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Sample records for previous interpretations based

  1. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  2. Model-based biosignal interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, S

    1994-03-01

    Two relatively new approaches to model-based biosignal interpretation, qualitative simulation and modelling by causal probabilistic networks, are compared to modelling by differential equations. A major problem in applying a model to an individual patient is the estimation of the parameters. The available observations are unlikely to allow a proper estimation of the parameters, and even if they do, the task appears to have exponential computational complexity if the model is non-linear. Causal probabilistic networks have both differential equation models and qualitative simulation as special cases, and they can provide both Bayesian and maximum-likelihood parameter estimates, in most cases in much less than exponential time. In addition, they can calculate the probabilities required for a decision-theoretical approach to medical decision support. The practical applicability of causal probabilistic networks to real medical problems is illustrated by a model of glucose metabolism which is used to adjust insulin therapy in type I diabetic patients.

  3. Cling - The LLVM-based C++ Interpreter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Cling (http://cern.ch/cling) is a C++ interpreter, built on top of clang (http://clang.llvm.org) and LLVM (http://llvm.org). Like its predecessor CINT, cling offers an interactive, terminal-like prompt. It enables exploratory programming with rapid edit / run cycles. The ROOT team has more than 15 years of experience with C++ interpreters, and this has been fully exploited in the design of cling. However, matching the concepts of an interpreter to a compiler library is a non-trivial task; we will explain how this is done for cling, and how we managed to implement cling as a small (10,000 lines of code) extension to the clang and llvm libraries. The resulting features clearly show the advantages of basing an interpreter on a compiler. Cling uses clang's praised concise and easy to understand diagnostics. Building an interpreter on top of a compiler library makes the transition between interpreted and compiled code much easier and smoother. We will present the design, e.g. how cling treats the C++ extensions ...

  4. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  5. Histological image classification using biologically interpretable shape-based features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, Sonal; Phan, John H; Young, Andrew N; Wang, May D

    2013-01-01

    Automatic cancer diagnostic systems based on histological image classification are important for improving therapeutic decisions. Previous studies propose textural and morphological features for such systems. These features capture patterns in histological images that are useful for both cancer grading and subtyping. However, because many of these features lack a clear biological interpretation, pathologists may be reluctant to adopt these features for clinical diagnosis. We examine the utility of biologically interpretable shape-based features for classification of histological renal tumor images. Using Fourier shape descriptors, we extract shape-based features that capture the distribution of stain-enhanced cellular and tissue structures in each image and evaluate these features using a multi-class prediction model. We compare the predictive performance of the shape-based diagnostic model to that of traditional models, i.e., using textural, morphological and topological features. The shape-based model, with an average accuracy of 77%, outperforms or complements traditional models. We identify the most informative shapes for each renal tumor subtype from the top-selected features. Results suggest that these shapes are not only accurate diagnostic features, but also correlate with known biological characteristics of renal tumors. Shape-based analysis of histological renal tumor images accurately classifies disease subtypes and reveals biologically insightful discriminatory features. This method for shape-based analysis can be extended to other histological datasets to aid pathologists in diagnostic and therapeutic decisions

  6. Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

  7. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  8. Knowledge-based segmentation for automatic Map interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J. den; Kate, T. ten; Gerbrands, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a knowledge-based framework for the top-down interpretation and segmentation of maps is presented. The interpretation is based on a priori knowledge about map objects, their mutual spatial relationships and potential segmentation problems. To reduce computational costs, a global

  9. Declarative interpretations of session-based concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cano, Mauricio; Rueda, Camilo; López-Acosta, Hugo-Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Session-based concurrency is a type-based approach to the analysis of communication-intensive systems. Correct behavior in these systems may be specified in an operational or declarative style: the former defines how interactions are structured; the latter defines governing conditions...

  10. Model-Based Integration and Interpretation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    Data integration and interpretation plays a crucial role in supervisory control. The paper defines a set of generic inference steps for the data integration and interpretation process based on a three-layer model of system representations. The three-layer model is used to clarify the combination...... of constraint and object-centered representations of the work domain throwing new light on the basic principles underlying the data integration and interpretation process of Rasmussen's abstraction hierarchy as well as other model-based approaches combining constraint and object-centered representations. Based...

  11. Automatic Tamil lyric generation based on ontological interpretation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This system proposes an -gram based approach to automatic Tamil lyric generation, by the ontological semantic interpretation of the input scene. The approach is based on identifying the semantics conveyed in the scenario, thereby making the system understand the situation and generate lyrics accordingly. The heart of ...

  12. Automatic Tamil lyric generation based on ontological interpretation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This system proposes an N-gram based approach to automatic Tamil lyric generation, by the ontological semantic interpretation of the input scene. The approach is based on identifying the semantics conveyed in the scenario, thereby mak- ing the system understand the situation and generate lyrics accordingly.

  13. A statistical mechanical interpretation of algorithmic information theory: Total statistical mechanical interpretation based on physical argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadaki, Kohtaro

    2010-12-01

    The statistical mechanical interpretation of algorithmic information theory (AIT, for short) was introduced and developed by our former works [K. Tadaki, Local Proceedings of CiE 2008, pp. 425-434, 2008] and [K. Tadaki, Proceedings of LFCS'09, Springer's LNCS, vol. 5407, pp. 422-440, 2009], where we introduced the notion of thermodynamic quantities, such as partition function Z(T), free energy F(T), energy E(T), statistical mechanical entropy S(T), and specific heat C(T), into AIT. We then discovered that, in the interpretation, the temperature T equals to the partial randomness of the values of all these thermodynamic quantities, where the notion of partial randomness is a stronger representation of the compression rate by means of program-size complexity. Furthermore, we showed that this situation holds for the temperature T itself, which is one of the most typical thermodynamic quantities. Namely, we showed that, for each of the thermodynamic quantities Z(T), F(T), E(T), and S(T) above, the computability of its value at temperature T gives a sufficient condition for T (0,1) to satisfy the condition that the partial randomness of T equals to T. In this paper, based on a physical argument on the same level of mathematical strictness as normal statistical mechanics in physics, we develop a total statistical mechanical interpretation of AIT which actualizes a perfect correspondence to normal statistical mechanics. We do this by identifying a microcanonical ensemble in the framework of AIT. As a result, we clarify the statistical mechanical meaning of the thermodynamic quantities of AIT.

  14. Attribute and topology based change detection in a constellation of previously detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, Reginald N.

    2016-01-19

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  15. Integrating knowledge-based techniques into well-test interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, I.W.; Fraser, J.L. [Artificial Intelligence Applications Inst., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Spirit Project was to develop a prototype of next-generation well-test-interpretation (WTI) software that would include knowledge-based decision support for the WTI model selection task. This paper describes how Spirit makes use of several different types of information (pressure, seismic, petrophysical, geological, and engineering) to support the user in identifying the most appropriate WTI model. Spirit`s knowledge-based approach to type-curve matching is to generate several different feasible interpretations by making assumptions about the possible presence of both wellbore storage and late-time boundary effects. Spirit fuses information from type-curve matching and other data sources by use of a knowledge-based decision model developed in collaboration with a WTI expert. The sponsors of the work have judged the resulting prototype system a success.

  16. Interpreting "Personality" Taxonomies: Why Previous Models Cannot Capture Individual-Specific Experiencing, Behaviour, Functioning and Development. Major Taxonomic Tasks Still Lay Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2015-12-01

    As science seeks to make generalisations, a science of individual peculiarities encounters intricate challenges. This article explores these challenges by applying the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) and by exploring taxonomic "personality" research as an example. Analyses of researchers' interpretations of the taxonomic "personality" models, constructs and data that have been generated in the field reveal widespread erroneous assumptions about the abilities of previous methodologies to appropriately represent individual-specificity in the targeted phenomena. These assumptions, rooted in everyday thinking, fail to consider that individual-specificity and others' minds cannot be directly perceived, that abstract descriptions cannot serve as causal explanations, that between-individual structures cannot be isomorphic to within-individual structures, and that knowledge of compositional structures cannot explain the process structures of their functioning and development. These erroneous assumptions and serious methodological deficiencies in widely used standardised questionnaires have effectively prevented psychologists from establishing taxonomies that can comprehensively model individual-specificity in most of the kinds of phenomena explored as "personality", especially in experiencing and behaviour and in individuals' functioning and development. Contrary to previous assumptions, it is not universal models but rather different kinds of taxonomic models that are required for each of the different kinds of phenomena, variations and structures that are commonly conceived of as "personality". Consequently, to comprehensively explore individual-specificity, researchers have to apply a portfolio of complementary methodologies and develop different kinds of taxonomies, most of which have yet to be developed. Closing, the article derives some meta-desiderata for future research on individuals' "personality".

  17. WPS criterion proposition based on experimental data base interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuliot, S.; Izard, J.P.; Moinereau, D.; Marie, S.

    2011-01-01

    This article gives the background and the methodology developed to define a K J based criterion for brittle fracture of Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) submitted to Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS), and taking into account Warm Pre Stressing effect (WPS). The first step of this methodology is the constitution of an experimental data base. This work was performed through bibliography and partnerships, and allows merging experimental results dealing with: -) Various ferritic steels; -) Various material states (as received, thermally aged, irradiated...); -) Various mode of fracture (cleavage, inter-granular, mixed mode); -) Various specimen geometry and size (CT, SENB, mock-ups); -) Various thermo-mechanical transients. Based on this experimental data base, a simple K J based limit is proposed and compared to experimental results. Parametric studies are performed in order to define the main parameters of the problem. Finally, a simple proposition based on a detailed analysis of tests results is performed. This proposition giving satisfactory results in every cases, it constitutes a good candidate for integration in French RSE-M code for in service assessment. (authors)

  18. Graph-based iterative Group Analysis enhances microarray interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amtmann Anna

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most time-consuming tasks after performing a gene expression experiment is the biological interpretation of the results by identifying physiologically important associations between the differentially expressed genes. A large part of the relevant functional evidence can be represented in the form of graphs, e.g. metabolic and signaling pathways, protein interaction maps, shared GeneOntology annotations, or literature co-citation relations. Such graphs are easily constructed from available genome annotation data. The problem of biological interpretation can then be described as identifying the subgraphs showing the most significant patterns of gene expression. We applied a graph-based extension of our iterative Group Analysis (iGA approach to obtain a statistically rigorous identification of the subgraphs of interest in any evidence graph. Results We validated the Graph-based iterative Group Analysis (GiGA by applying it to the classic yeast diauxic shift experiment of DeRisi et al., using GeneOntology and metabolic network information. GiGA reliably identified and summarized all the biological processes discussed in the original publication. Visualization of the detected subgraphs allowed the convenient exploration of the results. The method also identified several processes that were not presented in the original paper but are of obvious relevance to the yeast starvation response. Conclusions GiGA provides a fast and flexible delimitation of the most interesting areas in a microarray experiment, and leads to a considerable speed-up and improvement of the interpretation process.

  19. Interpretation of EQA results and EQA-based trouble shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Gunn Berit Berge; Meijer, Piet

    2017-02-15

    Important objectives of External Quality Assessment (EQA) is to detect analytical errors and make corrective actions. The aim of this paper is to describe knowledge required to interpret EQA results and present a structured approach on how to handle deviating EQA results. The value of EQA and how the EQA result should be interpreted depends on five key points: the control material, the target value, the number of replicates, the acceptance limits and between lot variations in reagents used in measurement procedures. This will also affect the process of finding the sources of errors when they appear. The ideal EQA sample has two important properties: it behaves as a native patient sample in all methods (is commutable) and has a target value established with a reference method. If either of these two criteria is not entirely fulfilled, results not related to the performance of the laboratory may arise. To help and guide the laboratories in handling a deviating EQA result, the Norwegian Clinical Chemistry EQA Program (NKK) has developed a flowchart with additional comments that could be used by the laboratories e.g. in their quality system, to document action against deviations in EQA. This EQA-based trouble-shooting tool has been developed further in cooperation with the External quality Control for Assays and Tests (ECAT) Foundation. This flowchart will become available in a public domain, i.e. the website of the European organisation for External Quality Assurance Providers in Laboratory Medicine (EQALM).

  20. Cultivation-based multiplex phenotyping of human gut microbiota allows targeted recovery of previously uncultured bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rettedal, Elizabeth; Gumpert, Heidi; Sommer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    show that carefully designed conditions enable cultivation of a representative proportion of human gut bacteria, enabling rapid multiplex phenotypic profiling. We use this approach to determine the phylogenetic distribution of antibiotic tolerance phenotypes for 16 antibiotics in the human gut...... microbiota. Based on the phenotypic mapping, we tailor antibiotic combinations to specifically select for previously uncultivated bacteria. Utilizing this method we cultivate and sequence the genomes of four isolates, one of which apparently belongs to the genus Oscillibacter; uncultivated Oscillibacter...

  1. Design of a single-borehole hydraulic test programme allowing for interpretation-based errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.

    1987-07-01

    Hydraulic testing using packers in single boreholes is one of the most important sources of data to safety assessment modelling in connection with the disposal of radioactive waste. It is also one of the most time-consuming and expensive. It is important that the results are as reliable as possible and as accurate as necessary for the use that is made of them. There are many causes of possible error and inaccuracy ranging from poor field practice to inappropriate interpretation procedure. The report examines and attempts to quantify the size of error arising from the accidental use of an inappropriate or inadequate interpretation procedure. In doing so, it can be seen which interpretation procedure or combination of procedures results in least error. Lastly, the report attempts to use the previous conclusions from interpretation to propose forms of field test procedure where interpretation-based errors will be minimised. Hydraulic tests (sometimes known as packer tests) come in three basic forms: slug/pulse, constant flow and constant head. They have different characteristics, some measuring a variable volume of rock (dependent on hydraulic conductivity) and some having a variable duration (dependent on hydraulic conductivity). A combination of different tests in the same interval is seen as desirable. For the purposes of assessing interpretation-based errors, slug and pulse tests are considered together as are constant flow and constant head tests. The same method is used in each case to assess errors. The method assumes that the simplest analysis procedure (cylindrical flow in homogeneous isotropic porous rock) will be used on each set of field data. The error is assessed by calculating synthetic data for alternative configurations (e.g. fissured rock, anisotropic rock, inhomogeneous rock - i.e. skin - etc.) and then analyzing this data using the simplest analysis procedure. 28 refs., 26 figs

  2. Cognitive Artificial Intelligence Method for Interpreting Transformer Condition Based on Maintenance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Octavianus Bachri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A3S(Arwin-Adang-Aciek-Sembiring is a method of information fusion at a single observation and OMA3S(Observation Multi-time A3S is a method of information fusion for time-series data. This paper proposes OMA3S-based Cognitive Artificial-Intelligence method for interpreting Transformer Condition, which is calculated based on maintenance data from Indonesia National Electric Company (PLN. First, the proposed method is tested using the previously published data, and then followed by implementation on maintenance data. Maintenance data are fused to obtain part condition, and part conditions are fused to obtain transformer condition. Result shows proposed method is valid for DGA fault identification with the average accuracy of 91.1%. The proposed method not only can interpret the major fault, it can also identify the minor fault occurring along with the major fault, allowing early warning feature. Result also shows part conditions can be interpreted using information fusion on maintenance data, and the transformer condition can be interpreted using information fusion on part conditions. The future works on this research is to gather more data, to elaborate more factors to be fused, and to design a cognitive processor that can be used to implement this concept of intelligent instrumentation.

  3. Techniques for Scaling Up Analyses Based on Pre-interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, John Patrick; Henriksen, Kim Steen; Banda, Gourinath

    2005-01-01

    Any finite tree automaton (or regular type) can be used to construct an abstract interpretation of a logic program, by first determinising and completing the automaton to get a pre-interpretation of the language of the program. This has been shown to be a flexible and practical approach to buildi...

  4. In vivo dentate nucleus MRI relaxometry correlates with previous administration of Gadolinium-based contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedeschi, Enrico; Canna, Antonietta; Cocozza, Sirio; Russo, Carmela; Angelini, Valentina; Brunetti, Arturo [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Neuroradiology, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Palma, Giuseppe; Quarantelli, Mario [National Research Council, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Borrelli, Pasquale; Salvatore, Marco [IRCCS SDN, Naples (Italy); Lanzillo, Roberta; Postiglione, Emanuela; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate changes in T1 and T2* relaxometry of dentate nuclei (DN) with respect to the number of previous administrations of Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA). In 74 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients with variable disease duration (9.8±6.8 years) and severity (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores:3.1±0.9), the DN R1 (1/T1) and R2* (1/T2*) relaxation rates were measured using two unenhanced 3D Dual-Echo spoiled Gradient-Echo sequences with different flip angles. Correlations of the number of previous GBCA administrations with DN R1 and R2* relaxation rates were tested, including gender and age effect, in a multivariate regression analysis. The DN R1 (normalized by brainstem) significantly correlated with the number of GBCA administrations (p<0.001), maintaining the same significance even when including MS-related factors. Instead, the DN R2* values correlated only with age (p=0.003), and not with GBCA administrations (p=0.67). In a subgroup of 35 patients for whom the administered GBCA subtype was known, the effect of GBCA on DN R1 appeared mainly related to linear GBCA. In RR-MS patients, the number of previous GBCA administrations correlates with R1 relaxation rates of DN, while R2* values remain unaffected, suggesting that T1-shortening in these patients is related to the amount of Gadolinium given. (orig.)

  5. Interpretation of the Last Chance thrust, Death Valley region, California, as an Early Permian décollement in a previously undeformed shale basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The Last Chance thrust, discontinuously exposed over an area of at least 2500 km2 near the south end of the Cordilleran foreland thrust belt in the Death Valley region of east-central California, is controversial because of its poorly constrained age and its uncertain original geometry and extent. We interpret this thrust to be Early Permian in age, to extend throughout a sedimentary basin in which deep-water Mississippian shale overlain by Pennsylvanian and earliest Permian limestone turbidites accumulated, to represent about 30 km of eastward displacement, and to be related to convergence on a northeast-trending segment of the Early Permian continental margin. Last Chance deformation occurred between the times of the Antler and Sonoma orogenies of Late Devonian–Early Mississippian and Late Permian ages, respectively, and followed Early to Middle Pennsylvanian truncation of the continental margin by transform faulting.

  6. Interpretation of EQA results and EQA-based trouble shooting

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Gunn Berit Berge; Meijer, Piet

    2017-01-01

    Important objectives of External Quality Assessment (EQA) is to detect analytical errors and make corrective actions. The aim of this paper is to describe knowledge required to interpret EQA results and present a structured approach on how to handle deviating EQA results. The value of EQA and how the EQA result should be interpreted depends on five key points: the control material, the target value, the number of replicates, the acceptance limits and between lot variations in reagents used in...

  7. Comparison between Conventional Blind Embryo Transfer and Embryo Transfer Based on Previously Measured Uterine Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Saharkhiz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Embryo transfer (ET is one of the most important steps in assisted reproductive technology (ART cycles and affected by many factors namely the depth of embryo deposition in uterus. In this study, the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles after blind embryo transfer and embryo transfer based on previously measured uterine length using vaginal ultrasound were compared. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomised clinical trial included one hundred and forty non-donor fresh embryo transfers during January 2010 to June 2011. In group I, ET was performed using conventional (blind method at 5-6cm from the external os, and in group II, ET was done at a depth of 1-1.5 cm from the uterine fundus based on previously measured uterine length using vaginal sonography. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t test and Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. The software that we used was PASW statistics version 18. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Chemical pregnancy rate was 28.7% in group I and 42.1% in group II, while the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.105. Clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates for group I were 21.2%, 17.7%, and 12.8%, while for group II were 33.9%, 33.9%, and 22.1, respectively. In group I and group II, abortion rates were 34.7% and 0%, respectively, indicating a statistically significant difference (p<0.005. No ectopic pregnancy occurred in two groups. Conclusion: The use of uterine length measurement during treatment cycle in order to place embryos at depth of 1-1.5cm from fundus significantly increases clinical and ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates, while leads to a decrease in abortion rate (Registration Number: IRCT2014032512494N1.

  8. Heart rate and exercise: An evidence based interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Bezerra de Almeida

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available a manner as to facilitate clinical and epidemiological interpretation, and its use for prescribing exercise. At rest, HR can be considered a marker of subjects’ autonomic condition, but despite being affected by maximal aerobic power, neither should not be used for estimating the other. It is possible for HR to increase rapidly within just few seconds of exercise as a result of the vagal inhibition refl ex. This kind of situation is quite common in sports in which movements may be short and sudden, such as judo and tennis, and this information could be used for detecting sports talent. During prolonged exercise, HR tends to follow the level of intensity of effort, especially in continuous exercise. Maximum HR determined by equations exhibits signifi cant estimation errors and should be used with caution. Higher values suggest a better prognosis in terms of risk of mortality. Fast recovery of baseline HR after exercise, while indicating low cardiovascular risk, does not necessarily denote good aerobic fi tness. Evidence also suggests that resistance exercises evoke a lower cardiovascular response than endurance exercises. In conclusion, the utilization of HR for the purposes of diagnosis, prognosis or exercise prescription should be evidence based, in order to diminish the risk of interpretation errors, and also to increase applicability. RESUMO Nosso objetivo foi apresentar e discutir a resposta da freqüência cardíaca (FC de modo a favorecer sua interpretação clínica, epidemiológica e para a prescrição do exercício. Em repouso, a FC é um indicador da condição autonômica do indivíduo, e que apesar de ser infl uenciada pela potência aeróbia máxima, não deve ser utilizada para sua determinação. A FC pode aumentar bastante em apenas poucos segundos de exercício em decorrência do refl exo de inibição vagal. Este tipo de situação é comum em esportes cujos movimentos podem ser súbitos e de curta duração, como o judô e

  9. Uncertainty Representation and Interpretation in Model-Based Prognostics Algorithms Based on Kalman Filter Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Jose Ramon; Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses several aspects of uncertainty representation and management for model-based prognostics methodologies based on our experience with Kalman Filters when applied to prognostics for electronics components. In particular, it explores the implications of modeling remaining useful life prediction as a stochastic process, and how it relates to uncertainty representation, management and the role of prognostics in decision-making. A distinction between the interpretations of estimated remaining useful life probability density function is explained and a cautionary argument is provided against mixing interpretations for two while considering prognostics in making critical decisions.

  10. The impact of previous knee injury on force plate and field-based measures of balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltich, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jackie; Von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Nigg, Benno M; Emery, Carolyn

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic osteoarthritis demonstrate increased sway during quiet stance. The prospective association between balance and disease onset is unknown. Improved understanding of balance in the period between joint injury and disease onset could inform secondary prevention strategies to prevent or delay the disease. This study examines the association between youth sport-related knee injury and balance, 3-10years post-injury. Participants included 50 individuals (ages 15-26years) with a sport-related intra-articular knee injury sustained 3-10years previously and 50 uninjured age-, sex- and sport-matched controls. Force-plate measures during single-limb stance (center-of-pressure 95% ellipse-area, path length, excursion, entropic half-life) and field-based balance scores (triple single-leg hop, star-excursion, unipedal dynamic balance) were collected. Descriptive statistics (mean within-pair difference; 95% confidence intervals) were used to compare groups. Linear regression (adjusted for injury history) was used to assess the relationship between ellipse-area and field-based scores. Injured participants on average demonstrated greater medio-lateral excursion [mean within-pair difference (95% confidence interval); 2.8mm (1.0, 4.5)], more regular medio-lateral position [10ms (2, 18)], and shorter triple single-leg hop distances [-30.9% (-8.1, -53.7)] than controls, while no between group differences existed for the remaining outcomes. After taking into consideration injury history, triple single leg hop scores demonstrated a linear association with ellipse area (β=0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.01, 1.01). On average the injured participants adjusted their position less frequently and demonstrated a larger magnitude of movement during single-limb stance compared to controls. These findings support the evaluation of balance outcomes in the period between knee injury and post-traumatic osteoarthritis onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  11. Late preterm birth and previous cesarean section: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseen Iii, Abdool S; Bassil, Kate; Sprague, Ann; Urquia, Marcelo; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2018-02-21

    Late preterm birth (LPB) is increasingly common and associated with higher morbidity and mortality than term birth. Yet, little is known about the influence of previous cesarean section (PCS) and the occurrence of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. We aim to evaluate this association along with the potential mediation by cesarean sections in the current pregnancy. We use population-based birth registry data (2005-2012) to establish a cohort of live born singleton infants born between 34 and 41 gestational weeks to multiparous mothers. PCS was the primary exposure, LPB (34-36 weeks) was the primary outcome, and an unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was the potential mediator. Associations were quantified using propensity weighted multivariable Poisson regression, and mediating associations were explored using the Baron-Kenny approach. The cohort included 481,531 births, 21,893 (4.5%) were LPB, and 119,983 (24.9%) were predated by at least one PCS. Among mothers with at least one PCS, 6307 (5.26%) were LPB. There was increased risk of LPB among women with at least one PCS (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 1.20 (95%CI [1.16, 1.23]). Unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was identified as a strong mediator to this relationship (mediation ratio = 97%). PCS was associated with higher risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. This may be due to an increased risk of subsequent unplanned or emergency preterm cesarean sections. Efforts to minimize index cesarean sections may reduce the risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies.

  12. Efficacy of peg-interferon based treatment in patients with hepatitis C refractory to previous conventional interferon-based treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, S.; Devrajani, B.R.; Kalhoro, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of peg-interferon-based therapy in patients refractory to previous conventional interferon-based treatment and factors predicting sustained viral response (SVR). Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Unit IV, Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, from July 2009 to June 2011. Methodology: This study included consecutive patients of hepatitis C who were previously treated with conventional interferon-based treatment for 6 months but were either non-responders, relapsed or had virologic breakthrough and stage = 2 with fibrosis on liver biopsy. All eligible patients were provided peg-interferon at the dosage of 180 mu g weekly with ribavirin thrice a day for 6 months. Sustained Viral Response (SVR) was defined as absence of HCV RNA at twenty four week after treatment. All data was processed on SPSS version 16. Results: Out of 450 patients enrolled in the study, 192 were excluded from the study on the basis of minimal fibrosis (stage 0 and 1). Two hundred and fifty eight patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and 247 completed the course of peg-interferon treatment. One hundred and sixty one (62.4%) were males and 97 (37.6%) were females. The mean age was 39.9 +- 6.1 years, haemoglobin was 11.49 +- 2.45 g/dl, platelet count was 127.2 +- 50.6 10/sup 3/ /mm/sup 3/, ALT was 99 +- 65 IU/L. SVR was achieved in 84 (32.6%). The strong association was found between SVR and the pattern of response (p = 0. 001), degree of fibrosis and early viral response (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Peg-interferon based treatment is an effective and safe treatment option for patients refractory to conventional interferon-based treatment. (author)

  13. Sudden Cardiac Death in Young Adults With Previous Hospital-Based Psychiatric Inpatient and Outpatient Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Waagstein, Kristine; Winkel, Bo Gregers

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Psychiatric patients have premature mortality compared to the general population. The incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in psychiatric patients is unknown in a nationwide setting. The aim of this study was to compare nationwide SCD incidence rates in young individuals with and......Introduction: Psychiatric patients have premature mortality compared to the general population. The incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in psychiatric patients is unknown in a nationwide setting. The aim of this study was to compare nationwide SCD incidence rates in young individuals...... with and without previous psychiatric disease. Method: Nationwide, retrospective cohort study including all deaths in people aged 18–35 years in 2000–2006 in Denmark. The unique Danish death certificates and autopsy reports were used to identify SCD cases. Psychiatric disease was defined as a previous psychiatric...

  14. Analysis of Product Buying Decision on Lazada E-commerce based on Previous Buyers’ Comments

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Aldrin

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present research are: 1) to know that product buying decision possibly occurs, 2) to know how product buying decision occurs on Lazada e-commerce’s customers, 3) how previous buyers’ comments can increase product buying decision on Lazada e-commerce. This research utilizes qualitative research method. Qualitative research is a research that investigates other researches and makes assumption or discussion result so that other analysis results can be made in order to widen idea ...

  15. Integrated interpretation of helicopter and ground-based geophysical data recorded within the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podgorski, Joel E.; Green, Alan G.; Kalscheuer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ) data recorded across most of the delta, (ii) 2D models and images derived from ground-based electrical resistance tomographic, transient electromagnetic, and high resolution seismic reflection/refraction tomographic data acquired at four selected sites in western and north-central regions of the delta...... on the arcuate nature of its front and the semi-conical shape of its upper surface in the HTEM resistivity model. Moderate to high resistivity subhorizontal layers are consistent with this interpretation. The deepest unit is the basement with very high resistivity, high P-wave velocity, and low or complex......Integration of information from the following sources has been used to produce a much better constrained and more complete four-unit geological/hydrological model of the Okavango Delta than previously available: (i) a 3D resistivity model determined from helicopter time-domain electromagnetic (HTEM...

  16. The fractional volatility model: An agent-based interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela Mendes, R.

    2008-06-01

    Based on the criteria of mathematical simplicity and consistency with empirical market data, a model with volatility driven by fractional noise has been constructed which provides a fairly accurate mathematical parametrization of the data. Here, some features of the model are reviewed and extended to account for leverage effects. Using agent-based models, one tries to find which agent strategies and (or) properties of the financial institutions might be responsible for the features of the fractional volatility model.

  17. The validity of MMPI interpretations based on the Minimult and the FAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poythress, N G; Blaney, P H

    1978-04-01

    In this study 29 clinicians provided Q-sort descriptions for 36 patients' MMPI profiles prepared in the standard way or prepared according to Kincannon's (1968) Minimult or Faschingbauer's (1974) FAM. For each patient, correlations between Q sorts based on the standard profile and each short form profile were computed as a measure of interpretive similarity between the long form and short form. Correlations between Q sorts by independent raters both interpreting the long form profile served as the standard for comparison. Data analyses revealed that at least for the FAM, interpretive similarity between the short form and long form MMPI may be sufficient to warrant its clinical use for individual profile interpretation.

  18. Analysis of Product Buying Decision on Lazada E-commerce based on Previous Buyers’ Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Aldrin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present research are: 1 to know that product buying decision possibly occurs, 2 to know how product buying decision occurs on Lazada e-commerce’s customers, 3 how previous buyers’ comments can increase product buying decision on Lazada e-commerce. This research utilizes qualitative research method. Qualitative research is a research that investigates other researches and makes assumption or discussion result so that other analysis results can be made in order to widen idea and opinion. Research result shows that product which has many ratings and reviews will trigger other buyers to purchase or get that product. The conclusion is that product buying decision may occur because there are some processes before making decision which are: looking for recognition and searching for problems, knowing the needs, collecting information, evaluating alternative, evaluating after buying. In those stages, buying decision on Lazada e-commerce is supported by price, promotion, service, and brand.

  19. The acquisition and retention of ECG interpretation skills after a standardized web-based ECG tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolskov Bojsen, Signe; Räder, Sune Bernd Emil Werner; Holst, Anders Gaardsdal

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation is of great importance for patient management. However, medical students frequently lack proficiency in ECG interpretation and rate their ECG training as inadequate. Our aim was to examine the effect of a standalone web-based ECG tutorial...

  20. Narrative Based Medicine and Neonatology: an interpretative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Zonza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM has progressively lead doctors to focus their practice on the disease and not on the patient anymore. They consider a sick body or a sick part rather than a sick person. Such an attitude results in a progressive process of alienation or “unauthentic experience”. On the contrary the Medical Humanities represents a strong reaction to this state of things, and for Medicine a chance to embrace again its humanistic “vocation”. Narrative Based Medicine (NBM places at the center of the clinical practice the communicative and relational dimension. This study deepen the application of NBM to the scope of neonatal care. As a result of our work, we have identified in the NBM applied to the neonatal area a fundamental characteristic, the Neonatal Triangle (doctors, patient, parents, and a triple functionality (diagnostic, ethical and educational placed in three different ideal chronological moments (before, during and after. We explore the close connection between these functions and the clinical work and how the NBM model, through these same functions, enhance the opportunity of care and relationship. The main assumption is obviously the Doctors ability to build a shared narrative relation with the Parents of the little Patients, that in the technical terms of the Narrative Based Medicine is called co-construction of the illness history. We can remark that with the NBM we understand (the narrative frame, build (the therapeutic alliance and share (decisions.

  1. Performance-based interpretation bias in clinically anxious youths: relationships with attention, anxiety, and negative cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenman, Michelle; Amir, Nader; Weersing, V Robin

    2014-09-01

    This preliminary investigation sought to examine basic interpretive biases, as assessed via performance-based means, in the context of anxious symptomatology, attention, and negative cognition in children and adolescents. At a single assessment, 26 youths diagnosed with primary separation anxiety, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder completed performance-based assessments of interpretation and attention. Youths and parents also completed diagnostic interviews and youths completed a measure of negative self-statements. Components of interpretation (threat-valence judgments and speed of responding) were examined, and interpretation was explored as a correlate of youth anxiety, attention bias, and negative self-statements. Results found percentage of negative interpretations endorsed as the strongest predictor of anxiety symptoms; this index was also correlated with attention bias. Slower rejection of benign interpretations was also associated with youth-reported negative self-statements.This initial investigation provides support for a relationship between interpretation bias and anxiety and preliminary evidence for a relationship between attention and interpretation biases. Continued research dismantling the stages of basic cognition within the chain of information processing may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying anxiety disorders in youths and lead to continued development and refinement of cognitive interventions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. ROAD INTERPRETATION FOR DRIVER ASSISTANCE BASED ON AN EARLY COGNITIVE VISION SYSTEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baseski, Emre; Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we address the problem of road interpretation for driver assistance based on an early cognitive vision system. The structure of a road and the relevant traffic are interpreted in terms of ego-motion estimation of the car, independently moving objects on the road, lane markers and large...... scale maps of the road. We make use of temporal and spatial disambiguation mechanisms to increase the reliability of visually extracted 2D and 3D information. This information is then used to interpret the layout of the road by using lane markers that are detected via Bayesian reasoning. We also...

  3. Abstract Interpretation-based verification/certification in the ciaoPP system

    OpenAIRE

    Puebla Sánchez, Alvaro Germán; Albert Albiol, Elvira; Hermenegildo, Manuel V.

    2005-01-01

    CiaoPP is the abstract interpretation-based preprocessor of the Ciao multi-paradigm (Constraint) Logic Programming system. It uses modular, incremental abstract interpretation as a fundamental tool to obtain information about programs. In CiaoPP, the semantic approximations thus produced have been applied to perform high- and low-level optimizations during program compilation, including transformations such as múltiple abstract specialization, parallelization, partial evaluation, resource...

  4. Model-Based Interpretation and Experimental Verification of ECT Signals of Steam Generator Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Eui Lae; Yim, Chang Jae; Lee, Jin Ho

    2004-01-01

    Model-based inversion tools for eddy current signals have been developed by combining neural networks and finite element modeling, for quantitative flaw characterization in steam generator tubes. In the present work, interpretation of experimental eddy current signals was carried out in order to validate the developed inversion tools. A database was constructed using the synthetic flaw signals generated by the finite element model. The hybrid neural networks composed of a PNN classifier and BPNN size estimators were trained using the synthetic signals. Experimental eddy current signals were obtained from axisymmetric artificial flaws. Interpretation of flaw signals was conducted by feeding the experimental signals into the neural networks. The interpretation was excellent, which shows that the developed inversion tools would be applicable to the Interpretation of real eddy current signals

  5. The African interpretations of a set of values in a value-based HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on a qualitative exploration of six core values embedded in the Choose Life Training Programme (CLTP), a value-based HIV and AIDS prevention programme. The article is based on a study that explored the possibility that the African interpretations of these values are different to the Western definitions.

  6. Integrated interpretation of helicopter and ground-based geophysical data recorded within the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, Joel E.; Green, Alan G.; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang K. H.; Horstmeyer, Heinrich; Maurer, Hansruedi; Rabenstein, Lasse; Doetsch, Joseph; Auken, Esben; Ngwisanyi, Tiyapo; Tshoso, Gomotsang; Jaba, Bashali Charles; Ntibinyane, Onkgopotse; Laletsang, Kebabonye

    2015-03-01

    Integration of information from the following sources has been used to produce a much better constrained and more complete four-unit geological/hydrological model of the Okavango Delta than previously available: (i) a 3D resistivity model determined from helicopter time-domain electromagnetic (HTEM) data recorded across most of the delta, (ii) 2D models and images derived from ground-based electrical resistance tomographic, transient electromagnetic, and high resolution seismic reflection/refraction tomographic data acquired at four selected sites in western and north-central regions of the delta, and (iii) geological details extracted from boreholes in northeastern and southeastern parts of the delta. The upper heterogeneous unit is the modern delta, which comprises extensive dry and freshwater-saturated sand and lesser amounts of clay and salt. It is characterized by moderate to high electrical resistivities and very low to low P-wave velocities. Except for images of several buried abandoned river channels, it is non-reflective. The laterally extensive underlying unit of low resistivities, low P-wave velocity, and subhorizontal reflectors very likely contains saline-water-saturated sands and clays deposited in the huge Paleo Lake Makgadikgadi (PLM), which once covered a 90,000 km2 area that encompassed the delta, Lake Ngami, the Mababe Depression, and the Makgadikgadi Basin. Examples of PLM sediments are intersected in many boreholes. Low permeability clay within the PLM unit seems to be a barrier to the downward flow of the saline water. Below the PLM unit, freshwater-saturated sand of the Paleo Okavango Megafan (POM) unit is distinguished by moderate to high resistivities, low P-wave velocity, and numerous subhorizontal reflectors. The POM unit is interpreted to be the remnants of a megafan based on the arcuate nature of its front and the semi-conical shape of its upper surface in the HTEM resistivity model. Moderate to high resistivity subhorizontal layers are

  7. Interpreting the International Right to Health in a Human Rights-Based Approach to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-12-01

    This article tracks the shifting place of the international right to health, and human rights-based approaches to health, in the scholarly literature and United Nations (UN). From 1993 to 1994, the focus began to move from the right to health toward human rights-based approaches to health, including human rights guidance adopted by UN agencies in relation to specific health issues. There is a compelling case for a human rights-based approach to health, but it runs the risk of playing down the right to health, as evidenced by an examination of some UN human rights guidance. The right to health has important and distinctive qualities that are not provided by other rights-consequently, playing down the right to health can diminish rights-based approaches to health, as well as the right to health itself. Because general comments, the reports of UN Special Rapporteurs, and UN agencies' guidance are exercises in interpretation, I discuss methods of legal interpretation. I suggest that the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights permits distinctive interpretative methods within the boundaries established by the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. I call for the right to health to be placed explicitly at the center of a rights-based approach and interpreted in accordance with public international law and international human rights law.

  8. Meaning and interpretation of Igbo body-parts based idioms | Okoye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities. Journal Home ... The cognitive linguistics view however, has it that the meanings of idioms can be interpreted by some cognitive operations. ... Data for the study were extracted from Igbo textbooks and analysed based on the cognitive linguistics framework.

  9. Interpretable gene expression classifier with an accurate and compact fuzzy rule base for microarray data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shinn-Ying; Hsieh, Chih-Hung; Chen, Hung-Ming; Huang, Hui-Ling

    2006-09-01

    An accurate classifier with linguistic interpretability using a small number of relevant genes is beneficial to microarray data analysis and development of inexpensive diagnostic tests. Several frequently used techniques for designing classifiers of microarray data, such as support vector machine, neural networks, k-nearest neighbor, and logistic regression model, suffer from low interpretabilities. This paper proposes an interpretable gene expression classifier (named iGEC) with an accurate and compact fuzzy rule base for microarray data analysis. The design of iGEC has three objectives to be simultaneously optimized: maximal classification accuracy, minimal number of rules, and minimal number of used genes. An "intelligent" genetic algorithm IGA is used to efficiently solve the design problem with a large number of tuning parameters. The performance of iGEC is evaluated using eight commonly-used data sets. It is shown that iGEC has an accurate, concise, and interpretable rule base (1.1 rules per class) on average in terms of test classification accuracy (87.9%), rule number (3.9), and used gene number (5.0). Moreover, iGEC not only has better performance than the existing fuzzy rule-based classifier in terms of the above-mentioned objectives, but also is more accurate than some existing non-rule-based classifiers.

  10. Road Interpretation for Driver Assistance Based on an Early Cognitive Vision System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baseski, Emre; Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    scale maps of the road. We make use of temporal and spatial disambiguation mechanisms to increase the reliability of visually extracted 2D and 3D information. This information is then used to interpret the layout of the road by using lane markers that are detected via Bayesian reasoning. We also......In this work, we address the problem of road interpretation for driver assistance based on an early cognitive vision system. The structure of a road and the relevant traffic are interpreted in terms of ego-motion estimation of the car, independently moving objects on the road, lane markers and large...... estimate the ego-motion of the car which is used to create large scale maps of the road and also to detect independently moving objects. Sample results for the presented algorithms are shown on a stereo image sequence, that has been collected from a structured road....

  11. Blending Simulation-Based Learning and Interpretative Pedagogy for Undergraduate Leadership Competency Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Charmaine; MacDonald, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    Effective leadership is an essential component guiding nursing activity and influencing health systems, health workers, and patient outcomes. Despite this evidence, undergraduate nursing programs may not be adequately preparing graduates to effectively engage in leadership practice. This article describes an educational innovation designed to support prelicensure leadership competency development. The authors blended simulation-based learning (SBL) with an interpretative pedagogical frame in a senior nursing leadership course at a primarily undergraduate university. The innovation involves a break from traditional nursing educational pedagogy by bringing SBL into the leadership classroom. Using interpretative pedagogy to purposefully create different relationships in the learning space supported deeper personal and professional transformation for the students. Nurse educators must purposefully design leadership curricula using active educational strategies that adequately prepare nurses for complex health systems. Integrating SBL within an interpretative pedagogy for leadership development moves students from merely knowing theory to informed and effective action. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(1):49-54.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Variation in the Interpretation of Scientific Integrity in Community-based Participatory Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become essential in health disparities and environmental justice research; however, the scientific integrity of CBPR projects has become a concern. Some concerns, such as appropriate research training, lack of access to resources and finances, have been discussed as possibly limiting the scientific integrity of a project. Prior to understanding what threatens scientific integrity in CBPR, it is vital to understand what scientific integrity means for the professional and community investigators who are involved in CBPR. This analysis explores the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR among 74 professional and community research team members from of 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. It describes the basic definition for scientific integrity and then explores variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR. Variations in the interpretations were associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Professional investigators understood scientific integrity in CBPR as either conceptually or logistically flexible, as challenging to balance with community needs, or no different than traditional scientific integrity. Community investigators interpret other factors as important in scientific integrity, such as trust, accountability, and overall benefit to the community. This research demonstrates that the variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR call for a new definition of scientific integrity in CBPR that takes into account the understanding and needs of all investigators. PMID:24161098

  13. Interpretation of ANN-based QSAR models for prediction of antioxidant activity of flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žuvela, Petar; David, Jonathan; Wong, Ming Wah

    2018-02-05

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) built using machine learning methods, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) are powerful in prediction of (antioxidant) activity from quantum mechanical (QM) parameters describing the molecular structure, but are usually not interpretable. This obvious difficulty is one of the most common obstacles in application of ANN-based QSAR models for design of potent antioxidants or elucidating the underlying mechanism. Interpreting the resulting models is often omitted or performed erroneously altogether. In this work, a comprehensive comparative study of six methods (PaD, PaD 2 , weights, stepwise, perturbation and profile) for exploration and interpretation of ANN models built for prediction of Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) QM descriptors, is presented. Sum of ranking differences (SRD) was used for ranking of the six methods with respect to the contributions of the calculated QM molecular descriptors toward TEAC. The results show that the PaD, PaD 2 and profile methods are the most stable and give rise to realistic interpretation of the observed correlations. Therefore, they are safely applicable for future interpretations without the opinion of an experienced chemist or bio-analyst. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Interpreting Fuzzy Linguistic Information by Acquiring Robot's Experience Based on Internal Rehearsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, A. G. Buddhika P.; Watanabe, Keigo; Kiguchi, Kazuo; Izumi, Kiyotaka

    This paper proposes a method for interpreting fuzzy linguistic information by acquiring robot's experience on previous movements. The quantitative assessment for a fuzzy linguistic term such as “little” depends on the spatial arrangement of surrounding environment. Robot's experience on previous movements is very useful for understanding such information in a context dependant manner. Therefore, an internal rehearsal system is introduced to acquire the robot's experience on previous movements. Such acquisition enhances the robot's capability to interpret fuzzy linguistic information in fuzzy voice commands (FVCs) according to the current environmental context. The proposed system is used to evaluate the fuzzy linguistic information related to primitive movements of a robot manipulator. Those primitive movements are realized by a behavior evaluation network (BEN) with the guidance of an internal rehearsal system. The end-effector movements and the single joint movements of a robot manipulator are considered as primitive movements. They are activated by fuzzy voice motion commands (FVMCs) and fuzzy voice joint commands (FVJCs) respectively. The proposed idea is demonstrated with a PA-10 robot manipulator by navigating the robot manipulator in the user's working space. The use of the behavior evaluation network and the internal rehearsal system introduced a better way of assessing fuzzy linguistic information by acquiring the robot's experience on the corresponding environment.

  15. Significantly Increased Odds of Reporting Previous Shoulder Injuries in Female Marines Based on Larger Magnitude Shoulder Rotator Bilateral Strength Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Shawn R; Connaboy, Chris; Nindl, Bradley C; Allison, Katelyn F

    2018-02-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries to the extremities are a primary concern for the United States (US) military. One possible injury risk factor in this population is side-to-side strength imbalance. To examine the odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury in US Marine Corps Ground Combat Element Integrated Task Force volunteers based on side-to-side strength differences in isokinetic shoulder strength. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Male (n = 219) and female (n = 91) Marines were included in this analysis. Peak torque values from 5 shoulder internal/external rotation repetitions were averaged and normalized to body weight. The difference in side-to-side strength measurements was calculated as the absolute value of the limb difference divided by the mean peak torque of the dominant limb. Participants were placed into groups based on the magnitude of these differences: 20%. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated. When separated by sex, 13.2% of men reported an injury, while 5.5% of women reported an injury. Female Marines with >20% internal rotation side-to-side strength differences demonstrated increased odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with female Marines with reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with those with lesser magnitude differences. Additionally, female sex appears to drastically affect the increased odds of reporting shoulder injuries (OR, 13.9-15.4) with larger magnitude differences (ie, >20%) compared with those with lesser magnitude differences (ie, <10% and 10%-20%). The retrospective cohort design of this study cannot delineate cause and effect but establishes a relationship between female Marines and greater odds of larger magnitude strength differences after returning from an injury.

  16. Knowledge-Based Functional-Symbol Understanding In Electronic Circuit Diagram Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. L.; Tou, J. T.

    1986-03-01

    The AUTORED system is a computer-based system for automatic reading of electronic circuit diagrams, which was developed several years ago. This paper presents some of our new results in AUTORED research. The design of AUTORED consists of two major components: automatic interpretation of electronic diagrams, and organization of interpretation results into a knowledge base for CAD applications. An electronic circuit diagram may be segmented into three parts which are the graphical functional symbols, the connection line segments, and the denotations. New techniques for extracting symbols and denotations from the circuit diagram are presented in this paper. These techniques are designed for junction and corner extraction, line segment tracing and linking, line segment classification, connection-line segment removal and blocking, symbol locating and denotation character grouping. A knowledge base is developed to facilitate the tracing, template-matching, and categorization processes.

  17. Ensemble Classifiers for Predicting HIV-1 Resistance from Three Rule-Based Genotypic Resistance Interpretation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Letícia M; Nobre, Flavio F

    2017-08-30

    Resistance to antiretrovirals (ARVs) is a major problem faced by HIV-infected individuals. Different rule-based algorithms were developed to infer HIV-1 susceptibility to antiretrovirals from genotypic data. However, there is discordance between them, resulting in difficulties for clinical decisions about which treatment to use. Here, we developed ensemble classifiers integrating three interpretation algorithms: Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA (ANRS), Rega, and the genotypic resistance interpretation system from Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVdb). Three approaches were applied to develop a classifier with a single resistance profile: stacked generalization, a simple plurality vote scheme and the selection of the interpretation system with the best performance. The strategies were compared with the Friedman's test and the performance of the classifiers was evaluated using the F-measure, sensitivity and specificity values. We found that the three strategies had similar performances for the selected antiretrovirals. For some cases, the stacking technique with naïve Bayes as the learning algorithm showed a statistically superior F-measure. This study demonstrates that ensemble classifiers can be an alternative tool for clinical decision-making since they provide a single resistance profile from the most commonly used resistance interpretation systems.

  18. Life cycle assessment of nuclear-based hydrogen production using thermochemical water decomposition: extension of previous work and future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, L.I.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    An extension of a previous Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of nuclear-based hydrogen production using thermochemical water decomposition is reported. The copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle is considered, and the environmental impacts of the nuclear and thermochemical plants are assessed, while future needs are identified. Environmental impacts are investigated using CML 2001 impact categories. The nuclear fuel cycle and construction of the hydrogen plant contribute significantly to total environmental impacts. The environmental impacts for the operation of the thermochemical hydrogen production plant contribute much less. Changes in the inventory of chemicals needed in the thermochemical plant do not affect significantly the total impacts. Improvement analysis suggests the development of more sustainable processes, particularly in the nuclear plant. Other important and necessary future extensions of the research reported are also provided. (author)

  19. Interpretation of the Haestholmen in situ state of stress based on core damage observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.

    2000-01-01

    At the Haestholmen investigation site, direct in situ stress measurements, overcoring and hydraulic fracturing have been unsuccessful because of ring disking and horizontal hydraulic fracturing. Prior to this study, a detailed study on both core disking and ring disking was made, and based on those results an in situ state of stress interpretation method was developed. In this work this method is applied to the Haestholmen site. The interpretation is based on disk fracture type, spacing and shape. Also, the Hoek-Brown strength envelope and Poisson's ratio of intact rock are needed. The interpretation result is most reliable if both core disking and ring disking information at the same depth levels is available. A detailed core logging showed that ring disking is systematic below the -365 m level in the vertical overcoring stress measurement hole, HH-KR6. On the other hand, no representative core disking exists except for two points in two differently oriented subvertical boreholes HH-KR2 and HHKR7. Because the interpretation has to be based on ring disking only, upper and lower estimates for the vertical stress were set. These were gravitational and 67% of gravitational. Furthermore, the in situ stress state was assumed to be in horizontal and vertical planes, because the disking in vertical borehole HH-KR6 was not inclined. The interpretation resulted in a good estimate for the major horizontal stress but none of the horizontal stress rations ( 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 ) or vertical stress assumptions studied are clearly more probable the others. At the 500 m level the resulting maximum horizontal stress is 41 MPa. If a linear fit through the zero depth and zero stress point is applied, the maximum horizontal stress gradient is 0.0818 z MPa/m with a standard deviation between 5 and 12 per cent. The orientation of the major horizontal stress is 108 with standard deviation of 21 degrees. The interpreted major horizontal stress state also indicated that systematic

  20. Refining diagnosis of Parkinson's disease with deep learning-based interpretation of dopamine transporter imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyoon Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopaminergic degeneration is a pathologic hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD, which can be assessed by dopamine transporter imaging such as FP-CIT SPECT. Until now, imaging has been routinely interpreted by human though it can show interobserver variability and result in inconsistent diagnosis. In this study, we developed a deep learning-based FP-CIT SPECT interpretation system to refine the imaging diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. This system trained by SPECT images of PD patients and normal controls shows high classification accuracy comparable with the experts' evaluation referring quantification results. Its high accuracy was validated in an independent cohort composed of patients with PD and nonparkinsonian tremor. In addition, we showed that some patients clinically diagnosed as PD who have scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDD, an atypical subgroup of PD, could be reclassified by our automated system. Our results suggested that the deep learning-based model could accurately interpret FP-CIT SPECT and overcome variability of human evaluation. It could help imaging diagnosis of patients with uncertain Parkinsonism and provide objective patient group classification, particularly for SWEDD, in further clinical studies.

  1. Evaluation of questionnaire-based information on previous physical work loads. Stockholm MUSIC 1 Study Group. Musculoskeletal Intervention Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgén, M; Winkel, J; Alfredsson, L; Kilbom, A

    1999-06-01

    The principal aim of the present study was to evaluate questionnaire-based information on past physical work loads (6-year recall). Effects of memory difficulties on reproducibility were evaluated for 82 subjects by comparing previously reported results on current work loads (test-retest procedure) with the same items recalled 6 years later. Validity was assessed by comparing self-reports in 1995, regarding work loads in 1989, with worksite measurements performed in 1989. Six-year reproducibility, calculated as weighted kappa coefficients (k(w)), varied between 0.36 and 0.86, with the highest values for proportion of the workday spent sitting and for perceived general exertion and the lowest values for trunk and neck flexion. The six-year reproducibility results were similar to previously reported test-retest results for these items; this finding indicates that memory difficulties was a minor problem. The validity of the questionnaire responses, expressed as rank correlations (r(s)) between the questionnaire responses and workplace measurements, varied between -0.16 and 0.78. The highest values were obtained for the items sitting and repetitive work, and the lowest and "unacceptable" values were for head rotation and neck flexion. Misclassification of exposure did not appear to be differential with regard to musculoskeletal symptom status, as judged by the calculated risk estimates. The validity of some of these self-administered questionnaire items appears sufficient for a crude assessment of physical work loads in the past in epidemiologic studies of the general population with predominantly low levels of exposure.

  2. The geotectonic evolution of southern part of Sao Francisco Craton, based in geochronologic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, W.

    1985-01-01

    Interpretation of available radiometric data from poly metamorphic terranes of southern part of the Sao Francisco Craton demonstrates the importance of geochronology as a tool in the study of ancient crustal evolution. In addition, radiometric study of basic intrusive magmatism helps define the most important epochs of crustal rifting during the Proterozoic. The definition of the southern border of the cratonic area based on distinctive age patterns of the geochronological provinces is also discussed. Finally, the geochronologic evolution of the Bambui platform cover is presented. Approximately 250 radiometric age determinations (Rb-Sr, K-Ar and Pb-Pb methods) were interpreted principally through the use of iso chronic diagrams. The geologic history tectonomagnetic events identified in this study is compared to the crustal evolution of similar segments of the Sao Francisco Craton and elsewhere. (author)

  3. NMR-based phytochemical analysis of Vitis vinifera cv Falanghina leaves. Characterization of a previously undescribed biflavonoid with antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglione, Luciana; Gambuti, Angelita; De Cicco, Paola; Ercolano, Giuseppe; Ianaro, Angela; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Moio, Luigi; Forino, Martino

    2018-03-01

    Vitis vinifera cv Falanghina is an ancient grape variety of Southern Italy. A thorough phytochemical analysis of the Falanghina leaves was conducted to investigate its specialised metabolite content. Along with already known molecules, such as caftaric acid, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide, kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucuronide, a previously undescribed biflavonoid was identified. For this last compound, a moderate bioactivity against metastatic melanoma cells proliferation was discovered. This datum can be of some interest to researchers studying human melanoma. The high content in antioxidant glycosylated flavonoids supports the exploitation of grape vine leaves as an inexpensive source of natural products for the food industry and for both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical companies. Additionally, this study offers important insights into the plant physiology, thus prompting possible technological researches of genetic selection based on the vine adaptation to specific pedo-climatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Discordance in Spirometric Interpretations Based on Korean and Non-Korean Reference Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Korean regression models for spirometric reference values are different from those of other ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was to evaluate discordance in spirometric interpretations based on using Korean reference equations versus non-Korean reference equations. Methods Spirometry was performed on 825 Korean male workers from April 2009 to November 2011. The spirometric patterns and disease severity were evaluated using two Korean equations (Choi's and Lee's) and three equations for Caucasians (NHANES III, Morris's, and Knudson's), and the results of Choi's equation were compared with the non-Korean equations. The spirometric patterns were defined as normal, restrictive, and mild and moderate obstructive. Results The mean differences in the FEV1% and FVC% between the two Korean equations were 2.0 ± 1.3% and 3.5 ± 2.2%, respectively. Morris's equation had the greatest difference in the FEV1% from Choi's equation: 32.9 ± 8.5%. Knudson's equation had the greatest difference in the FVC% from Choi's equation: 10.5 ± 6.5%. Conclusions The two Korean equations shared similar characteristics of spirometric interpretation. The spirometric interpretations of Choi's equation were significantly different from those of Morris's equation and Knudson's equation. PMID:24472140

  5. Kernel-Based Relevance Analysis with Enhanced Interpretability for Detection of Brain Activity Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres M. Alvarez-Meza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Enhanced Kernel-based Relevance Analysis (EKRA that aims to support the automatic identification of brain activity patterns using electroencephalographic recordings. EKRA is a data-driven strategy that incorporates two kernel functions to take advantage of the available joint information, associating neural responses to a given stimulus condition. Regarding this, a Centered Kernel Alignment functional is adjusted to learning the linear projection that best discriminates the input feature set, optimizing the required free parameters automatically. Our approach is carried out in two scenarios: (i feature selection by computing a relevance vector from extracted neural features to facilitating the physiological interpretation of a given brain activity task, and (ii enhanced feature selection to perform an additional transformation of relevant features aiming to improve the overall identification accuracy. Accordingly, we provide an alternative feature relevance analysis strategy that allows improving the system performance while favoring the data interpretability. For the validation purpose, EKRA is tested in two well-known tasks of brain activity: motor imagery discrimination and epileptic seizure detection. The obtained results show that the EKRA approach estimates a relevant representation space extracted from the provided supervised information, emphasizing the salient input features. As a result, our proposal outperforms the state-of-the-art methods regarding brain activity discrimination accuracy with the benefit of enhanced physiological interpretation about the task at hand.

  6. Use of declarative statements in creating and maintaining computer-interpretable knowledge bases for guideline-based care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Samson W; Hrabak, Karen M; Campbell, James R; Glasgow, Julie; Nyman, Mark A; McClure, Robert; McClay, James; Abarbanel, Robert; Mansfield, James G; Martins, Susana M; Goldstein, Mary K; Musen, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    Developing computer-interpretable clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to provide decision support for guideline-based care is an extremely labor-intensive task. In the EON/ATHENA and SAGE projects, we formulated substantial portions of CPGs as computable statements that express declarative relationships between patient conditions and possible interventions. We developed query and expression languages that allow a decision-support system (DSS) to evaluate these statements in specific patient situations. A DSS can use these guideline statements in multiple ways, including: (1) as inputs for determining preferred alternatives in decision-making, and (2) as a way to provide targeted commentaries in the clinical information system. The use of these declarative statements significantly reduces the modeling expertise and effort required to create and maintain computer-interpretable knowledge bases for decision-support purpose. We discuss possible implications for sharing of such knowledge bases.

  7. Interpretation of Oil Seepage of Source Rock Based Magnetic Survey in Cipari Cilacap District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmaji Anom Raharjo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic survey had been conducted in Village of Cipari, District of Cipari, Region of  Cilacap to interpret to the location of the oil seepage source rock. Boundary of the research area is 108.75675°E – 108.77611°E and 7.42319°S – 7.43761°S. The observed total magnetic data is corrected and reducted to obtain the local magnetic anomaly data. The local magnetic anomaly data is applied to model the subsurface bodies anomalies based on the Mag2DC for Windows software. With be supported the geological information, the some bodies anomalies are interpreted as the basaltic igneous rock (c = 0.0051, the alternately of sandstone and claystone and insert of marl from Halang Formation (c = 0.0014, the breccia from Kumbang Formation (c = 0.0035, the alternately of sandstones and claystone with insert of marl and breccia from Halang Formation (c = 0.0036, the claystone from Tapak Formation (c = 0.0015, the alternately of sandstones and claystone with insert of marl and compacted breccia from Halang Formation (c = 0.0030, and the alternately of sandstone and claystone from   Halang Formation (c = 0.0020. The plantonic foraminifer fossils as resources of oil seepage are estimated in the sedimentaries rocks, where the oil flows from those rocks into the         reservoir (source rock. Based on the interpretation results, the source rock is above basaltic igneous rock with the approximate position is 108.76164°W and 7.43089°S; and the depth is 132.09 meters below the average topographic.

  8. An approach based on Hierarchical Bayesian Graphical Models for measurement interpretation under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skataric, Maja; Bose, Sandip; Zeroug, Smaine; Tilke, Peter

    2017-02-01

    It is not uncommon in the field of non-destructive evaluation that multiple measurements encompassing a variety of modalities are available for analysis and interpretation for determining the underlying states of nature of the materials or parts being tested. Despite and sometimes due to the richness of data, significant challenges arise in the interpretation manifested as ambiguities and inconsistencies due to various uncertain factors in the physical properties (inputs), environment, measurement device properties, human errors, and the measurement data (outputs). Most of these uncertainties cannot be described by any rigorous mathematical means, and modeling of all possibilities is usually infeasible for many real time applications. In this work, we will discuss an approach based on Hierarchical Bayesian Graphical Models (HBGM) for the improved interpretation of complex (multi-dimensional) problems with parametric uncertainties that lack usable physical models. In this setting, the input space of the physical properties is specified through prior distributions based on domain knowledge and expertise, which are represented as Gaussian mixtures to model the various possible scenarios of interest for non-destructive testing applications. Forward models are then used offline to generate the expected distribution of the proposed measurements which are used to train a hierarchical Bayesian network. In Bayesian analysis, all model parameters are treated as random variables, and inference of the parameters is made on the basis of posterior distribution given the observed data. Learned parameters of the posterior distribution obtained after the training can therefore be used to build an efficient classifier for differentiating new observed data in real time on the basis of pre-trained models. We will illustrate the implementation of the HBGM approach to ultrasonic measurements used for cement evaluation of cased wells in the oil industry.

  9. An Alienation-Based Framework for Student Experience in Higher Education: New Interpretations of Past Observations in Student Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhardt, Bradford; Ginns, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article orients a recently proposed alienation-based framework for student learning theory (SLT) to the empirical basis of the approaches to learning perspective. The proposed framework makes new macro-level interpretations of an established micro-level theory, across three levels of interpretation: (1) a context-free psychological state…

  10. Using interpreted large scale aerial photo data to enhance satellite-based mapping and explore forest land definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey S. Frescino; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2009-01-01

    The Interior-West, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA), Nevada Photo-Based Inventory Pilot (NPIP), launched in 2004, involved acquisition, processing, and interpretation of large scale aerial photographs on a subset of FIA plots (both forest and nonforest) throughout the state of Nevada. Two objectives of the pilot were to use the interpreted photo data to enhance...

  11. Uncertainty Representation and Interpretation in Model-based Prognostics Algorithms based on Kalman Filter Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This article discusses several aspects of uncertainty represen- tation and management for model-based prognostics method- ologies based on our experience with Kalman...

  12. Formal Analysis of SET and NSL Protocols Using the Interpretation Functions-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Houmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most applications in the Internet such as e-banking and e-commerce use the SET and the NSL protocols to protect the communication channel between the client and the server. Then, it is crucial to ensure that these protocols respect some security properties such as confidentiality, authentication, and integrity. In this paper, we analyze the SET and the NSL protocols with respect to the confidentiality (secrecy property. To perform this analysis, we use the interpretation functions-based method. The main idea behind the interpretation functions-based technique is to give sufficient conditions that allow to guarantee that a cryptographic protocol respects the secrecy property. The flexibility of the proposed conditions allows the verification of daily-life protocols such as SET and NSL. Also, this method could be used under different assumptions such as a variety of intruder abilities including algebraic properties of cryptographic primitives. The NSL protocol, for instance, is analyzed with and without the homomorphism property. We show also, using the SET protocol, the usefulness of this approach to correct weaknesses and problems discovered during the analysis.

  13. An approach for deriving growth equations for quantities exhibiting cumulative growth based on stochastic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Existing growth equations have been derived by hypothesizing the growth rate as self-referencing. Although that hypothesis is appropriate for quantities with growth directly restricted to themselves, it requires the solution of differential equations that are difficult to be derived. However, for quantities of growth that are indirectly related to themselves, and for quantities that exhibit cumulative growth, such as growth of diameter or volume of trees with lignification, ordinary growth models with assumptions that include self-referencing or implied catabolism terms might not be appropriate. For such quantities, the author proposes an approach for derivation of growth models based on stochastic and microscopic interpretation. Results show that ordinary growth models can be interpreted from the perspective. The approach enables one to derive growth functions without solving differential equations. Based on that approach, growth functions are derived by integrating cumulative distribution functions. Three growth functions are generated using reasonable probability distributions. The fitness of the generated growth functions for real diameter growth data was compared with that of generalized ordinary growth models. Results show that the presented approach has high ability to generate growth models that fit data much better than ordinary growth models for a given number of parameters.

  14. An Outcrop-based Detailed Geological Model to Test Automated Interpretation of Seismic Inversion Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, R.; Sharma, S.; Luthi, S.M.; Gisolf, A.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, Tetyukhina et al. (2014) developed a geological and petrophysical model based on the Book Cliffs outcrops that contained eight lithotypes. For reservoir modelling purposes, this model is judged to be too coarse because in the same lithotype it contains reservoir and non-reservoir

  15. How to Read Interpretive Accounts of Organizational Life: Narrative Bases of Textual Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strine, Mary S.; Pacanowsky, Michael F.

    1985-01-01

    Proposes a schema for categorizing interpretive research in organizational communication by analyzing four interpretive texts on organizational life: Terkel's "Working," Kanter's "Men and Women of the Corporation," Kidder's "The Soul of a New Machine," and Heller's "Something Happened." (PD)

  16. New population-based exome data question the pathogenicity of some genetic variants previously associated with Marfan syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ren-Qiang; Jabbari, Javad; Cheng, Xiao-Shu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1:5,000. More than 1000 variants have been previously reported to be associated with MFS. However, the disease-causing effect of these variants may be questionable...

  17. Estimating the effect of current, previous and never use of drugs in studies based on prescription registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do not ca...

  18. The conceptual foundations of network-based diffusion analysis: choosing networks and interpreting results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppitt, Will

    2017-12-05

    Network-based diffusion analysis (NBDA) is a statistical technique for detecting the social transmission of behavioural innovations in groups of animals, including humans. The strength of social transmission is inferred from the extent to which the diffusion (spread) of the innovation follows a social network. NBDA can have two goals: (a) to establish whether social transmission is occurring and how strong its effects are; and/or (b) to establish the typical pathways of information transfer. The technique has been used in a range of taxa, including primates, cetaceans, birds and fish, using a range of different types of network. Here I investigate the conceptual underpinnings of NBDA, in order to establish the meaning of results using different networks. I develop a model of the social transmission process where each individual observation of the target behaviour affects the rate at which the observer learns that behaviour. I then establish how NBDAs using different networks relate to this underlying process, and thus how we can interpret the results of each. My analysis shows that a different network or networks are appropriate depending on the specific goal or goals of the study, and establishes how the parameter estimates yielded from an NBDA can be interpreted for different networks.This article is part of the themed issue 'Process and pattern in innovations from cells to societies'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. New population-based exome data are questioning the pathogenicity of previously cardiomyopathy-associated genetic variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Charlotte Hartig; Nielsen, Jonas B; Refsgaard, Lena

    2013-01-01

    variants in the NHLBI-Go Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) containing exome data from 6500 individuals. In ESP, we identified 94 variants out of 687 (14%) variants previously associated with HCM, 58 out of 337 (17%) variants associated with DCM, and 38 variants out of 209 (18%) associated with ARVC...... with these cardiomyopathies, but the disease-causing effect of reported variants is often dubious. In order to identify possible false-positive variants, we investigated the prevalence of previously reported cardiomyopathy-associated variants in recently published exome data. We searched for reported missense and nonsense...... times higher than expected from the phenotype prevalences in the general population (HCM 1:500, DCM 1:2500, and ARVC 1:5000) and our data suggest that a high number of these variants are not monogenic causes of cardiomyopathy....

  20. Five criteria for using a surrogate endpoint to predict treatment effect based on data from multiple previous trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stuart G

    2018-02-20

    A surrogate endpoint in a randomized clinical trial is an endpoint that occurs after randomization and before the true, clinically meaningful, endpoint that yields conclusions about the effect of treatment on true endpoint. A surrogate endpoint can accelerate the evaluation of new treatments but at the risk of misleading conclusions. Therefore, criteria are needed for deciding whether to use a surrogate endpoint in a new trial. For the meta-analytic setting of multiple previous trials, each with the same pair of surrogate and true endpoints, this article formulates 5 criteria for using a surrogate endpoint in a new trial to predict the effect of treatment on the true endpoint in the new trial. The first 2 criteria, which are easily computed from a zero-intercept linear random effects model, involve statistical considerations: an acceptable sample size multiplier and an acceptable prediction separation score. The remaining 3 criteria involve clinical and biological considerations: similarity of biological mechanisms of treatments between the new trial and previous trials, similarity of secondary treatments following the surrogate endpoint between the new trial and previous trials, and a negligible risk of harmful side effects arising after the observation of the surrogate endpoint in the new trial. These 5 criteria constitute an appropriately high bar for using a surrogate endpoint to make a definitive treatment recommendation. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Comparison of gene expression microarray data with count-based RNA measurements informs microarray interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Arianne C; Lyons, Paul A; Peters, James E; Biasci, Daniele; Flint, Shaun M; Lee, James C; McKinney, Eoin F; Siegel, Richard M; Smith, Kenneth G C

    2014-08-04

    Although numerous investigations have compared gene expression microarray platforms, preprocessing methods and batch correction algorithms using constructed spike-in or dilution datasets, there remains a paucity of studies examining the properties of microarray data using diverse biological samples. Most microarray experiments seek to identify subtle differences between samples with variable background noise, a scenario poorly represented by constructed datasets. Thus, microarray users lack important information regarding the complexities introduced in real-world experimental settings. The recent development of a multiplexed, digital technology for nucleic acid measurement enables counting of individual RNA molecules without amplification and, for the first time, permits such a study. Using a set of human leukocyte subset RNA samples, we compared previously acquired microarray expression values with RNA molecule counts determined by the nCounter Analysis System (NanoString Technologies) in selected genes. We found that gene measurements across samples correlated well between the two platforms, particularly for high-variance genes, while genes deemed unexpressed by the nCounter generally had both low expression and low variance on the microarray. Confirming previous findings from spike-in and dilution datasets, this "gold-standard" comparison demonstrated signal compression that varied dramatically by expression level and, to a lesser extent, by dataset. Most importantly, examination of three different cell types revealed that noise levels differed across tissues. Microarray measurements generally correlate with relative RNA molecule counts within optimal ranges but suffer from expression-dependent accuracy bias and precision that varies across datasets. We urge microarray users to consider expression-level effects in signal interpretation and to evaluate noise properties in each dataset independently.

  2. Birth outcome in women with previously treated breast cancer--a population-based cohort study from Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Dalberg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on birth outcome and offspring health after the appearance of breast cancer are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse birth outcomes in women previously treated for invasive breast cancer compared with the general population of mothers.Of all 2,870,932 singleton births registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry during 1973-2002, 331 first births following breast cancer surgery--with a mean time to pregnancy of 37 mo (range 7-163--were identified using linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Logistic regression analysis was used. The estimates were adjusted for maternal age, parity, and year of delivery. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to estimate infant health and mortality, delivery complications, the risk of preterm birth, and the rates of instrumental delivery and cesarean section. The large majority of births from women previously treated for breast cancer had no adverse events. However, births by women exposed to breast cancer were associated with an increased risk of delivery complications (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9, cesarean section (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7, very preterm birth (<32 wk (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.0, and low birth weight (<1500 g (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8. A tendency towards an increased risk of malformations among the infants was seen especially in the later time period (1988-2002 (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7.It is reassuring that births overall were without adverse events, but our findings indicate that pregnancies in previously treated breast cancer patients should possibly be regarded as higher risk pregnancies, with consequences for their surveillance and management.

  3. Reasons for placement of restorations on previously unrestored tooth surfaces by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nascimento, Marcelle M; Gordan, Valeria V; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    The authors conducted a study to identify and quantify the reasons used by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) for placing restorations on unrestored permanent tooth surfaces and the dental materials they used in doing so....

  4. Reasons for placement of restorations on previously unrestored tooth surfaces by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nascimento, Marcelle M; Gordan, Valeria V; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    The authors conducted a study to identify and quantify the reasons used by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) for placing restorations on unrestored permanent tooth surfaces and the dental materials they used in doing so.......The authors conducted a study to identify and quantify the reasons used by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) for placing restorations on unrestored permanent tooth surfaces and the dental materials they used in doing so....

  5. A pattern-based analysis of clinical computer-interpretable guideline modeling languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyar, Nataliya; van der Aalst, Wil M P; Peleg, Mor

    2007-01-01

    Languages used to specify computer-interpretable guidelines (CIGs) differ in their approaches to addressing particular modeling challenges. The main goals of this article are: (1) to examine the expressive power of CIG modeling languages, and (2) to define the differences, from the control-flow perspective, between process languages in workflow management systems and modeling languages used to design clinical guidelines. The pattern-based analysis was applied to guideline modeling languages Asbru, EON, GLIF, and PROforma. We focused on control-flow and left other perspectives out of consideration. We evaluated the selected CIG modeling languages and identified their degree of support of 43 control-flow patterns. We used a set of explicitly defined evaluation criteria to determine whether each pattern is supported directly, indirectly, or not at all. PROforma offers direct support for 22 of 43 patterns, Asbru 20, GLIF 17, and EON 11. All four directly support basic control-flow patterns, cancellation patterns, and some advance branching and synchronization patterns. None support multiple instances patterns. They offer varying levels of support for synchronizing merge patterns and state-based patterns. Some support a few scenarios not covered by the 43 control-flow patterns. CIG modeling languages are remarkably close to traditional workflow languages from the control-flow perspective, but cover many fewer workflow patterns. CIG languages offer some flexibility that supports modeling of complex decisions and provide ways for modeling some decisions not covered by workflow management systems. Workflow management systems may be suitable for clinical guideline applications.

  6. Application of knowledge-based network processing to automated gas chromatography data interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levis, A.P.; Timpany, R.G.; Klotter, D.A. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A method of translating a two-way table of qualified symptom/cause relationships into a four layer Expert Network for diagnosis of machine or sample preparation failure for Gas Chromatography is presented. This method has proven to successfully capture an expert`s ability to predict causes of failure in a Gas Chromatograph based on a small set of symptoms, derived from a chromatogram, in spite of poorly defined category delineations and definitions. In addition, the resulting network possesses the advantages inherent in most neural networks: the ability to function correctly in the presence of missing or uncertain inputs and the ability to improve performance through data-based training procedures. Acquisition of knowledge from the domain experts produced a group of imprecise cause-to-symptom relationships. These are reproduced as parallel pathways composed of Symptom-Filter-Combination-Cause node chains in the network representation. Each symptom signal is passed through a Filter node to determine if the signal should be interpreted as positive or negative evidence and then modified according to the relationship established by the domain experts. The signals from several processed symptoms are then combined in the Combination node(s) for a given cause. The resulting value is passed to the Cause node and the highest valued Cause node is then selected as the most probable cause of failure.

  7. Application of knowledge-based network processing to automated gas chromatography data interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Alan P.; Timpany, Robert G.; Austad, Wayne E.; Elling, John W.; Ferguson, Jamie J.; Klotter, Douglas A.; Hruska, Susan I.

    1995-04-01

    A method of translating a two-way table of qualified symptom/cause relationships into a four layer expert network for diagnosis of machine or sample preparation failure for gas chromatography is presented. This method has proven to successfully capture an expert's ability to predict causes of failure in a gas chromatograph based on a small set of symptoms, derived from a chromatogram, in spite of poorly defined category delineations and definitions. In addition, the resulting network possesses the advantages inherent in most neural networks: the ability to function correctly in the presence of missing or uncertain inputs and the ability to improve performance through data-based training procedures. Acquisition of knowledge from the domain experts produced a group of imprecise cause-to-symptom relationships. These are reproduced as parallel pathways composed of symptom-filter-combination-cause node chains in the network representation. Each symptom signal is passed through a filter node to determine if the signal should be interpreted as positive or negative evidence and then modified according to the relationship established by the domain experts. The signals from several processed symptoms are then combined in the combination node(s) for a given cause. The resulting value is passed to the cause node and the highest valued cause node is then selected as the most probable cause of failure.

  8. Application of knowledge-based network processing to automated gas chromatography data interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levis, A.P.; Timpany, R.G.; Klotter, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of translating a two-way table of qualified symptom/cause relationships into a four layer Expert Network for diagnosis of machine or sample preparation failure for Gas Chromatography is presented. This method has proven to successfully capture an expert's ability to predict causes of failure in a Gas Chromatograph based on a small set of symptoms, derived from a chromatogram, in spite of poorly defined category delineations and definitions. In addition, the resulting network possesses the advantages inherent in most neural networks: the ability to function correctly in the presence of missing or uncertain inputs and the ability to improve performance through data-based training procedures. Acquisition of knowledge from the domain experts produced a group of imprecise cause-to-symptom relationships. These are reproduced as parallel pathways composed of Symptom-Filter-Combination-Cause node chains in the network representation. Each symptom signal is passed through a Filter node to determine if the signal should be interpreted as positive or negative evidence and then modified according to the relationship established by the domain experts. The signals from several processed symptoms are then combined in the Combination node(s) for a given cause. The resulting value is passed to the Cause node and the highest valued Cause node is then selected as the most probable cause of failure

  9. A Logic Programming Based Approach to Applying Abstract Interpretation to Embedded Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kim Steen

    Abstract interpretation er en overordnet referenceramme for statisk programanalyse. I de seneste år har abstract interpretation vundet udbredelse uden for det akademiske miljø, hvor det er blevet anvendt til verifikation af indlejrede og tidskritiske systemer. Logikprogrammering er et programmeri...

  10. Abstract interpretation over non-deterministic finite tree automate for set-based analysis of logic programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, John Patrick; Puebla, G.

    2002-01-01

    Set-based program analysis has many potential applications, including compiler optimisations, type-checking, debugging, verification and planning. One method of set-based analysis is to solve a set of {\\it set constraints} derived directly from the program text. Another approach is based...... constraint analysis of a particular program $P$ could be understood as an abstract interpretation over a finite domain of regular tree grammars, constructed from $P$. In this paper we define such an abstract interpretation for logic programs, formulated over a domain of non-deterministic finite tree automata...

  11. From aggregation to interpretation: how assessors judge complex data in a competency-based portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudkerk Pool, Andrea; Govaerts, Marjan J B; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Driessen, Erik W

    2017-10-14

    While portfolios are increasingly used to assess competence, the validity of such portfolio-based assessments has hitherto remained unconfirmed. The purpose of the present research is therefore to further our understanding of how assessors form judgments when interpreting the complex data included in a competency-based portfolio. Eighteen assessors appraised one of three competency-based mock portfolios while thinking aloud, before taking part in semi-structured interviews. A thematic analysis of the think-aloud protocols and interviews revealed that assessors reached judgments through a 3-phase cyclical cognitive process of acquiring, organizing, and integrating evidence. Upon conclusion of the first cycle, assessors reviewed the remaining portfolio evidence to look for confirming or disconfirming evidence. Assessors were inclined to stick to their initial judgments even when confronted with seemingly disconfirming evidence. Although assessors reached similar final (pass-fail) judgments of students' professional competence, they differed in their information-processing approaches and the reasoning behind their judgments. Differences sprung from assessors' divergent assessment beliefs, performance theories, and inferences about the student. Assessment beliefs refer to assessors' opinions about what kind of evidence gives the most valuable and trustworthy information about the student's competence, whereas assessors' performance theories concern their conceptualizations of what constitutes professional competence and competent performance. Even when using the same pieces of information, assessors furthermore differed with respect to inferences about the student as a person as well as a (future) professional. Our findings support the notion that assessors' reasoning in judgment and decision-making varies and is guided by their mental models of performance assessment, potentially impacting feedback and the credibility of decisions. Our findings also lend further

  12. Model-based ECT signal interpretation and experimental verification for the quantitative flaw characterization in steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Eui Lae; Chung, Tae Eon; Yim, Chang Jae

    2002-01-01

    The model-based inversion tools for eddy current signals have been developed by the novel combination of neural networks and finite element modeling for quantitative flaw characterization in steam generator tubes. In the present work, interpretation of experimental eddy current signals was carried out in order to validate the developed inversion tools. A database was constructed using the synthetic flaw signals generated by the finite element modeling. The hybrid neural networks of a PNN classifier and BPNN size estimators were trained using the synthetic signals. Experimental eddy current signals were obtained from axisymmetric artificial flaws. Interpretations of flaws were carried out by feeding experimental signals into the neural networks. The results of interpretations were excellent, so that the developed inversion tools would be applicable to the interpretation of experimental eddy current signals.

  13. Using the model statement to elicit information and cues to deceit in interpreter-based interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrij, Aldert; Leal, Sharon; Mann, Samantha; Dalton, Gary; Jo, Eunkyung; Shaboltas, Alla; Khaleeva, Maria; Granskaya, Juliana; Houston, Kate

    2017-06-01

    We examined how the presence of an interpreter during an interview affects eliciting information and cues to deceit, while using a method that encourages interviewees to provide more detail (model statement, MS). A total of 199 Hispanic, Korean and Russian participants were interviewed either in their own native language without an interpreter, or through an interpreter. Interviewees either lied or told the truth about a trip they made during the last twelve months. Half of the participants listened to a MS at the beginning of the interview. The dependent variables were 'detail', 'complications', 'common knowledge details', 'self-handicapping strategies' and 'ratio of complications'. In the MS-absent condition, the interviews resulted in less detail when an interpreter was present than when an interpreter was absent. In the MS-present condition, the interviews resulted in a similar amount of detail in the interpreter present and absent conditions. Truthful statements included more complications and fewer common knowledge details and self-handicapping strategies than deceptive statements, and the ratio of complications was higher for truth tellers than liars. The MS strengthened these results, whereas an interpreter had no effect on these results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Biotin IgM Antibodies in Human Blood: A Previously Unknown Factor Eliciting False Results in Biotinylation-Based Immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Hedman, Lea; Mattila, Petri S.; Jartti, Laura; Jartti, Tuomas; Ruuskanen, Olli; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Hedman, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Biotin is an essential vitamin that binds streptavidin or avidin with high affinity and specificity. As biotin is a small molecule that can be linked to proteins without affecting their biological activity, biotinylation is applied widely in biochemical assays. In our laboratory, IgM enzyme immuno assays (EIAs) of µ-capture format have been set up against many viruses, using as antigen biotinylated virus like particles (VLPs) detected by horseradish peroxidase-conjugated streptavidin. We recently encountered one serum sample reacting with the biotinylated VLP but not with the unbiotinylated one, suggesting in human sera the occurrence of biotin-reactive antibodies. In the present study, we search the general population (612 serum samples from adults and 678 from children) for IgM antibodies reactive with biotin and develop an indirect EIA for quantification of their levels and assessment of their seroprevalence. These IgM antibodies were present in 3% adults regardless of age, but were rarely found in children. The adverse effects of the biotin IgM on biotinylation-based immunoassays were assessed, including four inhouse and one commercial virus IgM EIAs, showing that biotin IgM do cause false positivities. The biotin can not bind IgM and streptavidin or avidin simultaneously, suggesting that these biotin-interactive compounds compete for the common binding site. In competitive inhibition assays, the affinities of biotin IgM antibodies ranged from 2.1×10−3 to 1.7×10−4 mol/L. This is the first report on biotin antibodies found in humans, providing new information on biotinylation-based immunoassays as well as new insights into the biomedical effects of vitamins. PMID:22879954

  15. Interpretable exemplar-based shape classification using constrained sparse linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Gunnar A; Yang, Zhen; Tran, Trac D; Prince, Jerry L

    2015-02-01

    Many types of diseases manifest themselves as observable changes in the shape of the affected organs. Using shape classification, we can look for signs of disease and discover relationships between diseases. We formulate the problem of shape classification in a holistic framework that utilizes a lossless scalar field representation and a non-parametric classification based on sparse recovery. This framework generalizes over certain classes of unseen shapes while using the full information of the shape, bypassing feature extraction. The output of the method is the class whose combination of exemplars most closely approximates the shape, and furthermore, the algorithm returns the most similar exemplars along with their similarity to the shape, which makes the result simple to interpret. Our results show that the method offers accurate classification between three cerebellar diseases and controls in a database of cerebellar ataxia patients. For reproducible comparison, promising results are presented on publicly available 2D datasets, including the ETH-80 dataset where the method achieves 88.4% classification accuracy.

  16. Geomorphic Map of Worcester County, Maryland, Interpreted from a LIDAR-Based, Digital Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Wayne L.; Clark, Inga

    2008-01-01

    A recently compiled mosaic of a LIDAR-based digital elevation model (DEM) is presented with geomorphic analysis of new macro-topographic details. The geologic framework of the surficial and near surface late Cenozoic deposits of the central uplands, Pocomoke River valley, and the Atlantic Coast includes Cenozoic to recent sediments from fluvial, estuarine, and littoral depositional environments. Extensive Pleistocene (cold climate) sandy dune fields are deposited over much of the terraced landscape. The macro details from the LIDAR image reveal 2 meter-scale resolution of details of the shapes of individual dunes, and fields of translocated sand sheets. Most terrace surfaces are overprinted with circular to elliptical rimmed basins that represent complex histories of ephemeral ponds that were formed, drained, and overprinted by younger basins. The terrains of composite ephemeral ponds and the dune fields are inter-shingled at their margins indicating contemporaneous erosion, deposition, and re-arrangement and possible internal deformation of the surficial deposits. The aggregate of these landform details and their deposits are interpreted as the products of arid, cold climate processes that were common to the mid-Atlantic region during the Last Glacial Maximum. In the Pocomoke valley and its larger tributaries, erosional remnants of sandy flood plains with anastomosing channels indicate the dynamics of former hydrology and sediment load of the watershed that prevailed at the end of the Pleistocene. As the climate warmed and precipitation increased during the transition from late Pleistocene to Holocene, dune fields were stabilized by vegetation, and the stream discharge increased. The increased discharge and greater local relief of streams graded to lower sea levels stimulated down cutting and created the deeply incised valleys out onto the continental shelf. These incised valleys have been filling with fluvial to intertidal deposits that record the rising sea

  17. Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carrier (HBOC) Development in Trauma: Previous Regulatory Challenges, Lessons Learned, and a Path Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keipert, Peter E

    2017-01-01

    Historically, hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) were being developed as "blood substitutes," despite their transient circulatory half-life (~ 24 h) vs. transfused red blood cells (RBCs). More recently, HBOC commercial development focused on "oxygen therapeutic" indications to provide a temporary oxygenation bridge until medical or surgical interventions (including RBC transfusion, if required) can be initiated. This included the early trauma trials with HemAssist ® (BAXTER), Hemopure ® (BIOPURE) and PolyHeme ® (NORTHFIELD) for resuscitating hypotensive shock. These trials all failed due to safety concerns (e.g., cardiac events, mortality) and certain protocol design limitations. In 2008 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) put all HBOC trials in the US on clinical hold due to the unfavorable benefit:risk profile demonstrated by various HBOCs in different clinical studies in a meta-analysis published by Natanson et al. (2008). During standard resuscitation in trauma, organ dysfunction and failure can occur due to ischemia in critical tissues, which can be detected by the degree of lactic acidosis. SANGART'S Phase 2 trauma program with MP4OX therefore added lactate >5 mmol/L as an inclusion criterion to enroll patients who had lost sufficient blood to cause a tissue oxygen debt. This was key to the successful conduct of their Phase 2 program (ex-US, from 2009 to 2012) to evaluate MP4OX as an adjunct to standard fluid resuscitation and transfusion of RBCs. In 2013, SANGART shared their Phase 2b results with the FDA, and succeeded in getting the FDA to agree that a planned Phase 2c higher dose comparison study of MP4OX in trauma could include clinical sites in the US. Unfortunately, SANGART failed to secure new funding and was forced to terminate development and operations in Dec 2013, even though a regulatory path forward with FDA approval to proceed in trauma had been achieved.

  18. Long-term Shifting Patterns in Quality of Life After Distal Subtotal Gastrectomy: Preoperative- and Healthy-based Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Soo; Chung, Ho Young; Kwon, Ohkyoung; Yu, Wansik

    2015-06-01

    The study assessed long-term shifting patterns in quality of life (QoL) after distal subtotal gastrectomy relative to an estimated healthy population QoL (HPQoL), and compared them to shifting patterns interpreted in terms of a preoperative QoL baseline. QoL data from 127 gastric cancer patients who underwent open distal subtotal gastrectomy were obtained at the preoperative period and at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months after surgery. QoL data obtained from 127 age- and sex-adjusted healthy individuals were used to estimate HPQoL. The study used the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QoL Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30) and a gastric cancer module (QLQ-STO22) to assess QoL. Comparisons were made between preoperative-based and healthy-based interpretations of longitudinal QoL shifting patterns. Among the persistently deteriorated QoL variables indicated by the preoperative-based interpretation (physical functioning, role functioning, cognitive functioning, nausea and vomiting, dyspnea, diarrhea, dysphagia, eating restrictions, dry mouth, and body image), eating restrictions and body image concerns were the only factors indicated by a healthy-based interpretation. In this interpretation, financial difficulties were evident at the preoperative period and persisted for at least 36 months. When preoperative QoL was used as a baseline, decreased QoL due to financial difficulties was not revealed. Persistent QoL deterioration after distal subtotal gastrectomy is primarily due to financial difficulties, eating restrictions, and body image concerns. Preoperative-based interpretation of postoperative QoL may exaggerate the persistency of reduced QoL and conceal on-going QoL deterioration after surgery.

  19. Interpretive Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  20. Mars’ Low Dissipation Factor at 11-h - Interpretation from Anelasticity-Based Dissipation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Choukroun, M.

    2010-10-01

    We explore the information contained in the ratio of the tidal Love number k2 to the dissipation factor Q characterizing the response of Mars to the tides exerted by its satellite Phobos (11-h period). Assuming that Mars can be approximated as a Maxwell body, Bills et al. [1] have inferred an average viscosity of the Martian mantle 8.7x1014 Pa s. Such a low viscosity appears inconsistent with Mars’ thermal evolution and current heat budget models. Alternative explanations include the presence of partial melt in the mantle [2], or the presence of an aquifer in the crust [3]. We revisit the interpretation of Mars’ k2/Q using a laboratory-based attenuation model that accounts for material viscoelasticity and anelasticity. As a first step, we have computed Mars’ k2/Q for an interior model that includes a solid inner core, a liquid core layer, a mantle, and crust (consistent with the observed moment of inertia, and k2 measured at the orbital period), and searched for the range of mantle viscosities that can explain the observed k2/Q. Successful models are characterized by an average mantle viscosity between 1018 and 1022 Pa s, which rules out the presence of partial melt in the mantle. We can narrow down that range by performing a more detailed calculation of the mineralogy and temperature profiles. Preliminary results will be presented at the meeting. References: [1] Bills et al. (2005) JGR 110, E00704; [2] Ruedas et al. (2009 White paper to the NRC Planetary Science decadal survey; [3] Bills et al. (2009) LPS 40, 1712. MC is supported by a NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellowship, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities. This work has been conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  1. An Experience of Forest Inventory by Photo Interpretation Method Based on Advanced Firmware and Digital Aerial Photographs of New Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Arkhipov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main stages of the developed technology of forest inventory by interpretation method, named «From survey – to project», with the use of modern aerial survey data, special software and hardware are discussed in the paper. A need for development of high-end technology of forest inventory is due to increasing demands of state, business, and civil community for actual and correct information about forests. The tasks of research were: integration software and hardware into single technology, testing on the real object, and development of recommendations for introduction into production and forming of system of preparing specialists for forest interpretation. Positive results of experimental works by measurement and analytical forest interpretation in stereo regime on base of photogrammetric software were obtained by specialists from Russia, Croatia, Belarus, and Sweden. In the technology «From survey – to project», the following instruments are used: photogrammetric complex Vision Map A3, digital photogrammetric system Photomod, program «ESAUL», GIS ArcGIS, special hardware for stereo visualization. Results of testing this technology are shown on example of model territory. Comparison of results of forest inventory obtained by interpretation method and results of control inventory obtained by enumeration method demonstrated that errors of determination of main forest inventory characteristics do not exceed the norms. The advantages of practical use of the technology are shown. It has been noted that forest inventory by interpretation method is a complex psychophysiological process and it requires an attraction of specialists with high qualification on base of special training. It is indicated the necessity of forming system for training forest inventory specialists on interpretation method. The designed and prepared curriculums and training manuals for interpretation method in forestry are listed.

  2. Interpretation and Implications of Previous Sea Pay Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    simple example of the Navy paying “rents” in the labor market .... 30  Figure 13.   When disutility of general Navy duty and sea duty are perfectly...their true demand for a product. This mechanism allows companies to tailor prices to specific segments of their market and, in so doing, to maximize...entire use of bandwidth. Telecommunications companies use this distinction to construct a market segmentation technique that is the heart of the non

  3. Puzzle based teaching versus traditional instruction in electrocardiogram interpretation for medical students--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Jack; Dhoble, Abhijeet; Ferenchick, Gary

    2009-01-13

    Most medical professionals are expected to possess basic electrocardiogram (EKG) interpretation skills. But, published data suggests that residents' and physicians' EKG interpretation skills are suboptimal. Learning styles differ among medical students; individualization of teaching methods has been shown to be viable and may result in improved learning. Puzzles have been shown to facilitate learning in a relaxed environment. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of teaching puzzle in EKG interpretation skills among medical students. This is a reader blinded crossover trial. Third year medical students from College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University participated in this study. Two groups (n = 9) received two traditional EKG interpretation skills lectures followed by a standardized exam and two extra sessions with the teaching puzzle and a different exam. Two other groups (n = 6) received identical courses and exams with the puzzle session first followed by the traditional teaching. EKG interpretation scores on final test were used as main outcome measure. The average score after only traditional teaching was 4.07 +/- 2.08 while after only the puzzle session was 4.04 +/- 2.36 (p = 0.97). The average improvement after the traditional session was followed up with a puzzle session was 2.53 +/- 1.94 while the average improvement after the puzzle session was followed with the traditional session was 2.08 +/- 1.73 (p = 0.67). The final EKG exam score for this cohort (n = 15) was 84.1 compared to 86.6 (p = 0.22) for a comparable sample of medical students (n = 15) at a different campus. Teaching EKG interpretation with puzzles is comparable to traditional teaching and may be particularly useful for certain subgroups of students. Puzzle session are more interactive and relaxing, and warrant further investigations on larger scale.

  4. Puzzle based teaching versus traditional instruction in electrocardiogram interpretation for medical students – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhoble Abhijeet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most medical professionals are expected to possess basic electrocardiogram (EKG interpretation skills. But, published data suggests that residents' and physicians' EKG interpretation skills are suboptimal. Learning styles differ among medical students; individualization of teaching methods has been shown to be viable and may result in improved learning. Puzzles have been shown to facilitate learning in a relaxed environment. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of teaching puzzle in EKG interpretation skills among medical students. Methods This is a reader blinded crossover trial. Third year medical students from College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University participated in this study. Two groups (n = 9 received two traditional EKG interpretation skills lectures followed by a standardized exam and two extra sessions with the teaching puzzle and a different exam. Two other groups (n = 6 received identical courses and exams with the puzzle session first followed by the traditional teaching. EKG interpretation scores on final test were used as main outcome measure. Results The average score after only traditional teaching was 4.07 ± 2.08 while after only the puzzle session was 4.04 ± 2.36 (p = 0.97. The average improvement after the traditional session was followed up with a puzzle session was 2.53 ± 1.94 while the average improvement after the puzzle session was followed with the traditional session was 2.08 ± 1.73 (p = 0.67. The final EKG exam score for this cohort (n = 15 was 84.1 compared to 86.6 (p = 0.22 for a comparable sample of medical students (n = 15 at a different campus. Conclusion Teaching EKG interpretation with puzzles is comparable to traditional teaching and may be particularly useful for certain subgroups of students. Puzzle session are more interactive and relaxing, and warrant further investigations on larger scale.

  5. Target Practice: Reader Response Theory and Teachers' Interpretations of Students' SAT 10 Scores in Data-Based Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Becky M.

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this article examines how teachers read and respond to their students' Stanford Achievement Test 10 (SAT 10) scores with the goal of investigating the assumption that data-based teaching practice is more "objective" and less susceptible to divergent teacher interpretation. The study uses reader response theory to…

  6. Interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical (BHE) borehole heat exchangers with predictive uncertainty based stopping criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Alberdi Pagola, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A method for real-time interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical borehole heat exchangers is presented. The method utilizes a statistically based stopping criterion for ongoing tests. The study finds minimum testing times for synthetic and actual TRTs to be in the interval 12–2...

  7. Working with interpreters: practical advice for use of an interpreter in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, Emina; Hjelm, Katarina

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this descriptive commentary is to improve communication in healthcare when an interpreter is used by providing practical advice to healthcare staff when they consider using interpreters. This descriptive commentary considered the issues of preparation and implementation of interpretation sessions to reveal the complexities and dilemmas of an effective healthcare encounter with interpreters. Using the design of a discursive paper, this article seeks to explore and position of what is published in the literature on the topic studied and on the basis of previous studies to provide practical advice on the use of interpreters. The descriptive commentary showed that the interpreter should be used not only as a communication aid but also as a practical and informative guide in the healthcare system. In preparing the interpretation session, it is important to consider the type (trained professional interpreter, family member or bilingual healthcare staff as interpreters) and mode (face to face and telephone) of interpreting. Furthermore, it is important to consider the interpreter's ethnic origin, religious background, gender, language or dialect, social group, clothes, appearance and attitude. During the healthcare encounter, the interpreter should follow the recommendations given in guidelines for interpreters. Healthcare staff should choose an appropriate room and be aware of their own behaviour, appearance and attitude during the healthcare encounter. Good planning is needed, with carefully considered choices concerning the right kind of interpreter, mode of interpretation and individual preferences for the interpretation in order to deliver high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. Depending on the nature of the healthcare encounter, healthcare staff need to plan interpreting carefully and in accordance with the individuals' desires and choose the type of interpreter and mode of interpreting that best suits the need in the actual healthcare situation in

  8. Evaluation of Mycobacterium leprae antigens in the monitoring of a dapsone-based chemotherapy of previously untreated lepromatous patients in Cebu, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatser, P. R.; de Wit, M. Y.; Fajardo, T. T.; Cellona, R. V.; Abalos, R. M.; de la Cruz, E. C.; Madarang, M. G.; Hirsch, D. S.; Douglas, J. T.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-five previously untreated lepromatous patients receiving dapsone-based therapy were monitored throughout their 5-year period of treatment by serology and by pathology. Sequentially collected sera were used to evaluate the usefulness of four Mycobacterium leprae antigens as used in ELISA to

  9. Epigenomic annotation-based interpretation of genomic data: from enrichment analysis to machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozmorov, Mikhail G

    2017-10-15

    One of the goals of functional genomics is to understand the regulatory implications of experimentally obtained genomic regions of interest (ROIs). Most sequencing technologies now generate ROIs distributed across the whole genome. The interpretation of these genome-wide ROIs represents a challenge as the majority of them lie outside of functionally well-defined protein coding regions. Recent efforts by the members of the International Human Epigenome Consortium have generated volumes of functional/regulatory data (reference epigenomic datasets), effectively annotating the genome with epigenomic properties. Consequently, a wide variety of computational tools has been developed utilizing these epigenomic datasets for the interpretation of genomic data. The purpose of this review is to provide a structured overview of practical solutions for the interpretation of ROIs with the help of epigenomic data. Starting with epigenomic enrichment analysis, we discuss leading tools and machine learning methods utilizing epigenomic and 3D genome structure data. The hierarchy of tools and methods reviewed here presents a practical guide for the interpretation of genome-wide ROIs within an epigenomic context. mikhail.dozmorov@vcuhealth.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Interpretation and acceptance of the term 'cancer survivor': a United Kingdom-based qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N F; Harrison, S; Rose, P W; Ward, A; Evans, J

    2012-03-01

    The concept of cancer survivorship and the term 'cancer survivor' remains widely interpreted. The aim is to explore the interpretations of the term 'cancer survivor' amongst British people living past a cancer diagnosis. We conducted an in-depth qualitative study of 40 people at least 5 years post-diagnosis of breast, colorectal or prostate cancer. Each interviewee was asked whether they felt they were a cancer survivor and interpretations of the term were explored. The majority of respondents did not endorse the term 'cancer survivor', and there was a wide variation in its interpretation. Those who accepted the term understood survivorship as a factual definition of having had cancer and survived. Most rejected the term because it implied a high risk of death that did not reflect their experience, that it suggested survival from cancer was dependent on personal characteristics, or that it meant they were cured despite the possibility of recurrence. Respondents felt 'cancer survivor' was a label that did not describe their identity or that it implied an advocacy role they did not want to take on. Researchers and policy makers in the UK should consider avoiding the term 'cancer survivor' in favour of descriptive terms when discussing this population. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Caregivers interpret infants' early gestures based on shared knowledge about referents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Nevena; Moro, Christiane; Mohr, Christine

    2015-05-01

    Gestures are the first forms of conventional communication that young children develop in order to intentionally convey a specific message. However, at first, infants rarely communicate successfully with their gestures, prompting caregivers to interpret them. Although the role of caregivers in early communication development has been examined, little is known about how caregivers attribute a specific communicative function to infants' gestures. In this study, we argue that caregivers rely on the knowledge about the referent that is shared with infants in order to interpret what communicative function infants wish to convey with their gestures. We videotaped interactions from six caregiver-infant dyads playing with toys when infants were 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 months old. We coded infants' gesture production and we determined whether caregivers interpreted those gestures as conveying a clear communicative function or not; we also coded whether infants used objects according to their conventions of use as a measure of shared knowledge about the referent. Results revealed an association between infants' increasing knowledge of object use and maternal interpretations of infants' gestures as conveying a clear communicative function. Our findings emphasize the importance of shared knowledge in shaping infants' emergent communicative skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Conference Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leal Lobato, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,......Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,...

  13. Risk of the Maritime Supply Chain System Based on Interpretative Structural Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine transportation is the most important transport mode of in the international trade, but the maritime supply chain is facing with many risks. At present, most of the researches on the risk of the maritime supply chain focus on the risk identification and risk management, and barely carry on the quantitative analysis of the logical structure of each influencing factor. This paper uses the interpretative structure model to analysis the maritime supply chain risk system. On the basis of comprehensive literature analysis and expert opinion, this paper puts forward 16 factors of maritime supply chain risk system. Using the interpretative structure model to construct maritime supply chain risk system, and then optimize the model. The model analyzes the structure of the maritime supply chain risk system and its forming process, and provides a scientific basis for the controlling the maritime supply chain risk, and puts forward some corresponding suggestions for the prevention and control the maritime supply chain risk.

  14. Life Cycle Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    an interpretation. The process of interpretation starts with identification of potentially significant issues in the previous stages of goal and scope definition, inventory analysis and impact assessment, and examples of potential significant issues are given for each phase. The significance is then determined...

  15. Statistical interpretation of machine learning-based feature importance scores for biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh-Thu, Vân Anh; Saeys, Yvan; Wehenkel, Louis; Geurts, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Univariate statistical tests are widely used for biomarker discovery in bioinformatics. These procedures are simple, fast and their output is easily interpretable by biologists but they can only identify variables that provide a significant amount of information in isolation from the other variables. As biological processes are expected to involve complex interactions between variables, univariate methods thus potentially miss some informative biomarkers. Variable relevance scores provided by machine learning techniques, however, are potentially able to highlight multivariate interacting effects, but unlike the p-values returned by univariate tests, these relevance scores are usually not statistically interpretable. This lack of interpretability hampers the determination of a relevance threshold for extracting a feature subset from the rankings and also prevents the wide adoption of these methods by practicians. We evaluated several, existing and novel, procedures that extract relevant features from rankings derived from machine learning approaches. These procedures replace the relevance scores with measures that can be interpreted in a statistical way, such as p-values, false discovery rates, or family wise error rates, for which it is easier to determine a significance level. Experiments were performed on several artificial problems as well as on real microarray datasets. Although the methods differ in terms of computing times and the tradeoff, they achieve in terms of false positives and false negatives, some of them greatly help in the extraction of truly relevant biomarkers and should thus be of great practical interest for biologists and physicians. As a side conclusion, our experiments also clearly highlight that using model performance as a criterion for feature selection is often counter-productive. Python source codes of all tested methods, as well as the MATLAB scripts used for data simulation, can be found in the Supplementary Material.

  16. Effectiveness of Ritonavir-Boosted Protease Inhibitor Monotherapy in Clinical Practice Even with Previous Virological Failures to Protease Inhibitor-Based Regimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F López-Cortés

    Full Text Available Significant controversy still exists about ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy (mtPI/rtv as a simplification strategy that is used up to now to treat patients that have not experienced previous virological failure (VF while on protease inhibitor (PI -based regimens. We have evaluated the effectiveness of two mtPI/rtv regimens in an actual clinical practice setting, including patients that had experienced previous VF with PI-based regimens.This retrospective study analyzed 1060 HIV-infected patients with undetectable viremia that were switched to lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy. In cases in which the patient had previously experienced VF while on a PI-based regimen, the lack of major HIV protease resistance mutations to lopinavir or darunavir, respectively, was mandatory. The primary endpoint of this study was the percentage of participants with virological suppression after 96 weeks according to intention-to-treat analysis (non-complete/missing = failure.A total of 1060 patients were analyzed, including 205 with previous VF while on PI-based regimens, 90 of whom were on complex therapies due to extensive resistance. The rates of treatment effectiveness (intention-to-treat analysis and virological efficacy (on-treatment analysis at week 96 were 79.3% (CI95, 76.8-81.8 and 91.5% (CI95, 89.6-93.4, respectively. No relationships were found between VF and earlier VF while on PI-based regimens, the presence of major or minor protease resistance mutations, the previous time on viral suppression, CD4+ T-cell nadir, and HCV-coinfection. Genotypic resistance tests were available in 49 out of the 74 patients with VFs and only four patients presented new major protease resistance mutations.Switching to mtPI/rtv achieves sustained virological control in most patients, even in those with previous VF on PI-based regimens as long as no major resistance mutations are present for the administered drug.

  17. A Heritage Interpretation-Based Itinerary to Enhance Tourist Use of Traditional Rural Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola M. Leanza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the planning strategy for a tourist itinerary in rural areas located in South-Eastern Sicily which aimed at promoting cultural rural heritage and diversifying the tourist offer. The planning of the tourist itinerary occurred within an appropriate heritage interpretation strategy as a working method which could facilitate the understanding and social use of the heritage sites located along the itinerary. The tourist itinerary combined significant territory potential such as traditional rural buildings and enogastronomy. It included a starting point; which is a heritage site and an already well known “tourist attraction”, and several other tourist resources selected on the basis of the information derived from the analysis of the profile of the average visitor to the area. An interpretation center, which was located at the heritage site, and several interpretation media placed at each stopping point included in the itinerary supported the tourists during their trip. By promoting traditional rural buildings and enogastronomy, the tourist itinerary represents a significant opportunity for rural diversification and, therefore, can contribute to achieving sustainable socio-economic development of rural areas.

  18. The Assessment of Critical Thinking Skill for Early Age Children Based on Criterion Referenced and Norm Referenced Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodhoty Taza Mila

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to study comprehensively the assessment of critical thinking skill for early age children based on criterion referenced and norm referenced interpretations. It is a non-experimental quantitative research for students in Assalam Kinder-garten. There are some critical thinking skill indicators, such as clarity, accuracy, precision, depth, breath, relevance, and logic. By using assessment based on criterion referenced inter-pretations, critical thinking skill  is so real and absolute, while by using assessment based on norm referenced interpretations, critical thinking skill is so relative depends on their groups. Based on criterion referenced interpretations, there are 24 students can’t think critically because their scores are lower than minimum limit and 10 students can think critically because their scores are higher than minimum limit. Based on norm referenced interpreta-tions, there are 19 students think critically above average and 15 students think critically under average. So, the assessment of critical thinking skill for early age children can be strong foundation to prepare the best stimulation for optimalizing their critical thinking skill until mature in the future. Abstrak Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari secara komprehensif penilaian keterampilan berpikir kritis untuk anak-anak usia dini berdasarkan penilaian acuan kriteria dan penilaian acuan norma. Ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif non-eksperimental untuk siswa di TK Assalam. Ada beberapa indikator keterampilan berpikir kritis, seperti kejelasan, akurasi, presisi, kedalaman, keluasan, relevansi, dan logika. Dengan menggunakan penilaian acuan kriteria, keterampilan berpikir kritis menjadi nyata dan mutlak, sementara dengan menggunakan penilaian acuan norma, keterampilan berpikir kritis menjadi sangat relatif tergantung pada kelompok mereka. Berdasarkan penilaian acuan kriteria, ada 24 siswa tidak dapat berpikir

  19. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  20. IKOS: A Framework for Static Analysis based on Abstract Interpretation (Tool Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brat, Guillaume P.; Laserna, Jorge A.; Shi, Nija; Venet, Arnaud Jean

    2014-01-01

    The RTCA standard (DO-178C) for developing avionic software and getting certification credits includes an extension (DO-333) that describes how developers can use static analysis in certification. In this paper, we give an overview of the IKOS static analysis framework that helps developing static analyses that are both precise and scalable. IKOS harnesses the power of Abstract Interpretation and makes it accessible to a larger class of static analysis developers by separating concerns such as code parsing, model development, abstract domain management, results management, and analysis strategy. The benefits of the approach is demonstrated by a buffer overflow analysis applied to flight control systems.

  1. Collaborative update of a rule-based expert system for HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Roger; Tzou, Philip L; van Zyl, Gert; Barrow, Geoff; Camacho, Ricardo; Carmona, Sergio; Grant, Philip M; Gupta, Ravindra K; Hamers, Raph L; Harrigan, P Richard; Jordan, Michael R; Kantor, Rami; Katzenstein, David A; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Maldarelli, Frank; Otelea, Dan; Wallis, Carole L; Schapiro, Jonathan M; Shafer, Robert W

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT) interpretation systems (IS) require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve. An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB) GRT-IS. The panel was polled on the ARVs to be included in a GRT report, and the drug-resistance interpretations associated with 160 drug-resistance mutation (DRM) pattern-ARV combinations. The DRM pattern-ARV combinations included 52 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (13 patterns x 4 NRTIs), 27 nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (9 patterns x 3 NNRTIs), 39 protease inhibitor (PI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (13 patterns x 3 PIs) and 42 integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (14 patterns x 3 INSTIs). There was universal agreement that a GRT report should include the NRTIs lamivudine, abacavir, zidovudine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; the NNRTIs efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine, and rilpivirine; the PIs atazanavir/r, darunavir/r, and lopinavir/r (with "/r" indicating pharmacological boosting with ritonavir or cobicistat); and the INSTIs dolutegravir, elvitegravir, and raltegravir. There was a range of opinion as to whether the NRTIs stavudine and didanosine and the PIs nelfinavir, indinavir/r, saquinavir/r, fosamprenavir/r, and tipranavir/r should be included. The expert panel members provided highly concordant DRM pattern-ARV interpretations with only 6% of NRTI, 6% of NNRTI, 5% of PI, and 3% of INSTI individual expert interpretations differing from the expert panel median by more than one resistance level. The expert panel median differed from the HIVDB 7.0 GRT-IS for 20 (12.5%) of the 160 DRM pattern-ARV combinations including 12 NRTI, two NNRTI, and six INSTI pattern-ARV combinations. Eighteen of these differences were updated in HIVDB 8.1 GRT-IS to reflect the

  2. Collaborative update of a rule-based expert system for HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Paredes

    Full Text Available HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT interpretation systems (IS require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve.An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB GRT-IS. The panel was polled on the ARVs to be included in a GRT report, and the drug-resistance interpretations associated with 160 drug-resistance mutation (DRM pattern-ARV combinations. The DRM pattern-ARV combinations included 52 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI DRM pattern-ARV combinations (13 patterns x 4 NRTIs, 27 nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI DRM pattern-ARV combinations (9 patterns x 3 NNRTIs, 39 protease inhibitor (PI DRM pattern-ARV combinations (13 patterns x 3 PIs and 42 integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI DRM pattern-ARV combinations (14 patterns x 3 INSTIs.There was universal agreement that a GRT report should include the NRTIs lamivudine, abacavir, zidovudine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; the NNRTIs efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine, and rilpivirine; the PIs atazanavir/r, darunavir/r, and lopinavir/r (with "/r" indicating pharmacological boosting with ritonavir or cobicistat; and the INSTIs dolutegravir, elvitegravir, and raltegravir. There was a range of opinion as to whether the NRTIs stavudine and didanosine and the PIs nelfinavir, indinavir/r, saquinavir/r, fosamprenavir/r, and tipranavir/r should be included. The expert panel members provided highly concordant DRM pattern-ARV interpretations with only 6% of NRTI, 6% of NNRTI, 5% of PI, and 3% of INSTI individual expert interpretations differing from the expert panel median by more than one resistance level. The expert panel median differed from the HIVDB 7.0 GRT-IS for 20 (12.5% of the 160 DRM pattern-ARV combinations including 12 NRTI, two NNRTI, and six INSTI pattern-ARV combinations. Eighteen of these differences were updated in HIVDB 8.1 GRT-IS to reflect

  3. Interpretation of Clinical Data Based on C4.5 Algorithm for the Diagnosis of Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiharto, Wiharto; Kusnanto, Hari; Herianto, Herianto

    2016-07-01

    The interpretation of clinical data for the diagnosis of coronary heart disease can be done using algorithms in data mining. Most clinical data interpretation systems for diagnosis developed using data mining algorithms with a black-box approach cannot recognize examination attribute relationships with the incidence of coronary heart disease. This study proposes a system to interpretation clinical examination results for the diagnosis of coronary heart disease based the decision tree algorithm. This system comprises several stages. First, oversampling is carried out by a combination of the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE), feature selection, and the C4.5 classification algorithm. System testing is done using k-fold cross-validation. The performance parameters are sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction value (PPV), negative prediction value (NPV) and the area under the curve (AUC). The results showed that the performance of the system has a sensitivity of 74.7%, a specificity of 93.7%, a PPV of 74.2%, an NPV of 93.7%, and an AUC of 84.2%. This study demonstrated that, by using C4.5 algorithms, data can be interpreted in the form of a decision tree, to aid the understanding of the clinician. In addition, the proposed system can provide better performance by category.

  4. Interpreting space-based trends in carbon monoxide with multiple models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Strode

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We use a series of chemical transport model and chemistry climate model simulations to investigate the observed negative trends in MOPITT CO over several regions of the world, and to examine the consistency of time-dependent emission inventories with observations. We find that simulations driven by the MACCity inventory, used for the Chemistry Climate Modeling Initiative (CCMI, reproduce the negative trends in the CO column observed by MOPITT for 2000–2010 over the eastern United States and Europe. However, the simulations have positive trends over eastern China, in contrast to the negative trends observed by MOPITT. The model bias in CO, after applying MOPITT averaging kernels, contributes to the model–observation discrepancy in the trend over eastern China. This demonstrates that biases in a model's average concentrations can influence the interpretation of the temporal trend compared to satellite observations. The total ozone column plays a role in determining the simulated tropospheric CO trends. A large positive anomaly in the simulated total ozone column in 2010 leads to a negative anomaly in OH and hence a positive anomaly in CO, contributing to the positive trend in simulated CO. These results demonstrate that accurately simulating variability in the ozone column is important for simulating and interpreting trends in CO.

  5. Interpretive Journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Susana; Strömbäck, Jesper; Aalberg, Toril; Esser, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In summary one-third of the political coverage analyzed in the 16 countries was found to contain interpretive journalism, with some countries - including France and the United States - making use of it much more than the rest. Indeed, the story genres and the interpretive journalism used in the various countries differ substantially, indicating distinct motives and news cultures. A multivariate analysis conducted to identify the most powerful predictors of interpretive journ...

  6. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  7. A Discussion on Uncertainty Representation and Interpretation in Model-Based Prognostics Algorithms based on Kalman Filter Estimation Applied to Prognostics of Electronics Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Saxen, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses several aspects of uncertainty representation and management for model-based prognostics methodologies based on our experience with Kalman Filters when applied to prognostics for electronics components. In particular, it explores the implications of modeling remaining useful life prediction as a stochastic process and how it relates to uncertainty representation, management, and the role of prognostics in decision-making. A distinction between the interpretations of estimated remaining useful life probability density function and the true remaining useful life probability density function is explained and a cautionary argument is provided against mixing interpretations for the two while considering prognostics in making critical decisions.

  8. A Time-Space Symmetry Based Cylindrical Model for Quantum Mechanical Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo Van, Thuan

    2017-12-01

    Following a bi-cylindrical model of geometrical dynamics, our study shows that a 6D-gravitational equation leads to geodesic description in an extended symmetrical time-space, which fits Hubble-like expansion on a microscopic scale. As a duality, the geodesic solution is mathematically equivalent to the basic Klein-Gordon-Fock equations of free massive elementary particles, in particular, the squared Dirac equations of leptons. The quantum indeterminism is proved to have originated from space-time curvatures. Interpretation of some important issues of quantum mechanical reality is carried out in comparison with the 5D space-time-matter theory. A solution of lepton mass hierarchy is proposed by extending to higher dimensional curvatures of time-like hyper-spherical surfaces than one of the cylindrical dynamical geometry. In a result, the reasonable charged lepton mass ratios have been calculated, which would be tested experimentally.

  9. The geotectonic evolution of the Northeastern Minas Gerais, based in geochronological interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siga Junior, O.

    1986-01-01

    This work tries to show the potential of the Rb-Sr, K-Ar, Pb-Pb and U-Pb methods applied to basic geological maping. The different interpretative values of these methodologies contribute to the understanding of the tectonic processes developed in the southeastern border of the Sao Francisco Craton (northeastern Minas Gerais and southern Bahia). The geochronological data for this region represents sampling of the several lithological units characterized and corresponds to about 230 determinations. The radiometric age distribution pattern together with other geological information suggest the subdivision into two main geochronological domains: the external Brazilian domain (at the western portion) and the internal Brazilian domain (at the center-eastern part). (author) [pt

  10. An interpretable fuzzy rule-based classification methodology for medical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadaras, Ioannis; Mikhailov, Ludmil

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a novel fuzzy classification framework for the automatic extraction of fuzzy rules from labeled numerical data, for the development of efficient medical diagnosis systems. The proposed methodology focuses on the accuracy and interpretability of the generated knowledge that is produced by an iterative, flexible and meaningful input partitioning mechanism. The generated hierarchical fuzzy rule structure is composed by linguistic; multiple consequent fuzzy rules that considerably affect the model comprehensibility. The performance of the proposed method is tested on three medical pattern classification problems and the obtained results are compared against other existing methods. It is shown that the proposed variable input partitioning leads to a flexible decision making framework and fairly accurate results with a small number of rules and a simple, fast and robust training process.

  11. Determination of difficult concepts in the interpretation of musculoskeletal radiographs using a web-based learning/teaching tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunn, Heidi, E-mail: heidi@imageinterpretation.co.uk [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Colney Lane, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UY (United Kingdom); Nunn, David L. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Colney Lane, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UY (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To identify which aspects of musculoskeletal radiograph image interpretation users of a web-based learning resource found to be most difficult. Method: The resource provides modular online training, based on twelve musculoskeletal anatomical and pathological areas. At the end of each module is a multiple choice self-test, which users can utilize to consolidate their learning. There are 217 questions within the tests. The results for all questions answered on or before 1st February 2011 were analyzed, and the lowest scoring 25% of questions subsequently reviewed. A low-scoring question implies that the subject was difficult. Results: Users provided a total of 117,097 answers. The range of scores provided by the test questions varied significantly (P < 0.0001), from 15.8% to 93.8%. Topics appearing in the lowest quartile were analyzed in detail. They included interpretation of paediatric radiographs, the Salter-Harris classification, soft-tissue signs and the identification of multiple injuries. The lowest scoring modules were the shoulder and ankle. Conclusion: The results of this study will help to guide educators both within radiography and other health professions in providing more targeted teaching in musculoskeletal image interpretation.

  12. Determination of difficult concepts in the interpretation of musculoskeletal radiographs using a web-based learning/teaching tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, Heidi; Nunn, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To identify which aspects of musculoskeletal radiograph image interpretation users of a web-based learning resource found to be most difficult. Method: The resource provides modular online training, based on twelve musculoskeletal anatomical and pathological areas. At the end of each module is a multiple choice self-test, which users can utilize to consolidate their learning. There are 217 questions within the tests. The results for all questions answered on or before 1st February 2011 were analyzed, and the lowest scoring 25% of questions subsequently reviewed. A low-scoring question implies that the subject was difficult. Results: Users provided a total of 117,097 answers. The range of scores provided by the test questions varied significantly (P < 0.0001), from 15.8% to 93.8%. Topics appearing in the lowest quartile were analyzed in detail. They included interpretation of paediatric radiographs, the Salter-Harris classification, soft-tissue signs and the identification of multiple injuries. The lowest scoring modules were the shoulder and ankle. Conclusion: The results of this study will help to guide educators both within radiography and other health professions in providing more targeted teaching in musculoskeletal image interpretation.

  13. A Integrated Service Platform for Remote Sensing Image 3D Interpretation and Draughting based on HTML5

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Yiping; XU, Qing; ZhANG, Heng; LV, Liang; LU, Wanjie; WANG, Dandi

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to solve the problems of the traditional single system for interpretation and draughting such as inconsistent standards, single function, dependence on plug-ins, closed system and low integration level. On the basis of the comprehensive analysis of the target elements composition, map representation and similar system features, a 3D interpretation and draughting integrated service platform for multi-source, multi-scale and multi-resolution geospatial objects is established based on HTML5 and WebGL, which not only integrates object recognition, access, retrieval, three-dimensional display and test evaluation but also achieves collection, transfer, storage, refreshing and maintenance of data about Geospatial Objects and shows value in certain prospects and potential for growth.

  14. Evidence-based medicine: the design and interpretation of noninferiority clinical trials in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freise, K J; Lin, T-L; Fan, T M; Recta, V; Clark, T P

    2013-01-01

    Noninferiority trials are clinical studies designed to demonstrate that an investigational drug is at least as effective as an established treatment within a predetermined margin. They are conducted, in part, because of ethical concerns of administering a placebo to veterinary patients when an established effective treatment exists. The use of noninferiority trial designs has become more common in veterinary medicine with the increasing number of established veterinary therapeutics and the desire to eliminate potential pain or distress in a placebo-controlled study. Selecting the appropriate active control and an a priori noninferiority margin between the investigational and active control drug are unique and critical design factors for noninferiority studies. Without reliable historical knowledge of the disease response in the absence of treatment and of the response to the selected active control drug, proper design and interpretation of a noninferiority trial is not possible. Despite the appeal of conducting noninferiority trials to eliminate ethical concerns of placebo-controlled studies, there are real limitations and possible ethical conundrums associated with noninferiority trials. The consequences of incorrect study conclusions because of poor noninferiority trial design need careful attention. Alternative trial designs to typical noninferiority studies exist, but these too have limitations and must also be carefully considered. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Construction and Interpretation Of Corpus-Based English Poetry Vocabulary Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Sheikh Al-Shabab

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary Profilers (VPrs are deeply rooted in pedagogical purposes. The current investigation, however, uses the Classic and Compleat VPrs to: 1 determine the distribution and content of vocabulary in an English poetry corpus 2 explain differences in the constituents of the vocabulary profile (VP, 3 explore the role of language users in constructing the VP. The corpus includes Extended Corpus (EC: 1.363.225 words, Micro Corpus (MC: 43.200 words from thirty-six poets, and two poems translated into Arabic. The main results show that Types, Offlist words, Academic and Anglo-Saxon words outline the VP, and that the number of Types and the size of the Individual Mental Lexicon constitute the main features of the translator’s VP. The paper concludes that the poet’s construction of the poetry VP undergoes multilayer interpretation by the reader/analyst and the translator, who utilize their socio-environmental context to pin down the semantic potential of the VP anew.

  16. Using climate, energy, and spatial-based hypotheses to interpret macroecological patterns of North America chelonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Agha, Mickey; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Hazzard, Sarah C.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    Our study investigates how factors, such as latitude, productivity, and several environmental variables, influence contemporary patterns of the species richness in North American turtles. In particular, we test several hypotheses explaining broad-scale species richness patterns on several species richness data sets: (i) total turtles, (ii) freshwater turtles only, (iii) aquatic turtles, (iv) terrestrial turtles only, (v) Emydidae, and (vi) Kinosternidae. In addition to spatial data, we used a combination of 25 abiotic variables in spatial regression models to predict species richness patterns. Our results provide support for multiple hypotheses related to broad-scale patterns of species richness, and in particular, hypotheses related to climate, productivity, water availability, topography, and latitude. In general, species richness patterns were positively associated with temperature, precipitation, diversity of streams, coefficient of variation of elevation, and net primary productivity. We also found that North America turtles follow the general latitudinal diversity gradient pattern (i.e., increasing species richness towards equator) by exhibiting a negative association with latitude. Because of the incongruent results among our six data sets, our study highlights the importance of considering phylogenetic constraints and guilds when interpreting species richness patterns, especially for taxonomic groups that occupy a myriad of habitats.

  17. Modeling of surface myoelectric signals--Part II: Model-based signal interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merletti, R; Roy, S H; Kupa, E; Roatta, S; Granata, A

    1999-07-01

    Experimental electromyogram (EMG) data from the human biceps brachii were simulated using the model described in [10] of this work. A multichannel linear electrode array, spanning the length of the biceps, was used to detect monopolar and bipolar signals, from which double differential signals were computed, during either voluntary or electrically elicited isometric contractions. For relatively low-level voluntary contractions (10%-30% of maximum force) individual firings of three to four-different motor units were identified and their waveforms were closely approximated by the model. Motor unit parameters such as depth, size, fiber orientation and length, location of innervation and tendonous zones, propagation velocity, and source width were estimated using the model. Two applications of the model are described. The first analyzes the effects of electrode rotation with respect to the muscle fiber direction and shows the possibility of conduction velocity (CV) over- and under-estimation. The second focuses on the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue during a sustained electrically elicited contraction and the interrelationship between muscle fiber CV, spectral and amplitude variables, and the length of the depolarization zone. It is concluded that a) surface EMG detection using an electrode array, when combined with a model of signal propagation, provides a useful method for understanding the physiological and anatomical determinants of EMG waveform characteristics and b) the model provides a way for the interpretation of fatigue plots.

  18. An automated patient recognition method based on an image-matching technique using previous chest radiographs in the picture archiving and communication system environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Junji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Kondo, Keisuke; Doi, Kunio

    2001-01-01

    An automated patient recognition method for correcting 'wrong' chest radiographs being stored in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) environment has been developed. The method is based on an image-matching technique that uses previous chest radiographs. For identification of a 'wrong' patient, the correlation value was determined for a previous image of a patient and a new, current image of the presumed corresponding patient. The current image was shifted horizontally and vertically and rotated, so that we could determine the best match between the two images. The results indicated that the correlation values between the current and previous images for the same, 'correct' patients were generally greater than those for different, 'wrong' patients. Although the two histograms for the same patient and for different patients overlapped at correlation values greater than 0.80, most parts of the histograms were separated. The correlation value was compared with a threshold value that was determined based on an analysis of the histograms of correlation values obtained for the same patient and for different patients. If the current image is considered potentially to belong to a 'wrong' patient, then a warning sign with the probability for a 'wrong' patient is provided to alert radiology personnel. Our results indicate that at least half of the 'wrong' images in our database can be identified correctly with the method described in this study. The overall performance in terms of a receiver operating characteristic curve showed a high performance of the system. The results also indicate that some readings of 'wrong' images for a given patient in the PACS environment can be prevented by use of the method we developed. Therefore an automated warning system for patient recognition would be useful in correcting 'wrong' images being stored in the PACS environment

  19. Animal-Assisted Therapy for persons with disabilities based on canine tail language interpretation via fuzzy emotional behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanwanich, Warangkhana; Kumdee, Orrawan; Ritthipravat, Panrasee; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2011-01-01

    Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) is the science that employs the merit of human-animal interaction to alleviate mental and physical problems of persons with disabilities. However, to achieve the goal of AAT for persons with severe disabilities (e.g. spinal cord injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), real-time animal language interpretation is needed. Since canine behaviors can be visually distinguished from its tail, this paper proposes the automatic real-time interpretation of canine tail language for human-canine interaction in the case of persons with severe disabilities. Canine tail language is captured via two 3-axis accelerometers. Directions and frequency are selected as our features of interests. New fuzzy rules and center of gravity (COG)-based defuzzification method are proposed in order to interpret the features into three canine emotional behaviors, i.e., agitate, happy, and scare as well as its blended emotional behaviors. The emotional behavior model is performed in the simulated dog. The average recognition rate in real dog is 93.75% accuracy.

  20. Interpretation miniatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje

    Most physicists do not have patience for reading long and obscure interpretation arguments and disputes. Hence, to attract attention of a wider physics community, in this paper various old and new aspects of quantum interpretations are explained in a concise and simple (almost trivial) form. About the “Copenhagen” interpretation, we note that there are several different versions of it and explain how to make sense of “local nonreality” interpretation. About the many-world interpretation (MWI), we explain that it is neither local nor nonlocal, that it cannot explain the Born rule, that it suffers from the preferred basis problem, and that quantum suicide cannot be used to test it. About the Bohmian interpretation, we explain that it is analogous to dark matter, use it to explain that there is no big difference between nonlocal correlation and nonlocal causation, and use some condensed-matter ideas to outline how nonrelativistic Bohmian theory could be a theory of everything. We also explain how different interpretations can be used to demystify the delayed choice experiment, to resolve the problem of time in quantum gravity, and to provide alternatives to quantum nonlocality. Finally, we explain why is life compatible with the second law.

  1. Longitudinal Evaluation of Hospitalized Burn Patients in Sivas City Center for Six Months and Comparison with a Previously Held Community-based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Erin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to longitudinally demonstrate the rate and epidemiology of hospitalized burn patients in Sivas city center within 6 months. The second aim was to compare the results of the current study with those of a previously held community-based survey in the same region. Material and Methods: Patients who were hospitalized due to burn injuries in Sivas city for six months were longitudinally evaluated. Epidemiological data of these patients were analyzed. Results: During the course of the study, 87 patients (49 males and 38 females were hospitalized. The ratio of burn patients to the total number of hospitalized patients was 0.38%. The most common etiologic factor was scalds (70.1%. Burns generally took place in the kitchen (41.4% and living room (31.4%, and majority of the patients received cold water as first-aid treatment at the time of injury. The vast majority of patients were discharged from the hospital without the need of surgical intervention (83.9%, and the duration of treatment was between 1 and 14 days for 73.6% of the patients. Sixty patients (68.9% had a total burn surface area under 10%. The total cost of the hospitalization period of these patients was 137.225 Turkish Lira (83.308–92.908$, and the average cost per patient was 1.577 Turkish Lira (957–1067$. Conclusion: Our study revealed a considerable inconsistency when compared with the results of the community-based survey, which had been previously conducted in the same region. We concluded that hospital-based studies are far from reflecting the actual burn trauma potential of a given district in the absence of a reliable, standard, nation-wide record system. Population-based surveys should be encouraged to make an accurate assessment of burn rates in countries lacking reliable record systems.

  2. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  3. A Comprehensive Statistically-Based Method to Interpret Real-Time Flowing Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keita Yoshioka; Pinan Dawkrajai; Analis A. Romero; Ding Zhu; A. D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

    2007-01-15

    With the recent development of temperature measurement systems, continuous temperature profiles can be obtained with high precision. Small temperature changes can be detected by modern temperature measuring instruments such as fiber optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS) in intelligent completions and will potentially aid the diagnosis of downhole flow conditions. In vertical wells, since elevational geothermal changes make the wellbore temperature sensitive to the amount and the type of fluids produced, temperature logs can be used successfully to diagnose the downhole flow conditions. However, geothermal temperature changes along the wellbore being small for horizontal wells, interpretations of a temperature log become difficult. The primary temperature differences for each phase (oil, water, and gas) are caused by frictional effects. Therefore, in developing a thermal model for horizontal wellbore, subtle temperature changes must be accounted for. In this project, we have rigorously derived governing equations for a producing horizontal wellbore and developed a prediction model of the temperature and pressure by coupling the wellbore and reservoir equations. Also, we applied Ramey's model (1962) to the build section and used an energy balance to infer the temperature profile at the junction. The multilateral wellbore temperature model was applied to a wide range of cases at varying fluid thermal properties, absolute values of temperature and pressure, geothermal gradients, flow rates from each lateral, and the trajectories of each build section. With the prediction models developed, we present inversion studies of synthetic and field examples. These results are essential to identify water or gas entry, to guide flow control devices in intelligent completions, and to decide if reservoir stimulation is needed in particular horizontal sections. This study will complete and validate these inversion studies.

  4. A REST-ful interpretation for embedded modular systems based on open architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, James

    2016-05-01

    The much-anticipated revolution of the "Internet of things" (IoT) is expected to generate one trillion internet devices within the next 15 years, mostly in the form of simple wireless sensor devices. While this revolution promises to transform silicon markets and drive a number of disruptive changes in society, it is also the case that the protocols, complexity, and security issues of extremely large dynamic, co-mingled networks is still poorly understood. Furthermore, embedded system developers, to include military and aerospace users, have largely ignored the potential (good and bound) of the cloudlike, possibly intermingling networks having variable structure to how future systems might be engineered. In this paper, we consider a new interpretation of IoT inspired modular architecture strategies involving the representational state transfer (REST) model, in which dynamic networks with variable structure employ stateless application programming interface (API) concepts. The power of the method, which extends concepts originally developed for space plug-and-play avionics, is that it allows for the fluid co-mingling of hardware and software in networks whose structure can overlap and evolve. Paradoxically, these systems may have the most stringent determinism and fault-tolerant needs. In this paper we review how RESTful APIs can potentially be used to design, create, test, and deploy systems rapidly while addressing security and referential integrity even when the nodes of many systems might physically co-mingle. We will also explore ways to take advantage of the RESTful paradigm for fault tolerance and what extensions might be necessary to deal with high-performance and determinism.

  5. A Comprehensive Statistically-Based Method to Interpret Real-Time Flowing Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinan Dawkrajai; Keita Yoshioka; Analis A. Romero; Ding Zhu; A.D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

    2005-10-01

    This project is motivated by the increasing use of distributed temperature sensors for real-time monitoring of complex wells (horizontal, multilateral and multi-branching wells) to infer the profiles of oil, gas, and water entry. Measured information can be used to interpret flow profiles along the wellbore including junction and build section. In this second project year, we have completed a forward model to predict temperature and pressure profiles in complex wells. As a comprehensive temperature model, we have developed an analytical reservoir flow model which takes into account Joule-Thomson effects in the near well vicinity and multiphase non-isothermal producing wellbore model, and couples those models accounting mass and heat transfer between them. For further inferences such as water coning or gas evaporation, we will need a numerical non-isothermal reservoir simulator, and unlike existing (thermal recovery, geothermal) simulators, it should capture subtle temperature change occurring in a normal production. We will show the results from the analytical coupled model (analytical reservoir solution coupled with numerical multi-segment well model) to infer the anomalous temperature or pressure profiles under various conditions, and the preliminary results from the numerical coupled reservoir model which solves full matrix including wellbore grids. We applied Ramey's model to the build section and used an enthalpy balance to infer the temperature profile at the junction. The multilateral wellbore temperature model was applied to a wide range of cases varying fluid thermal properties, absolute values of temperature and pressure, geothermal gradients, flow rates from each lateral, and the trajectories of each build section.

  6. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  7. Interpretive Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  8. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  9. Interpreting Capability Maturity Model(Trademark) Integration (CMMI(Trademark)) for COTS-Based Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyson, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    ...: adjusted roles and responsibilities, new skills, and different processes. Practitioners are often surprised to find that building and supporting COTS-based systems demands more, not less, discipline in their management and engineering practices...

  10. A LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) for biological tissue impedance analysis and equivalent circuit modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Tushar Kanti

    2016-12-05

    Under an alternating electrical signal, biological tissues produce a complex electrical bioimpedance that is a function of tissue composition and applied signal frequencies. By studying the bioimpedance spectra of biological tissues over a wide range of frequencies, we can noninvasively probe the physiological properties of these tissues to detect possible pathological conditions. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can provide the spectra that are needed to calculate impedance parameters within a wide range of frequencies. Before impedance parameters can be calculated and tissue information extracted, impedance spectra should be processed and analyzed by a dedicated software program. National Instruments (NI) Inc. offers LabVIEW, a fast, portable, robust, user-friendly platform for designing dataanalyzing software. We developed a LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) to analyze the electrical impedance spectra for tissue characterization in medical, biomedical and biological applications. Here, we test, calibrate and evaluate the performance of LEBISDI on the impedance data obtained from simulation studies as well as the practical EIS experimentations conducted on electronic circuit element combinations and the biological tissue samples. We analyze the Nyquist plots obtained from the EIS measurements and compare the equivalent circuit parameters calculated by LEBISDI with the corresponding original circuit parameters to assess the accuracy of the program developed. Calibration studies show that LEBISDI not only interpreted the simulated and circuitelement data accurately, but also successfully interpreted tissues impedance data and estimated the capacitive and resistive components produced by the compositions biological cells. Finally, LEBISDI efficiently calculated and analyzed variation in bioimpedance parameters of different tissue compositions, health and temperatures. LEBISDI can also be used for human tissue

  11. Developing and Supporting Students' Autonomy to Plan, Perform, and Interpret Inquiry-Based Biochemistry Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thanuci; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory sessions are designed to develop the experimental skills and the acquaintance with instruments that may contribute to a successful career in Biochemistry and associated fields. This study is a report on improving a traditional Biochemistry course by devising the laboratory sessions as an inquiry-based environment to develop the…

  12. Nitric oxide in a diesel engine : laser-based detection and interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels, G.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most polluting components in the exhaust gases of a diesel engines. Therefore, knowledge of the time and place where it is produced during the combustion process is of interest to find a way to reduce diesel engine emissions. Non-intrusive optical diagnostics, based

  13. Interpreting Definitions of Public Relations: Self Assessment and a Symbolic Interactionism-Based Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joye C.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews several popular definitions of public relations; explicates the shared elements and assumptions inherent in these definitions. Presents an alternative conceptualization of public relations based upon Herbert Blumer's symbolic interactionism. Looks to stimulate questioning and self assessment and to introduce alternative goals, ideas, and…

  14. Collocations in Corpus-Based Language Learning Research: Identifying, Comparing, and Interpreting the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gablasova, Dana; Brezina, Vaclav; McEnery, Tony

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of collocations in language learning research (LLR). Collocations, as units of formulaic language, are becoming prominent in our understanding of language learning and use; however, while the number of corpus-based LLR studies of collocations is growing, there is still a need for a deeper understanding of factors…

  15. EPR interpretation, magnetism and biological study of a Cu(II) dinuclear complex assisted by a schiff base precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kuheli; Patra, Chiranjit; Sen, Chandana; Datta, Amitabha; Massera, Chiara; Garribba, Eugenio; El Fallah, Mohamed Salah; Beyene, Belete B; Hung, Chen-Hsiung; Sinha, Chittaranjan; Askun, Tulin; Celikboyun, Pinar; Escudero, Daniel; Frontera, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    A new Cu(II) dinuclear complex, Cu 2 L 2 (1) was afforded employing the potentially pentatentate Schiff base precursor H 2 L, a refluxed product of o-vanillin and diethylenetriamine in methanol. Complex 1 was systematically characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, emission and EPR spectrometry. The single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of 1 reveals that the copper atom exhibits a distorted square planar geometry, comprising two pairs of phenolato-O and imine-N donors from two different H 2 L ligands. The temperature dependent magnetic interpretation agrees with the existence of weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the bridging dinuclear Cu(II) ions. A considerable body of experimental evidence has been accumulated to elucidate the magneto-structural relationship in this dinuclear Cu(II) complex by DFT computation. Both the ligand and complex 1 exhibit anti-mycobacterial activity and considerable efficacy on M. tuberculosis H 37 Ra (ATCC 25177) and M. tuberculosis H 37 Rv (ATCC 25618) strains. The practical applicability of the ligand and complex 1 has been examined in living cells (African Monkey Vero Cells). The MTT assay proves the non-toxicity of the probe up to 100 mg mL -1 . A new homometallic dinuclear Cu(II) complex is afforded with a tetradentate Schiff base precursor. EPR interpretation and temperature dependent magnetic studies show that complex 1 has weak antiferromagnetic coupling and DFT computation is governed to explain the magneto-structural correlation.

  16. Modelling of Distance Education Forum: Formal Languages as Interpretation Methodology of Messages in Asynchronous Text-Based Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarcheas, Kiriakos; Xenos, Michalis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a study carried out in the area of distance learning electronic forums. Based on the relevant bibliographic review, electronic forums are increasingly becoming part of the learning process. The specific study was stimulated by previous works relevant to the modelling of the behaviour of IT students at Hellenic Open University…

  17. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  18. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  19. From Interpreter to logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  20. Evaluation and interpretation of regional and site-specific hydrochemical data bases for water quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Hutchins

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of stream water composition, as determined by the Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE conducted by the British Geological Survey (BGS can be successfully related under baseflow conditions to bedrock geochemistry. Further consideration of results in conjunction with site-specific monitoring data enables factors controlling both spatial and temporal variability in major element composition to be highlighted and allows the value of the survey to be enhanced. Hence, chemical data (i from streams located on Lower Silurian (Llandovery bedrock at 1 km2 resolution collected as part of the G-BASE survey of Wales and the West Midlands and (ii from catchment monitoring studies located in upland mid-Wales (conducted by Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, have been considered together as an example. Classification of the spatial survey data set in terms of potentially controlling factors was carried out so as to illustrate the level of explanation they could give in terms of observed spatial chemical variability. It was therefore hypothesised that on a geological lithostratigraphic series of limited geochemical contrast, altitude and land-use factors provide better explanation of this variability than others such as lithology at sampling site and stream order. At an individual site, temporal variability was also found to be of considerable significance and, at a monthly time-step, is explicable in terms of factors such as antecedent conditions and seasonality. Data suggest that the degree of this variability may show some relationship with stream order and land-use. Monitoring data from the region also reveal that relationships between stream chemistry and land-use may prove to be strong not only at base flow but also in storm flow conditions. In a wider context, predictions of the sensitivity of stream water to acidification based on classifications of soil and geology are successful on a regional scale. However

  1. Interpretation of cardiac wall motion from cine-MRI combined with parametric imaging based on the Hilbert transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benameur, Narjes; Caiani, Enrico Gianluca; Arous, Younes; Abdallah, Nejmeddine Ben; Kraiem, Tarek

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test and validate the clinical impact of parametric amplitude images obtained using the Hilbert transform on the regional interpretation of cardiac wall motion abnormalities from cine-MR images by non-expert radiologists compared with expert consensus. Cine-MRI short-axis images obtained in 20 patients (10 with myocardial infarction, 5 with myocarditis and 5 with normal function) were processed to compute a parametric amplitude image for each using the Hilbert transform. Two expert radiologists blindly reviewed the cine-MR images to define a gold standard for wall motion interpretation for each left ventricular sector. Two non-expert radiologists reviewed and graded the same images without and in combination with parametric images. Grades assigned to each segment in the two separate sessions were compared with the gold standard. According to expert interpretation, 264/320 (82.5%) segments were classified as normal and 56/320 (17.5%) were considered abnormal. The accuracy of the non-expert radiologists' grades compared to the gold standard was significantly improved by adding parametric images (from 87.2 to 94.6%) together with sensitivity (from 64.29 to 84.4%) and specificity (from 92 to 96.9%), also resulting in reduced interobserver variability (from 12.8 to 5.6%). The use of parametric amplitude images based on the Hilbert transform in conjunction with cine-MRI was shown to be a promising technique for improvement of the detection of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities in less expert radiologists.

  2. GEPAS, a web-based tool for microarray data analysis and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárraga, Joaquín; Medina, Ignacio; Carbonell, José; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Minguez, Pablo; Alloza, Eva; Al-Shahrour, Fátima; Vegas-Azcárate, Susana; Goetz, Stefan; Escobar, Pablo; Garcia-Garcia, Francisco; Conesa, Ana; Montaner, David; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2008-01-01

    Gene Expression Profile Analysis Suite (GEPAS) is one of the most complete and extensively used web-based packages for microarray data analysis. During its more than 5 years of activity it has continuously been updated to keep pace with the state-of-the-art in the changing microarray data analysis arena. GEPAS offers diverse analysis options that include well established as well as novel algorithms for normalization, gene selection, class prediction, clustering and functional profiling of the experiment. New options for time-course (or dose-response) experiments, microarray-based class prediction, new clustering methods and new tests for differential expression have been included. The new pipeliner module allows automating the execution of sequential analysis steps by means of a simple but powerful graphic interface. An extensive re-engineering of GEPAS has been carried out which includes the use of web services and Web 2.0 technology features, a new user interface with persistent sessions and a new extended database of gene identifiers. GEPAS is nowadays the most quoted web tool in its field and it is extensively used by researchers of many countries and its records indicate an average usage rate of 500 experiments per day. GEPAS, is available at http://www.gepas.org. PMID:18508806

  3. Interpreting Physics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  4. Using ground-based geophysics to constrain the interpretation of airborne TEM data recorded across the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, J. E.; Kalscheuer, T.; Doetsch, J.; Rabenstein, L.; Tshoso, G.; Meier, P.; Horstmeyer, H.; Kgotlhang, L.; Ploug, C.; Auken, E.; Kinzelbach, W. K.; Green, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Okavango Delta in northern Botswana is a near endorheic inland delta that has developed over the past ~2 MA in an active graben at the southwestern end of the East Africa Rift System. An annual flood from the north causes a slowly flowing surface water regime in the delta, but previous wetter climatic periods were responsible for intermittent lacustrine environments. The Okavango Delta is the largest permanent water body in the Kalahari Desert and, as such, represents an important resource for wildlife and humans alike. An airborne time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) survey, commissioned by the Botswana government, was undertaken in 2007 for the purpose of better understanding the hydrogeology of the delta. Initial processing and inversion of these data show within the main fan of the delta a resistive 20-50 m thick surface layer underlain by a 30-200 m thick conductive layer. In the upper fan, the conductive layer is underlain by a resistive unit beginning at about 150 m depth. This unit exhibits a dendritic pattern implying a fluvial origin. To help interpret this and other structures, geophysical field work was initiated in early 2011 at various locations in the delta. Seismic reflection and refraction, electrical resistive tomography (ERT), and ground TEM methods were employed. The seismic methods are useful for delineating the boundaries of the weathering and basement layers, whereas ERT provides an independent estimate of the resistivity structure, particularly at shallow depths. Ground TEM allows for a direct comparison with the airborne TEM soundings, helping to estimate the accuracy of the latter. Though still evolving, the current large-scale hydrogeological interpretation of the airborne data set includes a fresh water-saturated surface layer underlain by a saline aquifer and clay aquitard. In the upper fan of the delta, a fresh water aquifer appears to lie between the aquitard and the basement rock.

  5. A novel pH-responsive hydrogel-based on calcium alginate engineered by the previous formation of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) intended to vaginal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Natália Noronha; Perez, Taciane Alvarenga; Pedreiro, Liliane Neves; Prezotti, Fabíola Garavello; Boni, Fernanda Isadora; Cardoso, Valéria Maria de Oliveira; Venâncio, Tiago; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon

    2017-10-01

    This work aimed to develop a calcium alginate hydrogel as a pH responsive delivery system for polymyxin B (PMX) sustained-release through the vaginal route. Two samples of sodium alginate from different suppliers were characterized. The molecular weight and M/G ratio determined were, approximately, 107 KDa and 1.93 for alginate_S and 32 KDa and 1.36 for alginate_V. Polymer rheological investigations were further performed through the preparation of hydrogels. Alginate_V was selected for subsequent incorporation of PMX due to the acquisition of pseudoplastic viscous system able to acquiring a differential structure in simulated vaginal microenvironment (pH 4.5). The PMX-loaded hydrogel (hydrogel_PMX) was engineered based on polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) formation between alginate and PMX followed by crosslinking with calcium chloride. This system exhibited a morphology with variable pore sizes, ranging from 100 to 200 μm and adequate syringeability. The hydrogel liquid uptake ability in an acid environment was minimized by the previous PECs formation. In vitro tests evidenced the hydrogels mucoadhesiveness. PMX release was pH-dependent and the system was able to sustain the release up to 6 days. A burst release was observed at pH 7.4 and drug release was driven by an anomalous transport, as determined by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. At pH 4.5, drug release correlated with Weibull model and drug transport was driven by Fickian diffusion. The calcium alginate hydrogels engineered by the previous formation of PECs showed to be a promising platform for sustained release of cationic drugs through vaginal administration.

  6. Effect of cigarette smoking on arterial stiffness re-interpreted using a structurally-based model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Humphrey, Jay D.; Lönn, Lars

    Cigarette smoking constitutes a major risk factor for diverse cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Many physiological and pathophysiological parameters affect arterial stiffness. While underlying mechanisms remain unclear, smoking increases arterial stiffness, which contributes to many disease processes....... The goal of this work was to use a structurally motivated nonlinear constitutive relation to quantify increased arterial stiffness based on available data. Specifically, we used a “four-fiber family model” that includes dominant effects of axial, circumferential, and symmetric-diagonal families of collagen...... fibers embedded within an isotropic, elastin-dominated matrix. Published data, i.e. biaxial responses during pressure-diameter and axial force-length tests on pulmonary arteries from rats subjected to 2 or 3 months of smoking, were used to determine the associated best-fit values of the material...

  7. Interpretation of motion analysis of laparoscopic instruments based on principal component analysis in box trainer settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ignacio; Escamirosa, Fernando Pérez; Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A; Enciso, Silvia; Rodríguez-Vila, Borja; Martínez, Arturo Minor; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Gómez, Enrique J; Sánchez-González, Patricia

    2018-01-18

    Motion analysis parameters (MAPs) have been extensively validated for assessment of minimally invasive surgical skills. However, there are discrepancies on how specific MAPs, tasks, and skills match with each other, reflecting that motion analysis cannot be generalized independently of the learning outcomes of a task. Additionally, there is a lack of knowledge on the meaning of motion analysis in terms of surgical skills, making difficult the provision of meaningful, didactic feedback. In this study, new higher significance MAPs (HSMAPs) are proposed, validated, and discussed for the assessment of technical skills in box trainers, based on principal component analysis (PCA). Motion analysis data were collected from 25 volunteers performing three box trainer tasks (peg grasping/PG, pattern cutting/PC, knot suturing/KS) using the EVA tracking system. PCA was applied on 10 MAPs for each task and hand. Principal components were trimmed to those accounting for an explained variance > 80% to define the HSMAPs. Individual contributions of MAPs to HSMAPs were obtained by loading analysis and varimax rotation. Construct validity of the new HSMAPs was carried out at two levels of experience based on number of surgeries. Three new HSMAPs per hand were defined for PG and PC tasks, and two per hand for KS task. PG presented validity for HSMAPs related to insecurity and economy of space. PC showed validity for HSMAPs related to cutting efficacy, peripheral unawareness, and confidence. Finally, KS presented validity for HSMAPs related with economy of space and knotting security. PCA-defined HSMAPs can be used for technical skills' assessment. Construct validation and expert knowledge can be combined to infer how competences are acquired in box trainer tasks. These findings can be exploited to provide residents with meaningful feedback on performance. Future works will compare the new HSMAPs with valid scoring systems such as GOALS.

  8. Exploring the uncertainties of early detection results: model-based interpretation of mayo lung project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Barbara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mayo Lung Project (MLP, a randomized controlled clinical trial of lung cancer screening conducted between 1971 and 1986 among male smokers aged 45 or above, demonstrated an increase in lung cancer survival since the time of diagnosis, but no reduction in lung cancer mortality. Whether this result necessarily indicates a lack of mortality benefit for screening remains controversial. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed outcome, including over-diagnosis, screening sensitivity, and population heterogeneity (initial difference in lung cancer risks between the two trial arms. This study is intended to provide model-based testing for some of these important arguments. Method Using a micro-simulation model, the MISCAN-lung model, we explore the possible influence of screening sensitivity, systematic error, over-diagnosis and population heterogeneity. Results Calibrating screening sensitivity, systematic error, or over-diagnosis does not noticeably improve the fit of the model, whereas calibrating population heterogeneity helps the model predict lung cancer incidence better. Conclusions Our conclusion is that the hypothesized imperfection in screening sensitivity, systematic error, and over-diagnosis do not in themselves explain the observed trial results. Model fit improvement achieved by accounting for population heterogeneity suggests a higher risk of cancer incidence in the intervention group as compared with the control group.

  9. Development and validation of open-source software for DNA mixture interpretation based on a quantitative continuous model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Sho; Morimoto, Chie; Hamano, Yuya; Fujimoto, Shuntaro; Tamaki, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    In criminal investigations, forensic scientists need to evaluate DNA mixtures. The estimation of the number of contributors and evaluation of the contribution of a person of interest (POI) from these samples are challenging. In this study, we developed a new open-source software "Kongoh" for interpreting DNA mixture based on a quantitative continuous model. The model uses quantitative information of peak heights in the DNA profile and considers the effect of artifacts and allelic drop-out. By using this software, the likelihoods of 1-4 persons' contributions are calculated, and the most optimal number of contributors is automatically determined; this differs from other open-source software. Therefore, we can eliminate the need to manually determine the number of contributors before the analysis. Kongoh also considers allele- or locus-specific effects of biological parameters based on the experimental data. We then validated Kongoh by calculating the likelihood ratio (LR) of a POI's contribution in true contributors and non-contributors by using 2-4 person mixtures analyzed through a 15 short tandem repeat typing system. Most LR values obtained from Kongoh during true-contributor testing strongly supported the POI's contribution even for small amounts or degraded DNA samples. Kongoh correctly rejected a false hypothesis in the non-contributor testing, generated reproducible LR values, and demonstrated higher accuracy of the estimated number of contributors than another software based on the quantitative continuous model. Therefore, Kongoh is useful in accurately interpreting DNA evidence like mixtures and small amounts or degraded DNA samples.

  10. UV-POSIT: Web-Based Tools for Rapid and Facile Structural Interpretation of Ultraviolet Photodissociation (UVPD) Mass Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Jake; Parker, W Ryan; Cammarata, Michael B; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2018-04-06

    UV-POSIT (Ultraviolet Photodissociation Online Structure Interrogation Tools) is a suite of web-based tools designed to facilitate the rapid interpretation of data from native mass spectrometry experiments making use of 193 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD). The suite includes four separate utilities which assist in the calculation of fragment ion abundances as a function of backbone cleavage sites and sequence position; the localization of charge sites in intact proteins; the calculation of hydrogen elimination propensity for a-type fragment ions; and mass-offset searching of UVPD spectra to identify unknown modifications and assess false positive fragment identifications. UV-POSIT is implemented as a Python/Flask web application hosted at http://uv-posit.cm.utexas.edu . UV-POSIT is available under the MIT license, and the source code is available at https://github.com/jarosenb/UV_POSIT . Graphical Abstract.

  11. Acquiring specific interpreting competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zidar Forte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In postgraduate interpreter training, the main objective of the course is to help trainees develop various competences, from linguistic, textual and cultural competence, to professional and specific interpreting competence. For simultaneous interpreting (SI, the main focus is on mastering the SI technique and strategies as well as on developing and strengthening communicative skills, which is discussed and illustrated with examples in the present paper. First, a brief overview is given of all the necessary competences of a professional interpreter with greater emphasis on specific interpreting competence for SI. In the second part of the paper, various approaches are described in terms of acquiring specific skills and strategies, specifically through a range of exercises. Besides interpreting entire speeches, practical courses should also consist of targeted exercises, which help trainees develop suitable coping strategies and mechanisms (later on almost automatisms, while at the same time "force" them to reflect on their individual learning process and interpreting performance. This provides a solid base on which trained interpreters can progress and develop their skills also after joining the professional sphere.

  12. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-01-01

    The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and ...

  13. A noninvasive method for coronary artery diseases diagnosis using a clinically-interpretable fuzzy rule-based system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Marateb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart diseases/coronary artery diseases (CHDs/CAD, the most common form of cardiovascular disease (CVD, are a major cause for death and disability in developing/developed countries. CAD risk factors could be detected by physicians to prevent the CAD occurrence in the near future. Invasive coronary angiography, a current diagnosis method, is costly and associated with morbidity and mortality in CAD patients. The aim of this study was to design a computer-based noninvasive CAD diagnosis system with clinically interpretable rules. Materials and Methods: In this study, the Cleveland CAD dataset from the University of California UCI (Irvine was used. The interval-scale variables were discretized, with cut points taken from the literature. A fuzzy rule-based system was then formulated based on a neuro-fuzzy classifier (NFC whose learning procedure was speeded up by the scaled conjugate gradient algorithm. Two feature selection (FS methods, multiple logistic regression (MLR and sequential FS, were used to reduce the required attributes. The performance of the NFC (without/with FS was then assessed in a hold-out validation framework. Further cross-validation was performed on the best classifier. Results: In this dataset, 16 complete attributes along with the binary CHD diagnosis (gold standard for 272 subjects (68% male were analyzed. MLR + NFC showed the best performance. Its overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, type I error (α and statistical power were 79%, 89%, 84%, 0.1 and 79%, respectively. The selected features were "age and ST/heart rate slope categories," "exercise-induced angina status," fluoroscopy, and thallium-201 stress scintigraphy results. Conclusion: The proposed method showed "substantial agreement" with the gold standard. This algorithm is thus, a promising tool for screening CAD patients.

  14. A noninvasive method for coronary artery diseases diagnosis using a clinically-interpretable fuzzy rule-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marateb, Hamid Reza; Goudarzi, Sobhan

    2015-03-01

    Coronary heart diseases/coronary artery diseases (CHDs/CAD), the most common form of cardiovascular disease (CVD), are a major cause for death and disability in developing/developed countries. CAD risk factors could be detected by physicians to prevent the CAD occurrence in the near future. Invasive coronary angiography, a current diagnosis method, is costly and associated with morbidity and mortality in CAD patients. The aim of this study was to design a computer-based noninvasive CAD diagnosis system with clinically interpretable rules. In this study, the Cleveland CAD dataset from the University of California UCI (Irvine) was used. The interval-scale variables were discretized, with cut points taken from the literature. A fuzzy rule-based system was then formulated based on a neuro-fuzzy classifier (NFC) whose learning procedure was speeded up by the scaled conjugate gradient algorithm. Two feature selection (FS) methods, multiple logistic regression (MLR) and sequential FS, were used to reduce the required attributes. The performance of the NFC (without/with FS) was then assessed in a hold-out validation framework. Further cross-validation was performed on the best classifier. In this dataset, 16 complete attributes along with the binary CHD diagnosis (gold standard) for 272 subjects (68% male) were analyzed. MLR + NFC showed the best performance. Its overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, type I error (α) and statistical power were 79%, 89%, 84%, 0.1 and 79%, respectively. The selected features were "age and ST/heart rate slope categories," "exercise-induced angina status," fluoroscopy, and thallium-201 stress scintigraphy results. The proposed method showed "substantial agreement" with the gold standard. This algorithm is thus, a promising tool for screening CAD patients.

  15. Mammographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, L.

    1987-01-01

    For mammography to be an effective diagnostic method, it must be performed to a very high standard of quality. Otherwise many lesions, in particular cancer in its early stages, will simply not be detectable on the films, regardless of the skill of the mammographer. Mammographic interpretation consists of two basic steps: perception and analysis. The process of mammographic interpretation begins with perception of the lesion on the mammogram. Perception is influenced by several factors. One of the most important is the parenchymal pattern of the breast tissue, detection of pathologic lesions being easier with fatty involution. The mammographer should use a method for the systematic viewing of the mammograms that will ensure that all parts of each mammogram are carefully searched for the presence of lesions. The method of analysis proceeds according to the type of lesion. The contour analysis of primary importance in the evaluation of circumscribed tumors. After having analyzed the contour and density of a lesion and considered its size, the mammographer should be fairly certain whether the circumscribed tumor is benign or malignant. Fine-needle puncture and/or US may assist the mammographer in making this decision. Painstaking analysis is required because many circumscribed tumors do not need to be biopsied. The perception of circumscribed tumors seldom causes problems, but their analysis needs careful attention. On the other hand, the major challenge with star-shaped lesions is perception. They may be difficult to discover when small. Although the final diagnosis of a stellate lesion can be made only with the help of histologic examination, the preoperative mammorgraphic differential diagnosis can be highly accurate. The differential diagnostic problem is between malignant tumors (scirrhous carcinoma), on the one hand, and traumatic fat necrosis as well as radial scars on the other hand

  16. Learning in balance: Using oscillatory EEG biomarkers of attention, motivation and vigilance to interpret game-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cowley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the link between play and learning, proposed in literature to have a neurobiological basis, we study the electroencephalogram and associated psychophysiology of “learning game” players. Forty-five players were tested for topic comprehension by a questionnaire administered before and after solo playing of the game Peacemaker (Impact Games 2007, during which electroencephalography and other physiological signals were measured. Play lasted for one hour, with a break at half time. We used the Bloom taxonomy to distinguish levels of difficulty in demonstrated learning—with the first five levels assigned to fixed questions—and “gain” scores to measure actual value of demonstrated learning. We present the analysis of the physiological signals recorded during game play and their relationship to learning scores. Main effects related to biomarkers of vigilance and motivation—including decreased delta power and relatively balanced fronto-hemispheric alpha power—predicted learning at the analysed Bloom levels. Results suggest multiple physiological dispositions that support on-task learning styles, and highlight the utility of the psychophysiological method for interpreting game-based learning evaluations.

  17. Water and forests in the Mediterranean hot climate zone: a review based on a hydraulic interpretation of tree functioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares David, T.; Assunção Pinto, C.; Nadezhdina, N.; Soares David, J.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Water scarcity is the main limitation to forest growth and tree survival in the Mediterranean hot climate zone. This paper reviews literature on the relations between water and forests in the region, and their implications on forest and water resources management. The analysis is based on a hydraulic interpretation of tree functioning. Area of the study: The review covers research carried out in the Mediterranean hot climate zone, put into perspective of wider/global research on the subject. The scales of analysis range from the tree to catchment levels. Material and Methods: For literature review we used Sc opus, Web of Science and Go ogle Scholar as bibliographic databases. Data from two Quercus suber sites in Portugal were used for illustrative purposes. Main results: We identify knowledge gaps and discuss options to better adapt forest management to climate change under a tree water use/availability perspective. Forest management is also discussed within the wider context of catchment water balance: water is a constraint for biomass production, but also for other human activities such as urban supply, industry and irrigated agriculture. Research highlights: Given the scarce and variable (in space and in time) water availability in the region, further research is needed on: mapping the spatial heterogeneity of water availability to trees; adjustment of tree density to local conditions; silviculture practices that do not damage soil properties or roots; irrigation of forest plantations in some specific areas; tree breeding. Also, a closer cooperation between forest and water managers is needed. (Author)

  18. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders. This study used content analysis to obtain detailed information about these disorders from the interpreters' point of view...

  19. A new framework for the documentation and interpretation of oral food challenges in population-based and clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabenhenrich, L. B.; Reich, Andreas; Bellach, J.; Trendelenburg, V.; Sprikkelman, A. B.; Roberts, G.; Grimshaw, K. E. C.; Sigurdardottir, S; Kowalski, M. L.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Quirce, S.; Dubakiene, R.; Niggemann, B.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; van Ree, R.; Schnadt, S.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Keil, T.; Beyer, K.

    Background: The conduct of oral food challenges as the preferred diagnostic standard for food allergy (FA) was harmonized over the last years. However, documentation and interpretation of challenge results, particularly in research settings, are not sufficiently standardized to allow valid

  20. The evolution of mapping habitat for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): A comparison of photo-interpreted, Landsat-based, and lidar-based habitat maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackers, Steven H.; Davis, Raymond J.; Olsen, K.; Dugger, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife habitat mapping has evolved at a rapid pace over the last few decades. Beginning with simple, often subjective, hand-drawn maps, habitat mapping now involves complex species distribution models (SDMs) using mapped predictor variables derived from remotely sensed data. For species that inhabit large geographic areas, remote sensing technology is often essential for producing range wide maps. Habitat monitoring for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), whose geographic covers about 23 million ha, is based on SDMs that use Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery to create forest vegetation data layers using gradient nearest neighbor (GNN) methods. Vegetation data layers derived from GNN are modeled relationships between forest inventory plot data, climate and topographic data, and the spectral signatures acquired by the satellite. When used as predictor variables for SDMs, there is some transference of the GNN modeling error to the final habitat map.Recent increases in the use of light detection and ranging (lidar) data, coupled with the need to produce spatially accurate and detailed forest vegetation maps have spurred interest in its use for SDMs and habitat mapping. Instead of modeling predictor variables from remotely sensed spectral data, lidar provides direct measurements of vegetation height for use in SDMs. We expect a SDM habitat map produced from directly measured predictor variables to be more accurate than one produced from modeled predictors.We used maximum entropy (Maxent) SDM modeling software to compare predictive performance and estimates of habitat area between Landsat-based and lidar-based northern spotted owl SDMs and habitat maps. We explored the differences and similarities between these maps, and to a pre-existing aerial photo-interpreted habitat map produced by local wildlife biologists. The lidar-based map had the highest predictive performance based on 10 bootstrapped replicate models (AUC = 0.809 ± 0.011), but the

  1. Water and forests in the Mediterranean hot climate zone: a review based on a hydraulic interpretation of tree functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Soares David

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Water scarcity is the main limitation to forest growth and tree survival in the Mediterranean hot climate zone. This paper reviews literature on the relations between water and forests in the region, and their implications on forest and water resources management. The analysis is based on a hydraulic interpretation of tree functioning. Area of the study: The review covers research carried out in the Mediterranean hot climate zone, put into perspective of wider/global research on the subject. The scales of analysis range from the tree to catchment levels. Material and Methods: For literature review we used Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar as bibliographic databases. Data from two Quercus suber sites in Portugal were used for illustrative purposes. Main results: We identify knowledge gaps and discuss options to better adapt forest management to climate change under a tree water use/availability perspective. Forest management is also discussed within the wider context of catchment water balance: water is a constraint for biomass production, but also for other human activities such as urban supply, industry and irrigated agriculture. Research highlights: Given the scarce and variable (in space and in time water availability in the region, further research is needed on: mapping the spatial heterogeneity of water availability to trees; adjustment of tree density to local conditions; silvicultural practices that do not damage soil properties or roots; irrigation of forest plantations in some specific areas; tree breeding. Also, a closer cooperation between forest and water managers is needed. Keywords: tree hydraulics; tree mortality; climate change; forest management; water resources.

  2. Proportion of U.S. Civilian Population Ineligible for U.S. Air Force Enlistment Based on Current and Previous Weight Standards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Mello, Tiffany A; Yamane, Grover K

    2007-01-01

    .... Until recently, gender-specific weight standards based on height were in place. However, in June 2006 the USAF implemented a new set of height-weight limits utilizing body mass index (BMI) criteria...

  3. Interpretation training influences memory for prior interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, E.; Hertel, P.; Mackintosh, B.

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety is associated with memory biases when the initial interpretation of the event is taken into account. This experiment examined whether modification of interpretive bias retroactively affects memory for prior events and their initial interpretation. Before training, participants imagined

  4. Hillslope characterization in terms of geophysical units based on the joint interpretation of electrical resistivity and seismic velocity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feskova, Tatiana; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological conditions in a catchment depend on many factors such as climatic, geological, geomorphological, biological and human, which interact with each other and influence water balance in a catchment. This interaction leads to the subordination in the landscape structure, namely the weak elements subordinate to the powerful elements. Thereby, geological and geomorphological factors play an essential role in catchment development and organization. A hillslope consequently can be allocated to one class of the representative units because the important flow processes run at the hillslope. Moreover, a hillslope can be subdivided into stratigraphic subsurface units and significant hillslope areas based on the lithological change of contrasting interfaces. The knowledge of subsurface structures is necessary to understand and predicate complex hydrological processes in a catchment. Geophysical techniques provide a good opportunity to explore the subsurface. A complete geophysical investigation of subsurface in a catchment with difficult environmental conditions never will be achieved because of large time effort in the field, equipment logistic, and ambiguity in the data interpretation. The case study demonstrates how a catchment can be investigated using geophysical methods in an effective manner in terms of characterization of representative units with respect to a functional role in the catchment. This case study aims to develop combined resistivity and seismic velocity hillslope subsurface models for the distinction of representative functional units. In order to identify the contrasting interfaces of the hillslope, to localize significant hillslope areas, and to address the ambiguity in the geophysical data interpretation, the case study combined resistivity surveys (vertical electrical soundings and electrical resistivity tomography) with refraction seismic method, and conducted these measurements at one single profile along the hillslope transect and

  5. African American Advanced Placement chemistry students and their developing study habits: A phenomenologically-based interpretive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Natalie D.

    The academic achievement gap between African American and White students has gained much attention in recent years. Much has been written about the causes of and reasons for this problem ranging from the vestigial effects of slavery to poor parenting. Much less has been written or understood about its solution. While it is impossible for educators to change the pasts of their African American students, it is possible to effect change for the few minutes in which they are in direct contact with them each day. If African American science students are taught effective study skills and habits, then perhaps they might have the tools to close the achievement gap themselves. The participants in this phenomenologically based interpretive study were five African American Advanced Placement Chemistry students from an inner-city high school. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with each of the participants during the beginning, middle and end of a semester. The purpose of the interviews was to locate the students in terms of their thought processes, experiences and perceived barriers concerning the nature and practice of effective study and retention of chemistry content. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The texts were then analyzed for common themes. Five common themes emerged from the interviews. These were: (1) Homework vs. Study: a distinction between homework---which students knew how to approach; and study---which they did not. (2) Student Effort: their changing perception of adequate and effective study practices while in a rigorous course. (3) Teacher Rigor: they perceived high expectations and challenging work as a sign of respect from their teachers. (4) Parental Involvement: students' admission that they desired more input from parents regarding their academic performance. (5) Racial Considerations: their need to disprove negative stereotypes and their personal observations regarding racial differences in studying. A discussion of the themes and

  6. Patients' involvement in e-health services quality assessment: a system for the automatic interpretation of SMS-based patients' feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubrichi, Stefania; Battistotti, Andrea; Quaglini, Silvana

    2014-10-01

    Effective communication between patients and health services providers is a key aspect for optimizing and maintaining these services. This work describes a system for the automatic evaluation of users' perception of the quality of SmsCup, a reminder system for outpatient visits based on short message service (SMS). The final purpose is the creation of a closed-loop control system for the outpatient service, where patients' complaints and comments represent a feedback that can be used for a better implementation of the service itself. SmsCup was adopted since about eight years by an Italian healthcare organization, with very good results in reducing the no-show (missing visits) phenomenon. During these years, a number of citizens, even if not required, sent a message back, with comments about the service. The automatic interpretation of the content of those SMS may be useful for monitoring and improving service performances.Yet, due to the complex nature of SMS language, their interpretation represents an ongoing challenge. The proposed system uses conditional random fields as the information extraction method for classifying messages into several semantic categories. The categories refer to appreciation of the service or complaints of various types. Then, the system analyzes the extracted content and provides feedback to the service providers, making them learning and acting on this basis. At each step, the content of the messages reveals the actual state of the service as well as the efficacy of corrective actions previously undertaken. Our evaluations showed that: (i) the SMS classification system has achieved good overall performance with an average F1-measure and an overall accuracy of about 92%; (ii) the notification of the patients' feedbacks to service providers showed a positive impact on service functioning. Our study proposed an interactive patient-centered system for continuous monitoring of the service quality. It has demonstrated the feasibility of a

  7. Influence of previous provisional cementation on the bond strength between two definitive resin-based luting and dentin bonding agents and human dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkut, Selim; Küçükesmen, Hakki Cenker; Eminkahyagil, Neslihan; Imirzalioglu, Pervin; Karabulut, Erdem

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of two different types of provisional luting agents (RelyX Temp E, eugenol-based; RelyX Temp NE, eugenol-free) on the shear bond strengths between human dentin and two different resin-based luting systems (RelyXARC-Single Bond and Duo Link-One Step) after cementation with two different techniques (dual bonding and conventional technique). One hundred human molars were trimmed parallel to the original long axis, to expose flat dentin surfaces, and were divided into three groups. After related surface treatments for each specimen, the resin-based luting agent was applied in a silicone cylindrical mold (3.5 x 4 mm), placed on the bonding-agent-treated dentin surfaces and polymerized. In the control group (n = 20), the specimens were further divided into two groups (n = 10), and two different resin-based luting systems were immediately applied following the manufacturer's protocols: RelyX ARC-Single Bond (Group I C) and Duo Link-One Step (Group II C). In the provisionalization group (n = 40), the specimens were further divided into four subgroups of 10 specimens each (Group I N, I E and Group II N, II E). In Groups I N and II N, eugenol-free (RelyX NE), and in groups I E and II E, eugenol-based (RelyX E) provisional luting agents (PLA), were applied on the dentin surface. The dentin surfaces were cleaned with a flour-free pumice, and the resin-based luting systems RelyX ARC (Group I N and E) and Duo Link (Group II N and E) were applied. In the Dual bonding groups (n = 40), the specimens were divided into four subgroups of 10 specimens each (Group I ND, ED and Group II ND, ED). The specimens were treated with Single Bond (Groups I ND and ED) or One Step (Groups II ND and ED). After the dentin bonding agent treatment, RelyX Temp NE was applied to Groups I ND and II ND, and RelyX Temp E was applied to Groups I ED and II ED. The dentin surfaces were then cleaned as described in the provisionalization group, and the resin-based luting systems

  8. A collaborative European exercise on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and interpretation of DNA and RNA results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berge, M; Carracedo, A; Gomes, I

    2014-01-01

    The European Forensic Genetics Network of Excellence (EUROFORGEN-NoE) undertook a collaborative project on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and the interpretation of the resulting RNA and DNA data. Although both body fluids and skin are composed of a variety of cell types with different functions...... of cell types was assessed. This scoring system builds on replicate RNA analyses and the ratio observed/possible peaks for each cell type [1]. The results of the exercise support the usefulness of this scoring system. When interpreting the data obtained from the analysis of the mock casework stains...

  9. Automated electrocardiogram interpretation programs versus cardiologists' triage decision making based on teletransmitted data in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Elaine N; Ripa, Maria Sejersten; Clemmensen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness of 2 automated electrocardiogram interpretation programs in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome transported to hospital by ambulance in 1 rural region of Denmark with hospital discharge diagnosis used as the gold standard...

  10. Predictability and interpretability of hybrid link-level crash frequency models for urban arterials compared to cluster-based and general negative binomial regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najaf, Pooya; Duddu, Venkata R; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S

    2018-03-01

    Machine learning (ML) techniques have higher prediction accuracy compared to conventional statistical methods for crash frequency modelling. However, their black-box nature limits the interpretability. The objective of this research is to combine both ML and statistical methods to develop hybrid link-level crash frequency models with high predictability and interpretability. For this purpose, M5' model trees method (M5') is introduced and applied to classify the crash data and then calibrate a model for each homogenous class. The data for 1134 and 345 randomly selected links on urban arterials in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina was used to develop and validate models, respectively. The outputs from the hybrid approach are compared with the outputs from cluster-based negative binomial regression (NBR) and general NBR models. Findings indicate that M5' has high predictability and is very reliable to interpret the role of different attributes on crash frequency compared to other developed models.

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of Robot-Guided, Software Based Transperineal MRI/TRUS Fusion Biopsy of the Prostate in a High Risk Population of Previously Biopsy Negative Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenig, Malte; Schaal, Kathrin; Benndorf, Matthias; Soschynski, Martin; Lenz, Philipp; Krauss, Tobias; Drendel, Vanessa; Kayser, Gian; Kurz, Philipp; Werner, Martin; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Langer, Mathias; Jilg, Cordula A

    2016-01-01

    Objective . In this study, we compared prostate cancer detection rates between MRI-TRUS fusion targeted and systematic biopsies using a robot-guided, software based transperineal approach. Methods and Patients . 52 patients received a MRIT/TRUS fusion followed by a systematic volume adapted biopsy using the same robot-guided transperineal approach. The primary outcome was the detection rate of clinically significant disease (Gleason grade ≥ 4). Secondary outcomes were detection rate of all cancers, sampling efficiency and utility, and serious adverse event rate. Patients received no antibiotic prophylaxis. Results . From 52 patients, 519 targeted biopsies from 135 lesions and 1561 random biopsies were generated (total n = 2080). Overall detection rate of clinically significant PCa was 44.2% (23/52) and 50.0% (26/52) for target and random biopsy, respectively. Sampling efficiency as the median number of cores needed to detect clinically significant prostate cancer was 9 for target (IQR: 6-14.0) and 32 (IQR: 24-32) for random biopsy. The utility as the number of additionally detected clinically significant PCa cases by either strategy was 0% (0/52) for target and 3.9% (2/52) for random biopsy. Conclusions . MRI/TRUS fusion based target biopsy did not show an advantage in the overall detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer.

  12. Multiclass pesticide analysis in fruit-based baby food: A comparative study of sample preparation techniques previous to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrarca, Mateus H; Fernandes, José O; Godoy, Helena T; Cunha, Sara C

    2016-12-01

    With the aim to develop a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to analyze 24 pesticide residues in baby foods at the level imposed by established regulation two simple, rapid and environmental-friendly sample preparation techniques based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, robust and safe) were compared - QuEChERS with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and QuEChERS with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE). Both sample preparation techniques achieved suitable performance criteria, including selectivity, linearity, acceptable recovery (70-120%) and precision (⩽20%). A higher enrichment factor was observed for DLLME and consequently better limits of detection and quantification were obtained. Nevertheless, d-SPE provided a more effective removal of matrix co-extractives from extracts than DLLME, which contributed to lower matrix effects. Twenty-two commercial fruit-based baby food samples were analyzed by the developed method, being procymidone detected in one sample at a level above the legal limit established by EU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Survey to determine the efficacy and safety of guideline-based pharmacological therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients not previously receiving maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoguchi, Yasuhiro; Izumi, Shinyu; Nakamura, Hidenori; Hanada, Shigeo; Marumo, Kazuyoshi; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Akata, Shouichi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the potential beneficial effects of guideline-based pharmacological therapy on pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL) in Japanese chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients without prior treatment. Multicenter survey, open-label study of 49 Japanese COPD patients aged ≥ 40 years; outpatients with >10 pack years of smoking history; ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) patients. Significant changes over time were not observed for FEV1 and FVC, indicating lung function at initiation of treatment was maintained during the observation period. COPD assessment test scores showed statistical and clinical improvements. Cough, sputum, breathlessness, and shortness of breath were significantly improved. Lung function and QOL of untreated Japanese COPD patients improved and improvements were maintained by performing a therapeutic intervention that conformed to published guidelines.

  14. Localized Smart-Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Bach, Torben; Pallesen, Tom

    2014-05-01

    The complex task of setting up a geological model consists not only of combining available geological information into a conceptual plausible model, but also requires consistency with availably data, e.g. geophysical data. However, in many cases the direct geological information, e.g borehole samples, are very sparse, so in order to create a geological model, the geologist needs to rely on the geophysical data. The problem is however, that the amount of geophysical data in many cases are so vast that it is practically impossible to integrate all of them in the manual interpretation process. This means that a lot of the information available from the geophysical surveys are unexploited, which is a problem, due to the fact that the resulting geological model does not fulfill its full potential and hence are less trustworthy. We suggest an approach to geological modeling that 1. allow all geophysical data to be considered when building the geological model 2. is fast 3. allow quantification of geological modeling. The method is constructed to build a statistical model, f(d,m), describing the relation between what the geologists interpret, d, and what the geologist knows, m. The para- meter m reflects any available information that can be quantified, such as geophysical data, the result of a geophysical inversion, elevation maps, etc... The parameter d reflects an actual interpretation, such as for example the depth to the base of a ground water reservoir. First we infer a statistical model f(d,m), by examining sets of actual interpretations made by a geological expert, [d1, d2, ...], and the information used to perform the interpretation; [m1, m2, ...]. This makes it possible to quantify how the geological expert performs interpolation through f(d,m). As the geological expert proceeds interpreting, the number of interpreted datapoints from which the statistical model is inferred increases, and therefore the accuracy of the statistical model increases. When a model f

  15. New Diagnosis of AIDS Based on Salmonella enterica subsp. I (enterica Enteritidis (A Meningitis in a Previously Immunocompetent Adult in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Elton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella meningitis is a rare manifestation of meningitis typically presenting in neonates and the elderly. This infection typically associates with foodborne outbreaks in developing nations and AIDS-endemic regions. We report a case of a 19-year-old male presenting with altered mental status after 3-day absence from work at a Wisconsin tourist area. He was febrile, tachycardic, and tachypneic with a GCS of 8. The patient was intubated and a presumptive diagnosis of meningitis was made. Treatment was initiated with ceftriaxone, vancomycin, acyclovir, dexamethasone, and fluid resuscitation. A lumbar puncture showed cloudy CSF with Gram negative rods. He was admitted to the ICU. CSF culture confirmed Salmonella enterica subsp. I (enterica Enteritidis (A. Based on this finding, a 4th-generation HIV antibody/p24 antigen test was sent. When this returned positive, a CD4 count was obtained and showed 3 cells/mm3, confirming AIDS. The patient ultimately received 38 days of ceftriaxone, was placed on elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide (Genvoya for HIV/AIDS, and was discharged neurologically intact after a 44-day admission.

  16. Example-based illustrations of design, conduct, analysis and result interpretation of multi-regional clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hui; Mao, Xuezhou; Tanaka, Yoko; Binkowitz, Bruce; Li, Gang; Chen, Josh; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Peng-Liang; Ouyang, Soo Peter; Chang, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Extensive research has been conducted in the Multi-Regional Clinical Trial (MRCT) area. To effectively apply an appropriate approach to a MRCT, we need to synthesize and understand the features of different approaches. In this paper, examples are used to illustrate considerations regarding design, conduct, analysis and interpretation of result of MRCTs. We start with a brief discussion of region definitions and the scenarios where different regions have differing requirements for a MRCT. We then compare different designs and models as well as the corresponding interpretation of the results. We highlight the importance of paying special attention to trial monitoring and conduct to prevent potential issues associated with the final trial results. Besides evaluating the overall treatment effect for the entire MRCT, we also consider other key analyses including quantification of regional treatment effects within a MRCT, and assessment of consistency of these regional treatment effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A new framework for the documentation and interpretation of oral food challenges in population-based and clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenhenrich, L B; Reich, A; Bellach, J; Trendelenburg, V; Sprikkelman, A B; Roberts, G; Grimshaw, K E C; Sigurdardottir, S; Kowalski, M L; Papadopoulos, N G; Quirce, S; Dubakiene, R; Niggemann, B; Fernández-Rivas, M; Ballmer-Weber, B; van Ree, R; Schnadt, S; Mills, E N C; Keil, T; Beyer, K

    2017-03-01

    The conduct of oral food challenges as the preferred diagnostic standard for food allergy (FA) was harmonized over the last years. However, documentation and interpretation of challenge results, particularly in research settings, are not sufficiently standardized to allow valid comparisons between studies. Our aim was to develop a diagnostic toolbox to capture and report clinical observations in double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC). A group of experienced allergists, paediatricians, dieticians, epidemiologists and data managers developed generic case report forms and standard operating procedures for DBPCFCs and piloted them in three clinical centres. The follow-up of the EuroPrevall/iFAAM birth cohort and other iFAAM work packages applied these methods. A set of newly developed questionnaire or interview items capture the history of FA. Together with sensitization status, this forms the basis for the decision to perform a DBPCFC, following a standardized decision algorithm. A generic form including details about severity and timing captures signs and symptoms observed during or after the procedures. In contrast to the commonly used dichotomous outcome FA vs no FA, the allergy status is interpreted in multiple categories to reflect the complexity of clinical decision-making. The proposed toolbox sets a standard for improved documentation and harmonized interpretation of DBPCFCs. By a detailed documentation and common terminology for communicating outcomes, these tools hope to reduce the influence of subjective judgment of supervising physicians. All forms are publicly available for further evolution and free use in clinical and research settings. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. New interpretations of the Fort Clark State Historic Site based on aerial color and thermal infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Andrew Roland

    The Fort Clark State Historic Site (32ME2) is a well known site on the upper Missouri River, North Dakota. The site was the location of two Euroamerican trading posts and a large Mandan-Arikara earthlodge village. In 2004, Dr. Kenneth L. Kvamme and Dr. Tommy Hailey surveyed the site using aerial color and thermal infrared imagery collected from a powered parachute. Individual images were stitched together into large image mosaics and registered to Wood's 1993 interpretive map of the site using Adobe Photoshop. The analysis of those image mosaics resulted in the identification of more than 1,500 archaeological features, including as many as 124 earthlodges.

  19. New interpretations based on seismic and modelled well data and their implications for the tectonic evolution of the west Greenland continental margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcgregor, E.D.; Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, R.A.

    Davis Strait is situated between Baffin Island and Greenland and forms part of a sedimentary basin system, linking Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay, developed during Cretaceous and Palaeocene rifting that culminated in a brief period of sea-floor spreading in the late Palaeocene and Eocene. Seismic...... on and offshore. Subsidence and thermal history has been modelled in four offshore wells, constrained by borehole temperatures and vitrinite reflectance. Offshore reflection profiles have been newly interpreted and show the presence of unconformities at the base mid-Eocene (roughly) and base Quaternary....... The investigated offshore wells penetrate these two unconformities. It has been argued from published interpretations of fission track data and inferred episodes of cooling that onshore topography was created by Neogene uplift. However, all five wells can be satisfactorily modelled without invoking any Neogene...

  20. Interpretive Media Study and Interpretive Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Kevin M.

    1990-01-01

    Defines the major theoretical influences on interpretive approaches in mass communication, examines the central concepts of these perspectives, and provides a critique of these approaches. States that the adoption of interpretive approaches in mass communication has ignored varied critiques of interpretive social science. Suggests that critical…

  1. Interpreting Inexplicit Language during Courtroom Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun

    2009-01-01

    Court interpreters are required to provide accurate renditions of witnesses' utterances during courtroom examinations, but the accuracy of interpreting may be compromised for a number of reasons, among which is the effect on interpretation of the limited contextual information available to court interpreters. Based on the analysis of the discourse…

  2. Combined object-based classification and manual interpretation-synergies for a quantitative assessment of parcels and biotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, S.; Schoepfer, E.; Langanke, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    with image objects from various sources and in different scales implies combining data with inconsistent boundaries. A landscape interpretation support tool (LIST) is introduced which seeks to investigate and quantify spatial relationships among image objects stemming from different sources by using...... the concept of spatial coincidence. Moreover, considering different categories of object fate, LIST enables a change categorization for each polygon of a time series of classifications. The application of LIST is illustrated by two case-studies, using Landsat TM and ETM as well as CIR aerial photographs......: the first showing how the tool is used to perform object quantification and change analysis; the latter demonstrating how superior aggregation capabilities of the human brain can be combined with the fine spatial segmentation and classification. Possible fields of application are identified and limitations...

  3. CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF THE ARCTIC REGION AS THE BASE FOR GEODYNAMIC INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Sokolov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cluster analysis is applied for computing stable combinations of geological and geophysical parameters, and areas with such combinations are interpreted as regions that differ in structural and geodynamic features. The shelf areas are distinguished by specific sets and patterns of parameters, including sedimentary cover thickness, tectonic heterogeneity of the basement, heat flow, anomalous magnetic field, and gravity anomalies that reflect the topography of the crust–upper mantle boundary. In the deep oceanic areas, S-wave velocity variations show abnormally ‘cold’ blocks, while the average heat flow values are high. This combination of parameters is typical of transform zones at the junction of the Atlantic and Arctic segments. Superimposed thermal domes are located symmetrically with respect to the axis of the mid-oceanic ridges (MOR. Such domes may occur on the continents located close to MOR. Similar indicators can be revealed along the transition zone to the north of the East Siberian Sea. 

  4. Learning from inquiry-based laboratories in nonmajor biology: An interpretive study of the relationships among inquiry experience, epistemologies, and conceptual growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Carolyn S.; Tsoi, Mai Yin; Calkin, Jamie; Darley, Marshall

    2003-12-01

    The use of inquiry-based laboratory in college science classes is on the rise. This study investigated how five nonmajor biology students learned from an inquiry-based laboratory experience. Using interpretive data analysis, the five students' conceptual ecologies, learning beliefs, and science epistemologies were explored. Findings indicated that students with constructivist learning beliefs tended to add more meaningful conceptual understandings during inquiry labs than students with positivist learning beliefs. All students improved their understanding of experiment in biology. Implications for the teaching of biology labs are discussed.

  5. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ......The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non......-standard semantics where the ``meaning'' contains information about the runtime behaviour of programs. In an abstract interpretation the analysis is proved correct by relating it to the usual semantics for the language. Attribute grammars provide a method and notation to specify code generation and program analysis...

  6. Advanced data structures for the interpretation of image and cartographic data in geo-based information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuquet, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A growing need to usse geographic information systems (GIS) to improve the flexibility and overall performance of very large, heterogeneous data bases was examined. The Vaster structure and the Topological Grid structure were compared to test whether such hybrid structures represent an improvement in performance. The use of artificial intelligence in a geographic/earth sciences data base context is being explored. The architecture of the Knowledge Based GIS (KBGIS) has a dual object/spatial data base and a three tier hierarchial search subsystem. Quadtree Spatial Spectra (QTSS) are derived, based on the quadtree data structure, to generate and represent spatial distribution information for large volumes of spatial data.

  7. Stabilization and relative phase effects in a dichromatically driven diatomic Morse molecule: interpretation based on nonlinear classical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantoudis, Vassilios; Nicolaides, Cleanthes A

    2005-02-22

    The dissociation dynamics of a dichromatically laser-driven diatomic Morse molecule vibrating in the ground state is investigated by applying tools of the nonlinear theory of classical Hamiltonian systems. Emphasis is placed on the role of the relative phase of the two fields, phi. First, it is found that, just like in quantum mechanics, there is dependence of the dissociation probability on phi. Then, it is demonstrated that addition of the second laser leads to suppression of probability (stabilization), when the intensity of the first laser is kept constant just above or below the single laser dissociation threshold. This "chemical bond hardening" diminishes as phi increases. These effects are investigated and interpreted in terms of modifications in phase space topology. Variations of phi as well as of the intensity of the second laser may cause (i) appearance/disappearance of the stability island corresponding to the common resonance with the lowest energy and (ii) deformation and movement of the region of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser tori that survive from the undriven system. The latter is the main origin in phase space of stabilization and phi dependence. Finally, it is shown that the use of short laser pulses enhances both effects.

  8. Are participants in a street-based HIV testing program able to perform their own rapid test and interpret the results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis de la Fuente

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Availability of over-the-counter rapid HIV tests could improve access to testing those reluctant or unable to use current services. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of HIV self-testing using a finger-stick whole-blood rapid test (Determine™ HIV Combo to detect both antigen and antibody. METHODS: Before being tested, 313 participants in a street-based testing program were given adapted instructions and a test kit, and performed the self-test without supervision. These participants, together with another 207 who performed supervised self-testing, received additional instructions on how to interpret the test results shown in six colour photos and filled out a questionnaire. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: About 8.0% (95%CI:4.8%-11.2% obtained an invalid self-test. An invalid result was inversely associated with male participants who had sex with men (OR=0.3;95%CI:0.1-1.0. Of the 3111 photos interpreted,4.9% (95%CI:4.1-5.7 were incorrect. Only 1.1% (95%CI:0.3-1.8 of the positive results were interpreted as negative. Age 30 or older (OR=2.1; 95%CI:1.2-3.7, having been born in Latin America (OR=1.6; 95%CI:1.1-2.2,and not having university education (OR=2.1;95%CI:1.2-3.7 were associated with misinterpreting test results in the GEE. Participant's perceptions of both their proficiency when conducting the test and interpretation were related with actual outcomes. Most participants (83.9% were more motivated than before to use the self-test in the future, and 51.7% would pay >10 Euros for the test if it was sold in pharmacies. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study showing that blood-based self-testing with current technology is feasible in HIV-negative participants demanding the test and without prior training or supervision. Bearing in mind that it was conducted under difficult weather conditions and using a complex kit, over-the-counter tests could be a feasible

  9. Are Participants in a Street-Based HIV Testing Program Able to Perform Their Own Rapid Test and Interpret the Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Luis; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Hoyos, Juan; Pulido, José; Santos, Sara; Bravo, María José; Barrio, Gregorio; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; Belza, María José

    2012-01-01

    Objective Availability of over-the-counter rapid HIV tests could improve access to testing those reluctant or unable to use current services. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of HIV self-testing using a finger-stick whole-blood rapid test (Determine™ HIV Combo) to detect both antigen and antibody. Methods Before being tested, 313 participants in a street-based testing program were given adapted instructions and a test kit, and performed the self-test without supervision. These participants, together with another 207 who performed supervised self-testing, received additional instructions on how to interpret the test results shown in six colour photos and filled out a questionnaire. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used in the statistical analysis. Results About 8.0% (95%CI:4.8%–11.2%) obtained an invalid self-test. An invalid result was inversely associated with male participants who had sex with men (OR = 0.3;95%CI:0.1–1.0). Of the 3111 photos interpreted,4.9% (95%CI:4.1–5.7) were incorrect. Only 1.1% (95%CI:0.3–1.8) of the positive results were interpreted as negative. Age 30 or older (OR = 2.1; 95%CI:1.2–3.7), having been born in Latin America (OR = 1.6; 95%CI:1.1–2.2),and not having university education (OR = 2.1;95%CI:1.2–3.7) were associated with misinterpreting test results in the GEE. Participant's perceptions of both their proficiency when conducting the test and interpretation were related with actual outcomes. Most participants (83.9%) were more motivated than before to use the self-test in the future, and 51.7% would pay >10 Euros for the test if it was sold in pharmacies. Conclusions This is the first study showing that blood-based self-testing with current technology is feasible in HIV-negative participants demanding the test and without prior training or supervision. Bearing in mind that it was conducted under difficult weather conditions and using a complex kit, over

  10. Boeotian landscapes. A GIS-based study for the reconstruction and interpretation of the archaeological datasets of ancient Boeotia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farinetti, Emeri

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the work is to illustrate a possible way of dealing with a regional landscape and its long-term settlement history based on the integration of archaeological data applying a GIS based approach to the social dimension of the landscape. The large province area (ca 2,500 sqkm) of Boeotia

  11. Interpreting User's Choice of Technologies: A Quantitative Research on Choosing the Best Web-Based Communication Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebiaye, Richmond

    2010-01-01

    The proliferation of web-based communication tools like email clients vis-a-vis Yahoo mail, Gmail, and Hotmail have led to new innovations in web-based communication. Email users benefit greatly from this technology, but lack of security of these tools can put users at risk of loss of privacy, including identity theft, corporate espionage, and…

  12. A Computational Tool to Interpret the Bulk Composition of Solid Exoplanets based on Mass and Radius Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Li; Seager, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The prospects for finding transiting exoplanets in the range of a few to 20 Earth masses is growing rapidly with both ground-based and spaced-based efforts. We describe a publicly available computer code to compute and quantify the compositional ambiguities for differentiated solid exoplanets with a measured mass and radius, including the mass and radius uncertainties.

  13. Evolution of the eastern part of the Kuusamo Ice Lobe, based on geomorphological interpretation of high-resolution LiDAR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sarala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present new glacial geomorphological data from the eastern part of the Kuusamo Ice Lobe (KIL in eastern Finland. The focus is on glacial lineations (about 9000 individual features and interpretation of ice lobe evolution based on streamlined erosional and depositional formations, hummocky and ribbed moraines and glaciofluvial formations. Glacial geomorphological mapping was performed based on interpretation and classification of LiDAR data according to the Geological Survey of Finland’s new Glacier Dynamic database. The results revealed that modern surficial deposits were formed during three different ice flow phases. The oldest remains are seen as occasional NW-SE megalineations and unclassified glacially lineated terrains and erosional valleys representing the Middle Weichselian glaciation. The younger morphologies were formed from the two overlapping drumlin fields of the Tuoppajärvi and Kuusamo ice flow phases, with origins in the Late Weichselian deglaciation. Analysis of different erosional and depositional formation patterns was used to separate ice flow phases and estimate the evolution, subglacial conditions and mass balance of KIL during the last deglaciation. The morphological interpretation revealed that the Tuoppajärvi ice flow stage was large and homogeneous, while the later Kuusamo ice flow stage was more concentrated, narrower and heterogeneous, following a fan-type pattern that is also emphasised by the meltwater channel systems, including both erosional and depositional features. Furthermore, on both margins (northern and southern, part of the ice masses formed stagnant areas. The length of the lineations also indicates both glacier flow velocity and transport distances, which in the case of megalineations and drumlins are longer than in the fluted terrain. Ribbed moraines in the western (core part of KIL indicate a very different depositional environment relating to strong quarrying and short transport

  14. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    ...; interpreting style, such as poor body posture, tensing muscles, signing too forcefully; job control, including the emotional and physical stress of the job, being overworked, and disliking the job...

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF HARD ROCK BASED ON SHALLOW SEISMIC INTERPRETATION AND SPT TEST FOR FOUNDATION OF BRIDGE AT BALANG ISLAND, BALIKPAPAN BAY, EAST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediar Usman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in Balikpapan Bay, the connecting waters between Pancur village at the southwest and Balang Island at the northeast. The objective of study is to know the engineering properties of rock as a foundation groundwork of bridge. Result of seismic reflection interpretation profiles in the survey area indicates that the seismic sequences can be divided into two sequences, those are sequence A and B. Sequence A lies at the upper part, which is characterized by concordance, parallel, wavy and hummocky reflectors. Sequence B is characterized by mounded, chaotic and free reflectors. Sediment thickness obtained from seismic profiles show that Quaternary sediment is about 1.56 to 4.89 meters, while harder substrate thickness ranging between 7.03 and 21.60 meters. While, based on core drilling data, hard rock started to appear between 3 and 4 meters below seafloor with Standard Penetration Test (SPT between 32 and 34 blows as Tertiary sediments. Based on field observation and correlated with geological map of Balang Island, Balikpapan Sheet, the hard rock proposed for base of bridge foundation is Balang Island Formation (Middle Miocene that consist of claystone, sandstone and coal layers that have been deformated and start to form fold as anticline. The seismic record show that, the hard rock is interpreted as B sequence that underlain by Quaternary sediments.

  16. Old and new approaches to the interpretation of acid-base metabolism, starting from historical data applied to diabetic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioni, Roberto; Marega, Alessandra; Lo Cicero, Marco; Montanaro, Domenico

    2016-11-01

    The approach to acid-base chemistry in medicine includes several methods. Currently, the two most popular procedures are derived from Stewart's studies and from the bicarbonate/BE-based classical formulation. Another method, unfortunately little known, follows the Kildeberg theory applied to acid-base titration. By using the data produced by Dana Atchley in 1933, regarding electrolytes and blood gas analysis applied to diabetes, we compared the three aforementioned methods, in order to highlight their strengths and their weaknesses. The results obtained, by reprocessing the data of Atchley, have shown that Kildeberg's approach, unlike the other two methods, is consistent, rational and complete for describing the organ-physiological behavior of the hydrogen ion turnover in human organism. In contrast, the data obtained using the Stewart approach and the bicarbonate-based classical formulation are misleading and fail to specify which organs or systems are involved in causing or maintaining the diabetic acidosis. Stewart's approach, despite being considered 'quantitative', does not propose in any way the concept of 'an amount of acid' and becomes even more confusing, because it is not clear how to distinguish between 'strong' and 'weak' ions. As for Stewart's approach, the classical method makes no distinction between hydrogen ions managed by the intermediate metabolism and hydroxyl ions handled by the kidney, but, at least, it is based on the concept of titration (base-excess) and indirectly defines the concept of 'an amount of acid'. In conclusion, only Kildeberg's approach offers a complete understanding of the causes and remedies against any type of acid-base disturbance.

  17. Interpreting Impoliteness: Interpreters’ Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Radanović Felberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreters in the public sector in Norway interpret in a variety of institutional encounters, and the interpreters evaluate the majority of these encounters as polite. However, some encounters are evaluated as impolite, and they pose challenges when it comes to interpreting impoliteness. This issue raises the question of whether interpreters should take a stance on their own evaluation of impoliteness and whether they should interfere in communication. In order to find out more about how interpreters cope with this challenge, in 2014 a survey was sent to all interpreters registered in the Norwegian Register of Interpreters. The survey data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of impoliteness theory using the notion of moral order as an explanatory tool in a close reading of interpreters’ answers. The analysis shows that interpreters reported using a variety of strategies for interpreting impoliteness, including omissions and downtoning. However, the interpreters also gave examples of individual strategies for coping with impoliteness, such as interrupting and postponing interpreting. These strategies border behavioral strategies and conflict with the Norwegian ethical guidelines for interpreting. In light of the ethical guidelines and actual practice, mapping and discussing different strategies used by interpreters might heighten interpreters’ and interpreter-users’ awareness of the role impoliteness can play in institutional interpreter– mediated encounters. 

  18. Empirically Based Phenotypic Profiles of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders : Interpretation in the Light of the DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Eussen, Mart L. J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Mandy, William; Hudziak, James J.; Steenhuis, Mark Peter; de Nijs, Pieter F.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    This study aimed to contribute to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) debates on the conceptualization of autism by investigating (1) whether empirically based distinct phenotypic profiles could be distinguished within a sample of mainly cognitively able children with pervasive developmental

  19. Empirically Based Phenotypic Profiles of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Interpretation in the Light of the DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Eussen, Mart L. J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Mandy, William; Hudziak, James J.; Steenhuis, Mark Peter; de Nijs, Pieter F.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) debates on the conceptualization of autism by investigating (1) whether empirically based distinct phenotypic profiles could be distinguished within a sample of mainly cognitively able children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), and (2) how profiles related to…

  20. Using Stimulus Equivalence-Based Instruction to Teach Graduate Students in Applied Behavior Analysis to Interpret Operant Functions of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Leif; Schnell, Lauren; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Sidener, Tina M.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulus equivalence-based instruction (EBI) was used to teach four, 4-member classes representing functions of behavior to ten graduate students. The classes represented behavior maintained by attention (Class 1), escape (Class 2), access to tangibles (Class 3), and automatic reinforcement (Class 4). Stimuli within each class consisted of a…

  1. Automated electrocardiogram interpretation programs versus cardiologists' triage decision making based on teletransmitted data in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Elaine N; Ripa, Maria Sejersten; Clemmensen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    and to assess the effectiveness of cardiologists' triage decisions for these patients based on initial electrocardiogram. Twelve-lead electrocardiograms were recorded in ambulances using a LIFEPAK 12 monitor/defibrillator (Physio-Control, Inc., Redmond, Washington) and transmitted digitally to an attending.......02) and the cardiologists (p = 0.004). Triage decisions were effective, with good agreement between cardiologists' decisions and discharge diagnoses....

  2. An Internet-based external quality assessment in cytogenetics that audits a laboratory's analytical and interpretative performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Rosalind J; Maher, Eddy J; Quellhorst-Pawley, Bettina; Howell, Rodney T

    2008-10-01

    A novel approach to external quality assessment (EQA) using the Internet mimics the diagnostic situation so that multiple tests can be requested and EQA cases can be 'tailor made' to address a specific chromosome syndrome, disease, or clinical dilemma. The web-based EQA system was trialled on a large UK EQA scheme, UK NEQAS for Clinical Cytogenetics. It has also been used to implement a new Cytogenetics European Quality Assessment scheme, CEQA, set up with the intention of providing laboratories in countries without access to a local EQA scheme the opportunity of participation in EQA. Overall, Internet-based EQA allows for a varied EQA programme. Poor performance was detected in both CEQA and UK NEQAS constitutional EQA schemes and also in the UK NEQAS oncology EQA scheme. The Internet-based EQA overcomes submission delays due to international surface mail. There is also a reduction in administration and assessors' time compared to a retrospective EQA involving the submission of unique cases for EQA assessment, as participants analyse the same three Internet-based EQA cases simultaneously. Many EU27 (EU member states) laboratories still do not participate in their national EQA schemes, so until EQA participation becomes mandatory as a component of compulsory laboratory accreditation, the quality of laboratory diagnostic service is unpredictable.

  3. A new interpretation of the bee fossil Melitta willardi Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Melittidae) based on geometric morphometrics of the wing

    OpenAIRE

    Dewulf,Alexandre; De Meulemeester,Thibaut; Dehon,Manuel; Engel,Michael; Michez,Denis

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Although bees are one of the major lineages of pollinators and are today quite diverse, few well-preserved fossils are available from which to establish the tempo of their diversification/extinction since the Early Cretaceous. Here we present a reassessment of the taxonomic affinities of Melitta willardi Cockerell 1909, preserved as a compression fossil from the Florissant shales of Colorado, USA. Based on geometric morphometric wing shape analyses M. willardi cannot be confidently a...

  4. Clinical utility of standard base excess in the diagnosis and interpretation of metabolic acidosis in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Park

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine whether standard base excess (SBE is a useful diagnostic tool for metabolic acidosis, whether metabolic acidosis is clinically relevant in daily evaluation of critically ill patients, and to identify the most robust acid-base determinants of SBE. Thirty-one critically ill patients were enrolled. Arterial blood samples were drawn at admission and 24 h later. SBE, as calculated by Van Slyke's (SBE VS or Wooten's (SBE W equations, accurately diagnosed metabolic acidosis (AUC = 0.867, 95%CI = 0.690-1.043 and AUC = 0.817, 95%CI = 0.634-0.999, respectively. SBE VS was weakly correlated with total SOFA (r = -0.454, P < 0.001 and was similar to SBE W (r = -0.482, P < 0.001. All acid-base variables were categorized as SBE VS <-2 mEq/L or SBE VS <-5 mEq/L. SBE VS <-2 mEq/L was better able to identify strong ion gap acidosis than SBE VS <-5 mEq/L; there were no significant differences regarding other variables. To demonstrate unmeasured anions, anion gap (AG corrected for albumin (AG A was superior to AG corrected for albumin and phosphate (AG A+P when strong ion gap was used as the standard method. Mathematical modeling showed that albumin level, apparent strong ion difference, AG A, and lactate concentration explained SBE VS variations with an R² = 0.954. SBE VS with a cut-off value of <-2 mEq/L was the best tool to diagnose clinically relevant metabolic acidosis. To analyze the components of SBE VS shifts at the bedside, AG A, apparent strong ion difference, albumin level, and lactate concentration are easily measurable variables that best represent the partitioning of acid-base derangements.

  5. Hydraulic head estimation at unobserved locations: Approximating the distribution of the absolute error based on geologic interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langousis, Andreas; Kaleris, Vassilios; Xeygeni, Vagia; Magkou, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the availability of groundwater reserves at a regional level, requires accurate and robust hydraulic head estimation at multiple locations of an aquifer. To that extent, one needs groundwater observation networks that can provide sufficient information to estimate the hydraulic head at unobserved locations. The density of such networks is largely influenced by the spatial distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the aquifer, and it is usually determined through trial-and-error, by solving the groundwater flow based on a properly selected set of alternative but physically plausible geologic structures. In this work, we use: 1) dimensional analysis, and b) a pulse-based stochastic model for simulation of synthetic aquifer structures, to calculate the distribution of the absolute error in hydraulic head estimation as a function of the standardized distance from the nearest measuring locations. The resulting distributions are proved to encompass all possible small-scale structural dependencies, exhibiting characteristics (bounds, multi-modal features etc.) that can be explained using simple geometric arguments. The obtained results are promising, pointing towards the direction of establishing design criteria based on large-scale geologic maps.

  6. REQUIREMENTS FOR A GENERAL INTERPRETATION THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Laura Lungu Petruescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Time has proved that Economic Analysis is not enough as to ensure all the needs of the economic field. The present study wishes to propose a new approach method of the economic phenomena and processes based on the researches made outside the economic space- a new general interpretation theory- which is centered on the human being as the basic actor of economy. A general interpretation theory must assure the interpretation of the causalities among the economic phenomena and processes- causal interpretation; the interpretation of the correlations and dependencies among indicators- normative interpretation; the interpretation of social and communicational processes in economic organizations- social and communicational interpretation; the interpretation of the community status of companies- transsocial interpretation; the interpretation of the purposes of human activities and their coherency – teleological interpretation; the interpretation of equilibrium/ disequilibrium from inside the economic systems- optimality interpretation. In order to respond to such demands, rigor, pragmatism, praxiology and contextual connectors are required. In order to progress, the economic science must improve its language, both its syntax and its semantics. The clarity of exposure requires a language clarity and the scientific theory progress asks for the need of hypotheses in the building of the theories. The switch from the common language to the symbolic one means the switch from ambiguity to rigor and rationality, that is order in thinking. But order implies structure, which implies formalization. Our paper should be a plea for these requirements, requirements which should be fulfilled by a modern interpretation theory.

  7. Resistance to change: Four interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Bringselius, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of resistance to change has gained considerable attention in organization theory over the years, the meaning of the concept is rarely discussed. In this paper, a conceptual framework is suggested that distinguishes between four interpretations of resistance and builds upon the two variables of changeability and emotionality. Each interpretation is based on various assumptions and theoretical influences, as well as connected to different change management strategies. Th...

  8. Influence of delayed muscle reflexes on spinal stability: model-based predictions allow alternative interpretations of experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebetrau, Anne; Puta, Christian; Anders, Christoph; de Lussanet, Marc H E; Wagner, Heiko

    2013-10-01

    Model-based calculations indicate that reflex delay and reflex gain are both important for spinal stability. Experimental results demonstrate that chronic low back pain is associated with delayed muscle reflex responses of trunk muscles. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of such time-delayed reflexes on the stability using a simple biomechanical model. Additionally, we compared the model-based predictions with experimental data from chronic low back pain patients and healthy controls using surface-electromyography. Linear stability methods were applied to the musculoskeletal model, which was extended with a time-delayed reflex model. Lateral external perturbations were simulated around equilibrium to investigate the effects of reflex delay and gain on the stability of the human lumbar spine. The model simulations predicted that increased reflex delays require a reduction of the reflex gain to avoid spinal instability. The experimental data support this dependence for the investigated abdominal muscles in chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects. Reflex time-delay and gain dependence showed that a delayed reflex latency could have relevant influence on spinal stability, if subjects do not adapt their reflex amplitudes. Based on the model and the experimental results, the relationship between muscle reflex response latency and the maximum of the reflex amplitude should be considered for evaluation of (patho) physiological data. We recommend that training procedures should focus on speeding up the delayed reflex response as well as on increasing the amplitude of these reflexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Taming Human Genetic Variability: Transcriptomic Meta-Analysis Guides the Experimental Design and Interpretation of iPSC-Based Disease Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Luc Germain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Both the promises and pitfalls of the cell reprogramming research platform rest on human genetic variation, making the measurement of its impact one of the most urgent issues in the field. Harnessing large transcriptomics datasets of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC, we investigate the implications of this variability for iPSC-based disease modeling. In particular, we show that the widespread use of more than one clone per individual in combination with current analytical practices is detrimental to the robustness of the findings. We then proceed to identify methods to address this challenge and leverage multiple clones per individual. Finally, we evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of different sample sizes and experimental designs, presenting computational tools for power analysis. These findings and tools reframe the nature of replicates used in disease modeling and provide important resources for the design, analysis, and interpretation of iPSC-based studies.

  10. Highlights from the previous volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergini Eduardo, G.; Pan, Y.; al., Vardi R. et; al., Akkermans Eric et; et al.

    2014-01-01

    Semiclassical propagation up to the Heisenberg time Superconductivity and magnetic order in the half-Heusler compound ErPdBi An experimental evidence-based computational paradigm for new logic-gates in neuronal activity Universality in the symmetric exclusion process and diffusive systems

  11. Has the conduct-based approach to competition law in South Africa led to consistent interpretations of harm to competition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Hawthorne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Competition Act and certain recent decisions by the competition authorities are examined here to assess the extent to which South Africa’s conduct-based approach to competition law has led to consistent outcomes in the assessment of effects on competition. This has not been the case in the assessment of anti-competitive effects among customers or resellers when a supplier accused of an anti-competitive action does not compete with its customers. An anti-competitive effect among customers or resellers is treated as anti-competitive when it arises from some form of conduct, such as price discrimination. However, it is not seen as anti-competitive when it arises from a refusal to supply, for example. Possible reasons for South Africa’s conduct-based approach and this inconsistent outcome in the assessment of competition among customers and resellers, including the economic foundations of the relevant approaches and their relationship with competition law in other jurisdictions, are assessed.

  12. The interpretation of spikes and trends in concentration of nitrate in polar ice cores, based on evidence from snow and atmospheric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Wolff

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate is frequently measured in ice cores, but its interpretation remains immature. Using daily snow surface concentrations of nitrate at Halley (Antarctica for 2004–2005, we show that sharp spikes (>factor 2 in nitrate concentration can occur from day to day. Some of these spikes will be preserved in ice cores. Many of them are associated with sharp increases in the concentration of sea salt in the snow. There is also a close association between the concentrations of aerosol nitrate and sea salt aerosol. This evidence is consistent with many of the spikes in deposited nitrate being due to the conversion or trapping of gas-phase nitrate, i.e. to enhanced deposition rather than enhanced atmospheric concentrations of NOy. Previously, sharp spikes in nitrate concentration (with concentration increases of up to a factor 4 seen in probably just one snowfall have been assigned to sharp production events such as solar proton events (SPEs. We find that it is unlikely that SPEs can produce spikes of the kind seen. Taken together with our evidence that such spikes can be produced depositionally, we find that it is not possible to track past SPEs without carrying out a new multi-site and multi-analyte programme. Seasonal and interannual trends in nitrate concentration in cores from any single site cannot be interpreted in terms of production changes until the recycling of nitrate from central Antarctica to coastal Antarctica is better quantified. It might be possible to assess the interannual input of NOy to the Antarctic lower troposphere by using a network of cores to estimate variability in the total annual deposition across the continent (which we estimate to be 9±2×107kg/a – as NO3, but it will first have to be established that the outflow across the coast can be ignored.

  13. DALI - drilling advisor with logic interpretations: methodological issues for designing underbalanced drilling operations. Improving efficiency using case-based reasonic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Gustavo A.; Velazquez C, David [Mexican Oil Institute, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A system that applies a method of knowledge-intensive case-based reasoning, for repair and prevention of unwanted events in the domain of offshore oil well drilling, has been developed in cooperation with an oil company. From several reoccurring problems during oil well drilling the problem of 'lost circulation', i.e. loss of circulating drilling fluid into the geological formation, was picked out as a pilot problem. An extensive general knowledge model was developed for the domain of oil well drilling. Different cases were created on the basis of information from one Mexican Gulf operator. When the completed CBR-system was tested against a new case, cases with descending similarity were selected by the tool. In an informal evaluation, the two best fitting cases proved to give the operator valuable advise on how to go about solving the new case (author)

  14. Complementary Keratoconus Indices Based on Topographical Interpretation of Biomechanical Waveform Parameters: A Supplement to Established Keratoconus Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Goebels

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To build new models with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA waveform parameters to create new indices analogous to established topographic keratoconus indices. Method. Biomechanical, tomographic, and topographic measurements of 505 eyes from the Homburger Keratoconus Centre were included. Thirty-seven waveform parameters (WF were derived from the biomechanical measurement with the ORA. Area under curve (ROC, receiver operating characteristic was used to quantify the screening performance. A logistic regression analysis was used to create two new keratoconus prediction models based on these waveform parameters to resample the clinically established keratoconus indices from Pentacam and TMS-5. Results. ROC curves show the best results for the waveform parameters p1area, p2area, h1, h2, dive1, mslew1, aspect1, aplhf, and dslope1. The new keratoconus prediction model to resample the Pentacam topographic keratoconus index (TKC was WFTKC = −4.068 + 0.002 × p2area − 0.005 × dive1 − 0.01 × h1 − 2.501 × aplhf, which achieves a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 89.4%; to resample the TMS-5 keratoconus classification index (KCI it was WFKCI = −3.606 + 0.002 × p2area, which achieves a sensitivity of 75.4% and a specificity of 81.8%. Conclusion. In addition to the biomechanically provided Keratoconus Index two new indices which were based on the topographic gold standards (either Pentacam or TMS-5 were created. Of course, these do not replace the original topographic measurement.

  15. Family-based behavioural intervention program for obese children: an observational study of child and parent lifestyle interpretations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Teder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Family-based behavioural intervention programs (FBIPs against childhood obesity have shown promising results, but the mediating mechanisms have not been identified. The aim of this study was to examine changes in obese childreńs lifestyle habits during a 2-year FBIP according to their own and parents' reports, the concordance between these reports and the correlations to change in post-intervention z-BMI. METHODS: An observational study of 26 children (8.3-12.0 years and their parents participating in a 2-year FBIP was performed. Weight and height were measured from baseline to 12 months after the end of the program. Eating habits and physical- and sedentary activity were reported separately by children and parents. Data were analysed with regard to concordance between parents' and children's reports and association between the lifestyle reports and change in z-BMI at the study endpoint using descriptive statistics and parametric and non-parametric tests. RESULTS: According to both children's and parents' reports, the level of physical activity among the children had increased after the intervention as well as the agreement between the informants' reports. According to the children, eating habits had improved, while the parents' reports showed an improvement only with regard to binge eating. The concordance between children and parents regarding eating habits was slight to fair also after the intervention. No statistically significant associations between changes in lifestyle reports and changes in z-BMI were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Child and parent reports of physical activity were found to converge and display an improvement in a 2-year FBIP, while the reports on eating habits showed a more refractory pattern. Changes in concordance and agreement between children and parents reports did not correlate with weight reduction. Further methods development and studies of the processes during family-based interventions against childhood

  16. Learning about Bayesian networks for forensic interpretation: an example based on the 'the problem of multiple propositions'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, A; Voisard, R; Taroni, F

    2012-09-01

    Both, Bayesian networks and probabilistic evaluation are gaining more and more widespread use within many professional branches, including forensic science. Notwithstanding, they constitute subtle topics with definitional details that require careful study. While many sophisticated developments of probabilistic approaches to evaluation of forensic findings may readily be found in published literature, there remains a gap with respect to writings that focus on foundational aspects and on how these may be acquired by interested scientists new to these topics. This paper takes this as a starting point to report on the learning about Bayesian networks for likelihood ratio based, probabilistic inference procedures in a class of master students in forensic science. The presentation uses an example that relies on a casework scenario drawn from published literature, involving a questioned signature. A complicating aspect of that case study - proposed to students in a teaching scenario - is due to the need of considering multiple competing propositions, which is an outset that may not readily be approached within a likelihood ratio based framework without drawing attention to some additional technical details. Using generic Bayesian networks fragments from existing literature on the topic, course participants were able to track the probabilistic underpinnings of the proposed scenario correctly both in terms of likelihood ratios and of posterior probabilities. In addition, further study of the example by students allowed them to derive an alternative Bayesian network structure with a computational output that is equivalent to existing probabilistic solutions. This practical experience underlines the potential of Bayesian networks to support and clarify foundational principles of probabilistic procedures for forensic evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EEG-based time and spatial interpretation of activation areas for relaxation and words writing between poor and capable dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, N B; Lee, Khuan Y; Mansor, W; Mahmoodin, Z; Fadzal, C W N F C W; Amirin, S

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of dyslexia such as difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition, and/or poor spelling as well as decoding abilities, are easily misinterpreted as laziness and defiance amongst school children. Indeed, 37.9% of 699 school dropouts and failures are diagnosed as dyslexic. Currently, Screening for dyslexia relies heavily on therapists, whom are few and subjective, yet objective methods are still unavailable. EEG has long been a popular method to study the cognitive processes in human such as language processing and motor activity. However, its interpretation is limited to time and frequency domain, without visual information, which is still useful. Here, our research intends to illustrate an EEG-based time and spatial interpretation of activated brain areas for the poor and capable dyslexic during the state of relaxation and words writing, being the first attempt ever reported. From the 2D distribution of EEG spectral at the activation areas and its progress with time, it is observed that capable dyslexics are able to relax compared to poor dyslexics. During the state of words writing, neural activities are found higher on the right hemisphere than the left hemisphere of the capable dyslexics, which suggests a neurobiological compensation pathway in the right hemisphere, during reading and writing, which is not observed in the poor dyslexics.

  18. Vibrational circular dichroism and electric-field shielding tensors: A new physical interpretation based on nonlocal susceptibility densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Katharine L. C.; Harris, Robert A.

    1991-06-01

    Motion of nuclei within a molecule induces a magnetic moment me in the electronic charge distribution, giving a nonzero electronic contribution to the magnetic transition dipole that produces vibrational circular dichroism. In this paper, we develop a new susceptibility density theory for the induced magnetic moment. The theory is based on the response of the electrons to changes in the nuclear Coulomb field, due to shifts in nuclear positions. The electronic response to these changes depends on the same susceptibility densities that determine response to external fields. Our analysis suggests a new physical picture of vibrational circular dichroism. It yields an equation for the density of the induced electronic magnetic moment within a molecule; it also yields a new relation connecting the electric-field shielding at nucleus I of a molecule in an applied magnetic field of frequency ω to the derivative of me with respect to the velocity of nucleus I, regarded as a parameter in the electronic wave function. Within our theory, the derivative of me with respect to nuclear velocity separates into quantum-mechanical and classical components in close analogy with the Hellmann-Feynman theorem for forces on nuclei. In matrix-element form, results from our theory are identical to those obtained with nonadiabatic perturbation theory, to leading order. In general, the leading nonadiabatic corrections to electronic properties are determined directly by the electrons' response to the changes in the nuclear Coulomb field, when the nuclei move.

  19. Observer Performance in the Use of Digital and Optical Microscopy for the Interpretation of Tissue-Based Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios A. Gavrielides

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We conducted a validation study of digital pathology for the quantitative assessment of tissue-based biomarkers with immunohistochemistry. Objective.\tTo examine observer agreement as a function of viewing modality (digital versus optical microscopy, whole slide versus tissue microarray (TMA review, biomarker type (HER2 incorporating membranous staining and Ki-67 with nuclear staining, and data type (continuous and categorical. Methods.\tEight pathologists reviewed 50 breast cancer whole slides (25 stained with HER2 and 25 with Ki-67 and 2 TMAs (1 stained with HER2, 1 with Ki-67, each containing 97 cores, using digital and optical microscopy. Results. Results showed relatively high overall interobserver and intermodality agreement, with different patterns specific to biomarker type. For HER2, there was better interobserver agreement for optical compared to digital microscopy for whole slides as well as better interobserver and intermodality agreement for TMAs. For Ki-67, those patterns were not observed. Conclusions. The differences in agreement patterns when examining different biomarkers and different scoring methods and reviewing whole slides compared to TMA stress the need for validation studies focused on specific pathology tasks to eliminate sources of variability that might dilute findings. The statistical uncertainty observed in our analyses calls for adequate sampling for each individual task rather than pooling cases.

  20. Digital training platform for interpreting radiographic images of the chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, L; Woznitza, N; Cairns, A; McFadden, S L; Bond, R; Hughes, C M; Elsayed, A; Finlay, D; McConnell, J

    2018-05-01

    Time delays and errors exist which lead to delays in patient care and misdiagnosis. Reporting clinicians follow guidance to form their own search strategy. However, little research has tested these training guides. With the use of eye tracking technology and expert input we developed a digital training platform to be used in chest image interpretation learning. Two sections of a digital training platform were planned and developed; A) a search strategy training tool to assist reporters during their interpretation of images, and B) an educational tool to communicate the search strategies of expert viewers to trainees by using eye tracking technology. A digital training platform for use in chest image interpretation was created based on evidence within the literature, expert input and two search strategies previously used in clinical practice. Images and diagrams, aiding translation of the platform content, were incorporated where possible. The platform is structured to allow the chest image interpretation process to be clear, concise and methodical. A search strategy was incorporated within the tool to investigate its use, with the possibility that it could be recommended as an evidence based approach for use by reporting clinicians. Eye tracking, a checklist and voice recordings have been combined to form a multi-dimensional learning tool, which has never been used in chest image interpretation learning before. The training platform for use in chest image interpretation learning has been designed, created and digitised. Future work will establish the efficacy of the developed approaches. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modular interpreters with implicit context propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Inostroza Valdera (Pablo); T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractModular interpreters are a crucial first step towards component-based language development: instead of writing language interpreters from scratch, they can be assembled from reusable, semantic building blocks. Unfortunately, traditional language interpreters can be hard to extend because

  2. Experimental and theoretical studies of the colloidal stability of nanoparticles-a general interpretation based on stability maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segets, Doris; Marczak, Renata; Schäfer, Stefan; Paula, Carolin; Gnichwitz, Jan-Frederik; Hirsch, Andreas; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2011-06-28

    The current work addresses the understanding of the stabilization of nanoparticles in suspension. Specifically, we study ZnO in ethanol for which the influence of particle size and reactant ratio as well as surface coverage on colloidal stability in dependence of the purification progress was investigated. The results revealed that the well-known ζ-potential determines not only the colloidal stability but also the surface coverage of acetate groups bound to the particle surface. The acetate groups act as molecular spacers between the nanoparticles and prevent agglomeration. Next to DLVO calculations based on the theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek using a core-shell model we find that the stability is better understood in terms of dimensionless numbers which represent attractive forces as well as electrostatic repulsion, steric effects, transport properties, and particle concentration. Evaluating the colloidal stability in dependence of time by means of UV-vis absorption measurements a stability map for ZnO is derived. From this map it becomes clear that the dimensionless steric contribution to colloidal stability scales with a stability parameter including dimensionless repulsion and attraction as well as particle concentration and diffusivity of the particles according to a power law with an exponent of -0.5. Finally, we show that our approach is valid for other stabilizing molecules like cationic dendrons and is generally applicable for a wide range of other material systems within the limitations of vanishing van der Waals forces in refractive index matched situations, vanishing ζ-potential and systems without a stabilizing shell around the particle surface.

  3. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  4. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We...

  5. Journalists as Interpretive Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1993-01-01

    Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

  6. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  7. A High-Enrollment Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience Improves Student Conceptions of Scientific Thinking and Ability to Interpret Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E.; Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S.; Singla, Veena; Chandler Seawell, Patricia; Conklin Imam, Jamie F.; Eddy, Sarah L.; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative course-based undergraduate research experience curriculum focused on the characterization of single point mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. This course is required of all introductory biology students, so all biology majors engage in a research project as part of their training. Using a set of open-ended written prompts, we found that the course shifts student conceptions of what it means to think like a scientist from novice to more expert-like. Students at the end of the course identified experimental repetition, data analysis, and collaboration as important elements of thinking like a scientist. Course exams revealed that students showed gains in their ability to analyze and interpret data. These data indicate that this course-embedded research experience has a positive impact on the development of students’ conceptions and practice of scientific thinking. PMID:26033869

  8. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  9. Time-efficient CT colonography interpretation using an advanced image-gallery-based, computer-aided ''first-reader'' workflow for the detection of colorectal adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mang, Thomas; Ringl, Helmut; Weber, Michael; Mueller-Mang, Christina; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Wolf, Matthias; Bogoni, Luca; Salganicoff, Marcos; Raykar, Vikas; Graser, Anno

    2012-01-01

    To assess the performance of an advanced ''first-reader'' workflow for computer-aided detection (CAD) of colorectal adenomas ≥ 6 mm at computed tomographic colonography (CTC) in a low-prevalence cohort. A total of 616 colonoscopy-validated CTC patient-datasets were retrospectively reviewed by a radiologist using a ''first-reader'' CAD workflow. CAD detections were presented as galleries of six automatically generated two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images together with interactive 3D target views and 2D multiplanar views of the complete dataset. Each patient-dataset was interpreted by initially using CAD image-galleries followed by a fast 2D review to address unprompted colonic areas. Per-patient, per-polyp, and per-adenoma sensitivities were calculated for lesions ≥ 6 mm. Statistical testing employed Fisher's exact and McNemar tests. In 91/616 patients, 131 polyps (92 adenomas, 39 non-adenomas) ≥ 6 mm and two cancers were identified by reference standard. Using the CAD gallery-based first-reader workflow, the radiologist detected all adenomas ≥ 10 mm (34/34) and cancers. Per-patient and polyp sensitivities for lesions ≥ 6 mm were 84.3 % (75/89), and 83.2 % (109/131), respectively, with 89.1 % (57/64) and 85.9 % (79/92) for adenomas. Overall specificity was 95.6 % (504/527). Mean interpretation time was 3.1 min per patient. A CAD algorithm, applied in an image-gallery-based first-reader workflow, can substantially decrease reading times while enabling accurate detection of colorectal adenomas in a low-prevalence population. (orig.)

  10. A Discussion on Uncertainty Representation and Interpretation in Model-based Prognostics Algorithms based on Kalman Filter Estimation Applied to Prognostics of Electronics Components

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This article presented a discussion on uncertainty representation and management for model-based prog- nostics methodologies based on the Bayesian tracking framework...

  11. COURT INTERPRETING AT DENPASAR COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Made Puspani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a research on interpreting (oral translation on a criminal case ofdrug user in the court proceedings at Denpasar Court. The study of theinterpreting is concerned with two-ways rendition from Indonesian into Englishand vice-versa. The study is related to: (1 the description of modes of interpretingapplied by the interpreter, (2 the application of translation strategies: shift,addition and deletion of information, (3 factors that underlie the application ofthe strategies, and (4 the impact of the application of those strategies towards thequality of the interpreting.The methodology applied in this study is qualitative based on eclectictheories (translation, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. The utilization of thetheories is in accordance with the type of the data analyzed in regard to thetranslation phenomena as an applied study and its complexity.The interpreting at court applied the consecutive and simultaneous modes.The strategy of shift was applied when there were differences in structure betweenthe source and the target languages. Addition of information was used when theinterpreter emphasized the message of the source language in the target language.The deletion of information applied if the context in the target language has beencovered, and it was not necessary for the interpreter to interpret the same thingbecause the message of the source language was pragmatically implied in thetarget language.The factors which underlie the application of the interpreting strategies incourt interpreting were communication factor and the differences in the languagesystems between the source and the target languages. The impact of the use of thestrategies towards the quality of the interpreting happened when the interpretationof the source language message into the message of the target language and themessage in the source language was not completely render into the targetlanguage.The novelties of the research are: (1 relevance theory and its

  12. Genre and Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Despite the immensity of genre studies as well as studies in interpretation, our understanding of the relationship between genre and interpretation is sketchy at best. The article attempts to unravel some of intricacies of that relationship through an analysis of the generic interpretation carried...... out by us all in everyday life, and the role of generic interpretation in scholarly work. The article argues that the role played by genre in interpretation has as much to do with the individual characteristics of an utterance as with its relationship to other utterances. An interest in the generic...... traits of an utterance will lead to a characterization of its individual, as well as its general characteristics. The article proceeds to describe three central concepts within genre studies that are applicable to generic interpretation: “horizon of expectation,” “world,” and the triad “theme...

  13. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    in by the participants almost immediately after the interrogations and supplemented by interviews. The main objective of the project is to explore the interpreters' own perception of the quality of the service they render as well as the professional users´ and the other language users' perception of the quality...... of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality......, such as the interpreter's engagement in explicit co-construction of meaning. In addition, we shall include social factors which must be assumed to have a bearing on the interpreter's behaviour. Here we can, at least to some extent, draw upon the questionnaires and interviews mentioned above. Finally, we shall discuss...

  14. Interpretation bias in middle childhood attachment: Causal effects on attachment memories and scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, Simon; Salemink, Elske; Bosmans, Guy

    2018-03-01

    Attachment theory implies the causal influence of interpretation bias on the attachment-related expectations. Previous research demonstrated that training children to interpret maternal behavior as more supportive increased their trust in maternal support. The current study explored possible training effects on two attachment script-related processes: recollection of attachment-related memories and secure base script knowledge. Children (9-12 years old; N = 84) were assigned to either a secure training condition, training children to interpret mother's behavior as supportive, or a neutral placebo condition, where interpretations about maternal behavior were unrelated to support. Findings replicated the training effect on interpretation bias and trust. Furthermore, children's recollection of attachment-related memories became more positive. No training effect was found for secure base script knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Design of a system based on diffuse logic for the diagnosis of the epilepsy starting from the interpretation of the electroencephalogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago, Eder

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to design of a system based on Diffuse Logic for the diagnosis of the epilepsy starting from the electroencephalogram interpretation. To achieve the elaboration of the design of the system, they were carried out bibliographical consultations in different sources of information related with the topic, like interviews semi structured and structured to an intentional sample contained by a group of experts in the area of diagnostic of the epilepsy. These techniques contributed the necessary information to determine the current situation of the process of diagnostic of the epilepsy and the bases of the proposed system, as well as they allowed to determine the necessity and feasibility of the application of the Diffuse Logic in the diagnosis of the epilepsy. The proposal is presented like a simple useful tool for the experts in diagnostic, but it is not conceived to substitute the expert in its functions. The diagnosis processes are of complex type, and in great measure they are numerous the variables that intervene in them, are for this reason that the knowledge and the expert's abilities will be the determinant for the elaboration of the definitive diagnosis

  16. Globally evaluating and interpreting the performance of different water demand estimates in multiscalar drought identification based on water-energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated and interpreted the performance of potential evapotranspiration (PET) and climatically appropriate precipitation for existing conditions (P^) as water demand metric in multiscalar drought identification at global scale. Multiscalar drought index based on P^ shows higher correlations with observed streamflow and residual water-energy ratio than that based on PET over 32 global large basins, indicating P^ as a water demand metric provides improved information in multiscalar drought identification at global scale, especially in non-humid regions. The PET is one of the best water demand indicators for characterizing the climate aridity, while the P^ is more reliable water demand metric in drought monitoring. Using PET as water demand metric in drought study underperforms over non-humid basins, which is attributed to change in actual water demand is primarily dominated by change in P rather than in PET over water-stressed area. In general, using P^ as water demand metric is physically more reasonable and reliable in reflecting surface water-energy balance, enabling it to provide optimized information for drought identification at multiple time scales.

  17. Enhancing Interpretation of Ambiguous Voice Instructions based on the Environment and the User’s Intention for Improved Human-Friendly Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Viraj J. Muthugala

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human-friendly interactive features are preferred for domestic service robots. Humans prefer to use verbal communication in order to convey instructions to peers. Those voice instructions often include uncertain terms such as “little” and “far”. Therefore, the ability to quantify such information is mandatory for human-friendly service robots. The meaning of such voice instructions depends on the environment and the intention of the user. Therefore, this paper proposes a method in order to interpret the ambiguities in user instructions based on the environment and the intention of the user. The actual intention of the user is identified by analyzing the pointing gestures accompanied with the voice instructions since pointing gestures can be used in order to express the intention of the user. A module called the motion intention switcher (MIS has been introduced in order to switch the intention of the robot based on the arrangement of the environment and the point referred by the gesture. Experiments have been carried out in an artificially-created domestic environment. According to the experimental results, the behavior of the MIS is effective in identifying the actual intention of the user and switching the intention of the robot. Moreover, the proposed concept is capable of enhancing the uncertain information evaluation ability of robots.

  18. Growth Behavior of E. coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus Species in the Presence and Absence of Sub-inhibitory Antibiotic Concentrations: Consequences for Interpretation of Culture-Based Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    Culture-based approaches are used to monitor, e.g., drinking water or bathing water quality and to investigate species diversity and antibiotic resistance levels in environmental samples. For health risk assessment, it is important to know whether the growing cultures display the actual abundance of, e.g., clinically relevant antibiotic resistance phenotypes such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium/Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, it is important to know whether sub-inhibitory antibiotic concentrations, which are present in surface waters, favor the growth of antibiotic-resistant strains. Therefore, clinically relevant bacteria were isolated from different water sources and the growth behavior of 58 Escherichia coli, 71 Enterococcus, and 120 Staphylococcus isolates, belonging to different species and revealing different antibiotic resistance patterns, was studied with respect to "environmental" antibiotic concentrations. The finding that VRE could only be detected after specific enrichment can be explained by their slow growth compared to non-resistant strains. Interpreting their absence in standardized culture-based methods as nonexistent might be a fallacy. Sub-inhibitory antibiotic concentrations that were detected in sewage and receiving river water did not specifically promote antibiotic-resistant strains. Generally, those antibiotics that influenced cell metabolism directly led to slightly reduced growth rates and less than maximal optical densities after 48 h of incubation.

  19. The transactional interpretation, counterfactuals, and weak values in quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Ruth E.

    In recent years, a number of authors have studied pre- and post-selected quantum systems and associated time symmetry considerations. In this context, numerous paradoxes have arisen which raise questions about what can be inferred about such a system based on theoretically calculated quantities such as the Aharonov-Bergmann-Lebowitz (ABL) probabilities; and, more recently, "weak values"-time-symmetric quantities applicable to pre- and post-selected systems. This paper applies to some of these problems a time-symmetric interpretation of quantum theory: the "transactional interpretation" (TI) of Cramer, first proposed in 1980. The TI picture supports the conclusion that weak values are properly interpreted as multiple-time amplitudes rather than as generalized expectation values. It also prompts a stricter constraint on the counterfactual usage of the ABL rule than the consistency of the associated family of histories, which has previously been regarded as sufficient.

  20. Nurturing Students' Strengths: The Impact of a School-Based Student Interpreter Program on Latino/a Students' Reading Comprehension and English Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Framed within the growing population of English language learners (ELLs) in urban schools, this study examined the learning experiences of bilingual Latino/a students who were taught to serve as on-site interpreters at their inner-city K-8 school in California. Participants in the Young Interpreters Program had significantly higher scores in…

  1. Energy and carbon emissions analysis and prediction of complex petrochemical systems based on an improved extreme learning machine integrated interpretative structural model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yongming; Zhu, Qunxiong; Geng, Zhiqiang; Xu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The ELM integrated ISM (ISM-ELM) method is proposed. • The proposed method is more efficient and accurate than the ELM through the UCI data set. • Energy and carbon emissions analysis and prediction of petrochemical industries based ISM-ELM is obtained. • The proposed method is valid in improving energy efficiency and reducing carbon emissions of ethylene plants. - Abstract: Energy saving and carbon emissions reduction of the petrochemical industry are affected by many factors. Thus, it is difficult to analyze and optimize the energy of complex petrochemical systems accurately. This paper proposes an energy and carbon emissions analysis and prediction approach based on an improved extreme learning machine (ELM) integrated interpretative structural model (ISM) (ISM-ELM). ISM based the partial correlation coefficient is utilized to analyze key parameters that affect the energy and carbon emissions of the complex petrochemical system, and can denoise and reduce dimensions of data to decrease the training time and errors of the ELM prediction model. Meanwhile, in terms of the model accuracy and the training time, the robustness and effectiveness of the ISM-ELM model are better than the ELM through standard data sets from the University of California Irvine (UCI) repository. Moreover, a multi-inputs and single-output (MISO) model of energy and carbon emissions of complex ethylene systems is established based on the ISM-ELM. Finally, detailed analyses and simulations using the real ethylene plant data demonstrate the effectiveness of the ISM-ELM and can guide the improvement direction of energy saving and carbon emissions reduction in complex petrochemical systems.

  2. Interpreting Data: The Hybrid Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Kimberly; Talanquer, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize major patterns of reasoning exhibited by college chemistry students when analyzing and interpreting chemical data. Using a case study approach, we investigated how a representative student used chemical models to explain patterns in the data based on structure-property relationships. Our results…

  3. Analyzing and Interpreting Historical Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, Matthias; Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    on social scientific methods as well as the practice and reflections of historians, the chapter describes analytical and interpretive process based on three basic elements, illustrating them with exemplars from management research: source criticism to identify possible biases and judge the extent to which....... The chapter contributes to the creation of a language for describing the use of historical sources in management research....

  4. Decoherence and the many worlds interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigelt, Carsten Thomas [University Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The theory of decoherence gives us a good account (at least for open systems) of how classical properties emerge from the quantum world. Recent experiments based on decoherence offers strong arguments against the quantum-classical division proposed by the early Copenhagen Interpretation. But even if decoherence may support the view that quantum mechanics can be considered as fundamental theory the question remains if this sheds new light to the question of how a realistic interpretation of quantum theory can be achieved? In the last years proponents of decoherence pointed out that the theory fits perfectly into the framework of many worlds interpretations. The question that I address is, in what sense these interpretations can be considered as realistic interpretations? To answer this question I argue that in the context of decoherence we have strong reasons to interpret quantum states in a realistic sense. A problem for many worlds interpretations arises when the meaning of Everett's relative states is considered since these interpretations strongly dependent on the interpretation of relative states. I show that einselection proposed by the decoherence theory will determine Everett's relative states in an objective sense but these states must be interpreted as epistemic states. I conclude that this ambiguity between realistic interpreted quantum states and epistemic relative states limits the strict realistic character of many worlds interpretation.

  5. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  6. A high-enrollment course-based undergraduate research experience improves student conceptions of scientific thinking and ability to interpret data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E; Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S; Singla, Veena; Chandler Seawell, Patricia; Conklin Imam, Jamie F; Eddy, Sarah L; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative course-based undergraduate research experience curriculum focused on the characterization of single point mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. This course is required of all introductory biology students, so all biology majors engage in a research project as part of their training. Using a set of open-ended written prompts, we found that the course shifts student conceptions of what it means to think like a scientist from novice to more expert-like. Students at the end of the course identified experimental repetition, data analysis, and collaboration as important elements of thinking like a scientist. Course exams revealed that students showed gains in their ability to analyze and interpret data. These data indicate that this course-embedded research experience has a positive impact on the development of students' conceptions and practice of scientific thinking. © 2015 S. E. Brownell et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Electrophoresis-tutor: an image-based personal computer program that teaches clinical interpretation of protein electrophoresis patterns of serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astion, M L; Rank, J; Wener, M H; Torvik, P; Schneider, J B; Killingsworth, L M

    1995-09-01

    High-resolution protein electrophoresis of serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can aid in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma, amyloidosis, macroglobulinemia, multiple sclerosis, and other diseases. Electrophoresis-Tutor is a personal computer program based on approximately 150 digital images that teaches the clinical interpretation of agarose gel electrophoretic patterns. The program is divided into the following sections: introduction, CSF, serum, urine, review of disease states, program navigator, and final exam. The CSF section describes normal and abnormal CSF findings with emphasis on oligoclonal banding, as seen in the CSF of patients with multiple sclerosis. The serum section emphasizes monoclonal gammopathy patterns but also has detailed descriptions of inflammation, liver disease, protein-losing disorders, genetic deficiencies, and other patterns. Monoclonal gammopathy is described in the context of specific associated clinical conditions (e.g., myeloma, amyloidosis). For each monoclonal gammopathy example, results of standard electrophoresis, densitometry, and immunofixation are presented. The review of disease states uses animation to illustrate the development and remission of a variety of pathological patterns. The program navigator allows the user to jump quickly to any place in the program. The optional exam contains 20 questions, and detailed feedback is given after each question. Electrophoresis-Tutor can be used as a stand-alone teaching tool, a companion to traditional instruction, or a reference source.

  8. Understanding diversity in coral-algal symbiosis: a cluster-based approach to interpreting fine-scale genetic variation in the genus Symbiodinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, A. M. S.; Baker, A. C.

    2009-03-01

    Reef corals associate with an extraordinary diversity of dinoflagellate endosymbionts (genus Symbiodinium), and this diversity has become critical to understanding how corals respond to environmental changes. A popular molecular marker for Symbiodinium diversity, the Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 (ITS-2) region of ribosomal DNA, has revealed hundreds of distinct variants that are generally interpreted as representing different species, even though many have not been systematically tested for functional or ecological differentiation. Many of these variants are only minimally divergent from one another (1 bp or less), and others occupy basal nodes of traditional species phylogenies (“living ancestors”), indicating that some Symbiodinium ITS-2 diversity may represent intraspecific sequence variation. This hypothesis was tested for Symbiodinium clades A- D (the dominant symbionts of reef corals) through the construction of statistical parsimony networks of ITS-2 sequence diversity, and identification of clusters of closely related sequences within these networks. Initial assessments indicated that ecological differentiation exists between, but not within, these clusters. This approach, although imperfect in its ability to identify species boundaries in all cases, nevertheless dramatically reduces “species” diversity in Symbiodinium (from ~175 to 35). This testable alternative hypothesis indicates that, in Symbiodinium, “species” consist of clusters of closely related ITS-2 sequences diverging from ancestral variants that are typically ecologically dominant. A cluster-based view of Symbiodinium ITS-2 diversity improves our ability to: (1) construct well-supported symbiont phylogenies; (2) establish functional niches for symbiont species; and (3) understand flexibility and specificity within coral-algal symbioses. This cluster-based approach can ultimately be integrated with emerging population-level datasets (microsatellites and microsatellite flanking

  9. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. Methods/design The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government’s Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. Discussion It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new

  10. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Fauquet, Jordi; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Pàmias, Montserrat; Puntí, Joaquim; Querol, Mireia; Trepat, Esther

    2013-10-12

    The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government's Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new contributions in this transition from efficacy

  11. An information gap in DNA evidence interpretation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Perlin

    Full Text Available Forensic DNA evidence often contains mixtures of multiple contributors, or is present in low template amounts. The resulting data signals may appear to be relatively uninformative when interpreted using qualitative inclusion-based methods. However, these same data can yield greater identification information when interpreted by computer using quantitative data-modeling methods. This study applies both qualitative and quantitative interpretation methods to a well-characterized DNA mixture and dilution data set, and compares the inferred match information. The results show that qualitative interpretation loses identification power at low culprit DNA quantities (below 100 pg, but that quantitative methods produce useful information down into the 10 pg range. Thus there is a ten-fold information gap that separates the qualitative and quantitative DNA mixture interpretation approaches. With low quantities of culprit DNA (10 pg to 100 pg, computer-based quantitative interpretation provides greater match sensitivity.

  12. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Sahay

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy.

  13. Interpretability in PRA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílková, Marta; De Jongh, D.; Joosten, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 2 (2009), s. 128-138 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA900090703 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA401/06/0387 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interpretability * arithmetic * primitive recursive arithmetic * interpretability logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2009

  14. Integrating Emotions Into the Critical Interpretive Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina Skewes; Hense, Cherry; Medcalf, Laura; Murphy, Melissa; Fairchild, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Critical interpretive synthesis is a particular form of systematic review that critically examines the decisions made by authors while conducting and publishing about their research and practices. It differs from empirical syntheses of qualitative research by emphasizing the interpreted and constructed nature of this form of secondary analysis. In this article, we extend previous literature on critical interpretive syntheses by highlighting the integration of emotional responses when developing critical questions for interrogating the literature and interpreting results. Our extension of the critical interpretive synthesis is illustrated through examples from five studies examining literature in our own field of music therapy, as well as related fields of disability studies, mental health, music psychology, and child welfare. The methodology we have refined uses an iterative and recursive method that promotes increased critical awareness of the assumptions driving the production of research in health contexts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Electrocardiogram interpretation and arrhythmia management: a primary and secondary care survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Gordon; Willan, Kathryn; Tyndall, Keith; Pepper, Chris; Tayebjee, Muzahir

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing desire among service commissioners to treat arrhythmia in primary care. Accurate interpretation of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is fundamental to this. ECG interpretation has previously been shown to vary widely but there is little recent data. To examine the interpretation of ECGs in primary and secondary care. A cross-sectional survey of participants' interpretation of six ECGs and hypothetical management of patients based on those ECGs, at primary care educational events, and a cardiology department in Leeds. A total of 262 primary care clinicians and 20 cardiology clinicians were surveyed via questionnaire. Answers were compared with expert electrophysiologist opinion. In primary care, abnormal ECGs were interpreted as normal by 23% of responders. ST elevation and prolonged QT were incorrectly interpreted as normal by 1% and 22%, respectively. In cardiology, abnormal ECGs were interpreted as normal by 3%. ECG provision and interpretation remains inconsistent in both primary and secondary care. Primary care practitioners are less experienced and less confident with ECG interpretation than cardiologists, and require support in this area. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  16. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Geno2pheno[HCV] - A Web-based Interpretation System to Support Hepatitis C Treatment Decisions in the Era of Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaghatgi, Prabhav; Sikorski, Anna Maria; Knops, Elena; Rupp, Daniel; Sierra, Saleta; Heger, Eva; Neumann-Fraune, Maria; Beggel, Bastian; Walker, Andreas; Timm, Jörg; Walter, Hauke; Obermeier, Martin; Kaiser, Rolf; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Lengauer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The face of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy is changing dramatically. Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) specifically targeting HCV proteins have been developed and entered clinical practice in 2011. However, despite high sustained viral response (SVR) rates of more than 90%, a fraction of patients do not eliminate the virus and in these cases treatment failure has been associated with the selection of drug resistance mutations (RAMs). RAMs may be prevalent prior to the start of treatment, or can be selected under therapy, and furthermore they can persist after cessation of treatment. Additionally, certain DAAs have been approved only for distinct HCV genotypes and may even have subtype specificity. Thus, sequence analysis before start of therapy is instrumental for managing DAA-based treatment strategies. We have created the interpretation system geno2pheno[HCV] (g2p[HCV]) to analyse HCV sequence data with respect to viral subtype and to predict drug resistance. Extensive reviewing and weighting of literature related to HCV drug resistance was performed to create a comprehensive list of drug resistance rules for inhibitors of the HCV protease in non-structural protein 3 (NS3-protease: Boceprevir, Paritaprevir, Simeprevir, Asunaprevir, Grazoprevir and Telaprevir), the NS5A replicase factor (Daclatasvir, Ledipasvir, Elbasvir and Ombitasvir), and the NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Dasabuvir and Sofosbuvir). Upon submission of up to eight sequences, g2p[HCV] aligns the input sequences, identifies the genomic region(s), predicts the HCV geno- and subtypes, and generates for each DAA a drug resistance prediction report. g2p[HCV] offers easy-to-use and fast subtype and resistance analysis of HCV sequences, is continuously updated and freely accessible under http://hcv.geno2pheno.org/index.php. The system was partially validated with respect to the NS3-protease inhibitors Boceprevir, Telaprevir and Simeprevir by using data generated with recombinant, phenotypic

  18. Charisma and attachment theory: a crossdisciplinary interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberbach, D

    1995-08-01

    The attachment theory of Bowlby and his followers has not previously been applied to the interpretation of charismatic phenomena in the bonding of large numbers of people with their leaders in crisis. This essay, which builds on the author's 'Surviving trauma: loss, literature and psychoanalysis', attempts to use attachment theory and sociological concepts such as homogamy, anomie, negative imprinting and de-individuation, as well as classical Freudian concepts such as transference and splitting of the ego, in interpreting the charismatic bond. It is argued that charismatic homogamy becomes viable at the point of intersection between the inner world of the charismatic leader and social and political reality. The bonding of the individual and the public may be based partly upon a symbolic link between public crisis and the charismatic's experience of trauma that has deeply scarred or even ended the affectional bonds in his family of orientation. This trauma, however, is a source of insight and power as well as of disability, for it has schooled him in crisis and given him the capacity to offer directional leadership. The charismatic and his society are bonded in crisis through a mutual attempt to break free of anomie and alienation, and a sense of powerlessness and despair.

  19. Towards operational interpretations of generalized entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topsoee, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    The driving force behind our study has been to overcome the difficulties you encounter when you try to extend the clear and convincing operational interpretations of classical Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy to other notions, especially to generalized entropies as proposed by Tsallis. Our approach is philosophical, based on speculations regarding the interplay between truth, belief and knowledge. The main result demonstrates that, accepting philosophically motivated assumptions, the only possible measures of entropy are those suggested by Tsallis - which, as we know, include classical entropy. This result constitutes, so it seems, a more transparent interpretation of entropy than previously available. However, further research to clarify the assumptions is still needed. Our study points to the thesis that one should never consider the notion of entropy in isolation - in order to enable a rich and technically smooth study, further concepts, such as divergence, score functions and descriptors or controls should be included in the discussion. This will clarify the distinction between Nature and Observer and facilitate a game theoretical discussion. The usefulness of this distinction and the subsequent exploitation of game theoretical results - such as those connected with the notion of Nash equilibrium - is demonstrated by a discussion of the Maximum Entropy Principle.

  20. The emergent Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. This interpretation describes a world in which definite measurement results are obtained with probabilities that reproduce the Born rule. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we give an account of the EPR-Bohm thought experiment and show that the interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems.

  1. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...... technique is based on fixpoint induction and introduces an extended class of attribute grammars as to express a standard semantics....

  2. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant to incorp......Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...... can be treated in specific dictionary articles. However, in the current article, due to the results of recent research, I argue that the interpretive function should not be considered an individual main function. The interpretive function, contrary to some of its definitions, is not connected...

  3. Geometrical interpretation and architecture selection of MLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Cheng; Ding, Shenqiang Q; Lee, Tong Heng

    2005-01-01

    A geometrical interpretation of the multilayer perceptron (MLP) is suggested in this paper. Some general guidelines for selecting the architecture of the MLP, i.e., the number of the hidden neurons and the hidden layers, are proposed based upon this interpretation and the controversial issue of whether four-layered MLP is superior to the three-layered MLP is also carefully examined.

  4. Infusing Counseling Skills in Test Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Melanie E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents an instructional model based on Neurolinguistic Programming that links counseling student course work in measurement and test interpretation with counseling techniques and theory. A process incorporating Neurolinguistic Programming patterns is outlined for teaching graduate students the counseling skills helpful in test interpretation.…

  5. Interpretation of panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perschbacher, Susanne

    2012-03-01

    Panoramic radiography has become a commonly used imaging modality in dental practice and can be a valuable diagnostic tool in the dentist's armamentarium. However, the panoramic image is a complex projection of the jaws with multiple superimpositions and distortions which may be exacerbated by technical errors in image acquisition. Furthermore, the panoramic radiograph depicts numerous anatomic structures outside of the jaws which may create additional interpretation challenges. Successful interpretation of panoramic radiographs begins with an understanding of the normal anatomy of the head and neck and how it is depicted in this image type. This article will describe how osseous structures, soft tissues, air spaces and ghost shadows contribute to the final panoramic image. A systematic and repeated approach to examining panoramic radiographs, which is recommended to ensure that critical findings are not overlooked, is also outlined. Examples of challenging interpretations, including variations of anatomy, artefacts and disease, are presented to illustrate these concepts. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  6. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    to acting and therefore the only difference between reception and interpretation is that they work with different types of sign. However, the type of sign is not relevant for a function, or rather, it should not be a criterion for distinguishing between functions. The lemma selection for the communicative......Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...

  7. Structural and Geological Interpretation of Posidonius Crater on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Y.; Chiba, T.; Haruyama, J.; Otake, H.; Ohtake, M.

    2015-12-01

    Posidonius crater locates on northeastern rim parts of the Serenitatis basin and is a typical floor-fractured crater. Because of Posidonius is located lunar central nearside and easily observed by ground-base telescope, the complex texture of crater floor attracted planetary scientist attention from before lunar exportation era. However, origin or formation histories of floor fractures are not fully resolved yet. In this study, we try to estimate geologic histories of Posidonius crater based on topographic data and multiband image data obtained by Terrain Camera (TC) and Multiband Imager (MI) onboard Kaguya. A part of crater floor of Posidonius is flooded by mare basalt. Previous studies interpreted that the source of mare basalt is located somewhere at Mare Serenitatis and flooded into Posidonius crater, then sinuous rill (Rimae Posidonius) is the resulting structure of flooded basalt flow. However, based on TC topographic data, sinuous rill feature indicate opposite flow direction to previous interpretations. Based on TC topographic data, we could interpret topographic features as follows; Rimare Posidonius flow from volcanic vent located at northern edge of Posidonius crater floor and flow out to Mare Serenitatis at western rim, the central part of crater floor slightly leaned to west and broken in several regions. From band depth of MI data, eastern part of crater floor is mostly consisted by highland materials and complex rills are basically not showing the basaltic feature. Combined both analysis results, we interpret the cause of complex structure of Posidonius crater is as follows; after crater formation, large sill intruded below crater floor and uppermost layer of crater floor is delaminated from the basement then floats on basaltic intrusion as "otoshibuta" (Japanese style lid for stew). Complex fracture was probably formed delamination and flotation stage by mechanical stress.

  8. Reflections and Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology of guide......Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology...

  9. Conjunctive interpretations of disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Rooij

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this extended commentary I discuss the problem of how to account for "conjunctive" readings of some sentences with embedded disjunctions for globalist analyses of conversational implicatures. Following Franke (2010, 2009, I suggest that earlier proposals failed, because they did not take into account the interactive reasoning of what else the speaker could have said, and how else the hearer could have interpreted the (alternative sentence(s. I show how Franke's idea relates to more traditional pragmatic interpretation strategies. doi:10.3765/sp.3.11 BibTeX info

  10. Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickl Peter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems of modern physics are man made. The Copenhagen version of quantum mechanics is formulated in a vague prosaic way, inconsistencies and paradoxes are the price. New interpretations try to solve the problem, however a reformulation rather than an interpretation is needed. In this manuscript I will point out, where the Copenhagen formulation of quantum mechanics is flawed and how one can make sense out of it. Then I will show, that it is possible to give a precise formulation of quantum mechanics without losing its compelling ability in describing experiments.

  11. Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickl, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The problems of modern physics are man made. The Copenhagen version of quantum mechanics is formulated in a vague prosaic way, inconsistencies and paradoxes are the price. New interpretations try to solve the problem, however a reformulation rather than an interpretation is needed. In this manuscript I will point out, where the Copenhagen formulation of quantum mechanics is flawed and how one can make sense out of it. Then I will show, that it is possible to give a precise formulation of quantum mechanics without losing its compelling ability in describing experiments.

  12. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension...... in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  13. Development of an Expert System as a Diagnostic Support of Cervical Cancer in Atypical Glandular Cells, Based on Fuzzy Logics and Image Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karem R. Domínguez Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of death among women worldwide. Nowadays, this disease is preventable and curable at low cost and low risk when an accurate diagnosis is done in due time, since it is the neoplasm with the highest prevention potential. This work describes the development of an expert system able to provide a diagnosis to cervical neoplasia (CN precursor injuries through the integration of fuzzy logics and image interpretation techniques. The key contribution of this research focuses on atypical cases, specifically on atypical glandular cells (AGC. The expert system consists of 3 phases: (1 risk diagnosis which consists of the interpretation of a patient’s clinical background and the risks for contracting CN according to specialists; (2 cytology images detection which consists of image interpretation (IM and the Bethesda system for cytology interpretation, and (3 determination of cancer precursor injuries which consists of in retrieving the information from the prior phases and integrating the expert system by means of a fuzzy logics (FL model. During the validation stage of the system, 21 already diagnosed cases were tested with a positive correlation in which 100% effectiveness was obtained. The main contribution of this work relies on the reduction of false positives and false negatives by providing a more accurate diagnosis for CN.

  14. Systems-Based Aspects in the Training of IMG or Previously Trained Residents: Comparison of Psychiatry Residency Training in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Gaurav; Mazhar, Mir Nadeem; Uga, Aghaegbulam; Punwani, Manisha; Broquet, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: International medical graduates (IMGs) account for a significant proportion of residents in psychiatric training in the United States. Many IMGs may have previously completed psychiatry residency training in other countries. Their experiences may improve our system. Authors compared and contrasted psychiatry residency training in the…

  15. Interpreting the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  16. Listening and Message Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  17. Interpretation as conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwart, J.

    Semantic interpretation is not a simple process. When we want to know what a given sentence means, more is needed than just a simple ‘adding up’ of the meanings of the component words. Not only can the words in a sentence interact and conflict with each other, but also with the linguistic and

  18. Interpretations of Greek Mythology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This collection of original studies offers new interpretations of some of the best known characters and themes of Greek mythology, reflecting the complexity and fascination of the Greek imagination. Following analyses of the concept of myth and the influence of the Orient on Greek mythology, the

  19. Interpretability in PRA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bílková, M.; de Jongh, D.; Joosten, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study IL(PRA), the interpretability logic of PRA. As PRA is neither an essentially reflexive theory nor finitely axiomatizable, the two known arithmetical completeness results do not apply to PRA: IL(PRA) is not ILM or ILP. IL(PRA) does, of course, contain all the principles known

  20. Food sustainability: diverging interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiking, H.; de Boer, J.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of sustainability in general and food sustainability, in particular, entails many aspects and many interpretations. During a conference on food sustainability a broad, multidisciplinary picture was painted and many key issues were dealt with, from ecology, economy and society. In

  1. Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

    We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the φ-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational φ-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

  2. Design of interpretable fuzzy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cpałka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This book shows that the term “interpretability” goes far beyond the concept of readability of a fuzzy set and fuzzy rules. It focuses on novel and precise operators of aggregation, inference, and defuzzification leading to flexible Mamdani-type and logical-type systems that can achieve the required accuracy using a less complex rule base. The individual chapters describe various aspects of interpretability, including appropriate selection of the structure of a fuzzy system, focusing on improving the interpretability of fuzzy systems designed using both gradient-learning and evolutionary algorithms. It also demonstrates how to eliminate various system components, such as inputs, rules and fuzzy sets, whose reduction does not adversely affect system accuracy. It illustrates the performance of the developed algorithms and methods with commonly used benchmarks. The book provides valuable tools for possible applications in many fields including expert systems, automatic control and robotics.

  3. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  4. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  5. Personal literary interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Januszkiewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article titled “Personal literary interpretation” deals with problems which have usually been marginalized in literary studies, but which seem to be very important in the context of the humanities, as broadly defined. The author of this article intends to rethink the problem of literary studies not in objective, but in personal terms. This is why the author wants to talk about what he calls personal literary interpretation, which has nothing to do with subjective or irrational thinking, but which is rather grounded in the hermeneutical rule that says that one must believe in order tounderstand a text or the other (where ‘believe’ also means: ‘to love’, ‘engage’, and ‘be open’. The article presents different determinants of this attitude, ranging from Dilthey to Heidegger and Gadamer. Finally, the author subscribes to the theory of personal interpretation, which is always dialogical.

  6. Interpretation and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter discusses the factors to be kept in mind during routine interpretation of MR images. This includes the factors that determine contrast on standard spin-echo images and some distinguishing features between true lesions and artifactually simulated lesions. This chapter also indicates the standard protocols for MRI of various portions of the body. Finally, the current indications for MRI of various portions of the body are suggested; however, it is recognized that the indications for MRI are rapidly increasing and consequently, at the time of publication of this chapter, it is likely that many more applications will have become evident. Interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images requires consideration of anatomy and tissue characteristics and extraction of artifacts resulting from motion and other factors

  7. Interpretation as doing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the paper is to address and discuss relationships between the aesthetic perception and interpretation of contemporary landscape architecture. I will try to do this by setting up a cross-disciplinary perspective that looks into themes from the contemporary art scene and aesthetic...... theories, and relate them to observations in contemporary landscape architecture. It is my premise that investigating the relationship between modes of aesthetic perception and examples in contemporary art, and landscape architecture, will enable us to better understand characteristics of a contemporary...... concept of landscape and design in landscape architecture, and hereby address the question of how interpretation might be processed. It is also my premise that a key point in this is the interplay between different sensory experiences of both material and non-material aspects...

  8. Interpretation of Internet technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    2001-01-01

    Research scope: The topic of the research project is to investigate how new internet technologies such as e-trade and customer relation marketing and management are implemented in Danish food processing companies. The aim is to use Weick's (1995) sensemaking concept to analyse the strategic...... processes leading to the use of internet marketing technologies and to investigate how these new technologies are interpreted into the organisation. Investigating the organisational socio-cognitive processes underlying the decision making processes will give further insight into the socio......-cognitive competencies of organisations (Rindova & Fombrunn, 1999). The aim is to contribute to the existing technological implementation theory complex by studying the relationships between the elements of the socio-cognitive processes and the resulting interpretations and actions when new technologies are implemented...

  9. Interpretations of interpretivism

    OpenAIRE

    Gerring, John

    2003-01-01

    What is interpretivism? As is common with broad methodological debates, much hinges on matters of definition. Interpretivism might be defined residually — as non-positivism. However, this scarcely clarifies the matter, as noted by Robert Adcock and David Dessler in their contributions to this symposium. We might start with David Laitin’s suggestion that interpretivism refers to interpretation or clarification— rendering the ambiguous into a clearer form. This is true enough, so far as it ...

  10. A Narrative Interpretive Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Adorisio, Anna Linda Musacchio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the possibility offered by the “linguistic turn” for narrative research in the realm of financial communication. I will propose three categories by which a narrative interpretive approach can be applied to financial communication: narrative-as-artifacts, narrative-as-practice and narrative-as-method. Such a constitutive communication approach challenges a mechanistic and functionalist view of communication as a tool to represent social realities in ...

  11. Interpretative phenomenological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eatough, Virginia; Smith, Jonathan A.

    2017-01-01

    The Second Edition of The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology provides comprehensive coverage of the qualitative methods, strategies, and research issues in psychology.\\ud \\ud Qualitative research in psychology has been transformed since the first edition's publication. Responding to this evolving field, existing chapters have been updated while three new chapters have been added on Thematic Analysis, Interpretation, and Netnography. With a focus on methodological progress thr...

  12. The Age of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Vattimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Vattimo, who is both a Catholic and a frequent critic of the Church, explores the surprising congruence between Christianity and hermeneutics in light of the dissolution of metaphysical truth. As in hermeneutics, Vatimo claims, interpretation is central to Christianity. Influenced by hermeneutics and borrowing largely from the Nietzschean and Heideggerian heritage, the Italian philosopher, who has been instrumental in promoting a nihilistic approach to Christianity, draws here on Nietzsche’s writings on nihilism, which is not to be understood in a purely negative sense. Vattimo suggests that nihilism not only expands the Christian message of charity, but also transforms it into its endless human potential. In “The Age of Interpretation,” the author shows that hermeneutical radicalism “reduces all reality to message,” so that the opposition between facts and norms turns out to be misguided, for both are governed by the interpretative paradigms through which someone (always a concrete, historically situated someone makes sense of them. Vattimo rejects some of the deplorable political consequences of hermeneutics and claims that traditional hermeneutics is in collusion with various political-ideological neutralizations.

  13. Stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) based interpretation of organic matter source and paleoenvironmental conditions in Al-Azraq basin, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Khaldoun; Davies, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen from cored lacustrine sediments of the Al-Azraq, an arid lake basin on the Jordan Plateau. Lacustrine sediments contain valuable records of paleoenvironmental conditions, recording local and regional responses to environmental change. Previous paleo-reconstructions on the Jordan Plateau are based on archaeology, pollen, mineralogy, and stratigraphy. The application of organic geochemistry analyses to these lake sediments identifies multiple sources of organic matter, biological production, and contributes to understanding the paleoenvironments of the Al-Azraq basin during the mid-Pleistocene period. Organic carbon concentration (Corg) provides an overview of the organic matter distribution. Carbon isotopic composition (δ13Corg) and nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) are indicators of organic matter sources and paleoproductivity. Magnetic susceptibility (MGSUS) measured the concentration of ferromagnetic minerals and indicated aeolian inputs. Organic geochemistry differentiated five paleoenvironmental zones with specific sources of organic matter, both aquatic and terrestrial. It identified a long period of climate wetter than the present, punctuated by a short intense period of aridity. Diagenesis plays an important role in the decomposition of organic matter and studies indicate this degradation can alter the isotopic signals of organic matter. Analyses of the isotopic signals and statistical analyses demonstrate diagenesis is not a factor in the Al-Azraq sediments in all but Zone 4 of the paleoenvironmental zones. This Zone is defined by less negative carbon isotopic composition and the presence of thick primary gypsum layers, in addition to the influx of high peaks of aeolian sediment as reflected in the magnetic susceptibility data. Stable isotope geochemistry provides detailed information on the paleoenvironments of lake sediments, and is applicable to typically challenging arid basin sediments

  14. Mind, Matter, Information and Quantum Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Maleeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I give a new information-theoretic analysis of the formalisms and interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM in general, and of two mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics in particular: The Copenhagen interpretation and David Bohm’s interpretation of quantum mechanics. Adopting Juan G. Roederer’s reading of the notion of pragmatic information, I argue that pragmatic information is not applicable to the Copenhagen interpretation since the interpretation is primarily concerned with epistemology rather than ontology. However it perfectly fits Bohm’s ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics in the realms of biotic and artificial systems. Viewing Bohm’s interpretation of QM in the context of pragmatic information imposes serious limitations to the qualitative aspect of such an interpretation, making his extension of the notion active information to every level of reality illegitimate. Such limitations lead to the idea that, contrary to Bohm’s claim, mind is not a more subtle aspect of reality via the quantum potential as active information, but the quantum potential as it affects particles in the double-slit experiment represents the non-algorithmic aspect of the mind as a genuine information processing system. This will provide an information-based ground, firstly, for refreshing our views on quantum interpretations and secondly, for a novel qualitative theory of the relationship of mind and matter in which mind-like properties are exclusive attributes of living systems. To this end, I will also take an information-theoretic approach to the notion of intentionality as interpreted by John Searle.

  15. Video interpretations in Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjerg, Lene Mosegaard; Noesgaard, Susanne; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of an RCT comparing video interpretation with in-person interpretation at the Endocrinology Ward at Odense University Hospital.......This article presents a study of an RCT comparing video interpretation with in-person interpretation at the Endocrinology Ward at Odense University Hospital....

  16. An open room for interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte-Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    not only be seen as a learning task where initiative and product is defined by the teacher. In contrast, I suggest that creative activities and aesthetic processes must be seen as an interaction between children's immediate physicality and curiosity and the teacher's musical skills and abilities to follow......Based on a concept that I have developed, which is called: "An open room for interpretation", the following article states that creative work and aesthetic expression in a pedagogical context with 2-6 years old children must give space for the children's own expressions. To teach music should...

  17. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  18. Changing interpretations of Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    ’ writings relatively late, in the 18th and 19th centuries, and that it was primarily made possible by Brucker’s methodology for history of philosophy, dating from the 1740s, in which the concept system of philosophy was essential. It is observed that the concept was absent in Ficino’s commentary from the 15......th century, and that it remained absent in interpretative works produced between the 15th and 18th century. It is also argued that it is erroneous to assume that Plotinus presented a system of philosophy, or intended to do so — we do not find this concept in Plotinus’ writings, and his own statements...

  19. Interpreter perspectives of in-person, telephonic, and videoconferencing medical interpretation in clinical encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika Leemann; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Nickleach, Dana; López, Monica; Karliner, Leah S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine professional medical interpreters’ perspectives of in-person and remote interpreting modalities. Methods Survey of interpreters at three medical centers assessing satisfaction with aspects of communication using each modality, and adequacy of videoconferencing medical interpretation (VMI) and telephonic interpretation for 21 common clinical scenarios in the hospital and ambulatory care settings. Results 52 interpreters completed the survey (73% response). All modalities were equally satisfactory for conveying information. Respondents favored in-person to telephonic interpretation for establishing rapport (95% versus 71%, p = .002) and for facilitating clinician understanding of patients’ social and cultural backgrounds (92% versus 69%, p = .002). Scenarios with substantial educational or psychosocial dimensions had no more than 70% of respondents rating telephonic interpretation as adequate (25–70%); for all of these scenarios, VMI represented an improvement (52–87%). Conclusion From the interpreter perspective, telephonic interpretation is satisfactory for information exchange, but less so for interpersonal aspects of communication. In scenarios where telephonic interpretation does not suffice, particularly those with substantial educational or psychosocial components, VMI offers improved communication. Practice implications Differences in interpreters’ perspectives of modalities based on communication needs and clinical scenario suggest mixed use of multiple modalities may be the best language access strategy. PMID:21930360

  20. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  1. Static Safety for an Actor Dedicated Process Calculus by Abstract Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Garoche, Pierre-Loïc; Pantel, Marc; Thirioux, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The actor model eases the definition of concurrent programs with non uniform behaviors. Static analysis of such a model was previously done in a data-flow oriented way, with type systems. This approach was based on constraint set resolution and was not able to deal with precise properties for communications of behaviors. We present here a new approach, control-flow oriented, based on the abstract interpretation framework, able to deal with communication of behaviors. W...

  2. A Relativistic Symmetrical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Michael B.

    This poster describes a relativistic symmetrical interpretation (RSI) which postulates: quantum mechanics is intrinsically time-symmetric, with no arrow of time; the fundamental objects of quantum mechanics are transitions; a transition is fully described by a complex transition amplitude density with specified initial and final boundary conditions, and; transition amplitude densities never collapse. This RSI is compared to the Copenhagen Interpretation (CI) for the analysis of Einstein's bubble experiment using both the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. The RSI has no zitterbewegung in the particle's rest frame, resolves some inconsistencies of the CI, and gives intuitive explanations of some previously mysterious quantum effects.

  3. Intra-seasonal dynamics in metabolic processes of 13C/12C and 18O/16O in components of Scots pine twigs from southern Siberia interpreted with a conceptual framework based on the Carbon Metabolism Oscillatory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Victor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon isotope data from conifer trees play an important role in research on the boreal forest carbon reservoir in the global carbon cycle. Carbon isotopes are routinely used to study interactions between the environment and tree growth. Moreover, carbon isotopes became an essential tool for the evaluation of carbon assimilation and transport from needles into reserve pools, as well as the allocation of stored assimilates within a tree. The successful application and interpretation of carbon isotopes rely on the coherence of isotopic fractionation modeling. This study employs a new Carbon Metabolism Oscillatory Model (CMOM to interpret the experimental data sets on metabolic seasonal dynamics of 13C/12 C and 18O/16O ratios measured in twig components of Scots pine growing in southern Siberia (Russia. Results The dynamics of carbon isotopic variables were studied in components of Pinus sylvestris L. in light and in dark chambers during the vegetation period from 14 June to 28 July 2006. At the beginning of this period water-soluble organic matter, mostly labile sugars (including sucrose as the main component and newly formed bulk needle material, displayed relatively “light” δ13C values (depletion in 13 C. Then, 13 C content increased again with noticeable “depletion” events in the middle of the growth period. A gradual 13 C accumulation took place in the second half of the vegetation period. Similar effects were observed both in the light and in the dark with some temporal shifts. Environmental factors did not influence the δ13C values. A gradual 12C-depletion effect was noticed in needles of the previous year. The δ13C values of sucrose and proteins from needle biomass altered independently from each other in the light chamber. A distinct negative correlation between δ13C and δ18O values was revealed for all studied variables. Conclusions The abrupt 13C depletion recorded by all tested trees for the

  4. MLVA Typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates with Emphasis on Serotypes 14, 9N and 9V: Comparison of Previously Described Panels and Proposal of a Novel 7 VNTR Loci-Based Simplified Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Natália S; Pinto, Tatiana C A; Merquior, Vânia L C; Castro, Luciana F S; da Rocha, Filomena S P; Morais, Jaqueline M; Peralta, José M; Teixeira, Lúcia M

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae remains as an important cause of community-acquired bacterial infections, and the nasopharynx of asymptomatic carriers is the major reservoir of this microorganism. Pneumococcal strains of serotype 14 and serogroup 9 are among the most frequently isolated from both asymptomatic carriers and patients with invasive disease living in Brazil. Internationally disseminated clones belonging to such serotypes have been associated with the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in our setting, highlighting the need for epidemiological tracking of these isolates. In this scenario, Multiple Loci VNTR Analysis (MLVA) has emerged as an alternative tool for the molecular characterization of pneumococci, in addition to more traditional techniques such as Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). In the present study, 18 VNTR loci, as well as other previously described reduced MLVA panels (7 VNTR loci), were evaluated as tools to characterize pneumococcal strains of serotypes 14, 9N and 9V belonging to international and regional clones isolated in Brazil. The 18 VNTR loci panel was highly congruent with MLST and PFGE, being also useful for indicating the genetic relationship with international clones and for discriminating among strains with indistinguishable STs and PFGE profiles. Analysis of the results also allowed deducing a novel shorter 7 VNTR loci panel, keeping a high discriminatory power for isolates of the serotypes investigated and a high congruence level with MLST and PFGE. The newly proposed simplified panel was then evaluated for typing pneumococcal strains of other commonly isolated serotypes. The results indicate that MLVA is a faster and easier to perform, reliable approach for the molecular characterization of S. pneumoniae isolates, with potential for cost-effective application, especially in resource-limited countries.

  5. A dynamic concept of middle cerebral artery occlusion and cerebral infarction in the acute state based on interpreting severe hyperemia as a sign of embolic migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Lassen, N A

    1984-01-01

    angiography, serial CT-scans and serial TC99 -scans were performed in a consecutive group of 73 patients with completed stroke all admitted to hospital within 3 days after stroke onset. When possible the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied with the intracarotid Xe 133 injection method. Twenty......The present study investigates the pathogenesis of focal cerebral hyperemia, its effect on brain tissue and discusses its pathophysiological and therapeutic importance in the light of interpreting severe hyperemia as a sign of arterial reopening probably due to embolic migration. Cerebral......-nine patients had evidence of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion; rCBF was investigated in 24. Fourteen patients had either occlusion or severe internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis; rCBF was not measured in these patients. Thirty patients had no angiographical evidence of MCA occlusion, ICA occlusion...

  6. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  7. What Language Do Interpreters Speak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Gerald B.

    1982-01-01

    States that both the register and variety of an interpreter's speech are quite limited and analyzes the linguistic characteristics of "International English," the English used by interpreters at international conferences. (CFM)

  8. Two interpretive systems for natural language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-02-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system is one that uses the grammar together with knowledge of how the human production system works. It is token based and only delivers plausible meanings, including meanings based on a repaired input when the input might have been produced as a speech error.

  9. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  10. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  11. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  12. Review on China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters (CATTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Min; Wu, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Since its first pilot study was launched in 2003, China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters (CATTI) has developed into the most authoritative translation and interpretation proficiency qualification accreditation test in China and played an important role in assessing and cultivating translators and interpreters. Based on the…

  13. Influence of interpretation on conservation intentions of whale tourists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.H.; Harms, M.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of interpretation denotes on-site education while people engage in a guided nature-based activity. The literature suggests that interpretation influences conservation intentions but does not reveal whether the effect is constituted by interpretation or by other aspects of the guided

  14. The debbuggable interpreter design pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Vrany, Jan; Bergel, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed The use of Interpreter and Visitor design patterns has been widely adopted to implement programming language interpreters due to their expressive and simple design. However, no general approach to conceive a debugger is commonly adopted. This paper presents the debuggable interpreter design pattern as a general approach to extend a language interpreter with debugging facilities such as step-over and step-into. Moreover, it enables multiple debuggers coexisting and extends ...

  15. Intercultural pragmatics and court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

    . The court interpreters are all state-authorized court interpreters and thus fully competent professionals.   The centrality of pragmatics in triadic speech events has been demonstrated by a number of studies (e.g. Berk-Seligson 2002, Hale 2004, Jacobsen 2002). Thus, conversational implicatures, which....../Philadelphia: John Benjamins.   Jacobsen, B. (2002). Pragmatic meaning in court interpreting: An empirical study of additions in consecutively-interpreted question-answer dialogues. PhD thesis, The Aarhus School of Business....

  16. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  17. 'Cosmetic boob jobs' or evidence-based breast surgery: an interpretive policy analysis of the rationing of 'low value' treatments in the English National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jill; Swinglehurst, Deborah; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2014-09-20

    In England the National Health Service (NHS) is not allowed to impose 'blanket bans' on treatments, but local commissioners produce lists of 'low value' procedures that they will normally not fund. Breast surgery is one example. However, evidence suggests that some breast surgery is clinically effective, with significant health gain. National guidelines indicate the circumstances under which breast surgery should be made available on the NHS, but there is widespread variation in their implementation.The purpose of this study was to explore the work practices of 'individual funding request' (IFR) panels, as they considered 'one-off' funding requests for breast surgery; examine how the notion of 'value' is dialogically constructed, and how decisions about who is deserving of NHS funding and who is not are accomplished in practice. We undertook ethnographic exploration of three IFR panels. We extracted all (22) breast surgery cases considered by these panels from our data set and progressively focused on three case discussions, one from each panel, covering the three main breast procedures.We undertook a microanalysis of the talk and texts arising from these cases, within a conceptual framework of interpretive policy analysis. Through an exploration of the symbolic artefacts (language, objects and acts) that are significant carriers of policy meaning, we identified the ways in which IFR panels create their own 'interpretive communities', within which deliberations about the funding of breast surgery are differently framed, and local decisions come to be justified. In particular, we demonstrated how each decision was contingent on [a] the evaluative accent given to certain words, [b] the work that documentary objects achieve in foregrounding particular concerns, and [c] the act of categorising. Meaning was constructed dialogically through local interaction and broader socio-cultural discourses about breasts and 'cosmetic' surgery. Despite the appeal of calls to tackle

  18. Lexical Knowledge and Interpreter Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaden, Hanne

    1999-01-01

    Examines the performance of six student interpreters attending a training course at the University of Oslo. Data are drawn from video recordings in which the students interpret dialogs in two test situations. Students use consecutive interpreting with short speaker intervals and perform in Norwegian/Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian. Compares students'…

  19. Student Interpretations of Political Cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedient, Douglas; Moore, David M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy and types of interpretations that fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders gave to 24 editorial cartoons in four issue areas and the effect of intelligence on political cartoon interpretation. Numerous misinterpretations and no interpretations indicates assumptions that cartoons are an effective teaching medium…

  20. Interpretation of computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickle, R.L.; Hathcock, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the production of optimal CT images in small animal patients as well as principles of radiographic interpretation. Technical factors affecting image quality and aiding image interpretation are included. Specific considerations for scanning various anatomic areas are given, including indications and potential pitfalls. Principles of radiographic interpretation are discussed. Selected patient images are illustrated

  1. Interpretation of the CABRI-RAFT LTX test up to pin failure based on detailed data evaluation and PARAS-2S code analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukano, Yoshitaka; Sato, Ikken

    2001-09-01

    The CABRI-RAFT LTX test aims at a study on the fuel-pin-failure mechanism, in-pin fuel motion and post-failure fuel relocation with an annular fuel pin which was pre-irradiated up to peak burn-up of 6.4 at%. The transient test conditions similar to those of the LT4 test were selected in the LTX test using the same type of fuel pin, allowing an effective direct comparison between the two tests. In contrast to the LT4 test which showed a large PCMI-mitigation potential of the annular fuel-pin design, early pin failure occurred in the LTX test when fuel does not seem to have molten. In order to clarify the fuel pin failure mechanism, interpretation of the LTX test up to pin failure is performed in this study, through an experimental data evaluation and a PAPAS-2S-code analysis. The PAPAS-2S code simulates reasonably the fuel thermal conditions such as transient fuel-pin heat-up and fuel melting. The present detailed data evaluation shows that the earlier cladding failure compared with the LT4 test is mainly attributed to the local cladding heat-up. Under the high-temperature condition, plenum gas pressure has a certain potential to explain the observed failure. Fuel swelling-induced PCMI does not seem significant in the LTX test and it may have contributed to the early pin failure only to a limited extent, if any. (author)

  2. GeoTemp™ 1.0: A MATLAB-based program for the processing, interpretation and modelling of geological formation temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Ludovic P.; Chanu, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-08-01

    The evaluation of potential and resources during geothermal exploration requires accurate and consistent temperature characterization and modelling of the sub-surface. Existing interpretation and modelling approaches of 1D temperature measurements are mainly focusing on vertical heat conduction with only few approaches that deals with advective heat transport. Thermal regimes are strongly correlated to rock and fluid properties. Currently, no consensus exists for the identification of the thermal regime and the analysis of such dataset. We developed a new framework allowing the identification of thermal regimes by rock formations, the analysis and modelling of wireline logging and discrete temperature measurements by taking into account the geological, geophysical and petrophysics data. This framework has been implemented in the GeoTemp software package that allows the complete thermal characterization and modelling at the formation scale and that provides a set of standard tools for the processing wireline and discrete temperature data. GeoTempTM operates via a user friendly graphical interface written in Matlab that allows semi-automatic calculation, display and export of the results. Output results can be exported as Microsoft Excel spreadsheets or vector graphics of publication quality. GeoTemp™ is illustrated here with an example geothermal application from Western Australia and can be used for academic, teaching and professional purposes.

  3. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  4. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  5. Changing interpretations of Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    th century, and that it remained absent in interpretative works produced between the 15th and 18th century. It is also argued that it is erroneous to assume that Plotinus presented a system of philosophy, or intended to do so — we do not find this concept in Plotinus’ writings, and his own statements......’ writings relatively late, in the 18th and 19th centuries, and that it was primarily made possible by Brucker’s methodology for history of philosophy, dating from the 1740s, in which the concept system of philosophy was essential. It is observed that the concept was absent in Ficino’s commentary from the 15...... about method point in other directions. Eduard Zeller (active in the second half of the 19th century) is typically regarded as the first who gave a satisfying account of Plotinus’ philosophy as a whole. In this article, on the other hand, Zeller is seen as the one who finalised a tradition initiated...

  6. Prediction of outcome in pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma based on interpretation of 18FDG-PET/CT according to ΔSUVmax, Deauville 5-point scale and IHP criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Emine Göknur; Kuyumcu, Serkan; Kebudi, Rejin; Sanli, Yasemin; Karakas, Zeynep; Cakir, Fatma Betul; Unal, Seher Nilgün

    2017-11-01

    Minimizing side effects by using response-adopted therapy strategies plays an important role in the management of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL); however, the criteria for the definition of adequate or inadequate response are controversial. The aim of this study is to compare different methods of interpretation of 18 F-FDG-PET/CT (PET) in the prediction of disease outcome in order to determine the optimum method in this regard. Baseline, interim and post-treatment PET scans of 72 children were interpreted according to revised International Harmonization Project criteria (IHP) and Deauville criteria. Cut-off values for changes in interim and post-treatment FDG uptake (ΔSUV max ) in the prediction of progression-free survival (PFS) were measured using ROC analysis. Quantitative and visual data were compared with each other in the prediction of PFS. Mean interim and post-treatment ΔSUV max of the primary lesions were 77.4 ± 19.5 and 68.8 ± 30.4% and respective cut-off values were 82 and 73%. However, only post-treatment ΔSUV max yielded statistically significant results in the prediction of 3-year PFS (p = 0.043). Interim ΔSUV max was further analyzed according to the values reported in the literature (66 and 77%) yet statistically significant results were not reached (p = 0.604 and 0.431). For interim evaluation, IHP criteria was correlated to Deauville criteria (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001) and ΔSUV max (p = 0.03), whereas for post-treatment evaluation, significant correlation with ΔSUV max (p = 0.04) but marginally significant (p = 0.055 and p = 0.058) correlation with Deauville criteria were achieved. Overall, 1, 3 and 5-year PFS were 95.7 ± 0.2, 89.6 ± 0.4 and 80.8 ± 0.7%, respectively. All methods demonstrated comparable performance in the prediction of 3-year PFS; however, interim PET using Deauville criteria and post-treatment PET using IHP criteria were statistically significant. All methods demonstrated high negative

  7. Conducting psychotherapy with an interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuay, Justin; Chopra, Prem; Kaplan, Ida; Szwarc, Josef

    2015-06-01

    This qualitative study assessed how clinicians prepared and used interpreters during psychotherapeutic sessions and investigated the strategies they used to manage the dynamics of this process. Ten therapists were interviewed at the Victorian Foundation for the Survivors of Torture (VFST). A semi-structured interview format was used. Thematic analysis was conducted on transcripts of recorded interviews to identify key themes. Factors affecting the provision of psychotherapy with interpreters agreed with general guidelines for working with interpreters but there were exceptions. The possible roles of the interpreter as a cultural consultant, community advocate and co-therapist were explored. Specific troubleshooting strategies were identified for improving empathy, redefining roles, and adjusting interactions with interpreters. Working with interpreters in psychotherapy is a complex process. These findings may benefit clinicians providing psychotherapy to patients using interpreters. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  8. Modular Interpreters for the Masses: Implicit Context Propagation using Object Algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Inostroza Valdera (Pablo); T. van der Storm (Tijs); C. Kästner (Christian); A. Gokhālé (Aniruddha)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractModular interpreters have the potential to achieve component-based language development: instead of writing language interpreters from scratch, they can be assembled from reusable, semantic building blocks. Unfortunately, traditional language interpreters are hard to extend because

  9. Orientalismi: nuove prospettive interpretative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Proglio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at reconsidering the concept of Orientalism in a new and multiple perspective, and at proposing a different interpretation of the relationship between culture and power, starting from Edward Said’s theoretical frame of reference. If Said’s representational model is repositioned out of structuralist and foucaultian frameworks and separated from the gramscian idea of hegemony-subordination, indeed, it may be possible to re-discuss the traditional profile identifying the Other in the European cultures. My basic assumption here is that Orientalism should not be understood as a consensus mechanism, which is able to produce diversified images of the Orient and the Oriental on demand. Although, of course, in most cases Orientalism is connected to the issue of power, its meanings could also be explained —as it will be soon shown— otherwise. Let’s take The Invisible Cities by Italo Calvino as an example. Here the narratives are not just multiple repetitions of Venice —in Said’s case, the same would hold for Europeanism—, but they could be strategically re-appropriated by those “others” and “alterities” whose bodies and identities are imposed by the Eurocentric discourse. In this sense, a double link may be identified with queer theories and postcolonial studies, and the notion of subordination will be rethought. Finally, from the above mentioned borders, a new idea of image emerges, which appears as linear, uniform and flattened only to the European gaze, whereas in actual fact it is made of imaginaries and forms of knowledge, which combine representation with the conceptualization of power relationships.

  10. Peak shapes of acids and bases under overloaded conditions in reversed-phase liquid chromatography, with weakly buffered mobile phases of various pH: a thermodynamic interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2009-01-02

    We measured overloaded band profiles for a series of nine compounds (phenol, caffeine, 3-phenyl 1-propanol, 2-phenylbutyric acid, amphetamine, aniline, benzylamine, p-toluidine, and procainamidium chloride) on columns packed with four different C(18)-bonded packing materials: XTerra-C(18), Gemini-C(18), Luna-C(18)(2), and Halo-C(18), using buffered methanol-water mobile phases. The pHWS of the mobile phase was increased from 2.6 to 11.3. The buffer concentration (either phosphate, acetate, or carbonate buffers) was set constant at values below the maximum concentration of the sample in the band. The influence of the surface chemistry of the packing material on the retention and the shape of the peaks was investigated. Adsorbents having a hybrid inorganic/organic structure tend to give peaks exhibiting moderate or little tailing. The retention and the shape of the band profiles can easily be interpreted at pHsWS that are well above or well below the pKWS(a) of the compound studied. In contrast, the peak shapes in the intermediary pH range (i.e., close to the compound pKWS(a)) have rarely been studied. These shapes reveal the complexity of the competitive adsorption behavior of couples of acido-basic conjugated compounds at pHsWS that are close to their pKWS(a). They also reveal the role of the buffer capacity on the resulting peak shape. With increasing pHWS, the overloaded profiles are first langmuirian (isotherm type I) at low pHsWS, they become S-shaped (isotherm type II), then anti-langmuirian (isotherm type III), S-shaped again at intermediate pHsWS, and finally return to a langmuirian shape at high pHsWS. A new general adsorption isotherm model that takes into account the dissociation equilibrium of conjugated acidic and basic species in the bulk mobile phase accounts for these transient band shapes. An excellent agreement was achieved between experimental profiles and those calculated with a two-sites adsorption isotherm model at all pHsWS. The neutral

  11. ECG interpretation in Emergency Department residents: an update and e-learning as a resource to improve skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Francois X; Segard, Julien; Fradin, Philippe; Hourdin, Nicolas; Batard, Eric; Pottier, Pierre; Potel, Gilles; Montassier, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    ECG interpretation is a pivotal skill to acquire during residency, especially for Emergency Department (ED) residents. Previous studies reported that ECG interpretation competency among residents was rather low. However, the optimal resource to improve ECG interpretation skills remains unclear. The aim of our study was to compare two teaching modalities to improve the ECG interpretation skills of ED residents: e-learning and lecture-based courses. The participants were first-year and second-year ED residents, assigned randomly to the two groups. The ED residents were evaluated by means of a precourse test at the beginning of the study and a postcourse test after the e-learning and lecture-based courses. These evaluations consisted of the interpretation of 10 different ECGs. We included 39 ED residents from four different hospitals. The precourse test showed that the overall average score of ECG interpretation was 40%. Nineteen participants were then assigned to the e-learning course and 20 to the lecture-based course. Globally, there was a significant improvement in ECG interpretation skills (accuracy score=55%, P=0.0002). However, this difference was not significant between the two groups (P=0.14). Our findings showed that the ECG interpretation was not optimal and that our e-learning program may be an effective tool for enhancing ECG interpretation skills among ED residents. A large European study should be carried out to evaluate ECG interpretation skills among ED residents before the implementation of ECG learning, including e-learning strategies, during ED residency.

  12. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of lymphoproliferative disorders--interpretations based on morphologic criteria alone: results from the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Nongynecologic Cytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nancy A; Moriarty, Ann T; Haja, Jennifer C; Wilbur, David C

    2006-12-01

    Diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorders is one of the most challenging tasks faced by the cytologist. The initial cytomorphologic evaluation of lymphoproliferative lesions directs the choice of ancillary studies that ultimately lead to a diagnosis based on the World Health Organization classification system using a composite of clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features. To evaluate the ability of participating laboratories in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Non-Gynecologic Cytopathology to appropriately categorize lymphoproliferative lesions based solely on cytomorphologic criteria. Laboratory responses for lymph node aspirates were examined. All responses were based on review of glass slides without ancillary immunologic or molecular data available. The benchmarking data provided for each specific diagnosis were analyzed, with a focus on the performance for evaluation of lymphoproliferative lesions. Based on morphology alone, responses for lymph node aspirates in the Non-Gynecologic Cytopathology program were correct to the exact reference diagnosis for 87.1% of Hodgkin lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was identified in 69.5% of the large cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases, of which 66.8% were correctly classified as large cell type. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was identified in 68.1% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, other than large cell cases, and of these, 94.7% were identified as other than large cell type. The spectrum of specific responses was consistent for lymphoproliferative lesions, with a reasonable differential diagnosis based on cytomorphology alone, which, in practice, facilitates the appropriate choice of immunophenotypic markers and other ancillary studies.

  13. Interpretation of ultrasonic images; Interpretation von Ultraschall-Abbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W.; Schmitz, V.; Kroening, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    During the evaluation of ultrasonic images, e.g. SAFT-reconstructed B-scan images (SAFT=Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique) it is often difficult to decide, what is the origin of reconstructed image points: were they caused by defects, specimens geometry or mode-conversions. To facilitate this evaluation a tool based on the comparison of data was developed. Different kinds of data comparison are possible: identification of that RF-signals, which caused the reconstructed image point. This is the comparison of a reconstructed image with the corresponding RF-data. Comparison of two reconstructed images performing a superposition using logical operators. In this case e.g. the reconstruction of an unknown reflector is compared with that of a known one. Comparison of raw-RF-data by simultaneous scanning through two data sets. Here the echoes of an unknown reflector are compared with the echoes of a known one. The necessary datasets of known reflectors may be generated experimentally on reference reflectors or modelled. The aim is the identification of the reflector type, e.g. cracklike or not, the determination of position, size and orientation as well as the identification of accompanying satellite echoes. The interpretation of the SAFT-reconstructed B-scan image is carried out by a complete description of the reflector. In addition to the aim of interpretation the tool described is well suited to educate and train ultrasonic testers. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Bei der Auswertung von Ultraschall-Abbildungen, z.B. SAFT-rekonstruierten B-Bildern (SAFT=Synthetische Apertur Fokus Technik), ist es oft schwierig zu entscheiden, wo rekonstruierte Bildpunkte herruehren: wurden sie durch Materialfehler, Bauteilgeometrie oder durch Wellenumwandlungen versursacht. Um diese Auswertung zu erleichtern, wurde ein Werkzeug entwickelt, welches auf dem Vergleich von Datensaetzen basiert. Es koennen verschiedene Arten des Datenvergleichs durchgefuehrt werden: Identifikation der HF

  14. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  15. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  16. Working memory and simultaneous interpreting

    OpenAIRE

    Timarova, Sarka

    2009-01-01

    Working memory is a cognitive construct underlying a number of abilities, and it has been hypothesised for many years that it is crucial for interpreting. A number of studies have been conducted with the aim to support this hypothesis, but research has not yielded convincing results. Most researchers focused on studying working memory differences between interpreters and non-interpreters with the rationale that differences in working memory between the two groups would provide evidence of wor...

  17. Assessment of Interpretive Facilities and the Delivery of Interpretive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of interpretive facilities and the delivery of interpretive services in Chad Basin National Park (CBNP), Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP), Okomu National Park (OKNP), and Yankari National Park (YNP) were conducted. The parks were selected to represent the major ecological zones where National Parks are ...

  18. Some findings relevant to the mechanistic interpretation in the case of predictive models for carcinogenicity based on the counter propagation artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjodorova, Natalja; Novič, Marjana

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the study was to contribute to a better mechanistic understanding of so-called "general" QSAR models for non-congeneric chemicals based on the counter propagation artificial neural network (CP ANN). Possible mechanisms of action was proofed using the Toxtree expert system based on structural alerts (SAs) for carcinogenicity. We have illustrated how statistically selected MDL descriptors, which refer to topological characteristics as well as to polarizability and charge distribution related to reactivity, are correlated with particular chemical classes (containing carcinogenic SA) with the recognized mechanistic link to the carcinogenic activity and consequently with the carcinogenic potency. Mechanistic insight in CP ANN models was demonstrated using an inherent mapping technique (i.e. Kohonen maps).

  19. Improved Fluvial Geomorphic Interpretation Derived From DEM Differencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, J. M.; Brasington, J.; Brewer, P. A.; Darby, S.; Pasternack, G. B.; Sear, D.; Vericat, D.; Williams, R.

    2007-12-01

    Technological advances over the past two decades in remotely-sensed and ground-based topographic surveying technologies have made the rapid acquisition of topographic data in the fluvial environment possible at spatial resolutions and extents previously unimaginable. Consequently, monitoring geomorphic changes and estimating fluvial sediment budgets through comparing repeat topographic surveys (DEM differencing) has now become a tractable, affordable approach for both research purposes and long-term monitoring associated with river restoration. However, meaningful quantitative geomorphic interpretation of repeat topographic surveys has received little attention from either researchers or practitioners. Previous research has shown that quantitative estimates of erosion and deposition from DEM differencing are highly sensitive to DEM uncertainty, with minimum level of detection techniques typically discarding between 40% and 90% of the predicted changes. A series of new methods for segregating reach-scale sediment budgets into their specific process components, while accounting for the influence of DEM uncertainty, were developed and explored to highlight distinctive geomorphic signatures between different styles of change. To illustrate the interpretive power of the techniques in different settings, results are presented from analyses across a range of gravel-bed river types: a) the braided River Feshie, Scotland, UK; b) the formerly gravel-mined, wandering Sulphur Creek, California, USA; c) a heavily regulated reach of the Mokelumne River, California, USA that has been subjected to over 5 years of spawning habitat rehabilitation; and d) a restored meandering channel and floodplain of the Highland Water, New Forest, UK. Despite fundamentally different process suites between the study sites, the budget segregation technique is in each case able to aid in more reliable and meaningful geomorphic interpretations of DEM differences.

  20. "Running alone can be a race": An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the experiences of amateur runners who use wrist-based technology

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, S.; Wildbur, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The study explored the experiences of runners who use wrist-based technology, their motives for maintaining running and any role of the technology in that maintenance. Design: The study utilised a qualitative, phenomenological approach in the form of semi-structured interviews, facilitating in-depth discussion and flexibility. Participants were additionally invited to supplement their verbal data with self-captured visual images. Methods: Participants were a purposive sam...

  1. Proposed In-Training Electrocardiogram Interpretation Competencies for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiperovitch, Pavel; Zareba, Wojciech; Steinberg, Jonathan S; Bacharova, Ljuba; Tereshchenko, Larisa G; Farre, Jeronimo; Nikus, Kjell; Ikeda, Takanori; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2017-11-08

    Despite its importance in everyday clinical practice, the ability of physicians to interpret electrocardiograms (ECGs) is highly variable. ECG patterns are often misdiagnosed, and electrocardiographic emergencies are frequently missed, leading to adverse patient outcomes. Currently, many medical education programs lack an organized curriculum and competency assessment to ensure trainees master this essential skill. ECG patterns that were previously mentioned in literature were organized into groups from A to D based on their clinical importance and distributed among levels of training. Incremental versions of this organization were circulated among members of the International Society of Electrocardiology and the International Society of Holter and Noninvasive Electrocardiology until complete consensus was reached. We present reasonably attainable ECG interpretation competencies for undergraduate and postgraduate trainees. Previous literature suggests that methods of teaching ECG interpretation are less important and can be selected based on the available resources of each education program and student preference. The evidence clearly favors summative trainee evaluation methods, which would facilitate learning and ensure that appropriate competencies are acquired. Resources should be allocated to ensure that every trainee reaches their training milestones and should ensure that no electrocardiographic emergency (class A condition) is ever missed. We hope that these guidelines will inform medical education programs and encourage them to allocate sufficient resources and develop organized curricula. Assessments must be in place to ensure trainees acquire the level-appropriate ECG interpretation skills that are required for safe clinical practice. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  2. Popper's experiment and the Copenhagen interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Asher

    1999-01-01

    Popper conceived an experiment whose analysis led to a result that he deemed absurd. Popper wrote that his reasoning was based on the Copenhagen interpretation and therefore invalidated the latter. Actually, Popper's argument involves counterfactual reasoning and violates Bohr's complementarity principle. The absurdity of Popper's result only confirms Bohr's approach.

  3. Restrictiveness relative to notions of interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Incurvati, L.; Löwe, B.

    Maddy gave a semi-formal account of restrictiveness by defining a formal notion based on a class of interpretations and explaining how to handle false positives and false negatives. Recently, Hamkins pointed out some structural issues with Maddy’s definition. We look at Maddy’s formal definitions

  4. The Copenhagen interpretation as an emergent phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2013-08-01

    The Copenhagen interpretation has been remarkably successful but seems at odds with the underlying linearity of quantum mechanics. We show how it can emerge in a simple way from the underlying microscopic quantum world governed by Schrödinger’s equation without the need for observers or their brains. In order to achieve this, we assemble pieces of various pre-existing ideas. Firstly, we adopt a relational approach and use the eigenvectors of the reduced density matrix of a quantum sub-system, or equivalently the Schmidt decomposition, to define the ‘internal state’ of a sub-system. Previous work has identified serious objections to such an interpretation because it apparently leads to macroscopic superpositions and physically unacceptable instabilities near degeneracies. We show that both these problems are solved if the sub-system consists of a large number of coarse-grained degrees of freedom as one expects in order to make contact with the classical world. We further argue that coarse graining is a necessary ingredient because measuring devices have both finite spatial and temporal resolutions. What results is an interpretation in which both decoherence and coarse graining play key roles and from which the rules of the Copenhagen interpretation are seen to emerge in realistic situations that include the measurement of the position of a particle and a decay process.

  5. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  6. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  7. Noncommutative quantum mechanics and Bohm's ontological interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, G.D.; Pinto-Neto, N.

    2004-01-01

    We carry out an investigation into the possibility of developing a Bohmian interpretation based on the continuous motion of point particles for noncommutative quantum mechanics. The conditions for such an interpretation to be consistent are determined, and the implications of its adoption for noncommutativity are discussed. A Bohmian analysis of the noncommutative harmonic oscillator is carried out in detail. By studying the particle motion in the oscillator orbits, we show that small-scale physics can have influence at large scales, something similar to the IR-UV mixing

  8. Using interpretation services during clerkships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijbers, Laura; Gerritsen, Debby; Suurmond, Jeanine

    2017-01-01

    Although using professional interpreters is known to improve health outcomes for patients when language barriers are present, care providers often hesitate to use them. Training in how to use interpreters has been effective in increasing students' knowledge and self-efficacy, but little is known

  9. Basic Interpreting Strategies for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Some deaf interpreting strategies are offered to parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Parents are urged to utilize space in their interpreting, use name signs, utilize sight lines to distinguish characters in stories, use exaggerated signs to translate nursery rhymes, place themselves carefully at a public performance, and learn…

  10. Pragmatics in Court Interpreting: Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Danish court interpreters are expected to follow ethical guidelines, which instruct them to deliver exact verbatim versions of source texts. However, this requirement often clashes with the reality of the interpreting situation in the courtroom. This paper presents and discusses the findings...

  11. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  12. Interpretation with a Donnan-based concept of the influence of simple salt concentration on the apparent binding of divalent ions to the polyelectrolytes polystyrenesulfonate and dextran sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinsky, J.A.; Baldwin, Robert F.; Reddy, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    It has been shown that the apparent enhancement of divalent metal ion binding to polyions such as polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and dextran sulfate (DS) by decreasing the ionic strength of these mixed counterion systems (M2+, M+, X-, polyion) can be anticipated with the Donnan-based model developed by one of us (J.A.M.). Ion-exchange distribution methods have been employed to measure the removal by the polyion of trace divalent metal ion from simple salt (NaClO4)-polyion (NaPSS) mixtures. These data and polyion interaction data published earlier by Mattai and Kwak for the mixed counterion systems MgCl2-LiCl-DS and MgCl2-CsCl-DS have been shown to be amenable to rather precise analysis by this model. ?? 1985 American Chemical Society.

  13. Interpretation of liver stiffness measurement-based approach for the monitoring of hepatitis B patients with antiviral therapy: A 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X; Xie, Q; Tan, D; Ning, Q; Niu, J; Bai, X; Chen, S; Cheng, J; Yu, Y; Wang, H; Xu, M; Shi, G; Wan, M; Chen, X; Tang, H; Sheng, J; Dou, X; Shi, J; Ren, H; Wang, M; Zhang, H; Gao, Z; Chen, C; Ma, H; Chen, Y; Fan, R; Sun, J; Jia, J; Hou, J

    2018-03-01

    Liver biopsy is not routinely performed in treated chronic hepatitis B. Liver stiffness measurement has been validated for noninvasive liver fibrosis assessment in pretreatment chronic hepatitis B but has not been assessed for fibrosis monitoring during antiviral therapy. Liver stiffness was systemically monitored by Fibroscan ® every 6 months in a cohort of patients with hepatitis B receiving antiviral therapy and compared with liver biopsies at baseline and week 104. A total of 534 hepatitis B e antigen-positive treatment-naive patients receiving telbivudine-based therapy with qualified liver stiffness measurement at baseline and week 104 were analyzed, 164 of which had adequate paired liver biopsies. Liver stiffness decreased rapidly (-2.2 kPa/24 weeks) in parallel with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) from 8.6 (2.6-49.5) kPa at baseline to 6.1 (2.2-37.4) kPa at week 24. Interestingly, liver stiffness decreased slowly (-0.3 kPa/24 weeks) but continually from week 24 to week 104 (6.1 vs 5.3 kPa, P < .001) while ALT levels remained stable within the normal range. More importantly, liver stiffness declined significantly irrespective of baseline ALT levels and liver necroinflammation grades. From baseline to week 104, the proportion of patients with no or mild fibrosis (Ishak, 0-2) increased from 74.4% (122/164) to 93.9% (154/164). Multivariate analysis revealed that percentage decline of 52-week liver stiffness from baseline was independently associated with 104-week liver fibrosis regression (odds ratio, 3.742; P = .016). Early decline of 52-week liver stiffness from baseline may reflect the remission of both liver inflammation and fibrosis and was predictive of 104-week fibrosis regression in treated patients with chronic hepatitis B. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Making the best use of our previous results as a clue for interpreting kinetics of scintigraphic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sato

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, we have performed scintigraphy with 201-thallium chloride (201-TlCl and 99m-Tc-hexakis-2-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (99m-Tc-MIBI for malignant tumors and lymphoscintigraphy with 99m-Tc-rhenium-colloid (99m-Tc-Re and 99m-Tc-human-serum-albumin-diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic-acid (99m-Tc-HSA-D for lymph node metastasis. In this article, we re-evaluated scintigraphic images retrospectively with a hope that the results might be a clue, even if it is small, for dentists to try to improve the accuracy of diagnosis of malignant tumors. From scintigraphy, we obtained the tumor retention index as a factor to estimate the uptake of radioactive agents in tumor cells. Moreover, we estimated transport proteins of Na+/K+-ATPase and permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp expressed on the cell membrane that might regulate the kinetic condition of radioactive agents. Among the tumor retention index, the transport protein and the histopathologic finding of tumors, there were relatively well correlations. The tumor retention index showed a difference clearly between malignant tumor and benign tumor. The transport protein revealed a distinct expression in accordance with the malignancy of tumor, and the uptake clearly depended upon the expression of transport protein. Moreover, the lymph node metastasis was detected well by lymphoscintigraphy with 99m-Tc-Re and 99m-Tc-HSA-D.

  15. Executive Function in Previously Institutionalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Emily C; Harlé, Katia M; Noble, Kimberly G; McCall, Robert B

    2016-06-01

    In studies of children adopted from institutions, being raised in an institution has been associated consistently with an increased risk of persistent cognitive, academic, and social-emotional problems. These findings raise questions about the neurocognitive mechanisms that contribute to these negative outcomes. Theory and models based on studies of animals indicate that development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and executive function (EF) may be particularly susceptible to environmental influences during early childhood. In this article, we review recent studies of postinstitutionalized children that examined EF components such as inhibitory control, working memory, shifting, and planning. We then describe emerging research on the structure and function of the PFC. Converging evidence suggests both EF difficulties and alterations in development of the PFC following early institutionalization. We conclude by discussing possible explanations for these findings and implications for prevention and intervention, and by offering suggestions for ongoing research.

  16. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  17. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  18. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  19. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  20. Competency in ECG Interpretation Among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Grzegorz; Magoń, Wojciech; Hołda, Mateusz; Podolec, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) is commonly used in diagnosis of heart diseases, including many life-threatening disorders. We aimed to assess skills in ECG interpretation among Polish medical students and to analyze the determinants of these skills. Material/Methods Undergraduates from all Polish medical schools were asked to complete a web-based survey containing 18 ECG strips. Questions concerned primary ECG parameters (rate, rhythm, and axis), emergencies, and common ECG abnormalities. Analysis was restricted to students in their clinical years (4th–6th), and students in their preclinical years (1st–3rd) were used as controls. Results We enrolled 536 medical students (females: n=299; 55.8%), aged 19 to 31 (23±1.6) years from all Polish medical schools. Most (72%) were in their clinical years. The overall rate of good response was better in students in years 4th–5th than those in years 1st–3rd (66% vs. 56%; pCompetency in ECG interpretation was higher in students who reported ECG self-learning (69% vs. 62%; pstudents who attended or did not attend regular ECG classes (66% vs. 66%; p=0.99). On multivariable analysis (pyears (OR: 2.45 [1.35–4.46] and self-learning (OR: 2.44 [1.46–4.08]) determined competency in ECG interpretation. Conclusions Polish medical students in their clinical years have a good level of competency in interpreting the primary ECG parameters, but their ability to recognize ECG signs of emergencies and common heart abnormalities is low. ECG interpretation skills are determined by self-education but not by attendance at regular ECG classes. Our results indicate qualitative and quantitative deficiencies in teaching ECG interpretation at medical schools. PMID:26541993

  1. Interpretation of macroscopic quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that a quantum theory without observer is required for the interpretation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling. Such a theory is obtained by augmenting QED by the actual electric field in the rest system of the universe. An equation of the motion of this field is formulated form which the correct macroscopic behavior of the universe and the validity of the Born interpretation is derived. Care is taken to use mathematically sound concepts only. (Author)

  2. Court interpreting and pragmatic meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction.......In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction....

  3. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  4. Interval Coded Scoring: a toolbox for interpretable scoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Billiet

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, clinical decision support systems have been gaining importance. They help clinicians to make effective use of the overload of available information to obtain correct diagnoses and appropriate treatments. However, their power often comes at the cost of a black box model which cannot be interpreted easily. This interpretability is of paramount importance in a medical setting with regard to trust and (legal responsibility. In contrast, existing medical scoring systems are easy to understand and use, but they are often a simplified rule-of-thumb summary of previous medical experience rather than a well-founded system based on available data. Interval Coded Scoring (ICS connects these two approaches, exploiting the power of sparse optimization to derive scoring systems from training data. The presented toolbox interface makes this theory easily applicable to both small and large datasets. It contains two possible problem formulations based on linear programming or elastic net. Both allow to construct a model for a binary classification problem and establish risk profiles that can be used for future diagnosis. All of this requires only a few lines of code. ICS differs from standard machine learning through its model consisting of interpretable main effects and interactions. Furthermore, insertion of expert knowledge is possible because the training can be semi-automatic. This allows end users to make a trade-off between complexity and performance based on cross-validation results and expert knowledge. Additionally, the toolbox offers an accessible way to assess classification performance via accuracy and the ROC curve, whereas the calibration of the risk profile can be evaluated via a calibration curve. Finally, the colour-coded model visualization has particular appeal if one wants to apply ICS manually on new observations, as well as for validation by experts in the specific application domains. The validity and applicability

  5. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern-Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any \\text{SU}(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal \\text{SU}(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  6. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  7. Improving electrocardiogram interpretation skills for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kunj Patel,1 Omar El Tokhy,1 Shlok Patel,2 Hanna Maroof31Department of Investigative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, 2Department of Medical Research, Faculty of Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 3GKT School of Medical Education, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College of London, London, UKWe read with great interest the article by Zeng at al1 who propose a new electrocardiogram (ECG teaching method called the “graphics-sequence memory method”. An ECG is one of the most important diagnostic tests and is currently used as a gold standard for the diagnosis of a number of cardiac diseases. We appreciate that it can be a challenging concept to teach, often bringing frustration to the educators trained in ECG interpretation. Zeng et al1 highlight a deficiency in learning through the traditional Chinese disease-based teaching method, resulting in a relative inability to interpret ECGs where the diagnosis is not quite so straightforward. Accumulation of evidence2 has suggested that a significant proportion of undergraduate medical students do not feel competent in their interpretation of an ECG. Therefore, the authors are right to suggest a novel approach with the dual benefit of aiding teaching and improving learning and confidence when interpreting an ECG.View original paper by Zeng and colleagues.

  8. An Optimization Framework for Travel Pattern Interpretation of Cellular Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Freund

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores methods for identifying travel patterns from cellular data. A primary challenge in this research is to provide an interpretation of the raw data that distinguishes between activity durations and travel durations. A novel framework is proposed for this purpose, based on a grading scheme for candidate interpretations of the raw data. A genetic algorithm is used to find interpretations with high grades, which are considered as the most reasonable ones. The proposed method is tested on a dataset of records covering 9454 cell-phone users over a period of one week. Preliminary evaluation of the resulting interpretations is presented.

  9. Validating Score Interpretations and Uses: Messick Lecture, Language Testing Research Colloquium, Cambridge, April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The argument-based approach to validation involves two steps; specification of the proposed interpretations and uses of the test scores as an interpretive argument, and the evaluation of the plausibility of the proposed interpretive argument. More ambitious interpretations and uses tend to involve an extended network of inferences and assumptions…

  10. Interpreting and Treating Autism in Javanese Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Anne Currier

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a complex developmental disorder affecting communication, social interaction, and behavior. There may be as many as one million people with autism in Indonesia, yet little information is available regarding the implications for affected individuals, families, and communities. My dissertation takes a sociocultural perspective in addressing how autism is recognized, interpreted, and treated in Javanese Indonesia. Based on 12 months of multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork in Yogykarta an...

  11. Interpreting the CMMI a process improvement approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Margaret K

    2008-01-01

    Written by experienced process improvement professionals who have developed and implemented computer based systems in organizations around the world, Interpreting the CMMI®: A Process Improvement Approach, Second Edition provides you with specific techniques for performing process improvement. Employing everyday language and supported by real world examples, the authors describe the fundamental concepts of the CMMI model, covering goals, practices, architecture, and definitions, and provide a structured approach for implementing the concepts of the CMMI into any organization. They discuss gett

  12. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  13. Mystifying moments in Bible interpretation: An exploration of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rastafarians, primarily Jamaica-based, regard marijuana as a holy herb and find direct support for their religious use of this plant in the Bible. However strange such 'mystifying' interpretations may seem within the theological mainstreams of Judeo-Christianity, there is more to these kinds of interpretations than simple whim.

  14. Communicative challenges of interpreting in cross-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents some of the challenges encountered by court interpreters who interpret in cross-border languages, i.e. languages spoken across the borders of two neighbouring countries. Data used in the article were collected from participants by adopting a qualitative approach, based on the observation of courtroom ...

  15. Fortran algorithm for monitoring Leachates and interpreting physico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fortran algorithm for monitoring Leachates and interpreting physico-chemical data of contaminants in ground water. ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology ... A FOTRAN 90 algorithm was developed to interpret leachate geochemical data of polluted ground water in Lagos, based on 19 selected physico-chemical ...

  16. The Marketing Firm: Operant Interpretation of Corporate Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Kevin J.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we address the issue of applying operant psychology to derive plausible and useful interpretations of complex firm behavior in natural settings. The objective is to discuss an appropriate methodology based on case study design, developed specifically in Vella and Foxall (2011), to produce an operant interpretation of secondary…

  17. The Interpretive Approach to Religious Education: Challenging Thompson's Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…

  18. Default Sarcastic Interpretations: On the Priority of Nonsalient Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Drucker, Ari; Fein, Ofer; Mendelson, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Findings from five experiments support the view that negation generates sarcastic utterance-interpretations by default. When presented in isolation, novel negative constructions ("Punctuality is not his forte," "Thoroughness is not her most distinctive feature"), free of semantic anomaly or internal incongruity, were…

  19. Interpretative reports and critical values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Elisa; Plebani, Mario

    2009-06-01

    In the clinical laboratory to allow an effective testing process, post-analytical activity can have two goals in trying to improve patient safety: result interpretation and communication of critical values. Both are important issues, and their success requires a cooperative effort. Misinterpretation of laboratory test results or ineffectiveness in their notification can lead to diagnostic errors or errors in identifying patient critical conditions. With the awareness that the incorrect interpretation of tests and the breakdown in the communication of critical values are preventable errors, laboratorians should make every effort to prevent the types of errors that potentially harm patients. In order to improve the reliability of laboratories, we attempt to explain how interpretative reporting and automated notification of critical values can be used to reduce errors. Clinical laboratories can therefore work to improve clinical effectiveness, without forgetting that everything should be designed to provide the best outcomes for patients.

  20. 8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreter. 1240.44 Section 1240.44 Aliens....44 Interpreter. Any person acting as interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the...

  1. 25 CFR 81.16 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interpreters. 81.16 Section 81.16 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.16 Interpreters. Interpreters, where needed, may be provided to explain the manner of voting... that the interpreter does not influence the voter in casting the ballot. The interpreter may accompany...

  2. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  3. Effect of amino acid supplementation on titer and glycosylation distribution in hybridoma cell cultures-Systems biology-based interpretation using genome-scale metabolic flux balance model and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimonn, Thomas M; Park, Seo-Young; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Brorson, Kurt A; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2016-09-01

    Genome-scale flux balance analysis (FBA) is a powerful systems biology tool to characterize intracellular reaction fluxes during cell cultures. FBA estimates intracellular reaction rates by optimizing an objective function, subject to the constraints of a metabolic model and media uptake/excretion rates. A dynamic extension to FBA, dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA), can calculate intracellular reaction fluxes as they change during cell cultures. In a previous study by Read et al. (2013), a series of informed amino acid supplementation experiments were performed on twelve parallel murine hybridoma cell cultures, and this data was leveraged for further analysis (Read et al., Biotechnol Prog. 2013;29:745-753). In order to understand the effects of media changes on the model murine hybridoma cell line, a systems biology approach is applied in the current study. Dynamic flux balance analysis was performed using a genome-scale mouse metabolic model, and multivariate data analysis was used for interpretation. The calculated reaction fluxes were examined using partial least squares and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The results indicate media supplementation increases product yield because it raises nutrient levels extending the growth phase, and the increased cell density allows for greater culture performance. At the same time, the directed supplementation does not change the overall metabolism of the cells. This supports the conclusion that product quality, as measured by glycoform assays, remains unchanged because the metabolism remains in a similar state. Additionally, the DFBA shows that metabolic state varies more at the beginning of the culture but less by the middle of the growth phase, possibly due to stress on the cells during inoculation. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1163-1173, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. Reevaluation of the effect of mandatory interpreter legislation on use of professional interpreters for ED patients with language barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginde, Adit A; Sullivan, Ashley F; Corel, Blanka; Caceres, J Alfredo; Camargo, Carlos A

    2010-11-01

    We sought to compare emergency department (ED) use of professional interpreters in 2008 to previously reported 2002 data. We surveyed consecutive adult patients for two 24-h periods at 4 Boston EDs in 2008. We used identical questions as in our 2002 study to assess English language barriers and to measure use and type of interpreter for those with language barriers. We enrolled 498 patients (66% of eligible). Of these, 8% had a significant English language barrier, but any interpreter was used for only 69% of these patients; the corresponding data for 2002 were 11% and 89%, respectively. In 2008, compared to 2002, professional interpreter use was similar (18% vs. 15%; p = 0.70), but a friend or family member interpreted more often (59% vs. 24%; planguage barriers remained low, despite publicity of the state mandatory interpreter law. However, a majority were comfortable with a friend or family member serving as the interpreter for the clinical encounter, a finding that may contribute to the limited usage of professional interpreters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Essentials of psychoanalytic cure: a symposium. Introduction and survey of some previous views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, M P; Tabachnick, N D

    1988-01-01

    Friedman (1978) suggested that implicit in the theories of the psychoanalytic process a classification of three separate trends can be identified. In the first instance, there is what could be called "understanding," whether it be intellectual or emotional. Second, there is "attachment," which refers to curative measures based on some "binding emotional reaction to the analyst." And third, and less explicitly, there is "integration," which refers to the development of a synthesis that has the effect of harmonizing parts of the mind or elevating psychic functioning to a higher level. Freud's writings embodied all three of these trends. The participants of the symposium at Marienbad, being strongly influenced by Strachey's emphasis on superego alteration through introjection, placed the greater stress on attachment. Loewald, emphasizing as he does the importance of the patient's identification with the analyst as a corrective reliving of the origins of identification in childhood, highlights attachment while also relating it to understanding. Stone and Gitelson also focused on the beneficial aspects of the affective link to the analyst and the important function served by this link in facilitating understanding of the analyst's interpretation. At the Edinburgh conference, however, aside from Gitelson and Nacht, who viewed attachment as an integrating or structuring aspect of the analytic process, the participants placed their confidence almost completely on "understanding" strictly through interpretation. In the latest debate between the proponents of self psychology and the object relations approach proposed by Kernberg, many aspects of these previous discussions and controversies have resurfaced (Friedman, 1978). Kohut, utilizing Freud's concept that links gratification and minimal frustration together as the developer of structure, relied on the empathic bond between patient and analyst as a basic component of the process of cure. Kernberg, however, relying

  6. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  7. Probabilistic interpretation of resonant states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: hatano@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp. Abstract. We provide probabilistic interpretation of resonant states. We do this by showing that the integral of the modulus square of resonance wave functions (i.e., the conventional norm) over a properly expanding spatial domain is independent of time, and therefore leads to probability ...

  8. Intercultural Understanding: An Interpretive Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    Noting that intercultural understanding is a prime construct in the study of intercultural communication, this paper examines two questions that confront all intercultural communication researchers: (1) What are the underlying characteristics of intercultural understanding? and (2) What constitutes an interpretative perspective to intercultural…

  9. meaning, interpretation and literary theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thetic concepts and interpretations within particular historical, political and cultural frameworks. The impact of cultural studies, postcolonial stu- dies, New Historicism and feminism on all textual practices is very strong. These approaches ask differing sets of questions, questions such as: How does a particular text fit into a ...

  10. Interpretation of Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Larsen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses techniques for interpretation and characterization of trained recurrent nets for time series problems. In particular, we focus on assessment of effective memory and suggest an operational definition of memory. Further we discuss the evaluation of learning curves. Various...

  11. Probabilistic interpretation of resonant states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We provide probabilistic interpretation of resonant states. We do this by showing that the integral of the modulus square of resonance wave functions (i.e., the conventional norm) over a properly expanding spatial domain is independent of time, and therefore leads to probability conservation. This is in contrast with the ...

  12. Andries van Aarde's Matthew Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-01-14

    Jan 14, 2011 ... To conclude the article, some critical statements with regard to the historical understanding ... important texts. In what follows, this answer is described by emphasising the many facets of Van Aarde's Matthew interpretation. Van Aarde is an .... has created the necessary distance between text and reader, it.

  13. A Generator for Composition Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    Composition of program components must be expressed in some language, and late composition can be achieved by an interpreter for the composition language. A suitable notion of component is obtained by identifying it with the semantics of a generalised structured command. Experiences from programm...

  14. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing ...

  15. Interpretation and the Aesthetic Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Charles O.

    1976-01-01

    The author, utilizing a synthesis of philosophic comments on aesthetics, provides a discourse on the aesthetic dimension and offers examples of how interpreters can nurture the innate sense of beauty in man. Poetic forms, such as haiku, are used to relate the aesthetic relationship between man and the environment. (BT)

  16. Visual Interpretation of Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Bette P.

    1989-01-01

    Examines how visual literacy (the ability to interpret the visual images of advertisements, illustrations, television, and other visual media) can promote creative and analytic thinking. Provides several instructional strategies to teach visual literacy through book illustrations. Notes that visual literacy is essential in a world increasingly…

  17. Public and previous consultation on administrative rulemaking in the Colombian legal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gómez Velásquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the figure of previous and public consultation in administrative rulemaking in the Colombian legal system. Doing that, the article uses a comparative law, a systematic interpretation and a jurisprudential approach to propose some de lege ferenda and de lege data interpretation on the figure. The thesis aims to hold is that from the existing legal framework it is possible to preach the existence of the figure form certain regulations, but also in a generic form in the light of the provisions of Article 8.8 of CPACA. However, due to the imprecise way the consultation was regulated there will be desirable that the legislative branch develop it in more detail manner in the near future or the Consejo de Estado as the Colombian supreme court on this particular issue defining in a unified way the scope of the public consultation. While this occurs, this paper proposes a constitutional interpretation of the institution.

  18. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  19. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — NHTSA's Chief Counsel interprets the statutes that the agency administers and the regulations that it promulgates. The Chief Counsel's interpretations, issued in the...

  20. Combining outcrop, magnetic, and airborne LiDAR data in a course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE): interpretation of bedrock fracturing in the northeastern Deep River Basin and adjacent basement, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, R.; Waters-Tormey, C. L.; Styers, D.; Hurst, E.

    2017-12-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are a way for students to learn the power of combining geological, geophysical, and geodetic datasets, while also generating new results to answer real questions. A 5-week undergraduate geophysics CURE combined newly released public domain LiDAR-derived ground models with outcrop and magnetic data. The goal was to see if this approach could improve understanding of bedrock fracture sets in the NC Piedmont, which in turn would improve decisions about groundwater resources and proposed hydraulic fracturing of "tight" shale reservoirs in the 230 Ma Deep River failed rift basin. The 10 km2 study area was selected because it straddles the fault contact between crystalline basement and basin sedimentary rocks, it contains 200 Ma NW-SE trending mafic dikes related to successful rifting of Pangea common in the Piedmont, bedrock exposure is typical of the Piedmont (poor), and its land use history is representative of much of the Piedmont. Students visited representative field sites to collect observations then manually identified lineaments in several adjacent LiDAR ground model tiles. Results suggest that (1) lineaments as short as a few m are easily identified except underneath Quaternary deposits, (2) the dominant lineament set trends NW-SE with m- to 10 m-scale spacing, (3) lineaments are better expressed in sedimentary rocks and (4) do not spatially coincide with dike traces. Using field observations, map patterns, and total magnetic intensity profiles across several dikes, the lineaments are interpreted to be edges of subvertical joint fractures recording extension parallel to the dikes' dilation direction. The CURE concluded with students in small groups proposing next steps for the larger research project. The CURE introduced geology majors to the power of using geophysical and remote sensing data with geological data to address geoscience questions. Student feedback was very positive even though the learning

  1. The thermodynamics of protein folding: a critique of widely used quasi-thermodynamic interpretations and a restatement based on the Gibbs-Duhem relation and consistent with the Phase Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethica, Brian A

    2010-07-21

    Interpretations of data in the extensive literature on the unfolding of proteins in aqueous solution follow a variety of methods involving assumptions leading to estimates of thermodynamic quantities associated with the unfolding transition. Inconsistencies and thermodynamic errors in these methods are identified. Estimates of standard molar free energies and enthalpies of unfolding using incompletely defined equilibrium constants and the van't Hoff relation are unsound, and typically contradict model-free interpretation of the data. A widely used routine for estimating the change in heat capacity associated with unfolding based on changes in the unfolding temperature and enthalpy co-induced by addition of denaturant or protective additives is thermodynamically incorrect by neglect of the Phase Rule. Many models and simulations predicting thermodynamic measures of unfolding are presently making comparisons with insecure quantities derived by incorrect thermodynamic analyses of experimental data. Analysis of unfolding via the Gibbs-Duhem equation with the correct Phase Rule constraints avoids the assumptions associated with incomplete equilibrium constants and misuse of the van't Hoff relation, and applies equally to positive, negative, sitewise or diffuse solute binding to the protein. The method gives the necessary relations between the thermodynamic parameters for thermal and isothermal unfolding and is developed for the case of two-state unfolding. The differences in binding of denaturants or stabilizers to the folded and unfolded forms of the protein are identified as major determinants of the unfolding process. The Phase Rule requires the temperature and enthalpy of unfolding to depend generally on the protein concentration. The available evidence bears out this expectation for thermal unfolding, indicating that protein-protein interactions influence folding. A parallel dependence of the denaturant concentrations for isothermal unfolding on the protein

  2. Analysis of multi-interpretable ecological monitoring information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Engelfriet, J.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper logical techniques developed to formalise the analysis of multi-interpretable information, in particular belief set operators and selection operators, are applied to an ecological domain. A knowledge-based decision support system is

  3. Directionality effects in simultaneous language interpreting: the case of sign language interpreters in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of The Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives was assessed by 5 certified sign language interpreters who did not participate in the study. Two measures were used to assess interpreting quality: the propositional accuracy of the interpreters' interpretations and a subjective quality measure. The results showed that the interpreted narratives in the SLN-to-Dutch interpreting direction were of lower quality (on both measures) than the interpreted narratives in the Dutch-to-SLN and Dutch-to-SSD directions. Furthermore, interpreters who had begun acquiring SLN when they entered the interpreter training program performed as well in all 3 interpreting directions as interpreters who had acquired SLN from birth.

  4. Effects of resistance training on performance in previously trained endurance runners: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Ibañez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Pérez, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to identify, synthesize and evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of resistance training on performance indicators in previously trained endurance runners. A database search was carried out in PubMed, Science Direct, OvidSPMedLine, Wiley, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google Scholar. In accordance with the PRISMA checklist, 18 published articles dated prior to May 2016 involving 321 endurance runners were reviewed using the PEDro scale. Resistance training led to general improvements in muscular strength, running economy, muscle power factors, and direct performance in distances between 1,500 and 10,000 m. Such improvements were not accompanied by a significant increase in body mass or signs of overtraining. However, improvements did not occur in all cases, suggesting that they might depend on the specific characteristics of the resistance training applied. Although current evidence supports the effectiveness of resistance training to improve performance in already trained endurance runners, the methodological inconsistencies identified suggest that the results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies ought to investigate the benefits of resistance training in endurance runners while considering the existence of possible differentiated effects based on the specific characteristics of the resistance training carried out.

  5. Interpretable correlation descriptors for quantitativestructure-activity relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spowage Benson M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The topological maximum cross correlation (TMACC descriptors are alignment-independent 2D descriptors for the derivation of QSARs. TMACC descriptors are generated using atomic properties determined by molecular topology. Previous validation (J Chem Inf Model 2007, 47: 626-634 of the TMACC descriptor suggests it is competitive with the current state of the art. Results Here, we illustrate the interpretability of the TMACC descriptors, through the analysis of the QSARs of inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR. In the case of the ACE inhibitors, the TMACC interpretation shows features specific to C-domain inhibition, which have not been explicitly identified in previous QSAR studies. Conclusions The TMACC interpretation can provide new insight into the structure-activity relationships studied. Freely available, open source software for generating the TMACC descriptors can be downloaded from http://comp.chem.nottingham.ac.uk.

  6. Modeling and interpretation of images*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging protoplanetary disks is a challenging but rewarding task. It is challenging because of the glare of the central star outshining the weak signal from the disk at shorter wavelengths and because of the limited spatial resolution at longer wavelengths. It is rewarding because it contains a wealth of information on the structure of the disks and can (directly probe things like gaps and spiral structure. Because it is so challenging, telescopes are often pushed to their limitations to get a signal. Proper interpretation of these images therefore requires intimate knowledge of the instrumentation, the detection method, and the image processing steps. In this chapter I will give some examples and stress some issues that are important when interpreting images from protoplanetary disks.

  7. Visual perception and radiographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorges, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although interpretation errors are common in radiology, their causes are still debated. Perceptual mechanisms appear to be responsible for a large proportion of mistakes made by both neophytes and trained radiologists. Erroneous perception of familiar contours can be triggered by unrelated opacities. Conversely, visual information cannot induce a specific perception if the observer is not familiar with the concept represented or its radiographicappearance. Additionally, the area of acute vision is smaller than is commonly recognized. Other factors, such as the attitude, beliefs,.: preconceptions, and expectations of the viewer, can affect what he or she ''sees'' whenviewing any object, including a radiograph. Familiarity with perceptual mechanisms and the limitations of the visual system as well as multiple readings may be necessary to reduce interpretation errors

  8. Inuit interpretations of sleep paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Samuel; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2005-03-01

    Traditional and contemporary Inuit concepts of sleep paralysis were investigated through interviews with elders and young people in Iqaluit, Baffin Island. Sleep paralysis was readily recognized by most respondents and termed uqumangirniq (in the Baffin region) or aqtuqsinniq (Kivalliq region). Traditional interpretations of uqumangirniq referred to a shamanistic cosmology in which the individual's soul was vulnerable during sleep and dreaming. Sleep paralysis could result from attack by shamans or malevolent spirits. Understanding the experience as a manifestation of supernatural power, beyond one's control, served to reinforce the experiential reality and presence of the spirit world. For contemporary youth, sleep paralysis was interpreted in terms of multiple frameworks that incorporated personal, medical, mystical, traditional/shamanistic, and Christian views, reflecting the dynamic social changes taking place in this region.

  9. Data analysis and interpretation for environmental surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Data Analysis and Interpretation for Environmental Surveillance Conference was held in Lexington, Kentucky, February 5--7, 1990. The conference was sponsored by what is now the Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Participants included technical professionals from all Martin Marietta Energy Systems facilities, Westinghouse Materials Company of Ohio, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and several technical support contractors. Presentations at the conference ranged the full spectrum of issues that effect the analysis and interpretation of environmental data. Topics included tracking systems for samples and schedules associated with ongoing programs; coalescing data from a variety of sources and pedigrees into integrated data bases; methods for evaluating the quality of environmental data through empirical estimates of parameters such as charge balance, pH, and specific conductance; statistical applications to the interpretation of environmental information; and uses of environmental information in risk and dose assessments. Hearing about and discussing this wide variety of topics provided an opportunity to capture the subtlety of each discipline and to appreciate the continuity that is required among the disciplines in order to perform high-quality environmental information analysis

  10. PROBABLE FORECASTING IN THE COURSE OF INTERPRETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. B. Kagan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Translation practice has a heuristic nature and involves cognitive structures of consciousness of any interpreter. When preparing translators, special attention is paid to the development of their skill of probable forecasting.The aim of the present publication is to understand the process of anticipation from the position of the cognitive model of translation, development of exercises aimed at the development of prognostic abilities of students and interpreters when working with newspaper articles, containing metaphorical headlines.Methodology and research methods. The study is based on the competence approach to the training of students-translators, the complex of interrelated scientific methods, the main of which is the psycholinguistic experiment. With the use of quantitative data the features of the perception of newspaper texts on their metaphorical titles are characterized.Results and scientific novelty. On the basis of the conducted experiment to predict the content of newspaper articles with metaphorical headlines it is concluded that the main condition of predictability is the expectation. Probable forecasting as a professional competence of a future translator is formed in the process of training activities by integrating efforts of various departments of any language university. Specific exercises for the development of anticipation of students while studying the course of translation and interpretation are offered.Practical significance. The results of the study can be used by foreign language teachers of both language and non-language universities in teaching students of different specialties to translate foreign texts. 

  11. Problems in black-hole entropy interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberati, S.

    1997-01-01

    In this work some proposals for black-hole entropy interpretation are exposed and investigated. In particular, the author will firstly consider the so-called 'entanglement entropy' interpretation, in the framework of the brick wall model and the divergence problem arising in the one-loop calculations of various thermodynamical quantities, like entropy, internal energy and heat capacity. It is shown that the assumption of equality of entanglement entropy and Bekenstein-Hawking one appears to give inconsistent results. These will be a starting point for a different interpretation of black.hole entropy based on peculiar topological structures of manifolds with 'intrinsic' thermodynamical features. It is possible to show an exact relation between black-hole gravitational entropy and topology of these Euclidean space-times. the expression for the Euler characteristic, through the Gauss-Bonnet integral, and the one for entropy for gravitational instantons are proposed in a form which makes the relation between these self-evident. Using this relation he propose a generalization of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in which the former and Euler characteristic are related in the equation S = χA / 8. Finally, he try to expose some conclusions and hypotheses about possible further development of this research

  12. Interpreting radiographs. 4. The carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguez, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    The complexity of the carpus which has three major joints, seven or eight carpal bones and five adjacent bones, each of which articulates with one or more of the carpal elements, necessitates good quality radiographs for definitive radiographic interpretation may be extremely difficult because of the disparity between radiographic changes and obvious clinical signs and, therefore, must be discussed in the light of a thorough clinical assessment

  13. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  14. A NEW NONPLANETARY INTERPRETATION OF THE MICROLENSING EVENT OGLE-2013-BLG-0723

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cheongho; Jung, Youn Kil [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, 371-763 Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Bennett, David P. [Code 667, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Udalski, Andrzej [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the discovery of a Venus-mass planet orbiting a brown-dwarf host in a binary system was reported from the analysis of the microlensing event OGLE-2013-BLG-0723. We reanalyze the event considering the possibility of other interpretations. From this, we find a new solution where the lens is composed of two bodies, in contrast to the three-body solution of the previous analysis. The new solution better explains the observed light curve than the previous solution with Δ χ {sup 2} ∼ 202, suggesting that the new solution is a correct model for the event. From the estimation of the physical parameters based on the new interpretation, we find that the lens system is composed of two low-mass stars with ∼0.2 M {sub ⊙} and ∼0.1 M {sub ⊙} and located at a distance of ∼3 kpc. The fact that the physical parameters correspond to those of the most common lens population located at a distance with a large lensing probability further supports the likelihood of the new interpretation. Considering that two dramatically different solutions can approximately explain the observed light curve, the event suggests the need for carefully testing all possible lens-system geometries.

  15. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, R.

    1992-01-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology

  16. Fracture toughness of hydrogels: measurement and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rong; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2016-10-04

    The fracture mechanics of hydrogels, especially those with significantly enhanced toughness, has attracted extensive research interests. In this article we discuss the experimental measurement and theoretical interpretation of the fracture toughness for soft hydrogels. We first review the definition of fracture toughness for elastic materials, and the commonly used experimental configurations to measure it. In reality most gels are inelastic. For gels that are rate insensitive, we discuss how to interpret the fracture toughness associated with two distinct scenarios: crack initiation and steady-state crack propagation. A formulation to estimate energy dissipation during steady-state crack propagation is developed, and connections to previous models in the literature are made. For gels with rate-dependent behaviors, we review the physical mechanisms responsible for the rate-dependence, and outline the difficulties to rigorously define the fracture toughness for both crack initiation and propagation. We conclude by discussing a few fundamental questions on the fracture of tough gels that are yet to be answered.

  17. Deaf-Blind Interpreting: Building on What You Already Know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Petronio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2010v2n26p237 This article focuses on visual considerations and describes the numerous similarities between video interpreting and deaf-blind interpreting. It also looks at linguistic considerations for deaf-blind interpreting and presents research findings showing similarities and differences between ASL and Tactile ASL. Because many interpreters are unfamiliar with tactile communication, there is a section that includes an overview of Tactile ASL. The issues, descriptions, and data presented in this article are based on situations in the United States and involve the use of ASL and Tactile ASL; however, it is highly likely that these discussions and findings also relate to deaf-blind interpreting done in other countries using other sign languages.

  18. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National... ORGANIZATION Interpreters § 1605.81 Interpreters. (a) The local board, district appeal board and the National Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following oath...

  19. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22... EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately...

  20. What Does It Mean to Teach "Interpretively"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Jennifer; Holtzman, Richard; van Hulst, Merlijn; Yanow, Dvora

    2016-01-01

    The "interpretive turn" has gained traction as a research approach in recent decades in the empirical social sciences. While the contributions of interpretive research and interpretive research methods are clear, we wonder: Does an interpretive perspective lend itself to--or even demand--a particular style of teaching? This question was…

  1. Accurate and interpretable classification of microspectroscopy pixels using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manescu, Petru; Jong Lee, Young; Camp, Charles; Cicerone, Marcus; Brady, Mary; Bajcsy, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This paper addresses the problem of classifying materials from microspectroscopy at a pixel level. The challenges lie in identifying discriminatory spectral features and obtaining accurate and interpretable models relating spectra and class labels. We approach the problem by designing a supervised classifier from a tandem of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models that identify relevant features in raw spectra and achieve high classification accuracy. The tandem of ANN models is meshed with classification rule extraction methods to lower the model complexity and to achieve interpretability of the resulting model. The contribution of the work is in designing each ANN model based on the microspectroscopy hypothesis about a discriminatory feature of a certain target class being composed of a linear combination of spectra. The novelty lies in meshing ANN and decision rule models into a tandem configuration to achieve accurate and interpretable classification results. The proposed method was evaluated using a set of broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (BCARS) microscopy cell images (600 000  pixel-level spectra) and a reference four-class rule-based model previously created by biochemical experts. The generated classification rule-based model was on average 85% accurate measured by the DICE pixel label similarity metric, and on average 96% similar to the reference rules measured by the vector cosine metric. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Interpretation of correlations in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Bounsanga, Jerry; Voss, Maren Wright

    2017-11-01

    Critically analyzing research is a key skill in evidence-based practice and requires knowledge of research methods, results interpretation, and applications, all of which rely on a foundation based in statistics. Evidence-based practice makes high demands on trained medical professionals to interpret an ever-expanding array of research evidence. As clinical training emphasizes medical care rather than statistics, it is useful to review the basics of statistical methods and what they mean for interpreting clinical studies. We reviewed the basic concepts of correlational associations, violations of normality, unobserved variable bias, sample size, and alpha inflation. The foundations of causal inference were discussed and sound statistical analyses were examined. We discuss four ways in which correlational analysis is misused, including causal inference overreach, over-reliance on significance, alpha inflation, and sample size bias. Recent published studies in the medical field provide evidence of causal assertion overreach drawn from correlational findings. The findings present a primer on the assumptions and nature of correlational methods of analysis and urge clinicians to exercise appropriate caution as they critically analyze the evidence before them and evaluate evidence that supports practice. Critically analyzing new evidence requires statistical knowledge in addition to clinical knowledge. Studies can overstate relationships, expressing causal assertions when only correlational evidence is available. Failure to account for the effect of sample size in the analyses tends to overstate the importance of predictive variables. It is important not to overemphasize the statistical significance without consideration of effect size and whether differences could be considered clinically meaningful.

  3. Hydrostratigraphic interpretation of test-hole and borehole geophysical data, Kimball, Cheyenne, and Deuel Counties, Nebraska, 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Sibray, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Recently (2004) adopted legislation in Nebraska requires a sustainable balance between long-term supplies and uses of surface-water and groundwater and requires Natural Resources Districts to understand the effect of groundwater use on surface-water systems when developing a groundwater-management plan. The South Platte Natural Resources District (SPNRD) is located in the southern Nebraska Panhandle and overlies the nationally important High Plains aquifer. Declines in water levels have been documented, and more stringent regulations have been enacted to ensure the supply of ground-water will be sufficient to meet the needs of future generations. Because an improved understanding of the hydrogeologic characteristics of this aquifer system is needed to ensure sustainability of groundwater withdrawals, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the SPNRD, Conservation and Survey Division of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and the Nebraska Environmental Trust, began a hydrogeologic study of the SPNRD to describe the lithology and thickness of the High Plains aquifer. This report documents these characteristics at 29 new test holes, 28 of which were drilled to the base of the High Plains aquifer. Herein the High Plains aquifer is considered to include all hydrologically connected units of Tertiary and Quaternary age. The depth to the base of aquifer was interpreted to range from 37 to 610 feet in 28 of the 29 test holes. At some locations, particularly northern Kimball County, the base-of-aquifer surface was difficult to interpret from drill cutting samples and borehole geophysical logs. The depth to the base of aquifer determined for test holes drilled for this report was compared with the base-of-aquifer surface interpreted by previous researchers. In general, there were greater differences between the base-of-aquifer elevation reported herein and those in previous studies for areas north of Lodgepole Creek compared to areas south of Lodgepole Creek. The

  4. NAIL SAMPLING TECHNIQUE AND ITS INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TZAR MN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical suspicion of onychomyosis based on appearance of the nails, requires culture for confirmation. This is because treatment requires prolonged use of systemic agents which may cause side effects. One of the common problems encountered is improper nail sampling technique which results in loss of essential information. The unfamiliar terminologies used in reporting culture results may intimidate physicians resulting in misinterpretation and hamper treatment decision. This article provides a simple guide on nail sampling technique and the interpretation of culture results.

  5. Development of Logical and Coherent Literary Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina von Staa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a case study in which High School freshmen in Brazil produce literary interpretations. The paper is based upon the theory of genres and registers by Eggins and Martin (1997 and on Bakhtin (1981 and Voloshinov (1973. We demonstrate by means of examples taken from students’ texts that activities such as a debate in which students perceived how different their points of view were and the practice of writing summaries and accounts may have originated texts in which students showed more self-assurance by the end of the semester.

  6. Re-Interpreting the "Chinese miracle"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xingyuan; Ljungwall, Christer; Guo, Sujian

    2011-01-01

    The rapid economic development and transformation of Chinese society over the past three decades has, by a large mass of analysts, been called a "Miracle." This paper not only addresses the shortcomings of existing interpretations but also develops a new multi-dimensional framework based on North......'s theory of institutional change and Hayek's theory of institutional evolution to explain China's miraculous growth. Our analysis shows that both Hayekian spontaneous order and Popper's "piecemeal social engineering" played a major role in attaining China's miraculous growth....

  7. Causal interpretation of stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Alexander; Hansen, Niels Richard

    2014-01-01

    We give a causal interpretation of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) by defining the postintervention SDE resulting from an intervention in an SDE. We show that under Lipschitz conditions, the solution to the postintervention SDE is equal to a uniform limit in probability of postintervention...... structural equation models based on the Euler scheme of the original SDE, thus relating our definition to mainstream causal concepts. We prove that when the driving noise in the SDE is a Lévy process, the postintervention distribution is identifiable from the generator of the SDE....

  8. Static analysis of software the abstract interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature currently available to students and researchers is very general, covering only the formal techniques of static analysis. This book presents real examples of the formal techniques called ""abstract interpretation"" currently being used in various industrial fields: railway, aeronautics, space, automotive, etc. The purpose of this book is to present students and researchers, in a single book, with the wealth of experience of people who are intrinsically involved in the realization and evaluation of software-based safety critical systems. As the authors are people curr

  9. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: stelios.Kyriacou@gmail.co [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  10. Touch design and narrative interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Sumin; Unsworth, Len

    2016-01-01

    of technology, but also a resource for meaning making. We distinguish two basic types of interactivity—intra-text and extra-text—incorporated in the touch design, and explore the different functions they perform in a broad range of picture book apps. In particular, we look at the app version of The Heart...... and the Bottle in depth, and illustrate how interactive design elements help to create an interpretative possibility of the story. We suggest that a better understanding of interactive touch design would promote more effective adult-child interactions around mobile applications....

  11. Interpreting CNNs via Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Quanshi; Yang, Yu; Wu, Ying Nian; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a method to learn a decision tree to quantitatively explain the logic of each prediction of a pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our method boosts the following two aspects of network interpretability. 1) In the CNN, each filter in a high conv-layer must represent a specific object part, instead of describing mixed patterns without clear meanings. 2) People can explain each specific prediction made by the CNN at the semantic level using a decision tree, i.e....

  12. Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    To validate an interpretation or use of test scores is to evaluate the plausibility of the claims based on the scores. An argument-based approach to validation suggests that the claims based on the test scores be outlined as an argument that specifies the inferences and supporting assumptions needed to get from test responses to score-based…

  13. A Symmetrical Interpretation of the Klein-Gordon Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Michael B.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a new Symmetrical Interpretation (SI) of relativistic quantum mechanics which postulates: quantum mechanics is a theory about complete experiments, not particles; a complete experiment is maximally described by a complex transition amplitude density; and this transition amplitude density never collapses. This SI is compared to the Copenhagen Interpretation (CI) for the analysis of Einstein's bubble experiment. This SI makes several experimentally testable predictions that differ from the CI, solves one part of the measurement problem, resolves some inconsistencies of the CI, and gives intuitive explanations of some previously mysterious quantum effects.

  14. Patterns of communication through interpreters: a detailed sociolinguistic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranguri, Cesar; Davidson, Brad; Ramirez, Robert

    2006-06-01

    Numerous articles have detailed how the presence of an interpreter leads to less satisfactory communication with physicians; few have studied how actual communication takes place through an interpreter in a clinical setting. Record and analyze physician-interpreter-patient interactions. Primary care physicians with high-volume Hispanic practices were recruited for a communication study. Dyslipidemic Hispanic patients, either monolingual Spanish or bilingual Spanish-English, were recruited on the day of a normally scheduled appointment and, once consented, recorded without a researcher present in the room. Separate postvisit interviews were conducted with the patient and the physician. All interactions were fully transcribed and analyzed. Sixteen patients were recorded interacting with 9 physicians. Thirteen patients used an interpreter with 8 physicians, and 3 patients spoke Spanish with the 1 bilingual physician. Transcript analysis based on sociolinguistic and discourse analytic techniques, including but not limited to time speaking, analysis of questions asked and answered, and the loss of semantic information. Speech was significantly reduced and revised by the interpreter, resulting in an alteration of linguistic features such as content, meaning, reinforcement/validation, repetition, and affect. In addition, visits that included an interpreter had virtually no rapport-building "small talk," which typically enables the physician to gain comprehensive patient history, learn clinically relevant information, and increase emotional engagement in treatment. The presence of an interpreter increases the difficulty of achieving good physician-patient communication. Physicians and interpreters should be trained in the process of communication and interpretation, to minimize conversational loss and maximize the information and relational exchange with interpreted patients.

  15. Conflicting Interpretations of Scientific Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Not surprisingly historical studies have suggested that there is a distance between concepts of teaching methods, their interpretations and their actual use in the classroom. This issue, however, is not always pitched to the personal level in historical studies, which may provide an alternative insight on how teachers conceptualise and engage with concepts of teaching methods. This article provides a case study on this level of conceptualisation by telling the story of Rómulo de Carvalho, an educator from mid-twentieth century Portugal, who for over 40 years engaged with the heuristic and Socratic methods. The overall argument is that concepts of teaching methods are open to different interpretations and are conceptualised within the melting pot of external social pressures and personal teaching preferences. The practice and thoughts of Carvalho about teaching methods are scrutinised to unveil his conflicting stances: Carvalho was a man able to question the tenets of heurism, but who publicly praised the heurism-like "discovery learning" method years later. The first part of the article contextualises the arrival of heurism in Portugal and how Carvalho attacked its philosophical tenets. In the second part, it dwells on his conflicting positions in relation to pupil-centred approaches. The article concludes with an appreciation of the embedded conflicting nature of the appropriation of concepts of teaching methods, and of Carvalho's contribution to the development of the philosophy of practical work in school science.

  16. Experiences of Kurdish war-wounded refugees in communication with Swedish authorities through interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahi, Nabi; Nordholm, Lena; Mattsson, Bengt; Hellström, Mikael

    2010-02-01

    To study experiences of war-wounded Kurdish refugees with respect to cross-cultural communication through interpreters. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten men, aged 31-42. Content analysis was used for analysis and interpretation of data. War-wounded Kurdish refugees experienced a number of difficulties regarding communication through interpreters, mainly related to the insufficient language link to the Swedish authorities, particularly health care personnel. In many instances, interpreters were selected based on the immigrant's citizenship rather than mother tongue, leading to a more complex, tri-lingual interpretation situation. Differences in cultural background, fear, suspicion and lack of confidence in interpreters were addressed as other problems by the participants. Interpreter competence and patient confidence in the interpreter are essential for an adequate cross-cultural health communication. Assignment of interpreters should be based on knowledge of the patient's/client's mother tongue, rather than citizenship, and the outcome is improved by a common ethnic and cultural background of interpreter and patient/client. Our study should be considered as a pilot study, and the results should be validated in larger cohorts as well as in other ethnic and language groups. In order to minimize communication misunderstandings, complicated tri-lingual interpretation situations should be avoided. Interpreters should ideally be assigned according to patient's/client's mother tongue rather than citizenship. Interpreters' competence and patient's/client's confidence in interpreter may have significant impact on communication outcome. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Practical guide to interpretive near-infrared spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Workman, Jr, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    Containing focused, comprehensive coverage, Practical Guide to Interpretive Near-Infrared Spectroscopy gives you the tools necessary to interpret NIR spectra. The authors present extensive tables, charts, and figures with NIR absorption band assignments and structural information for a broad range of functional groups, organic compounds, and polymers. They include visual spectral representation of all major compound functional groupings and NIR frequency ranges. Organized by functional group type and chemical structure, based on standard compound classification, the chapters are easy to

  18. Interpretation of Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MSMS) Spectra for Peptide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjernø, Karin; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to give a short introduction to peptide analysis by mass spectrometry (MS) and interpretation of fragment mass spectra. Through examples and guidelines we demonstrate how to understand and validate search results and how to perform de novo sequencing based on the often...... very complex fragmentation pattern obtained by tandem mass spectrometry (also referred to as MSMS). The focus is on simple rules for interpretation of MSMS spectra of tryptic as well as non-tryptic peptides....

  19. Instrumentation and severe accident plant status interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.; Machiels, A.J.; Oehlberg, R.N.; Negin, C.A.; James, R.

    1992-01-01

    EPRI is conducting a project related to instrumentation and severe accident plant status interpretation. The project will recognize the facts that (i) instrument responses during severe accidents do not need to be as accurate as during normal operation, and (ii) not all instrument loops will see a severe environment. In particular, the proposed work is to provide technology to get the most information from the existing instrumentation under severe accident conditions by developing (1) calculational aids to determine actual plant parameters based on severe-accident-affected instrument readings, and (2) means to utilize indications from operational instruments to infer parameters values for failed instruments, or where no instrument may exist. Specific deliverables for this project are (i) an instrumentation data base that will include both instrumentation failures and successes under severe conditions, and contain instrument performance information from both nuclear and non-nuclear industry situations; (ii) methods to assess the validity of instrument signals and estimate the performance of individual instrument loops; and (iii) calculational aids to estimate and interpret instrument readings under severe accident conditions, including the ability to extrapolate readings from functioning instruments to locations where instruments have failed. (orig.)

  20. Lineament interpretation. Short review and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, Sven

    2010-11-01

    the interpreter. Images and digital terrain models that display the relief of the studied area should, if possible, be illuminated in at least four directions to reduce biases regarding the orientation of structures. The resolution in the source data should be fully used and extrapolation of structures avoided in the primary interpretation of the source data. The interpretation of lineaments should be made in steps: a. Interpretation of each data set/image/terrain model is conducted separately; b. Compilation of all interpretations in a base lineament map and classification of the lineaments; and c. Construction of thematical maps, e.g. structural maps, rock block maps, and statistic presentation of lineaments. Generalisations and extrapolations of lineaments/structures may be made when producing the thematical maps. The construction of thematical maps should be supported by auxiliary information (geological and geomorphologic data and information on human impact in the area). Inferred tectonic structures should be controlled in field

  1. [Effect of using an interpreter in psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rikke Sander; Nørregaard, Trine Maria; Carlsson, Jessica

    2017-05-22

    An evaluation of the effect of using an interpreter in psychotherapy is quite complex. In the few existing studies on the use of interpreters in psychotherapy no significant difference was found in treatment outcome related to whether an interpreter was used or not. On the other hand, the inclusion of an interpreter affects the therapeutic alliance and the relationships between the parties. The role of the interpreter in psychotherapy is characterized by diversity, and the included studies indicate the need for training to improve the cooperation between the interpreter and the therapist.

  2. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  3. Interpretations of bullying by bullies, victims, and bully-victims in interactions at different levels of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouwels, J Loes; Scholte, Ron H J; van Noorden, Tirza H J; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2016-01-01

    According to the Social Information Processing Model of children's adjustment, children develop general interpretation styles for future social events based on past social experiences. Previous research has shown associations between interpretations of social situations and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. This study investigated whether bullies, victims, bully-victims, and uninvolved children interpreted ambiguous human interactions differently in terms of bullying and whether these interpretations generalized to abstract non-human interactions. Participants were 390 children (49% girls, Mage  = 10.3 years) who completed self-report measures of bullying and victimization. In addition, they indicated whether video fragments of positive, negative, or ambiguous interactions between humans, animals, and abstract figures depicted bullying situations. Bully-victims reported more bullying than victims and uninvolved children in ambiguous abstract figure, animal, and human fragments and in positive animal fragments. Children who bully did not differ from the other groups. These findings indicate that interpretations of bullying generalized from ambiguous human interactions to more abstract ambiguous animal and abstract figure interactions. Implications for further research and practice were discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. High prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) scores are associated with elevated Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) grade and biopsy Gleason score, at magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasonography fusion software-based targeted prostate biopsy after a previous negative standard biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Stefano; Passera, Roberto; Cattaneo, Giovanni; Manfredi, Matteo; Mele, Fabrizio; Fiori, Cristian; Bollito, Enrico; Cirillo, Stefano; Porpiglia, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    To determine the association among prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) score, Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) grade and Gleason score, in a cohort of patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), undergoing magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasonography fusion software-based targeted prostate biopsy (TBx) after a previous negative randomised 'standard' biopsy (SBx). In all, 282 patients who underwent TBx after previous negative SBx and a PCA3 urine assay, were enrolled. The associations between PCA3 score/PI-RADS and PCA3 score/Gleason score were investigated by K-means clustering, a receiver operating characteristic analysis and binary logistic regression. The PCA3 score difference for the negative vs positive TBx cohorts was highly statistically significant. A 1-unit increase in the PCA3 score was associated to a 2.4% increased risk of having a positive TBx result. A PCA3 score of >80 and a PI-RADS grade of ≥4 were independent predictors of a positive TBx. The association between the PCA3 score and PI-RADS grade was statistically significant (the median PCA3 score for PI-RADS grade groups 3, 4, and 5 was 58, 104, and 146, respectively; P = 0.006). A similar pattern was detected for the relationship between the PCA3 score and Gleason score; an increasing PCA3 score was associated with a worsening Gleason score (median PCA3 score equal to 62, 105, 132, 153, 203, and 322 for Gleason Score 3+4, 4+3, 4+4, 4+5, 5+4, and 5+5, respectively; P PI-RADS grade: notably, in the 'indeterminate' PI-RADS grade 3 subgroup. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Application of Neural Networks Technique in depositional environment interpretation for the Niger Delta a Novel computer-Based methodology for 3-D reservoir geological modelling and exploration studies. (The pilot application in X-Field, Niger Delta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iloghalu, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Artificial neural network is a virtual intelligence tool, which mimics the human brain to do analysis and come out with results. Its application in petroleum engineering is very recent and is gradually evolving and is set to dominate or take over other analytical tools used in the Exploration and Production industry.There are two types of neural network namely, unsupervised and supervised neural networks. A proper combination of these two types of neural networks produces high-resolution results.In this work, interpreted core data was depth matched to well logs and 5 genetic units were calibrated to define the combined log responses for each genetic unit. These combined log responses were then used to train the supervised neural networks to recognise and interpret these units elsewhere in the field. Thereafter, the unsupervised neural network was run to generate classes within the cored interval. The results were then compared with the supervised network output and were then extrapolated vertically and laterally to other parts of the field.This technique having been used successfully to perform automatic interpretation of genetic units and lithofacies associations in reservoir scale is also very useful and applicable in exploration. Specific reservoirs or stratigraphic units can be automatically interpreted across a wide area using well data controlled by one or a combination of lithostratigraphy, allostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and biostratigraphy.Using this technique, well data cost and time are saved tremendously. It is the key to achieving computerised Basin-Scale Reservoir characterisation for the Niger Delta

  6. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  7. Direct interpretation of dreams: typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Daele, L

    1992-12-01

    The dream typology assorts dreams into three major categories: dreams whose origin is endogenous, exogenous, or relational. Dreams of the first type arise from somatic needs, feelings, and states that accompany organismic adjustments to system requirements. Dreams of the second type are initiated by kinetic and dispositional tendencies toward engagement and exploration of the outer world. And dreams of the third type derive from interpersonal dispositions to interaction and relationship with other people. Within each category, dreams may occur at different levels of complexity. The dream typology permits the integration of psychoanalytic observations about the dreams from a variety of perspectives within a common framework. Freud's view that a dream is a wish fulfillment finds its primary niche in endogenous need, wish fulfillment, and convenience dreams. Kohut's observations about self-state dreams and inner regulation (1971, 1977) are accommodated to the middle range of endogenous dreams, and Jung's individuation dreams (1930) occupy the advanced range. Similarly, Bonime's interpersonal approach to dream interpretation (1962) is encompassed by relational dreams of the middle level. In addition, types and modes of dreams that are only infrequently encountered in clinical psychoanalysis are accommodated. The dream typology suggests that different psychoanalytic theories are like the position papers that might have derived from the fabled committee of learned blind who were commissioned to determine the appearance of an elephant. Each individual got a hold on some part, but could not see the whole; so for each, the part became the whole. The psychoanalytic theorist is in exactly an analogous position because, in fact, he is blind to the extent of the unconscious and is constrained to what he can infer. What he can infer depends on cohort, client population, and how he calibrates his observations. The result has been procrustean interpretation, dissention, and a

  8. Laterally constrained inversion for CSAMT data interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruo; Yin, Changchun; Wang, Miaoyue; Di, Qingyun

    2015-10-01

    Laterally constrained inversion (LCI) has been successfully applied to the inversion of dc resistivity, TEM and airborne EM data. However, it hasn't been yet applied to the interpretation of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data. In this paper, we apply the LCI method for CSAMT data inversion by preconditioning the Jacobian matrix. We apply a weighting matrix to Jacobian to balance the sensitivity of model parameters, so that the resolution with respect to different model parameters becomes more uniform. Numerical experiments confirm that this can improve the convergence of the inversion. We first invert a synthetic dataset with and without noise to investigate the effect of LCI applications to CSAMT data, for the noise free data, the results show that the LCI method can recover the true model better compared to the traditional single-station inversion; and for the noisy data, the true model is recovered even with a noise level of 8%, indicating that LCI inversions are to some extent noise insensitive. Then, we re-invert two CSAMT datasets collected respectively in a watershed and a coal mine area in Northern China and compare our results with those from previous inversions. The comparison with the previous inversion in a coal mine shows that LCI method delivers smoother layer interfaces that well correlate to seismic data, while comparison with a global searching algorithm of simulated annealing (SA) in a watershed shows that though both methods deliver very similar good results, however, LCI algorithm presented in this paper runs much faster. The inversion results for the coal mine CSAMT survey show that a conductive water-bearing zone that was not revealed by the previous inversions has been identified by the LCI. This further demonstrates that the method presented in this paper works for CSAMT data inversion.

  9. On the interpretation of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jakob J.

    1995-07-01

    Studying the numerous papers that have appeared in the recent past that address ``vortex breakdown,'' it may be difficult for a reader to avoid getting rather confused. It appears that various authors or even schools have conflicting views on the correct interpretation of the physics of vortex breakdown. Following the investigation by Keller et al. [Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 36, 854 (1985)], in this paper, axisymmetric forms of vortex breakdown, as originally defined by Benjamin [J. Fluid Mech. 14, 593 (1962)] are addressed. It is argued that at least some of the previous investigations have been concerned with different aspects of the same phenomena and may, in fact, not disagree. One of the most fundamental questions in this context concerns the properties of the distributions of total head and circulation on the downstream side of vortex breakdown transitions. Some previous investigators have suggested that the downstream flow would exhibit properties that are similar to those of a wake. For this reason the phenomenon of vortex breakdown is investigated for a class of distributions of total head and circulation in the domain of flow reversal that is substantially more general than in previous investigations. Finally, a variety of problems are discussed that are crucial for a more complete theory of vortex breakdown, but have not yet been solved. It is shown that for the typically small flow speeds in a domain of flow reversal produced by a vortex breakdown wave, the departures of both vortex core size and swirl number, with respect to the case of uniform total pressure in the zone of flow reversal, as discussed by Keller et al. [Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 36, 854 (1985)], remain surprisingly small. As a consequence, the possible appearance of large departures from a Kirchhoff-type wake must be due to viscous diffusion at low and due to shear-layer instabilities at high Reynolds numbers.

  10. [Smartphone application for blood gas interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiols, Julien; Bardo, Pascale; Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Brouard, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Ninety four per cent of health professionals use their smartphone for business purposes and more than 50% has medical applications. The «Blood Gas» application was created to be part of this dynamic and participate to e-health development in France. The «Blood Gas» application facilitates interpretation of the results of blood gas analysis using an algorithm developed with reference to a medical bibliography. It can detect some complex or intricate acid-base disorders in evaluating the effectiveness of the secondary response. The application also studied the respiratory status of the patient by calculating the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and the alveol-arterial gradient. It also indicates the presence of a shunt effect. Finally, a specific module to calculate the SID (strong ion difference) depending on the model of Stewart can detect complex acid-base disorders.

  11. Performance of educational interpreter: partnership with teachers and authorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Ferreira dos Santos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to analyze and discuss the work of the Educational Interpreter (IE, which is a recent professional in our country in the field of deaf educacion, and the currently researches on their performance in the classroom are incipient. This article aimed to discuss in addition to the work of interpretation from one language to another (Brazilian Sign Language/Portuguese, their relationship of partnership with the teacher and how this may influence interpretation practices, and also the possibilities of creation and discursive authoring by professional IE. For this purpose, this research is based mostly on Bakhtinian theoretical frameworks (2009, 2010, and authors in the field of deafness, translation and interpretation. The data selected for this study was done in tape-recorder and subsequently transcribed, in a History classroom with the presence of interpreter, on the 6th year of elementary school that proposed be inclusive bilingual for the deaf. The analysis on the IE’s performance demonstrated that the work of Educational Interpreter is not restricted to the utterances translation and interpretations:  he is co-author of the discourses delivered by teachers in classroom, and your practices are connected with the teacher’s practice work development.

  12. Performance of educational interpreter: partnership with teachers and authorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Ferreira dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to analyze and discuss the work of the Educational Interpreter (IE, which is a recent professional in our country in the field of deaf educacion, and the currently researches on their performance in the classroom are incipient. This article aimed to discuss in addition to the work of interpretation from one language to another (Brazilian Sign Language/Portuguese, their relationship of partnership with the teacher and how this may influence interpretation practices, and also the possibilities of creation and discursive authoring by professional IE. For this purpose, this research is based mostly on Bakhtinian theoretical frameworks (2009, 2010, and authors in the field of deafness, translation and interpretation. The data selected for this study was done in tape-recorder and subsequently transcribed, in a History classroom with the presence of interpreter, on the 6th year of elementary school that proposed be inclusive bilingual for the deaf. The analysis on the IE’s performance demonstrated that the work of Educational Interpreter is not restricted to the utterances translation and interpretations: he is co-author of the discourses delivered by teachers in classroom, and your practices are connected with the teacher’s practice work development.

  13. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice.

  14. APL interpreter on MITRA-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davcev, Danco

    1975-01-01

    APL in its present forms is an ideal instrument for the establishment of logic systems since it requires no specific declaration of type or form of variables. An APL system for C II computer of the MITRA series is described, with the following minimum configuration: MITRA central unit, 16-bit 32 K word memory, disc with fixed or mobile heads, type 4013 TEKTRONIX visualisation system. The originality of our APL interpreter on MITRA 15 lies in the use of a virtual memory system with pages of 128 word size. The so-called beating process is used to set up APL operators: the selection expressions in the tables may be evaluated without any manipulation of the values. (author) [fr

  15. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice

  16. Defunctionalized Interpreters for Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    by Reynolds in ``Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages'' for functional implementations of denotational semantics, natural semantics, and big-step abstract machines using closure conversion, CPS transformation, and defunctionalization. Over the last few years, the author and his......This document illustrates how functional implementations of formal semantics (structural operational semantics, reduction semantics, small-step and big-step abstract machines, natural semantics, and denotational semantics) can be transformed into each other. These transformations were foreshadowed...... students have further observed that functional implementations of small-step and of big-step abstract machines are related using fusion by fixed-point promotion and that functional implementations of reduction semantics and of small-step abstract machines are related using refocusing and transition...

  17. Interpretive Flexibility in Mobile Health:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Mathiassen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    a growing body of evidence supports the use of mobile technologies, the diverse implications of mobile health have yet to be fully documented. Objective: Our objective was to examine a large-scale government-sponsored mobile health implementation program in the Danish home care sector and to understand how...... stakeholders in the Danish home care sector (government bodies, vendors, consultants, interest organizations, and managers) helped initiate and energize the change process, and government funding supported quick and widespread technology adoption. However, although supported by the same government...... of debate as technology use arrangements ran counter to existing norms and values in individual agencies. Conclusions: Government-sponsored programs can have both positive and negative results, and managers need to be aware of this and the interpretive flexibility of mobile technology. Mobile technology...

  18. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  19. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    for the analysis of functional and object-oriented languages. The first step of the development is an analysis for counting occurrences of processes inside other processes (for which we show semantic correctness and that solutions constitute a Moore family); the second step is a previously developed control flow...

  20. Language production and interpretation linguistics meets cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zeevat, Henk

    2014-01-01

    A model of production and interpretation of natural language utterances is developed which explains why communication is normally fast and successful. Interpretation is taken to be analogous with visual perception in finding the most probable hypothesis that explains the utterance.

  1. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be...

  2. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.

    2011-02-01

    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  3. Decoherence and Copenhagen Interpretation : A Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a reasonable explanation (not proof) to the Copenhagen interpretation of Quantum Mechanics from the view point of decoherence theory. Mathematical physicists with strong mission must prove {\\bf the Copenhagen interpretation} at all costs.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF CONTEXT ON UTTERANCE INTERPRETATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Some questions about context and interpretation. One of the most important problems in the study of language use is that of the interpretation of utterances. For our purposes this problem can be formulated in the form of the following question:.

  5. Benefits of an Interpretation Course for Foreign Language Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasetti, Giada

    2016-01-01

    Based on the experience of developing and teaching an introductory course on Spanish-English interpretation, this study will situate and justify translation, more specifically interpreting, as an important component for language development. The goal is to analyze ways the development and implementation of an interpreting course (focusing on…

  6. Semantic interpretation of search engine resultant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-01-01

    In semantic, logical language can be interpreted in various forms, but the certainty of meaning is included in the uncertainty, which directly always influences the role of technology. One results of this uncertainty applies to search engines as user interfaces with information spaces such as the Web. Therefore, the behaviour of search engine results should be interpreted with certainty through semantic formulation as interpretation. Behaviour formulation shows there are various interpretations that can be done semantically either temporary, inclusion, or repeat.

  7. The interpreter as cultural educator of residents: improving communication for Latino parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ann Chen; Leventhal, John M; Ortiz, Jacqueline; Gonzalez, Ernesto E; Forsyth, Brian

    2006-11-01

    To determine whether augmentation of the Spanish interpreter's role to include cultural education of residents can improve the satisfaction of Latino patients. We assessed parent satisfaction during 4 sequential 2-month periods between June 1, 2004, and February 11, 2005, using different interpretation methods: telephone interpretation (n = 91 patient encounters), trained in-person interpretation (n = 49), in-person interpretation with cultural education of residents (n = 65), and postprogram telephone interpretation (n = 45). General pediatric practice at a large teaching hospital. A total of 250 Spanish-speaking parents who were limited in English proficiency. The cultural education program included 3 brief preclinic conferences taught by an interpreter and one-on-one teaching of residents about language and cultural issues after each clinical encounter. Parent satisfaction was assessed using 8 questions that have previously been validated in Spanish. Lower scores indicated more satisfaction. Because they were limited in English proficiency, our Spanish-speaking patients were significantly more satisfied when an in-person interpreter was used compared with a telephone interpreter (mean total satisfaction score of 14.5 [in-person] vs 17.4 [telephone]; P = .006) but were even more satisfied when the interpreter educated residents in cultural and language issues (mean, 11.5 [in-person with education] vs 17.4 [telephone]; P<.001). Although use of an in-person interpreter can increase Latino parents' satisfaction, a program using an interpreter to educate residents in cultural and language issues can increase satisfaction further.

  8. Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

  9. Informal interpreting in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zendedel, R.

    2017-01-01

    When health care providers and migrant patients do not share a common language, informal interpreters - usually family members of the patients - come along to bridge the language gap. While patients usually feel comfortable with having an informal interpreter, this type of interpreter-mediated

  10. 29 CFR 18.604 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Interpreters. 18.604 Section 18.604 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.604 Interpreters. An interpreter is subject to the...

  11. Environmental interpretation in Uganda's national parks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interpretation work, and management skills expected of interpretation staff. Eight predetermined management skills were listed and respondents were asked to indicate ... Environmental interpretation in Uganda's National Parks. 21. Table 2. Job description of the rangers (N=32). Job description f. %. General work. 12. 37.5.

  12. Specialized Rules of Treaty Interpretation: International Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses treaty interpretation in the context of international organizations, with particular attention to interpreting the founding or constitutive treaties of organizations. That not all interpretive rules are the same for all treaties is a well-tried proposition (see e.g. Arnold

  13. Chain graph models and their causal interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt; Richardson, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    , interpretations of chain graphs that are often invoked, implicitly or explicitly. These interpretations also lead to flawed methods for applying background knowledge to model selection. We present a valid interpretation by showing how the distribution corresponding to a chain graph may be generated from...... traditionally been used to model feed-back in econometrics....

  14. A robust interpretation of duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzle, M.; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2005-01-01

    Calculus (DC), our findings are that the robust interpretation of DC is equivalent to a multi-valued interpretation that uses the real numbers as semantic domain and assigns Lipschitz-continuous interpretations to all operators of DC. Furthermore, this continuity permits approximation between discrete...

  15. Learners Interpreting Instructional Images: Meaning-Making and Decision-Making Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Elizabeth; Gray, Colin M.; Modell, Micah Gideon; Altuwaijri, Abdullah; Jung, Jiyoon

    2014-01-01

    Instructional images are used widely in textbooks and other learning materials, but the role of learner interpretation has not been adequately explored. While previous research has demonstrated the diversity of interpretation derived from images by learners, this research has not consistently taken place in the context of authentic learning tasks.…

  16. RETHINKING RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick J. Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1950s academics and professionals have proposed a number of disciplinary and sector based interpretations of why, when and where households move or choose to stay in the same housing unit at different periods of the life cycle and especially the family cycle. This article challenges studies that only analyse one set of factors. The article stems from a synthesis of 20 years of research by the author who  has an interdisciplinary training in the broad field of people-environment relations. First, it reviews some key concepts related to human ecology, including housing, culture, identity and cultivation. Then it will consider how these concepts can be applied to interpret residential mobility using an interdisciplinary approach. An empirical case study of residential mobility in Geneva, Switzerland is presented in order to show how this approach can help improve our understanding of the motives people have regarding the wish to stay in their residence or to move elsewhere.

  17. Momentum conservation decides Heisenberg's interpretation of the uncertainty formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelidis, T.D.

    1977-01-01

    In the light of Heisenberg's interpretation of the uncertainty formulas, the conditions necessary for the derivation of the quantitative statement or law of momentum conservation are considered. The result of such considerations is a contradiction between the formalism of quantum physics and the asserted consequences of Heisenberg's interpretation. This contradiction decides against Heisenberg's interpretation of the uncertainty formulas on upholding that the formalism of quantum physics is both consistent and complete, at least insofar as the statement of momentum conservation can be proved within this formalism. A few comments are also included on Bohr's complementarity interpretation of the formalism of quantum physics. A suggestion, based on a statistical mode of empirical testing of the uncertainty formulas, does not give rise to any such contradiction

  18. New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.

    2004-01-01

    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture. PMID:15294811

  19. IMAGE INTERPRETATION OF COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features – particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents – oceans, states – large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta. The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation – digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  20. Monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, J.R.; Prince, R.C.; Harner, J.; Atlas, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, extensive research was conducted by the US Environments Protection Agency and Exxon to develop and implement bioremediation techniques for oil spill cleanup. A key challenge of this program was to develop effective methods for monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness on extremely heterogenous intertidal shorelines. Fertilizers were applied to shorelines at concentrations known to be safe, and effectiveness achieved in acceleration biodegradation of oil residues was measure using several techniques. This paper describes the most definitive method identified, which monitors biodegradation loss by measuring changes in ratios of hydrocarbons to hopane, a cycloalkane present in the oil that showed no measurable degradation. Rates of loss measured by the hopane ratio method have high levels of statistical confidence, and show that the fertilizer addition stimulated biodegradation rates as much a fivefold. Multiple regression analyses of data show that fertilizer addition of nitrogen in interstitial pore water per unit of oil load was the most important parameter affecting biodegradation rate, and results suggest that monitoring nitrogen concentrations in the subsurface pore water is preferred technique for determining fertilizer dosage and reapplication frequency