean products, lenses of intruded or remelted plutons, basaltic volcanism and fire-fountaining, and any process (e.g. cratering) that might redistribute or transform primary and secondary lunar crustal materials. The association of several lunar minerals with key geologic processes is illustrated in Figure 1. The geologic history of potential landing sites on the Moon can be read from the character and context of local mineralogy.

  13. BigFoot Land Cover Surfaces for North and South American Sites, 2000-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The BigFoot project gathered data for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 2000 to 2003. Each site is representative of one or...

  14. BigFoot Land Cover Surfaces for North and South American Sites, 2000-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BigFoot project gathered data for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 2000 to 2003. Each site is representative of one or two...

  15. Land-use trends related to Natura2000 sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Gregor; Nainggolan, Doan; Frederiksen, Pia

    2018-01-01

    EU-member states are obliged to designate Natura2000 sites for habitat protection. Natura2000 sites comprise approximately 18 percent of the terrestrial area of the EU. On average, around 22 percent of Natura2000 sites are covered by agricultural land use, such as intensive cropland and more...... and change in area of extensive land use for two periods: From 2000 to 2003, before the implementation of the HD and from 2003 to 2013, after its implementation. In order to control for the influences of biophysical constraints on agricultural intensity, we included information on slopes and peat soil...... extensively managed land. Particularly in regions with high proportions of agricultural land use in Natura2000 sites, habitat protection is closely linked with the intensity of agricultural land use. Thus, it is important to understand dynamics between intensive and extensive land use. Denmark, where Natura...

  16. Soil and Rock Physical Properties at the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites: Early Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Anderson, R. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Biesiadecki, J.; Christensen, P. H.; Gorevan, S. P.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Guinness, E. A.; Graff, T. G.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the 'early returns' on the physical properties of soil units and rocks at the MER landing sites. Because we are still very early in the mission at Meridiani Planum, results from the Gusev Crater Landing Site are emphasized here.

  17. 2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meachum, T.R.; Lewis, M.G.

    2003-02-20

    The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.

  18. Planning policy, sustainability and housebuilder practices: The move into (and out of?) the redevelopment of previously developed land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadimitriou, Nikos

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores the transformations of the housebuilding industry under the policy requirement to build on previously developed land (PDL). This requirement was a key lever in promoting the sustainable urban development agenda of UK governments from the early 1990s to 2010 and has survived albeit somewhat relaxed and permutated in the latest National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF). The paper therefore looks at the way in which the policy push towards densification and mixed use affected housebuilders' business strategy and practices and their ability to cope with the 2007 downturn of the housing market and its aftermath. It also points out the eventual feedback of some of these practices into planning policy. Following the gradual shift of British urban policy focus towards sustainability which started in the early 1990s, new configurations of actors, new skills, strategies and approaches to managing risk emerged in property development and housebuilding. There were at least two ways in which housebuilders could have responded to the requirements of developing long term mixed use high density projects on PDL. One way was to develop new products and to employ practices and combinations of practices involving phasing, a flexible approach to planning applications and innovative production methods. Alternatively, they could approach PDL development as a temporary turn of policy or view mixed use high density schemes as a niche market to be explored without drastically overhauling the business model of the entire firm. These transformations of the UK housebuilding sector were unfolding during a long period of buoyancy in the housing market which came to an end in 2007. Very little is known both about how housebuilder strategies and production practices evolved during the boom years as well as about how these firms coped with the effects of the 2007 market downturn. The paper draws on published data (company annual reports, government statistics) and primary

  19. Planning policy, sustainability and housebuilder practices: The move into (and out of?) the redevelopment of previously developed land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadimitriou, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the transformations of the housebuilding industry under the policy requirement to build on previously developed land (PDL). This requirement was a key lever in promoting the sustainable urban development agenda of UK governments from the early 1990s to 2010 and has survived albeit somewhat relaxed and permutated in the latest National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF). The paper therefore looks at the way in which the policy push towards densification and mixed use affected housebuilders’ business strategy and practices and their ability to cope with the 2007 downturn of the housing market and its aftermath. It also points out the eventual feedback of some of these practices into planning policy. Following the gradual shift of British urban policy focus towards sustainability which started in the early 1990s, new configurations of actors, new skills, strategies and approaches to managing risk emerged in property development and housebuilding. There were at least two ways in which housebuilders could have responded to the requirements of developing long term mixed use high density projects on PDL. One way was to develop new products and to employ practices and combinations of practices involving phasing, a flexible approach to planning applications and innovative production methods. Alternatively, they could approach PDL development as a temporary turn of policy or view mixed use high density schemes as a niche market to be explored without drastically overhauling the business model of the entire firm. These transformations of the UK housebuilding sector were unfolding during a long period of buoyancy in the housing market which came to an end in 2007. Very little is known both about how housebuilder strategies and production practices evolved during the boom years as well as about how these firms coped with the effects of the 2007 market downturn. The paper draws on published data (company annual reports, government statistics) and primary

  20. Changes in Carbon Flux at the Duke Forest Hardwood Ameriflux Site Due to Land Cover/Land Use Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombs, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina metropolitan area has been ranked by Forbes as the fastest growing cities in the United States. As a result of the rapid growth, there has been a significant amount of urban sprawl. The objective of this study was to determine if the changes in land use and land cover have caused a change in the carbon flux near the Duke Forest AmeriFlux station that was active from 2001 to 2008. The land cover and land use were assessed every two years to determine how land cover has changed at the Duke Forest Hardwoods (US-Dk2) AmeriFlux site from 2001 to 2008 using Landsat scenes. The change in land cover and land use was then compared to changes in the carbon footprint that is computed annually from 2001 to 2008. The footprint model for each wind direction determined that there are changes annually and that the research will determine if these changes are due to annual weather patterns or land use and land cover changes.

  1. Species, sex, size and male maturity composition of previously unreported elasmobranch landings in Kuwait, Qatar and Abu Dhabi Emirate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A B M; McCarthy, I D; Carvalho, G R; Peirce, R

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents data from the first major survey of the diversity, biology and fisheries of elasmobranchs in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf. Substantial landings of elasmobranchs, usually as gillnet by-catch, were recorded in Kuwait, Qatar and the Emirate of Abu Dhabi (part of the United Arab Emirates), although larger elasmobranchs from targeted line fisheries were landed in Abu Dhabi. The elasmobranch fauna recorded was distinctive and included species that are undescribed, rare and have a highly restricted known distribution. Numerical abundance was dominated by sharks (c. 80%), of which carcharhinids were by far the most important. The milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus and whitecheek shark Carcharhinus dussumieri together comprised just under half of all recorded individuals. Around 90% of recorded sharks were small (50-90 cm total length, L(T) ) individuals, most of which were mature individuals of species with a small maximum size (<100 cm L(T) ), although immature individuals of larger species (e.g. Carcharhinus sorrah and other Carcharhinus spp.) were also important. The most frequently recorded batoid taxa were cownose rays Rhinoptera spp., an undescribed whipray, and the granulated guitarfish Rhinobatos granulatus. The first size, sex and maturity data for a wide range of Gulf elasmobranch species are presented (including L(T) at 50% maturity for males of four shark species) and include some notable differences from other locations in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean. A number of concerns regarding the sustainability of the fishery were highlighted by this study, notably that most of the batoid species recorded are classed by the IUCN Red List as vulnerable, endangered, data deficient or not evaluated. Despite their considerable elasmobranch landings, none of the three countries sampled have developed a 'Shark Plan' as encouraged to do so under the FAO International Plan of Action: Sharks. Furthermore, Kuwait and Qatar currently report zero or no elasmobranch

  2. Seasonal and interannual variability of solar radiation at Spirit, Opportunity and Curiosity landing sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente-Retortillo, A.; Lemmon, M.T.; Martinez, G.; Valero, F.; Vazquez, L.; Martin, M.L.

    2016-07-01

    In this article we characterize the radiative environment at the landing sites of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) missions. We use opacity values obtained at the surface from direct imaging of the Sun and our radiative transfer model COMIMART to analyze the seasonal and interannual variability of the daily irradiation at the MER and MSL landing sites. In addition, we analyze the behavior of the direct and diffuse components of the solar radiation at these landing sites. (Author)

  3. Huygens landing site to be named after Hubert Curien

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    The naming ceremony for the Huygens landing site, which will be known as the "Hubert Curien Memorial Station", will be held at ESA’s Headquarters on 14 March, in the presence of ESA Council delegates and of Professor Curien’s wife, Mrs Perrine Curien, and one of their sons. Media interested in attending are invited to submit the reply form below. Huygens' landing on Saturn’s largest moon in January 2005 represented one of the greatest successes achieved by humankind in the history of space exploration. The part played by ESA, in cooperation with NASA and the Italian Space Agency (ASI), was made possible thanks to the commitment of a man who, for several decades, worked to promote and strengthen the role of scientific research in his home country - France - and in Europe. Among his numerous responsibilities, Hubert Curien was French Minister of Research and Space under four Prime Ministers. As Chairman of the ESA Council from 1981 to 1984, Professor Curien played a crucial part in setting up ESA's former long-term science programme, "Horizon 2000", which included the Huygens mission among its projects. Professor Roger Bonnet, current President of COSPAR, and former ESA Director of Science (1983-2001), commented: "Curien’s diplomatic skills were hugely influential in bringing about the birth of European space science. In 1985, his support was pivotal when the European ministers had to decide how to build a solid space science programme and ensure that it would be financially sustainable in the long term." "ESA's present science programme, Cosmic Vision, draws on the heritage left by Hubert Curien", said Professor David Southwood, ESA's current Director of Science. "He encouraged cooperation between nations in the belief that space research is fundamental to the progress and welfare of a knowledge-based society like ours. He also promoted the concept of long-term planning", he continued. "It would seem almost inconceivable today to initiate any space venture

  4. Land use planning and chemical sites. Summary report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Carsten D.

    2000-01-01

    enabling the users to generate alternatives, select the preferred ones and peruse efficient solutionsboth in terms of the implied land use patterns and the corresponding consequences. Study material has been gathered from planning cases in Sweden, Denmark and Greece. The work described in this report has...... received financial support through the CECEnvironment and Climate Programme (contract no. ENV4-CT96-0241)....

  5. Potential Role of Land Use and Land Cover Information in Powerplant Siting: Example of Three Mile Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Selecting a site for a nuclear powerplant can be helped by digitizing land use and land cover data, population data, and other pertinent data sets, and then placing them in a geographic information system. Such a system begins with a set of standardized maps for location reference and then provides for retrieval and analysis of spatial data keyed to the maps. This makes possible thematic mapping by computer, or interactive visual display for decisionmaking. It also permits correlating land use area measurements with census and other data (such as fallout dosages), and the updating of all data sets. The system is thus a tool for dealing with resource management problems and for analyzing the interaction between people and their environment. An explanation of a computer-plotted map of land use and cover for Three Mile Island and vicinity is given.

  6. Data-Driven Surface Traversability Analysis for Mars 2020 Landing Site Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Rothrock, Brandon; Almeida, Eduardo; Ansar, Adnan; Otero, Richard; Huertas, Andres; Heverly, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is three-fold: 1) to describe the engineering challenges in the surface mobility of the Mars 2020 Rover mission that are considered in the landing site selection processs, 2) to introduce new automated traversability analysis capabilities, and 3) to present the preliminary analysis results for top candidate landing sites. The analysis capabilities presented in this paper include automated terrain classification, automated rock detection, digital elevation model (DEM) generation, and multi-ROI (region of interest) route planning. These analysis capabilities enable to fully utilize the vast volume of high-resolution orbiter imagery, quantitatively evaluate surface mobility requirements for each candidate site, and reject subjectivity in the comparison between sites in terms of engineering considerations. The analysis results supported the discussion in the Second Landing Site Workshop held in August 2015, which resulted in selecting eight candidate sites that will be considered in the third workshop.

  7. Ecological sites: A useful tool for land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia N. Struckhoff; Douglas Wallace; Fred. Young

    2017-01-01

    Developing ecological sites in Missouri is a multiagency, multidiscipline effort led by the Missouri Department of Conservation and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service. The methodology developed in Missouri has recently served as a model for ecological site development across the country and has aided in an initiative to...

  8. Geology of a Proposed MER Landing Site in Western Melas Chasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, C. M.; Parker, T. J.; Anderson, F. S.; Grant, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed landing site for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) has been identified in western Melas Chasma. The landing ellipse contains a blocky, bright deposit which we propose formed as a landslide, perhaps beneath a former lake. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresa R. Meachum

    2004-02-01

    The 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe the conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operations of the facilities during the 2003 permit year are discussed.

  10. Public Lands and Other Managed/Preserved Areas (ECO_RES.SIGECO_SITES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The SIGECO_SITES map layer consists of boundary polygons of public lands and other managed or preserved areas in EPA Region 7 states (i.e., federal, state and other...

  11. Quarterly 90Sr deposition at world land sites: Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toonkel, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    The results of quarterly 90 Sr fallout sampling data at 75 sites beginning in 1976 are presented. Of the 75 sites for which data are reported, the monthly collections at 67 sites are composited and analyzed quarterly starting with the July 1976 samples. Data reported for the first half of 1976 at these sites as well as for the whole year at New York City and through June 1977 at the Australian sites, are quarterly results obtained by summing the monthly data. As of July 1977, the Australian sites have changed over to quarterly collection. The collections are made using either high-walled stainless steel pots with exposed areas of 0.076 square meters or plastic funnels with exposed areas of 0.072 square meters to which are attached ion-exchange columns. A few sites which were established as part of a precipitation chemistry network use plastic pots with an area of 0.064 square meters for collection. As an example of deposition patterns in the Northern Hemisphere, the quarterly 90 Sr data for New York City are shown in graph form. Calculated values of concentrations of 90 Sr in precipitation are given in units of pCi of 90 Sr per liter. The precipitation in centimeters and the 90 Sr deposition in millicuries per square kilometer is given for each quarter where data are available

  12. Cargo/Weapons Elevator Land Based Engineering Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Cargo and Weapons Facility consists of a suite of full scale and component test facilities contiguously located in building 77H. The site was constructed in 1987...

  13. NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX 2002/03): Local scale observation site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet Hardy; Robert Davis; Yeohoon Koh; Don Cline; Kelly Elder; Richard Armstrong; Hans-Peter Marshall; Thomas Painter; Gilles Castres Saint-Martin; Roger DeRoo; Kamal Sarabandi; Tobias Graf; Toshio Koike; Kyle McDonald

    2008-01-01

    The local scale observation site (LSOS) is the smallest study site (0.8 ha) of the 2002/03 Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) and is located within the Fraser mesocell study area. It was the most intensively measured site of the CLPX, and measurements here had the greatest temporal component of all CLPX sites. Measurements made at the LSOS were designed to produce a...

  14. Integration of Fish and Wildlife Data with Geobased and Remotely Sensed Land Use/land Cover Data: a Demonstration Using Sites in Pennsylvania. [Berwick and Lancaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushwa, C. T.; Laroche, G.; Dubrock, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service developed a statewide fish and wildlife data base for the Pennsylvania Game Commission that includes 125 categories of information on each of the 844 species. This species data base is integrated with geobased and remotely-sensed land use/land cover data from two sites in Pennsylvania. One site is an energy development project; the other is a high-energy use area. Analyses using the combined animal and land use data bases can be demonstrated for a variety of land use/land cover types at both sites. The ability to make "what if" analysis prior to project implementation is presented.

  15. Criteria and evaluation of shallow land burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.

    1986-01-01

    The criteria for shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes as developed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission-US and International Atomic Energy Agency are discussed. Emphasis has been given to: elaboration of various basic components of a national Strategy for radioactive waste disposal; development of technical requirements; environmental standards, consensus among scientific community and public confidence. Aspects of site selection, evaluation/characterization and site suitability are dealt with. Some results of characterization of a site for tempory storage of low level solid radioactive wastes in Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/Sao Paulo are described. The methods used for hydrological characterization include use of artificial tritium for unsaturated zone and radioactive tracers like I-131, Cr 51 Cl 3 , Cr 51 EDTA, Br 82 for the saturated zone. (Author) [pt

  16. Criteria and evaluation of shallow land burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.

    1987-01-01

    The criteria for shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes as developed by Nuclear Regulatory Comission-US and International Atomic Energy Agency are discussed. Emphasis has been given to: elaboration of various basic components of a national strategy for radioactive waste disposal; development of technical requirements; environmental standards, consensus among scientific community and public confidence. Aspects of site selection, evaluation/characterization and site suitability are dealt with. Some results of characterization of a site for temporary storage of low level solid radioactive wastes in Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN - CNEN/Sao Paulo are described. The methods used for hydrological characterization include use of artificial tritium for unsaturated zone and radioactive tracers like I - 131, Cr 51 Cl 3 , Cr 51 EDTA, Br 82 for the saturated zone. (Author) [pt

  17. Methodology for finding and evaluating safe landing sites on small bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Douglas J.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Murchie, Scott L.; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2016-12-01

    Here we develop and demonstrate a three-step strategy for finding a safe landing ellipse for a legged spacecraft on a small body such as an asteroid or planetary satellite. The first step, acquisition of a high-resolution terrain model of a candidate landing region, is simulated using existing statistics on block abundances measured at Phobos, Eros, and Itokawa. The synthetic terrain model is generated by randomly placing hemispheric shaped blocks with the empirically determined size-frequency distribution. The resulting terrain is much rockier than typical lunar or martian landing sites. The second step, locating a landing ellipse with minimal hazards, is demonstrated for an assumed approach to landing that uses Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology. The final step, determination of the probability distribution for orientation of the landed spacecraft, is demonstrated for cases of differing regional slope. The strategy described here is both a prototype for finding a landing site during a flight mission and provides tools for evaluating the design of small-body landers. We show that for bodies with Eros-like block distributions, there may be >99% probability of landing stably at a low tilt without blocks impinging on spacecraft structures so as to pose a survival hazard.

  18. Cellphones in Classrooms Land Teachers on Online Video Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2007-01-01

    Videos of teachers that students taped in secrecy are all over online sites like YouTube and MySpace. Angry teachers, enthusiastic teachers, teachers clowning around, singing, and even dancing are captured, usually with camera phones, for the whole world to see. Some students go so far as to create elaborately edited videos, shot over several…

  19. Sand Flux Results for Aeolian Dunes at Current and Candidate Landing Sites on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, M.; Urso, A.; Yingling, W.

    2015-12-01

    It is now known unambiguously that wind-driven bedform activity is occurring on Mars today. It has also been demonstrated the rapid aeolian abrasion of sedimentary deposits that potentially host ancient habitable environments may provide the best mechanism for exposing samples containing relatively undegraded organics (Farley et al. 2014). Thus, current processes operating on the surface of Mars are highly relevant to our understanding of the past. Here, we discuss new sand flux results of active dune across Mars, including several current and candidate landing sites with Meridiani Planum, Gale crater, Valles Marineris, and Mawrth Vallis. For this task, we have utilized multi-temporal images acquired annually by the HiRISE camera (25 cm/pixel) along with co-located HiRISE Digital Terrain Models. Falling dunes in Coprates Chasma (Mars 2020 candidate landing site) measuring 6-10 meters in height were detected migrating on average 0.5 m per Earth year, yielding crest fluxes of 3.1 m3 m-1 yr-1 (units hereafter assumed). Barchans near the MSL rover at Gale crater have slightly lower fluxes of 1.2, while earlier work in Endeavour crater, the current site of the Opportunity Rover, showed dome dunes with fluxes as high as 13 (average of 6.8; Chojnacki et al. 2015). New results of Mawrth Vallis (Mars 2020 candidate) dunes suggest these high rates are not uncommon, as barchans there possess average fluxes of 11.5. Assuming ripple reptation rates are 1/10th that of crest fluxes, total flux (saltation plus reptation) would range 3.2 to 12.7 m3 m-1 yr-1 for all sites studied herein. Active dunes and the abrasion susceptibility (Sa) of local rocks are relevant to assess how sand fluxes modify the landscape. Using the methodology and assumptions (Sa for basalt, mean trajectory height etc.) described in Bridges et al. (2012), we estimated abrasion rates of local basaltic bedrock. For example, sand blasting at Mawrth Vallis is estimated to produce 2-8 μm/yr for flat ground and 15

  20. 77 FR 55860 - Tribal Listening Sessions on Sacred Sites on Federal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Tribal Listening Sessions on Sacred Sites on... conduct a listening session with Indian tribes to obtain oral and written comments concerning sacred sites located on Federal lands. This session in Tulsa, Oklahoma, is the sixth in a series of listening sessions...

  1. Do religion and religiosity have anything to do with alcohol consumption patterns? Evidence from two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Atuyambe, Lynn; Kibira, Simon P S; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Tushemerirwe, Florence; Wagner, Glenn J

    2013-09-01

    Fish landing sites have high levels of harmful use of alcohol. This paper examines the role of religion and religiosity on alcohol consumption at two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria in Uganda. Questionnaires were administered to randomly selected people at the sites. Dependent variables included alcohol consumption during the previous 30 days, whereas the key independent variables were religion and religiosity. Bivariate and multivariate analysis techniques were applied. People reporting low religiosity were five times more likely to have consumed alcohol (95% confidence interval: 2.45-10.04) compared with those reporting low/average religiosity. Religion and religiosity are potential channels for controlling alcohol use.

  2. Analysis of the geomorphology surrounding the Chang'e-3 landing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chun-Lai; Mu Ling-Li; Zou Xiao-Duan; Liu Jian-Jun; Ren Xin; Zeng Xing-Guo; Yang Yi-Man; Zhang Zhou-Bin; Liu Yu-Xuan; Zuo Wei; Li Han

    2014-01-01

    Chang'e-3 (CE-3) landed on the Mare Imbrium basin in the east part of Sinus Iridum (19.51°W, 44.12°N), which was China's first soft landing on the Moon and it started collecting data on the lunar surface environment. To better understand the environment of this region, this paper utilizes the available high-resolution topography data, image data and geological data to carry out a detailed analysis and research on the area surrounding the landing site (Sinus Iridum and 45 km×70 km of the landing area) as well as on the topography, landform, geology and lunar dust of the area surrounding the landing site. A general topographic analysis of the surrounding area is based on a digital elevation model and digital elevation model data acquired by Chang'e-2 that have high resolution; the geology analysis is based on lunar geological data published by USGS; the study on topographic factors and distribution of craters and rocks in the surrounding area covering 4 km×4 km or even smaller is based on images from the CE-3 landing camera and images from the topographic camera; an analysis is done of the effect of the CE-3 engine plume on the lunar surface by comparing images before and after the landing using data from the landing camera. A comprehensive analysis of the results shows that the landing site and its surrounding area are identified as typical lunar mare with flat topography. They are suitable for maneuvers by the rover, and are rich in geological phenomena and scientific targets, making it an ideal site for exploration

  3. The application of remote sensing in detail land use mapping of RDE site, Puspiptek Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heni Susiati; Habib Subagio

    2016-01-01

    Land cover mapping and its development has been performed in a detail scale (1:5000) within the radius of 5 km from the center of Experimental Power Reactor (RDE) site at Kawasan Nuklir Serpong (KNS), PUSPIPTEK Serpong. The objective of this study is to establish land cover database in a detail scale 1:5000 as part of the preparation toward RDE development plan and also to complete the land cover map of a scale 1:10.000. The research method is accomplished in several stages, namely data collection and processing of high-resolution satellite imagery and aerial photographs, field surveys, land use analysis within the radius of 300 - 500 m, 1 km, 2 km, 3 km, 4 km and 5 km from the RDE site as well as analysis of land use change by 2014-2015. Satellite image processing is carried out at Center for Land Mapping and Atlas, Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG). Data processing is done by using ArcGis and Er Mapper software, whereas the satellite image analysis is executed by using Image Analysis as one of tool in ArcGis software. The result shows that KNS land cover outside the radius of 3 km is a dense residential in many places. Analysis of land use change by year 2014- 2015 shows that vast development of residential has occur which demonstrated by the increase of residential area in North-East of PUSPIPTEK. (author)

  4. Correlated compositional and mineralogical investigations at the Chang'e-3 landing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zongcheng; Jolliff, Bradley L; Wang, Alian; Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Bo; Sun, Lingzhi; Chen, Jian; Xiao, Long; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Peng, Wenxi; Wang, Huanyu; Cui, Xingzhu; He, Zhiping; Wang, Jianyu

    2015-12-22

    The chemical compositions of relatively young mare lava flows have implications for the late volcanism on the Moon. Here we report the composition of soil along the rim of a 450-m diameter fresh crater at the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) landing site, investigated by the Yutu rover with in situ APXS (Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer) and VNIS (Visible and Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer) measurements. Results indicate that this region's composition differs from other mare sample-return sites and is a new type of mare basalt not previously sampled, but consistent with remote sensing. The CE-3 regolith derived from olivine-normative basaltic rocks with high FeO/(FeO+MgO). Deconvolution of the VNIS data indicates abundant high-Ca ferropyroxene (augite and pigeonite) plus Fe-rich olivine. We infer from the regolith composition that the basaltic source rocks formed during late-stage magma-ocean differentiation when dense ferropyroxene-ilmenite cumulates sank and mixed with deeper, relatively ferroan olivine and orthopyroxene in a hybridized mantle source.

  5. Water management of humid area shallow land burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    During the seasonal year 1983-1984, the first year of a lysimeter based water balance study was carried out at the Maxey Flats low level waste disposal site. The water input to the system, rainfall, and the fate of that water: runoff, deep percolation, and evapotranspiration was measured. About 20% of the water input (rainfall) was disposed of as surface runoff. About one-half of the input water was removed by evapotranspiration. Approximately 30% of the rainfall ended up as deep percolation water. Varying management procedures of the fescue crop and substitution of an alfalfa crop had little effect on deep water percolation. In about one-half of the months (winter-spring), excess water was present in the profile so that deep percolation occurred. As a result, a technique of bio-engineering management was formulated to increase run-off while maintaining evapo-transpiration so as to minimize (or eliminate) deep percolation. Demonstration of that technique is now underway. In other investigations at the Maxey Flats site, the 3 H concentration in the transpiration stream of fescue grass grown on trench caps has been measured monthly for the past year and one-half. 3 H concentrations in the transpiration stream were up to 1000 times higher in the dry periods compared to winter, although the trench water remained fairly constant at about 15 feet below the surface, indicating plant water uptake from that depth

  6. Hydrogeologic studies for CRNL's proposed shallow land burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killey, R.W.D.; Devgun, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    The first phase of conversion from storage to disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes at CRNL is focussed on solids with hazardous lifetimes less than 500 years. In order to use a facility buried above the water table and to achieve maximum use of radionuclide migration information from studies of existing facilities, the proposed site is located in sands above an active groundwater flow system. The selection of a permeable and geologically-simple slow system has allowed application of a wide variety of techniques for hydrogeologic evaluation of the site. Ground-probing radar in conjunction with continuously cored boreholes have provided stratigraphic data and sediments for testing. Field hydrogeologic testing has included a detailed network of piezometers for hydraulic head mapping and a series of borehole dilution tests. Measurements of contaminant sorption behaviour are also being made in the field to reduce variations in uncontrolled parameters. Mathematical models successfully simulate the real system in terms of groundwater flow. Simulations of reactive contaminant transport are more difficult, but the application of data from field tests of radionuclide migration behaviour and from existing contaminant plumes will, we believe, provide acceptably reliable predictions of the impact of failures in the engineered disposal structure

  7. Noctis Landing: A Proposed Landing Site/Exploration Zone for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pascal; Acedillo, Shannen; Braham, Stephen; Brown, Adrian; Elphic, Richard; Fong, Terry; Glass, Brian; Hoftun, Christopher; Johansen, Brage W.; Lorber, Kira; hide

    2015-01-01

    The proposed Noctis Landing Site/Exploration Zone (LS/EZ) is shown in Figure 1. Our preliminary study suggests that the proposed site meets all key Science and Resources (incl. Civil Engineering) requirements. The site is of significant interest, as the EZ not only offers a large number and wide range of regions of interest (ROIs) for short-term exploration, it is also located strategically at the crossroads between Tharsis and Valles Marineris, which are key for long-term exploration. The proposed site contains Regions of Interest (ROIs) that meet the following Science requirements: -­- Access to (1) deposits with a high preservation potential for evidence of past habitability and fossil biosignatures and (2) sites that are promising for present habitability. The site presents a wide variety of ROIs qith likely aqueous features and deposits, including sinous channels and valleys, slope gullies, lobate debris aprons, impact craters with lobate ejecta flows, and "bathtub ring" deposits. Neutron spectrometry also suggests hydrogen is present within the topmost 0.3 m or so of 4 to 10 wt% WEH (Water Equivalent Hydrogen). -­- Noachian and/or Hesperian rocks in a stratigraphic context that have a high likelihood of containing trapped atmospheric gases. Collapsed canyon rim material with preserved stratigraphy is abundantly present and accessible. -­- Exposures of at least two crustal units that have regional or global extents, that are suitable for radiometric dating, and that have relative ages that sample a significant range of martian geological time. Canyons floors in Ius Chasma, Tithonium Chasma, and plateau tops on Tharsis and in Sinai Planum offer access to distinct crustal units of regional extent. -­- Access to outcrops with linked morphological and/or geochemical signatures indicative of aqueous or groundwater/ mineral interactions. Iron and sulfur-bearing deposits on canyon floors in Noctis Labyrinthus, and in Ius Chasma (IC) and Tithonium Chasma (TC

  8. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feo, Giovanni De; Gisi, Sabino De

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method

  9. Final Hanford Comprehensive Land-Use Plan Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-10-01

    This Final ''Hanford Comprehensive Land-Use Plan Environmental Impact Statement'' (HCP EIS) is being used by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its nine cooperating and consulting agencies to develop a comprehensive land-use plan (CLUP) for the Hanford Site. The DOE will use the Final HCP EIS as a basis for a Record of Decision (ROD) on a CLUP for the Hanford Site. While development of the CLUP will be complete with release of the HCP EIS ROD, full implementation of the CLUP is expected to take at least 50 years. Implementation of the CLUP would begin a more detailed planning process for land-use and facility-use decisions at the Hanford Site. The DOE would use the CLUP to screen proposals. Eventually, management of Hanford Site areas would move toward the CLUP land-use goals. This CLUP process could take more than 50 years to fully achieve the land-use goals.

  10. Multi-Modal Active Perception for Autonomously Selecting Landing Sites on Icy Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, A.; Furlong, P. M.; Wong, U.; Fong, T.; Sukkarieh, S.

    2017-01-01

    Selecting suitable landing sites is fundamental to achieving many mission objectives in planetary robotic lander missions. However, due to sensing limitations, landing sites which are both safe and scientifically valuable often cannot be determined reliably from orbit, particularly, in icy moon missions where orbital sensing data is noisy and incomplete. This paper presents an active perception approach to Entry Descent and Landing (EDL) which enables the lander to autonomously plan informative descent trajectories, acquire high quality sensing data during descent and exploit this additional information to select higher utility landing sites. Our approach consists of two components: probabilistic modeling of landing site features and approximate trajectory planning using a sampling based planner. The proposed framework allows the lander to plan long horizons paths and remain robust to noisy data. Results in simulated environments show large performance improvements over alternative approaches and show promise that our approach has strong potential to improve science return of not only icy moon missions but EDL systems in general.

  11. Orbital-science investigation: Part K: geologic sketch map of the candidate Proclus Apollo landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchitta, Baerbel Koesters

    1972-01-01

    A panoramic camera frame (fig. 25-69) was used as the base for a geologic sketch map (fig. 25-70) of an area near Proclus Crater. The map was prepared to investigate the usefulness of the Apollo 15 panoramic camera photography in large-scale geologic mapping and to assess the geologic value of this area as a potential Apollo landing site. The area is being considered as a landing site because of the availability of smooth plains terrain and because of the scientific value of investigating plains materials, dark halo craters, and ancient rocks that may be present in the Proclus ray material.

  12. Climate Change on Mars Inferred from Erosion Rates at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Bridges, N. T.

    1999-01-01

    The observation that the Mars Pathfinder landing site probably looks very similar to when it was deposited by catastrophic floods some 1.8-3.5 Ga allows quantitative constraints to be placed on the rate of change at the landing site since that time. When combined with interpretations of data recently returned by the Mars Pathfinder and Global Surveyor missions and perspectives drawn from 20 years of analysis and interpretation of Viking data, these observations and inferences suggest an early warmer and wetter environment with vastly different erosion rates and a major climatic change on Mars. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Continuation of the summarizing interim report on previous results of the Gorleben site survey as of May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    In addition to results from the 1983 interim report, this report contains, in order to supplement the surface explorations, seismic reflection measurements, hydrogeologic and seismologic investigations, sorption experiments, and studies of glacial development in the site region and of long-term safety of final waste repositories in salt domes. The site's high grade of suitability for becoming a final radioactive waste repository, the legal basis as well as quality assurance are evaluated. (orig.) [de

  14. Site selection criteria for shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconer, K.L.; Hull, L.C.; Mizell, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Twelve site selection criteria are presented. These are: (1) site shall be of sufficient area and depth to accommodate the projected volume of waste and a three dimensional buffer zone; (2) site should allow waste to be buried either completely above or below the transition zone between the unsaturated and saturated zones; (3) site should be located where flooding will not jeopardize performance; (4) site should be located where erosion will not jeopardize performance; (5) site should be located in areas where hydrogeologic conditions allow reliable performance prediction; (6) site should be located where geologic hazards will not jeopardize performance; (7) site should be selected with considerations given to those characteristics of earth materials and water chemistry that favor increased residence times and/or attenuation of radionuclide concentrations within site boundaries; (8) site should be selected with consideration given to current and projected population distributions; (9) site should be selected with consideration given to current and projected land use and resource development; (10) site should be selected with consideration given to location of waste generation, access to all-weather highway and rail routes, and access utilities; (11) site should be selected consistent with federal laws and regulations; (12) site should not be located within areas that are protected from such use by federal laws and regulations. These criteria are considered preliminary and do not necessarily represent the position of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program

  15. Land Use and Land Cover Change in Sagarmatha National Park, a World Heritage Site in the Himalayas of Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Garrard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC changes that occurred during 1992–2011 in Sagarmatha National Park, a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization World Heritage Site in the Himalayas of eastern Nepal, were evaluated using multitemporal satellite imagery in combination with land use data and sociological information gathered from semistructured interviews and workshops. We asked study participants about LULC changes, the causes of each change, and the likely duration of its effects, and used this information to produce high-resolution maps of local perceptions of LULC change. Satellite image analysis revealed that above 6000 m there has been a decrease in the area covered by snow and ice and a consequent expansion of glacial lakes and areas covered by rock and soil. Between 3000 and 6000 m, forest and farmland are decreasing, and areas under grazing, settlement, and shrubland are increasing. Such LULC changes within the protected area clearly indicate the prevailing danger of land degradation. Results from the interviews and workshops suggest that people tended to detect LULC change that was acute and direct, but were less aware of slower changes that could be identified by satellite imagery analysis. Most study participants said that land use changes were a result of rapid economic development and the consequent pressure on natural resources, especially in the tourism industry and especially below 6000 m elevation, as well as limitations to protected area management and a period of civil war. Human influence coupled with climate change may explain the changes at higher elevations, whereas anthropogenic activities are solely responsible in lower areas. Although global factors cannot be mitigated locally, many of the local drivers of LULC change could be addressed with improved management practices that aid local conservation and development in this high mountain ecosystem. A broader interdisciplinary approach to LULC change

  16. Site-directed zebrafish transgenesis into single landing sites with the phiC31 integrase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosimann, Christian; Puller, Ann-Christin; Lawson, Katy L; Tschopp, Patrick; Amsterdam, Adam; Zon, Leonard I

    2013-08-01

    Linear DNA-based and Tol2-mediated transgenesis are powerful tools for the generation of transgenic zebrafish. However, the integration of multiple copies or transgenes at random genomic locations complicates comparative transgene analysis and makes long-term transgene stability unpredictable with variable expression. Targeted, site-directed transgene integration into pre-determined genomic loci can circumvent these issues. The phiC31 integrase catalyzes the unidirectional recombination reaction between heterotypic attP and attB sites and is an efficient platform for site-directed transgenesis. We report the implementation of the phiC31 integrase-mediated attP/attB recombination for site-directed zebrafish transgenics of attB-containing transgene vectors into single genomic attP landing sites. We generated Tol2-based single-insertion attP transgenic lines and established their performance in phiC31 integrase-catalyzed integration of an attB-containing transgene vector. We found stable germline transmission into the next generation of an attB reporter transgene in 34% of all tested animals. We further characterized two functional attP landing site lines and determined their genomic location. Our experiments also demonstrate tissue-specific transgene applications as well as long-term stability of phiC31-mediated transgenes. Our results establish phiC31 integrase-controlled site-directed transgenesis into single, genomic attP sites as space-, time-, and labor-efficient zebrafish transgenesis technique. The described reagents are available for distribution to the zebrafish community. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Declining soil Crustacea in a World Heritage Site caused by land nemertean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinobe, Shotaro; Uchida, Shota; Mori, Hideaki; Okochi, Isamu; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-09-29

    Invasive non-native species are of great concern throughout the world. Potential severity of the impacts of non-native species is assessed for effective conservation managements. However, such risk assessment is often difficult, and underestimating possible harm can cause substantial issues. Here, we document catastrophic decline of a soil ecosystem in the Ogasawara Islands, a UNESCO World Heritage site, due to predation by non-native land nemertine Geonemertes pelaensis of which harm has been previously unnoticed. This nemertine is widely distributed in tropical regions, and no study has shown that it feeds on arthropods. However, we experimentally confirmed that G. pelaensis predates various arthropod groups. Soil fauna of Ogasawara was originally dominated by isopods and amphipods, but our surveys in the southern parts of Hahajima Island showed that these became extremely scarce in the areas invaded by G. pelaensis. Carnivorous arthropods decreased by indirect effects of its predation. Radical decline of soil arthropods since the 1980s on Chichijima Island was also caused by G. pelaensis and was first recorded in 1981. Thus, the soil ecosystem was already seriously damaged in Ogasawara by the nemertine. The present findings raise an issue and limitation in recognizing threats of non-native species.

  18. Institutional capacities in the land development for housing on greenfield sites in Istanbul

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turk, S.S.; Korthals Altes, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    Accommodating urban growth in the fast growing city of Istanbul encounters several problems. This paper discusses the development of greenfield sites in Istanbul by examining the institutional structure of the land development process of some recent large-scale housing projects using a framework of

  19. The disposal of solid radioactive wastes to land sites in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginniff, M.E.; Phillipson, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Solid radioactive waste management by land disposal, using a strategy laid down by the government, is discussed. Waste disposal at Drigg, and the proposals for the two preferred sites at Elstow (shallow burial) and Billingham (deep burial) are outlined. Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX); safety; public acceptance; and the role of the private sector; are also described. (U.K.)

  20. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site.

  1. Using linear integer programming for multi-site land-use allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Eisinger, E.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Stewart, Th.J.

    2003-01-01

    Research in the area of spatial decision support (SDS) and resource allocation has recently generated increased attention for integrating optimization techniques with GIS. In this paper we address the use of spatial optimization techniques for solving multi-site land-use allocation (MLUA) problems,

  2. Human Detection and Classification of Landing Sites for Search and Rescue Drones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Martins, Felipe; de Groot, Marc; Stokkel, Xeryus; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Search and rescue is often time and labour intensive. We present a system to be used in drones to make search and rescue operations more effective. The system uses a drone downward facing camera to detect people and to evaluate potential sites as being safe or not for the drone to land. Histogram of

  3. Artist's concept of eastward view of Apollo 16 Descartes landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An artist's concept illustrating an eastward view of the Apollo 16 Descartes landing site. The white overlay indicates the scheduled tranverses by the Apollo 16 astronauts in the Lunar Roving Vehicle. The Roman numerals are the extravehicular activities (EVA's); and the Arabic numbers are the station stops along the traverse.

  4. Vertical view Apollo 16 Descartes landing sites as photographed by Apollo 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An almost vertical view of the Apollo 16 Descartes landing sites as photographed from the Apollo 14 spacecraft. Overlays are provided to point out extravehicular activity (EVA), Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) travers routes and the nicknames of features. The Roman numerals indicate the EVA numbers and the Arabic numbers point out stations or traverse stops.

  5. Association between land cover and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) breeding sites on four Danish cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are vectors of bluetongue virus. Their larval habitats are poorly known in Northern Europe. Three classes of the CORINE land cover index, found within 300 in of four farms in Denmark, were used to stratify sampling sites for a total of 360 soil core samples f...

  6. Simulation Experiment on Landing Site Selection Using a Simple Geometric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Tong, X.; Xie, H.; Jin, Y.; Liu, S.; Wu, D.; Liu, X.; Guo, L.; Zhou, Q.

    2017-07-01

    Safe landing is an important part of the planetary exploration mission. Even fine scale terrain hazards (such as rocks, small craters, steep slopes, which would not be accurately detected from orbital reconnaissance) could also pose a serious risk on planetary lander or rover and scientific instruments on-board it. In this paper, a simple geometric approach on planetary landing hazard detection and safe landing site selection is proposed. In order to achieve full implementation of this algorithm, two easy-to-compute metrics are presented for extracting the terrain slope and roughness information. Unlike conventional methods which must do the robust plane fitting and elevation interpolation for DEM generation, in this work, hazards is identified through the processing directly on LiDAR point cloud. For safe landing site selection, a Generalized Voronoi Diagram is constructed. Based on the idea of maximum empty circle, the safest landing site can be determined. In this algorithm, hazards are treated as general polygons, without special simplification (e.g. regarding hazards as discrete circles or ellipses). So using the aforementioned method to process hazards is more conforming to the real planetary exploration scenario. For validating the approach mentioned above, a simulated planetary terrain model was constructed using volcanic ash with rocks in indoor environment. A commercial laser scanner mounted on a rail was used to scan the terrain surface at different hanging positions. The results demonstrate that fairly hazard detection capability and reasonable site selection was obtained compared with conventional method, yet less computational time and less memory usage was consumed. Hence, it is a feasible candidate approach for future precision landing selection on planetary surface.

  7. Developing methodology for description of biosphere evolution at Olkiluoto disposal site utilising forest studies at other land uplift sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikondn, A.T.K.; Afo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In Finland, Olkiluoto Island has been selected as the site for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, in addition to the existing repository for low and intermediate level waste. When creating biosphere models for safety assessments, local main features and processes need to be taken into account. A special characteristic of the site, as well as the coastal area of the Gulf of Bothnia in general, is the land uplift (6-9 mm/a). This continuously exposes new land to soil-formation processes and provides surfaces for colonization by plant communities. The forest vegetation succession on stony, fine-grained till soils starts from deciduous shoreline vegetation and ends in almost pure Norway spruce forests. This has enabled to study ecological and microbiological processes in soils and forests of different developmental stages, to monitor forest condition and the factors affecting it in sites locating close to each other. It has also made possible gradient studies of the succession of boreal mire ecosystems without a need to wait thousands of years. Applying a methodology described in the full paper, a descriptive model on the evolution of the biosphere will be established to indicate possible ecosystem distributions and main characteristics on the area on the basis of above-mentioned studies carried out by Finnish Forest Research Institute, and of results of the site investigations at Olkiluoto. In future, the evolution description will be used as a basis for selection of appropriate ecosystem modules and parameter values in the subsequent coupled assessment model systems. (author)

  8. Korean Lunar Lander - Concept Study for Landing-Site Selection for Lunar Resource Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Wöhler, Christian; Hyeok Ju, Gwang; Lee, Seung-Ryeol; Rodriguez, Alexis P.; Berezhnoy, Alexey A.; van Gasselt, Stephan; Grumpe, Arne; Aymaz, Rabab

    2016-06-01

    As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea's institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP) are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander - currently in pre-phase A - is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today's accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon's surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi-) automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches - including methods and tools - for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of analyses. By considering given

  9. KOREAN LUNAR LANDER – CONCEPT STUDY FOR LANDING-SITE SELECTION FOR LUNAR RESOURCE EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea’s institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander – currently in pre-phase A – is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today’s accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon’s surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi- automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches – including methods and tools – for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of

  10. Meteorological predictions for Mars 2020 Exploration Rover high-priority landing sites throug MRAMS Mesoscale Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-García, Jorge; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2015-04-01

    The Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) is used to predict meteorological conditions that are likely to be encountered by the Mars 2020 Exploration Rover at several proposed landing sites during entry, descent, and landing (EDL). The meteorology during the EDL window at most of the sites is dynamic. The intense heating of the lower atmosphere drives intense thermals and mesoscale thermal circulations. Moderate mean winds, wind shear, turbulence, and vertical air currents associated with convection are present and potentially hazardous to EDL [1]. Nine areas with specific high-priority landing ellipses of the 2020 Rover, are investigated: NE Syrtis, Nili Fossae, Nili Fossae Carbonates, Jezero Crater Delta, Holden Crater, McLaughlin Crater, Southwest Melas Basin, Mawrth Vallis and East Margaritifer Chloride. MRAMS was applied to the landing site regions using nested grids with a spacing of 330 meters on the innermost grid that is centered over each landing site. MRAMS is ideally suited for this investigation; the model is explicitly designed to simulate Mars' atmospheric thermal circulations at the mesoscale and smaller with realistic, high-resolution surface properties [2, 3]. Horizontal wind speeds, both vertical profiles and vertical cross-sections wind speeds, are studied. For some landing sites simulations, two example configurations -including and not including Hellas basin in the mother domain- were generated, in order to study how the basin affects the innermost grids circulations. Afternoon circulations at all sites pose some risk entry, descent, and landing. Most of the atmospheric hazards are not evident in current observational data and general circulation model simulations and can only be ascertained through mesoscale modeling of the region. Decide where to go first and then design a system that can tolerate the environment would greatly minimize risk. References: [1] Rafkin, S. C. R., and T. I. Michaels (2003), J. Geophys. Res., 108(E12

  11. Soil microbial diversity, site conditions, shelter forest land, saline water drip-irrigation, drift desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhengzhong; Lei, Jiaqiang; Li, Shengyu; Xu, Xinwen

    2013-10-01

    Soil microbes in forest land are crucial to soil development in extreme areas. In this study, methods of conventional culture, PLFA and PCR-DGGE were utilized to analyze soil microbial quantity, fatty acids and microbial DNA segments of soils subjected to different site conditions in the Tarim Desert Highway forest land. The main results were as follows: the soil microbial amount, diversity indexes of fatty acid and DNA segment differed significantly among sites with different conditions (F 84%), followed by actinomycetes and then fungi (Desert Highway shelter-forest promoted soil biological development; however, for enhancing sand control efficiency and promoting sand development, we should consider the effects of site condition in the construction and regeneration of shelter-forest ecological projects. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Physiological and ecological consequences of sleeping-site selection by the Galapagos land iguana (Conolophus pallidus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, K.A.; Tracy, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Field observations and biophysical models were combined to analyze sleeping-site selection by Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus). Iguanas slept in different kinds of sleeping sites during different seasons. In the coolest season (garua), adult land iguanas were found in sleeping sites that were warmer than the coolest sites available. This may be because the garua season (cool, overcast, and foggy) is a time when environmental conditions mitigate against rapid warm-up in the mornings, so lizards may regulate nighttime body temperatures so that it is easier to warm up to preferred daytime body temperatures. In the warmest season, adult iguanas were found in the coolest sleeping sites available. This observation is consistent with hypotheses of voluntary hypothermia, which can be advantageous in energy conservation and in avoiding detrimental effects associated with maintenance of constant body temperatures throughout the day and night. Juvenile iguanas were found sleeping in rock crevices regardless of the ambient thermal environments. Such sites are likely to be important as refugia for this life stage, which, unlike the adult stage, is vulnerable to predation. It was concluded that selection of sleeping sites is a process that may help in avoidance of predation, optimization of body temperature at the end of the sleeping period, and reduction of metabolic costs during sleeping. The importance of some of these factors may change with the thermal milieu (e.g., season).

  13. Siting Urban Agriculture as a Green Infrastructure Strategy for Land Use Planning in Austin, TX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Rogers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure refers to a type of land use design that mimics the natural water cycle by using the infiltration capacities of vegetation, soils, and other natural processes to mitigate stormwater runoff. As a multifunctional landscape, urban agriculture should be seen as a highly beneficial tool for urban planning not only because of its ability to function as a green stormwater management strategy, but also due to the multiple social and environmental benefits it provides. In 2012, the city of Austin adopted a major planning approach titled the “Imagine Austin Comprehensive Plan” (IACP outlining the city’s vision for future growth and land use up to 2039. The plan explicitly addresses the adoption of green infrastructure as a target for future land use with urban agriculture as a central component. Addressing this area of land use planning will require tools that can locate suitable areas within the city ideal for the development of green infrastructure. In this study, a process was developed to create a spatially explicit method of siting urban agriculture as a green infrastructure tool in hydrologically sensitive areas, or areas prone to runoff, in east Austin. The method uses geospatial software to spatially analyze open access datasets that include land use, a digital elevation model, and prime farmland soils. Through this method a spatial relationship can be made between areas of high surface runoff and where the priority placement of urban farms should be sited as a useful component of green infrastructure. Planners or geospatial analysts could use such information, along with other significant factors and community input, to aid decision makers in the placement of urban agriculture. This spatially explicit approach for siting potential urban farms, will support the integration of urban agriculture as part of the land use planning of Austin.

  14. 2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Associated Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meachum, Teresa Ray; Michael G. Lewis

    2003-02-01

    The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.

  15. Potential for effects of land contamination on human health. 2. The case of waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Melanie; Levy, Len; Brown, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This review of the epidemiological literature shows that evidence for negative impacts of land contaminated by waste disposal on human health is limited. However, the potential for health impacts cannot be dismissed. The link between residence close to hazardous waste disposal sites and heightened levels of stress and anxiety is relatively well established. However, studies on self-reported outcomes generally suffer from interpretational problems, as subjective symptoms may be due to increased perception and recall. Several recent multiple-site studies support a plausible linkage between residence near waste disposal sites and reproductive effects (including congenital anomalies and low birth weight). There is some conflict in the literature investigating links between land contamination and cancers; the evidence for and against a link is equally balanced and is insufficient to make causal inferences. These are difficult to establish because of lack of data on individual exposures, and other socioeconomic and lifestyle factors that may confound a relationship with area of residence. There is no consistently occurring risk for any specific tumor across multiple studies on sites expected to contain similar contaminants. Further insights on health effects of land contamination are likely to be gained from studies that consider exposure pathways and biomarkers of exposure and effect, similar to those deployed with some success in investigating impacts of cadmium on human health.

  16. Development of corrective measures and site stabilization technologies for shallow land burial facilities at semiarid sites: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.

    1987-01-01

    The overall purpose of the corrective measures task performed for the national Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) has been to develop and test methods that can be used to correct any actual or anticipated problems with new and existing shallow land burial (SLB) sites in a semiarid environment. These field tests have not only evaluated remedial actions, but have also investigated phenomena suspected of being a possible problem at semiarid SLB sites. The approach the authors have taken in developing remedial action and site closure technologies for low-level waste sites is to recognize the physical and biological processes affecting site integrity are interdependent, and therefore, cannot be treated as separate problems. More specifically the field experiments performed for this task were to identify, evaluate, and model erosion control technologies, field test second generation biointrusion barriers, determine by field experiments the extent of upward radionuclide migration due to moisture cycling, and measure the effects of subsidence on remedial action of other system components. In the following sections of this final task summary report, the authors describe the progress made in establishing the facility in which many of these field experiments were performed, the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility (EETF), as well as a brief description of the four research areas encompassed by this task. 45 references, 4 figures

  17. COMPARATIVE DESCRIPTION OF LAND USE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF BGBD BENCHMARK SITES IN KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Muya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In Kenya, the below-ground biodiversity (BGBD project selected two benchmark sites for the inventory of soil biota; these included the Irangi and Ngangao forest sites in the Mount Kenya region of Embu District and the Taita Hills area of Taita Taveta District. The areas selected by the project were located in biodiversity hotspots that are supporting rare and endemic plant and animal species. For more in-depth studies and analysis, the broader Embu and Taita benchmark areas were further sub-sampled into smaller areas that we refer to as study areas, designated by the symbols E1 and E2 for Embu and T1 and T2 for Taita benchmark. Within the study areas, we plotted and sampled 200x200 square grids for collecting soil as well as socio-economic data. Site characterization was carried out using the method provided by FAO-UNESCO for characterizing and classifying soils. Further to this, attempts were made to establish land use intensity (LUI and land productivity (PI indices that provided land condition indicators. The indicators offered insights into the quantitative relationship between the environmental conditions and land use. Parameters used in the computation of the land use intensity were; total quantity of inputs per ha, the frequency of input application, cropping intensity and cultivation frequency. The soils in Taita Taveta benchmark site were classified as Plinthic Lixisols, Plinthic Acrisols, Dystric Cambisols and Chromic Luvisols, while those from Embu ones were Rhodic Nitisols, Humic Nitisols, Humic Acrisols, Haplic Acrisols and Umbric Andosols. The highest level of soil organic carbon recorded was 7.6% in the forest and the lowest value of 1.6% in intensely cultivated maize-based and horticultural systems. Low land use intensity gradients were observed in the forests (LUI40%. The productivity index (PI followed a similar trend, being highest in the natural forest and grassland (40-50% and lowest in horticultural and maize-based systems

  18. Wind-Driven Erosion and Exposure Potential at Mars 2020 Rover Candidate-Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Banks, Maria; Urso, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Aeolian processes have likely been the predominant geomorphic agent for most of Mars’ history and have the potential to produce relatively young exposure ages for geologic units. Thus, identifying local evidence for aeolian erosion is highly relevant to the selection of landing sites for future missions, such as the Mars 2020 Rover mission that aims to explore astrobiologically relevant ancient environments. Here we investigate wind-driven activity at eight Mars 2020 candidate-landing sites to constrain erosion potential at these locations. To demonstrate our methods, we found that contemporary dune-derived abrasion rates were in agreement with rover-derived exhumation rates at Gale crater and could be employed elsewhere. The Holden crater candidate site was interpreted to have low contemporary erosion rates, based on the presence of a thick sand coverage of static ripples. Active ripples at the Eberswalde and southwest Melas sites may account for local erosion and the dearth of small craters. Moderate-flux regional dunes near Mawrth Vallis were deemed unrepresentative of the candidate site, which is interpreted to currently be experiencing low levels of erosion. The Nili Fossae site displayed the most unambiguous evidence for local sand transport and erosion, likely yielding relatively young exposure ages. The downselected Jezero crater and northeast Syrtis sites had high-flux neighboring dunes and exhibited substantial evidence for sediment pathways across their ellipses. Both sites had relatively high estimated abrasion rates, which would yield young exposure ages. The downselected Columbia Hills site lacked evidence for sand movement, and contemporary local erosion rates are estimated to be relatively low. PMID:29568719

  19. Wind-Driven Erosion and Exposure Potential at Mars 2020 Rover Candidate-Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Banks, Maria; Urso, Anna

    2018-02-01

    Aeolian processes have likely been the predominant geomorphic agent for most of Mars' history and have the potential to produce relatively young exposure ages for geologic units. Thus, identifying local evidence for aeolian erosion is highly relevant to the selection of landing sites for future missions, such as the Mars 2020 Rover mission that aims to explore astrobiologically relevant ancient environments. Here we investigate wind-driven activity at eight Mars 2020 candidate-landing sites to constrain erosion potential at these locations. To demonstrate our methods, we found that contemporary dune-derived abrasion rates were in agreement with rover-derived exhumation rates at Gale crater and could be employed elsewhere. The Holden crater candidate site was interpreted to have low contemporary erosion rates, based on the presence of a thick sand coverage of static ripples. Active ripples at the Eberswalde and southwest Melas sites may account for local erosion and the dearth of small craters. Moderate-flux regional dunes near Mawrth Vallis were deemed unrepresentative of the candidate site, which is interpreted to currently be experiencing low levels of erosion. The Nili Fossae site displayed the most unambiguous evidence for local sand transport and erosion, likely yielding relatively young exposure ages. The downselected Jezero crater and northeast Syrtis sites had high-flux neighboring dunes and exhibited substantial evidence for sediment pathways across their ellipses. Both sites had relatively high estimated abrasion rates, which would yield young exposure ages. The downselected Columbia Hills site lacked evidence for sand movement, and contemporary local erosion rates are estimated to be relatively low.

  20. Wind-Driven Erosion and Exposure Potential at Mars 2020 Rover Candidate-Landing Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Banks, Maria; Urso, Anna

    2018-02-01

    Aeolian processes have likely been the predominant geomorphic agent for most of Mars' history and have the potential to produce relatively young exposure ages for geologic units. Thus, identifying local evidence for aeolian erosion is highly relevant to the selection of landing sites for future missions, such as the Mars 2020 Rover mission that aims to explore astrobiologically relevant ancient environments. Here we investigate wind-driven activity at eight Mars 2020 candidate-landing sites to constrain erosion potential at these locations. To demonstrate our methods, we found that contemporary dune-derived abrasion rates were in agreement with rover-derived exhumation rates at Gale crater and could be employed elsewhere. The Holden crater candidate site was interpreted to have low contemporary erosion rates, based on the presence of a thick sand coverage of static ripples. Active ripples at the Eberswalde and southwest Melas sites may account for local erosion and the dearth of small craters. Moderate-flux regional dunes near Mawrth Vallis were deemed unrepresentative of the candidate site, which is interpreted to currently be experiencing low levels of erosion. The Nili Fossae site displayed the most unambiguous evidence for local sand transport and erosion, likely yielding relatively young exposure ages. The downselected Jezero crater and northeast Syrtis sites had high-flux neighboring dunes and exhibited substantial evidence for sediment pathways across their ellipses. Both sites had relatively high estimated abrasion rates, which would yield young exposure ages. The downselected Columbia Hills site lacked evidence for sand movement, and contemporary local erosion rates are estimated to be relatively low.

  1. Characterization of the Abydos landing site of Philae on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, P.; Faury, G.; Jorda, L.; Romeuf, D.; Capanna, C.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Gaskell, R.; Groussin, O.; Nebouy, D.

    2017-09-01

    Characterization of the final Abydos landing site of Philae on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko based on twelve campaigns of imaging with the OSIRIS-NAC camera. The characterization is based on anaglyphs, a digital terrain model at a spatial scale of 40 cm and color maps. We present the regional setting of Abydos and define geological units. Abydos is essentially an alcove at the foot of a scarp composed of heavily fractured consolidated materials.

  2. Vertical view of Apollo 16 landing site located Descartes area lunar nearside

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A vertical view of the Apollo 16 landing site located in the Descartes area lunar nearside. The overlay indicates the location of the proposed touchdown point for the Apollo 16 Lunar Module. Descartes is located west of the Sea of Nectar and southwest of the Sea of Tranquility. This photograph was taken with a 500mm lens camera from lunar orbit by the Apollo 14 crew.

  3. Status of corrective measures technology for shallow land burial at arid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.; Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.; Lopez, E.A.; Herrera, W.J.; Langhorst, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The field research program involving corrective measure technologies for arid shallow land burial sites is described. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments was measured and compared with similar data from agricultural systems across the United States. Report of field testing of biointrusion barriers continues at a closed-out waste disposal site at Los Alamos. Final results of an experiment designed to determine the effects of subsidence on the performance of a cobble-gravel biobarrier system are reported, as well as the results of hydrologic modeling activities involving biobarrier systems. 11 refs., 10 figs

  4. Cell-based land use screening procedure for regional siting analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, J.S.; Dobson, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    An energy facility site-screening methodology which permits the land resource planner to identify candidate siting areas was developed. Through the use of spatial analysis procedures and computer graphics, a selection of candidate areas is obtained. Specific sites then may be selected from among candidate areas for environmental impact analysis. The computerized methodology utilizes a cell-based geographic information system for specifying the suitability of candidate areas for an energy facility. The criteria to be considered may be specified by the user and weighted in terms of importance. Three primary computer programs have been developed. These programs produce thematic maps, proximity calculations, and suitability calculations. Programs are written so as to be transferrable to regional planning or regulatory agencies to assist in rational and comprehensive power plant site identification and analysis

  5. Characterisation and restoration of contaminated land on the Dounreay and Harwell sites of UKAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonell, G.P.; Pearl, M.

    2000-01-01

    The historical mission of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) was to develop nuclear power in the UK. The UKAEA was formed in 1954 but work actually began at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) Harwell in 1946 where the first experimental reactors were built. Additional sites were established at Windscale, Winfrith and Dounreay among others as the needs of the programme developed. Following the successful development of nuclear power, UKAEA's mission is now the restoration of its nuclear sites. The final stages of decommissioning require confidence that the land on which the facilities stand is clean enough to allow unrestricted public access. Characterisation of the ground is therefore an important factor in the final clearance stage. This paper summarises progress on some of the work carried out within UKAEA during the period of the IAEA research collaboration at Harwell and Dounreay. There is continued interest in defining the level of background radioactivity on sites, clean up of known liabilities in disposal pits at the Harwell site and characterisation on the Dounreay site of areas where the land quality is suspect. In some cases it may be feasible to clean up the soil by various techniques such soil washing, and the final part of this paper describes developments concerned with soil treatment. (author)

  6. Stability of perchlorate hydrates and their liquid solutions at the Phoenix landing site, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Vincent F.; Hanley, Jennifer; Altheide, Travis S.

    2009-05-01

    We studied the low-temperature properties of sodium and magnesium perchlorate solutions as potential liquid brines at the Phoenix landing site. We determined their theoretical eutectic values to be 236 ± 1 K for 52 wt% sodium perchlorate and 206 ± 1 K for 44.0 wt% magnesium perchlorate. Evaporation rates of solutions at various concentrations were measured under martian conditions, and range from 0.07 to 0.49 mm h-1 for NaClO4 and from 0.06 to 0.29 mm h-1 for Mg(ClO4)2. The extrapolation to Phoenix landing site conditions using our theoretical treatment shows that perchlorates are liquid during the summer for at least part of the day, and exhibit very low evaporation rates. Moreover, magnesium perchlorate eutectic solutions are thermodynamically stable over vapour and ice during a few hours a day. We conclude that liquid brines may be present and even stable for short periods of time at the Phoenix landing site.

  7. Maryland Power Plant Siting Project: an application of the ORNL-Land Use Screening Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Since 1974 the Resource Analysis Group in the Regional and Urban Studies Section of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been engaged in developing a procedure for regional and local siting analysis known as the ORNL Land Use Screening Procedure (LUSP). This document is the final report of the Maryland Power Plant Siting Project (MPPSP) in which the ORNL LUSP was used to identify candidate areas for power plant sites in northern Maryland. Numerous candidate areas are identified on the basis of four different siting objectives: the minimization of adverse ecologic impact, the minimization of adverse socioeconomic impact, the minimization of construction and operating costs, and a composite of all siting objectives. Siting criteria have been defined for each of these objectives through group processing techniques administered to four different groups of siting specialists. The siting priorities and opinions of each group have been expressed quantitatively and applied to a geographic information system containing 52 variables for each 91.8-acre cell in the northern eight counties of Maryland.

  8. Maryland Power Plant Siting Project: an application of the ORNL-Land Use Screening Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Since 1974 the Resource Analysis Group in the Regional and Urban Studies Section of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been engaged in developing a procedure for regional and local siting analysis known as the ORNL Land Use Screening Procedure (LUSP). This document is the final report of the Maryland Power Plant Siting Project (MPPSP) in which the ORNL LUSP was used to identify candidate areas for power plant sites in northern Maryland. Numerous candidate areas are identified on the basis of four different siting objectives: the minimization of adverse ecologic impact, the minimization of adverse socioeconomic impact, the minimization of construction and operating costs, and a composite of all siting objectives. Siting criteria have been defined for each of these objectives through group processing techniques administered to four different groups of siting specialists. The siting priorities and opinions of each group have been expressed quantitatively and applied to a geographic information system containing 52 variables for each 91.8-acre cell in the northern eight counties of Maryland

  9. Dust devil track survey at Elysium Planitia, Mars: Implications for the InSight landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Dennis; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2016-03-01

    The InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) robotic lander is scheduled to land in Elysium Planitia on Mars in September 2016. InSight will perform the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation including seismic measurements. Knowledge about encounter rates of dust devils with the InSight lander are important for two main reasons: (1) dust devils will affect the scientific measurements, i.e., wind-induced seismic noise, and (2) the power-supply of the InSight lander and instruments is provided by solar arrays and previous landers and rovers on Mars were affected by a steady decline in electrical power output due to atmospheric dust deposition on the solar panels. Long term science operations were only made possible by dust clearing events of the solar arrays caused by wind gusts and dust devils. In this study we analyzed dust devil tracks (DDTs) at the final InSight landing site region in Elysium Planitia. Formation of DDTs is caused by the removal of a layer of dust by passing dust devils, hence in principle the same process as clearing of dust from solar panels. We mapped the number, size (width and length), and orientation of DDTs in repeat observations using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images covering the exact same surface area acquired within a relatively short time span (power law. The mean lengths of DDTs are 0.62 km and 1.23 km for complete (tracks which are visible from their start to end point) and incomplete DDTs (tracks running across the HiRISE footprint), respectively. The alignment of DDTs in combination with Mars Climate Database (MCD) predicted wind directions imply that dust devils are moving from SE to NW until early northern autumn with a reversal to NW-SE directions of movement at LS = 200° consistent with the seasonal reversal in direction of the Hadley circulation. DDT formation rates vary between 0.002 and 0.08 ddt km-2 sol-1. DDT area formation rates

  10. Lunar prospector epithermal neutrons from impact craters and landing sites: Implications for surface maturity and hydrogen distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Feldman, W.C.; Lawrence, D.J.; Maurice, S.; Swindle, T.D.; Lucey, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Initial studies of neutron spectrometer data returned by Lunar Prospector concentrated on the discovery of enhanced hydrogen abundances near both lunar poles. However, the nonpolar data exhibit intriguing patterns that appear spatially correlated with surface features such as young impact craters (e.g., Tycho). Such immature crater materials may have low hydrogen contents because of their relative lack of exposure to solar wind-implanted volatiles. We tested this hypothesis by comparing epithermal* neutron counts (i.e., epithermal -0.057 ?? thermal neutrons) for Copernican-age craters classified as relatively young, intermediate, and old (as determined by previous studies of Clementine optical maturity variations). The epithermal* counts of the crater and continuous ejecta regions suggest that the youngest impact materials are relatively devoid of hydrogen in the upper 1 m of regolith. We also show that the mean hydrogen contents measured in Apollo and Luna landing site samples are only moderately well correlated to the epithermal* neutron counts at the landing sites, likely owing to the effects of rare earth elements. These results suggest that further work is required to define better how hydrogen distribution can be revealed by epithermal neutrons in order to understand more fully the nature and sources (e.g., solar wind, meteorite impacts) of volatiles in the lunar regolith.

  11. On site disposal of ex situ solidified contaminated soils. Previous tests of trazability; Reemplantacion en el emplazamiento de suelos estabilizados Ex-Situ. Ensayos previos de tratabilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordellat, F.; Dickhoff, K.

    2000-07-01

    On Site Disposal of Ex Situ Solidified contaminated soils. Feasibility tests: within site remediation technologies, Stabilization/solidification is among the flew ones that not only survived but also increased its importance in the last years. We will focus our attention in the case of leaving the ex-situ on-site stabilization/solidification. This possibility of ex-situ but on-site has many advantages and is getting increasing importance, so that for many cases, it has been established as proffered alternative by the Ministry of the Environment of Baden-Wuttemberg (Germany). In this paper we will deal mainly with pollution caused by metals. In this paper we will also focus the attention on the most important step in the previous feasibility study: the lixiviation tests and its application to the risk assessment of stabilized soils. (Author) 16 refs.

  12. Siting, design and cost of shallow land burial facilities in northern New England. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    This study investigated the technical feasibility and cost of shallow land burial (SLB) as one low-level radioactive waste disposal option for Maine and the northern New England states of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. The results are presented in five chapters addressing the licensing process for an SLB facility, the siting process, the engineering design, the cost of disposal, and the cost of transportation. Chapter 2 reviews the Federal and State licensing processes and requirements for development of an SLB facility. Included in this discussion are the stages in the life cycle of SLB facility. Chapter 3 provides site selection criteria for Maine and presents a proposed site selection methodology. The site selection criteria are defined and the reasoning behind their selection is explained. Chapter 4 discusses SLB trench and facility designs and costs. To accommodate different waste volume scenarios, differently sized facilities are discussed, representing Maine going-it-alone and a northern New England compact. Designs and costs of scenarios including nuclear power plant decommissioning wastes are also discussed. Cost estimates of licensing, facility construction, operation, closure, and post closure care are presented for the different waste volume scenarios. Chapter 5 presents estimates of what it would cost LLW generators to dispose of their waste in a Maine-only or a northern New England shallow land burial facility. The reliability of the estimates and their sensitivity to changes in waste volume are also discussed. Chapter 6 examines transportation costs

  13. Integrated Weed Control for Land Stewardship at Legacy Management's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado - 13086

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2013-01-01

    Land stewardship is one of nine sustainability programs in the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management System. Land stewardship includes maintaining and improving ecosystem health. At the Rocky Flats Site near Westminster, Colorado, land stewardship is an integral component of the Office of Legacy Management's post-closure monitoring and management at the site. Nearly 263 hectares (650 acres) were disturbed and re-vegetated during site cleanup and closure operations. Proactive management of revegetation areas is critical to the successful reestablishment of native grasslands, wetlands, and riparian communities. The undisturbed native plant communities that occur at the site also require active management to maintain the high-quality wetlands and other habitats that are home to numerous species of birds and other wildlife such as elk and deer, rare plant communities, and the federally listed threatened Preble's meadow jumping mouse. Over the past several decades, an increase of Noxious weeds has impacted much of Colorado's Front Range. As a result, weed control is a key component of the land stewardship program at Rocky Flats. Thirty-three species of state-listed Noxious weeds are known to occur in the Central and Peripheral Operable Units at Rocky Flats, along with another five species that are considered invasive at the site. Early detection and rapid response to control new invasive species is crucial to the program. An integrated weed control/vegetation management approach is key to maintaining healthy, sustainable plant communities that are able to resist Noxious weed invasions. Weed mapping, field surveys, and field-staff training sessions (to learn how to identify new potential problem species) are conducted to help detect and prevent new weed problems. The integrated approach at Rocky Flats includes administrative and cultural techniques (prevention), mechanical controls, biological controls, and chemical controls. Several species of biocontrol

  14. Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Hunsberger (Carol); Tom P. Evans

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPressure on land resources has increased during recent years despite international goals to improve their management. The fourth Global Environment Outlook (UNEP 2007) highlighted the unprecedented land-use changes created by a burgeoning population, economic development and

  15. Challenges in forest reclamation of marginal lands: a balance between site conditions and seedling quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landhäusser, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Forest loss and degradation is occurring worldwide, but at the same time efforts in forest restoration are ever increasing. While approaches to restoration often follow specific stakeholder objectives, regional climates and the degree of site degradation also play an important role in the prioritization of restoration efforts. Often the restoration of degraded lands can satisfy only few measurable objectives; however, to design and restore resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to changing conditions, there is a need for new and adaptive management approaches. Mining and other resource extraction industries are affecting more and more forested areas worldwide. A priority in the reclamation and certification of forest lands disturbed by industrial activity is their expeditious redevelopment to functioning forests. To rehabilitate these heavily disturbed areas back to forest ecosystems, planting of trees remains one of the most effective strategies for the redevelopment of a continuous tree canopy on a site. It is well understood that access to good quality seedling stock is essential to achieve establishment success and early growth of seedlings. However, most reclamation areas have challenging initial site conditions and these conditions are often not a single factor but a combination of factors that can be additive or synergistic. Therefore successful forest restoration on degraded lands needs to consider multiple objectives and approaches to minimize trade-offs in achieving these objectives. To meet these demands, new methods for the production and evaluation of seedling stock types are needed to ensure that that seedlings are fit to grow on a wide range of site conditions or are particularly designed to grow in very specific conditions. Generally, defining seedling quality is difficult as it is species specific and results have been mixed; likely influenced by site conditions, further reiterating the need to carefully evaluate sites allowing

  16. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.; Spalding, B.P.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.; Newbold, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems.

  17. The properties of the lunar regolith at Chang'e-3 landing site: A study based on LPR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, J.; Su, Y.; Xing, S.; Ding, C.; Li, C.

    2015-12-01

    In situ sampling from surface is difficult in the exploration of planets and sometimes radar sensing is a better choice. The properties of the surface material such as permittivity, density and depth can be obtained by a surface penetrating radar. The Chang'e-3 (CE-3) landed in the northern Mare Imbrium and a Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) is carried on the Yutu rover to detect the shallow structure of the lunar crust and the properties of the lunar regolith, which will give us a close look at the lunar subsurface. We process the radar data in a way which consist two steps: the regular preprocessing step and migration step. The preprocessing part includes zero time correction, de-wow, gain compensation, DC removal, geometric positioning. Then we combine all radar data obtained at the time the rover was moving, and use FIR filter to reduce the noise in the radar image with a pass band frequency range 200MHz-600MHz. A normal radar image is obtained after the preprocessing step. Using a nonlinear least squares fitting method, we fit the most hyperbolas in the radar image which are caused by the buried objects or rocks in the regolith and estimate the EM wave propagation velocity and the permittivity of the regolith. For there is a fixed mathematical relationship between dielectric constant and density, the density profile of the lunar regolith is also calculated. It seems that the permittivity and density at the landing site is larger than we thought before. Finally with a model of variable velocities, we apply the Kirchhoff migration method widely used in the seismology to transform the the unfocused space-time LPR image to a focused one showing the object's (most are stones) true location and size. From the migrated image, we find that the regolith depth in the landing site is smaller than previous study and the stone content rises rapidly with depth. Our study suggests that the landing site is a young region and the reworked history of the surface is short, which is

  18. Concept Mapping as a Support for Mars Landing-Site Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Ames' Center for Mars Exploration (CMEX) serves to coordinate Mars programmatic research at ARC in the sciences, in information technology and in aero-assist and other technologies. Most recently, CMEX has been working with the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition at the University of West Florida to develop a new kind of web browser based on the application of concept maps. These Cmaps, which are demonstrably effective in science teaching, can be used to provide a new kind of information navigation tool that can make web or CD based information more meaningful and more easily navigable. CMEX expects that its 1999 CD-ROM will have this new user interface. CMEX is also engaged with the Mars Surveyor Project Office at JPL in developing an Internet-based source of materials to support the process of selecting landing sites for the next series of Mars landers. This activity -- identifying the most promising sites from which to return samples relevant to the search for evidence of life -- is one that is expected to engage the general public as well as the science community. To make the landing site data easily accessible and meaningful to the public, CMEX is planning to use the IHMC Cmap browser as its user interface.

  19. Transfer and Transition: Interagency Coordination for Managing Public Lands at UMTRCA Title II Sites in Wyoming – 16614

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, David S. [U.S. Dpartment of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Vanek, Tim [U.S.Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Ribeiro, Tracy [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Bahrke, Cheri [Navarro Research and Engineering

    2016-03-06

    By the end of fiscal year 2025, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is anticipating adding 17 sites remediated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) to the current inventory of 90 sites that it manages. Among the new sites are ones where federal public lands occur within the proposed long-term care boundary, the boundary determined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and LM as necessary to maintain site protectiveness for the entombed uranium mill tailings and residual groundwater contamination. For these sites, public land withdrawals for land and minerals will need to be established. LM’s primary mission at UMTRCA sites is to protect the public and the environment from exposure to contamination at the sites. For the sites with public lands or federally controlled minerals that will be transferring to LM, the Office will apply to the Department of the Interior (DOI) Bureau of Land Management (BLM) for new, public land and mineral withdrawals. At most current LM UMTRCA sites that involved public lands and minerals, DOI granted DOE “full administrative jurisdiction” and permanent withdrawals. Hence, these withdrawals are, permanently, no longer subject to public land, mining, and mineral-leasing laws and regulations. LM is coordinating with DOI/BLM in Wyoming to permanently withdraw full and partial jurisdiction at future UMTRCA Title II sites in that state. This approach would allow LM to fully administer surface lands and minerals, where necessary, and DOI and LM to administer surface lands and leasable minerals where it would not jeopardize sites’ radiological safety and long-term public and environmental protection. This “shared-jurisdiction approach” will meet LM’s strategic goal of protecting human health and the environment but also allow BLM to fulfill their mission to “manage and conserve the lands under the mandate of multiple-use and sustained yield.” In addition, LM

  20. Land Rental Market Participation and Its Impact on Fixed Investment and Household Welfare: Evidence from Chinese Apple Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyun Hou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a large dataset from the specialized apple production sites of China and multiple econometric methods, we identify the main determinants of farmers’ land rental decisions and the effects from renting land in on their investment and economic welfare. It is found that having more effective cultivated land before renting in has a significantly negative effect on the land rented in, that households with rich land endowments or large areas of land rented in usually invest more in fixed assets, and that efficient provisions of credit and insurance are helpful to encourage investments in fixed assets. As a result, renting in land generates gains in terms of agricultural income, total income, and productive expenditure.

  1. Pressure and Humidity Measurements at the MSL Landing Site Supported by Modeling of the Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.; Savijarvi, H. I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Paton, M.; Kauhanen, J.; Atlaskin, E.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpaa, H.; Kemppinen, O.; Haukka, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity Rover landed safely on the Martian surface at the Gale crater on 6th August 2012. Among the MSL scientific objectives are investigations of the Martian environment that will be addressed by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) instrument. It will investigate habitability conditions at the Martian surface by performing a versatile set of environmental measurements including accurate observations of pressure and humidity of the Martian atmosphere. This paper describes the instrumental implementation of the MSL pressure and humidity measurement devices and briefly analyzes the atmospheric conditions at the Gale crater by modeling efforts using an atmospheric modeling tools. MSL humidity and pressure devices are based on proprietary technology of Vaisala, Inc. Humidity observations make use of Vaisala Humicap® relative humidity sensor heads and Vaisala Barocap® sensor heads are used for pressure observations. Vaisala Thermocap® temperature sensors heads are mounted in a close proximity of Humicap® and Barocap® sensor heads to enable accurate temperature measurements needed for interpretation of Humicap® and Barocap® readings. The sensor heads are capacitive. The pressure and humidity devices are lightweight and are based on a low-power transducer controlled by a dedicated ASIC. The transducer is designed to measure small capacitances in order of a few pF with resolution in order of 0.1fF (femtoFarad). The transducer design has a good spaceflight heritage, as it has been used in several previous missions, for example Mars mission Phoenix as well as the Cassini Huygens mission. The humidity device has overall dimensions of 40 x 25 x 55 mm. It weighs18 g, and consumes 15 mW of power. It includes 3 Humicap® sensor heads and 1 Thermocap®. The transducer electronics and the sensor heads are placed on a single multi-layer PCB protected by a metallic Faraday cage. The Humidity device has measurement range

  2. Evaluation of Robotic Systems to Carry Out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Leonard, Matther J.; Pacal, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report covers the execution of and results from the activities proposed and approved in Exploration Analogs and Mission Development (EAMD) Field Test Protocol HMP2010: Evaluation of Robotic Systems to carry out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks. The field tests documented in this report examine one facet of a larger program of planetary surface exploration. This program has been evolving and maturing for several years, growing from a broad policy statement with a few specified milestones for NASA to an international effort with much higher fidelity descriptions of systems and operations necessary to accomplish this type of exploration.

  3. Multi-objective decisions in land-use planning involving chemical sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, B.; Bertelsen, I.; Burchard, V.

    1999-01-01

    A methodology for land-use planning involving chemical sites has been developed for making decisions in local and regional administrations. The methodology structures the planning process in seven steps, where one can loop through the steps several times.Essential parts of the methodology...... case studies from Sweden and Denmark have been used, and essential topics and results from two Danishcase studies are presented. The work described in this report is financially supported by the CEC Environment and Climate Programme (contract no. ENV4-CT96-0241)....

  4. Development of corrective measures technology for shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; Perkins, B.A.; Lane, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The field research program involving corrective measure technologies for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments was measured and compared with similar data from agricultural systems across the United States. Field testing of biointrustion barriers at closed-out waste disposal sites at Los Alamos and in the experimental clusters are reported. The final results of an experiment designed to measure the extent of contaminant transport to the surface of a SLB facility, and the influence of plants on this relationship, are presented. An experiment designed to determine the effects of subsidence on the performance of a cobble-gravel biobarrier system is described and current field data are presented. 11 references, 11 figures, 5 tables

  5. Decontamination of abandoned sites. An introduction into the problems of land decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundt, K.

    1991-01-01

    Starting from a brief overview of the history of origin of soil and ground water pollution in Berlin and its surroundings by gas, chemical, and petroleum works, old landfills, manufactories of arms and ammunition as well as gasoline depots or sites of gasoline depots, the brochure describes the legal situation and procedure (list of 'intervention' values) and goes on to outline the situation regarding the ground under Berlin, existing pollutants, and methods for dealing with land contamination. In five abandoned sites (waste oil refinery, copper refinery, waste solvent treatment plant, asphalt factory and drugs factory), different methods for eliminating soil and ground water contamination were used. Their efficacy is assessed on the basis of their soil and pollutant-specific suitability; the decontamination achieved is indicated. (BBR) [de

  6. Technology development for the design of shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; Cokal, E.J.; Perkins, B.A.; Lane, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The field research program involving technology development for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Field tests of biointrusion barriers at waste disposal sites and in experimental plots at Los Alamos are reported. Results of completed and on-going experiments with migration barriers for water and contaminant movement are presented. An envelope wick experiment for subsurface water management is described, and preliminary field data are reported. An integrated field experiment was designed to test individual SLB component tests related to erosion control, biobarriers, and subsurface capillary and migration barriers, and the progress made in emplacing the experiment is presented. Efforts to utilize the field data collected to validate hydrologic models (TRACR3D) important to waste management strategies are also presented. 11 references, 14 figures, 1 table

  7. Development of technology for the design of shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; Drennon, B.J.; Herrera, W.J.; Lopez, E.A.; Langhorst, G.J.; Stallings, E.A.; Walker, R.D.; Martinez, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Los Alamos field research program involving technology development for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Field data are presented for an integrated field experiment, which was designed to test individual SLB component experiments related to erosion control, biobarriers, and subsurface capillary and migration barriers. Field tests of biointrusion barriers at waste disposal sites and in experimental plots are reported. The results of a joint DOE/NRC experiment to evaluate leaching and transport of sorbing (Cs, Sr, Li) and nonsorbing (I, Br) solutes in sandy silt backfill are presented for steady-state and unsteady-state flow conditions. A capillary barrier experiment performed in a large caisson (3-m diameter, 6.1 m deep) is described and a year's worth of field data is presented

  8. Identifying opportune landing sites in degraded visual environments with terrain and cultural databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Marc; Fisher, Robert; Little, J. Kristin

    2014-06-01

    Boeing has developed a degraded visual environment navigational aid that is flying on the Boeing AH-6 light attack helicopter. The navigational aid is a two dimensional software digital map underlay generated by the Boeing™ Geospatial Embedded Mapping Software (GEMS) and fully integrated with the operational flight program. The page format on the aircraft's multi function displays (MFD) is termed the Approach page. The existing work utilizes Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) and OpenGL ES 2.0 graphics capabilities to compute the pertinent graphics underlay entirely on the graphics processor unit (GPU) within the AH-6 mission computer. The next release will incorporate cultural databases containing Digital Vertical Obstructions (DVO) to warn the crew of towers, buildings, and power lines when choosing an opportune landing site. Future IRAD will include Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) point cloud generating sensors to provide 2D and 3D synthetic vision on the final approach to the landing zone. Collision detection with respect to terrain, cultural, and point cloud datasets may be used to further augment the crew warning system. The techniques for creating the digital map underlay leverage the GPU almost entirely, making this solution viable on most embedded mission computing systems with an OpenGL ES 2.0 capable GPU. This paper focuses on the AH-6 crew interface process for determining a landing zone and flying the aircraft to it.

  9. Multi-site evaluation of the JULES land surface model using global and local data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Slevin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the ability of the JULES land surface model (LSM to simulate photosynthesis using local and global data sets at 12 FLUXNET sites. Model parameters include site-specific (local values for each flux tower site and the default parameters used in the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM climate model. Firstly, gross primary productivity (GPP estimates from driving JULES with data derived from local site measurements were compared to observations from the FLUXNET network. When using local data, the model is biased with total annual GPP underestimated by 16% across all sites compared to observations. Secondly, GPP estimates from driving JULES with data derived from global parameter and atmospheric reanalysis (on scales of 100 km or so were compared to FLUXNET observations. It was found that model performance decreases further, with total annual GPP underestimated by 30% across all sites compared to observations. When JULES was driven using local parameters and global meteorological data, it was shown that global data could be used in place of FLUXNET data with a 7% reduction in total annual simulated GPP. Thirdly, the global meteorological data sets, WFDEI and PRINCETON, were compared to local data to find that the WFDEI data set more closely matches the local meteorological measurements (FLUXNET. Finally, the JULES phenology model was tested by comparing results from simulations using the default phenology model to those forced with the remote sensing product MODIS leaf area index (LAI. Forcing the model with daily satellite LAI results in only small improvements in predicted GPP at a small number of sites, compared to using the default phenology model.

  10. Dynamic temperature fields under Mars landing sites and implications for supporting microbial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Richard; Kral, Tim; Chevrier, Vincent; Pilgrim, Robert; Roe, Larry

    2010-01-01

    While average temperatures on Mars may be too low to support terrestrial life-forms or aqueous liquids, diurnal peak temperatures over most of the planet can be high enough to provide for both, down to a few centimeters beneath the surface for some fraction of the time. A thermal model was applied to the Viking 1, Viking 2, Pathfinder, Spirit, and Opportunity landing sites to demonstrate the dynamic temperature fields under the surface at these well-characterized locations. A benchmark temperature of 253 K was used as a lower limit for possible metabolic activity, which corresponds to the minimum found for specific terrestrial microorganisms. Aqueous solutions of salts known to exist on Mars can provide liquid solutions well below this temperature. Thermal modeling has shown that 253 K is reached beneath the surface at diurnal peak heating for at least some parts of the year at each of these landing sites. Within 40 degrees of the equator, 253 K beneath the surface should occur for at least some fraction of the year; and, within 20 degrees , it will be seen for most of the year. However, any life-form that requires this temperature to thrive must also endure daily excursions to far colder temperatures as well as periods of the year where 253 K is never reached at all.

  11. GIS-based Landing-Site Analysis and Passive Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Nass, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The increase of surface coverage and the availability and accessibility of planetary data allow researchers and engineers to remotely perform detailed studies on surface processes and properties, in particular on objects such as Mars and the Moon for which Terabytes of multi-temporal data at multiple spatial resolution levels have become available during the last 15 years. Orbiters, rovers and landers have been returning information and insights into the surface evolution of the terrestrial planets in unprecedented detail. While rover- and lander-based analyses are one major research aim to obtain ground truth, resource exploration or even potential establishment of bases using autonomous platforms are others and they require detailed investigation of settings in order to identify spots on the surface that are suitable for spacecraft to land and operate safely and over a long period of time. What has been done using hardcopy material in the past is today being carried by using either in-house developments or off-the-shelf spatial information system technology which allows to manage, integrate and analyse data as well as visualize and create user-defined reports for performing assessments. Usually, such analyses can be broken down (manually) by considering scientific wishes, engineering boundary conditions, potential hazards and various tertiary constraints. We here (1) review standard tasks of landing site analyses, (2) discuss issues inherently related to the analysis using integrated spatial analysis systems and (3) demonstrate a modular analysis framework for integration of data and for the evaluation of results from individual tasks in order to support decisions for landing-site selection.

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2006-03-01

    Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

  13. Land and water use characteristics in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-03-01

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of small amounts of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the offsite maximum individual and the offsite population within 50 miles of the SRS are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed for the commercial nuclear power industry by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC provides default values for dose model parameters for facilities not having enough data to develop site-specific values. A survey of land and water use characteristics for the Savannah River area has been conducted to determine as many site-specific values as possible for inclusion in the dose models used at the SRS. These site parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk, and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk, and vegetable consumption rates. The report that follows describes the origin of the NRC default values, the methodology for deriving regional data, the results of the study, and the derivations of region-specific usage and consumption rates. 33 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. 1995 Report on Hanford site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-26-01E. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors at the Hanford Site were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers mixed waste only. The Washington State Department of Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDRs) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for radioactive mixed waste. This report is the fifth update of the plan first issued in 1990. Tri-Party Agreement negotiations completed in 1993 and approved in January 1994 changed and added many new milestones. Most of the changes were related to the Tank Waste Remediation System and these changes are incorporated into this report.

  15. "Where On Mars?": A Web Map Visualisation of the ExoMars 2018 Rover Candidate Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaud, N.; Boix, O.; Vago, J.; Hill, A.; Iriberri, C.; Carrión, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ExoMars 2018 mission will deliver a European rover and a Russian surface platform to the surface of Mars. Armed with a drill that can bore 2 metres into rock, the ExoMars rover will travel across the Martian surface to search for signs of life, past or present. But where on Mars to land? - The search for a suitable ExoMars rover landing site began in December 2013, when the planetary science community was asked to propose candidates. Eight proposals were considered during a workshop held by the ExoMars Landing Site Selection Working Group (LSSWG). By the end of the workshop, there were four clear front-runners. Following additional review, the four sites have now been formally recommended for further detailed analysis [1]: Mawrth Vallis, Oxia Planum, Hypanis Vallis and Aram Dorsum. Scientists will continue working on the characterisation of these four sites until they provide their final recommendation in October 2017.

  16. HIV gene expression from intact proviruses positioned in bacterial artificial chromosomes at integration sites previously identified in latently infected T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eipers, Peter G.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Morrow, Casey D.

    2011-01-01

    HIV integration predominantly occurs in introns of transcriptionally active genes. To study the impact of the integration site on HIV gene expression, a complete HIV-1 provirus (with GFP as a fusion with Nef) was inserted into bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) at three sites previously identified in latent T cells of patients: topoisomerase II (Top2A), DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), or basic leucine transcription factor 2 (BACH2). Transfection of BAC-HIV into 293 T cells resulted in a fourfold difference in production of infectious HIV-1. Cell lines were established that contained BAC-Top2A, BAC-DNMT1, or BAC-BACH2, but only BAC-DNMT1 spontaneously produced virus, albeit at a low level. Stimulation with TNF-α resulted in virus production from four of five BAC-Top2A and all BAC-DNMT1 cell lines, but not from the BAC-BACH2 lines. The results of these studies highlight differences between integration sites identified in latent T cells to support virus production and reactivation from latency.

  17. Identification and Characterization of the landing site of Philae from OSIRIS-NAC Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, P.; Faury, G.; Jorda, L.; Romeuf, D.; Gaskell, R.; Jurado, E.; Garmier, R.; Llebaria, A.; Auger, A.-T.; Capanna, C.

    2015-10-01

    On 12 November 2014, Philae rebounded from its first touchdown at the selected Agilka "J" site on the nucleus of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, an event captured by the Rosetta's OSIRIS narrowangle camera (NAC [1]). Following two additional bounces, Philae finally landed at the "K" site later named Abydos. Finding its exact location has been a major challenge and could only be indirectly constrained. Thanks to CONSERT measurements, it was finally possible to bound it by an ellipse of approximately 16 x 160 meters. Complementary analyses were performed at CNES-SONC allowing narrowing down the location of Philae to an area of approximately 10 m radius based on illumination conditions and times of contact between Orbiter and Lander during operations. A more precise localization is however hampered by the uncertainties affecting the present 3-dimensional reconstruction (DTM) of the area, presently at the limit of the illuminated part of the nucleus (Figure 1). Spotting Philae on the images of the nucleus has been even more challenging. The highest resolution images of the region of interest after Philae's landing were obtained by the OSIRIS-NAC in mid-December 2014 at a distance of approximately 20 km, the image scale implying that Philae would at best appear as a few bright pixels. Bright "spots" are however ubiquitous on the surface of the nucleus, from glittering rocks or from local icy patches [2]. After meticulously scanning the region of interest, several candidates were spotted but the ambiguity could only be removed when a pre-landing image of the OSIRIS- NAC collection was identified whose geometric conditions (illumination and viewing) were very similar to one of the post-landing images of 12 December 2014. Although taken at different spatial resolutions, all topographic details match, except for one bright spot present on the post-landing image as shown in Figure 2. A false detection or an artefact have been ruled out as this candidate was successfully

  18. Institutional Control Program: Long Term Care and Control of Decommissioned Mine/Mill Sites Located on Crown Land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, K.

    2014-01-01

    Institutional Control Program: • Establishes an endpoint for mining company activities on sites located on Crown land; • Establishes funding for the long-term care and control of the closed sites; • Company responsibilities for sites under the Environmental Management and Protection Act remain; • Establishes an Institutional Control Registry; • Establishes an Institutional Control Monitoring and Maintenance Fund and an Institutional Control Unforeseen Events Fund

  19. Dielectric properties estimation of the lunar regolith at CE-3 landing site using lunar penetrating radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianqing; Su, Yan; Ding, Chunyu; Xing, Shuguo; Dai, Shun; Zou, Yongliao

    2017-03-01

    The second channel (CH2) of the Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) carried on the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) Yutu Rover was used to determine the thickness and structure of the lunar regolith. Accurately revealing the true structure beneath the surface requires knowledge of the dielectric permittivity of the regolith, which allows one to properly apply migration to the radar image. In contrast to simple assumptions in previous studies, this paper takes account of heterogeneity of the regolith and derives regolith's permittivity distribution laterally and vertically by a method widely used in data processing of terrestrial Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). We find that regolith permittivity at the landing site increases with depth more quickly than previously recognized. At a depth of ∼2.5-3 m, the dielectric constant reaches the value of solid basalt. The radar image was migrated on the basis of the permittivity profile. We do not find any continuous distinct layers or an apparent regolith/rock interface in the migrated radargram, which implies that this area is covered by relatively young, poorly layered deposits.

  20. Nest-site selection and success of mottled ducks on agricultural lands in southwest Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, R.S.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Listing of the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula maculosa) as a priority species in the Gulf Coast Joint Venture of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan, coupled with recent declines of rice (Oryza sativa) acreage, led us to investigate the nesting ecology of this species on agricultural lands in southwest Louisiana. We examined nest-site selection at macro- and microhabitat levels, nest success, causes of nest failures, and habitat features influencing nest success. We found that female mottled ducks preferred to nest in permanent pastures with knolls (53% of nests) and idle fields (22% of nests). Vegetation height was greater at nests than at random points within the same macrohabitat patch. Successful nests were associated with greater numbers of plant species, located farther from water, and associated with higher vegetation density values than were unsuccessful nests. We determined that mammalian predators caused most nest failures (77% of 52 unsuccessful nests). Our results suggest that nest success of mottled ducks on agricultural lands in southwest Louisiana could be improved by 1) locating large permanent pastures and idle fields near rice fields and other available wetlands, 2) managing plant communities in these upland areas to favor dense stands of perennial bunch grasses, tall composites, dewberry (Rubus trivialis), and other native grasses and forbs, and 3) managing cattle-stocking rates and the duration and timing of grazing to promote tall, dense stands of these plant taxa during the nesting season (March-June).

  1. Calendar Year 2002 Hanford Site mixed waste land disposal restrictions report (section 1 thru 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MISKHO, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Volume 1 presents information concerning the storage and minimization of mixed waste and the potential sources for the generation of additional mixed waste. This information, presented in accordance with ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 2001) Milestone M-26-01M, is Volume 1 of a two-volume report on the status of Hanford Site land disposal restricted mixed waste, other mixed waste, and other waste that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have agreed to include in this report. This volume contains the approval page for both volumes and includes the storage report. Information pertaining to waste characterization and treatment are addressed in Volume 2. Appendix A lists the land disposal restrictions (LDR) reporting requirements and explains where the requirements are addressed in this report. The reporting period for this document is from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2002. Clearance form only sent to RHA

  2. Migration studies at the Savannah River Plant shallow land burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Oblath, S.B.; Hawkins, R.H.; Emslie, R.H.; Ryan, J.P. Jr.; King, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide migration from the Savannah River Plant low-level waste burial ground was studied in ongoing programs that provide generic data on a shallow land burial site in a humid region and support local waste disposal operations. Field, laboratory, and theoretical work continued in four areas. (1) Subsurface Monitoring: Groundwater around the burial ground was monitored for traces of radioactivity and mercury. (2) Lysimeter Tests: Gamma-emitting radionuclides were identified by sensitive methods in defense waste lysimeter percolate waters. Results from these and other lysimeters containing tritium, I-129, or Pu-239 sources are given. (3) Soil-Water Chemistry: Experiments on specific factors affecting migration of Cs-137 showed that potassium significantly increases cesium mobility, thus confirming observations with trench waters. Distribution coefficients for ruthenium were measured. (4) Transport Modeling: Efforts to refine and validate the SRL dose-to-man model continued. Transport calculations were made for tritium, Sr-90, Tc-99, and TRU radionuclides. 12 references, 3 tables

  3. Mosaic of Apollo 16 Descartes landing site taken from TV transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A 360 degree field of view of the Apollo 16 Descartes landing site area composed of individual scenes taken from a color transmission made by the color RCA TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. This panorama was made while the LRV was parked at the rim of North Ray crater (Stations 11 and 12) during the third Apollo 16 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA-3) by Astronauts John W. Young and Charles M. Duke Jr. The overlay identifies the directions and the key lunar terrain features. The camera panned across the rear portion of the LRV in its 360 degree sweep. Note Young and Duke walking along the edge of the crater in one of the scenes. The TV camera was remotely controlled from a console in the Mission Control Center.

  4. Phthalate esters contamination in soil and plants on agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting Ting; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yong Ming; Teng, Ying

    2013-08-01

    The accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soil and plants in agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site in east China has become a great threat to the neighboring environmental quality and human health. Soil and plant samples collected from land under different utilization, including fallow plots, vegetable plots, plots with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as green manure, fallow plots under long-term flooding and fallow plots under alternating wet and dry periods, together with plant samples from relative plots were analyzed for six PAE compounds nominated as prior pollutants by USEPA. In the determined samples, the concentrations of six target PAE pollutants ranged from 0.31-2.39 mg/kg in soil to 1.81-5.77 mg/kg in various plants (dry weight/DW), and their bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 5.8 to 17.9. Health risk assessments were conducted on target PAEs, known as typical environmental estrogen analogs, based on their accumulation in the edible parts of vegetables. Preliminary risk assessment to human health from soil and daily vegetable intake indicated that DEHP may present a high-exposure risk on all ages of the population in the area by soil ingestion or vegetable consumption. The potential damage that the target PAE compounds may pose to human health should be taken into account in further comprehensive risk assessments in e-waste recycling sites areas. Moreover, alfalfa removed substantial amounts of PAEs from the soil, and its use can be considered a good strategy for in situ remediation of PAEs.

  5. THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING AT THREE DOE MEGA-CLEANUP SITES FERNALD & ROCKY FLATS & MOUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JEWETT MA

    2011-01-14

    This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.

  6. Agricultural aspects of monitoring and stabilization of shallow land-burial sites. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.; Schulz, R.K.; Romney, E.M.; Nishita, H.; Herman, D.J.

    1980-02-01

    The year FY 1979 was a transition year between start up of work at the low level waste burial site at Maxey Flats, Kentucky and completion of previous work involving laboratory studies with radionuclides. All of our studies are designed to solve problems or verify situations that exist in the field. The thrust at Maxey Flats by this group involves soil moisture and radionuclide movement at that burial site in a humid region. Vegetation cover is being manipulated, rooting depth is being studied, water penetration and flow are being measured, radionuclide uptake by plants and concentration in components of soil moisture are being measured. Goals are to determine how water is penetrating trenches and how to minimize such penetration. Laboratory studies involve fission and transuranic radionuclides with a future focus placed primarily upon field problems related to low level waste burial problems and soils. Some past studies being completed involved transuranic elements and a cross-section of USA soils. Different sized containers have been involved in the studies so that results can be extrapolated to field conditions. Analytical work is almost completed and the data are being synthesized. Some preliminary organization of the data is included in this annual report. Concentration ratios, plant part discrimination ratios and radionuclide ratios are included in the initial evaluation. The laboratory phase of this study is to be completed in the next fiscal year with more effort being redirected toward field studies at the shallow land waste burial site. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 9 items in this report for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  7. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable agricultural practices have had a role to play in the degradation of land on which agriculture depends. South Africa has an international obligation to develop a National Action Programme (NAP), the purpose of which is to identify...

  8. 1993 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.

    1993-04-01

    Since the early 1940s, the contractors at the Hanford Site have been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste (RMW). This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976{sup 2}(RCRA) and Atomic Energy Act{sup 3}. This report covers mixed waste only. Hazardous waste that is not contaminated with radionuclides is not addressed in this report. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order{sup 1} (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for RMW. This report is the third update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide, the information that follows: Waste characterization information; storage data; treatment information; waste reduction information; schedule; and progress.

  9. Regional chemical setting of the Apollo 16 landing site and the importance of the Kant Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, C. G.; El-Baz, F.

    1982-01-01

    Orbital X-ray data from the Apollo 16 region indicate that physiographic units identified before the lunar mission can be classified as chemical units as well. The Descartes Mountains, however, appear to be an extension of the Kant Plateau composition that is unusually anorthositic and resembles farside terra. The Cayley Plains have closer affinities to basaltic materials than terra materials, physically, spectrally and chemically. The Theophilus impact, 330 km east of the landing site, excavated magnesium-rich basalts from below less-magnesian flows in Mare Nectaris; but, mafic ejecta was substantially blocked from the Apollo 16 site by the Kant Plateau that rises 5 km above the level of the mare. Apollo 16 soil samples from stations selected to collect either Descartes Mountains material or Cayley Plains material were surprisingly similar. However, they do, indeed, show the chemical trends indicative of the two units as defined by the orbiting geochemistry detectors. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains material may be among the rare nearside examples of a plagioclase-rich cumulate of the primordial magma ocean.

  10. Image analysis for facility siting: a comparison of low- and high-altitude image interpretability for land use/land cover mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borella, H.M.; Estes, J.E.; Ezra, C.E.; Scepan, J.; Tinney, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    For two test sites in Pennsylvania the interpretability of commercially acquired low-altitude and existing high-altitude aerial photography are documented in terms of time, costs, and accuracy for Anderson Level II land use/land cover mapping. Information extracted from the imagery is to be used in the evaluation process for siting energy facilities. Land use/land cover maps were drawn at 1:24,000 scale using commercially flown color infrared photography obtained from the United States Geological Surveys' EROS Data Center. Detailed accuracy assessment of the maps generated by manual image analysis was accomplished employing a stratified unaligned adequate class representation. Both are-weighted and by-class accuracies were documented and field-verified. A discrepancy map was also drawn to illustrate differences in classifications between the two map scales. Results show that the 1:24,000 scale map set was accurate (99% to 94% area-weighted) than the 1:62,500 scale set, especially when sampled by class (96% to 66%). The 1:24,000 scale maps were also more time-consuming and costly to produce, due mainly to higher image acquisition costs

  11. EPA RE-Powering America's Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm Site ₋ Biomass Power Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing biomass at the Kansas City, Missouri, Municipal Farm site, a group of City-owned properties, is explored. The study that none of the technologies we reviewed--biomass heat, power and CHP--are economically viable options for the Municipal Farms site. However, if the site were to be developed around a future central biomass heating or CHP facility, biomass could be a good option for the site.

  12. Land-use changes on the proposed Clinch River Breeder Reactor demonstration. Project site: 1924 to 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConathy, R.K.

    1976-02-01

    A report is presented which documents the use history of the CRBRDP site and is also the first in a series to describe ecological areas on the ERDA Oak Ridge Reservation meeting criteria for scientific study sites or natural areas worthy of preservation. The CRBRDP area under discussion is located in Roane County, Tennessee and is a part of the land purchased in 1942 by the United States Government for the Manhattan Project, now known as the ERDA Oak Ridge Reservation

  13. Corrective measures technology for shallow land burial at arid sites: field studies of biointrusion barriers and erosion control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Lopez, E.A.

    1986-03-01

    The field research program involving corrective measures technologies for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Results of field testing of a biointrusion barrier installed at a close-out waste disposal site (Area B) at Los Alamos are presented. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments were measured, and the interaction between erosion control and subsurface water dynamics is discussed relative to waste management.

  14. Inacessible Andean sites reveal land-use induced stabilisation of soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkamp, Felix; Maqsood, Shafique; Sylvester, Steven; Kessler, Michael; Jungkunst, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Human activity affects properties and development of ecosystems across the globe to such a degree that it is challenging to get baseline values for undisturbed ecosystems. This is especially true for soils, which are affected by land-use history and hold a legacy of past human interventions. Therefore, it is still largely unknown how soil would have developed "naturally" and if processes of organic matter stabilisation would be different in comparison to managed soils. Here, we show undisturbed soil development, i.e., the processes of weathering and accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC), by comparing pristine with grazed sites in the high Andes (4500 m) of southern Peru. We located study plots on a large ledge (0.2 km²) that is only accessible with mountaineering equipment. Plots with pristine vegetation were compared to rangeland plots that were constantly under grazing management for at least four millennia. All "state factors"; climate, potential biota, topography, parent material and time; besides "land-use" were, therefore, identical. Vegetation change, induced by grazing management, led to lower vegetation cover of the soil, thereby increasing soil surface temperatures and soil acidification. Both factors increased weathering in rangeland soils, as indicated by the presence of pedogenic oxides, especially amorphous Al-(oxy)hydroxides (oxalate-extractable Al). Higher losses of base cations (K, Na, Ca) and lower pH-values were related to a low base saturation of exchange sites in rangelands. Therefore, rangeland soils were classified as Umbrisol, whereas soils under pristine vegetation were classified as Phaeozeme. All profiles were rich in SOC (100 to 126 g kg-1) with no significant differences in concentrations or stocks. SOC of rangeland soils was, however, less available for microorganisms (proportion of microbial C on SOC: 1.8 vs. 0.6% in pristine and rangeland soils, respectively) and showed higher stability against thermal degradation. Reasons for

  15. 18 CFR 1312.7 - Notification to Indian tribes of possible harm to, or destruction of, sites on public lands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... importance. 1312.7 Section 1312.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... the site as having religious or cultural importance. Such notice shall not be deemed a disclosure to the public for purposes of section 9 of the Act. (1) Notice by the Federal land manager to any Indian...

  16. Rock size-frequency distributions analysis at lunar landing sites based on remote sensing and in-situ imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Ling, Zongcheng; Zhang, Jiang; Chen, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Rock populations can supply fundamental geological information about origin and evolution of a planet. In this paper, we used Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) narrow-angle camera (NAC) images to identify rocks at the lunar landing sites (including Chang'e 3 (CE-3), Apollo and Surveyor series). The diameter and area of each identified rock were measured to generate distributions of rock cumulative fractional area and size-frequency on a log-log plot. The two distributions both represented the same shallow slopes at smaller diameters followed by steeper slopes at larger diameters. A reasonable explanation for the lower slopes may be the resolution and space weathering effects. By excluding the smaller diameters, rock populations derived from NAC images showed approximately linear relationships and could be fitted well by power laws. In the last, the entire rock populations derived from both NAC and in-situ imagery could be described by one power function at the lunar landing sites except the CE-3 and Apollo 11 landing sites. This may be because that the process of a large rock breaking down to small rocks even fine particles can be modeled by fractal theories. Thus, rock populations on lunar surfaces can be extrapolated along the curves of rock populations derived from NAC images to smaller diameters. In the future, we can apply rock populations from remote sensing images to estimate the number of rocks with smaller diameters to select the appropriate landing sites for the CE-4 and CE-5 missions.

  17. Recreational rates and future land-use preferences for four Department of Energy sites: consistency despite demographic and geographical differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2004-01-01

    The management of ecosystems has been improved by both a public understanding of ecosystem structure and function and by managers' understanding of public perceptions and attitudes. This is especially true for contaminated lands where there are a variety of remediation, restoration, and future land-use decisions to be made. This paper synthesizes several surveys from four US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the states of South Carolina, Idaho, Nevada, and New York. Although ethnic composition varied among the sites, age and gender did not. The percentage of the study population engaged in hunting ranged from 30% to 41% and that in fishing ranged from 55% to 74%. Average hunting rates ranged from 9 (New York) to 15 (South Carolina) days/year; average fishing rates ranged from 12 (New Mexico) to 38 (New York) days a year. Despite the demographic and recreational rate differences, there was remarkable agreement about future land uses. Maintaining these DOE sites as National Environmental Research Parks and using them for nonconsumptive recreation rated the highest. The lowest rated future land uses were current and additional nuclear waste storage and the building of homes and factories. People who participated in a recreational activity rated those future land uses higher than nonusers. While these data on recreational rates can be used to assess the potential risk to people using contaminated sites and to aid in setting clean-up standards based on potential risk, the information on land-use preferences can be used by managers to determine future use and to plan for such use. This information is particularly relevant to the Department of Energy's 'Risk-based End State Vision'

  18. Reclamation of oil and gas well sites on privately-owned land in Alberta: An evaluation of benefits and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    In Alberta, ca 24,000 oil/gas well sites will be abandoned over the next 10 years. There is concern that the expense to reclaim the surface lands at these sites to current standards represents a substantial opportunity cost to industry and the provincial economy. The economic costs and benefits associated with regulation of such reclamation activity are examined and the impacts of surface access regulations on the reclamation process are discussed. Cost benefit analysis is not easily applied to environmental regulation where some extra-market benefits and costs are intangible and/or unmeasurable. Although this qualifies the results, it appears that the costs of wellsite reclamation exceed the benefits. Costs are defined as reclamation expenses; benefits are defined as the real estate value of the land, or the net present value of agricultural land rentals. An effort has been made to provide a proxy for the extra-market value of the land to the landowner. The continuation of full surface access compensation for nonproducing wells can result in negative incentive effects that reduce allocative efficiency of reclamation regulation. Reclamation costs are correlated with well age and surface access payments, but not with agricultural land use or geographic region. This suggests that reclamation standards designed to reclaim well sites to the same productive capacity as site-adjacent land is not driving reclamation effort. Rather, landowners have negotiated substantial annual surface lease payments and may also be demanding greater reclamation effort, either to maximize compensation due to higher expectations. Methods of reducing these negative incentive effects to better achieve reclamation goals are suggested. 49 refs., 9 figs., 17 tabs

  19. The Mars Science Laboratory Mission: Early Results from Gale Crater Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatow, I.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Blake, D.; Crisp, J. A.; Edgett, K. S.; Gellert, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hassler, D. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Malin, M. C.; Meyer, M. A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Vasavada, A. R.; Wiens, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, landed at Gale Crater on August 5th (PDT) and initiated an investigation of modern and ancient environments. The 155-km diameter Gale Crater was chosen as Curiosity's field site based on several attributes: the interior Mount Sharp preserves a succession of flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mound show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate-bearing strata, separated by an unconformity from overlying likely anhydrous strata; the landing ellipse is characterized by a mixture of alluvial fan and high thermal inertia/high albedo stratified deposits; and a number of stratigraphically/geomorphically distinct fluvial features. Gale's regional context and strong evidence for a progression through multiple potentially habitable environments, represented by a stratigraphic record of extraordinary extent, ensure preservation of a rich record of the environmental history of early Mars. Curiosity has an expected lifetime of at least one Mars year (~23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. The MSL science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere (SAM); an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity (CheMin); focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color (MAHLI, Mastcam); an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry (APXS); a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals (ChemCam); an active/passive neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith (DAN); a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables (REMS); and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of

  20. Apollo 11 voice transcript pertaining to the geology of the landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, N.G.; Ulrich, G.E.

    1974-01-01

    On July 20, 1969, America's Eagle touched down in southwestern Mare Tranquillitatis beginning man's firsthand exploration of the moon. This document is an edited record of the conversations between astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, Jr., at Tranquility Base, and Bruce McCandless at Mission Control in Houston during the approximately 22 hours spent on the lunar surface. It includes additional commentary during their return to Earth. It is a condensation hopefully of all the verbal data having geological significance. All discussions and observations documenting the lunar landscape, its geologic characteristics, the rocks and soils collected, and the photographic record are retained along with supplementary remarks essential to the continuity of events during the mission. We have deleted the words of mechanical housekeeping and engineering data, attempting not to lose the personal and philosophical aspects of this intensely human experience. The sources of this verbal transcript are the complete audio tapes recorded during the mission and the Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcription published by NASA. The voice record is listed chronologically given in days, hours, minutes, and seconds. These are the Ground Elapsed Times (GET) after launch from Kennedy Space Center which was 9:32 a.m. EDT on July 16, 1969. Figure 1 shows the vicinity of the landing site that was described, sampled, and photographed by the Apollo 11 crewmen.

  1. Landing Site Selection and Surface Traverse Planning using the Lunar Mapping & Modeling Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Chang, G.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), is a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools for users to access mapped lunar data products (including image mosaics, digital elevation models, etc.) from past and current lunar missions (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Apollo, etc.), and to perform in-depth analyses to support lunar surface mission planning and system design for future lunar exploration and science missions. It has been widely used by many scientists mission planners, as well as educators and public outreach (e.g., Google Lunar XPRICE teams, RESOLVE project, museums etc.) This year, LMMP was used by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI)'s Lunar Exploration internship program to perform lighting analysis and local hazard assessments, such as, slope, surface roughness and crater/boulder distribution to research landing sites and surface pathfinding and traversal. Our talk will include an overview of LMMP, a demonstration of the tools as well as a summary of the LPI Lunar Exploration summer interns' experience in using those tools.

  2. 1997 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1997-04-07

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tn-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al, 1989). The text of this milestone is below. ''LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration of other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: Waste characterization plan; Storage report; Treatment report; Treatment plan; Waste minimization plan; A schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; and A process for establishing interim milestones.

  3. Titan's surface spectra at the Huygens landing site and Shangri-La

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannou, P.; Toledo, D.; Lavvas, P.; D'Aversa, E.; Moriconi, M. L.; Adriani, A.; Le Mouélic, S.; Sotin, C.; Brown, R.

    2016-05-01

    Titan is an icy satellite of Saturn with a dense atmosphere and covered by a global photochemical organic haze. Ground based observations and the Huygens descent probe allowed to retrieve the main spectral signature of the water ice (Griffith, C.A. et al. [2003]. Science 300(5619), 628-630; Coustenis, A. et al. [2005]. Icarus 177, 89-105) at the surface, possibly covered by a layer of sedimented organic material (Tomasko, M.G. et al. [2005]. Nature 438(7069), 765-778). However, the spectrum of the surface is not yet understood. In this study, we find that the surface reflectivity at the Huygens Landing Site (HLS) is well modeled by a layer of water ice grains overlaid by a moist layer of weakly compacted photochemical aggregated aerosols. Moist soils have spectra shifted toward short wavelengths relatively to spectra of dry soils. Cassini observations of Shangri-La region from orbit also show a very dark surface with a reflectivity peak shifted toward short wavelengths in respect to the reflectivity peak of bright surfaces, revealing a dichotomy between terrains based to their spectra in visible.

  4. Sorghum - An alternative energy crop for marginal lands and reclamation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Stefan; Theiß, Markus; Jäkel, Kerstin

    2017-04-01

    differences between maize and sorghum were the least pronounced due to the poorer performance of maize under these site conditions. Furthermore, the comparatively lower land-lease rates in these regions allowed for positive equity capital formation also in sorghum crops.

  5. Small lunar craters at the Apollo 16 and 17 landing sites - morphology and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanti, P.; Robinson, M. S.; Thompson, T. J.; Henriksen, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    New analysis and modeling approaches are applied to high-resolution images and topography of the Apollo 16 and 17 landing sites to investigate the morphology and estimate degradation of small lunar craters (SLCs; 35 to 250 m diameter). We find SLCs at the two sites are mostly degraded with an average depth-diameter ratio (d/D) inverted cone-shaped craters. An improved standardized morphological classification and a novel set of quantitative shape indicators are defined and used to compare SLCs between the two sites. Our classification methodology allows morphological class populations to be designated with minimal (and measurable) ambiguity simplifying the study of SLC degradation at different target regions. SLC shape indicators are computationally obtained from topography, further facilitating a quantitative and repeatable comparison across study areas. Our results indicate that the interior slopes of SLCs evolve faster and through different processes relative to larger craters ( > 500 m). Assuming SLCs are formed with large initial depth-to-diameter ratio (d/D ≥ 0.2), our observation that even the fresher SLCs are relatively shallow imply that a faster mass wasting process post-formation stabilizes the crater walls and eventually slows down degradation. We also found that the Apollo 16 Cayley plains have a higher percentage of fresh craters than the Apollo 17 Taurus Littrow (TL) plains. A combination of a less-cohesive target material and/or seismic shaking resulting from moonquakes or the impact of Tycho crater secondaries was likely responsible for a higher degradation rate in the TL-plains compared to the Cayley plains. This study explores the relationship between the symmetry and probability densities of key morphological traits like d/D, mean wall slope and rate of degradation. We show that the shape of d/D probability density function of SLCs in a study area encodes their rate of degradation. Comparison of power-law fitting and probabilistic modeling of

  6. Developing a Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure for Evaluating Landing Sites and Performing Surface Operations for the Mars 2020 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, R. L.; Laura, J.; Hare, T. M.; Otero, R.; Edgar, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    A Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) is a robust framework for data and data products, metadata, data access mechanisms, standards, policy, and a user community that helps to define and standardize the data necessary to meet some specified goal. The primary objective of an SDI is to improve communication, to enhance data access, and to aid in identifying gaps in knowledge. We are developing an SDI that describes the foundational data sets and accuracy requirements to evaluate landing site safety, facilitate the successful operation of Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), and assist in the operation of the rover once it has successfully landed on Mars. Thru current development efforts, an implicit SDI exists for the Mars 2020 mission. An explicit SDI will allow us to identify any potential gaps in knowledge, facilitate communication between the different institutions involved in landing site evaluation and TRN development, and help ensure a smooth transition from landing to surface operations. This SDI is currently relevant to the Mars 2020 rover mission, but can also serve as a means to document current requirements for foundational data products and standards for future landed missions to Mars and other planetary bodies. To generate a Mars 2020-specific SDI, we must first document and rationalize data set and accuracy requirements for evaluating landing sites, performing surface operations, and inventorying Mars 2020 mission needs in terms of an SDI framework. This step will allow us to 1) evaluate and define what is needed for the acquisition of data and the generation and validation of data products, 2) articulate the accuracy and co-registration requirements, and 3) identify needs for data access (and eventual archiving). This SDI document will serve as a means to communicate the existing foundational products, standards that were followed in producing these products, and where and how these products can be accessed by the planetary community. This SDI will also

  7. Incorporating root hydraulic redistribution and compensatory water uptake in the Common Land Model: Effects on site level and global land modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Siguang; Chen, Haishan; Zhang, Xiangxiang; Wei, Nan; Shangguan, Wei; Yuan, Hua; Zhang, Shupeng; Wang, Lili; Zhou, Lihua; Dai, Yongjiu

    2017-07-01

    Treatment of plant water uptake through the roots remains a significant issue in land surface models. Most current land surface models calculate the root water uptake (RWU) by extracting soil water in different soil layers based on the relative soil water availability and the root fraction of each layer within the rooting zone. This approach is also used as the default in the Common Land Model (CoLM). This approach often significantly underestimates plant transpiration during dry periods. Therefore, more realistic RWU functions are needed in land surface models. In this study, the modified CoLM with root hydraulic redistribution (HR) and compensatory water uptake (CWU) was evaluated against the CoLM with the default approach by comparing the observed and simulated latent and sensible heat fluxes observed from three sites that experience seasonal drought over the measured periods. We found that the CoLM using the default RWU significantly underestimated latent heat fluxes and overestimated the sensible heat fluxes over dry periods, whereas those biases were significantly reduced by the CoLM with HR and CWU functions. We also ran global offline simulations using the revised CoLM to evaluate the performance of these alternative RWU functions on the global scale. Compared with the estimated latent heat fluxes from the FLUXNET-model tree ensemble model product, CoLM with HR and CWU functions significantly improved the estimated latent heat fluxes over the Amazon, Southern Africa, and Central Asia during their dry seasons. Therefore, we recommend the implementation of HR and CWU in land surface models.

  8. 1994 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1994-04-01

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al. 1992). The text of this milestone is below. LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration at other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: waste characterization plan; storage report; treatment report; treatment plan; waste minimization plan; a schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; a process for establishing interim milestones. The original plan was published in October 1990. This is the fourth of a series of annual updates required by Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-26-01. A Tri-Party Agreement change request approved in March 1992 changed the annual due date from October to April and consolidated this report with a similar one prepared under Milestone M-25-00. The reporting period for this report is from April 1, 1993, to March 31, 1994.

  9. Financing Renewable Energy Projects on Contaminated Lands, Landfills, and Mine Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information concerning financing tools and structures, as well as federal financial incentives that may be available for redeveloping potentially contaminated sites, landfills, or mine sites for renewable energy for site owners.

  10. Feasibility Study of Biopower in East Helena, Montana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) smelter in East Helena, Montana, was selected for a feasibility study under the initiative. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on the wood products industry in the area. Biopower was selected as the technology based on Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring utilities to purchase renewable power.

  11. METEO-P/H: Measuring ambient pressure and relative humidity on the ExoMars 2020 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkanen, T. T.; Genzer, M.; Hieta, M.; Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Polkko, J.; Kynkäänniemi, T.

    2017-09-01

    Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has designed and is in the process of building and testing a pressure and humidity measurement device for the ExoMars 2020 lander. The ExoMars 2020 mission consists of the Russian Roscosmos Surface Platform (SP) and the European Space Agency (ESA) Rover. The Surface Platform will perform the Entry, Descent and Landing for the lander combo and start stationary science operations after landing, while the Rover will drive off the SP to explore the landing site surroundings and soil. The FMI measurement device is installed on the Surface Platform to give continuous measurements from a stationary location. The METEO-P pressure device and METEO-H humidity device are part of the METEO meteorological science package, which also includes a thermometer and an anemometer from IKI, Russia, as well as the RDM Radiation and dust sensors, and the AMR magnetic field sensors from INTA, Spain.

  12. Remote Sensing Mars Landing Sites: An Out-of-School Time Planetary Science Education Activity for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Edgar, L. A.; Milazzo, M. P.; Vaughan, R. G.; Rubino-Hare, L.; Clark, J.; Ryan, S.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) project, we have developed an out-of-school time unit for middle school students focused on planetary remote sensing. The activity is divided into two exercises, with the goal of choosing a scientifically interesting and safe landing site for a future Mars mission. Students are introduced to NASA data from several actual and proposed landing sites and must use what they learn about remote sensing to choose a site that satisfies scientific and engineering criteria. The activity also includes background information for educators, including a summary of how landing on Mars helps answer major scientific questions, brief overviews of the data sets that the students will use, summaries of the site geology, and a list of relevant vocabulary. The first exercise introduces students to the concept of reflectance spectroscopy and how it can be used to identify the "fingerprints" of different minerals on the surface of Mars. Students are provided with simplified maps of mineral spectra at the four sites, based on Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) observations, as well as a reference sheet with the spectra of common minerals on Mars. They can use this information to determine which sites have hydrated minerals, mafic minerals, or both. The second exercise adds data from the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA), and high resolution visible data from the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Students learn about laser altimetry and how to interpret topographic contours to assess whether a landing site is too rough. The CTX data allow students to study the sites at higher resolution, with annotations that indicate key landforms of interest. These data, along with the spectroscopy data, allow students to rank the sites based on science and engineering criteria. This activity was developed as a collaboration between subject matter experts at

  13. The 3-D geological model around Chang'E-3 landing site based on lunar penetrating radar Channel 1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuefeng; Zhu, Peimin; Zhao, Na; Xiao, Long; Garnero, Edward; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jiannan; Qiao, Le

    2017-07-01

    High-frequency lunar penetrating radar (LPR) data from an instrument on the lunar rover Yutu, from the Chang'E-3 (CE-3) robotic lander, were used to build a three-dimensional (3-D) geological model of the lunar subsurface structure. The CE-3 landing site is in the northern Mare Imbrium. More than five significant reflection horizons are evident in the LPR profile, which we interpret as different period lava flow sequences deposited on the lunar surface. The most probable directions of these flows were inferred from layer depths, thicknesses, and other geological information. Moreover, the apparent Imbrian paleoregolith homogeneity in the profile supports the suggestion of a quiescent period of lunar surface evolution. Similar subsurface structures are found at the NASA Apollo landing sites, indicating that the cause and time of formation of the imaged phenomena may be similar between the two distant regions.

  14. Contaminated land in Colombia: A critical review of current status and future approach for the management of contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Espana, Victor Andres; Rodriguez Pinilla, Alfonso R; Bardos, Paul; Naidu, Ravi

    2018-03-15

    Environmental contaminants can have negative effects on human health and land, air and water resources. Consequently, there have been significant advances in regulation for protecting the environment in developed countries including the development of remediation frameworks and guidelines. On the other hand, fewer studies have been reported on the risks and health effects of contaminants in developing regions and there is scarce information regarding contaminated land assessment and environmental remediation. Colombia is an important emerging economy and has started to take the first steps towards the development of a framework for the management of contaminated sites and there are opportunities for the country to learn from countries with well-established frameworks such as the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) and for international collaboration with organisations such as CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CARE). We review main pollution issues, current status of contaminated land management in Colombia to identify the gaps in policy and regulation. We also review the UK and US contaminated land policies and regulations to identify the elements of those experiences that could support progress in the country. Finally, we propose recommendations (e.g. risk based approach, soil screening criteria, clean-up funding, liability) for Colombia that could support further development and implementation of a more effective contaminated land management framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on Landscape Planting at the Site of the Enterprising Office based on the Land Use Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMOMURA, Yasuhiko; MASUDA, Noboru; NAKASE, Isao; ABE, Daishu

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study is to make clear how landscape planting should be at the private spaces in the near future, by obtaining the knowledge regarding the intention and attitude to landscape planting, and the methods and spaces to plant at the site of the enterprising offices. As a result, it is very important to plant at the private spaces. This study shows how landscape planting should be at the site of the enterprising offices based on the land use characteristics. In this study, first of ...

  16. Coal Mines, Reclamation Sites - Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Recycling Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Reclamation Locations are clean-up projects that are working to eliminate some form of abandoned mine. The following sub-facility types...

  17. Multimedia Sampling During the Application of Biosolids on a Land Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project integrated research from several disciplines to evaluate the effects of land application of biosolids on air and volatile emissions and soil microbial characteristics. Measurements included chemical, physical, and microbiological analytes.

  18. Cell-based land use screening procedure for regional siting analysis. [Utilizing spatial analysis procedures and computer graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalbert, J.S.; Dobson, J.E.

    1976-10-03

    An energy facility site-screening methodology which permits the land resource planner to identify candidate siting areas was developed. Through the use of spatial analysis procedures and computer graphics, a selection of candidate areas is obtained. Specific sites then may be selected from among candidate areas for environmental impact analysis. The computerized methodology utilizes a cell-based geographic information system for specifying the suitability of candidate areas for an energy facility. The criteria to be considered may be specified by the user and weighted in terms of importance. Three primary computer programs have been developed. These programs produce thematic maps, proximity calculations, and suitability calculations. Programs are written so as to be transferrable to regional planning or regulatory agencies to assist in rational and comprehensive power plant site identification and analysis.

  19. Depth-selective Mössbauer spectroscopy from the two MER landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, I.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Rodionov, D.

    2008-09-01

    ]. Figure 1 shows the 6.4 keV and 14.4 keV spectra obtained on the brushed surface of Mazatzal. The weathering product nanophase oxide (npOx) shows a higher subspectral area in the 6.4-keV-spectra (~ 45%) than in the 14.4-keV-spectra (~ 30%). Simulated spectra based on a model with a surface layer composed of mainly npOx and with a thickness of 10 μm compare best to measurements. Meridiani cobbles: Along Opportunity's traverse, several rock fragments with no apparent geological relationship to Meridiani Planum were analyzed. These cobbles appear to have a variety of different origins [8]. BounceRock (Sols 66-70): BounceRock is chemically and mineralogically similar to SNC meteorites [9, 10]. The 6.4 keV spectrum obtained on the undisturbed spot "Fips2" shows an enrichment of npOx in comparison to the 14.4 keV spectrum (see Figure 1). An additional magnetic phase is present, whose Mössbauer parameters are in agreement with pyrrhotite, which is also a typical accessory mineral in SNC meteorites [10]. HeatShieldRock (Sols 348-351) HeatShieldRock was classified as an iron meteorite. Mössbauer spectra show mostly kamacite with little npOx. A coating, probably a remnant of a fusion crust, is visible in Pancam spectra. For Mössbauer measurements, a field of view containing both coated and uncoated portions of the surface was chosen [11]. However, the 6.4 keV spectrum obtained on the brushed spot shows less npOx (2%) than the corresponding 14.4 keV spectrum (4%). This is inconsistent with an oxidized fusion crust on the rock. 14.4 keV and 6.4 keV spectra obtained on other cobbles show differences which can be attributed to minor alteration, surface dust contamination or the inhomogeneous nature of the sample [12]. Soils at both landing sites Generally, soil spectra obtained at both landing sites show great similarities and soil was shown to be a global component [13]. Mössbauer areas obtained from 6.4 keV and 14.4 keV spectra were plotted against each other for olivine

  20. Chemical species of migrating radionuclides at commercial shallow land burial sites. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, L.J.; Rickard, W.H.; Toste, A.P.

    1983-11-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to develop an understanding of chemical processes that significantly influence the migration of radionuclides at commercial low-level waste burial sites. Chemical measurements of waste trench leachate and identification of chemical changes in leachate during migration will provide a basis for geochemical waste transport models. This project will produce for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) information to support guidance for implementation of 10 CFR 61, particularly in the development of criteria for low level waste disposal site selection, management, permanent closure and monitoring. This project will also produce information needed by the Commonwealth of Kentucky as they finalize plans to stabilize, close and monitor the Maxey Flats site. Current research results are presented for the following tasks: (1) chemical forms inorganic and organic radionuclide species; (2) subsurface migration and infiltration studies; (3) specific radionuclide mapping at Maxey Flats and other commercial shallow land burial sites; (4) ecological monitoring at commercial shallow land burial sites; and (5) technical program coordination for low-level waste research. 17 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  1. On the Applicability of Geographic Information Systems for Landing-Site Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gasselt, S.

    2013-09-01

    As of 2013, a total number of 45 autonomous lander, sample-return or rover missions have been launched to the Moon, Venus, Mars, and Titan since 1960. Slightly less than 50% of these attempts were successful (see [4] and compilation in figure 1). Reports of the National Research Council (NRC) or recent surveys and roadmaps of space agencies clearly state the importance of autonomous units operating on the surface of other planets as precursors to in-depth robotic analyses and human exploration [1, 2, 3]. The selection of landing sites for autonomously operating planetary probes is a complex task, mainly because of partial gaps in the determinability of surface properties based on remote-sensing data, but also because scientific as well as engineering aspects need to be co-evaluated to provide a basis for a successful and effective mission-operation with measurable scientific output. Science criteria are always related to a set of (planet-specific) surface investigations conducted at a distinct location. Engineering constraints pick up science criteria and form an additional set of requirements within a geospatial context. This context makes it attractive to make use of established tools to geospatially analyse, define and rate locations in terms of a feasibility and safety assessment for lander or rover operations. For terrestrial applications, integration, analysis and evaluation of data from a geospatial domain are today usually conducted using highly modifiable but generic geographic information system (GIS) technology (GIST). GIS allow us to define workflow models related to geospatially defined data and to extract information from such investigations. We here want to discuss how standard demands as put forward by recent mission-planning scenarios can be evaluated using standard GIST, i.e. we want to define adaptable workflows for solving characteristic problems. As a second aim, such a procedure should provide a basis for discussion on how such systems can

  2. Estimation of Community Land Model parameters for an improved assessment of net carbon fluxes at European sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Hanna; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Fox, Andrew; Vereecken, Harry; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan

    2017-03-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) contains many parameters whose values are uncertain and thus require careful estimation for model application at individual sites. Here we used Bayesian inference with the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM(zs)) algorithm to estimate eight CLM v.4.5 ecosystem parameters using 1 year records of half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) observations of four central European sites with different plant functional types (PFTs). The posterior CLM parameter distributions of each site were estimated per individual season and on a yearly basis. These estimates were then evaluated using NEE data from an independent evaluation period and data from "nearby" FLUXNET sites at 600 km distance to the original sites. Latent variables (multipliers) were used to treat explicitly uncertainty in the initial carbon-nitrogen pools. The posterior parameter estimates were superior to their default values in their ability to track and explain the measured NEE data of each site. The seasonal parameter values reduced with more than 50% (averaged over all sites) the bias in the simulated NEE values. The most consistent performance of CLM during the evaluation period was found for the posterior parameter values of the forest PFTs, and contrary to the C3-grass and C3-crop sites, the latent variables of the initial pools further enhanced the quality-of-fit. The carbon sink function of the forest PFTs significantly increased with the posterior parameter estimates. We thus conclude that land surface model predictions of carbon stocks and fluxes require careful consideration of uncertain ecological parameters and initial states.

  3. Hayabusa2 NIRS3’s Investigation to Characterize and Select Sampling and Landing Sites on Asteroid (25143) Ryugu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takir, Driss; Hibbitts, Charles A.; Le Corre, Lucille; Emery, Joshua P.; Kitazato, Kohei; Sugita, Seiji; Nakauchi, Yusuke

    2017-10-01

    Following the visit of the spacecraft Hayabusa to (25143) Itokawa in 2005, the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) launched a second spacecraft, Hayabusa2, in 2014 to the near-Earth Apollo asteroid (162173) Ryugu, a C-complex asteroid. Hayabusa2 will arrive at Ryugu in 2018. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are important objects to study because of their possible role in the delivery of water and complex organic molecules to early Earth, and their threats to impact the Earth at irregular and unpredictable periods in the future. Hayabusa2 mission will provide exceptional science with a primary objective to illuminate the origin, evolution, and distribution of volatiles and organics on the surface of Ryugu and in the Solar System. Here we present our Near Infrared Spectrometer(NIRS3)-related strategy and plan to help the science team to characterize and select sampling and landing sites to collect carbonaceous samples from Ryugu and bring them back to Earth in 2020. Our plan includes, (1) measuring spectra of various carbonaceous chondrites and end-member hydrated silicates under asteroid-like conditions (vacuum and elevated temperatures) to develop spectral parameters of minerals and chemical compounds that we expect to detect on Ryugu, particularly around 2.8 to 3.2 µm, and (2) thermally and photometrically correcting Ryugu’s spectra to create site-specific and global maps of the mineralogical and chemical relative abundances across Ryugu’s surface, in addition to creating various albedo maps, including the geometric and bolometric Bond albedo. Previous 3-µm spectroscopic studies were conducted in ambient terrestrial environments, and hence were contaminated by atmospheric water. In our work, however, chondrite reflectance and hydrated mineral spectra are measured under asteroid-like conditions to remove adsorbed water and accurately compute the spectral parameters that will be used for Ryugu’s mineralogical and chemical mapping.AcknowledgementsWe wish to thank the

  4. A description of LUSTRA's common field sites[Forestry land use and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, Dan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences; Bergkvist, Bo [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Nilsson, Aake; Olsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils; Langvall, Ola [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Lammhult (Sweden). Asa Experimental Forest; Majdi, Hooshang [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research; Weslien, Per [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Botanical Inst.

    2004-07-01

    The LUSTRA program is focused on the greenhouse gases CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O, which are occurring in the atmosphere in increasing concentrations and causing a global warming effect. Carbon dioxide is being fixed in living biomass and released through respiration and decomposing processes. Nitrous oxide may be emitted, due to reduction processes, particularly from wet and nutrient-rich soils. Land use and soil management may significantly affect these processes, and a change in land use may induce reduced or increased emissions. The LUSTRA program vision is that strategic adaptation of land-use systems in managed forests in Sweden can greatly reduce net emissions of GHG. Forestry plays an important role through its potential to produce biomass for fossil fuel substitution and by sequestering carbon in standing biomass and soil organic matter including peat. Sweden has a land area of approximately 410,000 km{sup 2} of which 226,000 km{sup 2} (55 %) is forest land, defined as land suitable for forest production and with a potential mean stem production > 1m{sup 3}/ha/y. With a population of around 9 million inhabitants this gives the second largest forest land area per capita in Europe. Due to this large forest land area, Sweden has a significant strategic potential to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions by management of forested land. During its first phase, 1999-2002, the primary objective of the program was to evaluate various land-use and management options with respect to emissions of GHG with the ultimate goal to suggest guidelines with strategies for optimized reduction in emissions. Since the start of LUSTRA, the external environment and conditions for the program have changed. First, the significance of the greenhouse-gas problem has increased partly due to growing common awareness of the magnitude of the problem and partly due and fueled by current extreme weather conditions. Secondly, the progress of international negotiations has stressed the national demand to

  5. Is there a better metric than site index to indicate the productivity of forested lands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria E. Blanco Martin; Michael Hoppus; Andrew Lister; James A. Westfall

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program selects site trees for each plot that are used to measure site productivity. The ability of a site to produce wood volume is indicated indirectly by comparing total tree height with tree age. This comparison assumes that the rate of height growth is strongly related to...

  6. Integrated Weed Control for Land Stewardship at Legacy Management's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado - 13086

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Jody K. [Stoller LMS Team, Contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, Colorado 80021 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Land stewardship is one of nine sustainability programs in the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management System. Land stewardship includes maintaining and improving ecosystem health. At the Rocky Flats Site near Westminster, Colorado, land stewardship is an integral component of the Office of Legacy Management's post-closure monitoring and management at the site. Nearly 263 hectares (650 acres) were disturbed and re-vegetated during site cleanup and closure operations. Proactive management of revegetation areas is critical to the successful reestablishment of native grasslands, wetlands, and riparian communities. The undisturbed native plant communities that occur at the site also require active management to maintain the high-quality wetlands and other habitats that are home to numerous species of birds and other wildlife such as elk and deer, rare plant communities, and the federally listed threatened Preble's meadow jumping mouse. Over the past several decades, an increase of Noxious weeds has impacted much of Colorado's Front Range. As a result, weed control is a key component of the land stewardship program at Rocky Flats. Thirty-three species of state-listed Noxious weeds are known to occur in the Central and Peripheral Operable Units at Rocky Flats, along with another five species that are considered invasive at the site. Early detection and rapid response to control new invasive species is crucial to the program. An integrated weed control/vegetation management approach is key to maintaining healthy, sustainable plant communities that are able to resist Noxious weed invasions. Weed mapping, field surveys, and field-staff training sessions (to learn how to identify new potential problem species) are conducted to help detect and prevent new weed problems. The integrated approach at Rocky Flats includes administrative and cultural techniques (prevention), mechanical controls, biological controls, and chemical controls. Several

  7. Land Surface Reflectance Retrieval from Hyperspectral Data Collected by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle over the Baotou Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang; Tang, Bo-Hui; Wu, Hua; Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Enyu; Li, Chuanrong

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the in-flight performance of a new hyperspectral sensor onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-HYPER), a comprehensive field campaign was conducted over the Baotou test site in China on 3 September 2011. Several portable reference reflectance targets were deployed across the test site. The radiometric performance of the UAV-HYPER sensor was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the calibration accuracy. The SNR of the different bands of the UAV-HYPER sensor was estimated to be between approximately 5 and 120 over the homogeneous targets, and the linear response of the apparent reflectance ranged from approximately 0.05 to 0.45. The uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance was retrieved and validated using in situ measurements, with root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.01–0.07 and relative RMSE of approximately 5%–12%. There were small discrepancies between the retrieved uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance over the homogeneous targets and under low aerosol optical depth (AOD) conditions (AOD = 0.18). However, these discrepancies must be taken into account when adjacent pixels had large land surface reflectance contrast and under high AOD conditions (e.g. AOD = 1.0). PMID:23785513

  8. Land surface reflectance retrieval from hyperspectral data collected by an unmanned aerial vehicle over the Baotou test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang; Tang, Bo-Hui; Wu, Hua; Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Enyu; Li, Chuanrong

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the in-flight performance of a new hyperspectral sensor onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-HYPER), a comprehensive field campaign was conducted over the Baotou test site in China on 3 September 2011. Several portable reference reflectance targets were deployed across the test site. The radiometric performance of the UAV-HYPER sensor was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the calibration accuracy. The SNR of the different bands of the UAV-HYPER sensor was estimated to be between approximately 5 and 120 over the homogeneous targets, and the linear response of the apparent reflectance ranged from approximately 0.05 to 0.45. The uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance was retrieved and validated using in situ measurements, with root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.01-0.07 and relative RMSE of approximately 5%-12%. There were small discrepancies between the retrieved uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance over the homogeneous targets and under low aerosol optical depth (AOD) conditions (AOD = 0.18). However, these discrepancies must be taken into account when adjacent pixels had large land surface reflectance contrast and under high AOD conditions (e.g. AOD = 1.0).

  9. Land Surface Scheme Conceptualisation and Parameter Values for Three Sites with Contrasting Soil and Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soet, M.; Ronda, R.J.; Stricker, J.N.M.; Dolman, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to test the performance of the ECMWF land surface module (LSM) developed by Viterbo and Beljaars (1995) and to identify primary future adjustments, focusing on the hydrological components. This was achieved by comparing off-line simulations against observations

  10. 1999 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restriction for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLACK, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-011. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility

  11. Land snail distribution patterns within a site: The role of different calcium sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juřičková, L.; Horsák, M.; Cameron, R.; Hylander, K.; Míkovcová, A.; Hlaváč, J.; Rohovec, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2008), s. 172-179 ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00020701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : land snail s * small scale * calcium gradient * different calcium sources Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.888, year: 2008

  12. 1999 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restriction for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACK, D.G.

    1999-03-25

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-011. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility.

  13. Effects of hydrologic connectivity and land use on floodplain sediment accumulation at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, Jeremy Edward [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2017-12-28

    Floodplains, and the sediment accumulating naturally on them,are important to maintain stream water quality and serve as sinks for organic and inorganic carbon. Newer theories contend that land use and hydrologic connectivity (water-mediated transport of matter, energy, and/or organisms within or between elements of the hydrologic cycle) play important roles in determining sediment accumulation on floodplains. This study hypothesizes that changes in hydrologic connectivity have a greater impact on floodplain sediment accumulation than changes in land use. Nine sediment cores from seven sub-basins were collected from the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, and processed for grain-size, radionuclide dating (7Be, 137Cs, 210Pb), particulate organic carbon (POC), and microscopy. Historical records, including aerial and satellite imagery,were used to identify anthropogenic disturbances in the sub-basins, as well as to calculate the percentages of natural vegetation land cover at the SRS in 1951, and 2014. LiDAR and field survey data identified 251 flow impediments, measured elevation, and recorded standard stream characteristics (e.g., bank height) that canaffect hydrologic connectivity. Radionuclide dating was used to calculate sediment mass accumulation rates (MARs) and linear accumulation rates (LARs) for each core. Results indicate that sedimentation rates have increased across all SRS sub-basins over the past 40-50 years, shortly after site restoration and recovery efforts began.Findings show that hydrologic connectivity proxies (i.e., stream characteristics and impediments) have stronger relationships to MARs and LARs than the land use proxy (i.e., vegetation cover), confirming the hypothesis. Asstream channel depth and the number of impediments increase,floodplain sedimentation rates also increase. This knowledge can help future stream restoration efforts by focusing resources to more efficiently attain stated goals, particularly in terms of floodplain

  14. The Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: A potential landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Jean-PierreBibring; Poulet, François; Loizeau, Damien; Mangold, Nicolas; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Bishop, Janice L; Wray, James J; McKeown, Nancy K; Parente, Mario; Hauber, Ernst; Altieri, Francesca; Carrozzo, F Giacomo; Niles, Paul B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, which will launch in 2011, is to characterize the habitability of a site on Mars through detailed analyses of the composition and geological context of surface materials. Within the framework of established mission goals, we have evaluated the value of a possible landing site in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars that is targeted directly on some of the most geologically and astrobiologically enticing materials in the Solar System. The area around Mawrth Vallis contains a vast (>1 × 10⁶ km²) deposit of phyllosilicate-rich, ancient, layered rocks. A thick (>150 m) stratigraphic section that exhibits spectral evidence for nontronite, montmorillonite, amorphous silica, kaolinite, saponite, other smectite clay minerals, ferrous mica, and sulfate minerals indicates a rich geological history that may have included multiple aqueous environments. Because phyllosilicates are strong indicators of ancient aqueous activity, and the preservation potential of biosignatures within sedimentary clay deposits is high, martian phyllosilicate deposits are desirable astrobiological targets. The proposed MSL landing site at Mawrth Vallis is located directly on the largest and most phyllosilicate-rich deposit on Mars and is therefore an excellent place to explore for evidence of life or habitability.

  15. Economic potential of alternative land and natural resource uses at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard-Haggard, K.

    1983-03-01

    The economic potentials of several alternative land uses at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are estimated. Alternatives considered include mining, agriculture, grazing, and hunting. There are two known tungsten ore bodies located in the Oak Spring mining district. The economic potential of the reserves is estimated to be $42,840. It is also possible that there are other economic mineral resources on the NTS whose values are yet unknown. There are an estimated 5000 ha of agricultural land on the Test Site; the cash value of alfalfa grown on this acreage is approximately $564,030. The economic potential of grazing at the Test Site lies somewhere in the range of $10,340 to $41,220. The assumed annual worth of mule deer to hunters is $90,440. The gross potential of hunting at the NTS is probably somewhat higher if trophy species, game birds and fur-bearing animals are also considered. It should be noted that the above values indicate gross worth; no costs are included in the estimates

  16. 77 FR 46106 - Tribal Listening Sessions on Sacred Sites on Federal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Tribal Listening Sessions on Sacred Sites on... conduct listening sessions with Indian tribes to obtain oral and written comments concerning sacred sites... the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this notice for the dates of the tribal listening sessions...

  17. Technology development for the design of shallow land burial facilities at semiarid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.; Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments are described: effectiveness of a moisture barrier and the physical basis for capillary barriers; trench cap designs for long term stabilization including biointrusion barrier testing; and joint DOE/NRC tracer migration experiment. In the first, a barrier concept known as the wick effect is being field tested to control the movement of water on top of and around shallow land burial trenches. The barrier is composed of bentonite and tuff. In the second, the performance is measured of a conventional and an improved trench cover design on surface water dynamics, in limiting biological intrusion, and under both natural and enhanced precipitation regimes. The third experiment evaluates leaching and transport of solutes in sandy silt backfill used in shallow land burial at Los Alamos and compares results with laboratory-derived parameter estimates. 6 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  18. Commercial Space Transportation and Approaches to landing sites over Maritime Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, Henk; Stevens, Jos; Nieuwenhuisen, Dennis; Schmitt, Dirk-Roger

    2015-01-01

    Commercial Space Transportation becomes an international business and requires landing opportunities all over the world. Hence the integration of space vehicles in other airspace than the US NAS is an important topic to be considered. The Single European Sky ATM Research Programme (SESAR) is preparing the implementation of a new ATM system in Europe. The requirements are defined by the concept of the shared Business Trajectory and System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Space vehicle op...

  19. Design and Analysis of Map Relative Localization for Access to Hazardous Landing Sites on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew E.; Aaron, Seth; Cheng, Yang; Montgomery, James; Trawny, Nikolas; Tweddle, Brent; Vaughan, Geoffrey; Zheng, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Human and robotic planetary lander missions require accurate surface relative position knowledge to land near science targets or next to pre-deployed assets. In the absence of GPS, accurate position estimates can be obtained by automatically matching sensor data collected during descent to an on-board map. The Lander Vision System (LVS) that is being developed for Mars landing applications generates landmark matches in descent imagery and combines these with inertial data to estimate vehicle position, velocity and attitude. This paper describes recent LVS design work focused on making the map relative localization algorithms robust to challenging environmental conditions like bland terrain, appearance differences between the map and image and initial input state errors. Improved results are shown using data from a recent LVS field test campaign. This paper also fills a gap in analysis to date by assessing the performance of the LVS with data sets containing significant vertical motion including a complete data set from the Mars Science Laboratory mission, a Mars landing simulation, and field test data taken over multiple altitudes above the same scene. Accurate and robust performance is achieved for all data sets indicating that vertical motion does not play a significant role in position estimation performance.

  20. Projecting Land Use Changes by Integrating Site Suitability Analysis with Historic Land Use Change Dynamics in the Context of Increasing Demand for Wood Pellets in the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Shrestha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rising export of wood pellets from southern United States would bring more land under loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. at the expense of other competitive land uses. We developed an approach to project potential changes in existing land uses by integrating site suitability analysis with historical land use dynamics in a watershed located within Oconee River Basin, Georgia, United States. We developed a GIS-based site suitability model to classify land into three categories (High, Medium, and Low for loblolly pine. Then, we calculated historical rates of land use changes in the selected watershed. Finally, we integrated the output of suitability analysis with the projected rates of land use changes under the two scenarios of wood pellet demand (High and Low to determine an increase in area under loblolly pine for 2016, 2021, and 2026 in a spatially explicit manner. Relative to 2011, the combined changes in the shrubland and evergreen forest land cover categories under High Demand scenario were 7.6, 14.6, and 21.1% and under Low Demand scenario were 3.8, 7.5, and 11.1% for the years 2016, 2021, and 2026, respectively. The developed approach could be applied in a relatively short time at modest spatial scales. The outputs of this study can also be used to determine the environmental implications of land use changes for ensuring the overall sustainability of wood-based bioenergy development in the United States and beyond.

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Price Landfill Site in Pleasantville, New Jersey. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Price Landfill site in Pleasantville, New Jersey, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  2. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tower Road Site in Aurora, Colorado. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tower Road site in Aurora, Colorado, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  3. Subsurface moisture regimes and tracer movement under two types of trench-cap designs for shallow land burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.A.; Cokal, E.J.

    1986-03-01

    The Los Alamos work has focused on proper design of shallow land burial (SLB) sites in arid and semiarid regions and on applying corrective measures to existing sites. One of the most important design features affecting the probability of movement of radionuclides in SLB sites is the type of trench cap placed over the waste. The cap influences such interdependent parameters as erosion, water infiltration and percolation, and biointrusion. To obtain experimental data for arid and semiarid sites, two different designs of trench caps, one with topsoil underlain with a cobble/gravel biobarrier and one with topsoil underlain with crushed tuff, were compared with respect to (1) seasonal changes in volumetric soil water content, and (2) downward migration of tracers emplaced directly below each type of trench cap. The causes for the large differences in concentrations found in this experiment need to be investigated further. Problems in environmental modeling and monitoring of arid and semiarid SLB sites because of heterogeneities in the soil profiles and their implications for SLB waste management need to be better understood. More work in trench-cap design and its influence on the many pathways available for mobilization is needed

  4. Groundwater Monitoring and Tritium-Tracking Plan for the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DB Barnett

    2000-08-31

    The 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) is a drainfield which receives treated wastewater, occasionally containing tritium from treatment of Hanford Site liquid wastes at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Since operation of the SALDS began in December 1995, discharges of tritium have totaled {approx}304 Ci, only half of what was originally predicted for tritium quantity through 1999. Total discharge volumes ({approx}2.7E+8 L) have been commensurate with predicted volumes to date. This document reports the results of all tritium analyses in groundwater as determined from the SALDS tritium-tracking network since the first SALDS wells were installed in 1992 through July 1999, and provides interpretation of these results as they relate to SALDS operation and its effect on groundwater. Hydrologic and geochemical information are synthesized to derive a conceptual model, which is in turn used to arrive at an appropriate approach to continued groundwater monitoring at the facility.

  5. Statewide screening for low-level radioactive waste shallow land burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.; Cannon, J.B.; Stratton, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology was developed for statewide low-level waste site screening based on NRC site selection criteria. The methodology and criteria were tested in Tennessee to determine their effectiveness in narrowing the choice of sites for more intensive localized site screening. The statewide screening methodology entailed two steps. The first step was to select one or more physiographic provinces wherein sites meeting the criteria were most likely to be found. The second step was to select one or more suitable outcrop bands from within the most favorable physiographic provinces. These selections were based entirely on examination of existing literature and maps at scales no larger than 1:250,000. The statewide screening project identified only one suitable physiographic province (the Mississippi Embayment region) and one favorable outcrop band (the Coon Creek Formation) within a three county area of western Tennessee. Ground water monitoring and predictability proved to be the most difficult criterion to meet. This criterion alone eliminated other outcrop bands in the Mississippi Embayment as well as the Eastern Highland Rim and Western Highland Rim physiographic provinces. Other provinces failed to meet several screening criteria. 3 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  6. Shared Opportunities on Institutional Lands: On-Site Food Production, Its Benefits, Barriers, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Irena; Mount, Phil; Clement, Chantal

    2016-10-01

    This article outlines preliminary findings of a 3-year project that explored on-site food production on institutional properties, primarily healthcare facilities. There are growing pressures on healthcare facilities to improve their food offerings and incorporate food gardens into their health programs. While several healthcare facilities produce food on-site, there are few studies that explore opportunities, capacities, and institutional barriers related to on-site food production. The study employed mixed methods including historical review, case studies, surveys, interviews, pilot garden projects, and Geographic Information System mapping. The number of participating institutions varied by method. Benefits associated with on-site food production can be health, economic, environmental, and social. There are also institutional barriers including administrative roadblocks, perceived obstacles, and the difficulty in quantitatively, measuring the qualitatively documented benefits. The benefits of food gardens far outweigh the challenges. On-site food production has tremendous potential to improve nutrition for staff and patients, offer healing spaces, better connect institutions with the communities in which they are located, and provide the long-professed benefits of gardening for all involved-from therapeutic benefits and outdoor physical activities to developing skills and social relationships in ways that few other activities do. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Potential of Nickel (Ni Phytoremediation of Adaptive Species on Revegetation Land, PT Vale Indonesia (Tbk Pomalaa Site Kolaka Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Danu Tuheteru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determinate the type of adaptive plant and its potential of phytoremediations on nickel revegetation land, PT. Vale Indonesia Tbk. Pomalaa site Kolaka Regency. The research was carried out in March - October 2016, with stages of explation and identification of adaptive plant species as well as analysis of nicel leaves and soil content using HNO3 or HClO4 method and (AAS Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometry test. 12 types of adaptive plants from 12 genera and 10 family. That grow naturally on nickel revegetation land PT. Vale Indonesia Tbk. site Pomalaa. Species from tree habitus thet freguently found, namely Gymnostoma sumatrana, Sarcotheca celebica, Parinaria corymbosa, Timonius celebicus, Weinnmania fraxinea, Alstonia macrophylla. Based on analysis result, there four species that was categorized as low acummulator Nepenthes maxima, Cheilanthes tenuifolia, Timonius celebicus, Sarcotheca celebica. The highest absorber is S. celebica with nickel content 595 mg/kg dry weight leaves. S. celebica potential to be developed as nickel phytoremedian.

  8. Phosphorus status of diverse soils in Finland as influenced by long-term P fertilisation I.Native and previously applied P at 24 experimental sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. SAARELA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The native reserves of phosphorus (P in Finnish soils are sizeable but poorly available to plants. The P status has been generally poor, but large rates of P applied since the 1940s have substantially enhanced the supply of P from the soil. As a means of optimising P fertilisation of crops grown in the improved soils and promoting agro-environmental sustainability of agriculture, long-term field experiments were established in 1977-1981 on various soil types around Finland, between the latitudes of 60 and 65 N. The experimental sites (8 Cambisols, 9 Regosols, 6 Histosols, 1 Podsol were moderately acidic (pH w 5.6, range 4.6-6.6 and contained 1.6-31.2% organic C, and (mineral soils 3-74% clay. The concentration of total P was 1.22 (0.66-1.87 g kg -1 , and the inorganic fraction separated with fluoride and hydroxide extractions (Al,Fe-P was 8.2% (4.5-12.4% of oxalate extractable Al+Fe (P saturation index. In mineral topsoil the pool of Al,Fe-P was 850 kg ha -1 , which is 300 kg ha -1 larger than was obtained in the early 1960s and 600 kg ha -1 larger than found in virgin soils. The soil test P value was 13.1 (3.7-60 mg dm -3 by the acid ammonium acetate method, 11.5 (1.6-42 mg dm -3 by a water extraction method (1:60 v/v and 61 (23-131 mg kg -1 with a modified Olsen method. The intensity factor of soil P status has remained at a relatively low level in a major part of the cultivated area.;

  9. Visualisation of very high resolution Martian topographic data and its application on landing site selection and rover route navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Lin, S.; Hong, J.; Park, D.; Yoon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    High resolution satellite imagery acquired from orbiters are able to provide detailed topographic information and therefore are recognised as an important tool for investigating planetary and terrestrial topography. The heritage of in-orbit high resolution imaging technology is now implemented in a series of Martian Missions, such as HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and CTX (Context Camera) onboard the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter). In order to fully utilise the data derived from image systems carried on various Mars orbiters, the generalised algorithms of image processing and photogrammetric Mars DTM extraction have been developed and implemented by Kim and Muller (2009), in which non-rigorous sensor model and hierarchical geomatics control were employed. Due to the successful “from medium to high” control strategy performed during processing, stable horizontal and vertical photogrammetric accuracy of resultant Mars DTM was achievable when compared with MOLA (Mars Obiter Laser Altimeter) DTM. Recently, the algorithms developed in Kim and Muller (2009) were further updated by employing advanced image matcher and improved sensor model. As the photogrammetric qualities of the updated topographic products are verified and the spatial solution can be up to sub-meter scale, they are of great value to be exploited for Martian rover landing site selection and rover route navigation. To this purpose, the DTMs and ortho-rectified imagery obtained from CTX and HiRISE covering potential future rovers and existing MER (Mars Exploration Rover) landing sites were firstly processed. For landing site selection, the engineering constraints such as slope and surface roughness were computed from DTMs. In addition, the combination of virtual topography and the estimated rover location was able to produce a sophisticated environment simulation of rover’s landing site. Regarding the rover navigation, the orbital DTMs and the images taken from cameras

  10. Response of Competing Vegetation to Site Preparation on West Gulf Coastal Plain Commercial Forest Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale L. Wolters; Henry A. Pearson; Ronald E. Thill; V. Clark Baldwin; Alton Martin

    1995-01-01

    The response of woody and herbaceous vegetation to site preparation, subsoil texture, and fertilization was measured on the West Gulf Coastal Plain. The influences of these treatments on competing vegetation were short-term. Drastic soil disturbance and fertilization briefly increased herbage production. Shear-windrow and shear-disk were generally the most effective...

  11. Sweetgum Response to Nitrogen Fertilization on Sites of Different Quality and Land Use History

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Donald J. Kaczmarek; James A. Burger; Michael B. Kane

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer management in young hardwood plantations is difficult due to our lack of understanding of the site-specific mechanisms that control tree response. Differences in landuse history and soil characteristics can alter the plant response to added N considerably. Foliage biomass, N content, N concentration, resorption, and soil N supply characteristics...

  12. 1998 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-01H. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility. The US Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors on the Hanford Facility were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid mixed waste. This waste is regulated under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of l976 and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers only mixed waste. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into the Tri-Party Agreement to bring the Hanford Facility operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for mixed waste. This report is the eighth update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide the following information: (1) Waste Characterization Information -- Provides information about characterizing each LDR mixed waste stream. The sampling and analysis methods and protocols, past characterization results, and, where available, a schedule for providing the characterization information are discussed. (2) Storage Data -- Identifies and describes the mixed waste on the Hanford Facility. Storage data include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 dangerous waste codes, generator process knowledge needed to identify the waste and to make LDR determinations, quantities

  13. 1998 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1998-04-10

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-01H. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility. The US Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors on the Hanford Facility were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid mixed waste. This waste is regulated under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of l976 and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers only mixed waste. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into the Tri-Party Agreement to bring the Hanford Facility operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for mixed waste. This report is the eighth update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide the following information: (1) Waste Characterization Information -- Provides information about characterizing each LDR mixed waste stream. The sampling and analysis methods and protocols, past characterization results, and, where available, a schedule for providing the characterization information are discussed. (2) Storage Data -- Identifies and describes the mixed waste on the Hanford Facility. Storage data include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 dangerous waste codes, generator process knowledge needed to identify the waste and to make LDR determinations, quantities

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  15. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kerr McGee Site in Columbus, Mississippi. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kerr McGee site in Columbus, Mississippi, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  17. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the VAG Mine Site in Eden and Lowell, Vermont. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vermont Asbestos Group (VAG) Mine site in Eden, Vermont, and Lowell, Vermont, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Geothermal Power Generation at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Site in Lakeview, Oregon. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Lakeview Uranium Mill site in Lakeview, Oregon, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide technical assistance for the project. The purpose of this report is to describe an assessment of the site for possible development of a geothermal power generation facility and to estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts for the facility. In addition, the report recommends development pathways that could assist in the implementation of a geothermal power system at the site.

  19. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olis, D.; Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the TechCity East Campus Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Site in Kingston, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geiger, Jesse W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Healey, Victoria [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the TechCity East Campus site in Kingston, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Brisbane Baylands Brownfield Site in Brisbane, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Brisbane Baylands site in Brisbane, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  2. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant Brownfield Site in Lackawanna, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant site in Lackawanna, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  3. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Fort Ord Army Base Site in Marina, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Fort Ord Army Base (FOAB) site in Marina, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  4. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS

  5. Muskox site fidelity and group cohesion in Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    fidelity and group cohesion was examined over a 16-year period using 477 earmarked individuals tagged in 1982 and 1983. Combining information from scientists and hunters, observations of live individuals were primarily made from 1983 to 1990, while the latest tagged muskoxen reported shot was from 1998......Increasing hunting pressure in Greenland demands improved knowledge on Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) biology in general and movement and grouping behaviour in specific to insure their proper management. Improving the exchange of information between hunters and managers is also necessary. Muskox site....... Muskoxen in this area had a very loose group structure, with mother-young pairs as the only apparent bond between individuals. Furthermore, the tagged muskoxen lacked strong fidelity to the site where they were tagged and roamed within an 11.000-km2 area. Hunters reported tagged muskoxen shot up to 120 km...

  6. Introduction to special section on the Phoenix Mission: Landing Site Characterization Experiments, Mission Overviews, and Expected Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. H.; Tamppari, L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bass, D.; Blaney, D.; Boynton, W.; Carswell, A.; Catling, D.; Clark, B.; Duck, T.; DeJong, E.; Fisher, D.; Goetz, W.; Gunnlaugsson, P.; Hecht, M.; Hipkin, V.; Hoffman, J.; Hviid, S.; Keller, H.; Kounaves, S.; Lange, C. F.; Lemmon, M.; Madsen, M.; Malin, M.; Markiewicz, W.; Marshall, J.; McKay, C.; Mellon, M.; Michelangeli, D.; Ming, D.; Morris, R.; Renno, N.; Pike, W. T.; Staufer, U.; Stoker, C.; Taylor, P.; Whiteway, J.; Young, S.; Zent, A.

    2008-10-01

    Phoenix, the first Mars Scout mission, capitalizes on the large NASA investments in the Mars Polar Lander and the Mars Surveyor 2001 missions. On 4 August 2007, Phoenix was launched to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a Delta 2 launch vehicle. The heritage derived from the canceled 2001 lander with a science payload inherited from MPL and 2001 instruments gives significant advantages. To manage, build, and test the spacecraft and its instruments, a partnership has been forged between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of Arizona (home institution of principal investigator P. H. Smith), and Lockheed Martin in Denver; instrument and scientific contributions from Canada and Europe have augmented the mission. The science mission focuses on providing the ground truth for the 2002 Odyssey discovery of massive ice deposits hidden under surface soils in the circumpolar regions. The science objectives, the instrument suite, and the measurements needed to meet the objectives are briefly described here with reference made to more complete instrument papers included in this special section. The choice of a landing site in the vicinity of 68°N and 233°E balances scientific value and landing safety. Phoenix will land on 25 May 2008 during a complex entry, descent, and landing sequence using pulsed thrusters as the final braking strategy. After a safe landing, twin fan-like solar panels are unfurled and provide the energy needed for the mission. Throughout the 90-sol primary mission, activities are planned on a tactical basis by the science team; their requests are passed to an uplink team of sequencing engineers for translation to spacecraft commands. Commands are transmitted each Martian morning through the Deep Space Network by way of a Mars orbiter to the spacecraft. Data are returned at the end of the Martian day by the same path. Satisfying the mission's goals requires digging and providing samples of interesting layers to three on-deck instruments. By

  7. Criteria for the designation of radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titley, J.; Mobbs, S.; Burgess, P.; Hitchins, G.; Sinclair, P.

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the criteria for the designation of radioactively contaminated land. It should be read in conjunction with reference to another output from the project i.e. Environment Agency report, Technical Support Material for the Regulation of Radioactively Contaminated Land 1999. This report deals with the intervention on radioactively contaminated sites i.e. where no change of land use is anticipated and where the land has become contaminated as a result of previous land use and not current practices. (author)

  8. Multidisciplinary study of Wyoming test sites. [hydrology, biology, geology, lithology, geothermal, and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Marrs, R. W.; Agard, S. S.; Downing, K. G.; Earle, J. L.; Froman, N. L.; Gordon, R.; Kolm, K. E.; Tomes, B.; Vietti, J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Investigation of a variety of applications of EREP photographic data demonstrated that EREP S-190 data offer a unique combination of synoptic coverage and image detail. The broad coverage is ideal for regional geologic mapping and tectonic analysis while the detail is adequate for mapping of crops, mines, urban areas, and other relatively small features. The investigative team at the University of Wyoming has applied the EREP S-190 data to: (1) analysis of photolinear elements of the Powder River Basin, southern Montana, and the Wind River Mountains; (2) drainage analysis of the Powder River Basin and Beartooth Mountains; (3) lithologic and geologic mapping in the Powder River Basin, Black Hills, Green River Basin, Bighorn Basin and Southern Bighorn Mountains; (4) location of possible mineralization in the Absaroka Range; and (5) land use mapping near Riverton and Gillette. All of these applications were successful to some degree. Image enhancement procedures were useful in some efforts requiring distinction of small objects or subtle contrasts.

  9. Initial Results on the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mar Exploration Rover Gusev Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P. R.

    2004-05-01

    The Spirit rover has investigated the geochemistry and mineralogy of the Gusev crater site using in situ Alpha Proton X-Ray, Mossbauer, visible, and infrared spectroscopy. The Gusev site is covered with angular to sub-rounded rocks that are typically less than 1 m in maximum dimension. More than 90 percent of these rocks are dark-toned, with the remainder being lighter-toned rocks that may predominantly be dark rocks with a thin (10's of microns) coating of easily removed fines. APXS analysis has been obtained of a rock (Adirondack) following the removal by grinding of the surface dust and the upper few mm of the rock surface. These data give a modal mineralogy corresponding to olivine basalt. High quality Mini-TES data have not been obtained of a completely dust-free rock surface. The Mini-TES data of Adirondack do show long wavelength (15-25 microns) absorptions due to olivine of composition ~Fo60. All of the rocks observed are very compositionally homogeneous in the Mini-TES spectra. These findings are consistent with the detection of olivine-bearing basalt at this site from orbital TES infrared spectroscopy. Mossbauer spectra of Adirondack show the presence of forsteritic olivine and magnetite, with possible pyroxene. The soils at Gusev are a mixture of reddish fine-grained to sandy materials, granular-sized particles that occur in ripple forms, and minor pebbles. Mini-TES spectra of the soil show an excellent match to the TES spectra of high-albedo, fine-grained material found in regional bright regions that is interpreted to be windblown dust. This agreement suggests at least the uppermost layer of the soil at Gusev has been accumulated from airfall dust. By analogy with prior analysis of TES data these materials contain several percent carbonate, minor bound water, and a framework silicate interpreted to be either feldspar or zeolite. APXS spectra show similar oxide abundances to those determined for the Pathfinder site, except for higher MgO, and lower

  10. Field studies of erosion-control technologies for arid shallow land-burial sites at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; DePoorter, G.L.; Hakonson, T.E.; Perkins, B.A.; Foster, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The field research program involving corrective measures technologies for arid shallow land-burial sites is described. Research performed for a portion of this task, the identification, evaluation, and modeling of erosion control technologies, is presented in detail. In a joint study with USDA-ARS, soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments was measured and compared with data from undisturbed soil surfaces with natural plant cover. The distribution of soil particles in the runoff was measured for inclusion in CREAMS (a field scale model for Chemicals, Runoff and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems). Neutron moisture gauge data collected beneath the erosion plots are presented to show the seasonal effects of the erosion control technologies on the subsurface component of water balance. 12 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  11. Implementation of a Self-Consistent Stereo Processing Chain for 3D Stereo Reconstruction of the Lunar Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdelen, E.; Willner, K.; Unbekannt, H.; Glaeser, P.; Oberst, J.

    2014-04-01

    The department for Planetary Geodesy at Technical University Berlin is developing routines for photogrammetric processing of planetary image data to derive 3D representations of planetary surfaces. The Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) software (Anderson et al., 2004), developed by USGS, Flagstaff, is readily available, open source, and very well documented. Hence, ISIS was chosen as a prime processing platform and tool kit. However, ISIS does not provide a full photogrammetric stereo processing chain. Several components like image matching, bundle block adjustment (until recently) or digital terrain model (DTM) interpolation from 3D object points are missing. Our group aims to complete this photogrammetric stereo processing chain by implementing the missing components, taking advantage of already existing ISIS classes and functionality. We report here on the current status of the development of our stereo processing chain and its first application on the Lunar Apollo landing sites.

  12. Physical properties of the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites as inferred from Mini-TES-derived thermal inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, R.L.; Christensen, P.R.; Bell, J.F.; Golombek, M.P.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Kieffer, H.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) on board the two Mars Exploration Rovers provides the first opportunity to observe thermal properties from the Martian surface, relate these properties to orbital data, and perform soil conductivity experiments under Martian conditions. The thermal inertias of soils, bedforms, and rock at each landing site were derived to quantify the physical properties of these features and understand geologic processes occurring at these localities. The thermal inertia for the. Gusev plains rock target Bonneville Beacon (???1200 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2) is consistent with a dense, basaltic rock, but the rocks at the Columbia Hills have a lower thermal inertia (???620 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), suggesting that they have a volcaniclasic origin. Bedforms on the floors of craters at both landing sites have thermal inertias of 200 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2, consistent with a particle diameter of ???160 ??m. This diameter is comparable to the most easily moved grain size in the current atmosphere on Mars, suggesting that these bedforms may have formed under current atmospheric conditions. Along the Meridiani plains, the thermal inertia is lower than that derived from TES and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) orbital data. This discrepancy is not well understood. Mini-TES-derived thermal inertias at Gusev along a ???2.5 km traverse follow trends in thermal inertia measured from orbit with TES and THEMIS. However, along the traverse, there are variability and mixing of particle sizes that are not resolved in the orbital thermal inertia data due to meter-scale processes that are not identifiable at larger scales. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Long-Term Performance of Transuranic Waste Inadvertently Disposed in a Shallow Land Burial Trench at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, Gregory J.; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-01-01

    In 1986, 21 m3 of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently disposed in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste must be disposed in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is the only facility meeting these requirements. The National Research Council, however, has found that exhumation of buried TRU waste for disposal in a deep geologic repository may not be warranted when the effort, exposures, and expense of retrieval are not commensurate with the risk reduction achieved. The long-term risks of leaving the TRU waste in-place are evaluated in two probabilistic performance assessments. A composite analysis, assessing the dose from all disposed waste and interacting sources of residual contamination, estimates an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 0.01 mSv, or 3 percent of the dose constraint. A 40 CFR 191 performance assessment also indicates there is reasonable assurance of meeting all requirements. The 40 CFR 191.15 annual mean TEDE for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.055 mSv at 10,000 years, or approximately 37 percent of the 0.15 mSv individual protection requirement. In both assessments greater than 99 percent of the dose is from co-disposed low-level waste. The simulated probability of the 40 CFR 191.13 cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the release limit is estimated to be 0.0093 and less than 0.0001, respectively. Site characterization data and hydrologic process modeling support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is reasonable assurance of meeting all regulatory requirements. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the results

  14. The Role Of Land Use In Environmental Decision Making At Three DOE Mega-Cleanup Sites, Fernald, Rocky Flats, and Mound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewett, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.

  15. Modeling human off-site aerosol exposures to polybrominated flame retardants emitted during the land application of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Chris; Yang, Wulin; Peccia, Jordan

    2013-10-01

    Elevated sewage sludge concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are due to their broad utilization in textiles and polymers, their resistance to biological degradation, and also their hydrophobic nature-which drives partitioning into wastewater solids. This study estimated the total U.S. emissions of PBDE due to sewage sludge land application and then determined the human inhalation exposure to sludge-associated PBDEs as a function meteorological conditions and downwind distances from an application site. These aerosol exposures have also been incorporated into pharmacokinetic models to predict contributions to steady-state body burden. Our results suggest that while the amount of PBDEs aerosolized during the land application process is small compared to aerosol emissions associated with product use, the application of sludges onto U.S. soils constitutes a major source of PBDEs entering the outdoor environment. Regarding aerosol exposure to nearby residents, the maximum daily inhalation dosages from a common land application scenario occur immediately after sewage sludges are applied and were 137, 27, 1.9, and 81pg/day for significant congeners PBDE-47, -99, -153 and 209 respectively. These doses are 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the standard daily inhalation exposure to the same PBDEs associated with home indoor air and are similar to doses from inhalation of urban and rural outdoor air. Under the worst-case atmospheric transport scenario, the dosages are reduced by approximately 1 order of magnitude when the setback distance between the sludge aerosolization source and human receptor is increased to 200m. Though the health implications of low-level exposures are not well-understood, these sludge-derived PBDE dosages contribute less than a tenth of 1% to the estimated total body burden of PBDE produced from inhalation of indoor and outdoor air, exposure to house dust, and exposure to PBDE from food and water intake. Overall, the inhalation of

  16. Regolith stratigraphy at the Chang'E-3 landing site as seen by lunar penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Wenzhe; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Liu, Tiantian; Plescia, Jeffrey B.

    2015-12-01

    The Chang'E-3 lunar penetrating radar (LPR) observations at 500 MHz reveal four major stratigraphic zones from the surface to a depth of ~20 m along the survey line: a layered reworked zone (<1 m), an ejecta layer (~2-6 m), a paleoregolith layer (~4-11 m), and the underlying mare basalts. The reworked zone has two to five distinct layers and consists of surface regolith. The paleoregolith buried by the ejecta from a 500 m crater is relatively homogenous and contains only a few rocks. Population of buried rocks increases with depth to ~2 m at first, and then decreases with depth, representing a balance between initial deposition of the ejecta and later turnover of the regolith. Combining with the surface age, the LPR observations indicate a mean accumulation rate of about 5-10 m/Gyr for the surface regolith, which is at least 4-8 times larger than previous estimation.

  17. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biomass Power Generation at the Former Farmland Industries Site in Lawrence, Kansas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomberlin, G.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of biomass renewable energy generation at the former Farmland Industries site in Lawrence, Kansas. Feasibility assessment team members conducted a site assessment to gather information integral to this feasibility study. Information such as biomass resources, transmission availability, on-site uses for heat and power, community acceptance, and ground conditions were considered.

  18. Men and their land. The mining sites of the Mokta French Company in Lozere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This booklet summarizes the history of the mining activity in the Lozere district (France) devoted to the extraction of uranium ores. This activity started in 1957 with the open cast exploitation of the Cellier deposit which lasted 35 years and produced 4200 t of uranium from 5800000 t of ore. The exploitation was performed by the French Company of Uranium Ores (CFMU). The uranium crisis started in 1962 and led to an increase of prospecting activities. The crisis ended with the first oil crack in 1973 and the uranium demand and prices grew up until 1979 when the Three Mile Island reactor accident occurred. The second crisis that followed led to the development of new recovery processes such as the heap lixiviation process. In 1980, the CFMU became the French Company of Mokta (CFM) and in 1986, the CFM became a 100% daughter company of the Cogema group. The exploitation of the Bondons mine ended in 1989 and the program of site rehabilitation started. The document focusses on the environmental aspects of this program, the reforestation, the drainage of surface waters and the control of water quality. (J.S.)

  19. Integrated report on radionuclide migration at the Savannah River shallow land burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    The impact of the SRP Solid Radioactive Waste Burial Ground on the environment has been studied since the early 1970s in four subtasks: subsurface monitoring of groundwater, lysimeter tests of waste, soil-water chemistry effects, and radionuclide transport modeling. This document summarizes and integrates the results of the four subtasks. More information has been gathered on the behavior of radionuclides in a solid waste disposal facility located in a humid region than from any other waste disposal site in the world. The design of closure for the SRP Burial Ground has been given a firm technical basis. The limiting pathways for radionuclide migration have been determined to be infiltrating rainwater and root penetration. Closure designs must therefore address both these factors. The designs for new storage/disposal facilities have also been given a firm technical basis. The major conclusions are that tritium will be stored for decay and not allowed to contact the groundwater, waste containing long-lived radionuclides such as iodine-129 must be stored for later geologic disposal, and above and below ground concrete vaults should be used for disposal of other low-level radioactive waste. 61 refs., 18 figs. 8 tabs

  20. Research Program at Maxey Flats and Consideration of Other Shallow Land Burial Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1981-03-01

    The Maxey Flats research program is a multidisciplinary, multilaboratory program with the objectives to define the radiochemical and chemical composition of leachates in the burial trenches, define the areal distribution of radionuclides on the site and the factors responsible for this distribution, define the concentrations of radionuclides in vegetation both on and offsite and the uptake of radionuclides by representative agricultural crops, define the atmospheric pathways for radionuclide transport and the mechanisms involved, determine the subsurface migration rates of radionuclides and the chemical, physical, biological, and hydrogeological factors which affect this migration. and evaluate the engineering practices which influence the seepage of surface waters into the burial trenches. The program was initiated in 1979 and a research meeting was held at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Headquarters on July 16, 1980, to report the research findings of each of the participating laboratories and universities. Important observations from the research are included in the Summary and the results reported for each of the research efforts are summarized in the individual reports that are combined to form this document.

  1. Groundwater Monitoring and Tritium-Tracking Plan for the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent

    2000-08-31

    The 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) is a drainfield which receives treated wastewater, occasionally containing high levels of tritium from treatment of Hanford Site liquid wastes. Only the SALDS proximal wells (699-48-77A, 699-48-77C, and 699-48-77D) have been affected by tritium from the facility thus far; the highest activity observed (2.1E+6 pCi/L) occurred in well 699-48-77D in February 1998. Analytical results of groundwater geochemistry since groundwater monitoring began at the SALDS indicate that all constituents with permit enforcement limits have been below those limits with the exception of one measurement of total dissolved solids (TDS) in 1996. The revised groundwater monitoring sampling and analysis plan eliminates chloroform, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, benzene, and ammonia as constituents. Replicate field measurements will replace laboratory measurements of pH for compliance purposes. A deep companion well to well 699-51-75 will be monitored for tritium deeper in the uppermost aquifer.

  2. New Insights into the Geology of the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site from Spectral and Morphologic Analysis of the 12-Color Superpan Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, S.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Barnouin-Jha, K.; Bishop, J.; Johnson, J.; McSween, H.; Morris, R.

    2003-01-01

    New analyses of rocks and soils at the Mars Pathfinder landing site have been completed using the full Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) 12- color SuperPan panorama. These revise early conclusions that rocks at the landing site are a single lithology coated only by windblown dust. We conclude instead that there is also a second lithology in addition to the dominant gray rock, and that it is consistent with highlands material excavated from beneath a thin veneer of northern plains; that many rocks have cemented coatings that formed during an early, probably wetter climate; and that young rocks excavated after coating formation ceased are mainly breccias or conglomerates.

  3. An Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Some Martian Regolith Simulants with Respect to the Surface Properties at the InSight Mission Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delage, Pierre; Karakostas, Foivos; Dhemaied, Amine; Belmokhtar, Malik; Lognonné, Philippe; Golombek, Matt; De Laure, Emmanuel; Hurst, Ken; Dupla, Jean-Claude; Kedar, Sharon; Cui, Yu Jun; Banerdt, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    In support of the InSight mission in which two instruments (the SEIS seismometer and the HP3 heat flow probe) will interact directly with the regolith on the surface of Mars, a series of mechanical tests were conducted on three different regolith simulants to better understand the observations of the physical and mechanical parameters that will be derived from InSight. The mechanical data obtained were also compared to data on terrestrial sands. The density of the regolith strongly influences its mechanical properties, as determined from the data on terrestrial sands. The elastoplastic compression volume changes were investigated through oedometer tests that also provided estimates of possible changes in density with depth. The results of direct shear tests provided values of friction angles that were compared with that of a terrestrial sand, and an extrapolation to lower density provided a friction angle compatible with that estimated from previous observations on the surface of Mars. The importance of the contracting/dilating shear volume changes of sands on the dynamic penetration of the mole was determined, with penetration facilitated by the ˜1.3 Mg/m3 density estimated at the landing site. Seismic velocities, measured by means of piezoelectric bender elements in triaxial specimens submitted to various isotropic confining stresses, show the importance of the confining stress, with lesser influence of density changes under compression. A power law relation of velocity as a function of confining stress with an exponent of 0.3 was identified from the tests, allowing an estimate of the surface seismic velocity of 150 m/s. The effect on the seismic velocity of a 10% proportion of rock in the regolith was also studied. These data will be compared with in situ data measured by InSight after landing.

  4. Comparing the performance of flat and hierarchical Habitat/Land-Cover classification models in a NATURA 2000 site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Yoni; O'Connell, Jerome; Marsh, Charles J.; Tarantino, Cristina; Blonda, Palma; Tomaselli, Valeria; Kunin, William E.

    2018-02-01

    The increasing need for high quality Habitat/Land-Cover (H/LC) maps has triggered considerable research into novel machine-learning based classification models. In many cases, H/LC classes follow pre-defined hierarchical classification schemes (e.g., CORINE), in which fine H/LC categories are thematically nested within more general categories. However, none of the existing machine-learning algorithms account for this pre-defined hierarchical structure. Here we introduce a novel Random Forest (RF) based application of hierarchical classification, which fits a separate local classification model in every branching point of the thematic tree, and then integrates all the different local models to a single global prediction. We applied the hierarchal RF approach in a NATURA 2000 site in Italy, using two land-cover (CORINE, FAO-LCCS) and one habitat classification scheme (EUNIS) that differ from one another in the shape of the class hierarchy. For all 3 classification schemes, both the hierarchical model and a flat model alternative provided accurate predictions, with kappa values mostly above 0.9 (despite using only 2.2-3.2% of the study area as training cells). The flat approach slightly outperformed the hierarchical models when the hierarchy was relatively simple, while the hierarchical model worked better under more complex thematic hierarchies. Most misclassifications came from habitat pairs that are thematically distant yet spectrally similar. In 2 out of 3 classification schemes, the additional constraints of the hierarchical model resulted with fewer such serious misclassifications relative to the flat model. The hierarchical model also provided valuable information on variable importance which can shed light into "black-box" based machine learning algorithms like RF. We suggest various ways by which hierarchical classification models can increase the accuracy and interpretability of H/LC classification maps.

  5. Probability of solar panel clearing events at the Insight landing sites (Mars) from a dust devil track survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, D.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2015-10-01

    The InSight robotic lander is scheduled to land on Mars in September 2016. InSight was designed to perform the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation of Mars [1]. Passage of vortices may have a number of influences on the geophysical measurements to be made by InSight. Seismic data could be influenced by dust devils and vortices via several mechanisms such as loading of the elastic ground by a surface pressure field which causes a local tilt [e.g. 2]. In addition, the power supply of the InSight instruments is provided by solar arrays. Solar-powered missions on Mars like the Sojourner rover in 1997 were affected by a decline in electrical power output by 0.2-0.3 %per day caused by steadily dust deposition on its horizontal solar panel [3]. The solar-powered Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) Spirit and Opportunity experienced similar dust deposition rates [4] which led to steady power decrease over time endangering longer rover operation times. The much longer operation times of the rovers were made possible by unanticipated 'dust clearing events' of the solar arrays by wind gust or dust devils [5]. Recent studies imply that dust devils are primarily responsible for those recurrent 'dust clearing events' [6]. In this study we investigate the potential frequency of intense dust devil occurrences at the InSight landing site regions, which are able to remove dust from its solar panels. We analyzed newly formed dust devil tracks within a given time span using multi-temporal HiRISE image data covering the same surface area. Based on these measurements we will give encounter rate predictions of intense (high tangential speed and high pressure drop) dust devils with the InSight lander.

  6. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 9: Shore zone land use and land cover; Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Dolan, R.; Hayden, B. P.; Vincent, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of the land use and land cover maps provides a stratification of the CARETS shore area into regions which have a similar environmental organization. Different elements of the landscape are altered less frequently moving inland. Near the beach, higher frequency of monitoring is needed than is needed in the inland areas, including the marsh and estuarine areas.

  7. Effect of Land Cover Type and Structure on Water Cycling Dynamics for Agricultural and Wetland Sites in the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelmann, E.; Hemes, K. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Sacramento/San Joaquin river delta is an important source of fresh water for California. To reverse soil subsidence, which is linked to draining the natural wetlands for agriculture, parts of the Sacramento/San Joaquin river delta have been restored to managed wetlands. While these restored wetlands provide greenhouse gas benefits compared to agricultural use of the land, implications for the water balance of these ecosystems, specifically evapotranspiration, are not well known. Based on multiple years of eddy covariance measurements of water, CO2, and sensible energy fluxes we explored the water cycling dynamics for several sites under different land use covers in the Sacramento/San Joaquin river delta. We investigated four sites under agricultural use (rice, corn, and alfalfa crops and cow pasture) and three restored wetland sites of varying ages and structures to examine the influence of land cover type and structure on evapotranspiration, sensible energy flux, and water use efficiency. While the wetland and the rice sites are usually flooded for the majority of the year, the alfalfa, corn, and pasture sites have a water table that is maintained to be below ground level throughout the year. The three wetland sites also have different fractions of open water to vegetation, covering a gradient from very dense vegetation with no open water to a fairly open structure with large pools of open water. These differences in land cover (dry vs flooded and fraction of open water to vegetation) have an effect on the patterns of evapotranspiration on diurnal to annual timescales. Although the flooded sites (wetland sites and rice) tend to have larger annual evapotranspiration than the drained sites (cow pasture, alfalfa, and corn), the fraction of open water to vegetation affects the extend to which the flooded sites' evapotranspiration exceeds that of drained sites. On diurnal timescales, we found that flooded sites with a larger fraction of open water to vegetation

  8. Derivation of intermediate to silicic magma from the basalt analyzed at the Vega 2 landing site, Venus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Geochemical modeling using the basalt composition analyzed at the Vega 2 landing site indicates that intermediate to silicic liquids can be generated by fractional crystallization and equilibrium partial melting. Fractional crystallization modeling using variable pressures (0.01 GPa to 0.5 GPa) and relative oxidation states (FMQ 0 and FMQ -1) of either a wet (H2O = 0.5 wt%) or dry (H2O = 0 wt%) parental magma can yield silicic (SiO2 > 60 wt%) compositions that are similar to terrestrial ferroan rhyolite. Hydrous (H2O = 0.5 wt%) partial melting can yield intermediate (trachyandesite to andesite) to silicic (trachydacite) compositions at all pressures but requires relatively high temperatures (≥ 950°C) to generate the initial melt at intermediate to low pressure whereas at high pressure (0.5 GPa) the first melts will be generated at much lower temperatures (temperature required to produce the first liquid is very high (≥ 1130°C). Consequently, anhydrous partial melting is an unlikely process to generate derivative liquids. The modeling results indicate that, under certain conditions, the Vega 2 composition can generate silicic liquids that produce granitic and rhyolitic rocks. The implication is that silicic igneous rocks may form a small but important component of the northeast Aphrodite Terra.

  9. Environmental Assessment for Leasing Land for the Siting, Construction and Operation of a Commercial AM Radio Antenna at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-02-16

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to lease approximately 3 acres of land at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the southeast tip of Technical Area (TA) 54 for the siting, construction and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been developed in order to assess the environmental effects of the Proposed Action and No Action alternative. The Proposed Action includes the lease of land for the siting, construction and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna in TA-54, just north of Pajarito Road and State Highway 4. The No Action Alternative was also considered. Under the No Action Alternative, DOE would not lease land on LANL property for the siting and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna; the DOE would not have a local station for emergency response use; and the land would continue to be covered in native vegetation and serve as a health and safety buffer zone for TA-54 waste management activities. Other potential sites on LANL property were evaluated but dismissed for reasons such as interference with sensitive laboratory experiments. Potential visual, health, and environmental effects are anticipated to be minimal for the Proposed Action. The radio broadcasting antenna would be visible against the skyline from some public areas, but would be consistent with other man-made objects in the vicinity that partially obstruct viewsheds (e.g. meteorological tower, power lines). Therefore, the net result would be a modest change of the existing view. Electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions from the antenna would be orders or magnitude less than permissible limits. The proposed antenna construction would not affect known cultural sites, but is located in close proximity to two archaeological sites. Construction would be monitored to ensure that the associated road and utility corridor would avoid cultural sites.

  10. Evidence of ancient alteration and subaqueous activity in Oxia Planum, the candidate landing site for Exomars 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin-Nataf, Cathy; Carter, John; Thollot, Patrick; Loizeau, Damien; Davis, Joel; Grindrod, Peter; lozach, Loic

    2017-04-01

    The ExoMars 2018 mission (ESA) has for scientific objectives to search for signs of past and present life on Mars, to investigate the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface, to study to Martian atmospheric trace gases and to characterize the surface environment. The landing site has to be relevant with regard to these objectives while fitting the restrictive engineering constrains. From the scientific point of view, the site must be ancient, from the Early Mars period, for which many scientific evidences favor the existence of a water-related cycle. In this paper, we present the unique location called Oxia Planum, a wide clay bearing plain located between 16° and 19° North and -23° to -28° East proposed as landing site for Exomars 2020 mission. Oxia Planum is located between Ares Vallis and Marwth Vallis in a wide basin just at the outlet of Cogoon Vallis System, with elevations ranging from -2800 m down to -3100 m. The regional compositional mapping of Oxia planum has been achieved based on OMEGA data at 2.5 km/pix well as CRISM multispectral data at 200 m/pix. Mg/Fe phyllosilicates, identified and mapped based on their diagnostic absorptions at 1.4, 1.9 and 2.3 µm are exposed over about 80% of the ellipse surface. The entire unit with phyllosilicates signatures corresponds to a light-toned layered unit that is observed over a large range of elevations (from -2600 m to -3100m) suggesting that like in Marwth Vallis region, the layered and altered formation overlaps a pre-existing topography . The age returned from crater count on the clay rich formation is 3.9 Ga. At the top or embedded within the layered formation, several fluvial morphologies such as former valleys or inverted channels are observed. Also, at the top of the layered clay-rich formation, a deltaic deposit is observed suggesting sub-aqueous episodes postdating the altered layered formation. In terms of mineralogy, the putative delta fan shows layers

  11. Multiple beacons for supporting lunar landing navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Stephan; Bora, Leonardo

    2018-02-01

    The exploration and potential future exploitation of solar system bodies requires technologies for precise and safe landings. Current navigation systems for landing probes are relying on a combination of inertial and optical sensor measurements to determine the current flight state with respect to the target body and the desired landing site. With a future transition from single exploration missions to more frequent first exploration and then exploitation missions, the implementation and operation of these missions changes, since it can be expected that a ground infrastructure on the target body is available in the vicinity of the landing site. In a previous paper, the impact of a single ground-based beacon on the navigation performance was investigated depending on the type of radiometric measurements and on the location of the beacon with respect to the landing site. This paper extends this investigation on options for ground-based multiple beacons supporting the on-board navigation system. It analyzes the impact on the achievable navigation accuracy. For that purpose, the paper introduces briefly the existing navigation architecture based on optical navigation and its extension with radiometric measurements. The same scenario of lunar landing as in the previous paper is simulated. The results are analyzed and discussed. They show a single beacon at a large distance along the landing trajectory and multiple beacons close to the landing site can improve the navigation performance. The results show how large the landing area can be increased where a sufficient navigation performance is achieved using the beacons.

  12. Igneous and Sedimentary Compositions from Four Landing Sites on Mars from the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R. W.; Squyres, S. W.; VanBommel, S.; Yen, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The APXS - supported and promoted strongly by Heinrich Waenke - on all four Mars Rovers has returned compositional data from about 1000 rocks and soil targets along the combined traverses of over 60 kilometers. Providing precise and accurate bulk chemistry with typically 16 quantified elements, the APXS is a powerful and versatile tool that when combined with the ability to traverse to key rocks and soils has provided critical information needed to understand the geologic evolution of Mars. APXS data allow comparisons among landing sites, provide ground truth for orbiters and connections back to SNC meteorites. The soils and dust are basaltic in character and represent the average Mars composition similar to Adirondack basalts from Gusev crater but with unambiguous elevated and correlated S, Cl and Zn contents. At all four landing sites the APXS found several rocks with a felsic composition. The similarity is best assessed in a logarithmic ratio plot of rock normalized to the average soil composition (Fig.1). High alkaline, Al, and low Mg, Fe, low S, Cl and Ni, Zn as well as an Fe/Mn ratio of approximately 50 indicate a likely unaltered and igneous origin. Sediments, e.g. the Burns formation, with approximately 25 wt% SO3 at Meridiani Planum have been documented over 10s of kilometers (Fig. 2). This formation is compositionally homogeneous, but showing the removal of MgSO4 and a threefold increase in Cl downhill in 2 craters. The degraded rim of the Noachian crater Endeavour resembles average Mars crust, with local Ca, Mg and Fe sulfate alteration and elevated Mn, some felsic rocks, and high Al, Si and low Fe rocks, possibly indicating clays. Unusual soils at Gusev crater in the area surrounding Home Plate include some very rich in ferric sulfate salts (up to 35 wt% SO3) and some with 90% wt% SiO2, possibly indicating fumerolic activities. Rocks in the Columbia Hills show significant signs of alteration including elevated S, Cl and Br in the abraded interior. At

  13. Erosion Rates at the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites and Long-Term Climate Change on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Grant, J. A.; Crumpler, L. S.; Greeley, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Weitz, C. M.; Sullivan, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Soderblom, L. A.; hide

    2006-01-01

    Erosion rates derived from the Gusev cratered plains and the erosion of weak sulfates by saltating sand at Meridiani Planum are so slow that they argue that the present dry and desiccating environment has persisted since the Early Hesperian. In contrast, sedimentary rocks at Meridiani formed in the presence of groundwater and occasional surface water, and many Columbia Hills rocks at Gusev underwent aqueous alteration during the Late Noachian, approximately coeval with a wide variety of geomorphic indicators that indicate a wetter and likely warmer environment. Two-toned rocks, elevated ventifacts, and perched and undercut rocks indicate localized deflation of the Gusev plains and deposition of an equivalent amount of sediment into craters to form hollows, suggesting average erosion rates of approx.0.03 nm/yr. Erosion of Hesperian craters, modification of Late Amazonian craters, and the concentration of hematite concretions in the soils of Meridiani yield slightly higher average erosion rates of 1-10 nm/yr in the Amazonian. These erosion rates are 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than the slowest continental denudation rates on Earth, indicating that liquid water was not an active erosional agent. Erosion rates for Meridiani just before deposition of the sulfate-rich sediments and other eroded Noachian areas are comparable with slow denudation rates on Earth that are dominated by liquid water. Available data suggest the climate change at the landing sites from wet and likely warm to dry and desiccating occurred sometime between the Late Noachian and the beginning of the Late Hesperian (3.7-3.5 Ga).

  14. 77 FR 58868 - Public Land Order No. 7798; Partial Modification of Power Site Classification No. 126; Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Nooksack River in Whatcom County, Washington. This order opens the land to such forms of disposition as may... 21.70 acres in Whatcom County. 2. At 9 a.m. on September 24, 2012 the land described in Paragraph 1...

  15. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Chino Mine in Silver City, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Chino Mine site in Silver City, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  17. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tronox Facility in Savannah, Georgia. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tronox Facility site in Savannah, Georgia, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Peru Mill Industrial Park in the City of Deming, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Peru Mill Industrial Park site in the City of Deming, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  19. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kolthoff Landfill in Cleveland, Ohio. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kolthoff Landfill site in Cleveland, Ohio, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  20. Steepness of Slopes at the Luna-Glob Landing Sites: Estimating by the Shaded Area Percentage in the LROC NAC Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, S. S.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Ivanov, M. A.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Kokhanov, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents estimates of the occurrence probability of slopes, whose steep surfaces could be dangerous for the landing of the Luna-Glob descent probe ( Luna-25) given the baseline of the span between the landing pads ( 3.5 m), for five potential landing ellipses. As a rule, digital terrain models built from stereo pairs of high-resolution images (here, the images taken by the Narrow Angle Camera onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LROC NAC)) are used in such cases. However, the planned landing sites are at high latitudes (67°-74° S), which makes it impossible to build digital terrain models, since the difference in the observation angle of the overlapping images is insufficient at these latitudes. Because of this, to estimate the steepness of slopes, we considered the interrelation between the shaded area percentage in the image and the Sun angle over horizon at the moment of imaging. For five proposed landing ellipses, the LROC NAC images (175 images in total) with a resolution from 0.4 to 1.2 m/pixel were analyzed. From the results of the measurements in each of the ellipses, the dependence of the shaded area percentage on the solar angle were built, which was converted to the occurrence probability of slopes. For this, the data on the Apollo 16 landing region ware used, which is covered by both the LROC NAC images and the digital terrain model with high resolution. As a result, the occurrence probability of slopes with different steepness has been estimated on the baseline of 3.5 m for five landing ellipses according to the steepness categories of 20°.

  1. POLITIK HUKUM PEMBENTUKAN PERATURAN DAERAH NOMOR 5 TAHUN 2006 TENTANG INVESTASI INFRASTRUKTUR JALAN DAN LANDING SITE EKS JALAN PERTAMINA OLEH PEMERINTAH KABUPATEN BARITO TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Abdul Rasyid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Establishment of Regional Regulation No. 5 of 2006 on Road Infrastructure Investment And Landing Site Ex Pertamina Way East Barito Regency Government, influenced by the politics of law by forming the law (executive and legislative. Political implications of the law Regulation No. 5 of 2006 on Road Infrastructure Investment And Landing Site Ex Pertamina Way East Barito District Government towards wealth management area in East Barito Regency causing uncertainty about the asset management area in the district. East Barito. This local regulation, only juridical validity alone, but compliance enforced by the use of apparatus of state power is not the law anymore, but just a mere statement of power, so that the validity of the factual and moral force which can not result in the area of wealth management is not optimal and lead to investment climate minimal impact on local revenue Alone (PADS East Barito regency became maximal. Key words: local regulations, legal policy, legal implications   Abstrak Pembentukan Peraturan Daerah nomor 5 tahun 2006 tentang Investasi  Infrastruktur Jalan Dan Landing Site Eks Jalan Pertamina oleh Pemerintah Kabupaten Barito Timur, dipengaruhi oleh adanya politik hukum oleh  para pembentuk Perda tersebut (eksekutif dan legislatif. Implikasi politik hukum Peraturan Daerah Nomor 5 Tahun 2006 Tentang Investasi Infrastruktur Jalan Dan Landing Site Eks Jalan Pertamina oleh Pemerintah Kabupaten Barito Timur terhadap  pengelolaan kekayaan daerah di Kabupaten Barito Timur menyebabkan ketidakjelasan tentang pengelolaan asset daerah yang ada di Kab. Barito Timur. Peraturan daerah ini, hanya memiliki keberlakuan yuridikal saja, namun kepatuhannya dipaksakan dengan penggunaan aparat kekuasaan negara adalah bukan hukum lagi, melainkan hanya pernyataan kekuasaan belaka, sehingga secara keberlakuan faktual dan moral tidak bisa berlaku yang mengakibatkan pengelolaan kekayaan daerah tidak maksimal dan menyebabkan iklim

  2. Estimation of land-surface evaporation at four forest sites across Japan with the new nonlinear complementary method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Zhipin; Wang, Qinxue; Yang, Yonghui

    2017-01-01

    Evaporation from land surfaces is a critical component of the Earth water cycle and of water management strategies. The complementary method originally proposed by Bouchet, which describes a linear relation between actual evaporation (E), potential evaporation (Epo) and apparent potential...

  3. LBA-ECO LC-09 Land Cover Transitions Maps for Study Sites in Para, Brazil: 1970-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes classified land cover transition maps at 30-m resolution derived from Landsat TM, MSS, ETM+ imagery and aerial photos of Altamira, Santarem,...

  4. The Shallow Subsurface Geological Structures at the Chang'E-3 Landing Site Based on Lunar Penetrating Radar Channel-2B Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, N.; Zhu, P.; Yuan, Y.; Yang, K.; Xiao, L.; Xiao, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) carried by the Yutu rover of the Chinese Chang'E-3 mission has detected the shallow subsurface structures for the landing site at the northern Mare Imbrium. The antenna B of the LPR Channel-2 has collected more than 2000 traces of usable raw data. We performed calibration on the LPR data including amplitude compensation, filtering, and deconvolution. The processed results reveal that the shallow subsurface of the landing site can be divided into three major layers whose thicknesses are ~1, ~3, and 2-7 m, respectively. Variations occur on the thickness of each layer at different locations. Considering the geological background of the landing site, we interpret that the first layer is the regolith layer accumulated over ~80 Ma since the formation of the 450 m diameter Chang'E A crater. This regolith layer was formed on the basis of the ejecta deposits of Chang'E A. The second layer is the remnant continuous ejecta deposits from the Chang'E A crater, which is thicker closer to the crater rim and thinning outwardly. The Chang'E A crater formed on a paleo-regolith layer over the Eratosthenian basalts, which represents the third layer detected by the Channel 2B of the LPR.

  5. The utility of a geographic information system in facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints analysis for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.

    1994-01-01

    Facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints analysis, which is indispensable for the evaluation of potential future uses for a site, is essentially spatial in nature. Spatial analysis is best accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), as a GIS allows the identification and reporting or mapping of complex relationships among multiple data layers such as geology, soils, vegetation, contamination, and facilities. GIS-based maps and reports are valuable tools for communicating facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints to decision makers. This paper defines the term open-quotes GIS,close quotes, provides an example of how a GIS could be used to conduct opportunities and constraints analysis at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and summarizes the benefits of using a GIS for this analysis. Because a GIS is often seen as a open-quotes black boxclose quotes shrouded in technical jargon, this paper attempts to describe the concepts and benefits of a GIS in language understandable to decision makers who are not GIS experts but who migth profit from the use of GIS products. The purpose of this paper is to alert DOE decision makers to a valuable source of facility/land use-related information that already exists at many sites and that should not be overlook during the analysis of future use options

  6. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of a Hydroelectric Installation at the Jeddo Mine Drainage Tunnel. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Jeddo Tunnel discharge site for a feasibility study of renewable energy potential. The purpose of this report is to assess technical and economic viability of the site for hydroelectric and geothermal energy production. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.

  7. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biopower at the Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlata, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chanute Air Force Base site in Rantoul, Illinois, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study was to assess the site for a possible biopower system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and impacts of different biopower options.

  8. Pre-Feasibility Analysis of Pellet Manufacturing on the Former Loring Air Force Base Site. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. This site, in Limestone, Maine -- formerly the location of the Loring Air Force Base but now owned by the Aroostook Band of Micmac -- was selected for the potential to produce heating pellets from woody feedstock. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource to evaluate based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. NREL also evaluates potential savings from converting existing Micmac property from oil-fired heating to pellet heating.

  9. Field evaluation of synthetic lure (3-methyl-1-butanol) when compared to non odor-baited control in capturing Anopheles mosquitoes in varying land-use sites in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdy, Sarah; Derfus, Kristin; Andrianjafy, Mbolatiana Tovo; Wright, Patricia C; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2015-03-07

    Malaria is the 4(th) largest cause of mortality in Madagascar. To better understand malaria transmission dynamics, it is crucial to map the distribution of the malaria vectors, mosquitoes belonging to the genus Anopheles. To do so, it is important to have a strong Anopheles-specific lure to ensure the maximum number of captures. Previous studies have isolated volatiles from the human skin microbiota and found the compound 3-methyl-1-butanol to be the most attractive to the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, in a laboratory setting; and recommended 3-methyl-1-butanol as a compound to increase An. gambiae captures in the field. To date, this compound's ability to lure wild mosquitoes in differing land-use settings has not been tested. In this study, we evaluate the role of the synthetic compound, 3-methyl-1-butanol in combination with field produced CO(2) in attracting Anopheles mosquitoes in varying land-use sites in Madagascar. CDC miniature light traps in combination with field produced CO(2) were deployed in and around six villages near Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. To test the role of 3-methyl-1-butanol in luring Anopheles mosquitoes, two traps were set in each land-use site (village, agricultural sites, and forested habitats affiliated with each village). One was baited with the synthetic odor and the other was kept as a non-baited control. While 3-methyl-1-butanol baited traps did capture An. gambiae s.l. in this study, we did not find traps baited with synthetic 3-methyl-1-butanol to be more successful in capturing Anopheles mosquitoes, (including Anopheles gambiae s.l.) than the non odor-baited control traps in any of the land-use sites examined; however, regardless of odor bait, trapping near livestock pens resulted in the capture of significantly more Anopheles specimens. A strong synthetic lure in combination with insecticide has great potential as a mosquito control. Our findings suggest that trapping mosquitoes near livestock in malaria

  10. 75 FR 33763 - Notice of Proposed New Recreation Fee Sites; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act (Title VIII...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... are on-site amenities. The Forest Service proposes to charge $3 per person per day for shooters aged... charge $8 per night for a single site. Wolf Ford Campground is located within the Cradle of Forestry... installed in late summer. The Forest Service proposes to charge $8 for a single site. The fees listed are...

  11. Evaluation of proposed shallow-land burial sites using the PRESTO-II [Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations] methodology and code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Uslu, I.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code designed to evaluate possible doses and risks (health effects) from shallow-land burial sites. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following the end of disposal operations. Human exposure scenarios include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and limited site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transport from the trench to an individual or population include ground-water transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, suspension, atmospheric transport and deposition, inhalation, external exposure, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. The proposed waste disposal area in Koteyli, Balikesir, Turkey, has been evaluated using the PRESTO-II methodology. The results have been compared to those obtained for the Barnwell, South Carolina, site. Dose estimates for both sites are below regulatory limits, for the release and exposure scenarios considered. The doses for the sites are comparable, with slightly higher estimates obtained for the Turkish site. 7 refs., 1 tab

  12. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Ft. Hood Military Base Outside Killeen, Texas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative through the Region 6 contract, selected Ft. Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for possible photovoltaic (PV) system installations and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  13. 77 FR 50622 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Site-Specific Treatment Variance for Hazardous Selenium-Bearing Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I. National Technology... Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations K. Congressional Review Act I. Background A. Basis for Land... the likelihood of migration of hazardous constituents from the waste so that short-term and long-term...

  14. Heavy metal accumulation related to population density in road dust samples taken from urban sites under different land uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo-González, Juan Manuel; Torres-Mora, Marco Aurelio; Keesstra, Saskia; Brevik, Eric C.; Jiménez-Ballesta, Raimundo

    2016-01-01

    Soil pollution is a key component of the land degradation process, but little is known about the impact of soil pollution on human health in the urban environment. The heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Ni were analyzed by acid digestion (method EPA 3050B) and a total of 15 dust samples were

  15. LAND USE FROM SEASONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES: THE ARCHAEOBOTANICAL EVIDENCE OF SMALL ROMAN FARMHOUSES IN CINIGIANO, SOUTH-EASTERN TUSCANY - CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rattighieri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the archaeobotanical study of two Roman small farmhouses, San Martino and Poggio dell’Amore, located near Cinigiano, in the province of Grosseto-Tuscany. The sites were probably occupied during seasonal agricultural works, a peculiar typology of site that has not been usually identified in Roman sites of central Italy. The integrated analyses of pollen, non pollen palynomorphs, charcoal particles and seeds/fruits help to obtain interesting details on the site function, land use and palaeoenvironment of these archaeological contexts. The archaeobotanical reconstruction shows that the landscape was fairly treeless. Pastures surrounded the small buildings while cereal fields were probably less extended or further away than legume fields cultivated to forage. Shrubs and some fruit trees might mark boundaries of fields, while the woods, including oak woods, were distributed far from the sites. Anthropogenic pollen indicators, spores of coprophilous fungi and parasite eggs point to the presence of excrements in the sites suggesting that the small buildings were used as small barns for domestic animals, or a temporary shed.

  16. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  17. Land Use and Land Cover - CEMETERY_SITES_IDNR_IN: Cemetery Site Locations in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, 1:5,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — IDNR documentation states - “This dataset contains locations of cemetery sites in Indiana, regardless of age, number of graves, or size of the cemetery. Is it not...

  18. Background studies: climatic and geomorphological aspects of the evolution of shallow land burial sites for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of a programme of background research into some climatic and geomorphological aspects of the evolution of shallow land disposal environments for radioactive wastes in Britain. The work has supported development of the TIME2 simulation code. Modelling approaches are presented and discussed, along with supporting data, for climatic change, ice sheet growth and decay, groundwater effects and denudation. The potential effects of periglacial processes on a repository are also briefly discussed. (author)

  19. Effect of Intermittent Flow on the Mobility of Metals from Abandoned Uranium Mine Waste Sites on Native American Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasarala, S.; Ali, A.; Artyushkova, K.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.; Cerrato, J.

    2015-12-01

    Column experiments were conducted to study the effect of intermittent flow on the mobility of metals from abandoned uranium mine waste sites in Blue Gap Tachee (BGT), AZ and Laguna, NM. Intermittent flow represent the rainfall patterns in the southwestern United States, involving alternate wet and dry cycles. In order to simulate these rainfall patterns shorter wet periods of 15, 30, 60, 120 and 360 minutes, followed by longer dry periods of 24 hours, were adopted for the column experiments. The experiment involved sequential leaching of sediments from Laguna and BGT with 18MὨ water (pH 5.4), Synthetic Rain Water (SRW, pH 5.6), 10mM bicarbonate solution (pH 7.9) and 10mM acetic acid (pH 3.4) solution that represent the environmentally relevant conditions as witnessed in BGT water samples (pH 3.8 and 7.4). These reagents were specifically chosen to target most metal species through various transport mechanisms which include advective-dispersive forces, ion-exchange, desorption and dissolution. With just 18MὨ water and SRW almost 90 µg/L of U, 4500 µg/L of V and 20 µg/L of As were released from BGT mine waste while the Laguna sample showed the release of 380 µg/L of U, 2 µg/L of V and 40 µg/L of As. The released U concentrations were 3-13 times its EPA MCL for U which under natural circumstances could threaten the proximate communities. Bicarbonate and acetic acid extractions on the other hand released 3500-6000 µg/L of U, 50-3000 µg/L of V and 14-35 µg/L of As from both Laguna and BGT mine waste respectively. Based on our previously published results, U and V from the uranyl-vanadate (U-V) species within BGT mine waste samples were only partially released with bicarbonate unlike the column experiments where almost all of the U and V from the U-V species were dissolved and released using 10mM bicarbonate solution. For reference, the columns were also leached continuously with bicarbonate and acetic acid for a week (each), to identify if the phases were

  20. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Observations Relating to Science and Landing Site Selection in South Pole-Aitken Basin for a Robotic Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Clegg-Watkins, R. N.; Petro, N. E.; Lawrence, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Moon's South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA) is a high priority target for Solar System exploration, and sample return from SPA is a specific objective in NASA's New Frontiers program. Samples returned from SPA will improve our understanding of early lunar and Solar System events, mainly by placing firm timing constraints on SPA formation and the post-SPA late-heavy bombardment (LHB). Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) images and topographic data, especially Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) scale (1-3 mpp) morphology and digital terrain model (DTM) data are critical for selecting landing sites and assessing landing hazards. Rock components in regolith at a given landing site should include (1) original SPA impact-melt rocks and breccia (to determine the age of the impact event and what materials were incorporated into the melt); (2) impact-melt rocks and breccia from large craters and basins (other than SPA) that represent the post-SPA LHB interval; (3) volcanic basalts derived from the sub-SPA mantle; and (4) older, "cryptomare" (ancient buried volcanics excavated by impact craters, to determine the volcanic history of SPA basin). All of these rock types are sought for sample return. The ancient SPA-derived impact-melt rocks and later-formed melt rocks are needed to determine chronology, and thus address questions of early Solar System dynamics, lunar history, and effects of giant impacts. Surface compositions from remote sensing are consistent with mixtures of SPA impactite and volcanic materials, and near infrared spectral data distinguish areas with variable volcanic contents vs. excavated SPA substrate. Estimating proportions of these rock types in the regolith requires knowledge of the surface deposits, evaluated via morphology, slopes, and terrain ruggedness. These data allow determination of mare-cryptomare-nonmare deposit interfaces in combination with compositional and mineralogical remote sensing to establish the types and relative proportions of materials

  1. Detecting temporal change in land-surface altitude using robotic land-surveying techniques and geographic information system applications at an earthen dam site in Southern Westchester County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Michael L.; Chu, Anthony

    2017-08-14

    In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study with New York City Department of Environmental Protection to characterize the local groundwater-flow system and identify potential sources of seeps on the southern embankment at the Hillview Reservoir in southern Westchester County, New York. Monthly site inspections at the reservoir indicated an approximately 90-square-foot depression in the land surface directly upslope from a seep that has episodically flowed since 2007. In July 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey surveyed the topography of land surface in this depression area by collecting high-accuracy (resolution less than 1 inch) measurements. A point of origin was established for the topographic survey by using differentially corrected positional data collected by a global navigation satellite system. Eleven points were surveyed along the edge of the depression area and at arbitrary locations within the depression area by using robotic land-surveying techniques. The points were surveyed again in March 2012 to evaluate temporal changes in land-surface altitude. Survey measurements of the depression area indicated that the land-surface altitude at 8 of the 11 points decreased beyond the accepted measurement uncertainty during the 44 months from July 2008 to March 2012. Two additional control points were established at stable locations along Hillview Avenue, which runs parallel to the embankment. These points were measured during the July 2008 survey and measured again during the March 2012 survey to evaluate the relative accuracy of the altitude measurements. The relative horizontal and vertical (altitude) accuracies of the 11 topographic measurements collected in March 2012 were ±0.098 and ±0.060 feet (ft), respectively. Changes in topography at 8 of the 11 points ranged from 0.09 to 0.63 ft and topography remained constant, or within the measurement uncertainty, for 3 of the 11 points.Two cross sections were constructed through the depression area

  2. 75 FR 2850 - Notice of Proposed New Fee Sites; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII, Pub. L...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Station. The following campgrounds are currently a fee free site: Two Color, Umapine, Boulder Park, North... $15 a campsite and $3 per one additional vehicle per campsite. The Elkhorn Crest Trailhead would be re...

  3. Spatial Association of Shrubs and Their Interrelation to Burrowing Site Preference of Subterranean Rodents on Dune Slope in the Otindag Sandy Land, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rangelands worldwide have more shrubs now, and subterranean rangeland rodents show close interaction to shrubs when choosing a burrowing site. The study was conducted in Otindag Sandy Land in Inner Mongolia, China with the objective of determining the effects of slope position on spatial pattern and interaction of shrubs; how rodents choose their habitat in different slope; and shrubs and rodents influence each other. To accomplish the objective set, we used three physiographic units: Plot 1 (upper slope, Plot 2 (middle slope, and Plot 3 (lower slope, and all individual woody plants and rodent holes in the three plots were mapped. The result of the study showed that: (1 two shrub species show a random distribution trend in all three plots except an aggregated trend only at the smaller scale on the upper slope; (2 the majority of subterranean rodents preferred to select their burrowing sites under the shrub crown, and these selected shrub individuals had generally larger crown length than those unselected individuals. At the same time, the majority of these burrowing sites were located on the lower right direction. (3 The distribution of rodents holes differ across the slopes in the study area. In the three samples, the relative locations of burrowing sites to shrubs are mostly distributed down slope of shrubs. From upper slope to lower slope, this trend gradually enhanced. Our conclusion is that the increase in shrubs represents a pioneer phase in the rehabilitation of degraded sandy land ecosystems, and colonization of subterranean rangeland rodents near the shrubs is a clear indicator of stabilization of sand dunes.

  4. Combining land use regression models and fixed site monitoring to reconstruct spatiotemporal variability of NO2concentrations over a wide geographical area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordioli, M; Pironi, C; De Munari, E; Marmiroli, N; Lauriola, P; Ranzi, A

    2017-01-01

    The epidemiological research benefits from an accurate characterization of both spatial and temporal variability of exposure to air pollution. This work aims at proposing a method to combine the high spatial resolution of Land Use Regression (LUR) models with the high temporal resolution of fixed site monitoring data, to model spatiotemporal variability of NO 2 over a wide geographical area in Northern Italy. We developed seasonal LUR models to reconstruct the spatial distribution of a scaling factor that relates local concentrations to those measured at two reference central sites, one for the northern flat area and one for the southern mountain area. We calculated the daily average concentrations at 19 locations spread over the study areas as the product of the local scaling factor and the reference central site concentrations. We evaluated model performance comparing modeled and measured NO 2 data. LUR model's R 2 ranges from 0.76 to 0.92. The main predictors refers substantially to traffic, industrial land use, buildings volume and altitude a.s.l. The model's performance in reproducing measured concentrations was satisfactory. The temporal variability of concentrations was well captured: Spearman correlation between model and measures was >0.7 for almost all sites. Model's average absolute errors were in the order of 10μgm -3 . The model for the southern area tends to overestimate measured concentrations. Our modeling framework was able to reproduce spatiotemporal differences in NO 2 concentrations. This kind of model is less data-intensive than usual regional atmospheric models and it may be very helpful to assess population exposure within studies in which individual relevant exposure occurs along periods of days or months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrahigh resolution topographic mapping of Mars with MRO HiRISE stereo images: Meter-scale slopes of candidate Phoenix landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R.L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Rosiek, M.R.; Anderson, J.A.; Archinal, B.A.; Becker, K.J.; Cook, D.A.; Galuszka, D.M.; Geissler, P.E.; Hare, T.M.; Holmberg, I.M.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Redding, B.L.; Delamere, W.A.; Gallagher, D.; Chapel, J.D.; Eliason, E.M.; King, R.; McEwen, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are twofold: first, to report our estimates of the meter-to-decameter-scale topography and slopes of candidate landing sites for the Phoenix mission, based on analysis of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images with a typical pixel scale of 3 m and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images at 0.3 m pixel-1 and, second, to document in detail the geometric calibration, software, and procedures on which the photogrammetric analysis of HiRISE data is based. A combination of optical design modeling, laboratory observations, star images, and Mars images form the basis for software in the U.S. Geological Survey Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) 3 system that corrects the images for a variety of distortions with single-pixel or subpixel accuracy. Corrected images are analyzed in the commercial photogrammetric software SOCET SET (??BAE Systems), yielding digital topographic models (DTMs) with a grid spacing of 1 m (3-4 pixels) that require minimal interactive editing. Photoclinometry yields DTMs with single-pixel grid spacing. Slopes from MOC and HiRISE are comparable throughout the latitude zone of interest and compare favorably with those where past missions have landed successfully; only the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) B site in Meridiani Planum is smoother. MOC results at multiple locations have root-mean-square (RMS) bidirectional slopes of 0.8-4.5?? at baselines of 3-10 m. HiRISE stereopairs (one per final candidate site and one in the former site) yield 1.8-2.8?? slopes at 1-m baseline. Slopes at 1 m from photoclinometry are also in the range 2-3?? after correction for image blur. Slopes exceeding the 16?? Phoenix safety limit are extremely rare. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Study on a Dynamic Vegetation Model for Simulating Land Surface Flux Exchanges at Lien-Hua-Chih Flux Observation Site in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T. Y.; Li, M. H.; Chen, Y. Y.; Ryder, J.; McGrath, M.; Otto, J.; Naudts, K.; Luyssaert, S.; MacBean, N.; Bastrikov, V.

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation model ORCHIDEE (Organizing Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic EcosystEms) is a state of art land surface component of the IPSL (Institute Pierre Simon Laplace) Earth System Model. It has been used world-wide to investigate variations of water, carbon, and energy exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. In this study we assessed the applicability of using ORCHIDEE-CAN, a new feature with 3-D CANopy structure (Naudts et al., 2015; Ryder et al., 2016), to simulate surface fluxes measured at tower-based eddy covariance fluxes at the Lien-Hua-Chih experimental watershed in Taiwan. The atmospheric forcing including radiation, air temperature, wind speed, and the dynamics of vertical canopy structure for driving the model were obtained from the observations site. Suitable combinations of default plant function types were examined to meet in-situ observations of soil moisture and leaf area index from 2009 to 2013. The simulated top layer soil moisture was ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 and total leaf area was ranging from 2.2 to 4.4, respectively. A sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the sensitive of model parameters and model skills of ORCHIDEE-CAN on capturing seasonal variations of surface fluxes. The most sensitive parameters were suggested and calibrated by an automatic data assimilation tool ORCHDAS (ORCHIDEE Data Assimilation Systems; http://orchidas.lsce.ipsl.fr/). Latent heat, sensible heat, and carbon fluxes simulated by the model were compared with long-term observations at the site. ORCHIDEE-CAN by making use of calibrated surface parameters was used to study variations of land-atmosphere interactions on a variety of temporal scale in associations with changes in both land and atmospheric conditions. Ref: Naudts, K., et al.,: A vertically discretised canopy description for ORCHIDEE (SVN r2290) and the modifications to the energy, water and carbon fluxes, Geoscientific Model Development, 8, 2035-2065, doi:10.5194/gmd-8

  7. Numerical Simulations of the Lunar Penetrating Radar and Investigations of the Geological Structures of the Lunar Regolith Layer at the Chang’E 3 Landing Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of lunar exploration, and specifically when studying lunar surface structure and thickness, the established lunar regolith model is usually a uniform and ideal structural model, which is not well-suited to describe the real structure of the lunar regolith layer. The present study aims to explain the geological structural information contained in the channel 2 LPR (lunar penetrating radar data. In this paper, the random medium theory and Apollo drilling core data are used to construct a modeling method based on discrete heterogeneous random media, and the simulation data are processed and collected by the electromagnetic numerical method FDTD (finite-difference time domain. When comparing the LPR data with the simulated data, the heterogeneous random medium model is more consistent with the actual distribution of the media in the lunar regolith layer. It is indicated that the interior structure of the lunar regolith layer at the landing site is not a pure lunar regolith medium but rather a regolith-rock mixture, with rocks of different sizes and shapes. Finally, several reasons are given to explain the formation of the geological structures of the lunar regolith layer at the Chang’E 3 landing site, as well as the possible geological stratification structure.

  8. Comparison of Coincident Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aerosol Optical Depths over Land and Ocean Scenes Containing Aerosol Robotic Network Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Wedad A.; Diner, David J.; Martonchik, John V.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Gaitley, Barbara J.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Holben, Brent

    2005-01-01

    The Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched on 18 December 1999 aboard the Terra spacecraft, are making global observations of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances. Aerosol optical depths and particle properties are independently retrieved from these radiances using methodologies and algorithms that make use of the instruments corresponding designs. This paper compares instantaneous optical depths retrieved from simultaneous and collocated radiances measured by the two instruments at locations containing sites within the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). A set of 318 MISR and MODIS images, obtained during the months of March, June, and September 2002 at 62 AERONET sites, were used in this study. The results show that over land, MODIS aerosol optical depths at 470 and 660 nm are larger than those retrieved from MISR by about 35% and 10% on average, respectively, when all land surface types are included in the regression. The differences decrease when coastal and desert areas are excluded. For optical depths retrieved over ocean, MISR is on average about 0.1 and 0.05 higher than MODIS in the 470 and 660 nm bands, respectively. Part of this difference is due to radiometric calibration and is reduced to about 0.01 and 0.03 when recently derived band-to-band adjustments in the MISR radiometry are incorporated. Comparisons with AERONET data show similar patterns.

  9. Estimation of land-surface evaporation at four forest sites across Japan with the new nonlinear complementary method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zhipin; Wang, Qinxue; Yang, Yonghui; Manevski, Kiril; Zhao, Xin; Eer, Deni

    2017-12-19

    Evaporation from land surfaces is a critical component of the Earth water cycle and of water management strategies. The complementary method originally proposed by Bouchet, which describes a linear relation between actual evaporation (E), potential evaporation (E po ) and apparent potential evaporation (E pa ) based on routinely measured weather data, is one of the various methods for evaporation calculation. This study evaluated the reformulated version of the original method, as proposed by Brutsaert, for forest land cover in Japan. The new complementary method is nonlinear and based on boundary conditions with strictly physical considerations. The only unknown parameter (α e ) was for the first time determined for various forest covers located from north to south across Japan. The values of α e ranged from 0.94 to 1.10, with a mean value of 1.01. Furthermore, the calculated evaporation with the new method showed a good fit with the eddy-covariance measured values, with a determination coefficient of 0.78 and a mean bias of 4%. Evaluation results revealed that the new nonlinear complementary relation performs better than the original linear relation in describing the relationship between E/E pa and E po /E pa , and also in depicting the asymmetry variation between E pa /E po and E/E po .

  10. Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to re-use contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former Kaiser Aluminum Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Preliminary work focused on selecting a biomass feedstock. Discussions with area experts, universities, and the project team identified food wastes as the feedstock and anaerobic digestion (AD) as the technology.

  11. Hydrogeologic barriers to the infiltration of treated wastewater at the Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst Land Application Site, Burlington County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Alex R.

    2016-09-02

    For the final phase of wastewater treatment operations at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst in Burlington County, New Jersey, treated effluent is pumped to 12 infiltration basins on a Land Application Site to recharge the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. Two of the 12 infiltration basins are operationally ineffective because discharged effluent fails to percolate and remains ponded on the basin surfaces. A study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense, investigated the potential hydrogeologic conditions preventing infiltration in these basins by testing the geophysical, lithological, and hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer material underlying the site. Saturated sand, sandy clay, and unsaturated sand were encountered in succession through the upper 4 feet of sediment below land surface at the two ineffective basins. Water levels in auger borings penetrating the clay and underlying dry sand were measured as deeper than water levels in nested auger borings in the saturated sand overlying the clay, which indicates a downward vertical gradient was established after removal of the clay in the deeper borings created a conduit for drainage from the surficial saturated sands. Ground-penetrating radar surveys and additional water levels measured in piezometer wells adjacent to the infiltration basins indicated a lack of connectivity between the ponded basin water and the regional water table, and demonstrated that perched conditions were not present in native formation materials outside the inoperable basins. Therefore, the near-surface low permeability clay is likely preventing infiltration from the basin surface and causes the ineffectiveness of the two basins for wastewater land application operations.

  12. The effect of an engineered closure cap on radon gas transport from a shallow land burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Donahue, M.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A requires performance assessment of all new and existing low level radioactive waste disposal sites. An integral part of performance assessment is estimating the fluxes of radioactive gases such as radon-220 and radon-222. Mathematical models, which in themselves point out data needs and therefore drive site characterization, provide a logical means of performing the required flux estimations. The effects of an engineered closure cap on radon gas transport in a very dry alluvial soil in the southwestern desert are considered in detail in this paper. Our model (Lindstrom, et al. 1992 a ampersand b and Cawlfield et al. 1992 a ampersand b) was constructed in a site specific fashion because the existing mathematical models of noble gas transport from the spatial point of origin in the low level waste repository through the surrounding soil and closure cap with subsequent release to the atmosphere are few in numbers (Nazaroff, 1992)

  13. Background studies: human-induced effects on the evolution of shallow land burial sites for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the results of a programme of background research on the human-induced effects on the long term evolution of shallow disposal sites for low level radioactive wastes. The work is intended to support development and use of the TIME2 simulation code. Within the context of climatic change up to the next glacial maximum three areas are addressed: planning and legislative control over site usage, biosphere state changes and intrusion. An appendix presents a discussion of some planning aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  14. Evaluating the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) at a coniferous forest site in northwestern United States using flux and carbon-isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Henrique F.; Raczka, Brett M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Lin, John C.; Koven, Charles D.; Thornton, Peter E.; Bowling, David R.; Lai, Chun-Ta; Bible, Kenneth J.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2017-09-01

    Droughts in the western United States are expected to intensify with climate change. Thus, an adequate representation of ecosystem response to water stress in land models is critical for predicting carbon dynamics. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5 against observations at an old-growth coniferous forest site in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (Wind River AmeriFlux site), characterized by a Mediterranean climate that subjects trees to water stress each summer. CLM was driven by site-observed meteorology and calibrated primarily using parameter values observed at the site or at similar stands in the region. Key model adjustments included parameters controlling specific leaf area and stomatal conductance. Default values of these parameters led to significant underestimation of gross primary production, overestimation of evapotranspiration, and consequently overestimation of photosynthetic 13C discrimination, reflected in reduced 13C : 12C ratios of carbon fluxes and pools. Adjustments in soil hydraulic parameters within CLM were also critical, preventing significant underestimation of soil water content and unrealistic soil moisture stress during summer. After calibration, CLM was able to simulate energy and carbon fluxes, leaf area index, biomass stocks, and carbon isotope ratios of carbon fluxes and pools in reasonable agreement with site observations. Overall, the calibrated CLM was able to simulate the observed response of canopy conductance to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil water content, reasonably capturing the impact of water stress on ecosystem functioning. Both simulations and observations indicate that stomatal response from water stress at Wind River was primarily driven by VPD and not soil moisture. The calibration of the Ball-Berry stomatal conductance slope (mbb) at Wind River aligned with findings from recent CLM experiments at sites characterized by

  15. Evaluating the Community Land Model (CLM4.5 at a coniferous forest site in northwestern United States using flux and carbon-isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Duarte

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Droughts in the western United States are expected to intensify with climate change. Thus, an adequate representation of ecosystem response to water stress in land models is critical for predicting carbon dynamics. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Community Land Model (CLM version 4.5 against observations at an old-growth coniferous forest site in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (Wind River AmeriFlux site, characterized by a Mediterranean climate that subjects trees to water stress each summer. CLM was driven by site-observed meteorology and calibrated primarily using parameter values observed at the site or at similar stands in the region. Key model adjustments included parameters controlling specific leaf area and stomatal conductance. Default values of these parameters led to significant underestimation of gross primary production, overestimation of evapotranspiration, and consequently overestimation of photosynthetic 13C discrimination, reflected in reduced 13C : 12C ratios of carbon fluxes and pools. Adjustments in soil hydraulic parameters within CLM were also critical, preventing significant underestimation of soil water content and unrealistic soil moisture stress during summer. After calibration, CLM was able to simulate energy and carbon fluxes, leaf area index, biomass stocks, and carbon isotope ratios of carbon fluxes and pools in reasonable agreement with site observations. Overall, the calibrated CLM was able to simulate the observed response of canopy conductance to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD and soil water content, reasonably capturing the impact of water stress on ecosystem functioning. Both simulations and observations indicate that stomatal response from water stress at Wind River was primarily driven by VPD and not soil moisture. The calibration of the Ball–Berry stomatal conductance slope (mbb at Wind River aligned with findings from recent CLM experiments at

  16. Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey for Proposed Land Use Permit Modification for Expansion of the Dynamic Explosive Test Site (DETS) 9940 Main Complex Parking Lot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The “subject property” is comprised of a parcel of land within the Kirtland Military Reservation, Bernalillo County, New Mexico, as shown on the map in Appendix B of this document. The land requirement for the parking lot addition to the 9940 Main Complex is approximately 2.7 acres. The scope of this Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey (SEBS) is for the parking lot addition land transfer only. For details on the original 9940 Main Complex see Environmental Baseline Survey, Land Use Permit Request for the 9940 Complex PERM/0-KI-00-0001, August 21, 2003, and for details on the 9940 Complex Expansion see Environmental Baseline Survey, Proposed Land Use Permit Expansion for 9940 DETS Complex, June 24, 2009. The 2.7-acre parcel of land for the new parking lot, which is the subject of this EBS (also referred to as the “subject property”), is adjacent to the southwest boundary of the original 12.3- acre 9940 Main Complex. No testing is known to have taken place on the subject property site. The only activity known to have taken place was the burial of overhead utility lines in 2014. Adjacent to the subject property, the 9940 Main Complex was originally a 12.3-acre site used by the Department of Energy (DOE) under a land use permit from the United States Air Force (USAF). Historical use of the site, dating from 1964, included arming, fusing, and firing of explosives and testing of explosives systems components. In the late 1970s and early 1980s experiments at the 9940 Main Complex shifted toward reactor safety issues. From 1983 to 1988, fuel coolant interaction (FCI) experiments were conducted, as were experiments with conventional high explosives (HE). Today, the land is used for training of the Nuclear Emergency Response community and for research on energetic materials. In 2009, the original complex was expanded to include four additional 20-acre areas: 9940 Training South, 9940 Training East, T-Range 6, and Training West Landing Zone. The proposed use of

  17. Soil chloride and deep drainage responses to land clearing for cropping at seven sites in central Queensland, northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, B. J.; Silburn, D. M.; Forster, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    SummarySoil cores were taken at seven paired sites (native vegetation and adjacent dryland cropping on cracking clay soils) which had been cropped for 10-65 years in the Fitzroy Basin in central Queensland, northern Australia. Levels of soil chloride (Cl -) and nitrate nitrogen (NO 3-N) were determined in 0.3 m increments to a depth of 5 m where possible. The amounts of Cl - in the soil (0-1.5 m depth) under native vegetation were generally high (10-23 t ha -1 at six of the seven sites). The amounts of Cl - that had leached below 1.5 m depth during dryland cropping varied from 2.2 to 16.8 t ha -1 or 19-91% of the original totals at 0-1.5 m. Leaching of salt from the crop rooting zone in combination with higher rates of deep drainage can lead to outbreaks of soil salinisation but can also increase the soil plant available water capacity (PAWC). NO 3-N had also been leached below crop rooting depth at three sites. Such leaching not only contaminates the groundwater but also wastes crop nutrients. The transient chloride mass balance approach was used to determine mean annual rates of deep drainage below crop rooting depth (1.5 m). At all seven sites annual deep drainage was low under native vegetation (0.2-1.7 mm yr -1) but increased under dryland cropping (1.6-27.5 mm yr -1). Drainage losses showed an inverse relationship with plant available water content (PAWC). Drainage losses waste the limited supply of water available for dryland cropping but can be reduced by practising opportunity cropping or by growing ley (temporary) pastures in rotation with annual crops.

  18. Short rotation coppice with Robinia pseudoacacia L. : a land use option for carbon sequestration on reclaimed mine sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinkenstein, A.; Bohm, C.; Freese, D. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; Huttl, R.R. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A study in northeast Germany has shown that the establishment of short rotation coppices (SRC) of Robinia pseudoacacia L. may be a viable option for improving farmers income on marginal soils. The plantations produce woody biomass at a fast rate for energy use. Carbon is accumulated in the harvestable biomass, as well as in the stump and the roots. These plant compartments form a long-term carbon storage pool because they can survive a harvest, stay vital at the site and continue to grow as the plant ages. As organic litter decomposes, additional carbon is sequestered under SRC as soil organic carbon. The carbon sequestration in SRC of R. pseudoacacia on mining sites within the Lower Lusatian region in northeast Germany was studied and the results were complemented with findings of current field studies conducted on reclaimed mine sites. The average above ground dry matter productivity of R. pseudoacacia was found to be 3 to 10 Mg per hectare per year, depending on the plantation age and rotation period. It has been estimated that the carbon storage within the soil accounts to a carbon sequestration of up to 6 Mg per hectare per year for a soil depth of 60 cm.

  19. A site-related suitability analysis for the production of biomass as a contribution to sustainable regional land-use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Michael; Helms, Yvonne; Herberg, Alfred; Köppen, Antje; Kunzmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Dörte; Ross, Lutz; Itzerott, Sibylle

    2008-04-01

    The use of renewable energy in Europe offers the possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and contributes to energy security and independence. With the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and a variety of recently introduced national directives supporting renewable energy sources in the European Union, the economic attractiveness of bioenergy production has distinctly increased. This article combines an economic evaluation of biomass production with site-related natural conditions of the Havelland region, situated in the north-east area of Germany. Two methods for evaluating site-specific potential biomass yields were compared. For three example biomass crops, evaluations of yield estimations at agricultural lots for site-optimized suitability (SOS) and conventional suitability (CS) were carried out. Both modelling approaches were compared. The results of the GIS modelling indicate that the financial support for increasing the use of renewable energy with the German feed-in system, called Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), will possibly lead to an increased cultivation of crops with high biomass output. This monocultural orientation of farming practices and the negative effects on the ecosystem could act in opposition to other environmental initiatives of the EU. The outputs of the SOS analysis show that high biomass production could be integrated into environmental policy proposals. Therefore, new EU policy should take modified subsidies into consideration in order to avoid developing conflicts between small-scale changes in landscape ecosystems caused by large-scale transformations in energy policy.

  20. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis of Biorefinery Siting Based on Cellulosic Feedstock Grown on Marginal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this project undertaken by GLBRC (Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center) Area 4 (Sustainability) modelers is to develop a national capability to model feedstock supply, ethanol production, and biogeochemical impacts of cellulosic biofuels. The results of this project contribute to sustainability goals of the GLBRC; i.e. to contribute to developing a sustainable bioenergy economy: one that is profitable to farmers and refiners, acceptable to society, and environmentally sound. A sustainable bioenergy economy will also contribute, in a fundamental way, to meeting national objectives on energy security and climate mitigation. The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) develop a spatially explicit national geodatabase for conducting biofuel simulation studies and (4) locate possible sites for the establishment of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. To address the first objective, we developed SENGBEM (Spatially Explicit National Geodatabase for Biofuel and Environmental Modeling), a 60-m resolution geodatabase of the conterminous USA containing data on: (1) climate, (2) soils, (3) topography, (4) hydrography, (5) land cover/ land use (LCLU), and (6) ancillary data (e.g., road networks, federal and state lands, national and state parks, etc.). A unique feature of SENGBEM is its 2008-2010 crop rotation data, a crucially important component for simulating productivity and biogeochemical cycles as well as land-use changes associated with biofuel cropping. ARRA support for this project and to the PNNL Joint Global Change Research Institute enabled us to create an advanced computing infrastructure to execute millions of simulations, conduct post-processing calculations, store input and output data, and visualize results. These computing resources included two components installed at the Research Data Center of the University of Maryland. The first resource was 'deltac': an 8-core Linux server, dedicated to county-level and state-level simulations

  1. Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.; Fields, J.; Roberts, J. O.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island where multiple contaminated areas pose a threat to human health and the environment. Designated a superfund site on the National Priorities List in 1989, the base is committed to working toward reducing the its dependency on fossil fuels, decreasing its carbon footprint, and implementing RE projects where feasible. The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) partnered with NREL in February 2009 to investigate the potential for wind energy generation at a number of Naval and Marine bases on the East Coast. NAVSTA Newport was one of several bases chosen for a detailed, site-specific wind resource investigation. NAVSTA Newport, in conjunction with NREL and NFESC, has been actively engaged in assessing the wind resource through several ongoing efforts. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and a survey of potential wind turbine options based upon the site-specific wind resource.

  2. GEO-ENVIRONMENTAL DUE DILIGENCE AIMED AT SELECTION OF SITES DESIGNATED FOR ACCOMMODATION OF MOBILE GAS TURBINE POWER PLANTS IN RECREATIONAL LANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhan' Fedor Fedorovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile gas turbine plants (MGTP are the key sources of power designated to improve the safety of power supply in case of power deficit. In Russia, their pilot launch was initiated 5 - 6 years ago, and since then, they have demonstrated their high efficiency. In view of the upcoming Winter Olympic Games, organizations responsible for continuous power supply have resolved to build three MGTPs in Sochi. As Sochi is located in the natural area of preferential protection that has been granted Federal significance, construction and operation of the aforementioned facilities requires a detailed geo-environmental due diligence. Significant efforts have been exerted to substantiate the accommodation of MGTPs in three different sites and to identify the maximal number of power generators per site with account for the ecological restrictions imposed onto the natural areas of preferential protection. The impact produced by MGTPs on the environment depends on their technological features and the appropriate natural and anthropogenic properties of their sites and adjacent lands. Therefore, selection of new sites must be backed by the assessment of negative consequences. This requirement applies mainly to recreational lands. Recent sources report that the principal factors of negative impact of MGTPs include the chemical pollution of the ambient air and the noise pollution of residential buildings located in the immediate proximity to MGTPs. Factors of secondary importance include the pollution of surface and underground waters, soils, intrusion into the geological environment, production of waste, thermal and electromagnetic pollutions. The authors assess different factors of impact produced by MGTPs on the environment. As a result of the geo-ecological due diligence it has been discovered that the maximal number of power generators per site must not exceed 2-4, if the oxide emission technology is employed. At the same time, failure to employ the above

  3. Short-temporal variation of soil organic carbon in different land use systems in the Ramsar site 2027 `Presa Manuel Ávila Camacho' Puebla

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Teloxa, L. C.; Cruz-Montalvo, A.; Tamaríz-Flores, J. V.; Pérez-Avilés, R.; Torres, E.; Castelán-Vega, R.

    2017-10-01

    The soil organic carbon (SOC) was determined in 40 sites at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm) for different uses of soil during one year (February 2014-February 2015). The total SOC stored in the analysed soil from the Ramsar site was 9{,}67 × 105 t, from which 40% was stored in induced pasture, followed by the red oak forest with shrubbery secondary vegetation, rain-fed agriculture and human settlements (24%, 23%, and 13%, respectively); the last was evaluated to determine how the proximity of the city impacts the SOC. The SOC concentrations present significant differences with respect to soil depth (p=0.0) and land use (p=0.0). The temporal distribution maps showed that SOC did not present significant variations in the short-term. A relation between SOC and bulk density was found (r = -0.654, p=0.00), with respect to other physicochemical properties. Moreover, a significant relation between SOC and stored total nitrogen (r = 0.585; p = 0.00) was found. This work represents the first study that analyses the current condition of the soils in the Ramsar site `Presa Manuel Ávila Camacho'.

  4. Numerical simulation of turbulent flows over crater-like obstacles: application to Gale crater, landing site of the Curiosity rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W.; Day, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Mars is a dry planet with a thin atmosphere. Aeolian processes - wind-driven mobilization of sediment and dust - are the dominant mode of landscape variability on the dessicated landscapes of Mars. Craters are common topographic features on the surface of Mars, and many craters on Mars contain a prominent central mound (NASA's Curiosity rover was landed in Gale crater, with the rover journeying across an inner plan and towards Gale's central mound, Aeolus Mons). These mounds are composed of sedimentary fill, and, therefore, they contain rich information on the evolution of climatic conditions on Mars embodied in the stratigraphic "layering" of sediments. Many other craters no longer house a mound, but contain sediment and dust from which dune fields and other features form. Using density-normalized large-eddy simulations, we have modeled turbulent flows over crater-like topographies that feature a central mound. Resultant datasets suggest a deflationary mechanism wherein vortices shed from the upwind crater rim are realigned to conform to the crater profile via stretching and tilting. This insight was gained using three-dimensional datasets (momentum, vorticity, and turbulent stresses) retrieved from LES, and assessment of the relative influence of constituent terms responsible for the sustenance of mean vorticity. The helical, counter-rotating vortices occupy the inner region of the crater, and, therefore, are argued to be of great importance for aeolian morphodynamics in the crater (radial katabatic flows are also important to aeolian processes within the crater).

  5. History of the clay-rich unit at Mawrth Vallis, Mars: High-resolution mapping of a candidate landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizeau, D.; Mangold, N.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bishop, J. L.; Michalski, J.; Quantin, C.

    2015-11-01

    The Mawrth Vallis region is covered by some of the largest phyllosilicate-rich outcrops on Mars, making it a unique window into the past history of Mars in terms of water alteration, potential habitability, and the search for past life. A landing ellipse had been proposed for the Curiosity rover. This area has been extensively observed by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment and the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, offering the possibility to produce geologic, structural, and topographic maps at very high resolution. These observations provide an unprecedented detailed context of the rocks at Mawrth Vallis, in terms of deposition, alteration, erosion, and mechanical constraints. Our analyses demonstrate the presence of a variety of alteration environments on the surface and readily accessible to a rover, the presence of flowing water at the surface postdating the formation of the clay-rich units, and evidence for probable circulation of fluids in the rocks at different depths. These rocks undergo continuous erosion, creating fresh outcrops where potential biomarkers may have been preserved. The diversity of aqueous environments over geological time coupled to excellent preservation properties make the area a very strong candidate for future robotic investigation on Mars, like the NASA Mars 2020 mission.

  6. Estimation of lunar major elemental abundances in Chang'E-3 landing site based on Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianmin

    2015-09-01

    Elemental abundance provides an effective vehicle to understand lunar petrologic characteristics and evolutional history. The APXS mounted on the Yutu rover provides a valuable opportunity to determine the major elemental abundances in lunar soil within a short distance. In this study, we processed the APXS spectra including energy calibration, dead time correction and nonlinear least-squares fitting, and determined the abundances of the lunar major elements using the fundamental parameter method. In the calculation of X-ray fluorescence yield, a finite element method (FEM) was employed to improve the accuracy. The major elemental abundances derived from Chang'E-3 (CE-3) APXS possess a good consistency with the result of LP-GRS (Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometer) data in the landing region. Compared with the chemical composition of the returned lunar rock samples, we draw the conclusion that the lunar soils in CE-3 landing site are fragments of mare basalts. Our conclusion is supported by the geological map of Mare Imbrium.

  7. Large-Eddy Simulation of Shallow Cumulus over Land: A Composite Case Based on ARM Long-Term Observations at Its Southern Great Plains Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yunyan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Klein, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Chandra, Arunchandra S. [Division of Meteorology and Physical Oceanography, University of Miami, Miami, Florida; Kollias, Pavlos [School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York; Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Tang, Shuaiqi [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    2017-10-01

    Based on long-term observations by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program at its Southern Great Plains site, a new composite case of continental shallow cumulus (ShCu) convection is constructed for large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. The case represents a typical daytime nonprecipitating ShCu whose formation and dissipation are driven by the local atmospheric conditions and land surface forcing and are not influenced by synoptic weather events. The case includes early morning initial profiles of temperature and moisture with a residual layer; diurnally varying sensible and latent heat fluxes, which represent a domain average over different land surface types; simplified large-scale horizontal advective tendencies and subsidence; and horizontal winds with prevailing direction and average speed. Observed composite cloud statistics are provided for model evaluation. The observed diurnal cycle is well reproduced by LES; however, the cloud amount, liquid water path, and shortwave radiative effect are generally underestimated. LES are compared between simulations with an all-or-nothing bulk microphysics and a spectral bin microphysics. The latter shows improved agreement with observations in the total cloud cover and the amount of clouds with depths greater than 300 m. When compared with radar retrievals of in-cloud air motion, LES produce comparable downdraft vertical velocities, but a larger updraft area, velocity, and updraft mass flux. Both observations and LES show a significantly larger in-cloud downdraft fraction and downdraft mass flux than marine ShCu.

  8. Trace element geochemistry (Li, Ba, Sr, and Rb) using Curiosity's ChemCam: early results for Gale crater from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, Ann M.; Newsom, Horton E.; Clark, Benton; Wiens, Roger C.; Cousin, Agnes; Blank, Jen G.; Mangold, Nicolas; Sautter, Violaine; Maurice, Sylvestre; Clegg, Samuel M.; Gasnault, Olivier; Forni, Olivier; Tokar, Robert; Lewin, Eric; Dyar, M. Darby; Lasue, Jeremie; Anderson, Ryan; McLennan, Scott M.; Bridges, John; Vaniman, Dave; Lanza, Nina; Fabre, Cecile; Melikechi, Noureddine; Perett, Glynis M.; Campbell, John L.; King, Penelope L.; Barraclough, Bruce; Delapp, Dorothea; Johnstone, Stephen; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Rosen-Gooding, Anya; Williams, Josh

    2014-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars rover, Curiosity, provides new capabilities to probe the abundances of certain trace elements in the rocks and soils on Mars using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We focus on detecting and quantifying Li, Ba, Rb, and Sr in targets analyzed during the first 100 sols, from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest. Univariate peak area models and multivariate partial least squares models are presented. Li, detected for the first time directly on Mars, is generally low (100 ppm and >1000 ppm, respectively. These analysis locations tend to have high Si and alkali abundances, consistent with a feldspar composition. Together, these trace element observations provide possible evidence of magma differentiation and aqueous alteration.

  9. The Mons Rümker volcanic complex of the Moon: A candidate landing site for the Chang'E-5 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiannan; Xiao, Long; Qiao, Le; Glotch, Timothy D.; Huang, Qian

    2017-07-01

    Mons Rümker is a large volcanic complex in Oceanus Procellarum on the Moon and is a candidate landing site for China's Chang'E-5 sample return mission. We conducted a comprehensive study of the topography, geomorphology, composition, and stratigraphy of the Mons Rümker region with multisource remote sensing data in order to better understand the geology of the region and provide further support for the Chang'E-5 mission. The results show that the Rümker plateau stands 200-1300 m above the surrounding mare surface and 75% of the plateau has a slope of less than 3° at a baseline length of 30 m. Domes are the most prominent volcanic landforms in Mons Rümker and a total of 22 domes were identified and divided into two types that may represent different stages of volcanic activity. Spectral analyses indicated that Mons Rümker is covered by low-Ti basalt and the dominant mafic mineral is high-calcium pyroxene, though signs of mixing of highland materials and basalt have been found. Mons Rümker has three main basalt units, and their absolute model ages are 3.71 Ga, 3.58 Ga, and 3.51 Ga, respectively. Steep-sided domes could be the youngest volcanic features on the plateau with indications that they were active until the Eratosthenian. A new geologic map of the study region was produced and used to interpret and discuss the geologic evolution of the region. Finally, we propose two candidate landing sites for the Chang'E-5 mission.

  10. Indigenous cosmology, art forms and past medicinal practices: towards an interpretation of ancient Koma Land sites in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W; Nkumbaan, Samuel N; Insoll, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    The ancient cultural tradition in the middle belt region of northern Ghana, with its stone circle and house mounds, contains varied material culture. The unique contextual arrangements of the material culture within the stone circle mounds and the diverse ceramic art forms, as well as their ethnographic analogues in West Africa, indicate the mounds' association with past shrines that have multiple functions, including curative purposes. The archaeology of the mounds and ethnographic associations related to past indigenous medical practices is reviewed and discussed. This paper will also consider how some of the figurines through which the Koma tradition has achieved 'fame' possibly functioned as physical representations of disease, perhaps underpinned by intentions of transference from afflicted to image. The notions of protection and healing are also examined with reference to the resorted and disarticulated human remains sometimes recovered from the sites.

  11. Atmospheric reactive nitrogen concentrations at ten sites with contrasting land use in an arid region of central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of reactive nitrogen (Nr species from 2009 to 2011 are reported for ten sites in Xinjiang, China, an arid region of central Asia. Concentrations of NH3, NO2, particulate ammonium and nitrate (pNH4+ and pNO3 showed large spatial and seasonal variation and averaged 7.71, 9.68, 1.81 and 1.13 μg N m−3, and PM10 concentrations averaged 249.2 μg m−3 across all sites. Lower NH3 concentrations and higher NO2, pNH4+ and pNO3 concentrations were found in winter, reflecting serious air pollution due to domestic heating in winter and other anthropogenic sources such as increased emissions from motor traffic and industry. The increasing order of total concentrations of Nr species was alpine grassland; desert, desert-oasis ecotone; desert in an oasis; farmland; suburban and urban ecosystems. Lower ratios of secondary particles (NH4+ and NO3 were found in the desert and desert-oasis ecotone, while urban and suburban areas had higher ratios, which implied that anthropogenic activities have greatly influenced local air quality and must be controlled.

  12. Land suitability assessment for wind power plant site selection using ANP-DEMATEL in a GIS environment: case study of Ardabil province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Ali; Malekmohammadi, Bahram; Jafari, Hamid Reza; Nasiri, Hossein; Amini Parsa, Vahid

    2014-10-01

    Wind energy is a renewable energy resource that has increased in usage in most countries. Site selection for the establishment of large wind turbines, called wind farms, like any other engineering project, requires basic information and careful planning. This study assessed the possibility of establishing wind farms in Ardabil province in northwestern Iran by using a combination of analytic network process (ANP) and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) methods in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. DEMATEL was used to determine the criteria relationships. The weights of the criteria were determined using ANP and the overlaying process was done on GIS. Using 13 information layers in three main criteria including environmental, technical and economical, the land suitability map was produced and reclassified into 5 equally scored divisions from least suitable to most suitable areas. The results showed that about 6.68% of the area of Ardabil province is most suitable for establishment of wind turbines. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant portions of these most suitable zones coincide with suitable divisions of the input layers. The efficiency and accuracy of the hybrid model (ANP-DEMATEL) was evaluated and the results were compared to the ANP model. The sensitivity analysis, map classification, and factor weights for the two methods showed satisfactory results for the ANP-DEMATEL model in wind power plant site selection.

  13. Land and Water Use Characteristics and Human Health Input Parameters for use in Environmental Dosimetry and Risk Assessments at the Savannah River Site 2017 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stagich, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-25

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of relatively small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters, but the use of site-specific values is encouraged. Detailed surveys of land-use and water-use parameters were conducted in 1991, 2008, 2010, and 2016 and are being concurred with or updated in this report. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk, and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk, and vegetable consumption rates, as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors (to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS) are documented. The intent of this report is to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data, and that is maintained via review of future-issued national references (to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released). These reviews will continue to be added to this document by revision.

  14. Land and Water Use Characteristics and Human Health Input Parameters for use in Environmental Dosimetry and Risk Assessments at the Savannah River Site. 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G. Tim [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hartman, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stagich, Brooke [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-26

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters, but the use of applicant site-specific values is encouraged. Detailed surveys of land-use and water-use parameters were conducted in 1991 and 2010. They are being updated in this report. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates, as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors (to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS) are documented. The intent of this report is to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data, and that is maintained via review of future-issued national references (to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released). These reviews will continue to be added to this document by revision.

  15. Land and Water Use Characteristics and Human Health Input Parameters for use in Environmental Dosimetry and Risk Assessments at the Savannah River Site. 2016 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G. Tim; Hartman, Larry; Stagich, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters, but the use of applicant site-specific values is encouraged. Detailed surveys of land-use and water-use parameters were conducted in 1991 and 2010. They are being updated in this report. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates, as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors (to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS) are documented. The intent of this report is to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data, and that is maintained via review of future-issued national references (to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released). These reviews will continue to be added to this document by revision.

  16. Contrasting and not-so-contrasting perspectives between local stakeholders and scientists and across dryland sites in participatory assessment of land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Susana; Zucca, Claudio; Urghege, Anna M.; Ramón Vallejo, V.

    2015-04-01

    The participation of stakeholders and the integration of scientific and local knowledge in the assessment of environmental problems and potential solutions have been increasingly demanded by international institutions. Participatory assessment has the potential to engender social learning among all stakeholders, including scientists, which then has the potential to increase collaboration and the probability for adoption of good practices. Using PRACTICE participatory assessment tool, IAPro, a number of assessment criteria were identified, selected and weighted by local stakeholder platforms (SHPs) and scientists in 18 dryland sites distributed across 11 countries. These criteria were then applied to the assessment of a variety of local land management actions. In total, around 50 criteria were proposed by the SHPs, ranging from 6 to 14 per platform. The proposed criteria represented a wide variety of social, economic, cultural, and environmental aspects. Many of them were proposed by many of the SHPs, stressing their potential as universal assessment criteria across drylands. In most cases, these repeatedly proposed criteria were the same criteria proposed by the scientific panel. The relative importance given to the variety of criteria by each SHP was evenly distributed among the economic wealth criterion and each of the main categories of ecosystem services (provisioning, supporting & regulating, and cultural). In general, African and American sites where local people economies heavily rely on natural lands gave higher weights than European sites to "economic-wealth", "provision of goods", and "supporting and regulating services" criteria, and also to "socio-cultural services". All European SHPs selected and gave great importance to criteria that are related to security, such hydrogeological hazard, flood prevention, and fire risk. The participatory assessment process in IAPro facilitated social learning among the stakeholders, including scientists, and promoted

  17. Multiple Natural Hazards Assessment and Comparison to Planned Land Use in an Andean Touristic Site within the Riskscape Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas; Jaque Castillo, Edilia

    2017-04-01

    The Andes of central Chile are a natural environment characterized by multiple natural hazards (mass movements, volcanic hazards, seismic hazards, snow avalanches to name a few). The totality of these hazards, according to the notion of Müller-Mahn et al. an in relation to vulnerable entities, spans a riskscape. Spatial planning should take this riskscape into account in order to ensure a save an resilient regional development. However, as frequently observed in developing or newly developed countries, such precaution measures are only hardly realized. Spatial planing tends to be reactive to private inversion, opportunistic and frequently clientelistic. This results in spatial structures whose future development is vulnerable to natural disasters. The contribution analyses these circumstances within a riskscape in central Chile. Within the VIII. Region, close to the volcanic complex Nevados de Chillan, a touristic development around a Hotel for winter sports is established. However, the place is affected by a multitude of natural hazards. The contribution, on the basis of primary and secondary data, first provides hazard maps for several natural hazards. Secondly, the individual hazard maps are merged to an overall hazard map. This overall hazard map is related to the vulnerable entities to span a riskscape. The vulnerable entities are settlements, but also tourist infrastructures. Then, the contribution compares how a precautions spatial planning could have avoided putting vulnerable entities at risk, which spatial structure - especially regarding tourism - is actually found and which challenges for spatial development do exist. It reveals that the most important tourist infrastructures are found particularly at places, characterized by a high overall hazard. Furthermore, it will show that alternatives at economically equally attractive sites, but with a much smaller overall hazard, would have existed. It concludes by discussing possible reasons for this by

  18. The interactions between soil-biosphere-atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model multi-energy balance (MEB) option in SURFEXv8 - Part 2: Introduction of a litter formulation and model evaluation for local-scale forest sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoly, Adrien; Boone, Aaron; Samuelsson, Patrick; Gollvik, Stefan; Martin, Eric; Seferian, Roland; Carrer, Dominique; Decharme, Bertrand; Jarlan, Lionel

    2017-04-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) need to balance a complicated trade-off between computational cost and complexity in order to adequately represent the exchanges of energy, water and matter with the atmosphere and the ocean. Some current generation LSMs use a simplified or composite canopy approach that generates recurrent errors in simulated soil temperature and turbulent fluxes. In response to these issues, a new version of the interactions between soil-biosphere-atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model has recently been developed that explicitly solves the transfer of energy and water from the upper canopy and the forest floor, which is characterized as a litter layer. The multi-energy balance (MEB) version of ISBA is first evaluated for three well-instrumented contrasting local-scale sites, and sensitivity tests are performed to explore the behavior of new model parameters. Second, ISBA-MEB is benchmarked against observations from 42 forested sites from the global micro-meteorological network (FLUXNET) for multiple annual cycles.It is shown that ISBA-MEB outperforms the composite version of ISBA in improving the representation of soil temperature, ground, sensible and, to a lesser extent, latent heat fluxes. Both versions of ISBA give comparable results in terms of simulated latent heat flux because of the similar formulations of the water uptake and the stomatal resistance. However, MEB produces a better agreement with the observations of sensible heat flux than the previous version of ISBA for 87.5 % of the simulated years across the 42 forested FLUXNET sites. Most of this improvement arises owing to the improved simulation of the ground conduction flux, which is greatly improved using MEB, especially owing to the forest litter parameterization. It is also shown that certain processes are also modeled more realistically (such as the partitioning of evapotranspiration into transpiration and ground evaporation), even if certain statistical performances are neutral. The

  19. Mesoscale modeling of the water vapor cycle at Mawrth Vallis: a Mars2020 and ExoMars exploration rovers high-priority landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-García, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: The Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) was used to predict meteorological conditions that are likely to be encountered by the Mars 2020 (NASA) Rover at several of their respective proposed landing sites during entry, descent, and landing at Ls5 [1] and by the ExoMars (ESA) Rover at one of the final landing sites. MRAMS is ideally suited for this type of investigation; the model is explicitly designed to simu-late Mars' atmospheric circulations at the mesoscale and smaller with realistic, high-resolution surface proper-ties [2, 3]. One of the sights studied for both rovers was Mawrth Vallis (MV), an ancient water outflow channel with light colored clay-rich rocks in the mid-latitude north hemisphere (Oxia Palus quadrangle). MV is the northernmost of the Mars2020 and ExoMars landing sites and the closest to the northern polar cap water source. The primary source of water vapor to the atmosphere is the northern polar cap during the northern summer. In order to highlight MV habitability implications, additional numerical experiments at Ls90, 140 and 180, highest column abundance of water vapor is found over MV [4], were performed to study how the atmospheric circulation connects MV with the polar water source. Once the winter CO2 retreats, the underlying polar water ice is exposed and begins to sublimate. The water is transported equatorward where it is manifested in the tropical aphelion cloud belt. If transport is assumed to be the result of the summer Hadley Cell, then the polar water is carried aloft in the northern high latitude rising branch before moving equatorward and eventually toward the southern high latitudes. Thus, the mean meridional summer circulation precludes a direct water vapor connection between MV and the polar source. Around the equinoxes (Ls0 and Ls180), there is a brief transition period where the rising branch quickly crosses from one hemisphere into the other as it migrates to its more typical solstitial location

  20. Combustion of Organic Molecules by the Thermal Decomposition of Perchlorate Salts: Implications for Organics at the Mars Phoenix Scout Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D.W.; Morris, R.V.; Niles, B.; Lauer, H.V.; Archer, P.D.; Sutter, B.; Boynton, W.V.; Golden, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars 2007 Phoenix Scout Mission successfully landed on May 25, 2008 and operated on the northern plains of Mars for 150 sols. The primary mission objective was to study the history of water and evaluate the potential for past and present habitability in Martian arctic ice-rich soil [1]. Phoenix landed near 68 N latitude on polygonal terrain created by ice layers that are a few centimeters under loose soil materials. The Phoenix Mission is assessing the potential for habitability by searching for organic molecules in the ice or icy soils at the landing site. Organic molecules are necessary building blocks for life, although their presence in the ice or soil does not indicate life itself. Phoenix searched for organic molecules by heating soil/ice samples in the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA, [2]). TEGA consists of 8 differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) ovens integrated with a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer with a mass range of 2-140 daltons [2]. Endothermic and exothermic reactions are recorded by the TEGA DSC as samples are heated from ambient to 1000 C. Evolved gases, including any organic molecules and their fragments, are simultaneously measured by the mass spectrometer during heating. Phoenix TEGA data are still under analysis; however, no organic fragments have been identified to date in the evolved gas analysis (EGA). The MECA Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) discovered a perchlorate salt in the Phoenix soils and a mass 32 peak evolved between 325 and 625 C for one surface sample dubbed Baby Bear [3]. The mass 32 peak is attributed to evolved O2 generated during the thermal decomposition of the perchlorate salt. Perchlorates are very strong oxidizers when heated, so it is possible that organic fragments evolved in the temperature range of 300-600 C were combusted by the O2 released during the thermal decomposition of the perchlorate salt. The byproduct of the combustion of organic molecules is CO2. There is a prominent release of CO2 between 200

  1. Environmental Modeling, The Natural Filter Wetland Priority layers identify priority wetland restoration sites by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank opportunities with high nutrient removal potential., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Natural Filter Wetland Priority layers identify priority wetland restoration sites by subwatershed. Land use,...

  2. Randomized proof of concept trial of GLYX-13, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor glycine site partial agonist, in major depressive disorder nonresponsive to a previous antidepressant agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preskorn, Sheldon; Macaluso, Matthew; Mehra, D O Vishaal; Zammit, Gary; Moskal, Joseph R; Burch, Ronald M

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 45% of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not remit when treated with biogenic amine antidepressants. Consequently, there is a significant need for antidepressant agents with different mechanisms of action. Early proof of concept (POC) studies with such novel agents play a significant role in helping drug developers identify agents and mechanisms of action that merit more intensive research. Studies have demonstrated that high affinity N-methyl-Daspartate (NMDA) receptor blockers (eg, ketamine) can produce rapid antidepressant effects in patients who have not responded to currently available agents, but treatment with these agents is accompanied by psychotomimetic effects that make their use problematic. This column describes a POC study involving GLYX-13, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor glycine site functional partial agonist. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, a single intravenous (IV) dose of GLYX-13 (1, 5, 10, or 30 mg/kg) or placebo was administered to 116 subjects with MDD who had not benefitted from a trial of at least one biogenic amine antidepressant during the current episode. The primary outcome measure was score on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (Ham-D17), which was used to rate overall depressive symptoms at baseline and at 24 hours and days 3, 7, 14, and, in some arms, days 21 and 28 after administration. GLYX-13, 5 or 10 mg/kg IV, reduced depressive symptoms as assessed by the Ham-D17 at days 1 through 7. Onset of action as assessed using the Bech-6 occurred within 2 hours. GLYX-13 did not elicit psychotomimetic or other significant side effects. In this early POC study, GLYX-13 reduced depressive symptoms within 2 hours and this effect was maintained for 7 days on average in subjects with MDD who had not responded to another antidepressant agent during the current depressive episode. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that modulation of the NMDA receptor is a valid target

  3. Focus on land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Various aspects of land reclamation, i.e. returning disturbed land to a state where, at minimum, it is at least capable of supporting the same kinds of land uses as before the disturbance, are discussed. Activities which disturb the land such as surface mining of coal, surface mining and extraction of oil sands, drilling for oil and natural gas, waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, clearing timber for forestry, excavating for pipelines and transportation are described, along with land reclamation legislation in Alberta, and indications of future developments in land reclamation research, legislation and regulation. Practical guidelines for individuals are provided on how they might contribute to land reclamation through judicious and informed consumerism, and through practicing good land management, inclusive of reduced use of herbicides, composting of household wastes, and planting of native species or ground cover in place of traditional lawns.

  4. Rock-block configuration in Uppland and the Aalands-hav basin, the regional surroundings of the SKB site in Forsmark, Sea and land areas, eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A.

    2010-12-01

    The Forsmark SKB site lies at the west-northwest trending shoreline in northern Uppland, sheltered from the sea by one of the larger islands in the Uppland archipelago, Graesoe. To assess the structures around Forsmark also in the sea area, the bottom structures of the Aalands-hav basin were investigated by means of depth readings from sea charts. Two rock-block maps with rock blocks at different scales were constructed and analysed for their top surface elevation. The topography in Uppland is more broken in the sea area east and northeast of Forsmark than it is on land. The major structure in the Aalands-hav basin is a westnorth- westerly line that passes southwest of Aaland, with a very steep gradient from the Aaland archipelago down to an exceptionally low sea-floor valley. On its southern side it rises in steps to a low flat basin divided into a deeper western half and a somewhat shallower eastern half. The deep west-north-westerly zone can be traced on-land past Oeregrund and Forsmark. West of Oeregrund however, the main trough swings into a north-northwesterly direction, just west of Graesoe. The southern border south of Oeregrund and Forsmark, shows a major drop in elevation northern side down. Forsmark thus lies on a ribbon with lower ground on both its southern and northern boundaries. This west-north-westerly belt is cut in two by a major north-south lineament that cuts through the archipelago between Aaland and Graesoe with a very deep canyon. This structure was seismically active in June 2006. The southern part of this line constitutes the western border of the low basin and has a steep gradient on its western side up to the Uppland mainland. The deep basin is filled with Jotnian metasediments. South of this basin, the Uppland mainland continues under water towards the east. South of Aaland an east-north-easterly ridge separates the low basin to the north from an east-west trending trough which is the eastern continuation of a major onland structure

  5. UNESCO World Heritage Site Hallstatt: Rockfall hazard and risk assessment as basis for a sustainable land-use planning- a case study from the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzner, Sandra; Mölk, Michael; Schiffer, Michael; Gasperl, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    In times of decreasing financial resources, the demand for the investment in protection measures with a positive return on investment is of high importance. Hazard and risk assessments are essential tools in order to ensure an economically justifiable application of money in the implementation of preventive measures. Many areas in the Eastern Alps are recurrently affected by rockfall processes which pose a significant hazard to settlements and infrastructures. Complex tectonic, lithological and geomorphologic settings require a sufficient amount of effort to map and collect high quality data to perform a reliable hazard and risk analysis. The present work summarizes the results of a detailed hazard and risk assessment performed in a community in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Upper Austroalpine Unit). The community Hallstatt is exposed to very steep limestone cliffs, which are highly susceptible towards future, in many parts high magnitude rock failures. The analysis of the record of former events shows that since 1652 several rockfall events damaged or destroyed houses and killed or injured some people. Hallstatt as a Unesco World Heritage Site represents a very vulnerable settlement, the risk being elevated by a high frequency tourism with greater one million visitors per year. Discussion will focus on the applied methods to identify and map the rockfall hazard and risk, including a magnitude-frequency analysis of events in the past and an extrapolation in the future as well as a vulnerability analysis for the existing infrastructure under the assumed events for the determined magnitude-frequency scenarios. Furthermore challenges for a decision making in terms of a sustainable land use planning and implementation of preventive measures will be discussed.

  6. Evaluating the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) at a coniferous forest site in northwestern United States using flux and carbon-isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique F. Duarte; Brett M. Raczka; Daniel M. Ricciuto; John C. Lin; Charles D. Koven; Peter E. Thornton; David R. Bowling; Chun-Ta Lai; Kenneth J. Bible; James R. Ehleringer

    2017-01-01

    Droughts in the western United States are expected to intensify with climate change. Thus, an adequate representation of ecosystem response to water stress in land models is critical for predicting carbon dynamics. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5 against observations at an old-growth coniferous forest...

  7. The Kavirondo Escarpment: a previously unrecognized site of high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite only a limited effort there, we report several new atlas square occurrences, presence of the local and poorly known Rock Cisticola Cisticola emini and a significant range extension for the Stone Partridge Ptilopachus petrosus. Our short visits indicate high avian species richness is associated with the escarpment and ...

  8. The Kavirondo Escarpment: a previously unrecognized site of high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. In western Kenya, extant woodland habitats and their representative bird species are increasingly scarce outside of protected areas. With the assistance of satellite imagery we located several minimally impacted ecosystems on the Kavirondo Escarpment. (0°1.7' S, 34°56.5' E), which we then visited to examine ...

  9. Mozambique - Urban Land Regularization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This baseline survey was developed for the impact evaluation of activities related to 'improving land access in urban hotspot areas.' The site-specific interventions...

  10. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  11. Origin(s) of the local structures at the Philae landing site and possible implications on the formation and evolution of the 67P nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, F.; Lucchetti, A.; Bibring, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    The in situ images of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus acquired by the CIVA cameras on-board PHILAE revealed a rough, irregular and inhomogeneous terrains dominated by fractures and agglomerates of consolidated materials. While the composition of these materials is unknown, they provide unique structures to constrain the conditions prevailing at the surface of a comet and also possibly to the nucleus formation. A quantitative analysis of some microscopic structures (namely fractures and grains that look like pebbles) will be presented using a manual extraction from the CIVA data set with the software ArcGIS. Fractures/cracks are rather ubiquitous at various spatial scales with network and size (from sub-cm to 10 cm) well correlated to the texture of the landscape. The pebble size distribution are reasonably well fitted by power-laws having different cumulative indexes. The nature of the landscape of the landing site will be then discussed in relation to both endogenic and exogenic processes that could have sculpted it. The block seen in CIVA#1 is interpreted to be a close-up of fractured boulders/cliff belonging to the boulder field identified from the orbit near Abydos, this boulder field being itself the result of gravitational regressive erosion due to sublimation (Lucchetti et al. 2016). The observed fractures are best explained by thermal insolation leading to thermal fatigue and/or to loss of volatile materials (e.g., desiccation). This surficial fragmentation (up to >10 cm length) could generate macroscopic erosion that is also visible at larger scale from the orbit. While the pebbles are difficult to be formed by any current physical processes, there is at least an intriguing possibility that they are remnants of primordial accretion processes, as there are several lines of evidence that the nucleus could be primordial (Davidsson et al., 2016), and not a collisional rubble piles of a large body (Morbidelli and Rickman A&A, 2015). We thus speculate that

  12. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  13. Introducing an agricultural land capability framework for land reform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study incorporated remote sensing, geographic information system (GIS), and geostatistics to assess land capability in two sites acquired through land reform program. The relationships and interactions between components and parameters that are necessary for analysing the capability of agricultural land were ...

  14. Land Use and Land Cover Change Analysis along the Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study area was done manually through on-screen digitization in ESRI ArcGIS 10.1. The major land use/cover types identified in the study sites were built up area, vegetation and farms. It was found that since the two study sites are both fast growing urban communities, most of the land was used for human habitation, hence, ...

  15. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 12: User evaluation of experimental land use maps and related products from the central Atlantic test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Mcginty, H. K., III

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Recommendations resulting from the CARETS evaluation reflect the need to establish a flexible and reliable system for providing more detailed raw and processed land resource information as well as the need to improve the methods of making information available to users.

  16. Land Use and Land Cover - CEMETERY_AREAS_IDNR_IN: Cemetery Site Areas in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, 1:5,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — IDNR documentation states - “This dataset contains locations of cemetery sites in Indiana, regardless of age, number of graves, or size of the cemetery. Is it not...

  17. Temporal and Spatial Variations in Precipitation, Streamflow, Suspended-Sediment Loads and Yields, and Land-Condition Trend Analysis at the U.S. Army Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado, 1983 through 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M.R.; Dupree, J.; Kuzmiak, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, began an assessment of the spatial and temporal variations in precipitation, streamflow, suspended-sediment loads and yields, changes in land condition, effects of the tributaries on the Purgatoire River and the possible relation of effects from military training to hydrology and land conditions that have occurred at Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site (PCMS) from 1983 through 2007. Data were collected for precipitation (19 stations) and streamflow and sediment load (5 tributary and 2 main-stem Purgatoire River stations) during 1983 through 2007 for various time periods. The five tributary stations were Van Bremer Arroyo near Model, Taylor Arroyo below Rock Crossing, Lockwood Canyon Creek near Thatcher, Red Rock Canyon Creek at the mouth, and Bent Canyon Creek at the mouth. In addition, data were collected at two Purgatoire River stations: Purgatoire River near Thatcher and Purgatoire River at Rock Crossing.

  18. Ma'adim Vallis Estuarine Delta in Elysium Basin and Its Relevance as a Landing Site for Exobiology Exploration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, E. A.; Cabrol, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    layers of region A are predicted frequent and abundant coarse material, sandy lenses lamination grading downward from sand to cobbles. Volcanic debris from the Noachian crustal Plateau unit material, hydrothermal altered rocks, carbonates, Hesperian and possibly Amazonian volcanic material, from Apollinaris Patera, altered rocks and carbonates from Zephiria Mensae are expected. As a favorable environment for inception of life, possible biological records are expected in transported rock, (2) At the surface, and subsurface (sediments from Ma'adim Vallis are expected mostly in the upstream part of region B, (3) on the shoreline of the estuarine delta, abundant fine material from Elysium paleolake basin (evaporites, carbonates), mostly Amazonian in age are expected. The Ma'adini estuary is a favorable landing site for all the above mentioned science aspects, and .for its location. The site lies near the equator, which is favorable for the rover solar power supply, and at 1000m elevation, which is a favorable configuration for the descent system braking. Another advantage is the extent of the area of high scientific interest (33,000 sq km), which provides a good ellipse, and potential long study traverses.

  19. Weibull Wind-Speed Distribution Parameters Derived from a Combination of Wind-Lidar and Tall-Mast Measurements Over Land, Coastal and Marine Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph; Peña, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Wind-speed observations from tall towers are used in combination with observations up to 600 m in altitude from a Doppler wind lidar to study the long-term conditions over suburban (Hamburg), rural coastal (Høvsøre) and marine (FINO3) sites. The variability in the wind field among the sites is ex...

  20. Environmental Modeling, The Buffer Priority layers for Nitrogen Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer sites by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank opportunities with high nitrogen removal potential., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Buffer Priority layers for Nitrogen Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer sites by subwatershed. Land...

  1. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  2. Assessment of land suitability for olive mill wastewater disposal site selection by integrating fuzzy logic, AHP, and WLC in a GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydi, Abdelwaheb; Abichou, Tarek; Nasr, Imen Hamdi; Louati, Mourad; Zairi, Moncef

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a geographic information system-based multi-criteria site selection tool of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) disposal site in Sidi Bouzid Region, Tunisia. The multi-criteria decision framework integrates ten constraints and six factors that relate to environmental and economic concerns, and builds a hierarchy model for OMW disposal site suitability. The methodology is used for preliminary assessment of the most suitable OMW disposal sites by combining fuzzy set theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The fuzzy set theory is used to standardize factors using different fuzzy membership functions while the AHP is used to establish the relative importance of the criteria. The AHP makes pairwise comparisons of relative importance between hierarchy elements grouped by both environmental and economic decision criteria. The OMW disposal site suitability is achieved by applying a weighted linear combination that uses a comparison matrix to aggregate different importance scenarios associated with environmental and economic objectives. Three different scenarios generated by different weights applied to the two objectives. The scenario (a) assigns a weight of 0.75 to the environmental and 0.25 to the economic objective, scenario (b) has equal weights, and scenario (c) features weights of 0.25 and 0.75 for environmental and economic objectives, respectively. The results from this study assign the least suitable OMW disposal site of 2.5 % when environmental and economic objectives are rated equally, while a more suitable OMW disposal site of 1.0 % is generated when the economic objective is rated higher.

  3. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  4. Geologic characteristics of the Luna 17/Lunokhod 1 and Chang'E-3/Yutu landing sites, Northwest Mare Imbrium of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Wu, Yunzhao; Xiao, Long

    2015-11-01

    We compared and assessed the results of measurements and observations by the Lunokhod 1 and Yutu rovers, both of which explored the northwestern part of Mare Imbrium. Both sites are within the distinctive Eratosthenian-aged lava flow geologic unit and our comparisons showed that the geologies of these exploration sites are very similar. As in the majority of other areas of the Moon, the dominant landforms in these sites are small impact craters, having various degrees of morphologic prominence and states of preservation, and rock fragments, mostly associated with the rims and interiors of fresh craters. The shape and the degree of preservation of the observed rock fragments in these two sites are similar. In both sites sporadic rock fragments were observed whose morphologies suggest that their source rocks had columnar jointing. Localization of these specific rocks on the rims of 450-470 m in diameter craters implies that the source rocks are at depths of 40-50 m. Regolith in the study areas is typically a few meters thick, but locally can be much thicker. The ground penetrating radar of the Yutu rover revealed the multilayer regolith structure, which is determined by superposition of crater ejecta; with some local variations, this type of the regolith stratigraphy should be typical of the majority of lunar mare sites. The physico-mechanical properties of the regolith in these two sites appear to be rather similar: the bearing capacity ranges from 0.04 to 1.44 kg/cm2, with a modal value ∼0.45 kg/cm2, and the shear strength ranges from 0.02 to 0.1 kg/cm2, with a modal value ∼0.05 kg/cm2. Both these factors decrease by a factor of 3-4 with an increase of surface slope from ∼2 to 12°. The chemical composition of surface materials determined by the rover instruments at these two sites differ from those derived from the remote sensing data for the Eratosthenian-aged basalts on which the two sites are located. This could be partly due to low measurement accuracies

  5. Using Flux Site Observations to Calibrate Root System Architecture Stencils for Water Uptake of Plant Functional Types in Land Surface Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouda, M.

    2017-12-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) can significantly affect plant access to water, total transpiration, as well as its partitioning by soil depth, with implications for surface heat, water, and carbon budgets. Despite recent advances in land surface model (LSM) descriptions of plant hydraulics, RSA has not been included because of its three-dimensional complexity, which makes RSA modelling generally too computationally costly. This work builds upon the recently introduced "RSA stencil," a process-based 1D layered model that captures the dynamic shifts in water potential gradients of 3D RSA in response to heterogeneous soil moisture profiles. In validations using root systems calibrated to the rooting profiles of four plant functional types (PFT) of the Community Land Model, the RSA stencil predicts plant water potentials within 2% of the outputs of full 3D models, despite its trivial computational cost. In transient simulations, the RSA stencil yields improved predictions of water uptake and soil moisture profiles compared to a 1D model based on root fraction alone. Here I show how the RSA stencil can be calibrated to time-series observations of soil moisture and transpiration to yield a water uptake PFT definition for use in terrestrial models. This model-data integration exercise aims to improve LSM predictions of soil moisture dynamics and, under water-limiting conditions, surface fluxes. These improvements can be expected to significantly impact predictions of downstream variables, including surface fluxes, climate-vegetation feedbacks and soil nutrient cycling.

  6. Environmental Baseline Survey for Proposed Land Use Permit Modification for Expansion of the Dynamic Explosive Test Site (DETS) 9940 Main Complex Parking Lot.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W.

    2016-02-01

    The approach was to perform a document search, supplemented by a visual site inspection, to identify potential environmental contamination associated with the property. Factors evaluated included hazardous substances; petroleum products and derivatives; environmental restoration sites; areas of concern; storage tanks; oil/water separators; grease traps; wash racks; waste tanks; pesticides; military munitions/ordnance; medical or bio-hazardous waste; radioactive waste; solid/municipal waste; indoor air quality; groundwater; wastewater treatment, collection, and disposal/discharge; drinking water quality; utilities; asbestos; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); radon; lead-based paint; cultural resources; floodplains; and natural/biological resources.

  7. Spatial distribution of pH and organic matter in urban soils and its implications on site-specific land uses in Xuzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingming; Sang, Shuxun; Liu, Shiqi; Jia, Jinlong

    2014-05-01

    The spatial variation of soil pH and soil organic matter (SOM) in the urban area of Xuzhou, China, was investigated in this study. Conventional statistics, geostatistics, and a geographical information system (GIS) were used to produce spatial distribution maps and to provide information about land use types. A total of 172 soil samples were collected based on grid method in the study area. Soil pH ranged from 6.47 to 8.48, with an average of 7.62. SOM content was very variable, ranging from 3.51 g/kg to 17.12 g/kg, with an average of 8.26 g/kg. Soil pH followed a normal distribution, while SOM followed a log-normal distribution. The results of semi-variograms indicated that soil pH and SOM had strong (21%) and moderate (44%) spatial dependence, respectively. The variogram model was spherical for soil pH and exponential for SOM. The spatial distribution maps were achieved using kriging interpolation. The high pH and high SOM tended to occur in the mixed forest land cover areas such as those in the southwestern part of the urban area, while the low values were found in the eastern and the northern parts, probably due to the effect of industrial and human activities. In the central urban area, the soil pH was low, but the SOM content was high, which is mainly attributed to the disturbance of regional resident activities and urban transportation. Furthermore, anthropogenic organic particles are possible sources of organic matter after entering the soil ecosystem in urban areas. These maps provide useful information for urban planning and environmental management. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  9. Land reclamation program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Land Reclamation Program will address the need for coordinated applied and basic research into the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation, and advance the development of cost-effective techniques for reclaiming and rehabilitating mined coal land to productive end uses. The purpose of this new program is to conduct integrated research and development projects focused on near- and long-term reclamation problems in all major U.S. coal resource regions including Alaska and to coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate the results of related studies conducted at other research institutions. The activities of the Land Reclamation Laboratory program will involve close cooperation with industry and focus on establishing a comprehensive field and laboratory effort. Research demonstration sites will be established throughout the United States to address regional and site-specific problems. Close cooperation with related efforts at academic institutions and other agencies, to transfer pertinent information and avoid duplication of effort, will be a primary goal of the program. The major effort will focus on the complete coal extraction/reclamation cycle where necessary to develop solutions to ameliorating the environmental impacts of coal development. A long-range comprehensive national reclamation program will be established that can schedule and prioritize research activities in all of the major coal regions. A fully integrated data management system will be developed to store and manage relevant environmental and land use data. Nine research demonstration sites have been identified.

  10. Future land use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  11. Future land use plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ''Future Land Use'' initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities' interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory's view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts

  12. Temporal Land Cover Analysis for Net Ecosystem Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Yinghai; Coleman, Andre M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2013-04-09

    We delineated 8 watersheds contributing to previously defined river reaches within the 1,468-km2 historical floodplain of the tidally influenced lower Columbia River and estuary. We assessed land-cover change at the watershed, reach, and restoration site scales by reclassifying remote-sensing data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Change Analysis Program’s land cover/land change product into forest, wetland, and urban categories. The analysis showed a 198.3 km2 loss of forest cover during the first 6 years of the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program, 2001–2006. Total measured urbanization in the contributing watersheds of the estuary during the full 1996-2006 change analysis period was 48.4 km2. Trends in forest gain/loss and urbanization differed between watersheds. Wetland gains and losses were within the margin of error of the satellite imagery analysis. No significant land cover change was measured at restoration sites, although it was visible in aerial imagery, therefore, the 30-m land-cover product may not be appropriate for assessment of early-stage wetland restoration. These findings suggest that floodplain restoration sites in reaches downstream of watersheds with decreasing forest cover will be subject to increased sediment loads, and those downstream of urbanization will experience effects of increased impervious surfaces on hydrologic processes.

  13. Shallow land burial handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    The facility development phases (preliminary analysis, site selection, facility design and construction, facility operation, and facility closure/post-closure) are systematically integrated into a logical plan for developing near surface disposal plans. The Shallow Land Burial Handbook provides initial guidance and concepts for understanding the magnitude and the complexity of developing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

  14. The Role of Surface Energy Exchange for Simulating Wind Inflow: An Evaluation of Multiple Land Surface Models in WRF for the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, Sonia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Osuna, Jessica [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Newman, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biraud, Sebastien [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to investigate choice of land surface model (LSM) on the near-surface wind profile, including heights reached by multi-megawatt wind turbines. Simulations of wind profiles and surface energy fluxes were made using five LSMs of varying degrees of sophistication in dealing with soil-plant-atmosphere feedbacks for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility in Oklahoma. Surface-flux and wind-profile measurements were available for validation. The WRF model was run for three two-week periods during which varying canopy and meteorological conditions existed. The LSMs predicted a wide range of energy-flux and wind-shear magnitudes even during the cool autumn period when we expected less variability. Simulations of energy fluxes varied in accuracy by model sophistication, whereby LSMs with very simple or no soil-plant-atmosphere feedbacks were the least accurate; however, the most complex models did not consistently produce more accurate results. Errors in wind shear also were sensitive to LSM choice and were partially related to the accuracy of energy flux data. The variability of LSM performance was relatively high, suggesting that LSM representation of energy fluxes in the WRF model remains a significant source of uncertainty for simulating wind turbine inflow conditions.

  15. New Frontiers of Land Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee Peluso, Nancy; Lund, Christian

    2011-01-01

    , reviving and producing new debates around the importance of land control. The authors in this collection focus primarily on new frontiers of land control and their active creation. These frontiers are sites where authorities, sovereignties, rights, and hegemonies of the recent past have been challenged...

  16. Environmental decision-support systems for evaluating the carrying capacity of land areas. Optimal site selection for grid-connected photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aran Carrion, J.; Espin Estrella, A.; Aznar Dols, F. [Department of Civil Engineering, Section of Electrical Engineering, University of Granada (Spain); Zamorano Toro, M.; Ramos Ridao, A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Section of Environmental Technology, University of Granada (Spain); Rodriguez, M. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Granada (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    Today's environmental policies are largely devoted to fostering the development and implementation in Europe of renewable energy technologies, such as grid-connected photovoltaic solar energy, which are being actively promoted by European Union countries. This article describes an environmental decision-support system (EDSS) for selecting optimal sites for grid-connected photovoltaic power plants. This system combines multicriteria analysis and the analytic hierarchy process with geographical information systems (GIS) technology and at the same time takes into account environment, orography, location, and climate factors. (author)

  17. Biological treatment of polluted lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, S.

    2005-01-01

    Several techniques of lands cleansing exist; they include the thermal techniques, the biological treatment or the disposal. The Biogenie firm is specialized in the biological cleansing of soils on and outside site. (O.M.)

  18. Radionuclide distributions and migration mechanisms at shallow land burial sites. Annual report of research investigations on the distribution, migration and containment of radionuclides at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, L.J.

    1982-07-01

    Subsurface waters at Maxey Flats are anoxic systems with high alkalinity and high concentrations of dissolved ferrous ion. Americium and cobalt in these trench waters are made more soluble by the presence of EDTA, while strontium and cesium are unaffected under the same conditions. EDTA is the major organic complexing component in waste trench 27 leachate, but other polar, water-soluble organics are also present. Evidence points to the migration of plutonium between waste trench 27 and inert atmosphere wells as an EDTA complex. Polar organic compounds may influence the migration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs. The primary pathway of water entry into the waste burial trenches is through the trench caps, but major increases in water level have occurred in an experimental trench by subsurface flow. The areal distribution of radionuclides at Maxey Flats has been influenced by surface runoff, deposition from the evaporator plume, subsurface flow and the actions of burrowing animals or deep-rooted trees. Vegetal and surface contamination on site and near site are quite low, and only 60 Co exceeds commonly observed fallout levels. Radionuclide concentrations in surface soil at Maxey Flats are comparable to concentrations resulting from normal fallout in other areas of high rainfall

  19. Determination of the utility of remote sensing data for land use/cover analysis in the lower Appalachia region: Assessing the utility of remote sensing data for archeological site recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, N. V.

    1983-01-01

    Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data were gathered by NASA/ERL over a portion of the lower Ohio River and the middle Mississippi River valleys on April 11, 1982. CIR imagery accompanied the 10 and 30 meter resolution TMS data sets. This area is somewhat unique archeologically as there exists a concentration of sites with major features such as mounds, earthworks, and villages. It was the primary purpose of this study to determine the utility of TMS data in identifying signatures which are distinctly archeological. TMS data were processed using the NASA/ERL software package ELAS. No signatures that were distinctly archeological were detected, due in large part to the complexity of the land cover and land use practices. However, as more sophisticated classification techniques were employed, the classes which were related to archeological features were narrowed. TMS data could certainly be of assistance to a trained archeologist/interpreter in narrowing an area which has to be field-surveyed as anomalous features can be recognized within a particular environmental context.

  20. Low CO/CO2 ratios of comet 67P measured at the Abydos landing site by the Ptolemy mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, A.; Mousis, O.; Sheridan, S.; Morgan, G.; Andrews, D.; Barber, S.; Wright, I.

    2015-11-01

    Comets are generally considered to contain the best-preserved material from the beginning of our planetary system, although the mechanism of their formation and subsequent evolution are still poorly understood. Here we report the direct in situ measurement of H2O, CO, and CO2 by the Ptolemy mass spectrometer onboard the Philae lander, part of the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission, at the Abydos site of the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. A CO/CO2 ratio of around 0.07 ± 0.04 is found at the surface of the comet, a value substantially lower than the one measured by ROSINA in the coma. Such a major difference is a potential indication of heterogeneity of the nucleus and not of changes in the CO/CO2 ratio of the coma with radial distance.

  1. Towards realistic Holocene land cover scenarios: integration of archaeological, palynological and geomorphological records and comparison to global land cover scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brue, Hanne; Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Notebaert, Bastiaan

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and spatially explicit landscape reconstructions for distinct time periods in human history are essential for the quantification of the effect of anthropogenic land cover changes on, e.g., global biogeochemical cycles, ecology, and geomorphic processes, and to improve our understanding of interaction between humans and the environment in general. A long-term perspective covering Mid and Late Holocene land use changes is recommended in this context, as it provides a baseline to evaluate human impact in more recent periods. Previous efforts to assess the evolution and intensity of agricultural land cover in past centuries or millennia have predominantly focused on palynological records. An increasing number of quantitative techniques has been developed during the last two decades to transfer palynological data to land cover estimates. However, these techniques have to deal with equifinality issues and, furthermore, do not sufficiently allow to reconstruct spatial patterns of past land cover. On the other hand, several continental and global databases of historical anthropogenic land cover changes based on estimates of global population and the required agricultural land per capita have been developed in the past decennium. However, at such long temporal and spatial scales, reconstruction of past anthropogenic land cover intensities and spatial patterns necessarily involves many uncertainties and assumptions as well. Here, we present a novel approach that combines archaeological, palynological and geomorphological data for the Dijle catchment in the central Belgium Loess Belt in order to arrive at more realistic Holocene land cover histories. Multiple land cover scenarios (> 60.000) are constructed using probabilistic rules and used as input into a sediment delivery model (WaTEM/SEDEM). Model outcomes are confronted with a detailed geomorphic dataset on Holocene sediment fluxes and with REVEALS based estimates of vegetation cover using palynological data from

  2. Report on the future planning of on-shore sites for wind power plants. [Denmark]; Rapport om fremtidens planlaegning for vindmoeller pae land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    A working group appointed by the Minister for the Environment has looked at a number of challenges with municipal planning for new onshore wind turbines. The reason was a desire to review the existing planning basis in order to assess the opportunities and constraints found in the current regulations, on which the wind turbine planning is based. The intention has been to look at whether municipalities have the right planning tools to help to ensure the government's objectives for the continued expansion of wind turbines onshore, and whether new planning tools can be identified. In addition, there has been a desire to bring attention to a good planning process with a positive citizen participation and a fact-based information effort, because there often in the context of local and municipal planning emerges local discussions about the proper placement of new wind turbines. With this report the working group make a number of recommendations to the Minister for the Environment. The recommendations deal with proposals for clarification of the rules (the wind turbine directive and the instructions to the directive), proposals for new planning tools, and proposals for new forms of cooperation and information efforts. The review of the current regulations shows that municipalities generally have the tools they need for planning for siting wind turbines, but there is a need for some adjustments and clarifications of the wind turbine directive. No proposed extensive changes in the laws are proposed, but the working group propose a change of the rural zone regulations. (LN)

  3. Siraf port, a linkage site for the intraction of Jundi Shahpur medical school with the lands of Indian-Pacific oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The most important Sasanian-Islamic port of Iran in the Persian Gulf was Siraf, with a total population of 300,000. The ruined site of Siraf lies on the Persian Gulf, 230 Km. south-east of Bushehr. By the time Siraf was mentioned first (c. 850, it was already a flourishing port with merchants dealing with India, East Africa, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula and China. Siraf had a prominent role in the transfer of Indian medical knowledge to Jundi Shahpur medical school during Sasanian period. In addition to Indian medicine and Ayurvedaic medicine, Siraf was the gate of Jundi Shahpur for Egyptian and Hellenistic medicine in the pre-Islamic and Islamic periods. This relationship was bidirectional and the heritage of Jundi Shahpur medical school including its medical books, medicinal plants and medical knowledge were transferred to the East by Indian and Chinese sailors and merchants. The import and export of medicinal plants and the existence of the storages of medicinal plants in Siraf port was mentioned in many times by historical geographists of the middle ages. In conclusion, this Sasanian-Islamic port had a key role in the introduction of medicinal plants and the transmission of knowledge of medicine from India, East Africa, Egypt and China to the rising Jundi Shahpur medical school. The critical function of introduction of oriental medicine and medicinal plants to Iran through Siraf port was continued for several centuries, even after the down of Jundi Shahpur medical school.

  4. From forest to farmland: pollen-inferred land cover change across Europe using the pseudobiomization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Ralph M; Woodbridge, Jessie; Roberts, Neil

    2015-03-01

    Maps of continental-scale land cover are utilized by a range of diverse users but whilst a range of products exist that describe present and recent land cover in Europe, there are currently no datasets that describe past variations over long time-scales. User groups with an interest in past land cover include the climate modelling community, socio-ecological historians and earth system scientists. Europe is one of the continents with the longest histories of land conversion from forest to farmland, thus understanding land cover change in this area is globally significant. This study applies the pseudobiomization method (PBM) to 982 pollen records from across Europe, taken from the European Pollen Database (EPD) to produce a first synthesis of pan-European land cover change for the period 9000 bp to present, in contiguous 200 year time intervals. The PBM transforms pollen proportions from each site to one of eight land cover classes (LCCs) that are directly comparable to the CORINE land cover classification. The proportion of LCCs represented in each time window provides a spatially aggregated record of land cover change for temperate and northern Europe, and for a series of case study regions (western France, the western Alps, and the Czech Republic and Slovakia). At the European scale, the impact of Neolithic food producing economies appear to be detectable from 6000 bp through reduction in broad-leaf forests resulting from human land use activities such as forest clearance. Total forest cover at a pan-European scale moved outside the range of previous background variability from 4000 bp onwards. From 2200 bp land cover change intensified, and the broad pattern of land cover for preindustrial Europe was established by 1000 bp. Recognizing the timing of anthropogenic land cover change in Europe will further the understanding of land cover-climate interactions, and the origins of the modern cultural landscape. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Remote sensing for environmental site screening and watershed evaluation in Utah Mine lands - East Tintic mountains, Oquirrh mountains, and Tushar mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McDougal, Robert R.; Gent, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy-a powerful remote-sensing tool for mapping subtle variations in the composition of minerals, vegetation, and man-made materials on the Earth's surface-was applied in support of environmental assessments and watershed evaluations in several mining districts in the State of Utah. Three areas were studied through the use of Landsat 7 ETM+ and Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data: (1) the Tintic mining district in the East Tintic Mountains southwest of Provo, (2) the Camp Floyd mining district (including the Mercur mine) and the Stockton (or Rush Valley) mining district in the Oquirrh Mountains south of the Great Salt Lake, and (3) the Tushar Mountains and Antelope Range near Marysvale. The Landsat 7 ETM+ data were used for initial site screening and the planning of AVIRIS surveys. The AVIRIS data were analyzed to create spectrally defined maps of surface minerals with special emphasis on locating and characterizing rocks and soils with acid-producing potential (APP) and acid-neutralizing potential (ANP). These maps were used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for three primary purposes: (1) to identify unmined and anthropogenic sources of acid generation in the form of iron sulfide and (or) ferric iron sulfate-bearing minerals such as jarosite and copiapite; (2) to seek evidence for downstream or downwind movement of minerals associated with acid generation, mine waste, and (or) tailings from mines, mill sites, and zones of unmined hydrothermally altered rocks; and (3) to identify carbonate and other acid-buffering minerals that neutralize acidic, potentially metal bearing, solutions and thus mitigate potential environmental effects of acid generation. Calibrated AVIRIS surface-reflectance data were spectrally analyzed to identify and map selected surface materials. Two maps were produced from each flightline of AVIRIS data: a map of iron-bearing minerals and water having absorption features in the

  6. Men and their land. The mining sites of the Mokta French Company in Lozere; Des hommes et leur terre. Les sites miniers de la Compagnie Francaise de Mokta en Lozere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This booklet summarizes the history of the mining activity in the Lozere district (France) devoted to the extraction of uranium ores. This activity started in 1957 with the open cast exploitation of the Cellier deposit which lasted 35 years and produced 4200 t of uranium from 5800000 t of ore. The exploitation was performed by the French Company of Uranium Ores (CFMU). The uranium crisis started in 1962 and led to an increase of prospecting activities. The crisis ended with the first oil crack in 1973 and the uranium demand and prices grew up until 1979 when the Three Mile Island reactor accident occurred. The second crisis that followed led to the development of new recovery processes such as the heap lixiviation process. In 1980, the CFMU became the French Company of Mokta (CFM) and in 1986, the CFM became a 100% daughter company of the Cogema group. The exploitation of the Bondons mine ended in 1989 and the program of site rehabilitation started. The document focusses on the environmental aspects of this program, the reforestation, the drainage of surface waters and the control of water quality. (J.S.)

  7. Geology of the Wilkes Land Sub-basin and Stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet: Insights from rock magnetism at IODP Site U1361

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauxe, L.; Sugisaki, S.; Jimenez-Espejo, F. J.; Cook, C. P.; van de Flierdt, T.; Iwai, M.; Escutia, C.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 318 drilled Site U1361 on the continental rise offshore of the Wilkes sub-glacial basin. The goal was to reconstruct the stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) during Neogene warm periods. Teasing out the paleoenvironmental implications is essential for understanding the evolution of the EAIS. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is sensitive to differential compaction and other rock magnetic parameters like isothermal remanence and anhysteretic remanence are very sensitive to changes in the terrestrial source region. In general, highly anisotropic layers correspond with laminated clay-rich units, while more isotropic layers are bioturbated and have less clay. Layers enriched in diatoms are associated with the latter, which also have higher Ba/Al ratios indicating higher productivity. Higher anisotropy layers have lower porosity and moisture contents and have fine grained magnetic mineralogy dominated by magnetic. Higher anisotropy layers are dominated by maghemite, supporting the suggestion by Cook et al. (2013) of different source regions during low and high productivity times. They tied the two facies to the coastal outcrops of the Lower Paleozoic granitic terranes and the Ferrar Large Igneous Province in the more inland Wilkes Subglacial Basin respectively. Here we present evidence for a third geological unit, one eroded at the boundaries between the high and low clay zones with a "hard" (hematite) dominated magnetic mineralogy. This unit likely outcrops in the Wilkes sub-glacial basin and could be hydrothermally altered Beacon sandstone similar to that detected by Craw and Findlay (1984) in Taylor Valley or the equivalent to the Elatina Formation in the Adelaide Geosyncline in Southern Australia (Schmidt and Williams, 2013). Cook, C. P., van de Flierdt, T., Williams, T., Hemming, S. R., Iwai, M., Kobayashi, M., Jimenez-Espejo, F., Escutia, C., Gonzalez, J., Khim, B. K., McKay, R., Passchier, S., Bohaty, S., Riesselman, C. R

  8. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides a land use plan for the Hanford Site and presents a picture of what is currently known and anticipated in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B. Site Development Planning. The HSDP wig be updated annually as future decisions further shape the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  9. METHODOLOGICAL BASIS IMPOSING RESTRICTIONS IN LAND USE, BURDENED LAND RIGHTS DURING LAND TENURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosh J.

    2016-05-01

    of territorial restrictions in land use, formed on the principles of state security, a combination of state and local interests, to achieve a balanced ratio of economic and environmental interests of society and to ensure rational land use. Information on restrictions on land use rights and encumbrances on the land, was amended land systematized: • formation of land use and protection zones of objects and territories nature reserve fund objects Environmental Network; • definition (specification of borders of natural and agricultural zoning and parcels with especially valuable land; • definition (specification of land borders and security zones and areas of historical, cultural, health and recreational purposes; • definition (specification of land borders and security zones, objects (industry, transport, communications, defense, etc. and their protection zones; • definition (specification of limits of water protection zones and coastal strips, objects of sanitary protection; • definition (specification of limits of radioactive contaminated territories, and contaminated by heavy metals; • definition (specification limits encumbrances established easements, contracts, court order; • definition (specification limits areas formed in accordance with the previously approved land management documentation; • definition (specification boundaries of territories with special regime of land use; • definition (approval of the legal regime of land use in areas of special protection of land and formation of restrictions and encumbrances in land use.

  10. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dowling

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth’s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478 between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

  11. An inventory survey at the site of the proposed Kilauea Middle East Rift Zone (KMERZ), Well Site No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Joseph

    1991-03-01

    At the request of True Mid Pacific Geothermal, Archaeological Consultants of Hawaii, Inc. has conducted an inventory survey at the site of the proposed Kilauea Middle East Rift Zone (KMERZ), Well Site No.2, TMK: 1-2-10:3. The Principal Investigator was Joseph Kennedy M.A., assisted by Jacob Kaio, Field Supervisor and field crew Mark Borrello B.A., Michael O'Shaughnessy B.A., and Randy Adric. This report supercedes all previous reports submitted to the Historic Presentation Section of the Department of Land and Natural Resources. In addition to 100% surface coverage of the 400 x 400 foot well pad itself, 100% surface coverage of a substantial buffer zone was also completed. This buffer zone was established by the Department of Land and Natural Resources, Historic Preservation personnel and extends 1000 feet east and west of the well site and 500 feet north and south of the well site.

  12. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at Massachusetts Military Reservation. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, B.; Robichaud, R.; Mosey, G.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying photovoltaics (PV) systems on a superfund site located within the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR). The site was assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.17/kWh and incentives offered in the State of Massachusetts, such as the solar renewable energy credits. According to calculations, MMR can place 8 MW of ballast-weighted, ground-mounted PV systems on the crowns of the three landfill caps and the borrow pit with the PV modules tilted at 30 degrees.

  13. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  14. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  15. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  16. Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, Jay E; Compton, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here.

  17. Hanford Federal Facility state of Washington leased land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This report was prepared to provide information concerning past solid and hazardous waste management practices for all leased land at the US DOE Hanford Reservation. This report contains sections including land description; land usage; ground water, air and soil monitoring data; and land uses after 1963. Numerous appendices are included which provide documentation of lease agreements and amendments, environmental assessments, and site surveys.

  18. Hanford Federal Facility state of Washington leased land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This report was prepared to provide information concerning past solid and hazardous waste management practices for all leased land at the US DOE Hanford Reservation. This report contains sections including land description; land usage; ground water, air and soil monitoring data; and land uses after 1963. Numerous appendices are included which provide documentation of lease agreements and amendments, environmental assessments, and site surveys

  19. Draft reclamation program plan for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    As part of its obligations under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an environmental program that is to be implemented during site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site. This site is proposed for the location of the nation's first high-level radioactive waste repository. A program for the reclamation of areas disturbed by site characterization is part of the overall environmental program for that site. This Reclamation Program Plan (RPP) describes the reclamation policy of the DOE for the Yucca Mountain site and presents an overview of the reclamation program. The RPP also provides an overview of the reclamation needs relative to site characterization; a review of legislation and requirements pertinent to reclamation; and a review of previous commitments made by the DOE to certain types of reclamation activities. The objective of the DOE reclamation program at Yucca Mountain is to return land disturbed by site-characterization activities to a stable ecological state with a form and productivity similar to the predisturbance state. The DOE will take all reasonable and necessary steps to achieve this objective. 19 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J.; Yancey, E.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs

  2. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  3. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  4. Computer aided site management. Site use management by digital mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chupin, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The logistics program developed for assisting the Hague site management is presented. A digital site mapping representation and geographical data bases are used. The digital site map and its integration into a data base are described. The program can be applied to urban and rural land management aid. Technical administrative and economic evaluations of the program are summarized [fr

  5. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2015-01-01

    in West Greenland were carried out when it was hunting season for mux ox and caribou, exploring relations between education and perception of environment. All these trips have called for attention to the relation between actual engagement with ‘nature’ and experienced human-nature relations. Based on my......, hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... to grow with the features of the land. Framed this way, ‘nature’ was regarded as part of the social world. I suggest that learning among Arctic hunters is social and twofold. First, we can learn how human-environment relations influence individual life trajectories. Secondly, ‘nature’ as part...

  6. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  7. CHUVAS, EROSIVIDADE, ERODIBILIDADE, USO DO SOLO E SUAS RELAÇÕES COM FOCOS EROSIVOS LINEARES NA ALTA BACIA DO RIO ARAGUAIA / Rainfall, erosivity, erodibility, land use and their relationships with erosion sites in the upper Araguaia River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvando Carlos da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensive process of land occupation by farmers in the tropical savanna region of MidwestBrazil during the last three decades has promoted several environment impacts, such as theoccurrence of gully erosion processes as a consequence of intensive deforestation. Just in theUpper Araguaia River Basin, it was identified more than 300 large and medium gully features,which are related with the high natural susceptibility of the sandy soils; high erosivity and erodibility; inadequate land-use; lack of soil conservation practices; and a high annual rainfallindex during the rainy season. The objective of this research was to identify spatial relationshipsbetween rainfall distribution, erosivity, erodibility, land-use, and gully erosion distribution,which may support environmental planning actions related to land use conservation.Quantitative results show a high correlation between gully erosion distribution and higherosivity/erodibility and inadequate land-use.

  8. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  9. Agricultural Land Use And Land Degradation In Adamawa State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three maps, population density, cultivation intensity and livestock grazing blocks were produced and examined in detail to establish the role of each in land degradation and a forth map, erosion intensity produced. The results obtained show more symptoms of degradation (78.26%) in the cultivated sites. It was therefore ...

  10. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  11. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  12. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  13. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  14. Large extents of intensive land use limit community reorganization during climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Tom H; Gillings, Simon; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Brereton, Tom; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Duffield, Simon J; Morecroft, Michael D; Roy, David B

    2017-06-01

    Climate change is increasingly altering the composition of ecological communities, in combination with other environmental pressures such as high-intensity land use. Pressures are expected to interact in their effects, but the extent to which intensive human land use constrains community responses to climate change is currently unclear. A generic indicator of climate change impact, the community temperature index (CTI), has previously been used to suggest that both bird and butterflies are successfully 'tracking' climate change. Here, we assessed community changes at over 600 English bird or butterfly monitoring sites over three decades and tested how the surrounding land has influenced these changes. We partitioned community changes into warm- and cold-associated assemblages and found that English bird communities have not reorganized successfully in response to climate change. CTI increases for birds are primarily attributable to the loss of cold-associated species, whilst for butterflies, warm-associated species have tended to increase. Importantly, the area of intensively managed land use around monitoring sites appears to influence these community changes, with large extents of intensively managed land limiting 'adaptive' community reorganization in response to climate change. Specifically, high-intensity land use appears to exacerbate declines in cold-adapted bird and butterfly species, and prevent increases in warm-associated birds. This has broad implications for managing landscapes to promote climate change adaptation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  16. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  17. Hanford site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A synopsis is given of the detailed characterization of the existing environment at Hanford. The following aspects are covered: demography, land use, meteorology, geology, hydrology, and seismology. It is concluded that Hanford is one of the most extensively characterized nuclear sites

  18. Sites Pre-Screened for Wind Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RE-Powering Screening Dataset spreadsheet contains detailed site information on over 80,000 contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites with screening results...

  19. Sites Pre-Screened for Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RE-Powering Screening Dataset spreadsheet contains detailed site information on over 80,000 contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites with screening results...

  20. Solar Development on Contaminated and Disturbed Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lee, Courtney [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Land classified as contaminated and disturbed across the United States has the potential to host developments of utility-scale solar power. This report examines the prospect of developing utility- and commercial-scale concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar photovoltaics (PV) technologies on degraded and environmentally contaminated lands. The potential for solar development on contaminated anddisturbed lands was assessed, and for the largest and highest solar resource sites, the economic impacts and feasibility were evaluated. Developing solar power on contaminated and disturbed lands can help create jobs and revitalize local and state economies, and selecting these sites over greenfield sites can potentially have permitting and environmental mitigation advantages. The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot goals call for 632 GW of PV and 83 GW of CSP to be deployed by 2050. Conservative land-use estimates of this study (10 acres per megawatt) show that there are disturbed and environmentally contaminated lands throughout the country that could be suitable for utility-scale solar power, and, that there is sufficient land area to meet SunShot solar deployment goals. The purpose of this assessment is to improve the understanding of these sites and facilitate solar developers' selection of contaminated and disturbed sites for development.

  1. Drupal 7 Multilingual Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Pol, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A practical book with plenty of screenshots to guide you through the many features of multilingual Drupal. A demo ecommerce site is provided if you want to practice on a sample site, although you can apply the techniques learnt in the book directly to your site too. Any Drupal users who know the basics of building a Drupal site and are familiar with the Drupal UI, will benefit from this book. No previous knowledge of localization or internationalization is required.

  2. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost–effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by spreading the sewage sludge on the soil surface, incorporating or injecting the sewage sludge into soil, or spraying the sewage sludge. Because sewage sludge disposal practices (e.g., landfilling) are becoming less available and more costly, and because of the increasing desire to beneficially reuse waste residuals whenever possible, land application is increasingly chosen as a sewage sludge use or disposal practice. Approximately 33 percent of the 5.4 million dry metric tons of sewage sludge generated annually in the United States at publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) is land applied. Of the sewage sludge that is land applied, approximately 67% is land applied on agricultural lands, 3% on forest lands, approximately 9% on reclamation sites, and 9% on public contact sites; 12% is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land (Federal Register, Vol. 58, No. 32, February 19, 1993). In addition, approximately 8.6 billion gallons of domestic septage is generated annually. Land application of sewage sludge has been practiced in many countries for centuries so that the nutrients (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus) and organic matter in sewage sludge can be beneficia

  3. Mars-Moons Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation (MERLIN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, S. L.; Chabot, N. L.; Buczkowski, D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Castillo, J. C.; Peplowski, P. N.; Ernst, C. M.; Rivkin, A.; Eng, D.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Maki, J.; trebi-Ollenu, A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Spence, H. E.; Horanyi, M.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Christian, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars-Moons Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation (MERLIN) is a NASA Discovery mission proposal to explore the moons of Mars. Previous Mars-focused spacecraft have raised fundamental questions about Mars' moons: What are their origins and compositions? Why do the moons resemble primitive outer solar system D-type objects? How do geologic processes modify their surfaces? MERLIN answers these questions through a combination of orbital and landed measurements, beginning with reconnaissance of Deimos and investigation of the hypothesized Martian dust belts. Orbital reconnaissance of Phobos occurs, followed by low flyovers to characterize a landing site. MERLIN lands on Phobos, conducting a 90-day investigation. Radiation measurements are acquired throughout all mission phases. Phobos' size and mass provide a low-risk landing environment: controlled descent is so slow that the landing is rehearsed, but gravity is high enough that surface operations do not require anchoring. Existing imaging of Phobos reveals low regional slope regions suitable for landing, and provides knowledge for planning orbital and landed investigations. The payload leverages past NASA investments. Orbital imaging is accomplished by a dual multispectral/high-resolution imager rebuilt from MESSENGER/MDIS. Mars' dust environment is measured by the refurbished engineering model of LADEE/LDEX, and the radiation environment by the flight spare of LRO/CRaTER. The landed workspace is characterized by a color stereo imager updated from MER/HazCam. MERLIN's arm deploys landed instrumentation using proven designs from MER, Phoenix, and MSL. Elemental measurements are acquired by a modified version of Rosetta/APXS, and an uncooled gamma-ray spectrometer. Mineralogical measurements are acquired by a microscopic imaging spectrometer developed under MatISSE. MERLIN delivers seminal science traceable to NASA's Strategic Goals and Objectives, Science Plan, and the Decadal Survey. MERLIN's science

  4. Solid Waste Land Applications with Permits by the Iowa DNR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — All types of facilities that handle solid waste, including: sanitary landfills, appliance demanufacturing facilities, transfer stations, land application sites,...

  5. Puente Öland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skanska Cementgjüteriet, Empresa

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available The Öland bridge spans across the Kalmar strait, reaching from Möllstorpslage, on the island of Öland, to the island of N. Skallö; from here to the island of Svinö and then to Jutnabben, on the Swedish peninsula. It has 155 spans out of which 147 are small spans, two medium and six central, each one of them 130 m, with a total length of 6.070 m. The high arches have been constructed by the system of successive corbels and the low ones with a launching of big beams of reinforced concrete. Foundations on columns or poured on site in pneumatic emptied boxes, depending on the cases and piers of reinforced concrete, constructed by means of sliding formwork. The Construction Firm has been Skanska Cementgjuteriet, on account of the Government Administration.El puente de Öland salva el estrecho de Kalmar, partiendo de Möllstorpslage, en la isla de Öland, hasta la isla de N. Skallö; de aquí a la de Svinö y desde ésta hasta Jutnabben, en la península sueca. Tiene 155 vanos: 147 de luces pequeñas, 2 de luces medianas y 6 centrales, de 130 m cada una, con una longitud total de 6.070 m. Los arcos denominados altos se han realizado por el sistema de voladizos sucesivos, y los bajos, mediante lanzamiento de grandes vigas de hormigón armado. Cimientos sobre pilotes o vertidos in situ, en cajones vaciados neumáticamente, según los casos, y pilas de hormigón armado, construidas con auxilio de encofrados deslizantes. La Empresa constructora ha sido Skanska Cementgjuteriet, por cuenta de la Administración del Estado.

  6. Polarization in the land distribution, land use and land cover change in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'ANTONA, Alvaro; VANWEY, Leah; LUDEWIGS, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present Polarization of Agrarian Structure as a single, more complete representation than models emphasizing rural exodus and consolidation of land into large agropastoral enterprises of the dynamics of changing land distribution, land use / cover, and thus the rural milieu of Amazonia. Data were collected in 2003 using social surveys on a sample of 587 lots randomly selected from among 5,086 lots on a cadastral map produced in the 1970s. Georeferencing of current property boundaries in the location of these previously demarcated lots allows us to relate sociodemographic and biophysical variables of the surveyed properties to the changes in boundaries that have occurred since the 1970s. As have other authors in other Amazonian regions, we found concentration of land ownership into larger properties. The approach we took, however, showed that changes in the distribution of land ownership is not limited to the appearance of larger properties, those with 200 ha or more; there also exists substantial division of earlier lots into properties with fewer than five hectares, many without any agropastoral use. These two trends are juxtaposed against the decline in establishments with between five and 200 ha. The variation across groups in land use / land cover and population distribution shows the necessity of developing conceptual models, whether from socioeconomic, demographic or environmental perspectives, look beyond a single group of people or properties. PMID:24639597

  7. Mid to late Holocene oceanographic changes offshore Adélie Land, Antarctica: Ultra-high resolution foraminiferal assemblage and isotopic records from IODP Expedition 318 Site U1357

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, E.; Salman, F. I.; Pekar, S. F.; Dunbar, R. B.; DeCesare, M.

    2014-12-01

    Foraminiferal biofacies as well as δ18O and δ13C records from IODP Site U1357 reveal significant changes in deep and surface water properties that include temperature, ventilation, and productivity during the mid to late Holocene. Site U1357 is located in the Adélie Trough, a glacially scoured valley on the continental shelf ~50km off the coast of East Antarctica. Sediment samples were taken at 10cm intervals resulting in an approximate time step for each sample of 7yr resolution based on extensive C14 dating and visible band counting exercises. As part of a collaborative effort between Queens College and Stanford University, samples from the upper part of the core were used in this study, which spanned from near Recent to 6kyr BP. Neogloboquadrina pachyderma make up nearly 50% of all foraminifers counted and was used to construct pelagic stable isotope records. From nearly 10,000 foraminifers counted, ~34 foraminiferal species were identified. The highest δ18O values occur from ~3.0 to ~6.1kyr and ~1kyr to Recent, with the lowest occurring from ~1.4 to ~3.8kyr. The highest δ13C values occur when δ18O are low. Total benthic foraminiferal abundances are highest during two intervals: Recent to ~1.4kyr and ~3.6 to ~6.1kyr. For ~2 to ~3.6kyr, the agglutinated species are the most dominant with calcareous benthic foraminifers being mainly absent. The higher δ18O values observed are consistent with lower surface water temperatures and decreased melt water from icebergs, with lower δ18O values ascribed to increased melt waters and possibly higher surface water temperatures. Previous studies indicate that cooler waters occurred when we observe lower foraminiferal δ18O values. This suggests that the N. pachyderma δ18O record was influenced primarily by the δ18O of seawater (e.g., iceberg melt waters), with temperature being a minor control. Higher δ13C values are associated with lower δ18O, which implies increased water column stratification coupled with high

  8. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  9. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  10. American elm in mine land reforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.B. Adams; P. Angel; C. Barton; J. Slavicek

    2015-01-01

    Reforestation of mined land in the Appalachians realizes many important benefits and provides important ecosystem services. Because much of the reclaimed mine lands in Appalachia were previously in forest, reclaiming these drastically disturbed areas to forests is desirable, feasible and cost-effective. The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) provides a five-step...

  11. 32 CFR 644.22 - Site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and site boards should be informed of any available lands, including marginal lands in civil works... HANDBOOK Project Planning Military (army and Air Force) and Other Federal Agencies § 644.22 Site selection... Engineer to prepare a Real Estate Planning Report or Real Estate Summary, making reference to the prior...

  12. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural, Rural Legacy Easements & Area Boundary: The most common use is for the interpretation of land protected with the Rural Legacy program. The Rural Legacy Area protects farmland, forests and Civil War sites, within view of the Washington Monument State Park,, Published in 2008, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural dataset current as of 2008. Rural Legacy Easements & Area Boundary: The most common use is for the interpretation...

  13. Selecting reasonable future land use scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, W.E.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines a process to help select the most reasonable future land use scenario for hazardous waste and/or low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The process involves evaluating future land use scenarios ab applying selected criteria currently used by commercial mortgage companies to determine the feasibility of obtaining a loan for purchasing such land. The basis for the process is that only land use activities for which a loan can be obtained well be considered. To examine the process, a low-level radioactive waste site, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is used as an example. The authors suggest that the process is a very precise, comprehensive, and systematic approach for determining reasonable future use of land. Implementing such a process will help enhance the planning, decisionmaking, safe management, and cleanup of present and future disposal facilities

  14. Selecting reasonable future land use scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, W.E.; Smith, R.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines a process to help select the most reasonable future land use scenarios for hazardous waste and/or low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The process involves evaluating future land use scenarios by applying selected criteria currently used by commercial mortgage companies to determine the feasibility of obtaining a loan for purchasing such land. The basis for the process is that only land use activities for which a loan can be obtained will be considered. To examine the process, a low-level radioactive waste site, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is used as an example. The authors suggest that the process is a very precise, comprehensive, and systematic (common sense) approach for determining reasonable future use of land. Implementing such a process will help enhance the planning, decisionmaking, safe management, and cleanup of present and future disposal facilities.

  15. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  16. Site descriptions for preliminary radiological assessments of low-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, W.E.; Jones, C.H.; Sumerling, T.J.; Ashton, J.

    1988-07-01

    The environmental contexts of four sites, previously under investigation by UK Nirex Ltd. as potential locations for low-level waste disposal facilities, are described. Information on geographical setting, climate, surface hydrology, land use, agriculture, fisheries, geology and hydrogeology is presented. The geological and hydrogeological data are interpreted with the support of deterministic modelling of groundwater conditions. The routes by which radionuclides may migrate from the site are identified and reduced to 1D statistical descriptions suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments. Additional data required to improve the assessment of the performance of the site are identified. (author)

  17. Effects of urban land-use on largescale stonerollers in the Mobile River Basin, Birmingham, AL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, D; Black, M C; Blazer, V S; Zappia, H; Bryant, W

    2016-04-01

    During the spring and fall of 2001 and the spring of 2002 a study was conducted to evaluate the health of the largescale stoneroller (Campostoma oligolepis) populations in streams along an urban land-use gradient. Sites were selected from a pool of naturally similar sub-basins (eco-region, basin size, and geology) of the Mobile River basin (MRB), using an index of urban intensity derived from infrastructure, socioeconomic, and land-use data. This urban land-use gradient (ULUG) is a multimetric indicator of urban intensity, ranging from 0 (background) to 100 (intense urbanization). Campostoma sp. have been used previously as indicators of stream health and are common species found in all sites within the MRB. Endpoints used to determine the effects of urban land-use on the largescale stoneroller included total glutathione, histology, hepatic apoptosis, condition factor and external lesions. Liver glutathione levels were positively associated with increasing urban land-use (r(2) = 0.94). Histopathological examination determined that some abnormalities and lesions were correlated with the ULUG and generally increased in prevalence or severity with increasing urbanization. Liver macrophage aggregates were positively correlated to the ULUG. The occurrence of nucleosomal ladders (indicating apoptotic cell death) did not correspond with urban intensity in a linear fashion. Apoptosis, as well as prevalence and severity of a myxozoan parasite, appeared to have a hormetic dose-response relationship. The majority of the biomarkers suggested fish health was compromised in areas where the ULUG ≥ 36.

  18. Effects of urban land-use on largescale stonerollers in the Mobile River Basin, Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Deborah; Black, M.C.; Blazer, Vicki; Zappia, H.; Bryant, Wade L.

    2016-01-01

    During the spring and fall of 2001 and the spring of 2002 a study was conducted to evaluate the health of the largescale stoneroller (Campostoma oligolepis) populations in streams along an urban land-use gradient. Sites were selected from a pool of naturally similar sub-basins (eco-region, basin size, and geology) of the Mobile River basin (MRB), using an index of urban intensity derived from infrastructure, socioeconomic, and land-use data. This urban land-use gradient (ULUG) is a multimetric indicator of urban intensity, ranging from 0 (background) to 100 (intense urbanization). Campostoma sp. have been used previously as indicators of stream health and are common species found in all sites within the MRB. Endpoints used to determine the effects of urban land-use on the largescale stoneroller included total glutathione, histology, hepatic apoptosis, condition factor and external lesions. Liver glutathione levels were positively associated with increasing urban land-use (r2 = 0.94). Histopathological examination determined that some abnormalities and lesions were correlated with the ULUG and generally increased in prevalence or severity with increasing urbanization. Liver macrophage aggregates were positively correlated to the ULUG. The occurrence of nucleosomal ladders (indicating apoptotic cell death) did not correspond with urban intensity in a linear fashion. Apoptosis, as well as prevalence and severity of a myxozoan parasite, appeared to have a hormetic dose–response relationship. The majority of the biomarkers suggested fish health was compromised in areas where the ULUG ≥ 36.

  19. Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR), Division of Lands and Natural Resources (DLNR) of the State of Hawaii Fish Surveys from 23 West Hawaii Aquarium Project Sites during 1999-2005 (NODC Accession 0002767)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data are from underwater visual surveys of fish stocks at 23 sites in West Hawaii. Survey sites are 8 to 14 m deep and are all located on reef shelves with moderate...

  20. Water contamination, land prices, and the statute of repose

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Chamblee; Carolyn A. Dehring; Craig A. Depken; Joseph R. Nicholson

    2015-01-01

    We examine how water contamination risk from an inactive hazardous waste site is capitalized into surrounding vacant land prices. After public knowledge of the first instance of off-site contamination, we find that shallow groundwater contamination potential is negatively capitalized into land prices, as is proximity to a known contaminated well. Public knowledge of...

  1. Research Progress of Building Materials Used in Construction Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Construction land preparation is an important aspect of land remediation project. The research of materials in the process of land improvement is the foundation and the core. Therefore, it is necessary to study the materials that may be involved in the process of building land preparation. In this paper, the research on the construction materials such as recycled concrete, geosynthetics, soil stabilizers, soil improvers, building insulation materials and inorganic fibrous insulation materials, which are commonly used in construction sites, is reviewed and discussed in this paper. Land remediation project involved in the construction of land materials to provide reference.

  2. Prehistoric Alaska: The land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Weber, Florence R.; Rennick, Penny

    1994-01-01

    Many Alaskans know the dynamic nature of Alaska’s landscape firsthand. The 1964 earthquake, the 1989 eruption of Mount Redoubt volcano, the frequent earthquakes in the Aleutians and the ever-shifting meanders of the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers remind them of constant changes to the land. These changes are part of the continuing story of the geologic growth and development of Alaska during hundreds of millions of years. By geologic time, Alaska has only recently come into existence and the dynamic processes that formed it continue to affect it. The landscape we see today has been shaped by glacier and stream erosion or their indirect effects, and to a lesser extent by volcanoes. Most prominently, if less obviously, Alaska has been built by slow movements of the Earth’s crust we call tectonic or mountain-building.During 5 billion years of geologic time, the Earth’s crust has repeatedly broken apart into plates. These plates have recombined, and have shifted positions relative to each other, to the Earth’s rotational axis and to the equator. Large parts of the Earth’s crust, including Alaska, have been built and destroyed by tectonic forces. Alaska is a collage of transported and locally formed fragments of crusts As erosion and deposition reshape the land surface, climatic changes, brought on partly by changing ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns, alter the location and extent of tropical, temperate and arctic environments. We need to understand the results of these processes as they acted upon Alaska to understand the formation of Alaska. Rocks can provide hints of previous environments because they contain traces of ocean floor and lost lands, bits and pieces of ancient history.

  3. Mission achieved - in spite of desorption and rediffusion. Remediation of land pollution at the site of the former gas works of Biberach a.d. Riss; Trotz Desorption und Rueckdiffusion ans Ziel. Altlastensanierung des ehemaligen Gaswerks Biberach a.d. Riss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osberghaus, T.; Zwisler, R.

    2007-07-15

    The land pollution commission of the German state of Baden-Wuerttemberg at the site of the former gas works of Biberach decided that 6500 cubic metres of soil should be exchanged. Down to a depth of 2.5 m, this was done by conventional methods. Down to 7 m, i.e. at groundwater level, the polluted soil will be removed via large-diameter boreholes. Of course, it is not the technology that is important but the goal to be achieved. The contribution therefore discusses the time required for reaching the depollution goal, i.e. how fast groundwater pollution in the discharge should be removed. (orig.)

  4. Changing local land systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Cecilie; Reenberg, Anette; Heinimann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the direct and cascading land system consequences of a Chinese company's land acquisition for rubber cultivation in northern Laos. Transnational land acquisitions are increasingly acknowledged as an important driver of direct land use conversion with implications for local...

  5. Effects of Microclimate Condition Changes Due to Land Use and Land Cover Changes on the Survivorship of Malaria Vectors in China-Myanmar Border Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daibin Zhong

    Full Text Available In the past decade, developing countries have been experiencing rapid land use and land cover changes, including deforestation and cultivation of previously forested land. However, little is known about the impact of deforestation and land-use changes on the life history of malaria vectors and their effects on malaria transmission. This study examined the effects of deforestation and crop cultivation on the adult survivorship of major malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles sinensis and An. minimus in the China-Myanmar border region. We examined three conditions: indoor, forested, and banana plantation. Mean survival time of An. sinensis in banana plantation environment was significantly longer than those in forested environment, and mosquitoes exhibited the longest longevity in the indoor environment. This pattern held for both males and females, and also for An. minimus. To further test the effect of temperature on mosquito survival, we used two study sites with different elevation and ambient temperatures. Significantly higher survivorship of both species was found in sites with lower elevation and higher ambient temperature. Increased vector survival in the deforested area could have an important impact on malaria transmission in Southeast Asia. Understanding how deforestation impacts vector survivorship can help combat malaria transmission.

  6. Effects of Microclimate Condition Changes Due to Land Use and Land Cover Changes on the Survivorship of Malaria Vectors in China-Myanmar Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Xiaoming; Xu, Tielong; Zhou, Guofa; Wang, Ying; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Hartsel, Joshua A; Cui, Liwang; Zheng, Bin; Yan, Guiyun

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, developing countries have been experiencing rapid land use and land cover changes, including deforestation and cultivation of previously forested land. However, little is known about the impact of deforestation and land-use changes on the life history of malaria vectors and their effects on malaria transmission. This study examined the effects of deforestation and crop cultivation on the adult survivorship of major malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles sinensis and An. minimus in the China-Myanmar border region. We examined three conditions: indoor, forested, and banana plantation. Mean survival time of An. sinensis in banana plantation environment was significantly longer than those in forested environment, and mosquitoes exhibited the longest longevity in the indoor environment. This pattern held for both males and females, and also for An. minimus. To further test the effect of temperature on mosquito survival, we used two study sites with different elevation and ambient temperatures. Significantly higher survivorship of both species was found in sites with lower elevation and higher ambient temperature. Increased vector survival in the deforested area could have an important impact on malaria transmission in Southeast Asia. Understanding how deforestation impacts vector survivorship can help combat malaria transmission.

  7. Near-surface land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Handbook provides a comprehensive, systematic treatment of nuclear waste management. Near-Surface Land Disposal, the first volume, is a primary and secondary reference for the technical community. To those unfamiliar with the field, it provides a bridge to a wealth of technical information, presenting the technology associated with the near-surface disposal of low or intermediate level wastes. Coverage ranges from incipient planning to site closure and subsequent monitoring. The book discusses the importance of a systems approach during the design of new disposal facilities so that performance objectives can be achieved; gives an overview of the radioactive wastes cosigned to near-surface disposal; addresses procedures for screening and selecting sites; and emphasizes the importance of characterizing sites and obtaining reliable geologic and hydrologic data. The planning essential to the development of particular sites (land acquisition, access, layout, surface water management, capital costs, etc.) is considered, and site operations (waste receiving, inspection, emplacement, closure, stabilization, etc.) are reviewed. In addition, the book presents concepts for improved confinement of waste, important aspects of establishing a monitoring program at the disposal facility, and corrective actions available after closure to minimize release. Two analytical techniques for evaluating alternative technologies are presented. Nontechnical issues surrounding disposal, including the difficulties of public acceptance are discussed. A glossary of technical terms is included

  8. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  9. Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy in a patient with previous esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, R A; Scott, J S; Unger, S W

    1991-04-01

    Establishment of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy via direct jejunal puncture was accomplished in a 45-year-old woman five years after a partial esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The patient had recurrence of the cancer at the anastomotic site with subsequent inability to eat, necessitating a feeding tube for prolonged enteral nutrition. Although percutaneous puncture of the jejunum has been previously described, it has been limited to patients who had undergone partial or complete gastrectomies with Bilroth II anastomoses. This case report of direct endoscopic jejunal tube placement in a patient after esophagectomy further establishes this procedure as a viable alternative to surgically placed feeding tubes in patients with altered gastric anatomy.

  10. Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR), Division of Lands and Natural Resources (DLNR) of the State of Hawaii Fish Stock Surveys from 41 sites on Oahu and Island of Hawaii from 1952-2000 (NODC Accession 0002754)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data are from underwater visual surveys of fish stocks from 41 survey sites on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii, conducted by biologists and technicians of Hawaii's...

  11. Soil Properties Affected by Land Use Systems in Western Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    R.P. Chauhan; K.R. Pande; S. Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in acidic soils of Mangalpur and Fulbari VDCs in western Chitwan, Nepal to study the effects of different land use systems on soil properties. Seven land use systems (cereal based lowland, cereal based upland, vegetable farm land, fruit orchard land, pasture land, forest land and farmer’s field) were used and they were replicated four times in randomized complete block designs. Composite soil samples were collected from each study sites and were analyzed in la...

  12. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    are affecting livelihoods in northern Laos. The research engages a range of approaches, theories and concepts, including political ecology, polycentric resource governance, land-change science, regime shifts in land systems, land sparing versus land sharing, and the sustainable livelihood framework. During...... field research, semi-structured interviews and household questionnaire surveys were employed. Additionally, secondary information was collected during the interviews held with key-informants at different administrative levels. Qualitative information was analyzed by using the NVivo qualitative research......, and industrial tree plantations but shifting cultivation still remains an important land-use system. Land conversion from shifting cultivation for subsistence to commercial crops is most clearly seen in areas with good infrastructure (e.g. road network). This conversion is partly in response to market demands...

  13. Geodiversity and land degradation in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Őrsi, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity represents a variety of natural values, but they are threatened by a series of anthropogenic activities and land degradation processes. Their effect depends on the intensity of the processes and the sensitivity of the area in question. As a consequence of land degradation processes not only biodiversity but also geodiversity can be damaged and deteriorated. The appearance of the natural landscape changes and natural processes may not have a decisive role in landscape development any more. Some of the damages are irreversible because fundamental changes happen in the landscape, or the processes having created the original forms are no longer in operation. Small scale land degradation processes may be reversible if nature is still capable of reproducing the original state. The most important land degradation processes are desertification and soil erosion. Mining, waste disposal, urbanisation and construction activities, agriculture, inaccurate forest and water management, tourism, unsuitable land use can also lead to severe land degradation problems. The objective of the paper is to show Hungarian examples to all land degradation processes that threaten geodiversity. The results will be shown on a series of maps showing land degradation processes endangering geodiversity in Hungary. A detailed analysis of smaller study sites will be provided to show the effects of certain land degradation processes on landform development and on the changes of geodiversity. This research is supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), project Nr. 10875.

  14. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  15. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  16. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction....

  17. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing  role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober...

  18. Investigating potential transferability of place-based research in land system science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Václavík, Tomáš; Langerwisch, Fanny; Cotter, Marc; Fick, Johanna; Häuser, Inga; Hotes, Stefan; Kamp, Johannes; Settele, Josef; Spangenberg, Joachim H.; Seppelt, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Much of our knowledge about land use and ecosystem services in interrelated social-ecological systems is derived from place-based research. While local and regional case studies provide valuable insights, it is often unclear how relevant this research is beyond the study areas. Drawing generalized conclusions about practical solutions to land management from local observations and formulating hypotheses applicable to other places in the world requires that we identify patterns of land systems that are similar to those represented by the case study. Here, we utilize the previously developed concept of land system archetypes to investigate potential transferability of research from twelve regional projects implemented in a large joint research framework that focus on issues of sustainable land management across four continents. For each project, we characterize its project archetype, i.e. the unique land system based on a synthesis of more than 30 datasets of land-use intensity, environmental conditions and socioeconomic indicators. We estimate the transferability potential of project research by calculating the statistical similarity of locations across the world to the project archetype, assuming higher transferability potentials in locations with similar land system characteristics. Results show that areas with high transferability potentials are typically clustered around project sites but for some case studies can be found in regions that are geographically distant, especially when values of considered variables are close to the global mean or where the project archetype is driven by large-scale environmental or socioeconomic conditions. Using specific examples from the local case studies, we highlight the merit of our approach and discuss the differences between local realities and information captured in global datasets. The proposed method provides a blueprint for large research programs to assess potential transferability of place-based studies to other

  19. General aspects of siting and safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutgers, E.

    1980-01-01

    The siting process from site selection to the different stages of review by the regulatory body is described. Special attention is payed to the role and responsibilities of the licensing authority. Next, the basic considerations involved in the siting process are reviewed. They include system planning, engineering, safety, environmental impact (including land use) and economics. Case studies illustrating different aspects of the siting process (e.g. site selection) are presented. (orig.)

  20. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  1. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Vector)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Vector-based land cover data set derived from classified 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source...

  2. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Raster)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Raster-based land cover data set derived from 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source imagery...

  3. Idaho National Laboratory Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No name listed on publication

    2011-08-01

    Land and facility use planning and decisions at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site are guided by a comprehensive site planning process in accordance with Department of Energy Policy 430.1, 'Land and Facility Use Policy,' that integrates mission, economic, ecologic, social, and cultural factors. The INL Ten-Year Site Plan, prepared in accordance with Department of Energy Order 430.1B, 'Real Property Asset Management,' outlines the vision and strategy to transform INL to deliver world-leading capabilities that will enable the Department of Energy to accomplish its mission. Land use planning is the overarching function within real property asset management that integrates the other functions of acquisition, recapitalization, maintenance, disposition, real property utilization, and long-term stewardship into a coordinated effort to ensure current and future mission needs are met. All land and facility use projects planned at the INL Site are considered through a formal planning process that supports the Ten-Year Site Plan. This Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report describes that process. The land use planning process identifies the current condition of existing land and facility assets and the scope of constraints across INL and in the surrounding region. Current land use conditions are included in the Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report and facility assets and scope of constraints are discussed in the Ten-Year Site Plan. This report also presents the past, present, and future uses of land at the INL Site that are considered during the planning process, as well as outlining the future of the INL Site for the 10, 30, and 100-year timeframes.

  4. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity...

  5. Far land near future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, van der P.D.; Holst, van F.; Thomas, J.; Brink, van den A.; Reyniers, J.; Jongeneelen, O.; Dijk, van T.; Timmermans, W.; Daugaliene, V.; Crecente, R.; Ambar, M.; Flachner, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Land development: expecting the unexpected. Future approaches to land development. Thos book is the result of an EU project. With Dutch contributions: Meerstad, Groningen (PPS) and Klarenbeek, Amsterdam (zorglandgoed)

  6. US State Submerged Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  7. Agriculture: Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  8. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded...... as more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights....... This relates to national political arrangements and standards for good governance and land administration systems are highly instrumental in this regard. This paper introduces the relation between land administration and human rights. It is argued that human rights and land administration are closely linked...

  9. Green and blue water demand from large-scale land acquisitions in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Emma Li; Fader, Marianela; Seaquist, Jonathan W; Nicholas, Kimberly A

    2016-10-11

    In the last decade, more than 22 million ha of land have been contracted to large-scale land acquisitions in Africa, leading to increased pressures, competition, and conflicts over freshwater resources. Currently, 3% of contracted land is in production, for which we model site-specific water demands to indicate where freshwater appropriation might pose high socioenvironmental challenges. We use the dynamic global vegetation model Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land to simulate green (precipitation stored in soils and consumed by plants through evapotranspiration) and blue (extracted from rivers, lakes, aquifers, and dams) water demand and crop yields for seven irrigation scenarios, and compare these data with two baseline scenarios of staple crops representing previous water demand. We find that most land acquisitions are planted with crops that demand large volumes of water (>9,000 m 3 ⋅ha -1 ) like sugarcane, jatropha, and eucalyptus, and that staple crops have lower water requirements (acquisitions, totaling 91,000 ha, would still require more than 50% of water from blue water sources. These hotspots indicate areas at risk for transgressing regional constraints for freshwater use as a result of overconsumption of blue water, where socioenvironmental systems might face increased conflicts and tensions over water resources.

  10. Integrated Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to build a general understanding and conceptual approach to integrated land management. The conceptual understanding may take the form of a hierarchy of levels. The foundation stone is an overall national land policy. Appropriate cadastral systems support land policies by providin...

  11. Women and Land

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This effort is Pakistan's first attempt to give women legal control of land. The breakthrough came in the wake of SDPI's successful efforts to broaden Pakistan's decades-long dialogue on land reform. Land ownership has been a major political concern throughout the country's history. The first attempt to reduce the concentra-.

  12. SLAC site design aesthetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, F.F.

    1985-10-01

    Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is a single mission laboratory dedicated to basic research in high energy particle physics. SLAC site also houses Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) which is a multi-mission laboratory for research using beams of ultraviolet light and low energy photons as emitted tangentially from SLAC colliding beam facilities. This paper discusses various aspects of SLAC site design aesthetics under the following headings: (1) imposed footprint of SLAC, (2) description of selected site, (3) use of earth cover for radiation and sight screens, (4) use of landscaping for cosmetic purposes, (5) use of exterior paint colors to soften SLAC impact on neighbors, (6) relocation of SLAC main entrance, (7) relocation of SLAC collider arcs and experimental hall, (8) parking lots and storage yards, and (9) land use zoning at SLAC

  13. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  14. Environment: the dismantling of polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blond, O.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents many papers on the environmental impacts of land reclamation of polluted industrial and nuclear sites. The french situation is discussed in terms of cost, ability of the sector enterprises and robots, necessary aids. (A.L.B)

  15. Minnesota Walk-In Access Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Minnesota Walk-In Access site (WIA) GIS data represents areas of private land that have been made open to the public for the purpose of walk-in (foot travel)...

  16. HANDBOOK ON THE BENEFITS, COSTS, AND IMPACTS OF LAND CLEANUP AND REUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarizes the theoretical and empirical literature addressing benefit-cost and impact assessment of the land cleanup and reuse scenario. When possible, recommendations are provided for conducting economic analysis of land cleanup and reuse sites and programs. The knowledge base ...

  17. LBA-ECO ND-01 Land Cover Classification, Rondonia, Brazil: 1975-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a time series of land cover classifications for Ariquemes, Ji-Parana, and Luiza, research sites in Rondonia, Brazil. The land cover...

  18. The land impact associated with the disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmond, I.G.

    1983-01-01

    At present, the only land being utilized for the storage of radioactive wastes in Canada is at the sites of nuclear power generating stations, for high- and low-level wastes, and the land adjacent to uranium mines and mills in the case of tailings and the land in the vicinity of the uranium refinery in Port Hope. Existing storage sites for high- and low-level wastes do not occupy large amounts of land, since the amount of materials is relatively small. Uranium mine tailings, however, need hundreds of hectares of land. In addition to land directly utilized for the storage of the wastes, there may be a need for future buffer zones to separate them from adjoining land uses once a method of permanent disposal is decided. Any land utilized for the disposal of the wastes is likely to be unsuitable for other uses for anywhere from a few years to several thousand years, depending on the waste type occupying the land. Clearly, use of land for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes may influence it beyond site boundaries and restrict its usage for other purposes for some considerable time to come

  19. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  20. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  1. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    1997-05-01

    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  2. Bureau of Land Management Land Grant Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data has been collected by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in New Mexico at the New Mexico State Office. The initial data source is the statewide...

  3. International Coalition Land Use/Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a product of an effort to update Minnesota's 1969 land use inventory. The project was funded in 1989 by the State Legislature per recommendation...

  4. Site decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicker, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the several DOE sites that have been radiologically decontaminated under the auspices of the Nevada Operations Office are three whose physical characteristics are unique. These are the Tatum Dome Test Site (TDTS) near Hattiesburg, Mississippi; a location of mountainous terrain (Pahute Mesa) on the Nevada Test Site; and the GNOME site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. In each case the contamination, the terrain, and the climate conditions were different. This presentation includes a brief description of each site, the methods used to perform radiological surveys, the logistics required to support the decontamination (including health physics and sample analysis), and the specific techniques used to reduce or remove the contamination

  5. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  6. Land associations in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bandlerová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The land fragmentation is one of the serious problems in Slovakia which is given by the historical development of the land law. In the past, landowners tried to solve this problem by creation of various forms of land associations oriented to the common cultivation of agricultural land and forest land. Nowadays, the Slovak lawmaker decided to regulate the institute of land associations by the law. Land associations in Slovakia are legal entities conducting agricultural business on agricultural land, forest land or in water areas; moreover, they can provide also other business activities according to particular legal regulations. Land associations conduct business on real estate property or, more commonly, properties, which are usually owned by many co-owners, because the individual cultivation of small part of land plots would not be effective. However, the law is a subject of legal amendments more often than necessary in order to ensure the legal certainty. This paper introduces this recondite legal entity, its activities, its internal government and the ownership rights of its members. A pre-emption right that has a special legal regulation different from the general legal regulations of the pre-emption rights in the Civil Code is one of the special issues.

  7. Sensing land pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  8. Hydrology of Ranger land application area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, C.V.

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 Ranger Uranium Mines (RUM) began assessing the technique of water treatment by land application as a means of reducing the volume of stored water within the Restricted Release Zone. Knowledge of the hydrological characteristics of the treatment site is necessary for optimal day to day and season to season operation of the system and as an input into the assessment of the long-term viability of the site. This paper provides background information on the hydrological requirements for a water treatment site, describes the RUM's water treatment by land application system and summarises the operational statistics and current hydrological knowledge of the site. The general groundwater hydrology of the area comprises a surface soil aquifer overlying a semi-confined aquifer. Drainage of the surface aquifer follows the surface topography along the sandy clays. Vertical permeability ranges between 3 and 12 times greater than horizontal permeability. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  9. customary land tenure and land documentation in the wasa amenfi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    administration including customary land tenure lo reduce land conflicts and enhance producti,·ity or land. .... the land owning group hold customary rights to land used for residential and food and cash crop farming purposes. .... from which revenue can be generated from property taxes. Land registration or tit I ing is not new ...

  10. Flood risk assessment of land pollution hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Arrighi, Chiara; Iannelli, Renato

    2017-04-01

    Among the risks caused by extreme events, the potential spread of pollutants stored in land hotspots due to floods is an aspect that has been rarely examined with a risk-based approach. In this contribution, an attempt to estimate pollution risks related to flood events of land pollution hotspots was carried out. Flood risk has been defined as the combination of river flood hazard, hotspots exposure and vulnerability to contamination of the area, i.e. the expected severity of the environmental impacts. The assessment was performed on a geographical basis, using geo-referenced open data, available from databases of land management institutions, authorities and agencies. The list of land pollution hotspots included landfills and other waste handling facilities (e.g., temporary storage, treatment and recycling sites), municipal wastewater treatment plants, liquid waste treatment facilities and contaminated sites. The assessment was carried out by combining geo-referenced data of pollution hotspots with flood hazard maps. We derived maps of land pollution risk based on geographical and geological properties and source characteristics available from environmental authorities. These included information about soil particle size, soil hydraulic conductivity, terrain slope, type of stored pollutants, the type of facility, capacity, size of the area, land use, etc. The analysis was carried out at catchment scale. The case study of the Arno river basin in Tuscany (central Italy) is presented.

  11. Site scale groundwater flow in Olkiluoto - complementary simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefman, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-06-01

    This work comprises of the complementary simulations to the previous groundwater flow analysis at the Olkiluoto site. The objective is to study the effects of flow porosity, conceptual model for solute transport, fracture zones, land uplift and initial conditions on the results. The numerical simulations are carried out up to 10000 years into the future employing the same modelling approach and site-specific flow and transport model as in the previous work except for the differences in the case descriptions. The result quantities considered are the salinity and the driving force in the vicinity of the repository. The salinity field and the driving force are sensitive to the flow porosity and the conceptual model for solute transport. Ten-fold flow porosity and the dual-porosity approach retard the transport of solutes in the bedrock resulting in brackish groundwater conditions at the repository at 10000 years A.P. (in the previous work the groundwater in the repository turned into fresh). The higher driving forces can be attributed to the higher concentration gradients resulting from the opposite effects of the land uplift, which pushes fresh water deeper and deeper into the bedrock, and the higher flow porosity and the dual-porosity model, which retard the transport of solutes. The cases computed (unrealistically) without fracture zones and postglacial land uplift show that they both have effect on the results and can not be ignored in the coupled and transient groundwater flow analyses. The salinity field and the driving force are also sensitive to the initial salinity field especially at the beginning during the first 500 years A.P. The sensitivity will, however, diminish as soon as fresh water dilutes brackish and saline water and decreases the concentration gradients. Fresh water conditions result in also a steady state for the driving force in the repository area. (orig.)

  12. Site organization and site arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnet, B.; Macqueron, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper deals with criteria for the choice of a production unit or power plant site, the organization and development of a site in terms of its particular characteristics and takes into account personnel considerations in site organizations as well as the problem of integrating the architecture into the environment. (RW) [de

  13. Sites Pre-Screened for Geothermal Energy Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RE-Powering Screening Dataset spreadsheet contains detailed site information on over 80,000 contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites with screening results...

  14. Sites Pre-Screened for Biomass and Biofuel Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RE-Powering Screening Dataset spreadsheet contains detailed site information on over 80,000 contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites with screening results...

  15. Data Acquisition for Land Subsidence Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.; Balke, K.

    2009-12-01

    For controlling land subsidence caused by groundwater over-exploitation, loading of engineered structures, mining and other anthropogenic activities in this fast changing world, a large variety of different data of various scales of concerning areas are needed for scientific study and administrative operational purposes. The economical, social and environmental impacts of anthropogenic land subsidence have long been recognized by many scientific institutions and management authorities based on results of monitoring and analysis at an interdisciplinary level. The land subsidence information systems composed of the surface and subsurface monitoring nets (monitoring and development wells, GPS stations and other facilities) and local data processing centers as a system management tool in Shanghai City was started with the use of GPS technology to monitor land subsidence in 1998. After years of experiences with a set of initiatives by adopting adequate countermeasures, the particular attention given to new improved methodologies to monitor and model the process of land subsidence in a simple and timely way, this is going to be promoted in the whole Yangtze River Delta region in China, where land subsidence expands in the entire region of urban cluster. The Delta land subsidence monitoring network construction aims to establish an efficient and coordinated water resource management system. The land subsidence monitoring network records "living history" of land subsidence, produces detailed scheduled reports and environmental impact statements. For the different areas with local factors and site characteristics, parallel packages need to be designed for predicting changes, land sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, especially for the risk analysis in the rapid growth of megacities and urban areas. In such cases, the new models with new types of local data and the new ways of data acquisition provide the best information for the decision makers for their mitigating

  16. A constituição de um território identitário pela garantia dos direitos fundiários: o Sítio Histórico e Patrimônio Cultural Kalunga / The constitution of a identity territory for warranty of land rights: The Historic and Cultural Site Kalunga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Nunes Martins de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the constitution of Historic and Cultural Site Kalunga, situated in the north of Goiás, making considerations about the communities it distributed in, the form of occupation in Cerrado of Goiás and the official recognition of its territory. Presents a discussion about how the discourses of identity self-assertion and the patrimonialization of quilombolas territory modify the reproductive strategies of these groups. This process, however, only occurs by external interference that works in raising awareness of these communities in relation to their constitutional rights. Before the need of self-assertion, the discourse of identity resignify the meaning of these communities struggle: the right to land. Finally, it detach the problem regarding community title of land property. These issues are discussed through a literature review that permeated the theme, observations and interviews made on the spot. Preliminarily, there are some conclusions that point to the need to rethink the policies that prioritize the cultural preservation directed to the quilombolas communities, rather than their actual demands.

  17. The land fund characteristics of small and medium cities from Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim CUJBĂ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Structure of urban land from Republic of Moldova was determined by peculiarities of the environment, historical conditions of city developing and economic functions. One of the main factor, with obvious influence is the way of land use is landscape or city site. Its morphological characteristics contribute directly to the formation of land structure, especially, agricultural land concentration in relation to the built-up area, respectively, other land categories

  18. Scientific and methodical bases of transformation of agricultural land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolisnyk H.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Formed scientific and methodical bases of transformation of agricultural land use. Determined essence of the concept of «transformation», «tranformation of agricultural land use», «evaluation of transformation». Thus, in agricultural land use should be understood natural and territorial complex, in which occurs interaction of economic agent with the environment, with the result that forming certain social product (agricultural products, and transformation of agricultural land use – a process of transformation of land use of present social and economic system in a new land use, which is characterized by changing the previous characteristics and properties of land use to a new. At the same time, an important feature of the transformation is withering away of the previous system of economic relations. To determine, if effective occured transformation of agricultural land use, is necessary to conduct environmental and economic evaluation of the transformation of agricultural land use, where ecological and economic evaluation – evaluation of changes of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of agricultural land use as a result of type of social and economic relations and forms of land ownership. In the study suggested structural and logical scheme of transformation of agricultural land use based on formed concepts and statements. Determines the prerequisites of transformation of agricultural land use, based on private ownership of land, so to the main belongs changing of the type of social and economic relations, forms of ownership of land and means of production, the poor state of the environment. As a result of transformation of agricultural land use at market conditions, occured transition from land use of state and collective farms to agricultural formations of market type, зbased on different forms of ownership In the study highlighted the stages of transformation and classification of types of transformation of agricultural

  19. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed.......This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  20. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed......This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed...