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Sample records for previous heart attack

  1. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: A previous heart attack Open heart surgery Chest trauma A heart attack that has affected the thickness of your heart muscle Symptoms Symptoms include: Anxiety Chest pain from the swollen pericardium rubbing on the ...

  2. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family history of heart attack race – African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and native Hawaiians are at ... Your doctor will prescribe the medicines that are right for you. If you have had a heart ...

  3. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... properly causes your body's blood sugar levels to rise, increasing your risk of heart attack. Metabolic syndrome. This occurs when you have obesity, high blood pressure and high blood sugar. Having metabolic ...

  4. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  5. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  6. Heart attack - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass ... pacemaker - discharge High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor How to read ...

  7. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  8. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  9. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  10. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Attack Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Attack Symptoms Past Issues / Winter ... most common heart attack symptom in men and women is chest pain or discomfort. However, women also ...

  11. Panic Attack or Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When in doubt about symptoms, seek care without delay to rule out heart disease. Heart disease affects your heart's ... which cause you concern, see your doctor without delay and ask for testing to rule out heart disease. 1 Gadolinium side effects could ...

  12. Heart Attack Symptoms in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat, cholesterol and other substances (plaque). Watch an animation of a heart attack . Many women think the ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  13. What Is a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical center. Support from family and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones know how you feel and what they can do to help you. Risk of a Repeat Heart Attack Once ...

  14. Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes complications - heart; Coronary artery disease - diabetes; CAD - diabetes; Cerebrovascular disease - diabetes ... People with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure and high ...

  15. Calcium Supplements: A Risk Factor for Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factor for heart attack? I've read that calcium supplements may increase the risk of heart attack. ... D. Some doctors think it's possible that taking calcium supplements may increase your risk of a heart ...

  16. Warning Signs of Heart Attack, Stroke and Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Heart.org CPR & ECC for Heart.org Shop for Heart.org Causes for Heart.org Advocate ... SIGNS may include breaking out in a cold sweat, nausea or lightheadedness. Learn more about heart attack ...

  17. Fuzzy Expert System for Heart Attack Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Norlida; Arbaiy, Nureize; Shah, Noor Aziyan Ahmad; Afizah Afif@Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    Heart attack is one of the serious illnesses and reported as the main killer disease. Early prevention is significant to reduce the risk of having the disease. The prevention efforts can be strengthen through awareness and education about risk factor and healthy lifestyle. Therefore the knowledge dissemination is needed to play role in order to distribute and educate public in health care management and disease prevention. Since the knowledge dissemination in medical is important, there is a need to develop a knowledge based system that can emulate human intelligence to assist decision making process. Thereby, this study utilized hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to develop a Fuzzy Expert System for Diagnosing Heart Attack Disease (HAD). This system integrates fuzzy logic with expert system, which helps the medical practitioner and people to predict the risk and as well as diagnosing heart attack based on given symptom. The development of HAD is expected not only providing expert knowledge but potentially become one of learning resources to help citizens to develop awareness about heart-healthy lifestyle.

  18. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  19. Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not as great as men's. Heredity (Including Race) Children of parents with heart disease are more likely to develop it themselves. African Americans have more severe high blood pressure than Caucasians and a higher risk of heart ...

  20. Apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Easton, J Donald; Lopes, Renato D; Bahit, M Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    In the ARISTOTLE trial, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was reduced by apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients with AF and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) have a high risk of stroke. We therefore aimed to assess the efficacy ...

  1. Can You Recognize a Heart Attack or Stroke? What To Do When Every Moment Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe August 2014 Print this issue Can You Recognize a Heart Attack or Stroke? What ... could prevent many of these deaths. Fast action can also limit permanent damage to the body. Heart ...

  2. Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Heart.org CPR & ECC for Heart.org Shop for Heart.org Causes for Heart.org Advocate ... chest pain or pressure, shortness of breath, profuse sweating and dizziness. “Around 80 percent of the time, ...

  3. Before Using Aspirin to Lower Your Risk of Heart Attack or Stroke, Here Is What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicines Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Before Using Aspirin to Lower Your Risk of Heart Attack or ... care provider can determine whether regular use of aspirin will help to prevent a heart attack or ...

  4. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Zullig, Keith J

    2009-11-01

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N=235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.14-1.30), angina or CHD (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  5. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

    2009-11-15

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  6. Patterns of presentation of chronic ischemic heart disease with and without previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Rabbani, A.; Awan, Z.A.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) is on the rise, from increasing lifespan of population and availability of better medical facilities. We studied chronic IHD cases with and without previous myocardial infarction, in Hazara, NWFP, Pakistan to evaluate left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, wall motion abnormalities and complications of IHD. All patients presenting with history of chest pain in Medical 'C' Unit, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from June 2004 to May 2005 were included in the study. Patients with non-cardiac chest pain were excluded from the study. Cases with congenital and rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, unstable angina and acute MI were excluded. Patients with IHD with or without myocardial infarction (MI) were studied for left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction, left atrial size, E/A ratio), wall motion abnormalities and complications of IHD (Mitral regurgitation, Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD), LV aneurysm, LV clot). Clinical and echocardiographic evaluation was done in each case. Out of 183 cases of chronic IHD, 123 patients were without previous MI and 60 had had previous MI. Ejection fraction (EF) was 45%+-15 in the group without MI and 35+-11% in cases with MI. Left Atrium (LA) size was 35+-6 mm and 39+-4 mm in the two groups respectively. LV diastolic dysfunction was seen in 17% in the first and 24% in the second group respectively. Global hypokinesia was seen in 8% and 17% in the 2 groups respectively. Regional Wall Motion Abnormality (RWMA) was observed in 12% in patients without MI and in 58% cases with MI. Mitral regurgitation was seen in 10 and 20% in the 2 groups respectively LV clots, VSD, LV and aneurysm were seen in 8.4, 5, and 6.5% respectively, only in cases with previous MI. LV dysfunction, wall motion abnormalities and mitral regurgitation were more common in IHD cases with previous heart attack. (author)

  7. Mortality from heart attack in Belgrade population during the period 1990-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratkov Isidora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION In most countries, cardiovascular diseases are the leading disorders, with ischemic heart diseases being the leading cause of death. According to WHO data, every year about 17 million people die of cardiovascular diseases, which is 30% of all deaths. Ischemic heart diseases contribute from one-third to one-half of all deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. Three point eight million men and 3.4 million women in the world die every year from ischemic heart diseases, and in Europe about 2 million. The highest mortality rate from ischemic heart diseases occurs in India, China and Russia. OBJECTIVE The aim of this descriptive epidemiological study was to determine heart attack mortality in Belgrade population during the period 1990-2004. METHOD In the study, we conducted investigation of Belgrade population during the period 1990-2004. Mortality data were obtained from the city institution for statistics. The mortality rates were calculated based on the total Belgrade population obtained from the mean values for the last two register years (1991 and 2002. The mortality rates were standardized using the direct method of standardization according to the world (Segi standard population. RESULTS In the Belgrade population during the period 1990-2004, the participation of mortality rate due to heart attack among deaths from cardiovascular diseases was 17% in males and 10% in females. In Belgrade male population, mean standardized mortality rates (per 100,000 habitants were 50.5 for heart attack, 8.3 for chronic ischemic heart diseases and 4.6 for angina pectoris, while in females the rates were 30.8, 6.7 and 4.2, respectively. Mortality from ischemic heart diseases and from heart attack was higher in males than in females. During the studied 15-year period, on average 755 males and 483 females died due to heart attack every year. Mean standardized mortality rates per 100,000 habitants were 50.0 in male and 31.1 in female population. Males

  8. Aspirin for Reducing Your Risk of Heart Attack and Stroke: Know the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the-Counter Medicines Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Aspirin for Reducing Your Risk of Heart Attack and ... any pharmacy, grocery or convenience store and buy aspirin without a prescription. The Drug Facts label on ...

  9. Knowledge of Signs and Symptoms of Heart Attack and Stroke among Singapore Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Li Juan Quah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the level of knowledge of signs and symptoms of heart attack and stroke in Singapore resident population, in comparison to the global community. Methods. A population based, random sample of 7,840 household addresses was selected from a validated national sampling frame. Each participant was asked eight questions on signs and symptoms of heart attack and 10 questions on stroke. Results. The response rate was 65.2% with 4,192 respondents. The level of knowledge for preselected, common signs and symptoms of heart attack and stroke was 57.8% and 57.1%, respectively. The respondents scored a mean of 5.0 (SD 2.4 out of 8 for heart attack, while they scored a mean of 6.8 (SD 2.9 out of 10 for stroke. Respondents who were ≥50 years, with lower educational level, and unemployed/retired had the least knowledge about both conditions. The level of knowledge of signs and symptoms of heart attack and stroke in Singapore is comparable to USA and Canada. Conclusion. We found a comparable knowledge of stroke and heart attack signs and symptoms in the community to countries within the same economic, educational, and healthcare strata. However older persons, those with lower educational level and those who are unemployed/retired, require more public health education efforts.

  10. Gender differences in the link between childhood socioeconomic conditions and heart attack risk in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamil-Luker, Jenifer; O'Rand, Angela M

    2007-02-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is predictive of disease risk in later life, with those from the most disadvantaged backgrounds more likely to experience poor adult-health outcomes. Most of these studies, however are based on middle-aged male populations and pay insufficient attention to the pathways between childhood risks and specific adult disorders. This article examines gender differences in the link between childhood SES and heart attack risk trajectories and the mechanisms by which early environments affect future disease risk. By using methods that model both latent and path-specific influences, we identify heterogeneity in early life conditions and human, social, and health capital in adulthood that contribute to diverse heart attack risk trajectories between and among men and women as they age into their 60s and 70s. We find that key risk factors for heart attack operate differently for men and women. For men, childhood SES does not differentiate those at low, increasing, and high risk for heart attack. In contrast, women who grew up without a father and/or under adverse economic conditions are the most likely to experience elevated risk for heart attack, even after we adjust for the unequal distribution of working and living conditions, social relationships, access to health care, and adult lifestyle behaviors that influence health outcomes.

  11. The incidence of congenital heart disease: Previous findings and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranović Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defects (CHD are the most common of all congenital anomalies, and represent a significant global health problem. Involvement of medical professionals of different profiles has led to drastic changes in survival and quality of life of children with CHD. The motivation for the implementation of the first large population studies on this subject was not only to obtain answers to the question on the level of incidence of CHD, but the harmonization of criteria and protocols for monitoring and treatment of certain defects as well as the planning of medical staff dealing with children with CHD. Data on the incidence varies from 4-10/1000 live births. Fetal echocardiography can have potential impact on decrease of CHD incidence. The increase in incidence may be due to the possibility that children with CHD will grow up and have offsprings. Owing to the progress that has been made, an increasing number of patients experiences adulthood, creating an entirely new and growing population of patients: patients with “adult” CHD. Survivors suffer morbidity resulting from their circulatory abnormalities as well as from medical and surgical therapies they have been subjected to. Application of the achievements of human genome projects will in time lead to drastic changes in the approach to the patients with CHD. Until the time when it is possible, the goal will be further improvement of the existing system of service: networking in a unique, multicenter clinical registry of patients with CHD, as well as upgrading of technical and non-technical conditions for the treatment of patients with CHD. We are in an unprecedented time of change, but are actually at the end of the beginning of making pediatric cardiac care a highly reliable institution.

  12. Dysfunction of Right Heart in Attack Period of Bronchial Asthma in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.А. Kondratiev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There were performed Doppler echocardiography investigations of functional state of the right heart in 42 children aged 5–17 years old in attack period of bronchial asthma of moderate to severe degree. Changes of intra-cardiac hemodynamics of the right heart in children in attack period of bronchial asthma were characterized by disturbance of systolic and diastolic function of the right ventricle and right atrium. Combined systolic-diastolic variant of the right ventricle dysfunction was typical for attack period of bronchial asthma in children and developed in 95.5 % of cases. Elevation of pressure in pulmonary artery was typical and significantly more often occurred in severe asthma attack, herewith pulmonary hypertension of the second degree predominated.

  13. Valsartan in the treatment of heart attack survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodh I Jugdutt

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodh I JugduttDivision of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Survivors of myocardial infarction (MI are at high risk of disability and death. This is due to infarct-related complications such as heart failure, cardiac remodeling with progressive ventricular dilation, dysfunction, and hypertrophy, and arrhythmias including ventricular and atrial fibrillation. Angiotensin (Ang II, the major effector molecule of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS is a major contributor to these complications. RAAS inhibition, with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors were first shown to reduce mortality and morbidity after MI. Subsequently, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, that produce more complete blockade of the effects of Ang II at the Ang II type 1 (AT1 receptor, were introduced and the ARB valsartan was shown to be as effective as an ACE inhibitor in reducing mortality and morbidity in high-risk post-MI suvivors with left ventricular (LV systolic dysfunction and and/or heart failure and in heart failure patients, respectively, in two major trials (VALIANT and Val-HeFT. Both these trials used an ACE inhibitor as comparator on top of background therapy. Evidence favoring the use of valsartan for secondary prevention in post-MI survivors is reviewed.Keywords: valsartan, myocardial infarction, infarct survivors, remodeling, heart failure

  14. Does Uninsurance Affect the Health Outcomes of the Insured? Evidence from Heart Attack Patients in California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meltem Daysal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, I examine the impact of uninsured patients on the health of the insured, focusing on one health outcome - the in-hospital mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I employ panel data models using patient discharge and hospital financial data from California

  15. Does uninsurance affect the health outcomes of the insured? Evidence from heart attack patients in California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meltem Daysal, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the impact of uninsured patients on the in-hospital mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I employ panel data models using patient discharge and hospital financial data from California (1999–2006). My results indicate that uninsured patients have an economically

  16. Ventilatory control of heart rate during inhalation of 5% CO2 and types of panic attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, R

    1991-09-01

    Differences in the magnitude of increases in heart rate during prolonged inhalation of 5% CO2 range from a mean of 25 b/min for a group of eight panic-disorder patients who panicked (Woods, Charney, Goodman, & Heninger, 1988. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 43-52) to zero b/min for 16 patients, eight of whom panicked (Craske & Barlow, 1990. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 302-307). What accounts for this disparity? The present paper describes how heart rate can be increased by means of voluntary overbreathing during prolonged inhalation of 5% CO2 in air. This suggests that differences in the degree of overbreathing may explain differences in the magnitude of increases in heart rate during inhalation of 5% CO2. An explanation is also offered for the curious finding that some patients experience "panic attacks" with zero increase in heart rate. Evidence suggests that this is likely to happen in cognitively based panic attacks, in contrast to hyperventilatory attacks or anticipatory attacks.

  17. Depression and coronary artery disease -real heart attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, S.; Ahmed, B.

    2001-01-01

    Both depression and ischaemic heart disease are said to become the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries during the next two decades. The relationship between these two disorders has long been speculated but only recently addressed scientifically. A Medline search was conducted to obtain the articles that address the association between depressive disorders and coronary artery disease (CAD). Most studies following large cohorts over a period ranging from 4.5 to 27 years have shown that depression is associated with a significantly high risk of developing CAD. These studies also show that patients who have depression following myocardial infarction hat poorer prognosis on major cardiac end points like reoccurrence of myocardial infarction and death as compared to the non-depressed group. The psychosocial variables associated with depression like social isolation, acute and chronic stressful life events are also associated with increased risk of developing CAD. The mechanisms underlying this association between depression and CAD are unknown at present. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in reducing this increased risks have been demonstrated while the trials assessing the efficacy and safety of anti depressed drugs are underway. The implications of these finding are discussed in the context of developing countries. (author)

  18. Applying Magneto-rheology to Reduce Blood Viscosity and Suppress Turbulence to Prevent Heart Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.

    Heart attacks are the leading causes of death in USA. Research indicates one common thread, high blood viscosity, linking all cardiovascular diseases. Turbulence in blood circulation makes different regions of the vasculature vulnerable to development of atherosclerotic plaque. Turbulence is also responsible for systolic ejection murmurs and places heavier workload on heart, a possible trigger of heart attacks. Presently, neither medicine nor method is available to suppress turbulence. The only method to reduce the blood viscosity is to take medicine, such as aspirin. However, using medicine to reduce the blood viscosity does not help suppressing turbulence. In fact, the turbulence gets worse as the Reynolds number goes up with the viscosity reduction by the medicine. Here we report our new discovery: application of a strong magnetic field to blood along its flow direction, red blood cells are polarized in the magnetic field and aggregated into short chains along the flow direction. The blood viscosity becomes anisotropic: Along the flow direction the viscosity is significantly reduced, but in the directions perpendicular to the flow the viscosity is considerably increased. In this way, the blood flow becomes laminar, turbulence is suppressed, the blood circulation is greatly improved, and the risk for heart attacks is reduced. While these effects are not permanent, they last for about 24 hours after one magnetic therapy treatment.

  19. US State-level income inequality and risks of heart attack and coronary risk behaviors: longitudinal findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gilman, Stephen E

    2015-07-01

    To examine prospectively the association between US state income inequality and incidence of heart attack. We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,445). Respondents completed interviews at baseline (2001-2002) and follow-up (2004-2005). Weighted multilevel modeling was used to determine if US state-level income inequality (measured by the Gini coefficient) at baseline was a predictor of heart attack during follow-up, controlling for individual-level and state-level covariates. In comparison to residents of US states in the lowest quartile of income inequality, those living in the second [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.16-2.53)], third (AOR = 1.81, 95 % CI 1.28-2.57), and fourth (AOR = 2.04, 95 % CI 1.26-3.29) quartiles were more likely to have a heart attack. Similar findings were obtained when we excluded those who had a heart attack prior to baseline. This study is one of the first to empirically show the longitudinal relationship between income inequality and coronary heart disease. Living in a state with higher income inequality increases the risk for heart attack among US adults.

  20. Heart Lesion After the First Attack of the Rheumatic Fever 22 Years Experience in Single Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejiqi, Ramush A.; Retkoceri, Ragip; Zeka, Naim; Bejiqi, Hana; Retkoceri, Arber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute rheumatic fever and its sequels, rheumatic heart diseases, remain major unsolved preventable health problems in Kosovo population, particularly among the disadvantages indigenous Albanian and Egyptians people. In Kosovo, despite of performing secondary prophylaxis with benzathine penicillin, acute rheumatic fever hospitalization rates have remained essentially unchanged for the last 20 years. The role of echocardiography in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic carditis was established over the last 20 years. Aims: In this study we aimed to determine the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in children from Kosovo population with first attack of acute rheumatic fever. Also, we presented that echocardiography examination detects a greater prevalence of rheumatic heart disease than other diagnostic procedures. We aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of cardiac auscultation, ECG record, lab analysis to echocardiography and to determine the feasibility of specific age in this setting. Methods: To optimize accurate diagnosis of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease, we utilized two group models. In the first group of 388 children, hospitalized and treated before 1999, diagnosis of rheumatic fever was decided basing on the clinical and laboratory findings whereas in second group (221 children treated from1999 to 2010) clinical and lab diagnosis were amplified also on the detection by echocardiography. Conclusion: In second group, using echocardiography as a method of diagnosis and assessment children with rheumatic fever, we found high rates of undetected rheumatic heart disease in this high-risk group population. Echocardiographic examination of children with rheumatic fever for rheumatic heart disease may over diagnose rheumatic heart disease unless congenital mitral valve anomalies and physiological regurgitation are excluded. PMID:25870479

  1. Pregnancy in a Previously Conjoined Thoracopagus Twin with a Crisscross Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam H. Rimawi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Crisscross heart (CCH is a complex, rare, congenital, rotational, cardiac abnormality that accounts for <0.1% of congenital heart defects (CHD. CCH is characterized by the crossing of the inflow streams of the two ventricles due to an abnormal twisting of the heart. A case of maternal CCH has not been previously reported. Case. We report a case of a primigravida with a CCH, who was separated at birth from her thoracopagus conjoined twin. Pregnancy was managed by congenital cardiology, maternal-fetal medicine, anesthesiology, and obstetrics. She underwent a 39-week vaginal delivery without maternal or neonatal complication. Conclusion. A successful term pregnancy outcome was achieved in a patient with CCH using a multidisciplinary approach to address her cardiac condition.

  2. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology: a cross-sectional comparison of rural and non-rural US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanoski Michael T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the signs and symptoms of heart attacks and strokes are important not only in saving lives, but also in preserving quality of life. Findings from recent research have yielded that the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors are higher in rural populations, suggesting that adults living in rural locales may be at higher risk for heart attack and/or stroke. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology as well as calling 911 for a suspected heart attack or stroke are essential first steps in seeking care. This study sought to examine the knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptoms among rural adults in comparison to non-rural adults living in the U.S. Methods Using multivariate techniques, a cross-sectional analysis of an amalgamated multi-year Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS database was performed. The dependent variable for this analysis was low heart attack and stroke knowledge score. The covariates for the analysis were: age, sex, race/ethnicity, annual household income, attained education, health insurance status, having a health care provider (HCP, timing of last routine medical check-up, medical care deferment because of cost, self-defined health status and geographic locale. Results The weighted n for this study overall was 103,262,115 U.S. adults > =18 years of age. Approximately 22.0% of these respondents were U.S. adults living in rural locales. Logistic regression analysis revealed that those U.S. adults who had low composite heart attack and stroke knowledge scores were more likely to be rural (OR = 1.218 95%CI 1.216-1.219 rather than non-rural residents. Furthermore, those with low scores were more likely to be: male (OR = 1.353 95%CI 1.352-1.354, >65 years of age (OR = 1.369 95%CI 1.368-1.371, African American (OR = 1.892 95%CI 1.889-1.894, not educated beyond high school (OR = 1.400 955CI 1.399-1.402, uninsured (OR = 1.308 95%CI 1

  3. Sodium Valproate, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Is Associated With Reduced Stroke Risk After Previous Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Rebecca L.; Crichton, Siobhan; Wolfe, Charles D.A.; Yi, Qilong; Li, Linxin; Hankey, Graeme J.; Rothwell, Peter M.

    2018-01-01

    Background and Purpose— A variant in the histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) gene is associated with large artery stroke. Therefore, inhibiting HDAC9 might offer a novel secondary preventative treatment for ischemic stroke. The antiepileptic drug sodium valproate (SVA) is a nonspecific inhibitor of HDAC9. We tested whether SVA therapy given after ischemic stroke was associated with reduced recurrent stroke rate. Methods— Data were pooled from 3 prospective studies recruiting patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack and long-term follow-up: the South London Stroke Register, The Vitamins to Prevent Stroke Study, and the Oxford Vascular Study. Patients receiving SVA were compared with patients who received antiepileptic drugs other than SVA using survival analysis and Cox Regression. Results— A total of 11 949 patients with confirmed ischemic event were included. Recurrent stroke rate was lower in patient taking SVA (17 of 168) than other antiepileptic drugs (105 of 530; log-rank survival analysis P=0.002). On Cox regression, controlling for potential cofounders, SVA remained associated with reduced stroke (hazard ratio=0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.3–0.7; P=0.002). A similar result was obtained when patients taking SVA were compared with all cases not taking SVA (Cox regression, hazard ratio=0.47; 95% confidence interval: 0.29–0.77; P=0.003). Conclusions— These results suggest that exposure to SVA, an inhibitor of HDAC, may be associated with a lower recurrent stroke risk although we cannot exclude residual confounding in this study design. This supports the hypothesis that HDAC9 is important in the ischemic stroke pathogenesis and that its inhibition, by SVA or a more specific HDAC9 inhibitor, is worthy of evaluation as a treatment to prevent recurrent ischemic stroke. PMID:29247141

  4. Comparing Asian American Women's Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Risk of Heart Attack to Other Racial and Ethnic Groups: The mPED Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Lisha, Nadra E; Vittinghoff, Eric

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare knowledge and awareness of heart attacks/heart disease and perceived risk for future heart attack in Asian/Pacific Islander women, compared to other racial and ethnic groups. In this cross-sectional study, 318 women enrolled in a mobile phone-based physical activity education trial were analyzed. Heart attack knowledge, self-efficacy for recognizing and responding to heart attack symptoms, and perceived risk for a future heart attack were measured. Analyses were conducted using logistic, proportional odds, and linear regression models, depending on the outcome and adjusting for age. Pairwise differences between Asian/Pacific Islanders and the other four groups were assessed using a Bonferroni correction (p Asian/Pacific Islander women had significantly lower total scores for knowledge of heart attack and self-efficacy for heart attack recognition and care seeking behavior compared to the Caucasian women (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). However, perceived risk did not differ among the groups. Forty-six percent of the Asian American women, compared to 25% of Caucasian women, falsely believed "breast cancer is the number one cause of death for women (p = 0.002)." In addition, Asian/Pacific Islander women were less likely to report "arm pain, numbness, tingling, or radiating" as one of the heart attack symptoms compared to the Caucasian and the multiracial group (34%, 63% [p Asian/Pacific Islander women and Caucasian women.

  5. Tracks FAQs: How Do Heart Attack Hospitalization Rates In My Community Compare With Other Counties Or States?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC Tracking experts discuss how to compare heart attack hospitalization rates in your community with other counties or states. Do you have a question for our Tracking experts? Please e-mail questions to trackingsupport@cdc.gov.

  6. Cancer and heart attack survivors’ expectations of employment status: results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia F. A. Duijts

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sociodemographic, health- and work-related factors have been found to influence return to work in cancer survivors. It is feasible though that behavioural factors, such as expectation of being at work, could also affect work-related outcomes. Therefore, the effect of earlier identified factors and expectation of being at work on future employment status in cancer survivors was explored. To assess the degree to which these factors specifically concern cancer survivors, a comparison with heart attack survivors was made. Methods Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used. Cancer and heart attack survivors of working age in the UK were included and followed up for 2 years. Baseline characteristics of both cancer and heart attack survivors were compared regarding employment status. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed in survivors at work, and the interaction between independent variables and diagnose group was assessed. Results In cancer survivors at work (N = 159, alcohol consumption, participating in moderate or vigorous sport activities, general health and participation were univariate associated with employment status at two-year follow-up. Only fair general health (compared to very good general health remained statistically significant in the multivariate model (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.13–0.76; p = 0.010. In heart attack survivors at work (N = 78, gender, general health and expectation of being at work were univariate associated with employment status at follow-up. Female gender (OR 0.03; 95% CI 0.00–0.57; p = 0.018 and high expectation of being at work (OR 10.68; 95% CI 1.23–93.92; p = 0.033 remained significant in the multivariate model. The influence of gender (p = 0.066 and general health (p = 0.020 regarding employment status was found to differ significantly between cancer and heart attack survivors. Conclusions When predicting future employment status in cancer

  7. Cancer and heart attack survivors' expectations of employment status: results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijts, Saskia F A; van der Beek, Allard J; Bleiker, Eveline M A; Smith, Lee; Wardle, Jane

    2017-08-07

    Sociodemographic, health- and work-related factors have been found to influence return to work in cancer survivors. It is feasible though that behavioural factors, such as expectation of being at work, could also affect work-related outcomes. Therefore, the effect of earlier identified factors and expectation of being at work on future employment status in cancer survivors was explored. To assess the degree to which these factors specifically concern cancer survivors, a comparison with heart attack survivors was made. Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used. Cancer and heart attack survivors of working age in the UK were included and followed up for 2 years. Baseline characteristics of both cancer and heart attack survivors were compared regarding employment status. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed in survivors at work, and the interaction between independent variables and diagnose group was assessed. In cancer survivors at work (N = 159), alcohol consumption, participating in moderate or vigorous sport activities, general health and participation were univariate associated with employment status at two-year follow-up. Only fair general health (compared to very good general health) remained statistically significant in the multivariate model (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.13-0.76; p = 0.010). In heart attack survivors at work (N = 78), gender, general health and expectation of being at work were univariate associated with employment status at follow-up. Female gender (OR 0.03; 95% CI 0.00-0.57; p = 0.018) and high expectation of being at work (OR 10.68; 95% CI 1.23-93.92; p = 0.033) remained significant in the multivariate model. The influence of gender (p = 0.066) and general health (p = 0.020) regarding employment status was found to differ significantly between cancer and heart attack survivors. When predicting future employment status in cancer survivors in the UK, general health is the most relevant factor

  8. Tracks FAQs: How Do Heart Attack Hospitalization Rates In My Community Compare With Other Counties Or States?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-01

    In this podcast, CDC Tracking experts discuss how to compare heart attack hospitalization rates in your community with other counties or states. Do you have a question for our Tracking experts? Please e-mail questions to trackingsupport@cdc.gov.  Created: 9/1/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Environmental Health Tracking Branch.   Date Released: 9/1/2011.

  9. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stroke symptoms. Popular Topics TIA Cardiac Catheter Cholesterol Heart Attack Stent © 2018, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. ...

  10. An avatar based education application to improve patients' knowledge of and response to heart attack symptoms: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongpeth, Jintana; Du, Huiyun; Clark, Robyn

    2018-06-19

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an interactive, avatar based education application to improve knowledge of and response to heart attack symptoms in people who are at risk of a heart attack. Poor knowledge of heart attack symptoms is recognised as a significant barrier to timely medical treatment. Numerous studies have demonstrated that technology can assist in patient education to improve knowledge and self-care. A single-center, non-blinded, two parallel groups, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Seventy patients will be recruited from the coronary care unit of a public hospital. Eligible participants will be randomised to either the usual care or the intervention group (usual care plus avatar-based heart attack education app). The primary outcome of this study is knowledge. Secondary outcomes include response to heart attack symptoms, health service use and satisfaction. Study participants will be followed-up for six months. This study will evaluate the avatar based education app as a method to deliver vital information to patients. Participants' knowledge of and response to heart attack symptoms, as well as their health service use, will be assessed to evaluate the intervention effectiveness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. A qualitative study of younger men's experience of heart attack (myocardial infarction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Christopher J; de Zoysa, Nicole; Hutton, Jane M

    2017-09-01

    The effects of heart attack, or myocardial infarction (MI), across psychosocial domains may be particularly acute in younger adults, for whom serious health events are non-normative. MI morbidity is declining in Western countries, but in England MI numbers have plateaued for the under-45 cohort, where approximately 90% of patients are male. Qualitative research on younger adults' experience of MI is limited, and no study has sampled exclusively under-45s. This study aimed to understand how a sample of men under 45 adjusted to and made sense of MI. Qualitative research design based on semi-structured in-depth interviews. Ten men aged under 45 who had experienced MI in the past 3-6 months were purposively recruited and interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Seven superordinate themes were identified. This article focuses in depth on the three most original themes: (1) 'I'm less of a man', which described experiences of losing 'maleness' (strength, independence, ability to provide) post-MI; (2) 'Shortened horizons', which covered participants' sense of foreshortened future and consequent reprioritization; and (3) 'Life loses its colour', describing the loss of pleasure from lifestyle-related changes. Themes broadly overlapped with the qualitative literature on younger adult MI. However, some themes (e.g., loss of 'maleness' post-MI, and ambivalence towards MI risk factors) appeared unique to this study. Themes were also discussed in relation to risk factors for anxiety and depression and how this might inform clinical care for a younger, male population. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Myocardial infarction (MI) morbidity is not declining in England for under-45s. Adjustment to MI is particularly challenging for younger adults, perhaps because it is non-normative. However, little is known about the experience of MI in younger adults. What does this study add? This

  12. Determination of Relations between Systolic Blood Pressure and Heart Attack in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Payam Shariatpanahi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Today, the high prevalence of diabetes and its complications are one of the most important public health issues worldwide. For this reason, finding relations between diabetes risk factors is very effective in preventing and reducing complications. For discovering these relations, the data mining methods can be used. By extracting association rules, which is one of the data mining techniques, we can discover the relations between a large numbers of variables in a disease. Materials and Methods: The population of this study was 1046 patients with type 2 diabetes, whose data had recorded between 2011 and 2014 at the Special Clinic for Diabetes in Tehran's Imam Khomeini Hospital. After pre-processing step with SPSS19 software, 573 people entered the analysis phase. The FP-Growth algorithm was applied to the data set to discover the relations between heart attack and other risk factors using Rapid miner5 software. Relations, after extraction, were given to the doctor to confirm clinical validation. Results: The obtained results of studying these 573 people (Including 292 (51% women and 281 (49% men, with age range 27 to 82 years showed that the lack of blood pressure, creatinine and diastolic blood pressure at its normal level, despite higher systolic blood pressure level than normal, doesn't increase the probability of heart attack. Conclusion: Using association rules is a good way of identifying relations between the risk factors of a disease. Also, it can provide new hypotheses to do epidemiological studies for researchers.

  13. Family history and body mass index predict perceived risks of diabetes and heart attack among community-dwelling Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans--DiLH Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Choi, JiWon; S Bender, Melinda; Gonzalez, Prisila; Arai, Shoshana

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the perceived risk for diabetes and heart attack and associated health status of Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans without diabetes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 904 urban adults (mean age 44.3±16.1 years; 64.3% female) in English, Spanish or Korean between August and December 2013. Perceived risk for developing diabetes was indicated by 46.5% (n=421), and 14.3% (n=129) perceived themselves to be at risk for having a heart attack in their lifetime. Significant predictors of pessimistic diabetes risk perceptions: Filipino (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.7; 95% CI: 1.04-2.86) and Korean (AOR=2.4; 1.33-4.48) ethnicity, family history of diabetes (AOR=1.4; 1.00-1.84), female gender (AOR=1.4; 1.04-1.96), high cholesterol (AOR= 1.6; 1.09-2.37) and higher body mass index (BMI) (AOR=1.1; 1.08-1.15). Predictors of pessimistic heart attack risk perceptions were family history of an early heart attack (AOR=2.9; 1.69-5.02), high blood pressure (AOR=2.4; 1.45-3.84), and higher BMI (AOR=1.1; 1.04-1.12) after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Older age, physical inactivity, smoking, and low HDL levels were not associated with risk perceptions. Multiple risk factors were predictive of greater perceived diabetes risk, whereas, only family history of heart attack, high blood pressure and increases in BMI significantly contributed to perceived risk of heart attack among ethnically diverse at risk middle-aged adults. It is important that healthcare providers address the discordance between an individual's risk perceptions and the presence of actual risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CPR in the Schools: Training Students to Save Heart Attack Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Royce J.

    1978-01-01

    A community cardiac emergency medical plan should include training of family and co-workers of high risk patients, including teenage students. The American Heart Association lists ways to introduce cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) into school curricula and describes the plan implemented in Pennsylvania. (MF)

  15. Total Dietary Fiber, and Selected Vegetable, Fruit, Legume and Cereal Fiber Intake and Risk of Heart Attack in Periodontitis Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wood

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have found an association between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001; Genco, Offenbacher et al. 2002, and have even implicated periodontal disease as a risk factor(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001, however have not proven causality(Hujoel, Drangholt et al. 2000. Although dietary amounts, sources, and types (soluble versus insoluble of fiber have been shown to reduce the risk of heart attack (Liu, Buring et al. 2002; Negri, Vecchia et al. 2003, this author is unaware of studies that have examined the association between food sources of dietary fiber and heart attack risk in subjects with periodontitis.This study was designed to determine whether total dietary fiber and fiber from different plant sources (vegetables, fruits, legumes, or cereals modified self-reported HA risk, as well as acute-phase inflammatory responses in subjects with periodontitis using NHANES III data.Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between total dietary fiber intake levels, and selected vegetables, fruits, legumes, and cereal fiber intake and the risk of self-reported history of heart attack (HA in periodontitis subjects using data available in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III.Materials and Methods: Adult participants in NHANES III were used in this study. Zero to thirty three (0-33 percent of sites with periodontal attachment loss > 3 mm was considered a healthy periodontium, while greater than thirty three percent (>33 of sites with periodontal attachment loss of > 3 mm as periodontitis. The outcome variable was the self-reported history of HA. Total dietary fiber, and monthly selected vegetable, fruit, legume and cereal consumption were divided into low and adequate levels. Data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA and multivariate analyses using SPSS ®. P<0.05 was used to

  16. Heart Lesion After the First Attack of the Rheumatic Fever 22 Years Experience in Single Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Bejiqi, Ramush A.; Retkoceri, Ragip; Zeka, Naim; Bejiqi, Hana; Retkoceri, Arber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute rheumatic fever and its sequels, rheumatic heart diseases, remain major unsolved preventable health problems in Kosovo population, particularly among the disadvantages indigenous Albanian and Egyptians people. In Kosovo, despite of performing secondary prophylaxis with benzathine penicillin, acute rheumatic fever hospitalization rates have remained essentially unchanged for the last 20 years. The role of echocardiography in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic carditis was estab...

  17. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  18. Relationship between blood lead, blood pressure, stroke, and heart attacks in middle-aged British men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, S.J.; Shaper, A.G.; Ashby, D.; Delves, H.T.; Clayton, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between blood lead concentration and blood pressure is examined in a survey of 7371 men aged 40 to 59 from 24 British towns. After allowance for relevant confounding variables, including town of residence and alcohol consumption, there exists a very weak but statistically significant positive association between blood lead and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. After 6 years of follow-up, 316 of these men had major ischemic heart disease, and 66 had a stroke. After allowance for the confounding effects of cigarette smoking and town of residence there is no evidence that blood lead is a risk factor for these cardiovascular events. However, as the blood lead-blood pressure association is so weak, it is unlikely that any consequent association between lead and cardiovascular disease could be demonstrated from prospective epidemiological studies. An overview of data from this and other large epidemiological surveys provides reasonable consistent evidence on lead and blood pressure. While NHANES II data on 2254 US men indicate a slightly stronger association between blood lead and systolic blood pressure, data from two Welsh studies on over 2000 men did not show a statistically significant association. Nevertheless, such statistical association cannot be taken as establishing a causal effect of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure

  19. Association between previously identified loci affecting telomere length and coronary heart disease (CHD in Han Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding H

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hui Ding,1 Fen Yan,1 Lin-Lin Zhou,2 Xiu-Hai Ji,3 Xin-Nan Gu,1 Zhi-Wei Tang,1 Ru-Hua Chen11Department of Pulmonary Medicine, The Affiliated Yixing People's Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, 2Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Cixi Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, 3Department of Oncology, Affiliated Taicang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of ChinaPurpose: To replicate previously confirmed telomere-length loci in a Chinese Han population with coronary heart disease (CHD, and investigate these loci and the possibility of and age at onset of CHD.Patients and methods: 1514 CHD patients and 2470 normal controls were recruited. Medical data including age, sex, body mass index, lipid profiles, history of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were collected from all the participants. Seven previously identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs related to leucocyte telomere length were genotyped, including rs10936599 in TERC, rs2736100 in TERT, rs7675998 in NAF1, rs9420907 in OBFC1, rs8105767 in ZNF208, rs755017 in RTEL1, and rs11125529 in ACYP2.Results: No significant difference in genotype frequencies from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test was noted for all tested SNPs both in the CHD patients and the normal controls. No polymorphism was observed for rs9420907, and AA genotype was noted in both the CHD patients and the controls. Neither the genotype nor the allele frequencies of rs2736100, rs8105767, rs11125529, and rs2967374 were significantly different between the CHD patients and the normal controls. For rs10936599 and rs755017, statistical difference was found for the allele frequency but not genotype. Distributions of genotype and allele were significantly different between the two groups for rs7675998. The odds ratio for carriers of CHD was 2.127 (95% confidence interval: 1.909–2.370 for the A allele of rs

  20. Childhood Misfortune, Personality, and Heart Attack: Does Personality Mediate Risk of Myocardial Infarction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Patricia M; Turiano, Nicholas A; Mroczek, Daniel K; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2016-03-12

    Previous research has revealed a link between childhood experiences and adult health, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are less clear. To elucidate this relationship, we investigated the pathway from childhood misfortune to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) via individual differences in personality. Longitudinal data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, which sampled 3,032 men and women aged 25-74 years at baseline. Big 5 personality traits and multiple measures of childhood misfortune were used to assess whether personality mediated the effect of childhood misfortune on MI risk. A series of proportional hazards models revealed that neuroticism mediated the effect of additive childhood misfortune on adult MI risk. Childhood misfortune may be formative in the development of personality, which, subsequently, can be consequential to health. These findings highlight the salient roles of early-life experiences and personality to shape health and aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Survival Prediction in Patients Undergoing Open-Heart Mitral Valve Operation After Previous Failed MitraClip Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidel, Stephan; Wohlmuth, Peter; Schmoeckel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the results of open heart mitral valve operations for survival prediction in patients with previously unsuccessful MitraClip procedures. Thirty-three consecutive patients who underwent mitral valve surgery in our institution were studied. At a median of 41 days, they had previously undergone one to five futile MitraClip implantations. At the time of their operations, patients were 72.6 ± 10.3 years old, and the calculated risk, using the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II, was a median of 26.5%. Individual outcomes were recorded, and all patients were monitored postoperatively. Thirty-day mortality was 9.1%, and the overall survival at 2.2 years was 60.6%. Seven cardiac-related and six noncardiac deaths occurred. Univariate survival regression models demonstrated a significant influence of the following variables on survival: EuroSCORE II (p = 0.0022), preoperative left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (p = 0.0052), left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.0249), coronary artery disease (p = 0.0385), and severe pulmonary hypertension (p = 0.0431). Survivors showed considerable improvements in their New York Heart Association class (p < 0.0001), left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.0080), grade of mitral regurgitation (p = 0.0350), and mitral valve area (p = 0.0486). Survival after mitral repair was not superior to survival after replacement. Indications for surgery after failed MitraClip procedures must be considered with the greatest of care. Variables predicting postoperative survival should be taken into account regarding the difficult decision as to whether to operate or not. Our data suggest that replacement of the pretreated mitral valve is probably the more reasonable concept rather than complex repairs. When the EuroSCORE II at the time of surgery exceeds 30%, conservative therapy is advisable. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc

  2. Coronary heart disease risk in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease: findings from the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Sillesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Noncoronary forms of atherosclerosis (including transient ischemic attacks or stroke of carotid origin or >50% stenosis of the carotid artery) are associated with a 10-year vascular risk of >20% and are considered as a coronary heart disease (CHD) -risk equivalent from the standpoint of lipid...... management. The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial included patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known CHD regardless of the presence of carotid atherosclerosis. We evaluated the risk of developing clinically recognized CHD in SPARCL patients....

  3. Spontaneous, late, in-the-bag intraocular lens subluxation in a patient with a previous acute angle-closure glaucoma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Wen; Chang, Shirley H L

    2004-08-01

    Cataract surgery was performed in a 49-year-old woman 16 months after an acute angle-closure glaucoma attack. Zonular dialysis was observed during surgery, but the intraocular lens (IOL) was implanted in the capsular bag uneventfully. At 4 1/2 months, 1 IOL loop wrapped in the bag herniated into the anterior chamber. The patient had no history of trauma. The IOL loop remained in the anterior chamber for 9 months, until the subluxated IOL spontaneously returned to its original position. Six months later, the IOL again dislocated into the anterior chamber.

  4. Depression After Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can Be Done to Reduce the Impact of Depression on My Mental and Physical Health? There is some good news here. Depression is ... Can Be Done to Reduce the Impact of Depression on My Mental and Physical Health? What Can I Do About the Depression I’ ...

  5. Left thoracotomy HeartWare implantation with outflow graft anastomosis to the descending aorta: a simplified bridge for patients with multiple previous sternotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Ramanan; Haglund, Nicholas A; Stulak, John M; Joyce, Lyle D; Ahmad, Rashid; Keebler, Mary E; Maltais, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Advances in mechanical circulatory support have been critical in bridging patients awaiting heart transplantation. In addition, improvement in device durability has enabled left ventricular assist device therapy to be applied as destination therapy in those not felt to be transplant candidate. Because of the increasing complexity of patients, there continues to be a need for alternative strategies for device implantation to bridge high-risk patients awaiting heart transplantation, wherein the risks of numerous previous sternotomies may be prohibitive. We present a unique technique for placement of the HeartWare ventricular assist device via left anterior thoracotomy to the descending aorta in a patient awaiting heart transplantation with a history of multiple previous sternotomies.

  6. Antiplatelet therapy and the effects of B vitamins in patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack: a post-hoc subanalysis of VITATOPS, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Graeme J; Eikelboom, John W; Yi, Qilong; Lees, Kennedy R; Chen, Christopher; Xavier, Denis; Navarro, Jose C; Ranawaka, Udaya K; Uddin, Wasim; Ricci, Stefano; Gommans, John; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that any benefits of folic acid-based therapy to lower serum homocysteine in prevention of cardiovascular events might be offset by concomitant use of antiplatelet therapy. We aimed to establish whether there is an interaction between antiplatelet therapy and the effects of folic acid-based homocysteine-lowering therapy on major vascular events in patients with stroke or transient ischaemic attack enrolled in the vitamins to prevent stroke (VITATOPS) trial. In the VITATOPS trial, 8164 patients with recent stroke or transient ischaemic attack were randomly allocated to double-blind treatment with one tablet daily of placebo or B vitamins (2 mg folic acid, 25 mg vitamin B(6), and 500 μg vitamin B(12)) and followed up for a median 3·4 years (IQR 2·0-5·5) for the primary composite outcome of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death from vascular causes. In our post-hoc analysis of the interaction between antiplatelet therapy and the effects of treatment with B vitamins on the primary outcome, we used Cox proportional hazards regression before and after adjusting for imbalances in baseline prognostic factors in participants who were and were not taking antiplatelet drugs at baseline and in participants assigned to receive B vitamins or placebo. We also assessed the interaction in different subgroups of patients and different secondary outcomes. The VITATOPS trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00097669, and Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN74743444. At baseline, 6609 patients were taking antiplatelet therapy and 1463 were not. Patients not receiving antiplatelet therapy were more likely to be younger, east Asian, and disabled, to have a haemorrhagic stroke or cardioembolic ischaemic stroke, and to have a history of hypertension or atrial fibrillation. They were less likely to be smokers and to have a history of peripheral artery disease, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, and a

  7. DAILY CHANGES OF CENTRAL HEMODYNAMICS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE WITH NIGHT-TIME DYSPNOEA ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Dovgolis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study daily changes of central hemodynamics (CHD in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and the effects of therapy. Materials and methods. 22 patients with ischemic heart disease and CHF of III-IV functional class (FC by NYHA, age 60,5±10,5 were observed. Patients were suffering from night-time dyspnoea attacks and had pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP 15-20 mm Hg. CHD was monitored invasively before the treatment and after 4 weeks of CHF treatment. Results. According to the cardiac index (CI at admission patients were split into two groups. 9 patients of group-I had CI ≤2,15 l\\min\\m2, and 13 patients of group-II had CI >2,15 l\\min\\m2. In patients of group-I CI increased in 4 weeks of treatment. The treatment caused considerable clinical improvement in all patients. The CHD indexes also improved. Initially evening-night-time peaks of PAOP (р≤0,002, systolic (SBP (р≤0,003, diastolic (DBP (р=0,002 and average (BPa (р=0,0007 blood pressure (BP as well as double multiplication (DM (р≤0,008 were registered in patients of group-I. At the end of treatment only evening-night increase in DBP (р=0,002 and BPa (р≤0,006 were noted. In patients of group-II after 4 weeks of treatment CI decreased or didn’t change. Towards 28-th day of treatment 10 patients had clinical improvements. Only one patient’s FC NYHA increased. At the end of treatment the normalization of CHD was registered totally in group. Initially evening-night-time peaks of PAOP (р≤0,002, SBP (р≤0, 0001, CI (р=0,057 and DM (р=0,084 were registered in patients of group-II. At the end of treatment evening-night-time peaks of PAOP (р≤0,015, SBP (р≤0,044, CI (р≤0,005 and DM (р≤0,044 still remained. Besides, evening-night-time peaks of cardiac output (р≤0,01 and systolic index (р≤0, 06 have added. Conclusion. In patients with CHF with initial CI ≤2,15 l\\min\\m2 treatment results in the normalization of CHD and its daily

  8. Not so close but still extremely loud: recollection of the World Trade Center terror attack and previous hurricanes moderates the association between exposure to hurricane Sandy and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Palgi, Sharon; Goodwin, Robin; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined whether recollections of the World Trade Center (WTC) terror attack and previous hurricanes moderated the relationship between exposure to Hurricane Sandy and related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. An online sample of 1000 participants from affected areas completed self-report questionnaires a month after Hurricane Sandy hit the East Coast of the United States. Participants reported their exposure to Hurricane Sandy, their PTSD symptoms, and recollections of the WTC terror attack and previous hurricanes elicited due to Hurricane Sandy. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy was related to PTSD symptoms among those with high level of recollections of the WTC terror attack and past hurricanes, but not among those with low level of recollections. The aftermath of exposure to Hurricane Sandy is related not only to exposure, but also to its interaction with recollections of past traumas. These findings have theoretical and practical implications for practitioners and health policy makers in evaluating and interpreting the impact of past memories on future natural disasters. This may help in intervention plans of social and psychological services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Home About Heart Disease Coronary Artery Disease Heart Attack Heart Attack Signs and Symptoms ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  10. Empowered to gain a new foothold in life—A study of the meaning of participating in cardiac rehabilitation to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte P. Simonÿ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate what it means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack to participate in cardiac rehabilitation (CR. CR is well-established internationally to support patients towards moving forward in satisfying, healthy, and well-functioning lives. Studies indicate that patients achieve improvement in quality of life when participating in CR. However, knowledge of how patients are supported during CR is sparse. Moreover, knowledge of what participating in CR means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack is lacking. In-depth knowledge in this area is crucial in order to understand these patients’ particular gains and needs. In a phenomenological-hermeneutic frame field observations, focus group interviews, and individual interviews were conducted among 11 patients during and after their participation in CR. Field notes and transcribed interviews underwent three-phased interpretation. It was found that patients were supported to gain renewed balance in their lives during CR. Three themes were identified: (1 receiving a helpful but limited caring hand, (2 being supported to find new values in life, and (3 developing responsibility for the remaining time. The patients were carefully guided through a difficult time and supported to continue in healthy everyday lives. They were given hope which enabled them to find themselves a new foothold in life with respect to their own sense of well-being. This guidance and a sense of hopefulness were provided by heart specialists and more seasoned heart patients. In conclusion, patients were empowered to achieve a healthier lifestyle and improve their personal well-being during CR. However, structural barriers in the programme prevented adequate support regarding the patients’ total needs. Knowledge of the benefits of CR emphasizes the significance of the programme and highlights the importance of high inclusion. Efforts should be made to develop more flexible and longer lasting

  11. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... major stroke. It's important to call 9-1-1 immediately for any stroke symptoms. Popular Topics TIA Cardiac Catheter Cholesterol Heart Attack Stent © 2018, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. The content in this ...

  12. The association of a heart attack or stroke with depressive symptoms stratified by the presence of a close social contact: findings from the National Health and Aging Trends Study Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simning, Adam; Seplaki, Christopher L; Conwell, Yeates

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine whether the risk of having clinically significant depressive symptoms following a heart attack or stroke varies by the presence of a close social contact. The National Health and Aging Trends Study is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older initiated in 2011. A total of 5643 older adults had information on social contacts at baseline and depressive symptoms at the 1-year follow-up interview. The two-item Patient Health Questionnaire identified clinically significant depressive symptoms. Interview questions examined social contacts and the presence of self-reported heart attack or stroke during the year of follow-up. A total of 297 older adults reported experiencing a heart attack and/or stroke between their baseline and follow-up interviews. In regression analyses accounting for sociodemographics, baseline depressive symptoms, medical comorbidity, and activities of daily living impairment, older adults with no close social contacts had increased odds of depressive symptoms at follow-up after experiencing a heart attack or stroke, while those with close social contacts had increased odds of depressive symptoms at follow-up after experiencing a stroke, but not a heart attack. Older adults have increased odds of having depressive symptoms following a self-reported stroke, but only those with no close social contacts had increased odds of depressive symptoms following a heart attack. Social networks may play a role in the mechanisms underlying depression among older adults experiencing certain acute health events. Future work exploring the potential causal relationships suggested here, if confirmed, could inform interventions to alleviate or prevent depression among at risk older adults. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Score Is Associated With Incident Heart Failure Hospitalization in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Without Previously Diagnosed Heart Failure: Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rakesh K; Yang, Wei; Roy, Jason; Anderson, Amanda H; Bansal, Nisha; Chen, Jing; DeFilippi, Christopher; Delafontaine, Patrice; Feldman, Harold I; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Kusek, John W; Lora, Claudia M; Rosas, Sylvia E; Go, Alan S; Shlipak, Michael G

    2015-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for heart failure (HF). Patients with chronic kidney disease without diagnosed HF have an increased burden of symptoms characteristic of HF. It is not known whether these symptoms are associated with occurrence of new onset HF. We studied the association of a modified Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire with newly identified cases of hospitalized HF among 3093 participants enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study who did not report HF at baseline. The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was categorized into quartiles (Q1-4) with the lower scores representing the worse symptoms. Multivariable-adjusted repeated measure logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, clinical risk factors for HF, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide level and left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Over a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 4.3±1.6 years, there were 211 new cases of HF hospitalizations. The risk of HF hospitalization increased with increasing symptom quartiles; 2.62, 1.85, 1.14, and 0.74 events per 100 person-years, respectively. The median number of annual Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire assessments per participant was 5 (interquartile range, 3-6). The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was independently associated with higher risk of incident HF hospitalization in multivariable-adjusted models (odds ratio, 3.30 [1.66-6.52]; P=0.001 for Q1 compared with Q4). Symptoms characteristic of HF are common in patients with chronic kidney disease and are associated with higher short-term risk for new hospitalization for HF, independent of level of kidney function, and other known HF risk factors. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Nonvitamin-K-antagonist oral anticoagulants versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, George; Papavasileiou, Vasileios; Diener, Hans-Chris; Makaritsis, Konstantinos; Michel, Patrik

    2017-08-01

    Background In a previous systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed the efficacy and safety of nonvitamin-K antagonist oral anticoagulants versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and stroke or transient ischemic attack. Since then, new information became available. Aim The aim of the present work was to update the results of the previous systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We searched PubMed until 24 August 2016 for randomized controlled trials using the following search items: "atrial fibrillation" and "anticoagulation" and "warfarin" and "previous stroke or transient ischemic attack." Eligible studies had to be phase III trials in patients with atrial fibrillation comparing warfarin with nonvitamin-K antagonist oral anticoagulants currently on the market or with the intention to be brought to the market in North America or Europe. The outcomes assessed in the efficacy analysis included stroke or systemic embolism, stroke, ischemic or unknown stroke, disabling or fatal stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, cardiovascular death, death from any cause, and myocardial infarction. The outcomes assessed in the safety analysis included major bleeding, intracranial bleeding, and major gastrointestinal bleeding. We performed fixed effects analyses on intention-to-treat basis. Results Among 183 potentially eligible articles, four were included in the meta-analysis. In 20,500 patients, compared to warfarin, nonvitamin-K antagonist oral anticoagulants were associated with a significant reduction of stroke/systemic embolism (relative risk reduction: 13.7%, absolute risk reduction: 0.78%, number needed to treat to prevent one event: 127), hemorrhagic stroke (relative risk reduction: 50.0%, absolute risk reduction: 0.63%, number needed to treat: 157), any stroke (relative risk reduction: 13.1%, absolute risk reduction: 0.7%, number needed to treat: 142), and intracranial hemorrhage (relative risk reduction: 46.1%, absolute risk reduction: 0.88%, number needed

  15. Multi-constituent cardiovascular pills (MCCP)--challenges and promises of population-based prophylactic drug therapy for prevention of heart attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Michael J; Naghavi, Morteza

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) are highly co-prevalent but poorly identified and treated. The Screening for Heart Attack Prevention and Education (SHAPE) Task Force from the Association for Eradication of Heart Attack (AEHA) has recently proposed a new strategy that recommends screening for subclinical atherosclerosis and implementing aggressive treatment of "vulnerable patients". The Task Force has also envisioned future developments that may shift mass screening strategies to mass prophylactic therapy. The "Polypill" concept, introduced by Wald and Law suggests a combination of statin, low-dose antihypertensives, aspirin and folic acid, in a single pill, taken prophylactically by high risk population can cut CVD event rates by as much as 80%. In this communication, we review the challenges and promises of such a strategy. "Polypill" is but one of an astronomical number of possible multiconstituent pills (MCCP). Attractive as the MCCP concept is, it lacks evidence from randomized controlled trials, and begs numerous questions about the credibility of the concept, the design and synthesis of such complex pills, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, bioequivalence, "class" vs. unique properties, interactions, evidence of clinical efficacy and safety, regulatory approval, post-marketing surveillance, prescription vs. over-the-counter use, responsibility for initiating and monitoring therapy, patient education, counterfeiting and importation, reimbursement, advertisement, patent protection, commercial viability, etc. If these issues are favorably addressed, MCCP stand to dramatically change the manner in which CVD is prevented particularly in developing societies. Notwithstanding, assuming low commercial interests, realizing the promises of MCCP will demand serious attention from national public health policymakers. The clinical and regulatory implications of population-based secondary prevention (which rely on a different evidence base

  16. Effect of B vitamins and lowering homocysteine on cognitive impairment in patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack: a prespecified secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Graeme J; Ford, Andrew H; Yi, Qilong; Eikelboom, John W; Lees, Kennedy R; Chen, Christopher; Xavier, Denis; Navarro, Jose C; Ranawaka, Udaya K; Uddin, Wasim; Ricci, Stefano; Gommans, John; Schmidt, Reinhold; Almeida, Osvaldo P; van Bockxmeer, Frank M

    2013-08-01

    High plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) has been associated with cognitive impairment but lowering tHcy with B-vitamins has produced equivocal results. We aimed to determine whether B-vitamin supplementation would reduce tHcy and the incidence of new cognitive impairment among individuals with stroke or transient ischemic attack≥6 months previously. A total of 8164 patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack were randomly allocated to double-blind treatment with one tablet daily of B-vitamins (folic acid, 2 mg; vitamin B6, 25 mg; vitamin B12, 500 μg) or placebo and followed up for 3.4 years (median) in the VITAmins TO Prevent Stroke (VITATOPS) trial. For this prespecified secondary analysis of VITATOPS, the primary outcome was a new diagnosis of cognitive impairment, defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score6 months after the qualifying stroke; 2608 participants were cognitively unimpaired (MMSE≥24), of whom 2214 participants (1110 B-vitamins versus 1104 placebo) had follow-up MMSEs during 2.8 years (median). At final follow-up, allocation to B-vitamins, compared with placebo, was associated with a reduction in mean tHcy (10.2 μmol/L versus 14.2 μmol/L; Pvitamin B6, and vitamin B12 to a self-selected clinical trial cohort of cognitively unimpaired patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack lowered mean tHcy but had no effect on the incidence of cognitive impairment or cognitive decline, as measured by the MMSE, during a median of 2.8 years. URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN74743444; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00097669.

  17. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  18. Complete Heart Block with Diastolic Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Enlarging Previously Diagnosed Thrombosed Aneurysm of Sinus of Valsalva in a Patient with History of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Ali Eltawansy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is associated with vascular aneurysms that can affect any part of the vascular tree, like ascending aorta or coronary arteries. Sinus of Valsalva is known as an anatomical dilation at the root of aorta above the aortic valve and very few cases show aneurysm at that site in patients with ADPKD. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA can present with rupture and acute heart failure and infective endocarditis or could be asymptomatic accidentally discovered during cardiac catheterization. We report a case of a 76-year-old male with a unique constellation of cardiovascular anomalies associated with ADPKD. Patient was previously diagnosed with aneurysms affecting ascending aorta, sinus of Valsalva, and coronary arteries. Several years later, he came with complete heart block which was discovered later to be secondary to enlargement of his previously diagnosed thrombosed SVA. His case was complicated with acute heart failure and pulmonary edema. Conclusion. Patients with ADPKD can present with extrarenal manifestations. In our case, aneurysm at sinus of Valsalva was progressively enlarging and presented with complete heart block.

  19. Automated Discovery of Mimicry Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giffin, Jonathon T; Jha, Somesh; Miller, Barton P

    2006-01-01

    .... These systems are useful only if they detect actual attacks. Previous research developed manually-constructed mimicry and evasion attacks that avoided detection by hiding a malicious series of system calls within a valid sequence allowed by the model...

  20. Heart Health - Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Most heart attacks happen when a clot in the coronary ...

  1. Heart rate, salivary α-amylase activity, and cooperative behavior in previously naïve children receiving dental local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhakis, Aristidis; Menexes, George; Coolidge, Trilby; Kalfas, Sotirios

    2012-01-01

    Psychosomatic indicators, such as heart rate (HR), salivary alpha amylase (sAA) activity, and behavior, can be used to determine stress. This study's aim was to assess the pattern of changes of salivary alpha amylase, heart rate, and cooperative behavior in previously naïve children receiving dental treatment under local anesthesia. Included were 30 children with no prior dental experience who needed 4 or more sessions of dental treatment involving local anesthesia. In each session, sAA, HR, and behavior were assessed before and during the application of local anesthesia and at the end of the treatment. The highest sAA value was always observed at the end of each session; overall, the value was lower in the fourth session. HR always increased during the local anesthesia, and did not vary across sessions. No significant relationship was found between child cooperation and either sAA or HR. In this sample, child cooperation may not be an accurate indicator of stress. Based on salivary alpha amylase activity changes, dental treatment involving local anesthesia in naïve children appeared to be less stressful after 3 sessions.

  2. Can we monitor heart attack in the troponin era: evidence from a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankin Jamie M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Troponins (highly sensitive biomarkers of myocardial damage increase counts of myocardial infarction (MI in clinical practice, but their impact on trends in admission rates for MI in National statistics is uncertain. Methods Cases coded as MI or other cardiac diagnoses in the Hospital Morbidity Data Collection (MI-HMDC in Western Australia in 1998 and 2003 were classified using revised criteria for MI developed by an International panel convened by the American Heart Association (AHA criteria using information on symptoms, ECGs and cardiac biomarkers abstracted from samples of medical notes. Age-sex standardized rates of MI-HMDC were compared with rates of MI based on AHA criteria including troponins (MI-AHA or traditional biomarkers only (MI-AHAck. Results Between 1998 and 2003, rates of MI-HMDC decreased by 3.5% whereas rates of MI-AHA increased by 17%, a difference largely due to increased false-negative cases in the HMDC associated with marked increased use of troponin tests in cardiac admissions generally, and progressively lower test thresholds. In contrast, rates of MI-AHAck declined by 18%. Conclusions Increasing misclassification of MI-AHA by the HMDC may be due to reluctance by clinicians to diagnose MI based on relatively small increases in troponin levels. These influences are likely to continue. Monitoring MI using AHA criteria will require calibration of commercially available troponin tests and agreement on lower diagnostic thresholds for epidemiological studies. Declining rates of MI-AHAck are consistent with long-standing trends in MI in Western Australia, suggesting that neither MI-HMDC nor MI-AHA reflect the true underlying population trends in MI.

  3. Level of consciousness on admission to a Heart Attack Centre is a predictor of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D; Fothergill, Rachael; Moore, Fionna; Watson, Lynne; Whitbread, Mark

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between the neurological status at the time of handover from the ambulance crew to a Heart Attack Centre (HAC) in patients who have achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and subsequent outcome, in the context of current treatment standards, is unknown. A retrospective review of all patients treated by London Ambulance Service (LAS) from 1(st) April 2011 to 31(st) March 2013 admitted to a HAC in Greater London was undertaken. Neurological status (A - alert; V - responding to voice; P - responding to pain; U - unresponsive) recorded by the ambulance crew on handover was compared with length of hospital stay and survival to hospital discharge. A total of 475 sequential adult cardiac arrests of presumed cardiac origin, achieving ROSC on admission to a HAC were identified. Outcome data was available for 452 patients, of whom 253 (56.0%) survived to discharge. Level of consciousness on admission to the HAC was a predictor of duration of hospital stay (Pa shockable rhythm, 32.3% (120/371) were 'A' or 'V', compared with 9.1% (9/99) of those with non-shockable rhythms (PA or V) compared with those with non-shockable rhythms. Most patients who are conscious on admission to the HAC will survive, compared with approximately half of those who are unconscious (P or U), suggesting that critical care is generally appropriate at all levels of consciousness if ROSC has been achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of a Community-Based Physical Activity Program KM2H2 for Stroke and Heart Attack Prevention among Senior Hypertensive Patients: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Phase-II Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gong

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of the program Keep Moving toward Healthy Heart and Healthy Brain (KM2H2 in encouraging physical activities for the prevention of heart attack and stroke among hypertensive patients enrolled in the Community-Based Hypertension Control Program (CBHCP.Cluster randomized controlled trial with three waves of longitudinal assessments at baseline, 3 and 6 months post intervention.Community-based and patient-centered self-care for behavioral intervention in urban settings of China.A total of 450 participants diagnosed with hypertension from 12 community health centers in Wuhan, China were recruited, and were randomly assigned by center to receive either KM2H2 plus standard CBHCP care (6 centers and 232 patients or the standard care only (6 centers and 218 patients.KM2H2 is a behavioral intervention guided by the Transtheoretical Model, the Model of Personalized Medicine and Social Capital Theory. It consists of six intervention sessions and two booster sessions engineered in a progressive manner. The purpose is to motivate and maintain physical activities for the prevention of heart attack and stroke.Heart attack and stroke (clinically diagnosed, primary outcome, blood pressure (measured, secondary outcome, and physical activity (self-report, tertiary outcome were assessed at the individual level during the baseline, 3- and 6-month post-intervention.Relative to the standard care, receiving KM2H2 was associated with significant reductions in the incidence of heart attack (3.60% vs. 7.03%, p < .05 and stroke (5.11% vs. 9.90%, p<0.05, and moderate reduction in blood pressure (-3.72 mmHg in DBP and -2.92 mmHg in DBP at 6-month post-intervention; and significant increases in physical activity at 3- (d = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.85 and 6-month (d = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.85 post-intervention, respectively.The program KM2H2 is efficacious to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke among senior patients who are on anti

  5. Heart-Health Screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools For Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Subscribe to Heart Insight magazine and monthly ... in Spanish . Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  6. Heart disease and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000790.htm Heart disease and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... a heart attack or heart surgery Signs of Depression It is pretty common to feel down or ...

  7. Baseline Quality of Life and Risk of Stroke in the ALLHAT Study (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tanzila; Auchus, Alexander P; Oparil, Suzanne; Wright, Clinton B; Wright, Jackson; Furlan, Anthony J; Sila, Cathy A; Davis, Barry R; Pressel, Sara; Yamal, Jose-Miguel; Einhorn, Paula T; Lerner, Alan J

    2017-11-01

    The visual analogue scale is a self-reported, validated tool to measure quality of life (QoL). Our purpose was to determine whether baseline QoL predicted strokes in the ALLHAT study (Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) and evaluate determinants of poststroke change in QoL. In the ALLHAT study, among the 33 357 patients randomized to treatment arms, 1525 experienced strokes; 1202 (79%) strokes were nonfatal. This study cohort includes 32 318 (97%) subjects who completed the baseline visual analogue scale QoL estimate. QoL was measured on a visual analogue scale and adjusted using a Torrance transformation (transformed QoL [TQoL]). Kaplan-Meier curves and adjusted proportional hazards analyses were used to estimate the effect of TQoL on the risk of stroke, on a continuous scale (0-1) and by quartiles (≤0.81, >0.81≤0.89, >0.89≤0.95, >0.95). We analyzed the change from baseline to first poststroke TQoL using adjusted linear regression. After adjusting for multiple stroke risk factors, the hazard ratio for stroke events for baseline TQoL was 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.98) per 0.1 U increase. The lowest baseline TQoL quartile had a 20% increased stroke risk (hazard ratio=1.20 [95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.44]) compared with the reference highest quartile TQoL. Poststroke TQoL change was significant within all treatment groups ( P ≤0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that baseline TQoL was the strongest predictor of poststroke TQoL with similar results for the untransformed QoL. The lowest baseline TQoL quartile had a 20% higher stroke risk than the highest quartile. Baseline TQoL was the only factor that predicted poststroke change in TQoL. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000542. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevent Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke About 1.5 million heart attacks and ... can’t change some of your risks for heart disease and stroke, but you can manage many of ...

  9. Attack surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion...... of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants....

  10. Adults with Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ebstein's Anomaly l-Transposition of the Great Arteries Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Pulmonary Valve Stenosis and Regurgitation ... Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms in Women 4 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 5 ...

  11. Food and Drug Administration criteria for the diagnosis of drug-induced valvular heart disease in patients previously exposed to benfluorex: a prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchaux, Sylvestre; Rusinaru, Dan; Jobic, Yannick; Ederhy, Stéphane; Donal, Erwan; Réant, Patricia; Arnalsteen, Elise; Boulanger, Jacques; Garban, Thierry; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Jeu, Antoine; Szymanski, Catherine; Tribouilloy, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria for diagnosis of drug-induced valvular heart disease (DIVHD) are only based on the observation of aortic regurgitation ≥ mild and/or mitral regurgitation ≥ moderate. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic value of FDA criteria in a cohort of control patients and in a cohort of patients exposed to a drug (benfluorex) known to induce VHD. This prospective, multicentre study included 376 diabetic control patients not exposed to valvulopathic drugs and 1000 subjects previously exposed to benfluorex. Diagnosis of mitral or aortic DIVHD was based on a combined functional and morphological echocardiographic analysis of cardiac valves. Patients were classified according to the FDA criteria [mitral or aortic-FDA(+) and mitral or aortic-FDA(-)]. Among the 376 control patients, 2 were wrongly classified as mitral-FDA(+) and 17 as aortic-FDA(+) (0.53 and 4.5% of false positives, respectively). Of those exposed to benfluorex, 48 of 58 with a diagnosis of mitral DIVHD (83%) were classified as mitral-FDA(-), and 901 of the 910 patients (99%) without a diagnosis of the mitral DIVHD group were classified as mitral-FDA(-). All 40 patients with a diagnosis of aortic DIVHD were classified as aortic-FDA(+), and 105 of the 910 patients without a diagnosis of aortic DIVHD (12%) were classified aortic-FDA(+). Older age and lower BMI were independent predictors of disagreement between FDA criteria and the diagnosis of DIVHD in patients exposed to benfluorex (both P ≤ 0.001). FDA criteria solely based on the Doppler detection of cardiac valve regurgitation underestimate for the mitral valve and overestimate for the aortic valve the frequency of DIVHD. Therefore, the diagnosis of DIVHD must be based on a combined echocardiographic and Doppler morphological and functional analysis of cardiac valves. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Previously known and newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation: a major risk indicator after a myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, Lars; Swedberg, Karl; McMurray, John J V

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To characterize the relationship between known and newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF) and the risk of death and major cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated by heart failure (HF) and/or left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). MET...

  13. Options for Heart Valve Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide: Understanding Your Heart Valve Problem | Spanish Symptom Tracker | Spanish Pre-surgery Checklist | Spanish What Is Heart ... Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different? 7 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 8 Low Blood Pressure - ...

  14. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  15. Treatment-resistant hypertension and the incidence of cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease: results from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Davis, Barry R; Cushman, William C; Bangalore, Sripal; Calhoun, David A; Pressel, Sara L; Black, Henry R; Kostis, John B; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Whelton, Paul K; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-11-01

    Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) is defined as uncontrolled hypertension despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive medication classes or controlled hypertension while treated with ≥4 antihypertensive medication classes. Although a high prevalence of aTRH has been reported, few data are available on its association with cardiovascular and renal outcomes. We analyzed data on 14 684 Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) participants to determine the association between aTRH (n=1870) with coronary heart disease, stroke, all-cause mortality, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, and end-stage renal disease. We defined aTRH as blood pressure not at goal (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) while taking ≥3 classes of antihypertensive medication or taking ≥4 classes of antihypertensive medication with blood pressure at goal during the year 2 ALLHAT study visit (1996-2000). Use of a diuretic was not required to meet the definition of aTRH. Follow-up occurred through 2002. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing participants with versus without aTRH were as follows: coronary heart disease (1.44 [1.18-1.76]), stroke (1.57 [1.18-2.08]), all-cause mortality (1.30 [1.11-1.52]), heart failure (1.88 [1.52-2.34]), peripheral artery disease (1.23 [0.85-1.79]), and end-stage renal disease (1.95 [1.11-3.41]). aTRH was also associated with the pooled outcomes of combined coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.71) and combined cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.64). These results demonstrate that aTRH increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease. Studies are needed to identify approaches to prevent aTRH and reduce risk for adverse outcomes among individuals with aTRH. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. It is not just a Minor Thing - A Phenomenological-Hermeneutic Study of Patients' Experiences when afflicted by a Minor Heart Attack and Participating in Cardiac Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonÿ, Charlotte P; Dreyer, Pia; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2017-01-01

    , leading to vulnerability and helplessness; Understanding that life has become frail: patients feel shaken as they realise that the disease is chronic and life-threatening; and An altered life: patients must adjust to new limitations in their everyday lives. Conclusions: Patients experience an overall...... demanding transition when they are afflicted by a minor heat attack, whereby their lives are sweepingly changed. Supporting patients’ integrity, which becomes vulnerable during the various stages of transitions, is essential to ensure a healthy outcome. Being together with fellow patients during cardiac...

  17. Infarto agudo del miocardio sin elevación del segmento T: Consideraciones fisiopatológicas y clínicas Heart attack without an elevation of the T segment: Clinical and pathophysiological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Rodulfo García

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron numerosos documentos (impresos y electrónicos sobre afecciones cardiovasculares, particularmente acerca del infarto agudo del miocardio sin elevación del segmento T, teniendo en cuenta que la mortalidad hospitalaria es menor cuando se produce un síndrome coronario con esa característica. Para actualizar el tema se valoraron diversos aspectos relacionados con concepto, clasificación, fisiopatología, diagnóstico, cuadro clínico, exámenes complementarios y factores de riesgo, puesto que las enfermedades del corazón son actualmente la principal causa de muerte en naciones industrializadas y se espera que también lo sean en los países en vías de desarrollo para el 2020, entre ellos Cuba.Several documents (printed and electronic about cardiovascular diseases were reviewed, particularly heart attack without an elevation of the T-segment, taking into account that the hospital mortality is lower when a coronary syndrome with that characteristic occurs. To update the topic several aspects related to concept, classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis, clinical pattern, laboratory tests and risk factors were valued since heart diseases are actually the main cause of death in industrialized nations and it is expected that they will also be the same cause of death in developing countries for 2020, among them, Cuba.

  18. Heart Age PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.

  19. [Risk of fatal/non-fatal events in patients with previous coronary heart disease/acute myocardial infarction and treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Olmo, L; Juan Armas, J; Gomariz García, J J

    2017-09-04

    Primary Care is the fundamental axis of our health system and obliges us to be consistent with our prescriptions. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk and increased risk of all causes of death, as well as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with a previous myocardial infarction. Pain and cardiac patient management are 2 basic pillars in our daily activity, and we must know the limitations of NSAIDs in patients with established cardiovascular risk. We present a review of the scientific literature with primary interest in the role of NSAIDs and cardiovascular risk. The objective is to determine the relationship between the consumption of different NSAIDs and the fatal and non-fatal events among patients with known coronary disease. This is a review of the scientific literature with primary interest in the role of NSAIDs and cardiovascular risk. The literature review was conducted in PubMed search engines like Tripdatabase and with certain keywords. Of the 15 original papers found, 9 did not correspond completely to the central focus, so the approach was decided from 6 original articles from the past 5 years, which address the central focus of increased cardiovascular risk found (fatal and non-fatal events) in patients with prior cardiovascular disease or AMI being prescribed NSAIDs for any reason. The risk of fatal/non-fatal events in each of the studies is expressed by the odds ratio (OR)/hazard ratio (HR), defined as the probability of an event occurring. A moderate risk was observed for ibuprofen. It increases the risk of acute coronary syndrome after 5 years of cardiovascular event, especially in the 2nd year (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.42-1.87). It also increases the risk of stroke (HR 1.23; 95% IC 1.10-1.38). Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors were the third risk group, after nabumetone and diclofenac. Celecoxib increases risk from the 14th day of treatment (HR 2.3; 95% CI 1.79-3.02), having an OR

  20. Warning Signs of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the two terms are used interchangeably. View an animation of heart failure . If you have been diagnosed ... resources here Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  1. Problem: Heart Valve Regurgitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should be completely closed For example: Watch an animation of mitral valve regurgitation A leaking mitral valve ... Not Alone Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  2. Terrorists and Suicide Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Audrey K

    2003-01-01

    Suicide attacks by terrorist organizations have become more prevalent globally, and assessing the threat of suicide attacks against the United States and its interests at home and abroad has therefore...

  3. Solidarity under Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meret, Susi; Goffredo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    https://www.opendemocracy.net/can-europe-make-it/susi-meret-sergio-goffredo/solidarity-under-attack......https://www.opendemocracy.net/can-europe-make-it/susi-meret-sergio-goffredo/solidarity-under-attack...

  4. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol consumption contributes to obesity, alcoholism, suicide and accidents. However, there is a cardioprotective effect of moderate ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Work with your doctor to lower your HBP and ...

  5. Can Vitamins Help Prevent a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 26, 2016. Loffredo L, et al. Supplementation with vitamin E alone is associated with reduced myocardial infarction: ... Cardiovascular Diseases. 2015;25:354. Pilz S, et al. Vitamin D and cardiovascular ... L, et al. Prospective association between the dietary inflammatory ...

  6. Being active after your heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Canadian Cardiovascular Society endorsed by the American Academy of Family Physicians: 2007 Writing Group to Review New Evidence and Update the ACC/AHA 2004 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction, Writing ...

  7. Composite Dos Attack Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ramanauskaitė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Preparation for potential threats is one of the most important phases ensuring system security. It allows evaluating possible losses, changes in the attack process, the effectiveness of used countermeasures, optimal system settings, etc. In cyber-attack cases, executing real experiments can be difficult for many reasons. However, mathematical or programming models can be used instead of conducting experiments in a real environment. This work proposes a composite denial of service attack model that combines bandwidth exhaustion, filtering and memory depletion models for a more real representation of similar cyber-attacks. On the basis of the introduced model, different experiments were done. They showed the main dependencies of the influence of attacker and victim’s properties on the success probability of denial of service attack. In the future, this model can be used for the denial of service attack or countermeasure optimization.

  8. Investigations into the myocardial metabolism of 123-I-ω-HDA in patients showing the clinical signs and symptoms of mitral valve prolapse and previously proven to have no coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voth, E.

    1987-01-01

    In 53 patients showing the clinical signs and symptoms of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) where coronary heart disease (CHD) had previously been excluded by angiography the myocardial metabolism of fatty acids was examined at rest using metabolic myocardial scintigraphy (MMS) and 123-I-ω-HDA as tracer substance. The results were correlated with those obtained by other methods of investigation (findings at rest and during exercise from ECG recordings, tests using a flow-guided catheter and radionuclide ventriculography, further from echocardiography as well as myocardial Tl redistribution scintiscanning during exercise). For purposes of reference, MMS was additionally carried out in twelve normal individuals subjected to coronary angiography to exclude both MVP and CHD. The results of this study would appear to suggest that the pathological findings revealed by myocardial Tl scintigraphy in patients showing symptoms of MVP cannot invariably be classified as 'false' but are at least to some extent attributable to impaired myocardial perfusion, vitality or metabolism. (orig./MG) [de

  9. New attacks on Wi-Fi Protected Setup

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Mohtadi; Alireza Rahimi

    2015-01-01

    Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) is a network security standard that is used to secure networks in home and office, introduced in 2006 by the Wi-Fi Alliance. It provides easier configuration setup and is used in almost all recent Wi-Fi devices. In this paper we propose two attacks on this standard. The first attack is an offline brute force attack that uses imbalance on registration protocol. This attack needs user action, but it is more efficient than previous attacks. The second attack uses weak...

  10. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  11. Outcomes With Edoxaban Versus Warfarin in Patients With Previous Cerebrovascular Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rost, Natalia S; Giugliano, Robert P; Ruff, Christian T

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with atrial fibrillation and previous ischemic stroke (IS)/transient ischemic attack (TIA) are at high risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events despite anticoagulation. In this prespecified subgroup analysis, we compared warfarin with edoxaban in patients with ver......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with atrial fibrillation and previous ischemic stroke (IS)/transient ischemic attack (TIA) are at high risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events despite anticoagulation. In this prespecified subgroup analysis, we compared warfarin with edoxaban in patients...... with versus without previous IS/TIA. METHODS: ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 (Effective Anticoagulation With Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 48) was a double-blind trial of 21 105 patients with atrial fibrillation randomized to warfarin (international normalized ratio......). Because only HDER is approved, we focused on the comparison of HDER versus warfarin. RESULTS: Of 5973 (28.3%) patients with previous IS/TIA, 67% had CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age, diabetes, prior stroke/transient ischemic attack) >3 and 36% were ≥75 years. Compared with 15 132...

  12. Heart Age PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-01

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  13. Heart Failure in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lungs where oxygen is added. Watch an animation of blood flow in the heart All the ... resources here Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  14. Web server attack analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Mižišin, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Web server attack analyzer - Abstract The goal of this work was to create prototype of analyzer of injection flaws attacks on web server. Proposed solution combines capabilities of web application firewall and web server log analyzer. Analysis is based on configurable signatures defined by regular expressions. This paper begins with summary of web attacks, followed by detection techniques analysis on web servers, description and justification of selected implementation. In the end are charact...

  15. Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Rob; Borkin, Mike; Alpern, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Microsoft products? Then you need Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Microsoft applications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Windows Operating System-Password AttacksActive Directory-Escalat

  16. Seven deadliest USB attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting USB technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest USB Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to USB, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: USB Hacksaw USB Switchblade USB Based Virus/Malicous Code Launch USB Device Overflow RAMdum

  17. Plants under dual attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though immobile, plants are members of complex environments, and are under constant threat from a wide range of attackers, which includes organisms such as insect herbivores or plant pathogens. Plants have developed sophisticated defenses against these attackers, and include chemical responses

  18. Blind Data Attack on BGP Routers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Second Reader Dr. Cynthia Irvine Chair, Cyber Academic Group iii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iv ABSTRACT Transport Communication Protocol (TCP...Postgraduate School. The experience of higher learning at this institution was incredible, and I would whole-heartedly recommend it to any of my peers and...data attack packets to the victim device. Scapy is a Python library that is used to craft and send packets [28]. BGP is supported in Python through

  19. INDEXES OF OBESITY AND COMPARISONS WITH PREVIOUS NATIONAL SURVEY DATA IN 9-YEAR-OLD AND 10-YEAR-OLD BLACK-AND-WHITE GIRLS - THE NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GROWTH AND HEALTH STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CAMPAIGNE, BN; MORRISON, JA; SCHUMANN, BC; FALKNER, F; LAKATOS, E; SPRECHER, D; SCHREIBER, GB

    Objective: To (I) describe anthropometric and body-size measurements in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) population at baseline and (2) examine potential secular trends in the prevalence of obesity in young black and white girls by comparing NGHS baseline

  20. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Lanir N; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the "majority-flipping attacker," does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker's outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  1. A Unique Fatal Moose Attack Mimicking Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmannsson, Petur; Berge, Johan; Druid, Henrik; Ericsson, Göran; Eriksson, Anders

    2018-03-01

    Fatalities caused by animal attacks are rare, but have the potential to mimic homicide. We present a case in which a moose attacked and killed a woman who was walking her dog in a forest. Autopsy showed widespread blunt trauma with a large laceration on one leg in which blades of grass were embedded. Flail chest was the cause of death. The case was initially conceived as homicide by means of a riding lawn mower. A review of the case by moose experts and analyses of biological trace material that proved to originate from moose, established the true source of injury. The dog probably provoked a moose, which, in response, stomped and gored the victim to death. The injuries resembled those previously reported from attacks by cattle and water buffalo. Fatal moose attacks constitute an extremely rare threat in boreal areas, but can be considered in traumatic deaths of unknown cause. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Compiling symbolic attacks to protocol implementation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rusinowitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently efficient model-checking tools have been developed to find flaws in security protocols specifications. These flaws can be interpreted as potential attacks scenarios but the feasability of these scenarios need to be confirmed at the implementation level. However, bridging the gap between an abstract attack scenario derived from a specification and a penetration test on real implementations of a protocol is still an open issue. This work investigates an architecture for automatically generating abstract attacks and converting them to concrete tests on protocol implementations. In particular we aim to improve previously proposed blackbox testing methods in order to discover automatically new attacks and vulnerabilities. As a proof of concept we have experimented our proposed architecture to detect a renegotiation vulnerability on some implementations of SSL/TLS, a protocol widely used for securing electronic transactions.

  3. Adaptive optimisation-offline cyber attack on remote state estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Dong, Jiuxiang

    2017-10-01

    Security issues of cyber-physical systems have received increasing attentions in recent years. In this paper, deception attacks on the remote state estimator equipped with the chi-squared failure detector are considered, and it is assumed that the attacker can monitor and modify all the sensor data. A novel adaptive optimisation-offline cyber attack strategy is proposed, where using the current and previous sensor data, the attack can yield the largest estimation error covariance while ensuring to be undetected by the chi-squared monitor. From the attacker's perspective, the attack is better than the existing linear deception attacks to degrade the system performance. Finally, some numerical examples are provided to demonstrate theoretical results.

  4. Cyber Attacks, Information Attacks, and Postmodern Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valuch Jozef

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate and differentiate between the phenomena of cyberwarfare and information warfare, as manifestations of what we perceive as postmodern warfare. We describe and analyse the current examples of the use the postmodern warfare and the reactions of states and international bodies to these phenomena. The subject matter of this paper is the relationship between new types of postmodern conflicts and the law of armed conflicts (law of war. Based on ICJ case law, it is clear that under current legal rules of international law of war, cyber attacks as well as information attacks (often performed in the cyberspace as well can only be perceived as “war” if executed in addition to classical kinetic warfare, which is often not the case. In most cases perceived “only” as a non-linear warfare (postmodern conflict, this practice nevertheless must be condemned as conduct contrary to the principles of international law and (possibly a crime under national laws, unless this type of conduct will be recognized by the international community as a “war” proper, in its new, postmodern sense.

  5. Seven Deadliest Wireless Technologies Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Brad

    2010-01-01

    How can an information security professional keep up with all of the hacks, attacks, and exploits? One way to find out what the worst of the worst are is to read the seven books in our Seven Deadliest Attacks Series. Not only do we let you in on the anatomy of these attacks but we also tell you how to get rid of them and how to defend against them in the future. Countermeasures are detailed so that you can fight against similar attacks as they evolve. Attacks featured in this book include:Bluetooth AttacksCredit Card, Access Card, and Passport AttacksBad Encryption

  6. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  7. A fatal elephant attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejna, Petr; Zátopková, Lenka; Safr, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of an elephant attack is presented. A 44-year-old man working as an elephant keeper was attacked by a cow elephant when he tripped over a foot chain while the animal was being medically treated. The man fell down and was consequently repeatedly attacked with elephant tusks. The man sustained multiple stab injuries to both groin regions, a penetrating injury to the abdominal wall with traumatic prolapse of the loops of the small bowel, multiple defects of the mesentery, and incomplete laceration of the abdominal aorta with massive bleeding into the abdominal cavity. In addition to the penetrating injuries, the man sustained multiple rib fractures with contusion of both lungs and laceration of the right lobe of the liver, and comminuted fractures of the pelvic arch and left femoral body. The man died shortly after he had been received at the hospital. The cause of death was attributed to traumatic shock. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Risks for Heart Valve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, treatments and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  9. CDC Vital Signs-Heart Age

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.

  10. Preliminary data from γ-cardiography during the abatement of an asthmatic attack (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, R.; Vernejoul, P. de; Raynaud, C.; Blanchon, P.; Kellershohn, C.; Turiaf, J.

    1961-01-01

    The authors used gamma cardiology during the abatement of 16 cases of asthma with a view to detecting heart attacks not otherwise visible with routine methods of examination: clinical, radiological and electro-cardio-graphical. In gamma cardiology, a radioactive indicator is used and its path followed in the cavities of the heart. The method makes it possible to study the circulation in the right heart, the pulmonary crossing, and the left heart, as well as evaluation of the heart-flow. As a result of their investigations the authors, after having discussed the significance of the data obtained with the method, suggest that it is possible by the use of gamma cardiography during the abatement of an asthma attack: 1- To confirm attacks of the right heart which have already been detected by ordinary methods. 2- To confirm the presence of modifications in the recorded curves which suggest, in the case of the left heart, possible attack; such on attack is also indicated, in a small number of cases, by electrocardiography curves. Some considerations are put forward by the authors concerning the physiopathology of attacks on the left heart. (authors) [fr

  11. Attacker Model Lab

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    tut quiz present Tutorial Quiz Presentation Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial the two sub-classes of computer attackers: amateurs and professionals. It provides valuable insight into the nature of necessary protection measure for information assets. CS3600 Information Assurance: Introduction to Computer Security Course

  12. Temporal Cyber Attack Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Draelos, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galiardi, Meghan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doak, Justin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Rigorous characterization of the performance and generalization ability of cyber defense systems is extremely difficult, making it hard to gauge uncertainty, and thus, confidence. This difficulty largely stems from a lack of labeled attack data that fully explores the potential adversarial space. Currently, performance of cyber defense systems is typically evaluated in a qualitative manner by manually inspecting the results of the system on live data and adjusting as needed. Additionally, machine learning has shown promise in deriving models that automatically learn indicators of compromise that are more robust than analyst-derived detectors. However, to generate these models, most algorithms require large amounts of labeled data (i.e., examples of attacks). Algorithms that do not require annotated data to derive models are similarly at a disadvantage, because labeled data is still necessary when evaluating performance. In this work, we explore the use of temporal generative models to learn cyber attack graph representations and automatically generate data for experimentation and evaluation. Training and evaluating cyber systems and machine learning models requires significant, annotated data, which is typically collected and labeled by hand for one-off experiments. Automatically generating such data helps derive/evaluate detection models and ensures reproducibility of results. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of generative sequence analysis techniques on learning the structure of attack graphs, based on a realistic example. These derived models can then be used to generate more data. Additionally, we provide a roadmap for future research efforts in this area.

  13. Healthy Heart Collaboration and Developed Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impact: EPA is raising awareness of heart disease and its link to air pollution and other environmental factors as a partner in Million Hearts, a national initiative to prevent heart attacks and strokes. The talk will provide an up to date review of the evidence linking air poll...

  14. Blocking of Brute Force Attack

    OpenAIRE

    M.Venkata Krishna Reddy

    2012-01-01

    A common threat Web developers face is a password-guessing attack known as a brute-force attack. A brute-force attack is an attempt to discover a password by systematically trying every possible combination of letters, numbers, and symbols until you discover the one correct combination that works. If your Web site requires user authentication, you are a good target for a brute-force attack. An attacker can always discover a password through a brute-force attack, but the downside is that it co...

  15. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  16. Heart Rate and Initial Presentation of Cardiovascular Diseases (Caliber)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Coronary Heart Disease NOS; Unheralded Coronary Death; Intracerebral Haemorrhage; Heart Failure; Ischemic Stroke; Myocardial Infarction; Stroke; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Stable Angina Pectoris; Subarachnoid Haemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Unstable Angina; Cardiac Arrest, Sudden Cardiac Death

  17. Cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat

    CERN Document Server

    Loukas, George

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Attacks: A Growing Invisible Threat presents the growing list of harmful uses of computers and their ability to disable cameras, turn off a building's lights, make a car veer off the road,  or a drone land in enemy hands. In essence, it details the ways cyber-physical attacks are replacing physical attacks in crime, warfare, and terrorism. The book explores how attacks using computers affect the physical world in ways that were previously only possible through physical means. Perpetrators can now cause damage without the same risk, and without the political, social, or moral

  18. Rotational Rebound Attacks on Reduced Skein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khovratovich, Dmitry; Nikolić, Ivica; Rechberger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    ciphers, including the new standard SHA-3 (Keccak). The rebound attack is a start-from-the-middle approach for finding differential paths and conforming pairs in byte-oriented designs like Substitution-Permutation networks and AES. We apply our new compositional attack to the reduced version of the hash...... number of rounds. We also use neutral bits and message modification methods from the practice of collision search in MD5 and SHA-1 hash functions. These methods push the rotational property through more rounds than previous analysis suggested, and eventually establish a distinguishing property...

  19. Heart MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  20. Further attacks on Yeung-Mintzer fragile watermarking scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrich, Jessica; Goljan, Miroslav; Memon, Nasir D.

    2000-05-01

    In this paper, we describe new and improved attacks on the authentication scheme previously proposed by Yeung and Mintzer. Previous attacks assumed that the binary watermark logo inserted in an image for the purposes of authentication was known. Here we remove that assumption and show how the scheme is still vulnerable, even if the binary logo is not known but the attacker has access to multiple images that have been watermarked with the same secret key and contain the same (but unknown) logo. We present two attacks. The first attack infers the secret watermark insertion function and the binary logo, given multiple images authenticated with the same key and containing the same logo. We show that a very good approximation to the logo and watermark insertion function can be constructed using as few as two images. With color images, one needs many more images, nevertheless the attack is still feasible. The second attack we present, which we call the 'collage-attack' is a variation of the Holliman-Memon counterfeiting attack. The proposed variation does not require knowledge of the watermark logo and produces counterfeits of superior quality by means of a suitable dithering process that we develop.

  1. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  2. Increased risk of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, a target group in general practice for preventive interventions: A population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Daly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is associated with developing type 2 diabetes, but very few studies have examined its effect on developing cardiovascular disease.We conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing a large primary care database in the United Kingdom. From 1 February 1990 to 15 May 2016, 9,118 women diagnosed with GDM were identified and randomly matched with 37,281 control women by age and timing of pregnancy (up to 3 months. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated for cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Women with GDM were more likely to develop type 2 diabetes (IRR = 21.96; 95% CI 18.31-26.34 and hypertension (IRR = 1.85; 95% CI 1.59-2.16 after adjusting for age, Townsend (deprivation quintile, body mass index, and smoking. For ischemic heart disease (IHD, the IRR was 2.78 (95% CI 1.37-5.66, and for cerebrovascular disease 0.95 (95% CI 0.51-1.77; p-value = 0.87, after adjusting for the above covariates and lipid-lowering medication and hypertension at baseline. Follow-up screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors was poor. Limitations include potential selective documentation of severe GDM for women in primary care, higher surveillance for outcomes in women diagnosed with GDM than control women, and a short median follow-up postpartum period, with a small number of outcomes for IHD and cerebrovascular disease.Women diagnosed with GDM were at very high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and had a significantly increased incidence of hypertension and IHD. Identifying this group of women in general practice and targeting cardiovascular risk factors could improve long-term outcomes.

  3. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  4. Simulation of Attacks for Security in Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alvaro; Sanchez, Pablo

    2016-11-18

    The increasing complexity and low-power constraints of current Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) require efficient methodologies for network simulation and embedded software performance analysis of nodes. In addition, security is also a very important feature that has to be addressed in most WSNs, since they may work with sensitive data and operate in hostile unattended environments. In this paper, a methodology for security analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks is presented. The methodology allows designing attack-aware embedded software/firmware or attack countermeasures to provide security in WSNs. The proposed methodology includes attacker modeling and attack simulation with performance analysis (node's software execution time and power consumption estimation). After an analysis of different WSN attack types, an attacker model is proposed. This model defines three different types of attackers that can emulate most WSN attacks. In addition, this paper presents a virtual platform that is able to model the node hardware, embedded software and basic wireless channel features. This virtual simulation analyzes the embedded software behavior and node power consumption while it takes into account the network deployment and topology. Additionally, this simulator integrates the previously mentioned attacker model. Thus, the impact of attacks on power consumption and software behavior/execution-time can be analyzed. This provides developers with essential information about the effects that one or multiple attacks could have on the network, helping them to develop more secure WSN systems. This WSN attack simulator is an essential element of the attack-aware embedded software development methodology that is also introduced in this work.

  5. Simulation of Attacks for Security in Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alvaro; Sanchez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing complexity and low-power constraints of current Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) require efficient methodologies for network simulation and embedded software performance analysis of nodes. In addition, security is also a very important feature that has to be addressed in most WSNs, since they may work with sensitive data and operate in hostile unattended environments. In this paper, a methodology for security analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks is presented. The methodology allows designing attack-aware embedded software/firmware or attack countermeasures to provide security in WSNs. The proposed methodology includes attacker modeling and attack simulation with performance analysis (node’s software execution time and power consumption estimation). After an analysis of different WSN attack types, an attacker model is proposed. This model defines three different types of attackers that can emulate most WSN attacks. In addition, this paper presents a virtual platform that is able to model the node hardware, embedded software and basic wireless channel features. This virtual simulation analyzes the embedded software behavior and node power consumption while it takes into account the network deployment and topology. Additionally, this simulator integrates the previously mentioned attacker model. Thus, the impact of attacks on power consumption and software behavior/execution-time can be analyzed. This provides developers with essential information about the effects that one or multiple attacks could have on the network, helping them to develop more secure WSN systems. This WSN attack simulator is an essential element of the attack-aware embedded software development methodology that is also introduced in this work. PMID:27869710

  6. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  7. Seven Deadliest Unified Communications Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    York, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Unified Communications technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest Unified Communication Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Unified Communications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks featured in this book include: UC Ecosystem Attacks Insecure Endpo

  8. Pulse pressure as a haemodynamic variable in systolic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrie, Colin James

    2016-01-01

    In patients with heart failure, the heart is unable to pump enough blood to satisfy the requirements of the body. Explanations for this include heart muscle damage after a heart attack. This could be very recently, or in the past, sometimes dating back many years. In other cases the explanation for

  9. Adversarial Feature Selection Against Evasion Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Chan, Patrick P K; Biggio, Battista; Yeung, Daniel S; Roli, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition and machine learning techniques have been increasingly adopted in adversarial settings such as spam, intrusion, and malware detection, although their security against well-crafted attacks that aim to evade detection by manipulating data at test time has not yet been thoroughly assessed. While previous work has been mainly focused on devising adversary-aware classification algorithms to counter evasion attempts, only few authors have considered the impact of using reduced feature sets on classifier security against the same attacks. An interesting, preliminary result is that classifier security to evasion may be even worsened by the application of feature selection. In this paper, we provide a more detailed investigation of this aspect, shedding some light on the security properties of feature selection against evasion attacks. Inspired by previous work on adversary-aware classifiers, we propose a novel adversary-aware feature selection model that can improve classifier security against evasion attacks, by incorporating specific assumptions on the adversary's data manipulation strategy. We focus on an efficient, wrapper-based implementation of our approach, and experimentally validate its soundness on different application examples, including spam and malware detection.

  10. Heart murmurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has 4 chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

  11. Heart Health Tests for Diabetes Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or fluids in the body. They include: Electrocardiogram ("EKG" or "ECG") This test measures the electrical activity ... Tools & Resources Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  12. Rehab for the Heart (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-24

    Each year, nearly 790,000 adults in the U.S. suffer a heart attack. This podcast discusses the importance of getting cardiac rehab after a heart attack.  Created: 8/24/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  13. Rehab for the Heart (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Each year, nearly 790,000 adults in the U.S. suffer a heart attack. For a third of these, it's not their first. Cardiac rehabilitation could have prevented many of these. In this podcast, Dr. Fleetwood Loustalot discusses the importance of getting cardiac rehab after a heart attack.

  14. The attack navigator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Willemson, Jan; Pieters, Wolter

    2016-01-01

    The need to assess security and take protection decisions is at least as old as our civilisation. However, the complexity and development speed of our interconnected technical systems have surpassed our capacity to imagine and evaluate risk scenarios. This holds in particular for risks...... that are caused by the strategic behaviour of adversaries. Therefore, technology-supported methods are needed to help us identify and manage these risks. In this paper, we describe the attack navigator: a graph-based approach to security risk assessment inspired by navigation systems. Based on maps of a socio...

  15. Attacks on computer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan V. Vuletić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems are a critical component of the human society in the 21st century. Economic sector, defense, security, energy, telecommunications, industrial production, finance and other vital infrastructure depend on computer systems that operate at local, national or global scales. A particular problem is that, due to the rapid development of ICT and the unstoppable growth of its application in all spheres of the human society, their vulnerability and exposure to very serious potential dangers increase. This paper analyzes some typical attacks on computer systems.

  16. Myocardial adaption to HI(R)T in previously untrained men with a randomized, longitudinal cardiac MR imaging study (Physical adaptions in Untrained on Strength and Heart trial, PUSH-trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Michael; Oezdemir, Derya; Schmid, Axel; Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon; May, Matthias S; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael M

    2017-01-01

    Although musculoskeletal effects in resistance training are well described, little is known about structural and functional cardiac adaption in formerly untrained subjects. We prospectively evaluated whether short term high intensity (resistance) training (HI(R)T) induces detectable morphologic cardiac changes in previously untrained men in a randomized controlled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. 80 untrained middle-aged men were randomly assigned to a HI(R)T-group (n = 40; 43.5±5.9 years) or an inactive control group (n = 40; 42.0±6.3 years). HI(R)T comprised 22 weeks of training focusing on a single-set to failure protocol in 2-3 sessions/week, each with 10-13 exercises addressing main muscle groups. Repetitions were decreased from 8-10 to 3-5 during study period. Before and after HI(R)T all subjects underwent physiologic examination and cardiac MRI (cine imaging, tagging). Indexed left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volume (LV: 76.8±15.6 to 78.7±14.8 ml/m2; RV: 77.0±15.5 to 78.7±15.1 ml/m2) and mass (LV: 55.5±9.7 to 57.0±8.8 g/m2; RV: 14.6±3.0 to 15.0±2.9 g/m2) significantly increased with HI(R)T (all pHI(R)T-group did not alter with training (0.73g/mL and 0.19g/mL, respectively [p = 0.96 and p = 0.87]), indicating balanced cardiac adaption. Indexed LV (48.4±11.1 to 50.8±11.0 ml/m2) and RV (48.5±11.0 to 50.6±10.7 ml/m2) stroke volume significantly increased with HI(R)T (pHI(R)T (36.2±7.9 to 37.0±8.4 ml/m2, p = 0.411), the ratio to end-diastolic LV volume at baseline and post-training was unchanged (0.47 vs. 0.47, p = 0.79). 22 weeks of HI(R)T lead to measurable, physiological changes in cardiac atrial and ventricular morphologic characteristics and function in previously untrained men. The PUSH-trial is registered at the US National Institutes of Health (ClinicalTrials.gov), NCT01766791.

  17. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is over, there's no permanent injury to the brain. There's no way to tell if symptoms of a stroke will lead to a TIA or a ... American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. The content in this ...

  18. Robustness analysis of interdependent networks under multiple-attacking strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan-Li; Chen, Shi-Ming; Nie, Sen; Ma, Fei; Guan, Jun-Jie

    2018-04-01

    The robustness of complex networks under attacks largely depends on the structure of a network and the nature of the attacks. Previous research on interdependent networks has focused on two types of initial attack: random attack and degree-based targeted attack. In this paper, a deliberate attack function is proposed, where six kinds of deliberate attacking strategies can be derived by adjusting the tunable parameters. Moreover, the robustness of four types of interdependent networks (BA-BA, ER-ER, BA-ER and ER-BA) with different coupling modes (random, positive and negative correlation) is evaluated under different attacking strategies. Interesting conclusions could be obtained. It can be found that the positive coupling mode can make the vulnerability of the interdependent network to be absolutely dependent on the most vulnerable sub-network under deliberate attacks, whereas random and negative coupling modes make the vulnerability of interdependent network to be mainly dependent on the being attacked sub-network. The robustness of interdependent network will be enhanced with the degree-degree correlation coefficient varying from positive to negative. Therefore, The negative coupling mode is relatively more optimal than others, which can substantially improve the robustness of the ER-ER network and ER-BA network. In terms of the attacking strategies on interdependent networks, the degree information of node is more valuable than the betweenness. In addition, we found a more efficient attacking strategy for each coupled interdependent network and proposed the corresponding protection strategy for suppressing cascading failure. Our results can be very useful for safety design and protection of interdependent networks.

  19. Recent "phishing" attacks

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few weeks there has been a marked increase in the number of attacks on CERN made by cybercriminals. Typical attacks arrive in the form of e-mail messages purporting to come from the CERN Help Desk, Mail Service, or some similarly official-sounding entity and suggest that there is a problem with your account, such as it being over-quota. They then ask you to click on a link or to reply and give your password. Please don’t! Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. NEVER provide your password or other details if these are requested. These messages try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer, and anti-virus software cannot be relied on to detect all cases. In case of questions on this topic, you may contact mailto:helpdesk@cern.ch. CERN Comput...

  20. Cyber Attacks and Combat Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carataș Maria Alina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber terrorism is an intangible danger, a real over the corner threat in the life of individuals,organizations, and governments and is getting harder to deal with its damages. The motivations forthe cyber-attacks are different, depending on the terrorist group, from cybercrime to hacktivism,attacks over the authorities’ servers. Organizations constantly need to find new ways ofstrengthening protection against cyber-attacks, assess their cyber readiness, expand the resiliencecapacity and adopts international security regulations.

  1. Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Timm, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting social networks? Then you need Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to social networks like Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Social Networking Infrastruct

  2. Enlarged Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rheumatic fever, a heart defect, infections (infectious endocarditis), connective tissue disorders, certain medications or radiation treatments for cancer, your heart may enlarge. Disease of the heart ...

  3. Crony Attack: Strategic Attack’s Silver Bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    physical assets or financial assets. The form of crony attack that most closely resembles classic strategic attack is to deny, degrade, or destroy a money...February 1951. Reprinted in Airpower Studies Coursebook , Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, AL, 2002, 152–58. Hirsch, Michael. “NATO’s Game of

  4. Invisible Trojan-horse attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance...

  5. When Sinuses Attack! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Search English Español When Sinuses Attack! KidsHealth / For Kids / When Sinuses Attack! What's in this article? What ...

  6. Invisible Trojan-horse attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin; Makarov, Vadim

    2017-08-21

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance against Scarani-Ac´ın-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) QKD protocol at 1924 nm versus that at 1536 nm. The attack strategy was proposed earlier but found to be unsuccessful at the latter wavelength, as reported in N. Jain et al., New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014). However at 1924 nm, we show experimentally that the noise response of the detectors to bright pulses is greatly reduced, and show by modeling that the same attack will succeed. The invisible nature of the attack poses a threat to the security of practical QKD if proper countermeasures are not adopted.

  7. Medications Used to Treat Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, treatments and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  8. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  9. Shark Attack Project - Marine Attack at Towed Hydrophone Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalmijn, Adrianus J

    2005-01-01

    The original objective of the SIO Marine Attack project was to identify the electric and magnetic fields causing sharks to inflict serious damage upon the towed hydrophone arrays of US Navy submarines...

  10. The Cyber-Physical Attacker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The world of Cyber-Physical Systems ranges from industrial to national interest applications. Even though these systems are pervading our everyday life, we are still far from fully understanding their security properties. Devising a suitable attacker model is a crucial element when studying...... the security properties of CPSs, as a system cannot be secured without defining the threats it is subject to. In this work an attacker scenario is presented which addresses the peculiarities of a cyber-physical adversary, and we discuss how this scenario relates to other attacker models popular in the security...

  11. Resilience of LTE networks against smart jamming attacks: Wideband model

    KAUST Repository

    Aziz, Farhan M.; Shamma, Jeff S.; Stuber, Gordon L.

    2015-01-01

    communications. We have previously shown that LTE networks are vulnerable to Denial-of-Service (DOS) and loss of service attacks from smart jammers. In this paper, we extend our previous work on resilience of LTE networks to wideband multipath fading channel

  12. Neuroradiological study of transient ischemic attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takusagawa, Yoshihiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Ichiki, Ken; Suga, Takeshi; Nishigaki, Shinichi

    1986-08-01

    Fifty-two patients with carotid TIAs and thirteen patients with vertebrobasilar TIAs were investigated by angiography and computed tomography. TIA was diagnosed by clinical symptoms in accordance with the criteria for TIA of the Joint Committee for Stroke Facilities in the U.S.A. (1974). The 65 patients with TIAs included 49 males and 16 females with average age of 63.5 years old at the initial episode of TIA. As for the diseases associated with TIA, hypertension (51 %), diabetes mellitus (15 %) and ischemic heart diseases (11 %) were the major disorders. Atrial fibrillation was observed in 2 cases. Intervals from last TIA attack to angiography were less than 7 days in 22 cases, 8 -- 30 days in 19 cases, 1 -- 4 monthes in 14 cases and more than 4 monthes in 10 cases, respectively. The cases in which angiography was done earlier after attacks displayed more abnormal findings. In 52 patients with caroted TIAs the artherosclerotic change of extracranial portion of the internal carotid artery was found in 14 cases (27 %), that of intracranial portion of the artery in 11 cases (21 %) and both lesions in 2 cases (4 %). On the other hand, in 13 patients with vertebrobasilar TIAs, this change was observed in 4 cases at the extracranival potion and in 1 case at the intracranial potion (siphon) of the internal carotid artery. Abnormal CT findings were found in 29 of 65 patients, namely 9 had ventricular dilatation and brain atrophy, 6 had cerebral infarction which was not associated with associated with symptoms of TIA. In carotid TIAs, Cerebral infarction was associated with symptoms of TIAs in 15 cases, namely 10 had a small low density area in the basal ganglia near the internal capsule and 5 had a low density area in the cortical or subcortical region. All of these 5 cases had cerebral embolism, which recanalized after attacks. (J.P.N.).

  13. Neuroradiological study of transient ischemic attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takusagawa, Yoshihiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Ichiki, Ken; Suga, Takeshi; Nishigaki, Shinichi

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-two patients with carotid TIAs and thirteen patients with vertebrobasilar TIAs were investigated by angiography and computed tomography. TIA was diagnosed by clinical symptoms in accordance with the criteria for TIA of the Joint Committee for Stroke Facilities in the U.S.A. (1974). The 65 patients with TIAs included 49 males and 16 females with average age of 63.5 years old at the initial episode of TIA. As for the diseases associated with TIA, hypertension (51 %), diabetes mellitus (15 %) and ischemic heart diseases (11 %) were the major disorders. Atrial fibrillation was observed in 2 cases. Intervals from last TIA attack to angiography were less than 7 days in 22 cases, 8 ∼ 30 days in 19 cases, 1 ∼ 4 monthes in 14 cases and more than 4 monthes in 10 cases, respectively. The cases in which angiography was done earlier after attacks displayed more abnormal findings. In 52 patients with caroted TIAs the artherosclerotic change of extracranial portion of the internal carotid artery was found in 14 cases (27 %), that of intracranial portion of the artery in 11 cases (21 %) and both lesions in 2 cases (4 %). On the other hand, in 13 patients with vertebrobasilar TIAs, this change was observed in 4 cases at the extracranival potion and in 1 case at the intracranial potion (siphon) of the internal carotid artery. Abnormal CT findings were found in 29 of 65 patients, namely 9 had ventricular dilatation and brain atrophy, 6 had cerebral infarction which was not associated with associated with symptoms of TIA. In carotid TIAs, Cerebral infarction was associated with symptoms of TIAs in 15 cases, namely 10 had a small low density area in the basal ganglia near the internal capsule and 5 had a low density area in the cortical or subcortical region. All of these 5 cases had cerebral embolism, which recanalized after attacks. (J.P.N.)

  14. Forensics Investigation of Web Application Security Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Amor Lazzez; Thabet Slimani

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, web applications are popular targets for security attackers. Using specific security mechanisms, we can prevent or detect a security attack on a web application, but we cannot find out the criminal who has carried out the security attack. Being unable to trace back an attack, encourages hackers to launch new attacks on the same system. Web application forensics aims to trace back and attribute a web application security attack to its originator. This may significantly reduce the sec...

  15. CDC Vital Signs-Heart Age

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-01

    This podcast is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  16. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    of information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security......Attacks on classical cryptographic protocols are usually modeled by allowing an adversary to ask queries from an oracle. Security is then defined by requiring that as long as the queries satisfy some constraint, there is some problem the adversary cannot solve, such as compute a certain piece...... of several primitives in this model. We show that a secret-sharing scheme that is secure with threshold $t$ in the standard model is secure against superposition attacks if and only if the threshold is lowered to $t/2$. We use this result to give zero-knowledge proofs for all of NP in the common reference...

  17. Genetic attack on neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-01

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  18. Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Major changes in your life, such as a divorce or the addition of a baby Smoking or ... quality of life. Complications that panic attacks may cause or be linked to include: Development of specific ...

  19. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-01-01

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size

  20. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-01

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  1. Software-based Microarchitectural Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Gruss, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Modern processors are highly optimized systems where every single cycle of computation time matters. Many optimizations depend on the data that is being processed. Software-based microarchitectural attacks exploit effects of these optimizations. Microarchitectural side-channel attacks leak secrets from cryptographic computations, from general purpose computations, or from the kernel. This leakage even persists across all common isolation boundaries, such as processes, containers, and virtual ...

  2. OPERATION COBRA. Deliberate Attack, Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-25

    to attack Sens, then continue to Troyes , on the Seine River. CCA was in the north, crossing the Loing River at Souppes against light resistance and...advanced from Troyes and prepared positions close to Sens. Under strong artillery support, a task force from CCA (TF Oden) attacked the enemy frontally...movement towards the Seine River on 24 August with an advance toward Troyes . Facing the combat command were what remained of the 51st SS Brigade, light

  3. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  4. Development and Validation of a Model to Predict Absolute Vascular Risk Reduction by Moderate-Intensity Statin Therapy in Individual Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Anglo Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial, Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial, and Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasenbrood, Lotte; Poulter, Neil R; Sever, Peter S; Colhoun, Helen M; Livingstone, Shona J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Pressel, Sara L; Davis, Barry R; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L J

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to translate the average relative effect of statin therapy from trial data to the individual patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus by developing and validating a model to predict individualized absolute risk reductions (ARR) of cardiovascular events. Data of 2725 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the Lipid Lowering Arm of the Anglo Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT-LLA) study (atorvastatin 10 mg versus placebo) were used for model derivation. The model was based on 8 clinical predictors including treatment allocation (statin/placebo). Ten-year individualized ARR on major cardiovascular events by statin therapy were calculated for each patient by subtracting the estimated on-treatment risk from the estimated off-treatment risk. Predicted 10-year ARR by statin therapy was 4% (median ARR, 3.2%; interquartile range, 2.5%-4.3%; 95% confidence interval for 3.2% ARR, -1.4% to 6.8%). Addition of treatment interactions did not improve model performance. Therefore, the wide distribution in ARR was a consequence of the underlying distribution in cardiovascular risk enrolled in these trials. External validation of the model was performed in data from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT-LLT; pravastatin 40 mg versus usual care) and Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS; atorvastatin 10 mg versus placebo) of 3878 and 2838 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Model calibration was adequate in both external data sets, discrimination was moderate (ALLHAT-LLT: c-statistics, 0.64 [95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.67] and CARDS: 0.68 [95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.72]). ARRs of major cardiovascular events by statin therapy can be accurately estimated for individual patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using a model based on routinely available patient characteristics. There is a wide distribution in ARR that may complement informed decision making. URL: http

  5. Improved Integral Attacks on SIMON32 and SIMON48 with Dynamic Key-Guessing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Chu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic key-guessing techniques, which exploit the property of AND operation, could improve the differential and linear cryptanalytic results by reducing the number of guessed subkey bits and lead to good cryptanalytic results for SIMON. They have only been applied in differential and linear attacks as far as we know. In this paper, dynamic key-guessing techniques are first introduced in integral cryptanalysis. According to the features of integral cryptanalysis, we extend dynamic key-guessing techniques and get better integral cryptanalysis results than before. As a result, we present integral attacks on 24-round SIMON32, 24-round SIMON48/72, and 25-round SIMON48/96. In terms of the number of attacked rounds, our attack on SIMON32 is better than any previously known attacks, and our attacks on SIMON48 are the same as the best attacks.

  6. Analytical Characterization of Internet Security Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellke, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    Internet security attacks have drawn significant attention due to their enormously adverse impact. These attacks includes Malware (Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horse), Denial of Service, Packet Sniffer, and Password Attacks. There is an increasing need to provide adequate defense mechanisms against these attacks. My thesis proposal deals with analytical…

  7. Rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hankey, Graeme J; Patel, Manesh R; Stevens, Susanna R

    2012-01-01

    In ROCKET AF, rivaroxaban was non-inferior to adjusted-dose warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to investigate whether the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin is consistent among the subgroups of patients ...

  8. Automated Generation of Attack Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    Attack trees are widely used to represent threat scenarios in a succinct and intuitive manner, suitable for conveying security information to non-experts. The manual construction of such objects relies on the creativity and experience of specialists, and therefore it is error-prone and impractica......Attack trees are widely used to represent threat scenarios in a succinct and intuitive manner, suitable for conveying security information to non-experts. The manual construction of such objects relies on the creativity and experience of specialists, and therefore it is error......-prone and impracticable for large systems. Nonetheless, the automated generation of attack trees has only been explored in connection to computer networks and levering rich models, whose analysis typically leads to an exponential blow-up of the state space. We propose a static analysis approach where attack trees...... are automatically inferred from a process algebraic specification in a syntax-directed fashion, encompassing a great many application domains and avoiding incurring systematically an exponential explosion. Moreover, we show how the standard propositional denotation of an attack tree can be used to phrase...

  9. Heartburn or Chest Pain: When Is It Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cardiovascular imaging in emergency department patients with chest pain: A joint document of the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria Committee and the American College of ...

  10. [A heart attack: was the patient lucky or unlucky?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Hartman, T.C.; van Ravesteijn, H.; Lucassen, P.L.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    CIRCUMSTANCES WERE FAVOURABLE BUT OUTCOME ILL-FATED: The assessment of signs and symptoms in primary care is an important but difficult task for general practitioners (GPs) who have to decide whether symptoms require immediate action or rather a watchful waiting approach. However, the GP may

  11. When You Visit Your Doctor After a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or how a bite of bread tastes with dinner. Leverage your strengths for a more positive life Strengths are built-in capacities for certain thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. 5 ways to keep your memory sharp The way you live, what you eat and drink, and how you treat your body ...

  12. An Analysis of Attacks on Blockchain Consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Bissias, George; Levine, Brian Neil; Ozisik, A. Pinar; Andresen, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    We present and validate a novel mathematical model of the blockchain mining process and use it to conduct an economic evaluation of the double-spend attack, which is fundamental to all blockchain systems. Our analysis focuses on the value of transactions that can be secured under a conventional double-spend attack, both with and without a concurrent eclipse attack. Our model quantifies the importance of several factors that determine the attack's success, including confirmation depth, attacke...

  13. HEART FAILURE – KEEPING STEP WITH THE PROGRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Diaconu

    2018-06-01

    countries across North America (NA, Central and South America (CSA, Western (WE and Eastern Europe (EE, the Eastern Mediterranean and Africa (EMA, South East Asia (SEA and the Western Pacific (WP, under the study co-chairs, Prof. Gerasimos Filippatos (Greece and Prof. Mihai Gheorghiade (USA. Inter-regional differences in the hospital entry point, comorbidities and precipitants have been observed. Ischemia was a common precipitant in SEA, WP and EMA, whereas non-adherence to diet and medication was more common in NA. There have been also observed differences regarding the treatment, especially in time to initial intravenous therapy. Patients in NA have significantly longer time to first therapy, compared with other regions; this may impact the symptoms, because the sooner the IV therapies are delivered, the sooner symptoms will improve. There are differences regarding the implementation of international heart failure guidelines, which may influence the patients’ outcomes. Researchers from the Institute of Molecular Biotechnology at the Vienna BioCenter have studied the first systems for heart regeneration following complex heart attacks in mammals. In vivo neonatal models showed that, after a heart attack, mice underwent total repair of cardiac injury. This type of repair had been encountered previously in fish, but not in mammals. The researchers set up now genetic systems to identify the molecular signals that mediate this regeneration of the heart. Biotechnologies may become the future of the heart failure treatment.

  14. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  15. Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  16. Investigating the effect of Network Parameters on Coordinated Cyber Attacks against a Simulated Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    GENGE BELA; SIATERLIS CHRISTOS

    2011-01-01

    The fact that modern Networked Industrial Control Systems (NICS) depend on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), is well known. Although many studies have focused on the security of these systems, today we still lack the proper understanding of the effects that cyber attacks have on NICS. In this paper we use our previously developed framework to study the effects of coordinated cyber attacks against NICS. Coordinated attacks rely on several infected hosts to disrupt the ...

  17. Repeated exposure to methamphetamine induces sex-dependent hypersensitivity to ischemic injury in the adult rat heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd R Rorabaugh

    Full Text Available We previously reported that adult female, but not male rats that were prenatally exposed to methamphetamine exhibit myocardial hypersensitivity to ischemic injury. However, it is unknown whether hypersensitivity to ischemic injury develops when rats are exposed to methamphetamine during adulthood. The goal of this study was to determine whether methamphetamine exposure during adulthood sensitizes the heart to ischemic injury.Adult male and female rats received daily injections of methamphetamine (5 mg/kg or saline for 10 days. Their hearts were isolated on day 11 and subjected to a 20 min ischemic insult on a Langendorff isolated heart apparatus. Cardiac contractile function was measured by an intraventricular balloon, and infarct size was measured by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining.Hearts from methamphetamine-treated females exhibited significantly larger infarcts and suppressed postischemic recovery of contractile function compared to hearts from saline-treated females. In contrast, methamphetamine had no effect on infarct size or contractile recovery in male hearts. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that hypersensitivity to ischemic injury persisted in female hearts following a 1 month period of abstinence from methamphetamine. Myocardial protein kinase C-ε expression, Akt phosphorylation, and ERK phosphorylation were unaffected by adult exposure to methamphetamine.Exposure of adult rats to methamphetamine sex-dependently increases the extent of myocardial injury following an ischemic insult. These data suggest that women who have a heart attack might be at risk of more extensive myocardial injury if they have a recent history of methamphetamine abuse.

  18. Repeated exposure to methamphetamine induces sex-dependent hypersensitivity to ischemic injury in the adult rat heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Sarah L.; Stoops, Thorne S.; D’Souza, Manoranjan S.

    2017-01-01

    Background We previously reported that adult female, but not male rats that were prenatally exposed to methamphetamine exhibit myocardial hypersensitivity to ischemic injury. However, it is unknown whether hypersensitivity to ischemic injury develops when rats are exposed to methamphetamine during adulthood. The goal of this study was to determine whether methamphetamine exposure during adulthood sensitizes the heart to ischemic injury. Methods Adult male and female rats received daily injections of methamphetamine (5 mg/kg) or saline for 10 days. Their hearts were isolated on day 11 and subjected to a 20 min ischemic insult on a Langendorff isolated heart apparatus. Cardiac contractile function was measured by an intraventricular balloon, and infarct size was measured by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Results Hearts from methamphetamine-treated females exhibited significantly larger infarcts and suppressed postischemic recovery of contractile function compared to hearts from saline-treated females. In contrast, methamphetamine had no effect on infarct size or contractile recovery in male hearts. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that hypersensitivity to ischemic injury persisted in female hearts following a 1 month period of abstinence from methamphetamine. Myocardial protein kinase C-ε expression, Akt phosphorylation, and ERK phosphorylation were unaffected by adult exposure to methamphetamine. Conclusions Exposure of adult rats to methamphetamine sex-dependently increases the extent of myocardial injury following an ischemic insult. These data suggest that women who have a heart attack might be at risk of more extensive myocardial injury if they have a recent history of methamphetamine abuse. PMID:28575091

  19. Rehab for the Heart (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-24

    Each year, nearly 790,000 adults in the U.S. suffer a heart attack. For a third of these, it’s not their first. Cardiac rehabilitation could have prevented many of these. In this podcast, Dr. Fleetwood Loustalot discusses the importance of getting cardiac rehab after a heart attack.  Created: 8/24/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  20. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  1. Detection of complex cyber attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio-de Souza, Ian; Berk, Vincent H.; Giani, Annarita; Bakos, George; Bates, Marion; Cybenko, George; Madory, Doug

    2006-05-01

    One significant drawback to currently available security products is their inabilty to correlate diverse sensor input. For instance, by only using network intrusion detection data, a root kit installed through a weak username-password combination may go unnoticed. Similarly, an administrator may never make the link between deteriorating response times from the database server and an attacker exfiltrating trusted data, if these facts aren't presented together. Current Security Information Management Systems (SIMS) can collect and represent diverse data but lack sufficient correlation algorithms. By using a Process Query System, we were able to quickly bring together data flowing from many sources, including NIDS, HIDS, server logs, CPU load and memory usage, etc. We constructed PQS models that describe dynamic behavior of complicated attacks and failures, allowing us to detect and differentiate simultaneous sophisticated attacks on a target network. In this paper, we discuss the benefits of implementing such a multistage cyber attack detection system using PQS. We focus on how data from multiple sources can be combined and used to detect and track comprehensive network security events that go unnoticed using conventional tools.

  2. Faster and timing-attack resistant AES-GCM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Käsper, E.; Schwabe, P.; Clavier, C.; Gaj, K.

    2009-01-01

    We present a bitsliced implementation of AES encryption in counter mode for 64-bit Intel processors. Running at 7.59 cycles/byte on a Core 2, it is up to 25% faster than previous implementations, while simultaneously offering protection against timing attacks. In particular, it is the only

  3. From control system security indices to attack identifiability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdeiro Teixeira, A.M.; Sandberg, H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate detectability and identifiability of attacks on linear dynamical systems that are subjected to external disturbances. We generalize a concept for a security index, which was previously introduced for static systems. The index exactly quantifies the resources

  4. Transient complete atrioventricular block with Morgagni—Adams—Stokes attacks in a child after aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Sabirova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias after surgical correction of congenital heart diseases is one the urgent problems in pediatrlc cardiology. The paper describes the clinical picture, diagnosis, and therapy in a patent with transient complete atrioventricular block after open heart surgery. A protracted Morgagni—Adams—Stokes attack is one of the causes of sudden cardiac death. The occurrence of even single syncopes in patients after surgery for congenital heart disease requires that the arrhythmogenic nature of the attack should be ruled out for the timely and adequate therapy including the implantation of antiarrhythmic devices.

  5. Palliative Care in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Mert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is an important health problem since its incidence and prevalence is increasing year by year. Since symptom burden and mortality are high in heart failure, supportive and palliative care should be provided. However, very few patients are referred to palliative care services. In comparison with cancer patients, it is difficult to identify end of life care for patients with heart failure, because these patients are hospitalized when the signs of acute decompensation appear, and their symptoms decrease and functional status improve before they are discharged. Therefore, palliative care, which is a holistic approach aiming to improve patients’ quality of life, to detect and treat the attacks of the disease before they become severe, and to deal with patients’ physical, psychological, social, and mental health altogether during their care, should be integrated into heart failure patients’ care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 217-222

  6. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation for secondary prevention after transient ischemic attack or mild stroke: I: feasibility and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Peter L; Hachinski, Vladimir; Unsworth, Karen; Chan, Richard; Mytka, Sharon; O'Callaghan, Christina; Suskin, Neville

    2011-11-01

    Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CCR), which integrates structured lifestyle interventions and medications, reduces morbidity and mortality among cardiac patients. CCR has not typically been used with cerebrovascular populations, despite important commonalities with heart patients. We tested feasibility and effectiveness of 6-month outpatient CCR for secondary prevention after transient ischemic attack or mild, nondisabling stroke. This article presents risk factors. A future article will discuss psychological outcomes. Consecutive consenting subjects having sustained a transient ischemic attack or mild, nondisabling stroke within the previous 12 months (mean, 11.5 weeks; event-to-CCR entry) with ≥1 vascular risk factor, were recruited from a stroke prevention clinic providing usual care. We measured 6-month CCR outcomes following a prospective cohort design. Of 110 subjects recruited from January 2005 to April 2006, 100 subjects (mean age, 64.9 years; 46 women) entered and 80 subjects completed CCR. We obtained favorable, significant intake-to-exit changes in: aerobic capacity (+31.4%; Pstroke, offering a promising model for vascular protection across chronic disease entities. We know of no similar previous investigation, and are now conducting a randomized trial.

  7. Heart transplantation in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houyel, Lucile; To-Dumortier, Ngoc-Tram; Lepers, Yannick; Petit, Jérôme; Roussin, Régine; Ly, Mohamed; Lebret, Emmanuel; Fadel, Elie; Hörer, Jürgen; Hascoët, Sébastien

    2017-05-01

    With the advances in congenital cardiac surgery and postoperative care, an increasing number of children with complex congenital heart disease now reach adulthood. There are already more adults than children living with a congenital heart defect, including patients with complex congenital heart defects. Among these adults with congenital heart disease, a significant number will develop ventricular dysfunction over time. Heart failure accounts for 26-42% of deaths in adults with congenital heart defects. Heart transplantation, or heart-lung transplantation in Eisenmenger syndrome, then becomes the ultimate therapeutic possibility for these patients. This population is deemed to be at high risk of mortality after heart transplantation, although their long-term survival is similar to that of patients transplanted for other reasons. Indeed, heart transplantation in adults with congenital heart disease is often challenging, because of several potential problems: complex cardiac and vascular anatomy, multiple previous palliative and corrective surgeries, and effects on other organs (kidney, liver, lungs) of long-standing cardiac dysfunction or cyanosis, with frequent elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance. In this review, we focus on the specific problems relating to heart and heart-lung transplantation in this population, revisit the indications/contraindications, and update the long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Acute heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Sénior Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Gándara Ricardo, Jairo Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    We describe the clinical case of a 26 year-old woman who came to Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación (Medellín, Colombia) with symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. She had been previously diagnosed with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction without clear origin, pulmonary thromboembolism and ischemic stroke, without optimal neurohormonal modulation. She was admitted with clinical findings of fluid overload and low tissue perfusion, with inotropic support requirem...

  9. On Realistically Attacking Tor with Website Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Website fingerprinting allows a local, passive observer monitoring a web-browsing client’s encrypted channel to determine her web activity. Previous attacks have shown that website fingerprinting could be a threat to anonymity networks such as Tor under laboratory conditions. However, there are significant differences between laboratory conditions and realistic conditions. First, in laboratory tests we collect the training data set together with the testing data set, so the training data set is fresh, but an attacker may not be able to maintain a fresh data set. Second, laboratory packet sequences correspond to a single page each, but for realistic packet sequences the split between pages is not obvious. Third, packet sequences may include background noise from other types of web traffic. These differences adversely affect website fingerprinting under realistic conditions. In this paper, we tackle these three problems to bridge the gap between laboratory and realistic conditions for website fingerprinting. We show that we can maintain a fresh training set with minimal resources. We demonstrate several classification-based techniques that allow us to split full packet sequences effectively into sequences corresponding to a single page each. We describe several new algorithms for tackling background noise. With our techniques, we are able to build the first website fingerprinting system that can operate directly on packet sequences collected in the wild.

  10. Shilling Attacks Detection in Recommender Systems Based on Target Item Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wen, Junhao; Koh, Yun Sing; Xiong, Qingyu; Gao, Min; Dobbie, Gillian; Alam, Shafiq

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are highly vulnerable to shilling attacks, both by individuals and groups. Attackers who introduce biased ratings in order to affect recommendations, have been shown to negatively affect collaborative filtering (CF) algorithms. Previous research focuses only on the differences between genuine profiles and attack profiles, ignoring the group characteristics in attack profiles. In this paper, we study the use of statistical metrics to detect rating patterns of attackers and group characteristics in attack profiles. Another question is that most existing detecting methods are model specific. Two metrics, Rating Deviation from Mean Agreement (RDMA) and Degree of Similarity with Top Neighbors (DegSim), are used for analyzing rating patterns between malicious profiles and genuine profiles in attack models. Building upon this, we also propose and evaluate a detection structure called RD-TIA for detecting shilling attacks in recommender systems using a statistical approach. In order to detect more complicated attack models, we propose a novel metric called DegSim' based on DegSim. The experimental results show that our detection model based on target item analysis is an effective approach for detecting shilling attacks.

  11. Shilling Attacks Detection in Recommender Systems Based on Target Item Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wen, Junhao; Koh, Yun Sing; Xiong, Qingyu; Gao, Min; Dobbie, Gillian; Alam, Shafiq

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are highly vulnerable to shilling attacks, both by individuals and groups. Attackers who introduce biased ratings in order to affect recommendations, have been shown to negatively affect collaborative filtering (CF) algorithms. Previous research focuses only on the differences between genuine profiles and attack profiles, ignoring the group characteristics in attack profiles. In this paper, we study the use of statistical metrics to detect rating patterns of attackers and group characteristics in attack profiles. Another question is that most existing detecting methods are model specific. Two metrics, Rating Deviation from Mean Agreement (RDMA) and Degree of Similarity with Top Neighbors (DegSim), are used for analyzing rating patterns between malicious profiles and genuine profiles in attack models. Building upon this, we also propose and evaluate a detection structure called RD-TIA for detecting shilling attacks in recommender systems using a statistical approach. In order to detect more complicated attack models, we propose a novel metric called DegSim’ based on DegSim. The experimental results show that our detection model based on target item analysis is an effective approach for detecting shilling attacks. PMID:26222882

  12. Peacetime Use of Computer Network Attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Busby, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    .... PDD-63 alerts the nation to prepare for impending cyber attacks. This paper examines the nature, scale, and likelihood of cyber attacks posited in PDD-63 and finds that the country does not face an imminent "electronic Pearl Harbor...

  13. Stochastic Model of TCP SYN Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ramanauskaitė

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A great proportion of essential services are moving into internet space making the threat of DoS attacks even more actual. To estimate the real risk of some kind of denial of service (DoS attack in real world is difficult, but mathematical and software models make this task easier. In this paper we overview the ways of implementing DoS attack models and offer a stochastic model of SYN flooding attack. It allows evaluating the potential threat of SYN flooding attacks, taking into account both the legitimate system flow as well as the possible attack power. At the same time we can assess the effect of such parameters as buffer capacity, open connection storage in the buffer or filte­ring efficiency on the success of different SYN flooding attacks. This model can be used for other type of memory depletion denial of service attacks.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Robust Detection of Stepping-Stone Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Ting; Tong, Lang

    2006-01-01

    The detection of encrypted stepping-stone attack is considered. Besides encryption and padding, the attacker is capable of inserting chaff packets and perturbing packet timing and transmission order...

  15. Using an ontology for network attack planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern complexity of network attacks and their counter-measures (cyber operations) requires detailed planning. This paper presents a Network Attack Planning ontology which is aimed at providing support for planning such network operations within...

  16. Heart Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health! Get a free badge or banner to post to your website or blog. Are you at risk for heart disease? Here's how to find out . Planning to use The Heart Truth logo? Check out our logo guidelines and downloads. ...

  17. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it may be caused by diseases, such as connective tissue disorders, excessive iron buildup in your body (hemochromatosis), the buildup of abnormal proteins (amyloidosis) or by some cancer treatments. Causes of heart infection A heart infection, ...

  18. Attack Graph Construction for Security Events Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Alexeevich Chechulin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to investigation of the attack graphs construction and analysis task for a network security evaluation and real-time security event processing. Main object of this research is the attack modeling process. The paper contains the description of attack graphs building, modifying and analysis technique as well as overview of implemented prototype for network security analysis based on attack graph approach.

  19. Heart pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation; Artificial pacemaker; Permanent pacemaker; Internal pacemaker; Cardiac resynchronization therapy; CRT; Biventricular pacemaker; Arrhythmia - pacemaker; Abnormal heart ...

  20. Are the rules for the right to self-defense outdated to address current conflicts like attacks from non-state actors and cyber-attacks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo J. Arias

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The latest US-led coalition’s attacks against ISIS in Syria raised the question whether states can use defensive force against non-state actors. Two critical incidents had previously triggered the discussion on the importance and consequences of cyber-attacks as a new form armed attacks. The first one occurred in Estonia in 2007, when the country experienced extensive computer hacking attacks that lasted several weeks. The second incident happened in 2008, during the Georgia–Russia conflict over South Ossetia, when Georgia experienced cyber-attacks similar to those suffered by Estonia in the previous year. Furthermore, on June 21, 2016, the central banks of Indonesia and South Korea were hit by cyber-attacks on their public websites since activist hacking group Anonymous pledged last month to target banks across the world. The previous incidents have created, once again, public questioning if the rules on the use of force and the right of self-defense established in the United Nations Charter are sufficient and efficient to address these new forms of attacks.

  1. Participation in Heart-Healthy Behaviors: A Secondary Analysis of the American Heart Association Go Red Heart Match Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; De Jong, Marla J; Berra, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The American Heart Association created Go Red Heart Match, a free and secure online program that enables women to connect with each other to fight heart disease either personally or as a caregiver for someone with heart disease. Through these connections, participants have an opportunity to develop a personal, private, and supportive relationship with other women; share common experiences; and motivate and encourage each other to follow a heart-healthy lifestyle. The aims of this study were to describe the demographic characteristics of the Go Red Heart Match responders and to determine whether participation in the program prompted participants to engage in heart-healthy behaviors. A secondary analysis of data collected as part of a needs assessment survey from the American Heart Association Go Red Heart Match was conducted. A total of 117 (35%) of the 334 invited women completed the survey. Most responders were female, married, and college educated. A total of 105 (90%) responders were diagnosed with a type of heart disease or stroke and 77 (73%) responders had undergone treatment. As a result of participating in the program, 75% of the responders reported the following improvements in heart-healthy behaviors: eating a more heart-healthy diet (54%), exercising more frequently (53%), losing weight (47%), and quitting smoking (10%). Responders who had a diagnosis of heart attack (n = 48) were more likely (P = .003) to quit smoking than were those with other diagnoses (n = 69). Notably, 48% of responders reported encouraging someone else in their life to speak to their doctor about their risk for heart disease. Most women who participated in Heart Match reported engaging in new heart-healthy behaviors. The findings support expanding the existing program in a more diverse population as a potentially important way to reach women and encourage cardiovascular disease risk reduction for those with heart disease and stroke.

  2. Attacks and countermeasures on AES and ECC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Henrik; Andersen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is widely used in LTE and Wi-Fi communication systems. AES has recently been exposed to new attacks which have questioned the overall security of AES. The newest attack is a so called biclique attack, which is using the fact that the content of the state array...

  3. Automated classification of computer network attacks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, R

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available according to the relevant types of attack scenarios depicted in the ontology. The two network attack instances are the Distributed Denial of Service attack on SpamHaus in 2013 and the theft of 42 million Rand ($6.7 million) from South African Postbank...

  4. Cyberprints: Identifying Cyber Attackers by Feature Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of attributing cyber attacks is one of increasing importance. Without a solid method of demonstrating the origin of a cyber attack, any attempts to deter would-be cyber attackers are wasted. Existing methods of attribution make unfounded assumptions about the environment in which they will operate: omniscience (the ability to gather,…

  5. Blind Cartography for Side Channel Attacks: Cross-Correlation Cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Sauvage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Side channel and fault injection attacks are major threats to cryptographic applications of embedded systems. Best performances for these attacks are achieved by focusing sensors or injectors on the sensible parts of the application, by means of dedicated methods to localise them. Few methods have been proposed in the past, and all of them aim at pinpointing the cryptoprocessor. However it could be interesting to exploit the activity of other parts of the application, in order to increase the attack's efficiency or to bypass its countermeasures. In this paper, we present a localisation method based on cross-correlation, which issues a list of areas of interest within the attacked device. It realizes an exhaustive analysis, since it may localise any module of the device, and not only those which perform cryptographic operations. Moreover, it also does not require a preliminary knowledge about the implementation, whereas some previous cartography methods require that the attacker could choose the cryptoprocessor inputs, which is not always possible. The method is experimentally validated using observations of the electromagnetic near field distribution over a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. The matching between areas of interest and the application layout in the FPGA floorplan is confirmed by correlation analysis.

  6. Asthma-like attacks terminated by slow pathway ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Ozturk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic airway disease in which the pathological mechanisms are reversible airway obstruction, bronchial hyper reactivity, and constriction of the lower airways. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT is a common arrhythmia which originates above the bundle of His and causing heart rates exceeding 150 beats/min. SVT patients present with palpitation, chest pain, chest discomfort, dyspnea, hyperventilation, and lightheadedness, occasionally. Besides, extraordinary presentations of SVT are available in literature. In this report, we describe a case of a patient presenting with treatment-resistant asthma-like attacks lasting for 20 years whom was suspected SVT as an underlying etiology and treated by slow pathway radiofrequency ablation.

  7. Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as lupus. People who have these diseases make proteins called antibodies that attack and damage the body's tissues or cells. In pregnant women, antibodies can cross the placenta. (The placenta ...

  8. Calculating Adversarial Risk from Attack Trees: Control Strength and Probabilistic Attackers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Davarynejad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Attack trees are a well-known formalism for quantitative analysis of cyber attacks consisting of multiple steps and alternative paths. It is possible to derive properties of the overall attacks from properties of individual steps, such as cost for the attacker and probability of success. However, in

  9. Recognizing Advanced Heart Failure and Knowing Your Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, treatments and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  10. Heart scanner - who's between a rock and a hard place?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evidence of coronary heart disease succumbs to a fatal heart attack. Cardiac symptoms, positive stress test results and angiographically visible narrowings are all dependent on significant lumenal stenosis. Considerable atherosclerosis can be present in an asymptomatic patient in whom physical examination, stress testing ...

  11. Is diet an essential risk factor for coronary heart disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, hypertension and diet each play a major role in the development of coronary heart attacks in most industrialized nations. In some countries where cigarette smoking and hypertension are prevalent there is a low risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Hyperlipidaemia resulting from national food habits appears to be the essential factor in the high rates of CHD in developed countries.

  12. Whispering through DDoS attack

    OpenAIRE

    Miralem Mehic; Jiri Slachta; Miroslav Voznak

    2016-01-01

    Denial of service (DoS) attack is an attempt of the attacker to disable victim's machine by depleting network or computing resources. If this attack is performed with more than one machine, it is called distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack. Covert channels are those channels which are used for information transmission even though they are neither designed nor intended to transfer information at all. In this article, we investigated the possibility of using of DDoS attack for purposes o...

  13. Script-viruses Attacks on UNIX OS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Mikhaylov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article attacks on UNIX OS are considered. Currently antivirus developers are concentrated on protecting systems from viruses that are most common and attack popular operating systems. If the system or its components are not often attacked then the antivirus products are not protecting these components as it is not profitable. The same situation is with script-viruses for UNIX OS as most experts consider that it is impossible for such viruses to get enough rights to attack. Nevertheless the main conclusion of this article is the fact that such viruses can be very powerful and can attack systems and get enough rights.

  14. Protecting Cryptographic Memory against Tampering Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Pratyay

    In this dissertation we investigate the question of protecting cryptographic devices from tampering attacks. Traditional theoretical analysis of cryptographic devices is based on black-box models which do not take into account the attacks on the implementations, known as physical attacks. In prac......In this dissertation we investigate the question of protecting cryptographic devices from tampering attacks. Traditional theoretical analysis of cryptographic devices is based on black-box models which do not take into account the attacks on the implementations, known as physical attacks....... In practice such attacks can be executed easily, e.g. by heating the device, as substantiated by numerous works in the past decade. Tampering attacks are a class of such physical attacks where the attacker can change the memory/computation, gains additional (non-black-box) knowledge by interacting...... with the faulty device and then tries to break the security. Prior works show that generically approaching such problem is notoriously difficult. So, in this dissertation we attempt to solve an easier question, known as memory-tampering, where the attacker is allowed tamper only with the memory of the device...

  15. Attack Tree Generation by Policy Invalidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2015-01-01

    through brainstorming of experts. In this work we formalize attack tree generation including human factors; based on recent advances in system models we develop a technique to identify possible attacks analytically, including technical and human factors. Our systematic attack generation is based......Attacks on systems and organisations increasingly exploit human actors, for example through social engineering, complicating their formal treatment and automatic identification. Formalisation of human behaviour is difficult at best, and attacks on socio-technical systems are still mostly identified...... on invalidating policies in the system model by identifying possible sequences of actions that lead to an attack. The generated attacks are precise enough to illustrate the threat, and they are general enough to hide the details of individual steps....

  16. Whispering through DDoS attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miralem Mehic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Denial of service (DoS attack is an attempt of the attacker to disable victim's machine by depleting network or computing resources. If this attack is performed with more than one machine, it is called distributed denial of service (DDoS attack. Covert channels are those channels which are used for information transmission even though they are neither designed nor intended to transfer information at all. In this article, we investigated the possibility of using of DDoS attack for purposes of hiding data or concealing the existing covert channel. In addition, in this paper we analyzed the possibility of detection of such covert communication with the well-known statistical method. Also, we proposed the coordination mechanisms of the attack which may be used. A lot of research has been done in order to describe and prevent DDoS attacks, yet research on steganography on this field is still scarce.

  17. Network Protection Against DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dzurenda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with possibilities of the network protection against Distributed Denial of Service attacks (DDoS. The basic types of DDoS attacks and their impact on the protected network are presented here. Furthermore, we present basic detection and defense techniques thanks to which it is possible to increase resistance of the protected network or device against DDoS attacks. Moreover, we tested the ability of current commercial Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS, especially Radware DefensePro 6.10.00 product against the most common types of DDoS attacks. We create five scenarios that are varied in type and strength of the DDoS attacks. The attacks intensity was much greater than the normal intensity of the current DDoS attacks.

  18. NETWORK SECURITY ATTACKS. ARP POISONING CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method is known as man in the middle attack. With this type of attack the affected stations from a network will have invalid entries in the ARP table. Thus, it will contain only the correspondence between the IP addresses of the stations from the same network and a single MAC address (the station that initiated the attack. In this paper we present step by step the initiation of such an attack in a network with three computers. We will intercept the traffic between two stations using the third one (the attacker.

  19. Cache timing attacks on recent microarchitectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreou, Alexandres; Bogdanov, Andrey; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Cache timing attacks have been known for a long time, however since the rise of cloud computing and shared hardware resources, such attacks found new potentially devastating applications. One prominent example is S$A (presented by Irazoqui et al at S&P 2015) which is a cache timing attack against...... AES or similar algorithms in virtualized environments. This paper applies variants of this cache timing attack to Intel's latest generation of microprocessors. It enables a spy-process to recover cryptographic keys, interacting with the victim processes only over TCP. The threat model is a logically...... separated but CPU co-located attacker with root privileges. We report successful and practically verified applications of this attack against a wide range of microarchitectures, from a two-core Nehalem processor (i5-650) to two-core Haswell (i7-4600M) and four-core Skylake processors (i7-6700). The attack...

  20. 77 FR 5373 - American Heart Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ...; its victims are fathers and daughters, grandparents and siblings, cherished friends and community... Federal agencies and forging new public-private partnerships to prevent one million heart attacks and... research to unlock new treatments for cardiovascular disease. And the Centers for Disease Control and...

  1. Mending broken hearts : Cardiac regeneration in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    kruse, fabian

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading global cause of death, accounting for more than 30% of all deaths. It claims more lives than all forms of cancer combined. Bearing these facts in mind, research in this field is direly needed. A heart attack, also known as myocardial infarction (MI), happens

  2. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  3. Attack-Resistant Trust Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levien, Raph

    The Internet is an amazingly powerful tool for connecting people together, unmatched in human history. Yet, with that power comes great potential for spam and abuse. Trust metrics are an attempt to compute the set of which people are trustworthy and which are likely attackers. This chapter presents two specific trust metrics developed and deployed on the Advogato Website, which is a community blog for free software developers. This real-world experience demonstrates that the trust metrics fulfilled their goals, but that for good results, it is important to match the assumptions of the abstract trust metric computation to the real-world implementation.

  4. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Florens N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, Nico A.; Delhaas, Tammo; Helbing, Wim A.; Lam, Jan; Sobotka-Plojhar, Marta A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, Narayanswani

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  5. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, F.N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, N.A.; Delhaas, T.; Helbing, W.A.; Lam, J.; Sobotka-Plojhar, M.A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  6. Pre-attack signs and symptoms in cluster headache: Characteristics and time profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoer, Agneta; Lund, Nunu; Beske, Rasmus; Jensen, Rigmor; Barloese, Mads

    2018-05-01

    Introduction In contrast to the premonitory phase of migraine, little is known about the pre-attack (prodromal) phase of a cluster headache. We aimed to describe the nature, prevalence, and duration of pre-attack symptoms in cluster headache. Methods Eighty patients with episodic cluster headache or chronic cluster headache, according to ICHD-3 beta criteria, were invited to participate. In this observational study, patients underwent a semi-structured interview where they were asked about the presence of 31 symptoms/signs in relation to a typical cluster headache attack. Symptoms included previously reported cluster headache pre-attack symptoms, premonitory migraine symptoms and accompanying symptoms of migraine and cluster headache. Results Pre-attack symptoms were reported by 83.3% of patients, with an average of 4.25 (SD 3.9) per patient. Local and painful symptoms, occurring with a median of 10 minutes before attack, were reported by 70%. Local and painless symptoms and signs, occurring with a median of 10 minutes before attack, were reported by 43.8% and general symptoms, occurring with a median of 20 minutes before attack, were reported by 62.5% of patients. Apart from a dull/aching sensation in the attack area being significantly ( p cluster headache. Since the origin of cluster headache attacks is still unresolved, studies of pre-attack symptoms could contribute to the understanding of cluster headache pathophysiology. Furthermore, identification and recognition of pre-attack symptoms could potentially allow earlier abortive treatment.

  7. Heart regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, Kaja; Weinberger, Florian; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Regenerating an injured heart holds great promise for millions of patients suffering from heart diseases. Since the human heart has very limited regenerative capacity, this is a challenging task. Numerous strategies aiming to improve heart function have been developed. In this review we focus on approaches intending to replace damaged heart muscle by new cardiomyocytes. Different strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, by direct reprogramming and induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation are discussed regarding their therapeutic potential and respective advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, different methods for the transplantation of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are described and their clinical perspectives are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigal Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month. The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF. Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine.

  9. Anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Prakash Painuly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on anger attacks has been mostly limited to depression, and only a few studies have focused on anger attacks in obsessive compulsive disorder. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study all new obsessive compulsive disorder patients aged 20-60 years attending an outpatient clinic were assessed using the anger attack questionnaire, irritability, depression and anxiety scale (for the direction of the aggressive behavior and quality of life (QOL. Results: The sample consisted of 42 consecutive subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder, out of which 21 (50% had anger attacks. The obsessive compulsive disorder subjects with and without anger attacks did not show significant differences in terms of sociodemographic variables, duration of illness, treatment, and family history. However, subjects with anger attacks had significantly higher prevalence of panic attacks and comorbid depression. Significantly more subjects with anger attacks exhibited aggressive acts toward spouse, parents, children, and other relatives in the form of yelling and threatening to hurt, trying to hurt, and threatening to leave. However, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of QOL, except for the psychological domain being worse in the subjects with anger attacks. Conclusion: Anger attacks are present in half of the patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, and they correlate with the presence of comorbid depression.

  10. Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    McMurray, John; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure occurs in 3% to 4% of adults aged over 65 years, usually as a consequence of coronary artery disease or hypertension, and causes breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and increased mortality. The 5-year mortality in people with systolic heart failure ranges from 25% to 75%, often owing to sudden death following ventricular arrhythmia. Risks of cardiovascular events are increased in people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or heart failure.

  11. Artificial heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-18

    Super-pure plutonium-238 could use heat produced during fission to power an implanted artificial heart. Three model hearts have worked for some time. Concern that excess heat would make the procedure unsafe for humans has broadened the search for another energy source, such as electrohydraulic drive or an external power battery. A back pack approach may provide an interim solution until materials are developed which can withstand heart activity and be small enough for implantation.

  12. Efficacy of nebulized fluticasone propionate in adult patients admitted to the emergency department due to bronchial asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starobin, Daniel; Bolotinsky, Ludmila; Or, Jack; Fink, Gershon; Shtoeger, Zev

    2008-01-01

    Locally delivered steroids by inhalers or nebulizers have been shown in small trials to be effective in acute asthma attack, but evidence-based data are insufficient to establish their place as routine management of adult asthma attacks. To determine the efficacy of nebulized compared to systemic steroids in adult asthmatics admitted to the emergency department following an acute attack. Adult asthmatics admitted to the ED were assigned in random consecutive case fashion to one of three protocol groups: group 1--nebulized steroid fluticasone (Flixotide Nebules), group 2--intravenous methylprednisolone, group 3--combined treatment by both routes. Objective and subjective parameters, such as peak expiratory flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate and dyspnea score, were registered before and 2 hours after ED treatment was initiated. Steroids were continued for 1 week following the ED visit according to the protocol arm. Data on hospital admission/discharge rate, ED readmissions in the week after enrollment and other major events related to asthma were registered. Altogether, 73 adult asthmatics were assigned to receive treatment: 24 patients in group 1, 23 in group 2 and 26 in group 3. Mean age was 44.4 +/- 16.8 years (range 17-75 years). Peak expiratory flow and dyspnea score significantly improved in group 1 patients compared with patients in the other groups after 2 hours of ED treatment (P = 0.021 and 0.009, respectively). The discharge rate after ED treatment was significantly higher in groups 1 and 3 than in group 2 (P = 0.05). All 73 patients were alive a week after enrollment. Five patients (20.8%) in the Flixotide treatment arm were hospitalized and required additional systemic steroids. Multivariate analysis of factors affecting hospitalization rate demonstrated that severity of asthma (odds ratio 8.11) and group 2 (OD 4.17) had a negative effect, whereas adherence to chronic anti-asthma therapy (OD 0.49) reduced the hospitalization rate. Our study cohort

  13. Types of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  14. CARDIAC EMERGENCY: LIFT UP YOUR HEARTS

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    50 000 deaths every year in France following heart problems. You or someone close to you, a friend, a relative, a colleague at work. You all probably know someone who has had a heart attack. Noting that 80% of all deaths occur outside hospital, the Fédération Française de Cardiologie, working in collaboration with first aid groups (rescue associations, etc.), are launching a nationwide campaign to train as many people as possible in what to do for cardiac first aid. According to specialists, more than half of all heart attack victims could have survived if someone nearby had been quick at doing what was needed. The CERN Fire Brigade is helping in this campaign by offering two free training sessions, each lasting three hours and mainly based on recognizing a heart attack, the proper way of calling for help, and practice in mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and heart massage. The courses will be held on 20 November and 6 December from4 to 7 p.m. at Building 65. So don’t wait, stop b...

  15. Higher Order Differential Attack on 6-Round MISTY1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoo, Yukiyasu; Saito, Teruo; Nakashima, Hiroki; Shigeri, Maki

    MISTY1 is a 64-bit block cipher that has provable security against differential and linear cryptanalysis. MISTY1 is one of the algorithms selected in the European NESSIE project, and it has been recommended for Japanese e-Government ciphers by the CRYPTREC project. This paper reports a previously unknown higher order differential characteristic of 4-round MISTY1 with the FL functions. It also shows that a higher order differential attack that utilizes this newly discovered characteristic is successful against 6-round MISTY1 with the FL functions. This attack can recover a partial subkey with a data complexity of 253.7 and a computational complexity of 264.4, which is better than any previous cryptanalysis of MISTY1.

  16. Resilience of LTE networks against smart jamming attacks: Wideband model

    KAUST Repository

    Aziz, Farhan M.

    2015-12-03

    LTE/LTE-A networks have been successfully providing advanced broadband services to millions of users worldwide. Lately, it has been suggested to use LTE networks for mission-critical applications like public safety, smart grid and military communications. We have previously shown that LTE networks are vulnerable to Denial-of-Service (DOS) and loss of service attacks from smart jammers. In this paper, we extend our previous work on resilience of LTE networks to wideband multipath fading channel, SINR estimation in frequency domain and computation of utilities based on observable parameters under the framework of single-shot and repeated games with asymmetric information. In a single-shot game formulation, network utility is severely compromised at its solutions, i.e. at the Nash Equilibria (NE). We propose evolved repeated-game strategy algorithms to combat smart jamming attacks that can be implemented in existing deployments using current technology. © 2015 IEEE.

  17. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  18. DDOS ATTACK DETECTION SIMULATION AND HANDLING MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sanmorino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we discuss how to handle DDoS attack that coming from the attacker by using detection method and handling mechanism. Detection perform by comparing number of packets and number of flow. Whereas handling mechanism perform by limiting or drop the packets that detected as a DDoS attack. The study begins with simulation on real network, which aims to get the real traffic data. Then, dump traffic data obtained from the simulation used for detection method on our prototype system called DASHM (DDoS Attack Simulation and Handling Mechanism. From the result of experiment that has been conducted, the proposed method successfully detect DDoS attack and handle the incoming packet sent by attacker.

  19. Model checking exact cost for attack scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Attack trees constitute a powerful tool for modelling security threats. Many security analyses of attack trees can be seamlessly expressed as model checking of Markov Decision Processes obtained from the attack trees, thus reaping the benefits of a coherent framework and a mature tool support....... However, current model checking does not encompass the exact cost analysis of an attack, which is standard for attack trees. Our first contribution is the logic erPCTL with cost-related operators. The extended logic allows to analyse the probability of an event satisfying given cost bounds and to compute...... the exact cost of an event. Our second contribution is the model checking algorithm for erPCTL. Finally, we apply our framework to the analysis of attack trees....

  20. Securing internet by eliminating DDOS attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranchana, R.; Gayathri Devi, N.; Santhi, H.; Gayathri, P.

    2017-11-01

    The major threat caused to the authorised usage of Internet is Distributed Denial of Service attack. The mechanisms used to prevent the DDoS attacks are said to overcome the attack’s ability in spoofing the IP packets source addresses. By utilising Internet Protocol spoofing, the attackers cause a consequential load over the networks destination for policing attack packets. To overcome the IP Spoofing level on the Internet, We propose an Inter domain Packet Filter (IPF) architecture. The proposed scheme is not based on global routing information. The packets with reliable source addresses are not rejected, the IPF frame work works in such a manner. The spoofing capability of attackers is confined by IPF, and also the filter identifies the source of an attack packet by minimal number of candidate network.

  1. Where can an Insider attack?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof; Nielson, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    By definition, an insider has better access, is more trusted, and has better information about internal procedures, high-value targets, and potential weak spots in the security, than an outsider. Consequently, an insider attack has the potential to cause significant, even catastrophic, damage...... to the targeted organisation. While the problem is well recognised in the security community as well as in law-enforcement and intelligence communities, the main resort still is to audit log files \\$\\backslash\\$emph{after the fact}. There has been little research into developing models, automated tools......, and techniques for analysing and solving (parts of) the problem. In this paper we first develop a formal model of systems, that can describe real-world scenarios. These high-level models are then mapped to acKlaim, a process algebra with support for access control, that is used to study and analyse properties...

  2. Transient ischemic attack: diagnostic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messé, Steven R; Jauch, Edward C

    2008-08-01

    A transient ischemic attack portends significant risk of a stroke. Consequently, the diagnostic evaluation in the emergency department is focused on identifying high-risk causes so that preventive strategies can be implemented. The evaluation consists of a facilitated evaluation of the patient's metabolic, cardiac, and neurovascular systems. At a minimum, the following tests are recommended: fingerstick glucose level, electrolyte levels, CBC count, urinalysis, and coagulation studies; noncontrast computed tomography (CT) of the head; electrocardiography; and continuous telemetry monitoring. Vascular imaging studies, such as carotid ultrasonography, CT angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography, should be performed on an urgent basis and prioritized according to the patient's risk stratification for disease. Consideration should be given for echocardiography if no large vessel abnormality is identified.

  3. Integrating cyber attacks within fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nai Fovino, Igor; Masera, Marcelo; De Cian, Alessio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for quantitative security risk assessment of complex systems is presented, combining fault-tree analysis, traditionally used in reliability analysis, with the recently introduced Attack-tree analysis, proposed for the study of malicious attack patterns. The combined use of fault trees and attack trees helps the analyst to effectively face the security challenges posed by the introduction of modern ICT technologies in the control systems of critical infrastructures. The proposed approach allows considering the interaction of malicious deliberate acts with random failures. Formal definitions of fault tree and attack tree are provided and a mathematical model for the calculation of system fault probabilities is presented.

  4. Visualizing Risks: Icons for Information Attack Scenarios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hosmer, Hilary

    2000-01-01

    .... Visual attack scenarios help defenders see system ambiguities, imprecision, vulnerabilities and omissions, thus speeding up risk analysis, requirements gathering, safeguard selection, cryptographic...

  5. Classifying network attack scenarios using an ontology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, RP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ) or to the target?s reputation. The Residue sub-phase refers to damage or artefacts of the attack that occur after the attack goal has been achieved, and occurs because the attacker loses control of some systems. For example after the launch of a DDOS..., A. (1995). Hacking theft of $10 million from citibank revealed. Retrieved 10/10, 2011, from http://articles.latimes.com/1995-08-19/business/fi-36656_1_citibank-system Hurley, E. (2004). SCO site succumbs to DDoS attack. Retrieved 10/10, 2011, from...

  6. A computer network attack taxonomy and ontology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, RP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available of the attack that occur after the attack goal has been achieved, and occurs because the attacker loses control of some systems. For example, after the launch of a DDOS (Distributed Denial of Service) attack, zombie computers may still connect to the target...-scrap- value-of-a-hacked-pc-revisited/ . Lancor, L., & Workman, R. (2007). Using Google Hacking to Enhance Defense Strategies. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 39 (1), 491-495. Lau, F., Rubin, S. H., Smith, M. H., & Trajkovic, L. (2000). Distributed Denial of Service...

  7. Integrating cyber attacks within fault trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nai Fovino, Igor [Joint Research Centre - EC, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Ispra, VA (Italy)], E-mail: igor.nai@jrc.it; Masera, Marcelo [Joint Research Centre - EC, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Ispra, VA (Italy); De Cian, Alessio [Department of Electrical Engineering, University di Genova, Genoa (Italy)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper, a new method for quantitative security risk assessment of complex systems is presented, combining fault-tree analysis, traditionally used in reliability analysis, with the recently introduced Attack-tree analysis, proposed for the study of malicious attack patterns. The combined use of fault trees and attack trees helps the analyst to effectively face the security challenges posed by the introduction of modern ICT technologies in the control systems of critical infrastructures. The proposed approach allows considering the interaction of malicious deliberate acts with random failures. Formal definitions of fault tree and attack tree are provided and a mathematical model for the calculation of system fault probabilities is presented.

  8. HEART Aerothermodynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the aerothermodynamic environment around an 8.3 meter High Energy Atmospheric Reentry Test (HEART) vehicle. This study generated twelve nose shape configurations and compared their responses at the peak heating trajectory point against the baseline nose shape. The heat flux sensitivity to the angle of attack variations are also discussed. The possibility of a two-piece Thermal Protection System (TPS) design at the nose is also considered, as are the surface catalytic affects of the aeroheating environment of such configuration. Based on these analyses, an optimum nose shape is proposed to minimize the surface heating. A recommendation is also made for a two-piece TPS design, for which the surface catalytic uncertainty associated with the jump in heating at the nose-IAD juncture is reduced by a minimum of 93%. In this paper, the aeroshell is assumed to be rigid and the inflatable fluid interaction effect is left for future investigations.

  9. New Medications for Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Jonathan S.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is common and results in substantial morbidity and mortality. Current guideline-based therapies for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, including beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and aldosterone antagonists aim to interrupt deleterious neurohormonal pathways and have shown significant success in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with heart failure. Continued efforts to further improve outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction have led to the first new-in-class medications approved for heart failure since 2005, ivabradine and sacubitril/valsartan. Ivabradine targets the If channels in the sinoatrial node of the heart, decreasing heart rate. Sacubitril/valsartan combines a neprilysin inhibitor that increases levels of beneficial vasodilatory peptides with an angiotensin receptor antagonist. On a background of previously approved, guideline-directed medical therapies for heart failure, these medications have shown improved clinical outcomes ranging from decreased hospitalizations in a select group of patients to a reduction in all-cause mortality across all pre-specified subgroups. In this review, we will discuss the previously established guideline-directed medical therapies for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, the translational research that led to the development of these new therapies, and the results from the major clinical trials of ivabradine and sacubitril/valsartan. PMID:27038558

  10. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  11. Cyanotic congenital heart disease and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Julie Bjerre; Jensen, Annette Schophuus; Engstrøm, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Improved treatment options in paediatric cardiology and congenital heart surgery have resulted in an ageing population of patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD). The risk of acquired heart disease such as atherosclerosis increases with age.Previous studies have speculated whether...

  12. Practical security and privacy attacks against biometric hashing using sparse recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Berkay; Karabat, Cagatay; Azadmanesh, Matin; Erdogan, Hakan

    2016-12-01

    Biometric hashing is a cancelable biometric verification method that has received research interest recently. This method can be considered as a two-factor authentication method which combines a personal password (or secret key) with a biometric to obtain a secure binary template which is used for authentication. We present novel practical security and privacy attacks against biometric hashing when the attacker is assumed to know the user's password in order to quantify the additional protection due to biometrics when the password is compromised. We present four methods that can reconstruct a biometric feature and/or the image from a hash and one method which can find the closest biometric data (i.e., face image) from a database. Two of the reconstruction methods are based on 1-bit compressed sensing signal reconstruction for which the data acquisition scenario is very similar to biometric hashing. Previous literature introduced simple attack methods, but we show that we can achieve higher level of security threats using compressed sensing recovery techniques. In addition, we present privacy attacks which reconstruct a biometric image which resembles the original image. We quantify the performance of the attacks using detection error tradeoff curves and equal error rates under advanced attack scenarios. We show that conventional biometric hashing methods suffer from high security and privacy leaks under practical attacks, and we believe more advanced hash generation methods are necessary to avoid these attacks.

  13. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  14. Attack Trees for Practical Security Assessment: Ranking of Attack Scenarios with ADTool 2.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadyatskaya, Olga; Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, P.T.; Lounis, Karim; Mauw, Sjouke; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    In this tool demonstration paper we present the ADTool2.0: an open-source software tool for design, manipulation and analysis of attack trees. The tool supports ranking of attack scenarios based on quantitative attributes entered by the user; it is scriptable; and it incorporates attack trees with

  15. The work-averse cyber attacker model : theory and evidence from two million attack signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allodi, L.; Massacci, F.; Williams, J.

    The typical cyber attacker is assumed to be all powerful and to exploit all possible vulnerabilities. In this paper we present, and empirically validate, a novel and more realistic attacker model. The intuition of our model is that an attacker will optimally choose whether to act and weaponize a new

  16. Attack Tree Generation by Policy Invalidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof; Kammüller, Florian; Naeem Akram, R.; Jajodia, S.

    2015-01-01

    Attacks on systems and organisations increasingly exploit human actors, for example through social engineering, complicating their formal treatment and automatic identi﬿cation. Formalisation of human behaviour is difficult at best, and attacks on socio-technical systems are still mostly identi﬿ed

  17. Evaluation of Crosstalk Attacks in Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael; Grobe, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    WDM-PON systems regained interest as low-cost solution for metro and access networks. We present a comparative analysis of resilience of wavelength-selective and wavelength-routed architectures against crosstalk attackers. We compare the vulnerability of these architectures against attacks...

  18. Drammer : Deterministic Rowhammer attacks on mobile platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Veen, Victor; Fratantonio, Yanick; Lindorfer, Martina; Gruss, Daniel; Maurice, Clémentine; Vigna, Giovanni; Bos, Herbert; Razavi, Kaveh; Giuffrida, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    Recent work shows that the Rowhammer hardware bug can be used to craft powerful attacks and completely subvert a system. However, existing efforts either describe probabilistic (and thus unreliable) attacks or rely on special (and often unavailable) memory management features to place victim objects

  19. Collaborative Attack Mitigation and Response: A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinberger, Jessica; Sperotto, Anna; Baier, Harald; Pras, Aiko

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, network-based attacks have become to one of the top causes of network infrastructure and service outages. To counteract a network-based attack, an approach is to move mitigation from the target network to the networks of Internet Service Providers (ISP). However, it remains

  20. Rotational Rebound Attacks on Reduced Skein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khovratovich, Dmitry; Nikolic, Ivica; Rechberger, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we combine a recent rotational cryptanalysis with the rebound attack, which results in the best cryptanalysis of Skein, a candidate for the SHA-3 competition. The rebound attack approach was so far only applied to AES-like constructions. For the first time, we show that this approach...

  1. Cyber attack analysis on cyber-physical systems: Detectability, severity, and attenuation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Cheolhyeon

    computational cost. The proposed algorithm is validated through a linearized longitudinal motion of a UAV example. Finally, we propose an attack attenuation strategy via the controller design for CPSs that are robust to various types of cyber attacks. While the previous studies have investigated a secure control by assuming a specific attack strategy, in this research we propose a hybrid robust control scheme that contains multiple sub-controllers, each matched to a specific type of cyber attacks. Then the system can be adapted to various cyber attacks (including those that are not assumed for sub-controller design) by switching its sub-controllers to achieve the best performance. Then, a method for designing a secure switching logic to counter all possible cyber attacks is proposed and it verifies mathematically the system's performance and stability as well. The performance of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated by an example with the hybrid H2 - H-infinity controller applied to a UAV example.

  2. Attack tree analysis for insider threats on the IoT using isabelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammüller, Florian; Nurse, Jason R. C.; Probst, Christian W.

    2016-01-01

    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) aims at integrating small devices around humans. The threat from human insiders in "regular" organisations is real; in a fully-connected world of the IoT, organisations face a substantially more severe security challenge due to unexpected access possibilities and info....... On the classified IoT attack examples, we show how this logical approach can be used to make the models more precise and to analyse the previously identified Insider IoT attacks using Isabelle attack trees....

  3. Combating Memory Corruption Attacks On Scada Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian

    Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.

  4. Use of Attack Graphs in Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Shandilya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Attack graphs have been used to model the vulnerabilities of the systems and their potential exploits. The successful exploits leading to the partial/total failure of the systems are subject of keen security interest. Considerable effort has been expended in exhaustive modeling, analyses, detection, and mitigation of attacks. One prominent methodology involves constructing attack graphs of the pertinent system for analysis and response strategies. This not only gives the simplified representation of the system, but also allows prioritizing the security properties whose violations are of greater concern, for both detection and repair. We present a survey and critical study of state-of-the-art technologies in attack graph generation and use in security system. Based on our research, we identify the potential, challenges, and direction of the current research in using attack graphs.

  5. Automatic Classification of Attacks on IP Telephony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Safarik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an algorithm for automatic analysis of attack data in IP telephony network with a neural network. Data for the analysis is gathered from variable monitoring application running in the network. These monitoring systems are a typical part of nowadays network. Information from them is usually used after attack. It is possible to use an automatic classification of IP telephony attacks for nearly real-time classification and counter attack or mitigation of potential attacks. The classification use proposed neural network, and the article covers design of a neural network and its practical implementation. It contains also methods for neural network learning and data gathering functions from honeypot application.

  6. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other diseases. Chronic diseases — such as diabetes, HIV, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or a buildup of iron (hemochromatosis) or ... transplantation or support with a ventricular assist device. Prevention The key to preventing heart failure is to ...

  7. Classes of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and Advanced HF • Tools and Resources • Personal Stories Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  8. Men and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Men and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Source: Interactive Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke Heart Disease Facts in Men Heart disease is the leading ...

  9. Wine and heart health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  10. A taxonomy and discussion of software attack technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

    2005-03-01

    Software is a complex thing. It is not an engineering artifact that springs forth from a design by simply following software coding rules; creativity and the human element are at the heart of the process. Software development is part science, part art, and part craft. Design, architecture, and coding are equally important activities and in each of these activities, errors may be introduced that lead to security vulnerabilities. Therefore, inevitably, errors enter into the code. Some of these errors are discovered during testing; however, some are not. The best way to find security errors, whether they are introduced as part of the architecture development effort or coding effort, is to automate the security testing process to the maximum extent possible and add this class of tools to the tools available, which aids in the compilation process, testing, test analysis, and software distribution. Recent technological advances, improvements in computer-generated forces (CGFs), and results in research in information assurance and software protection indicate that we can build a semi-intelligent software security testing tool. However, before we can undertake the security testing automation effort, we must understand the scope of the required testing, the security failures that need to be uncovered during testing, and the characteristics of the failures. Therefore, we undertook the research reported in the paper, which is the development of a taxonomy and a discussion of software attacks generated from the point of view of the security tester with the goal of using the taxonomy to guide the development of the knowledge base for the automated security testing tool. The representation for attacks and threat cases yielded by this research captures the strategies, tactics, and other considerations that come into play during the planning and execution of attacks upon application software. The paper is organized as follows. Section one contains an introduction to our research

  11. Adaptive cyber-attack modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Dougherty, Edward T.

    2006-05-01

    The pervasiveness of software and networked information systems is evident across a broad spectrum of business and government sectors. Such reliance provides an ample opportunity not only for the nefarious exploits of lone wolf computer hackers, but for more systematic software attacks from organized entities. Much effort and focus has been placed on preventing and ameliorating network and OS attacks, a concomitant emphasis is required to address protection of mission critical software. Typical software protection technique and methodology evaluation and verification and validation (V&V) involves the use of a team of subject matter experts (SMEs) to mimic potential attackers or hackers. This manpower intensive, time-consuming, and potentially cost-prohibitive approach is not amenable to performing the necessary multiple non-subjective analyses required to support quantifying software protection levels. To facilitate the evaluation and V&V of software protection solutions, we have designed and developed a prototype adaptive cyber attack modeling system. Our approach integrates an off-line mechanism for rapid construction of Bayesian belief network (BN) attack models with an on-line model instantiation, adaptation and knowledge acquisition scheme. Off-line model construction is supported via a knowledge elicitation approach for identifying key domain requirements and a process for translating these requirements into a library of BN-based cyber-attack models. On-line attack modeling and knowledge acquisition is supported via BN evidence propagation and model parameter learning.

  12. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  13. Radiological attacks and accidents. Medical consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuta, Hidenari

    2007-01-01

    Probability of the occurrence of radiological attacks appears to be elevated after the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11 in 2001. There are a lot of scenarios of radiological attack: simple radiological device, radiological disperse device (RDD or dirty bomb), attacks against nuclear reactor, improvised nuclear device, and nuclear weapons. Of these, RDD attack is the most probable scenario, because it can be easily made and can generate enormous psychological and economic damages. Radiological incidents are occurring to and fro in the world, including several cases of theft to nuclear facilities and unsuccessful terrorist attacks against them. Recently, a former Russian spy has allegedly been killed using polonium-210. In addition, serious radiological accidents have occurred in Chernobyl, Goiania, and Tokai-mura. Planning, preparation, education, and training exercise appear to be essential factors to cope with radiological attacks and accidents effectively without feeling much anxiety. Triage and psychological first aid are prerequisite to manage and provide effective medial care for mass casualties without inducing panic. (author)

  14. Disorders of cardiac hemodynamic in attack period of bronchial asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratiev V.А.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By dopplerechocardiography method there was studied functional state of cardiac ventricles and character of hemodynamic disorders in 48 patients aged 5-17 years in attack period of moderately-severe and severe bronchial asthma. Group of comparison included 40 healthy peers. Disorders of central and peripheral hemodynamic in attack period of bronchial asthma in children were accompanied both by systolic and diastolic dysfunction of the left and right heart ventricles, herewith right ventricle was functioning in the mode of hyperdynamic, and left one – in the mode of hypodynamic. Combined systolic-diastolic variant of dysfunction both of right and left ventricles was developing in 58,3% of patients with moderately-severe and in 91,6% of patients with severe bronchial asthma. In the attack period of bronchial asthma in children equal directionality of systolic and diastolic dysfunction of heart ventricles was developing; this was characterized by synchronization of their function. Assessment of functional interaction of the ventricles under conditions of severe asthma attack showed direct and high (r=0,67 correlative interaction between finding of Tei index of the left and right ventricles, which characterize their systolic function; this, under conditions of increased hemodynamic pre-loading testified to compensatory increase of systolic interaction of ventricles. Direct and high (r=0,69 correlative interaction between time indices of isovolumic relaxation of the left and right ventricles, characterizing their diastolic function, testified to compensatory increase of diastolic interaction of ventricles under conditions of increase of hemodynamic post-loading. Imbalance of central and peripheral link of hemodynamic in attack period of bronchial asthma in children testified to development of cardiac insufficiency, which was compensated predominantly at the expense of increase of heart contractions rate.

  15. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile non-invasive imaging modality that serves a broad spectrum of indications in clinical cardiology and has proven evidence. Most of the numerous applications are appropriate in patients with previous cardiovascular surgery in the same manner as in non-surgical subjects. However, some specifics have to be considered. This review article is intended to provide information about the application of CMR in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery. In particular, the two main scenarios, i.e. following coronary artery bypass surgery and following heart valve surgery, are highlighted. Furthermore, several pictorial descriptions of other potential indications for CMR after cardiovascular surgery are given.

  16. Classification of cyber attacks in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available various ATM's throughout South Africa. Two criminals, Motsoane and Masoleng, were arrested in February 2012 and both sentenced to 15 years in jail [36, 37]. 3.10 2013: IOL DDoS Anonymous Africa claimed responsibility for launching a Distributed Denial... of Service (DDoS) attack on the Independent Newspaper web site iol.co.za. The attack was in response to claims that the IOL group supports Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe. The following taunt was sent to boast about the attack: “IOL bad boys bad boys...

  17. Attacker Modelling in Ubiquitous Computing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papini, Davide

    in with our everyday life. This future is visible to everyone nowadays: terms like smartphone, cloud, sensor, network etc. are widely known and used in our everyday life. But what about the security of such systems. Ubiquitous computing devices can be limited in terms of energy, computing power and memory...... attacker remain somehow undened and still under extensive investigation. This Thesis explores the nature of the ubiquitous attacker with a focus on how she interacts with the physical world and it denes a model that captures the abilities of the attacker. Furthermore a quantitative implementation...

  18. Effect of clustering on attack vulnerability of interdependent scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rui-qi; Sun, Shi-wen; Ma, Yi-lin; Wang, Li; Xia, Cheng-yi

    2015-01-01

    In order to deeply understand the complex interdependent systems, it is of great concern to take clustering coefficient, which is an important feature of many real-world systems, into account. Previous study mainly focused on the impact of clustering on interdependent networks under random attacks, while we extend the study to the case of the more realistic attacking strategy, targeted attack. A system composed of two interdependent scale-free networks with tunable clustering is provided. The effects of coupling strength and coupling preference on attack vulnerability are explored. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that interdependent links between two networks make the entire system much more fragile to attacks. Also, it is found that clustering significantly increases the vulnerability of interdependent scale-free networks. Moreover, for fully coupled network, disassortative coupling is found to be most vulnerable to random attacks, while the random and assortative coupling have little difference. Additionally, enhancing coupling strength can greatly enhance the fragility of interdependent networks against targeted attacks. These results can not only improve the deep understanding of structural complexity of complex systems, but also provide insights into the guidance of designing resilient infrastructures.

  19. Cyber-Attacks on Smart Meters in Household Nanogrid: Modeling, Simulation and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tellbach

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The subject of cyber-security and therefore cyber-attacks on smart grid (SG has become subject of many publications in the last years, emphasizing its importance in research, as well as in practice. One especially vulnerable part of SG are smart meters (SMs. The major contribution of simulating a variety of cyber-attacks on SMs that have not been done in previous studies is the identification and quantification of the possible impacts on the security of SG. In this study, a simulation model of a nanogrid, including a complete household with an SM, was developed. Different cyber-attacks were injected into the SM to simulate their effects on household nanogrid. The analysis of the impacts of different cyber-attacks showed that the effects of cyber-attacks can be sorted into various categories. Integrity and confidentiality attacks cause monetary effects on the grid. While, availability attacks have monetary effects on the grid as well, they are mainly aimed at compromising the SM communication by either delaying or stopping it completely.

  20. Practical quantum private query with better performance in resisting joint-measurement attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chun-Yan; Wang, Tian-Yin; Gao, Fei

    2016-04-01

    As a kind of practical protocol, quantum-key-distribution (QKD)-based quantum private queries (QPQs) have drawn lots of attention. However, joint-measurement (JM) attack poses a noticeable threat to the database security in such protocols. That is, by JM attack a malicious user can illegally elicit many more items from the database than the average amount an honest one can obtain. Taking Jacobi et al.'s protocol as an example, by JM attack a malicious user can obtain as many as 500 bits, instead of the expected 2.44 bits, from a 104-bit database in one query. It is a noticeable security flaw in theory, and would also arise in application with the development of quantum memories. To solve this problem, we propose a QPQ protocol based on a two-way QKD scheme, which behaves much better in resisting JM attack. Concretely, the user Alice cannot get more database items by conducting JM attack on the qubits because she has to send them back to Bob (the database holder) before knowing which of them should be jointly measured. Furthermore, JM attack by both Alice and Bob would be detected with certain probability, which is quite different from previous protocols. Moreover, our protocol retains the good characters of QKD-based QPQs, e.g., it is loss tolerant and robust against quantum memory attack.

  1. Implementation of Positive Operator-Valued Measure in Passive Faraday Mirror Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei-Long; Gao Ming; Ma Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Passive Faraday-mirror (PFM) attack is based on imperfect Faraday mirrors in practical quantum cryptography systems and a set of three-dimensional Positive Operator-Valued Measure (POVM) operators plays an important role in this attack. In this paper, we propose a simple scheme to implement the POVM in PFM attack on an Faraday–Michelson quantum cryptography system. Since the POVM can not be implemented directly with previous methods, in this scheme it needs to expand the states sent by Alice and the POVM operators in the attack into four-dimensional Hilbert space first, without changing the attacking effect by calculation. Based on the methods proposed by Ahnert and Payne, the linear-optical setup for implementing the POVM operators is derived. At last, the complete setup for realizing the PFM attack is presented with all parameters. Furthermore, our scheme can also be applied to realize PFM attack on a plug-and-play system by changing the parameters in the setup. (paper)

  2. YET ANOTHER ATTACK ON WAGES AND CONDITIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    An unobjectionable-sounding title obscures the real intent of the latest in a series of Bills which the federal Coalition government is attempting to legislate in its ongoing attempts to undermine employee wages and conditions and attack unions.

  3. Marine Attack on Towed Hydrophone Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalmijn, Ad

    2002-01-01

    The original objective of the SIO Marine Attack project was to identify the electric and magnetic fields causing sharks to inflict serious damage upon the towed hydrophone arrays of US Navy submarines...

  4. Heuristic attacks against graphical password generators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peach, S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors explore heuristic attacks against graphical password generators. A new trend is emerging to use user clickable pictures to generate passwords. This technique of authentication can be successfully used for - for example...

  5. On localization attacks against cloud infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Sistani, Mohammad Ali

    2013-05-01

    One of the key characteristics of cloud computing is the device and location independence that enables the user to access systems regardless of their location. Because cloud computing is heavily based on sharing resource, it is vulnerable to cyber attacks. In this paper, we investigate a localization attack that enables the adversary to leverage central processing unit (CPU) resources to localize the physical location of server used by victims. By increasing and reducing CPU usage through the malicious virtual machine (VM), the response time from the victim VM will increase and decrease correspondingly. In this way, by embedding the probing signal into the CPU usage and correlating the same pattern in the response time from the victim VM, the adversary can find the location of victim VM. To determine attack accuracy, we investigate features in both the time and frequency domains. We conduct both theoretical and experimental study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such an attack.

  6. Using agility to combat cyber attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kerry

    2017-06-01

    Some incident response practitioners feel that they have been locked in a battle with cyber criminals since the popular adoption of the internet. Initially, organisations made great inroads in preventing and containing cyber attacks. In the last few years, however, cyber criminals have become adept at eluding defence security technologies and rapidly modifying their exploit strategies for financial or political gains. Similar to changes in military combat tactics, cyber criminals utilise distributed attack cells, real-time communications, and rapidly mutating exploits to minimise the potential for detection. Cyber criminals have changed their attack paradigm. This paper describes a new incident response paradigm aimed at combating the new model of cyber attacks with an emphasis on agility to increase the organisation's ability to respond rapidly to these new challenges.

  7. Social engineering attack examples, templates and scenarios

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, Francois

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available that are representative of real-world examples, whilst still being general enough to encompass several different real-world examples. The proposed social engineering attack templates cover all three types of communication, namely bidirectional communication...

  8. The role of sleep in migraine attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Inamorato

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Migraine attacks may be precipitated by sleep deprivation or excessive sleep and sleep is also associated with relief of migraine attacks. In view of this variable relationship we studied the records of 159 consecutive outpatients of our Headache Unit. In 121 records there was reference to sleep involvement, in 55% by a single form and in 45% by more than one form. When only one form was related, relief was most common (70%. 30% of that group of patients had the migraine attack precipitated by sleep, 24% by deprivation and 6% by sleep excess. When the effects of sleep were multiple, these effects were as expected logically in 65%: «in accordance» group (e.g attack precipitated by sleep deprivation and relieved by sleep onset. In a second group, («conflicting» where the involvement was not logical, there were three different combinations of sleep involvement, possibly due to more than one pathophysiological mechanism.

  9. ATTACK WARNING: Costs to Modernize NORAD's Computer System Significantly Understated

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cross, F

    1991-01-01

    ...) Integrated Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment (ITW/AA) system. These subsystems provide critical strategic surveillance and attack warning and assessment information to United States and Canadian leaders...

  10. RAPTOR: Ransomware Attack PredicTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Quinkert, Florian; Holz, Thorsten; Hossain, KSM Tozammel; Ferrara, Emilio; Lerman, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    Ransomware, a type of malicious software that encrypts a victim's files and only releases the cryptographic key once a ransom is paid, has emerged as a potentially devastating class of cybercrimes in the past few years. In this paper, we present RAPTOR, a promising line of defense against ransomware attacks. RAPTOR fingerprints attackers' operations to forecast ransomware activity. More specifically, our method learns features of malicious domains by looking at examples of domains involved in...

  11. Attack Helicopter Operations: Art or Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-13

    ATTACK HELICOPTER OPERATIONS: ART OR SCIENCE ? BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAN CALLEN United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release...TASK IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NC 11. TITLE (Include Socurity Classification) Attack Helicopter Operations: Art or Science ? 12. PERSONAL...OPERATIONS: ART OR SCIENCE ? AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY PROJECT by Lieutenant Colonel Jan Callen United States Army Colonel Greg Snelgrove Project Adviser U.S

  12. Protecting mobile agents from external replay attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Garrigues Olivella, Carles; Migas, Nikos; Buchanan, William; Robles, Sergi; Borrell Viader, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Peer-reviewed This paper presents a protocol for the protection of mobile agents against external replay attacks. This kind of attacks are performed by malicious platforms when dispatching an agent multiple times to a remote host, thus making it reexecute part of its itinerary. Current proposals aiming to address this problem are based on storing agent identifiers, or trip markers, inside agent platforms, so that future reexecutions can be detected and prevented. The problem of these solut...

  13. Semantic Identification Attacks on Web Browsing

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Neel

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a Semantic Identification Attack, in which an adversary uses semantic signals about the pages visited in one browsing session to identify other browsing sessions launched by the same user. This attack allows an adver- sary to determine if two browsing sessions originate from the same user regardless of any measures taken by the user to disguise their browser or network. We use the MSNBC Anonymous Browsing data set, which contains a large set of user visits (labeled by category) t...

  14. Consciousness in Non-Epileptic Attack Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Reuber, M.; Kurthen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD) is one of the most important differential diagnoses of epilepsy. Impairment of\\ud consciousness is the key feature of non-epileptic attacks (NEAs). The first half of this review summarises the clinical research\\ud literature featuring observations relating to consciousness in NEAD. The second half places this evidence in the wider context\\ud of the recent discourse on consciousness in neuroscience and the philosophy of mind. We argue that studies of consci...

  15. Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dale

    2012-05-31

    This goal of this project was to develop cyber security audit and attack detection tools for industrial control systems (ICS). Digital Bond developed and released a tool named Bandolier that audits ICS components commonly used in the energy sector against an optimal security configuration. The Portaledge Project developed a capability for the PI Historian, the most widely used Historian in the energy sector, to aggregate security events and detect cyber attacks.

  16. Distinguishing attack and second-preimage attack on encrypted message authentication codes (EMAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariwibowo, Sigit; Windarta, Susila

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we show that distinguisher on CBC-MAC can be applied to Encrypted Message Authentication Code (EMAC) scheme. EMAC scheme in general is vulnerable to distinguishing attack and second preimage attack. Distinguishing attack simulation on AES-EMAC using 225 message modifications, no collision have been found. According to second preimage attack simulation on AES-EMAC no collision found between EMAC value of S1 and S2, i.e. no second preimage found for messages that have been tested. Based on distinguishing attack simulation on truncated AES-EMAC we found collision in every message therefore we cannot distinguish truncated AES-EMAC with random function. Second-preimage attack is successfully performed on truncated AES-EMAC.

  17. Heart valve surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replacement; Valve repair; Heart valve prosthesis; Mechanical valves; Prosthetic valves ... surgery. Your heart valve has been damaged by infection ( endocarditis ). You have received a new heart valve ...

  18. Heart failure - tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... the best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic, diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure and ...

  19. Combined Heuristic Attack Strategy on Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Šimon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the existence of a complex network is considered an advantage feature and efforts are made to increase its robustness against an attack. However, there exist also harmful and/or malicious networks, from social ones like spreading hoax, corruption, phishing, extremist ideology, and terrorist support up to computer networks spreading computer viruses or DDoS attack software or even biological networks of carriers or transport centers spreading disease among the population. New attack strategy can be therefore used against malicious networks, as well as in a worst-case scenario test for robustness of a useful network. A common measure of robustness of networks is their disintegration level after removal of a fraction of nodes. This robustness can be calculated as a ratio of the number of nodes of the greatest remaining network component against the number of nodes in the original network. Our paper presents a combination of heuristics optimized for an attack on a complex network to achieve its greatest disintegration. Nodes are deleted sequentially based on a heuristic criterion. Efficiency of classical attack approaches is compared to the proposed approach on Barabási-Albert, scale-free with tunable power-law exponent, and Erdős-Rényi models of complex networks and on real-world networks. Our attack strategy results in a faster disintegration, which is counterbalanced by its slightly increased computational demands.

  20. SCADA system vulnerabilities to cyber attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, W. T. [Cyber Security Consulting (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    The susceptibility to terrorist attacks of computer-based supervisory control (SCADA) systems that are used to monitor and control water distribution systems, oil and gas pipelines and the electrical grid, is discussed. The discussion includes ways in which SCADA systems may be attacked and remedial actions that may be taken to reduce or eliminate the possibility of such attacks. Attacks may take the form of causing the system to generate false data to divert attention from impending system disasters, or commandeer the system to seriously disable it, or cause damage to the process or equipment being controlled by sending improper control commands. SCADA systems are also vulnerable to internal threats, either from an accidental action that results in damage, or an intentional action, as for example by a disgruntled employee, or ex-employee, usually by way of reprogramming an RTU or PLC by accessing the polling/communications circuit. Recent SCADA systems are much more susceptible to concerted cyber attacks because of the adoption of IT technologies and standards into the design of such systems. (Older systems are more likely to be unique designs, hence less susceptible to attack). As far as protection of SCADA systems is concerned, there are no technologies that would prevent a technologically sophisticated terrorist or disgruntled employee from doing major damage to the system, however, the IT world has developed a range of technologies for the protection of IT assets, and many of these same technologies can also be used to safeguard modern SCADA systems.

  1. Intrusion detection in cloud computing based attack patterns and risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Charhi Youssef

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of work originally presented in SYSCO CONF.We extend our previous work by presenting the initial results of the implementation of intrusion detection based on risk assessment on cloud computing. The idea focuses on a novel approach for detecting cyber-attacks on the cloud environment by analyzing attacks pattern using risk assessment methodologies. The aim of our solution is to combine evidences obtained from Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS deployed in a cloud with risk assessment related to each attack pattern. Our approach presents a new qualitative solution for analyzing each symptom, indicator and vulnerability analyzing impact and likelihood of distributed and multi-steps attacks directed to cloud environments. The implementation of this approach will reduce the number of false alerts and will improve the performance of the IDS.

  2. Exploiting Hardware Vulnerabilities to Attack Embedded System Devices: a Survey of Potent Microarchitectural Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos P. Fournaris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-Physical system devices nowadays constitute a mixture of Information Technology (IT and Operational Technology (OT systems that are meant to operate harmonically under a security critical framework. As security IT countermeasures are gradually been installed in many embedded system nodes, thus securing them from many well-know cyber attacks there is a lurking danger that is still overlooked. Apart from the software vulnerabilities that typical malicious programs use, there are some very interesting hardware vulnerabilities that can be exploited in order to mount devastating software or hardware attacks (typically undetected by software countermeasures capable of fully compromising any embedded system device. Real-time microarchitecture attacks such as the cache side-channel attacks are such case but also the newly discovered Rowhammer fault injection attack that can be mounted even remotely to gain full access to a device DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory. Under the light of the above dangers that are focused on the device hardware structure, in this paper, an overview of this attack field is provided including attacks, threat directives and countermeasures. The goal of this paper is not to exhaustively overview attacks and countermeasures but rather to survey the various, possible, existing attack directions and highlight the security risks that they can pose to security critical embedded systems as well as indicate their strength on compromising the Quality of Service (QoS such systems are designed to provide.

  3. Classification of HTTP Attacks: A Study on the ECML/PKDD 2007 Discovery Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eliassi-Rad, Tina [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-07-08

    As the world becomes more reliant on Web applications for commercial, financial, and medical transactions, cyber attacks on the World Wide Web are increasing in frequency and severity. Web applications provide an attractive alternative to traditional desktop applications due to their accessibility and ease of deployment. However, the accessibility of Web applications also makes them extremely vulnerable to attack. This inherent vulnerability is intensified by the distributed nature ofWeb applications and the complexity of configuring application servers. These factors have led to a proliferation of Web-based attacks, in which attackers surreptitiously inject code into HTTP requests, allowing them to execute arbitrary commands on remote systems and perform malicious activities such as reading, altering, or destroying sensitive data. One approach for dealing with HTTP-based attacks is to identify malicious code in incoming HTTP requests and eliminate bad requests before they are processed. Using machine learning techniques, we can build a classifier to automatically label requests as “Valid” or “Attack.” For this study, we develop a simple, but effective HTTP attack classifier, based on the vector space model used commonly for Information Retrieval. Our classifier not only separates attacks from valid requests, but can also identify specific attack types (e.g., “SQL Injection” or “Path Traversal”). We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through experiments on the ECML/PKDD 2007 Discovery Challenge data set. Specifically, we show that our approach achieves higher precision and recall than previous methods. In addition, our approach has a number of desirable characteristics, including robustness to missing contextual information, interpretability of models, and scalability.

  4. Interaction of Insecticide and Media Moisture on Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attacks on Selected Ornamental Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven D; Anderson, Amanda L; Ranger, Christopher M

    2017-12-08

    Exotic ambrosia beetles, particularly Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), are among the most damaging pests of ornamental trees in nurseries. Growers have had few tactics besides insecticide applications to reduce ambrosia beetle attacks but recent research has shown that attacks may be reduced by maintaining media moisture below a 50% threshold thereby reducing flood stress. We compared the efficacy of managing media moisture and insecticide applications for reducing ambrosia beetle attacks on three ornamental tree species in North Carolina. During trials in spring 2013 and 2015, flooded Cornus florida and Cornus kousa were heavily attacked despite sprays with permethrin, but nonflooded C. kousa or C. florida were not attacked. In spring 2015 trials, both nonflooded and flooded Styrax japonicus were heavily attacked regardless of permethrin applications. Although ethanol emissions were not measured, the apparently healthy nonflooded S. japonicus trees may have been exposed to an unknown physiological stress, such as low temperature injury, the previous winter, which predisposed them to beetle attack. However, ethanol levels within host tissues were not measured as part of the current study. X. crassiusculus (75%), Xyloborinus saxesenii Ratzburg (13%), and X. germanus (9%) were the most abundant species collected in ethanol baited traps deployed in 2015, while X. crassiusculus (63%) and X. germanus (36%) were the predominant species reared from attacked trees. Results indicate that managing media moisture levels at or below 50%, and maximizing tree health overall, may provide significant protection against Xylosandrus spp. attacks in flood intolerant tree species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Predicting Factors of Zone 4 Attack in Volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo C; Castro, Henrique O; Evangelista, Breno F; Malheiros, Laura M; Greco, Pablo J; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert

    2017-06-01

    This study examined 142 volleyball games of the Men's Super League 2014/2015 seasons in Brazil from which we analyzed 24-26 games of each participating team, identifying 5,267 Zone 4 attacks for further analysis. Within these Zone 4 attacks, we analyzed the association between the effect of the attack carried out and the separate effects of serve reception, tempo and type of attack. We found that the reception, tempo of attack, second tempo of attack, and power of diagonal attack were predictors of the attack effect in Zone 4. Moreover, placed attacks showed a tendency to not yield a score. In conclusion, winning points in high-level men's volleyball requires excellent receptions, a fast attack tempo and powerfully executed of attacks.

  6. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...

  7. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  8. Restoration of heart functions using human embryonic stem cells derived heart muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepstein, Lior; Kehat, Izhak

    2005-02-01

    Extract: Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology and specifically in the areas of stem cell biology and tissue engineering have paved the way for the development of a new field in biomedicine, regenerative medicine. This exciting approach seeks to develop new biological solutions, using the mobilization of endogenous stem cells or delivery of exogenous cells to replace or modify the function of diseased, absent, or malfunctioning tissue. The adult heart represents an attractive candidate for these emerging technologies, since adult cardiomyocytes have limited regenerative capacity. Thus, any significant heart cell loss or dysfunction, such as occurs during heart attack, is mostly irreversible and may lead to the development of progressive heart failure, one of the leading causes of world-wide morbidity and mortality. Similarly, dysfunction of the specialized electrical conduction system within the heart may result in inefficient rhythm initiation or impulse conduction, leading to significant slowing of the heart rate, usually requiring the implantation of a permanent electronic pacemaker. Replacement of the dysfunctional myocardium (heart muscle) by implantation of external heart muscle cells is emerging as a novel paradigm for restoration of the myocardial electromechanical properties, but has been significantly hampered by the paucity of cell sources for human heart cells and by the relatively limited evidence for functional integration between grafted and host cells. The recently described human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines may provide a possible solution for the aforementioned cell sourcing problem.

  9. Nonepileptic attack disorder among married women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanaraj, M; Rangaraj, R; Arulmozhi, T; Vengatesan, A

    2005-06-01

    To study the clinical features, precipitating stressful life events and prognosis of nonepileptic attack disorder (NEAD) among married women. Prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up. A tertiary care teaching hospital. Of the 1020 patients with epilepsy referred to the epilepsy clinic during 2002-2003, 30 were married women with NEAD. The diagnostic criteria for NEAD included normal EEG during ictal and post-ictal phase of the generalized 'attack.' The data collected included clinical characteristics, semiology of the attacks, precipitating stressful events, and co-morbid psychiatric disorders. The control group included 30 age-matched married women with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The long-term outcome and factors influencing the outcomes were analyzed. The mean duration of illness was 18 months, and the pattern of the attack was 'fall and lying still' in 53% and 'fall with generalized motor movements' in 47%. The frequency was one or more per week in 57% and occasionally in 43%. The important stressful events were matrimonial discord following illegal relationship of the husband with another woman (chi2 = 9.02, P = 0.003) and constant quarrel with other family members (chi2 = 5.19, P = 0.02). The prevalence of sexual abuse was low (7%). Co-morbid psychiatric disorder was observed in 70%. At the end of 1 year, 39% were free from the attack. Resolution of the stressful life events (chi2 = 4.52, P = 0.03) and lower frequency of attack at the time of reporting (chi2 = 3.88, P = 0.05) correlated with good outcomes. Among patients with NEAD in India, the major precipitating factors were matrimonial discord following illegal relationship of the husband with another woman and constant quarrel with other family members and not sexual abuse. Women with low frequency of attack at the time of reporting and the remission of the stressful events had better outcomes.

  10. Heart failure - home monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000113.htm Heart failure - home monitoring To use the sharing features on ... your high blood pressure Fast food tips Heart failure - discharge Heart failure - fluids and diuretics Heart failure - what to ...

  11. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Back to Patient Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Millions of people experience irregular or abnormal ... harmless and happen in healthy people free of heart disease. However, some abnormal heart rhythms can be serious ...

  12. Coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... buildup of plaque in the arteries to your heart. This may also be called hardening of the ...

  13. A Hop-Count Analysis Scheme for Avoiding Wormhole Attacks in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sung Laih

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available MANET, due to the nature of wireless transmission, has more security issues compared to wired environments. A specific type of attack, the Wormhole attack does not require exploiting any nodes in the network and can interfere with the route establishment process. Instead of detecting wormholes from the role of administrators as in previous methods, we implement a new protocol, MHA, using a hop-count analysis from the viewpoint of users without any special environment assumptions. We also discuss previous works which require the role of administrator and their reliance on impractical assumptions, thus showing the advantages of MHA.

  14. Heart Transplant in Patients with Predominantly Rheumatic Valvular Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Vitor E E; Lopes, Antonio S S A; Accorsi, Tarso A D; Fernandes, Joao Ricardo C; Spina, Guilherme S; Sampaio, Roney O; Bacal, Fernando; Tarasoutchi, Flavio

    2015-09-01

    International records indicate that only 2.6% of patients with heart transplants have valvular heart disease. The study aim was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical profile of patients with valvular heart disease undergoing heart transplantation. Between 1985 and 2013, a total of 569 heart transplants was performed at the authors' institution. Twenty patients (13 men, seven women; mean age 39.5 +/- 15.2 years) underwent heart transplant due to structural (primary) valvular disease. Analyses were made of the patients' clinical profile, laboratory data, echocardiographic and histopathological data, and mortality and rejection. Of the patients, 18 (90%) had a rheumatic etiology, with 85% having undergone previous valve surgery (45% had one or more operations), and 95% with a normal functioning valve prosthesis at the time of transplantation. Atrial fibrillation was present in seven patients (35%), while nine (45%) were in NYHA functional class IV and eight (40%) in class III. The indication for cardiac transplantation was refractory heart failure in seven patients (35%) and persistent NYHA class III/IV in ten (50%). The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 26.6 +/- 7.9%. The one-year mortality was 20%. Histological examination of the recipients' hearts showed five (27.7%) to have reactivated rheumatic myocarditis without prior diagnosis at the time of transplantation. Univariate analysis showed that age, gender, LVEF, rheumatic activity and rejection were not associated with mortality at one year. Among the present patient cohort, rheumatic heart disease was the leading cause of heart transplantation, and a significant proportion of these patients had reactivated myocarditis diagnosed in the histological analyses. Thus, it appears valid to investigate the existence of rheumatic activity, especially in valvular cardiomyopathy with severe systolic dysfunction before transplantation.

  15. 12 CFR 263.17 - Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding... Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. If an interlocutory appeal or collateral attack is brought in... shall be excused based on the pendency before any court of any interlocutory appeal or collateral attack. ...

  16. 12 CFR 509.17 - Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding....17 Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. If an interlocutory appeal or collateral attack is... shall be excused based on the pendency before any court of any interlocutory appeal or collateral attack. ...

  17. A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Attack Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Liu

    2005-11-28

    The area investigated by this project is cyber attack prediction. With a focus on correlation-based prediction, current attack prediction methodologies overlook the strategic nature of cyber attack-defense scenarios. As a result, current cyber attack prediction methodologies are very limited in predicting strategic behaviors of attackers in enforcing nontrivial cyber attacks such as DDoS attacks, and may result in low accuracy in correlation-based predictions. This project develops a game theoretic framework for cyber attack prediction, where an automatic game-theory-based attack prediction method is proposed. Being able to quantitatively predict the likelihood of (sequences of) attack actions, our attack prediction methodology can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers and may greatly improve the accuracy of correlation-based prediction. To our best knowledge, this project develops the first comprehensive framework for incentive-based modeling and inference of attack intent, objectives, and strategies; and this project develops the first method that can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers. The significance of this research and the benefit to the public can be demonstrated to certain extent by (a) the severe threat of cyber attacks to the critical infrastructures of the nation, including many infrastructures overseen by the Department of Energy, (b) the importance of cyber security to critical infrastructure protection, and (c) the importance of cyber attack prediction to achieving cyber security.

  18. Pediatric heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  19. Trace Attack against Biometric Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Ghouzali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exponential increase in the dependence on mobile devices in everyday life, there is a growing concern related to privacy and security issues in the Gulf countries; therefore, it is imperative that security threats should be analyzed in detail. Mobile devices store enormous amounts of personal and financial information, unfortunately without any security. In order to secure mobile devices against different threats, biometrics has been applied and shown to be effective. However, biometric mobile applications are also vulnerable to several types of attacks that can decrease their security. Biometric information itself is considered sensitive data; for example, fingerprints can leave traces in touched objects and facial images can be captured everywhere or accessed by the attacker if the facial image is stored in the mobile device (lost or stolen. Hence, an attacker can easily forge the identity of a legitimate user and access data on a device. In this paper, the effects of a trace attack on the sensitivity of biometric mobile applications are investigated in terms of security and user privacy. Experimental results carried out on facial and fingerprint mobile authentication applications using different databases have shown that these mobile applications are vulnerable to the proposed attack, which poses a serious threat to the overall system security and user privacy.

  20. Subclinical endophthalmitis following a rooster attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekse Kovach, Jaclyn; Maguluri, Srilakshmi; Recchia, Franco M

    2006-12-01

    Ocular injury resulting from rooster attacks is rarely reported in the literature. Sadly, the target of these attacks is most often children younger than 3 years old, whose naiveté of the aggressive, territorial behavior of birds can place them at risk. Acute sequelae of these attacks can result in a lifetime of visual impairment. The possibility of a subacute or occult infection is an unusual occurrence that must always be considered. In an effort to prevent future attacks and ocular casualties, we present a case of a 12-month-old boy who suffered an open globe following a rooster attack. The open globe was emergently repaired. One week later, a white cataract was noticed on examination in the absence of systemic or ocular signs of inflammation. Traumatic endophthalmitis and lenticular abscess were suspected during examination under anesthesia. Vitrectomy, lensectomy, and injection of intravitreal antibiotics were performed. Culture of lenticular and vitreous aspirates grew alpha-streptococcus. Alpha-streptococcal endophthalmitis can result from ocular injuries caused by rooster pecking. The infection may present insidiously and without typical ocular or systemic symptoms or signs. Management is challenging and may require surgery.

  1. Modeling attacking of high skills volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gamaliy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the model indicators of technical and tactical actions in the attack highly skilled volleyball players. Material and Methods: the study used statistical data of major international competitions: Olympic Games – 2012 World Championships – 2010, World League – 2010–2014 European Championship – 2010–2014. A total of 130 analyzed games. Methods were used: analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature, analysis of competitive activity highly skilled volleyball players, teacher observation, modeling technical and tactical actions in attacking highly skilled volleyball players. Results: it was found that the largest volume application of technical and tactical actions in the attack belongs to the group tactics «supple movement», whose indicator is 21,3%. The smallest amount of application belongs to the group tactics «flight level» model whose indicators is 5,4%, the efficiency of 3,4%, respectively. It is found that the power service in the jump from model parameters used in 51,6% of cases, the planning targets – 21,7% and 4,4% planning to reduce. Attacks performed with the back line, on model parameters used in the amount of 20,8% efficiency –13,7%. Conclusions: we prove that the performance of technical and tactical actions in the attack can be used as model in the control system of training and competitive process highly skilled volleyball players

  2. On the anatomy of social engineering attacks : A literature-based dissection of successful attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullee, Jan-Willem; Montoya, L.; Pieters, Wolter; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    The aim of this studywas to explore the extent towhich persuasion principles are used in successful social engineering attacks. Seventy-four scenarioswere extracted from 4 books on social engineering (written by social engineers) and analysed. Each scenariowas split into attack steps, containing

  3. 75 FR 70273 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel, The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering to Prevent Heart Attack Trial... Research Demonstration and Dissemination Projects. Date: December 14, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda... Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular...

  4. Attacks on public telephone networks: technologies and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosloff, T.; Moore, Tyler; Keller, J.; Manes, Gavin W.; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2003-09-01

    Signaling System 7 (SS7) is vital to signaling and control in America's public telephone networks. This paper describes a class of attacks on SS7 networks involving the insertion of malicious signaling messages via compromised SS7 network components. Three attacks are discussed in detail: IAM flood attacks, redirection attacks and point code spoofing attacks. Depending on their scale of execution, these attacks can produce effects ranging from network congestion to service disruption. Methods for detecting these denial-of-service attacks and mitigating their effects are also presented.

  5. Cross-site scripting attacks procedure and Prevention Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xijun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-site scripting attacks and defense has been the site of attack and defense is an important issue, this paper, the definition of cross-site scripting attacks, according to the current understanding of the chaos on the cross-site scripting, analyzes the causes and harm cross-site scripting attacks formation of attacks XXS complete process XSS attacks made a comprehensive analysis, and then for the web program includes Mobility there are cross-site scripting filter laxity given from ordinary users browse the web and web application developers two the defense cross-site scripting attacks effective strategy.

  6. Overview of DOS attacks on wireless sensor networks and experimental results for simulation of interference attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Gavrić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are now used in various fields. The information transmitted in the wireless sensor networks is very sensitive, so the security issue is very important. DOS (denial of service attacks are a fundamental threat to the functioning of wireless sensor networks. This paper describes some of the most common DOS attacks and potential methods of protection against them. The case study shows one of the most frequent attacks on wireless sensor networks – the interference attack. In the introduction of this paper authors assume that the attack interference can cause significant obstruction of wireless sensor networks. This assumption has been proved in the case study through simulation scenario and simulation results.

  7. Statins and the Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Patients With Previous Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; Goldstein, Larry B; Cea Soriano, Lucía

    2017-01-01

    to identify incident cases of ICH, with validation by manual review of patient records and linkage to hospitalization data. In a nested case-control study, we compared the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ICH based on statin use in the subgroup of individuals with history...

  8. New Trends in Heart Regeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochegarov A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on new approaches that could lead to the regeneration of heart muscle and the restoration of cardiac muscle function derived from newly-formed cardiomyocytes. Various strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, adult bone marrow stem cells and cardiac spheres from human heart biopsies are described. Pathological conditions which lead to atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease often are followed by myocardial infarction causing myocardial cell death. After cell death, there is very little self-regeneration of the cardiac muscle tissue, which is replaced by non-contractile connective tissue, thus weakening the ability of the heart muscle to contract fully and leading to heart failure. A number of experimental research approaches to stimulate heart muscle regeneration with the hope of regaining normal or near normal heart function in the damaged heart muscle have been attempted. Some of these very interesting studies have used a variety of stem cell types in combination with potential cardiogenic differentiation factors in an attempt to promote differentiation of new cardiac muscle for possible future use in the clinical treatment of patients who have suffered heart muscle damage from acute myocardial infarctions or related cardiovascular diseases. Although progress has been made in recent years relative to promoting the differentiation of cardiac muscle tissue from non-muscle cells, much work remains to be done for this technology to be used routinely in translational clinical medicine to treat patients with damaged heart muscle tissue and return such individuals to pre-heart-attack activity levels.

  9. Counteracting Power Analysis Attacks by Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Elisabeth; Mangard, Stefan

    The publication of power analysis attacks [12] has triggered a lot of research activities. On the one hand these activities have been dedicated toward the development of secure and efficient countermeasures. On the other hand also new and improved attacks have been developed. In fact, there has been a continuous arms race between designers of countermeasures and attackers. This chapter provides a brief overview of the state-of-the art in the arms race in the context of a countermeasure called masking. Masking is a popular countermeasure that has been extensively discussed in the scientific community. Numerous articles have been published that explain different types of masking and that analyze weaknesses of this countermeasure.

  10. The WOMBAT Attack Attribution Method: Some Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacier, Marc; Pham, Van-Hau; Thonnard, Olivier

    In this paper, we present a new attack attribution method that has been developed within the WOMBAT project. We illustrate the method with some real-world results obtained when applying it to almost two years of attack traces collected by low interaction honeypots. This analytical method aims at identifying large scale attack phenomena composed of IP sources that are linked to the same root cause. All malicious sources involved in a same phenomenon constitute what we call a Misbehaving Cloud (MC). The paper offers an overview of the various steps the method goes through to identify these clouds, providing pointers to external references for more detailed information. Four instances of misbehaving clouds are then described in some more depth to demonstrate the meaningfulness of the concept.

  11. Parental mental health, childhood psychiatric disorders, and asthma attacks in island Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Goodwin, Renee D; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Canino, Glorisa

    2004-01-01

    Previous research documents an association of poor parental mental health with asthma in children. This study aims to determine whether the associations between parental mental health problems and childhood asthma attacks persist after controlling for childhood anxiety and depression and other confounding factors. A community household sample of youth ages 4 to 17 years and their primary caregivers from the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico was studied to determine the associations between parental mental health and childhood asthma attacks. Regression models that predicted asthma attacks in youth controlled for parental mental health problems, childhood anxiety and depression, zone of residence, and parents' age, education, and perception of poverty. After adjusting for children's depressive and anxiety disorders as well as other important confounders, associations between parental depression, suicide attempts, ataque de nervios, and history of mental health treatment and asthma attacks in offspring, by parental report, persisted. Additionally, the frequency of parental mental health problems was associated with children's asthma attacks. Parents with mental health problems were more likely to report histories of asthma attacks in their children compared with parents without mental health problems in Puerto Rico. These associations were not attributable to internalizing disorders in youth but persisted independent of childhood psychopathology and other confounding factors. Clinicians and researchers should recognize the relations between poor parental mental health and childhood asthma and explore the potential role of family psychosocial and behavioral factors related to the manifestation of the disease.

  12. PKI Layer Cake: New Collision Attacks against the Global X.509 Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Dan; Patterson, Meredith L.; Sassaman, Len

    Research unveiled in December of 2008 [15] showed how MD5's long-known flaws could be actively exploited to attack the real-worldCertification Authority infrastructure. In this paper, we demonstrate two new classes of collision, which will be somewhat trickier to address than previous attacks against X.509: the applicability of MD2 preimage attacks against the primary root certificate for Verisign, and the difficulty of validating X.509 Names contained within PKCS#10 Certificate Requests.We also draw particular attention to two possibly unrecognized vectors for implementation flaws that have been problematic in the past: the ASN.1 BER decoder required to parsePKCS#10, and the potential for SQL injection fromtext contained within its requests. Finally, we explore why the implications of these attacks are broader than some have realized - first, because Client Authentication is sometimes tied to X.509, and second, because Extended Validation certificates were only intended to stop phishing attacks from names similar to trusted brands. As per the work of Adam Barth and Collin Jackson [4], EV does not prevent an attacker who can synthesize or acquire a "low assurance" certificate for a given name from acquiring the "green bar" EV experience.

  13. A Novel Multiple-Bits Collision Attack Based on Double Detection with Error-Tolerant Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Side-channel collision attacks are more powerful than traditional side-channel attack without knowing the leakage model or establishing the model. Most attack strategies proposed previously need quantities of power traces with high computational complexity and are sensitive to mistakes, which restricts the attack efficiency seriously. In this paper, we propose a multiple-bits side-channel collision attack based on double distance voting detection (DDVD and also an improved version, involving the error-tolerant mechanism, which can find all 120 relations among 16 key bytes when applied to AES (Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm. In addition, we compare our collision detection method called DDVD with the Euclidean distance and the correlation-enhanced collision method under different intensity of noise, which indicates that our detection technique performs better in the circumstances of noise. Furthermore, 4-bit model of our collision detection method is proven to be optimal in theory and in practice. Meanwhile the corresponding practical attack experiments are also performed on a hardware implementation of AES-128 on FPGA board successfully. Results show that our strategy needs less computation time but more traces than LDPC method and the online time for our strategy is about 90% less than CECA and 96% less than BCA with 90% success rate.

  14. Detecting unknown attacks in wireless sensor networks that contain mobile nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banković, Zorana; Fraga, David; Moya, José M; Vallejo, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    As wireless sensor networks are usually deployed in unattended areas, security policies cannot be updated in a timely fashion upon identification of new attacks. This gives enough time for attackers to cause significant damage. Thus, it is of great importance to provide protection from unknown attacks. However, existing solutions are mostly concentrated on known attacks. On the other hand, mobility can make the sensor network more resilient to failures, reactive to events, and able to support disparate missions with a common set of sensors, yet the problem of security becomes more complicated. In order to address the issue of security in networks with mobile nodes, we propose a machine learning solution for anomaly detection along with the feature extraction process that tries to detect temporal and spatial inconsistencies in the sequences of sensed values and the routing paths used to forward these values to the base station. We also propose a special way to treat mobile nodes, which is the main novelty of this work. The data produced in the presence of an attacker are treated as outliers, and detected using clustering techniques. These techniques are further coupled with a reputation system, in this way isolating compromised nodes in timely fashion. The proposal exhibits good performances at detecting and confining previously unseen attacks, including the cases when mobile nodes are compromised.

  15. A novel proposed network security management approach for cyber attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Z.; Nazir, B.; Zafar, M.F.; Anwar, M.M.; Azam, K.; Asar, A.U.

    2007-01-01

    Network security is a discipline that focuses on securing networks from unauthorized access. Given the Escalating threats of malicious cyber attacks, modern enterprises employ multiple lines of defense. A comprehensive defense strategy against such attacks should include (I) an attack detection component that deter- mines the fact that a program is compromised, (2) an attack identification and prevention component that identifies attack packets so that one can block such packets in the future and prevents the attack from further propagation. Over the last decade, a significant amount of research has been vested in the systems that can detect cyber attacks either statically at compile time or dynamically at run time, However, not much effort is spent on automated attack packet identification or attack prevention. In this paper we present a unified solution to the problems mentioned above. We implemented this solution after the forward engineering of Open Source Security Information Management (OSSIM) system called Preventive Information Security management (PrISM) system that correlates input from different sensors so that the resulting product can automatically detect any cyber attack against it and prevents by identifying the actual attack packet(s). The PrISM was always able to detect the attacks, identify the attack packets and most often prevent by blocking the attacker's IP address to continue normal execution. There is no additional run-time performance overhead for attack prevention. (author)

  16. Playing Attack and Defense with Trusted Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier; Bonnet, Philippe; Bouganim, Luc

    2014-01-01

    It is often convenient to assume in a data management platform that one or several computing devices are trusted, specially when the goal is to provide privacy guarantees over personal data. But what does it take for a computing device to be trusted? More specifically, how can a personal device...... provide trusted storage? This is the question we tackle in this demonstration. We describe how secure devices, equipped with a trusted execution environment, differ from general purpose devices. We illustrate with our demonstration scenario, that it is much more difficult to attack a storage service...... running on a secure device, than to attack the same service running on a general purpose device....

  17. A Distinguish Attack on COSvd Cipher

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Orumiehchi ha; R. Mirghadri

    2007-01-01

    The COSvd Ciphers has been proposed by Filiol and others (2004). It is a strengthened version of COS stream cipher family denoted COSvd that has been adopted for at least one commercial standard. We propose a distinguish attack on this version, and prove that, it is distinguishable from a random stream. In the COSvd Cipher used one S-Box (10×8) on the final part of cipher. We focus on S-Box and use weakness this S-Box for distinguish attack. In addition, found a leak on HNLL that the sub s-bo...

  18. Attacks and infections in percolation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Hans-Karl; Stenull, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    We discuss attacks and infections at propagating fronts of percolation processes based on the extended general epidemic process. The scaling behavior of the number of the attacked and infected sites in the long time limit at the ordinary and tricritical percolation transitions is governed by specific composite operators of the field-theoretic representation of this process. We calculate corresponding critical exponents for tricritical percolation in mean-field theory and for ordinary percolation to 1-loop order. Our results agree well with the available numerical data. (paper)

  19. Attack strategies on quantum cryptographic protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, S.; Suda, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum authentication (QA) have been a topic of extensive research in the last 20 years. In course of that many attacks on QKD and QA protocols have been studied. Among these, Zhang, Lee and Guo presented an attack on a QKD protocol using entanglement swapping. Based on that strategy we take a look at other protocols to inspect how much information an adversary may get if he shares entanglement with either one or both parties. We will present some protocols where an adversary can even get full information about the key using entanglement. (author)

  20. Blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular and ischemic heart disease, and longevity in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Sillesen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Because elastase in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency may attack elastin in the arterial wall, we tested whether alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency is associated with reduced blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular (ICVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and longevity.......Because elastase in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency may attack elastin in the arterial wall, we tested whether alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency is associated with reduced blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular (ICVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and longevity....

  1. Complement activation, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance and chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, M.; Kistorp, C.; Hansen, T.K.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have an exaggerated immune response, endothelial damage/dysfunction, and increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM). The inter-relationship(s) between indices of complement activation (soluble membrane attack complex, sMAC), inflammation (hs...... to ischemic heart disease (IHD) as compared with CHF patients with non-ischemic ethiology (p = 0.02), but were not predictive of survival or progression of CHF. A moderate strong relation between sMAC and sEsel levels was found beta = 0.33 (p ... damaging of the heart tissue...

  2. Investigating the Possibility to Individualize Asthma Attack Therapy Based on Attack Severity and Patient Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sárkány Zoltán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate with the help of a computerized simulation model whether the treatment of an acute asthma attack can be individualized based on the severity of the attack and the characteristics of the patient. Material and Method: A stochastic lung model was used to simulate the deposition of 1 nm - 10 μm particles during a mild and a moderate asthma attack. Breathing parameters were varied to maximize deposition, and simulation results were compared with those obtained in the case of a severe asthma attack. In order to investigate the effect of height on the deposition of inhaled particles, another series of simulations was carried out with identical breathing parameters, comparing patient heights of 155 cm, 175 cm and 195 cm. Results: The optimization process yielded an increase in the maximum deposition values of around 6-7% for each type of investigated asthma attack, and the difference between attacks of different degree of severity was around 5% for both the initial and the optimized values, a higher degree of obstruction increasing the amount of deposited particles. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the individualization of asthma attack treatment cannot be based on particles of different size, as the highest deposited fraction in all three types of attacks can be obtained using 0.01 μm particles. The use of a specific set of breathing parameters yields a difference between a mild and a moderate, as well as a moderate and a severe asthma attack of around 5%.

  3. A Novel Protective Framework for Defeating HTTP-Based Denial of Service and Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of web technology has brought convenience to our life, since it has become the most important communication channel. However, now this merit is threatened by complicated network-based attacks, such as denial of service (DoS and distributed denial of service (DDoS attacks. Despite many researchers’ efforts, no optimal solution that addresses all sorts of HTTP DoS/DDoS attacks is on offer. Therefore, this research aims to fix this gap by designing an alternative solution called a flexible, collaborative, multilayer, DDoS prevention framework (FCMDPF. The innovative design of the FCMDPF framework handles all aspects of HTTP-based DoS/DDoS attacks through the following three subsequent framework’s schemes (layers. Firstly, an outer blocking (OB scheme blocks attacking IP source if it is listed on the black list table. Secondly, the service traceback oriented architecture (STBOA scheme is to validate whether the incoming request is launched by a human or by an automated tool. Then, it traces back the true attacking IP source. Thirdly, the flexible advanced entropy based (FAEB scheme is to eliminate high rate DDoS (HR-DDoS and flash crowd (FC attacks. Compared to the previous researches, our framework’s design provides an efficient protection for web applications against all sorts of DoS/DDoS attacks.

  4. Terminal attack trajectories of peregrine falcons are described by the proportional navigation guidance law of missiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Caroline H; Thomas, Adrian L R; Taylor, Graham K

    2017-12-19

    The ability to intercept uncooperative targets is key to many diverse flight behaviors, from courtship to predation. Previous research has looked for simple geometric rules describing the attack trajectories of animals, but the underlying feedback laws have remained obscure. Here, we use GPS loggers and onboard video cameras to study peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus , attacking stationary targets, maneuvering targets, and live prey. We show that the terminal attack trajectories of peregrines are not described by any simple geometric rule as previously claimed, and instead use system identification techniques to fit a phenomenological model of the dynamical system generating the observed trajectories. We find that these trajectories are best-and exceedingly well-modeled by the proportional navigation (PN) guidance law used by most guided missiles. Under this guidance law, turning is commanded at a rate proportional to the angular rate of the line-of-sight between the attacker and its target, with a constant of proportionality (i.e., feedback gain) called the navigation constant ( N ). Whereas most guided missiles use navigation constants falling on the interval 3 ≤ N ≤ 5, peregrine attack trajectories are best fitted by lower navigation constants (median N law could find use in small visually guided drones designed to remove other drones from protected airspace. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. Sequential and Parallel Attack Tree Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Guck, Dennis; Kumar, Rajesh; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Koornneef, Floor; van Gulijk, Coen

    The intricacy of socio-technical systems requires a careful planning and utilisation of security resources to ensure uninterrupted, secure and reliable services. Even though many studies have been conducted to understand and model the behaviour of a potential attacker, the detection of crucial

  6. Cooperative Electronic Attack using Unmanned Air Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mears, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    ... that are salient in the context of cooperative control. The utility of electronic attack is described in the context of integrated air defense systems that rely on RADAR sites that act as a network to gather information about potential airborne threats...

  7. Network overload due to massive attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluth, Yosef; Barach, Gilad; Tuchman, Yaakov; Kadish, Benjamin; Cwilich, Gabriel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.

    2018-05-01

    We study the cascading failure of networks due to overload, using the betweenness centrality of a node as the measure of its load following the Motter and Lai model. We study the fraction of survived nodes at the end of the cascade pf as a function of the strength of the initial attack, measured by the fraction of nodes p that survive the initial attack for different values of tolerance α in random regular and Erdös-Renyi graphs. We find the existence of a first-order phase-transition line pt(α ) on a p -α plane, such that if p pt , pf is large and the giant component of the network is still present. Exactly at pt, the function pf(p ) undergoes a first-order discontinuity. We find that the line pt(α ) ends at a critical point (pc,αc) , in which the cascading failures are replaced by a second-order percolation transition. We find analytically the average betweenness of nodes with different degrees before and after the initial attack, we investigate their roles in the cascading failures, and we find a lower bound for pt(α ) . We also study the difference between localized and random attacks.

  8. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Garcia-Font

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.

  9. Intrusion-Tolerant Replication under Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Much of our critical infrastructure is controlled by large software systems whose participants are distributed across the Internet. As our dependence on these critical systems continues to grow, it becomes increasingly important that they meet strict availability and performance requirements, even in the face of malicious attacks, including those…

  10. Strengthening Crypto-1 Cipher Against Algebraic Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Afianti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several studies addressed the problem of data security in Mifare Classic. One of its weaknesses is the low random number quality. This causes SAT solver attacks to have lower complexity. In order to strengthen Crypto-1 against SAT solver attacks, a modification of the feedback function with better cryptographic properties is proposed. It applies a primitive polynomial companion matrix. SAT solvers cannot directly attack the feedback shift register that uses the modified Boolean feedback function, the register has to be split into smaller groups. Experimental testing showed that the amount of memory and CPU time needed were highest when attacking the modified Crypto-1 using the modified feedback function and the original filter function. In addition, another modified Crypto-1, using the modified feedback function and a modified filter function, had the lowest percentage of revealed variables. It can be concluded that the security strength and performance of the modified Crypto-1 using the modified feedback function and the modified filter function are better than those of the original Crypto-1.

  11. Wrap-Attack Pack: Product Packaging Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Hoffman, K. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Although many marketing courses discuss traditional concepts pertaining to product strategy, concepts specifically relating to packaging are often glossed over. This exercise, "Wrap-Attack Pack," teaches students about the utilitarian and hedonic design elements of packaging. More specifically, the primary objective is to creatively…

  12. Social Engineering Attack Detection Model: SEADMv2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, F

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available link in the security chain. A social engineering attack targets this weakness by using various manipulation techniques to elicit individuals to perform sensitive requests. The field of social engineering is still in its infancy as far as formal...

  13. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2017-04-05

    Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.

  14. Algebraic Side-Channel Attack on Twofish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chujiao Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While algebraic side-channel attack (ASCA has been successful in breaking simple cryptographic algorithms, it has never been done on larger or more complex algorithms such as Twofish. Compared to other algorithms that ASCA has been used on, Twofish is more difficult to attack due to the key-dependent S-boxes as well as the complex key scheduling. In this paper, we propose the first algebraic side-channel attack on Twofish, and examine the importance of side-channel information in getting past the key-dependent S-boxes and the complex key scheduling. The cryptographic algorithm and side-channel information are both expressed as boolean equations and a SAT solver is used to recover the key. While algebraic attack by itself is not sufficient to break the algorithm, with the help of side-channel information such as Hamming weights, we are able to correctly solve for 96 bits of the 128 bits key in under 2 hours with known plaintext/ciphertext.

  15. Armed Deterrence: Countering Soft Target Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-06

    offer no security. With over 17,430 such geographically separated military sites across the United States, these fatal shootings by a Kuwaiti- born ...increasing trend and the carnage 4 that IS sympathizers can unleash. This coordinated attack on a concert hall, a soccer stadium, and restaurant

  16. 47 CFR 76.1612 - Personal attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND... issues of public importance, an attack is made upon the honesty, character, integrity, or like personal qualities of an identified person or group, the cable television system operator shall, within a reasonable...

  17. Rising Trend: Complex and sophisticated attack methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stux, DuQu, Nitro, Luckycat, Exploit Kits, FLAME. ADSL/SoHo Router Compromise. Botnets of compromised ADSL/SoHo Routers; User Redirection via malicious DNS entry. Web Application attacks. SQL Injection, RFI etc. More and more Webshells. More utility to hackers; Increasing complexity and evading mechanisms.

  18. Strategic defense and attack for reliability systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausken, Kjell

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates a method by which arbitrarily complex series/parallel reliability systems can be analyzed. The method is illustrated with the series-parallel and parallel-series systems. Analytical expressions are determined for the investments and utilities of the defender and the attacker, depend on their unit costs of investment for each component, the contest intensity for each component, and their evaluations of the value of system functionality. For a series-parallel system, infinitely many components in parallel benefit the defender maximally regardless of the finite number of parallel subsystems in series. Conversely, infinitely many components in series benefit the attacker maximally regardless of the finite number of components in parallel in each subsystem. For a parallel-series system, the results are opposite. With equivalent components, equal unit costs for defender and attacker, equal intensity for all components, and equally many components in series and parallel, the defender always prefers the series-parallel system rather than the parallel-series system, and converse holds for the attacker. Hence from the defender's perspective, ceteris paribus, the series-parallel system is more reliable, and has fewer 'cut sets' or failure modes

  19. Validation Method of a Telecommunications Blackout Attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amado, Joao; Nunes, Paulo

    2005-01-01

    ..., and to obtain the maximum disruptive effect over the services. The proposed method uses a top-down approach, starting on the service level and ending on the different network elements that can be identified in the end as the targets for the attack.

  20. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  1. Rising Trend: Complex and sophisticated attack methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Increased frequency and intensity of DoS/DDoS. Few Gbps is now normal; Anonymous VPNs being used; Botnets being used as a vehicle for launching DDoS attacks. Large scale booking of domain names. Hundred thousands of domains registered in short duration via few registrars; Single registrant; Most of the domains ...

  2. Understanding How Components of Organisations Contribute to Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Min; Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Probst, Christian W.

    2016-01-01

    Attacks on organisations today explore many different layers, including buildings infrastructure, IT infrastructure, and human factor – the physical, virtual, and social layer. Identifying possible attacks, understanding their impact, and attributing their origin and contributing factors is diffi......Attacks on organisations today explore many different layers, including buildings infrastructure, IT infrastructure, and human factor – the physical, virtual, and social layer. Identifying possible attacks, understanding their impact, and attributing their origin and contributing factors...... is difficult. Recently, system models have been used for automatically identifying possible attacks on the modelled organisation. The generated attacks consider all three layers, making the contribution of building infrastructure, computer infrastructure, and humans (insiders and outsiders) explicit. However......, this contribution is only visible in the attack trees as part of the performed steps; it cannot be mapped back to the model directly since the actions usually involve several elements (attacker and targeted actor or asset). Especially for large attack trees, understanding the relations between several model...

  3. An Adaptive Approach for Defending against DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhai Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In various network attacks, the Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS attack is a severe threat. In order to deal with this kind of attack in time, it is necessary to establish a special type of defense system to change strategy dynamically against attacks. In this paper, we introduce an adaptive approach, which is used for defending against DDoS attacks, based on normal traffic analysis. The approach can check DDoS attacks and adaptively adjust its configurations according to the network condition and attack severity. In order to insure the common users to visit the victim server that is being attacked, we provide a nonlinear traffic control formula for the system. Our simulation test indicates that the nonlinear control approach can prevent the malicious attack packets effectively while making legitimate traffic flows arrive at the victim.

  4. Activity Modelling and Comparative Evaluation of WSN MAC Security Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawar, Pranav M.; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    and initiate security attacks that disturb the normal functioning of the network in a severe manner. Such attacks affect the performance of the network by increasing the energy consumption, by reducing throughput and by inducing long delays. Of all existing WSN attacks, MAC layer attacks are considered...... the most harmful as they directly affect the available resources and thus the nodes’ energy consumption. The first endeavour of this paper is to model the activities of MAC layer security attacks to understand the flow of activities taking place when mounting the attack and when actually executing it....... The second aim of the paper is to simulate these attacks on hybrid MAC mechanisms, which shows the performance degradation of aWSN under the considered attacks. The modelling and implementation of the security attacks give an actual view of the network which can be useful in further investigating secure...

  5. Heart failure - surgeries and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery; HF - surgery; Intra-aortic balloon pumps - heart failure; IABP - heart failure; Catheter based assist devices - heart failure ... problem may cause heart failure or make heart failure worse. Heart valve surgery may be needed to repair or ...

  6. Open-Heart surgery and cerebrovascular accident: retrospective study at King Khalid University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Satli, R.A.; Takrouri, Mohammad S.M.; Al-Daif, A.; Fouda, Mohamed N.; Maher, S.; Al-Khwsky, F.

    2000-01-01

    Stroke after coronary by-pass grafting (CABG) is often disabling. The incidence of ischemic stroke may approach 3% to 5%. Several risk factors have been identified including previous history of stroke, prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time, and postoperative atrial fibrillation. Objective was to determine the incidence and risk factors of neurological deficit after open heart surgery. Retrospective study was done during the period 1992-1995 at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. There were 350 patients who were subjected to (CABG), 10 patients (2.8%) found to suffer from cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) following open-heart surgery. In 8 patients, the complaint lasted more than 24 hours (stroke), while 2 patients developed transient ischemic attacks (TIA). Five factors were found to be associated with increased risk of post cardiac surgery CVA. These factors are postoperative atrial fibrillation, carotid bruit, past history of heart failure, past history of CVA and smoking. The authors concluded that it is necessary to start a prospective study to verify the area of improvement with regards to technique, selection of patients and mode of perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) Arabia. (author)

  7. Your heart might give away your emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laundav, David Kristian; Jensen, Camilla Birgitte Falk; Bækgaard, Per

    2014-01-01

    Estimating emotional responses to pictures based on heart rate measurements: Variations in Heart Rate serves as an important clinical health indicator, but potentially also as a window into cognitive reactions to presented stimuli, as a function of both stimuli, context and previous cognitive sta...

  8. Recovery of human remains after shark attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; James, Ross A; Heath, Karen J

    2006-09-01

    Two cases of fatal shark attack are reported where the only tissues recovered were fragments of lung. Case 1: An 18-year-old male who was in the sea behind a boat was observed by friends to be taken by a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). The shark dragged him under the water and then, with a second shark, dismembered the body. Witnesses noted a large amount of blood and unrecognizable body parts coming to the surface. The only tissues recovered despite an intensive beach and sea search were 2 fragments of lung. Case 2: A 19-year-old male was attacked by a great white shark while diving. A witness saw the shark swim away with the victim's body in its mouth. Again, despite intensive beach and sea searches, the only tissue recovered was a single piece of lung, along with pieces of wetsuit and diving equipment. These cases indicate that the only tissue to escape being consumed or lost in fatal shark attacks, where there is a significant attack with dismemberment and disruption of the integrity of the body, may be lung. The buoyancy of aerated pulmonary tissue ensures that it rises quickly to the surface, where it may be recovered by searchers soon after the attack. Aeration of the lung would be in keeping with death from trauma rather than from drowning and may be a useful marker in unwitnessed deaths to separate ante- from postmortem injury, using only relatively small amounts of tissues. Early organ recovery enhances the identification of human tissues as the extent of morphologic alterations by putrefactive processes and sea scavengers will have been minimized. DNA testing is also possible on such recovered fragments, enabling confirmation of the identity of the victim.

  9. Valvular Heart Disease in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe MC Rosano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural valvular heart disease may be the cause of heart failure or may worsen the clinical status of patients with heart failure. Heart failure may also develop in patients treated with valve surgery. Patients with heart failure with valvular heart disease are at increased risk of events including sudden cardiac death. Before considering intervention (surgical or percutaneous all patients should receive appropriate medical and device therapy taking into account that vasodilators must be used with caution in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Numerous percutaneous and/or hybrid procedures have been introduced in the past few years and they are changing the management of valvular heart disease. In patients with heart failure and valvular heart disease, either primary or functional, the whole process of decision-making should be staged through a comprehensive evaluation of the risk– benefit ratio of different treatment strategies and should be made by a multidisciplinary ‘heart team’ with a particular expertise in valvular heart disease. The heart team should include heart failure cardiologists, cardiac surgeons/structural valve interventionists, imaging specialists, anaesthetists, geriatricians and intensive care specialists. This article will review recent developments and distill practical guidance in the management of this important heart failure co-morbidity.

  10. Alloys influence in ferritic steels with hydrogen attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moro, L; Rey Saravia, D; Lombardich, J; Saggio, M; Juan, A; Blanco, J

    2003-01-01

    Materials exposed to a corrosive environment and high temperatures, are associated with a decrease of their mechanical properties and embitterment.At room temperatures atomic hydrogen diffuses easily through metals structure, it accumulates in lattice defects forming molecular hydrogen and generating cracking due to internal stresses.Under high temperatures the phenomenon is more complex.The steels in these conditions present different structures of precipitates, that the change under creep conditions period.In this work it is determined the influence of Cr and V alloys, the changes of ferritic steel resistance in a corrosive environment and high temperatures.1.25 Cr 1 Mo 0.25 V and 2.25Cr 1 Mo under different loads and temperatures previously attacked by hydrogen environment.The hydrogen is induced by the electrolytic technique, optimizing the choice of temperatures, current density, electrolyte, etc. In order to control an adequate cathode charge, a follow up procedure is carried out by electronic barrier microscopy.After the attack, the material is settled at room temperatures for certain period of time, to allow the hydrogen to leave and evaluate the residual damage.Creep by torsion assays, under constant load and temperature is used as an experimental technique.With the outcome data curves are drawn in order to study the secondary creep rate, with the applied load and temperature, determining the value of stress exponent n and the activation energy Q.Comparing to equal assays to the same ferritic steels but non attacked by hydrogen, these values allows the prediction of microstructure changes present during these tests

  11. Transforming Graphical System Models to Graphical Attack Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2016-01-01

    Manually identifying possible attacks on an organisation is a complex undertaking; many different factors must be considered, and the resulting attack scenarios can be complex and hard to maintain as the organisation changes. System models provide a systematic representation of organisations...... approach to transforming graphical system models to graphical attack models in the form of attack trees. Based on an asset in the model, our transformations result in an attack tree that represents attacks by all possible actors in the model, after which the actor in question has obtained the asset....

  12. 1994 Attack Team Workshop: Phase II - Full-Scale Offensive Fog Attack Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheffey, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    .... This report demonstrates the benefits of using a medium angle fog stream to control the overhead fire threat when conducting a direct attack on a growing/steady state fire where the sea of the fire is obstructed...

  13. A Framework for Attack-Resilient Industrial Control Systems : Attack Detection and Controller Reconfiguration

    OpenAIRE

    Paridari, Kaveh; O'Mahony, Niamh; Mady, Alie El-Din; Chabukswar, Rohan; Boubekeur, Menouer; Sandberg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Most existing industrial control systems (ICSs), such as building energy management systems (EMSs), were installed when potential security threats were only physical. With advances in connectivity, ICSs are now, typically, connected to communications networks and, as a result, can be accessed remotely. This extends the attack surface to include the potential for sophisticated cyber attacks, which can adversely impact ICS operation, resulting in service interruption, equipment damage, safety c...

  14. Attack Potential Evaluation in Desktop and Smartphone Fingerprint Sensors: Can They Be Attacked by Anyone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Goicoechea-Telleria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biometrics keeps growing. Every day, we use biometric recognition to unlock our phones or to have access to places such as the gym or the office, so we rely on the security manufacturers offer when protecting our privileges and private life. It is well known that it is possible to hack into a fingerprint sensor using fake fingers made of Play-Doh and other easy-to-obtain materials but to what extent? Is this true for all users or only for specialists with a deep knowledge on biometrics? Are smartphone fingerprint sensors as reliable as desktop sensors? To answer these questions, we performed 3 separate evaluations. First, we evaluated 4 desktop fingerprint sensors of different technologies by attacking them with 7 different fake finger materials. All of them were successfully attacked by an experienced attacker. Secondly, we carried out a similar test on 5 smartphones with embedded sensors using the most successful materials, which also hacked the 5 sensors. Lastly, we gathered 15 simulated attackers with no background in biometrics to create fake fingers of several materials, and they had one week to attack the fingerprint sensors of the same 5 smartphones, with the starting point of a short video with the techniques to create them. All 5 smartphones were successfully attacked by an inexperienced attacker. This paper will provide the results achieved, as well as an analysis on the attack potential of every case. All results are given following the metrics of the standard ISO/IEC 30107-3.

  15. Personality factors and posttraumatic stress: associations in civilians one year after air attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Knezevic, Goran; Priebe, Stefan

    2003-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate on which risk factors for developing posttraumatic stress symptoms are more important--personality traits reflecting vulnerability, previous stressful experiences or characteristics of the traumatic event. In this study, posttraumatic stress symptoms and their relationship with personality traits, previous stressful experiences and exposure to stressful events during air attacks in Yugoslavia were investigated. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI; Millon, 1983), Impact of Events Scale (IES; Horowitz, Wilner, & Alvarez, 1979), Life Stressor Checklist Revised (LSCL-R; Wolfe & Kimerling, 1997), and List of Stressors were administered to a homogeneous group of medical students 1 year after the attacks. In multiple regression analyses, compulsive and passive-aggressive personality traits and a higher level of exposure to stressors during air attacks independently predicted the degree of intrusion symptoms. Avoidance symptoms were predicted by avoidant personality traits and a higher exposure to stressors both previously in life and during the attacks. In the next step, we tested in analyses of variance whether personality traits, previous stressful experiences, and stressful events during attacks as independent variables interact in predicting intrusion and avoidance symptoms. For this, students were clustered into three groups depending on their predominant personality traits. In addition to direct predictive effects, there were significant interaction effects in predicting both intrusion and avoidance. The findings suggest that each of the tested factors, i.e., personality traits, previous stressful experiences, and exposure to traumatic events may have an independent and direct influence on developing posttraumatic stress. However, the effect of these factors cannot just be added up. Rather, the factors interact in their impact on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Bigger samples and longitudinal designs will be required to

  16. Defense and attack of complex and dependent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausken, Kjell

    2010-01-01

    A framework is constructed for how to analyze the strategic defense of an infrastructure subject to attack by a strategic attacker. Merging operations research, reliability theory, and game theory for optimal analytical impact, the optimization program for the defender and attacker is specified. Targets can be in parallel, series, combined series-parallel, complex, k-out-of-n redundancy, independent, interdependent, and dependent. The defender and attacker determine how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human, and symbolic values, subjectively assessed by the defender and attacker. A contest success function determines the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the investments by the defender and attacker into each target, and on characteristics of the contest. The defender minimizes the expected damage plus the defense costs. The attacker maximizes the expected damage minus the attack costs. Each agent is concerned about how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Interdependent systems are analyzed where the defense and attack on one target impacts all targets. Dependent systems are analyzed applying Markov analysis and repeated games where a successful attack on one target in the first period impacts the unit costs of defense and attack, and the contest intensity, for the other target in the second period.

  17. Defense and attack of complex and dependent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausken, Kjell, E-mail: kjell.hausken@uis.n [Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway)

    2010-01-15

    A framework is constructed for how to analyze the strategic defense of an infrastructure subject to attack by a strategic attacker. Merging operations research, reliability theory, and game theory for optimal analytical impact, the optimization program for the defender and attacker is specified. Targets can be in parallel, series, combined series-parallel, complex, k-out-of-n redundancy, independent, interdependent, and dependent. The defender and attacker determine how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human, and symbolic values, subjectively assessed by the defender and attacker. A contest success function determines the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the investments by the defender and attacker into each target, and on characteristics of the contest. The defender minimizes the expected damage plus the defense costs. The attacker maximizes the expected damage minus the attack costs. Each agent is concerned about how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Interdependent systems are analyzed where the defense and attack on one target impacts all targets. Dependent systems are analyzed applying Markov analysis and repeated games where a successful attack on one target in the first period impacts the unit costs of defense and attack, and the contest intensity, for the other target in the second period.

  18. Modelling the attack success of planktonic predators: patterns and mechanisms of prey size selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caparroy, P.; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Visser, Andre

    2000-01-01

    of being captured. By combining the attack success model with previously published hydrodynamic models of predator and prey perception, we examine how predator foraging behaviour and prey perceptive ability affect the size spectra of encountered and captured copepod prey. We examine food size spectra of (i......) a rheotactic cruising predator, (ii) a suspension-feeding hovering copepod and (iii) a larval fish. For rheotactic predators such as carnivorous copepods, a central assumption of the model is that attack is triggered by prey escape reaction, which in turn depends on the deformation rate of the fluid created...

  19. Cyber-Attacks on Smart Meters in Household Nanogrid: Modeling, Simulation and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tellbach, Denise; Li, Yan-Fu

    2018-01-01

    The subject of cyber-security and therefore cyber-attacks on smart grid (SG) has become subject of many publications in the last years, emphasizing its importance in research, as well as in practice. One especially vulnerable part of SG are smart meters (SMs). The major contribution of simulating a variety of cyber-attacks on SMs that have not been done in previous studies is the identification and quantification of the possible impacts on the security of SG. In this study, a simulation model...

  20. Revealing Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saghaug, Kristin Falck; Pattison, George; Lindgren, Peter

    2014-01-01

    with reference to Tillich’s account of the meaning of revelation through culture and art, summed up in the statement that “(...) revelation is the manifestation of the ground of being for human knowledge” (Tillich, 1951, p.94), which, we argue, can be extended to everyday experiences, for example, in business......Some small business owners want to balance personal values as well as economic values. “I have to follow my heart” or “it must be meaningful” some of them say. But how might they be able to know what gives meaning to the heart? The philosophical theologian Paul Tillich finds that the problem...... life. In Tillich’s own terms, even preliminary concerns may point at an ultimate concern (Tillich, 1964), which can also be understood as ‘knowledge of the heart’. Our account is also connected to wider discussions concerning the nature of intuition....

  1. Cardiovascular Reactivity and Heart Rate Variability in Panic Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santiago, Helen T

    1999-01-01

    .... Because previous studies of cardiovascular reactivity and heart rate variability have been inconclusive, these factors were re-examined in panickers and controls during physiological challenge...

  2. Getting a New Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be able to replace it with an artificial (man-made) valve. Cardiac size reduction . During this procedure, your doctor removes a piece of the heart muscle from an enlarged heart. This makes your heart ...

  3. Open heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002950.htm Open heart surgery To use the sharing features on this ... large arteries connected to the heart. The term "open heart surgery" means that you are connected to a ...

  4. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  5. Congenital Heart Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  6. Hypertensive heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000163.htm Hypertensive heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart problems that occur because of ...

  7. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  8. Right heart ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiography - right heart ... moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can ... is injected into the right side of the heart. It helps the cardiologist determine the size and ...

  9. Congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a problem with the heart's structure and function that is present at birth. ... Fraser CD, Kane LC. Congenital heart disease. In: Townsend CM Jr, ... Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern ...

  10. Media use and insomnia after terror attacks in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Lemola, Sakari; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2018-03-01

    Direct exposure to traumatic events often precipitates sleep disorders. Sleep disturbance has also been observed amongst those indirectly exposed to trauma, via mass media. However, previous work has focused on traditional media use, rather than contemporary social media. We tested associations between both traditional and social media consumption and insomnia symptoms following 2015 terror attacks in Paris France, controlling for location and post-traumatic symptomology. 1878 respondents, selected to represent the national French population, completed an internet survey a month after the Bataclan attacks (response rate 72%). Respondents indicated different media use, post-traumatic stress and insomnia. Controlling for demographics, location and PTSD, insomnia was associated with both traditional (β 0.10, P = .001) and social media use (β 0.12, P = .001). Associations between social media and insomnia were independent of traditional media use. Interventions targeted at social media may be particularly important following mass trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cyber-Attacks and the Risks for CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    In the previous Bulletin, we discussed the cyber-risks for the accelerator complex. However, looking at the broader picture, the cyber-risks for CERN are much more diverse.   Attacks can not only harm the operation of accelerators or experiments, but also impact negatively on the operation of the Organization as a whole and/or its reputation. This would not only hamper and impede our work while making us looking plain stupid, but might also make funding agencies reconsider whether their money is well invested in CERN… Examples? Sure, let’s be imaginative! What would be the consequences, if: a laptop holding sensitive CERN documents is lost or stolen, and ends up on eBay? your password is compromised and your mail account misused to send nasty messages to thousands of external mail addresses? an attacker manages to add photos of naked women/men onto a prominent CERN website, and boasts about this on Twitter? confidential documents like job application forms or passwo...

  12. Attacks on Heartbeat-Based Security Using Remote Photoplethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepers, Robert Mark; Wang, Wenjin; de Haan, Gerard; Sourdis, Ioannis; Strydis, Christos

    2018-05-01

    The time interval between consecutive heartbeats (interpulse interval, IPI) has previously been suggested for securing mobile-health solutions. This time interval is known to contain a degree of randomness, permitting the generation of a time- and person-specific identifier. It is commonly assumed that only devices trusted by a person can make physical contact with him/her, and that this physical contact allows each device to generate a similar identifier based on its own cardiac recordings. Under these conditions, the identifiers generated by different trusted devices can facilitate secure authentication. Recently, a wide range of techniques have been proposed for measuring heartbeats remotely, a prominent example of which is remote photoplethysmography (rPPG). These techniques may pose a significant threat to heartbeat-based security, as an adversary may pretend to be a trusted device by generating a similar identifier without physical contact, thus bypassing one of the core security conditions. In this paper, we assess the feasibility of such remote attacks using state-of-the-art rPPG methods. Our evaluation shows that rPPG has similar accuracy as contact PPG and, thus, forms a substantial threat to heartbeat-based-security systems that permit trusted devices to obtain their identifiers from contact PPG recordings. Conversely, rPPG cannot obtain an accurate representation of an identifier generated from electrical cardiac signals, making the latter invulnerable to state-of-the-art remote attacks.

  13. Anticollusion Attack Noninteractive Security Hierarchical Key Agreement Scheme in WHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefei Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Health Monitoring Systems (WHMS have potential to change the way of health care and bring numbers of benefits to patients, physicians, hospitals, and society. However, there are crucial barriers not only to transmit the biometric information but also to protect the privacy and security of the patients’ information. The key agreement between two entities is an essential cryptography operation to clear the barriers. In particular, the noninteractive hierarchical key agreement scheme becomes an attractive direction in WHMS because each sensor node or gateway has limited resources and power. Recently, a noninteractive hierarchical key agreement scheme has been proposed by Kim for WHMS. However, we show that Kim’s cryptographic scheme is vulnerable to the collusion attack if the physicians can be corrupted. Obviously, it is a more practical security condition. Therefore, we proposed an improved key agreement scheme against the attack. Security proof, security analysis, and experimental results demonstrate that our proposed scheme gains enhanced security and more efficiency than Kim’s previous scheme while inheriting its qualities of one-round communication and security properties.

  14. Bush animal attacks: management of complex injuries in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Katrina B

    2011-12-01

    important to understand the management of these attacks in resource-limited health care environment. Further, the growing population and human encroachment on previously wild habitats such as the northwestern Tanzania bush argues for increased community awareness to assist in prevention of human injuries by animals.

  15. Information Warfare: Defining the Legal Response to An Attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pottorff, James

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the difficulty in determining whether an information warfare attack, such as a computer virus, can be treated as an "armed attack" for purposes of national defense under the United Nations charter. As the U.S...

  16. Denial of Service Attack Techniques: Analysis, Implementation and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Elleithy

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A denial of service attack (DOS is any type of attack on a networking structure to disable a server from servicing its clients. Attacks range from sending millions of requests to a server in an attempt to slow it down, flooding a server with large packets of invalid data, to sending requests with an invalid or spoofed IP address. In this paper we show the implementation and analysis of three main types of attack: Ping of Death, TCP SYN Flood, and Distributed DOS. The Ping of Death attack will be simulated against a Microsoft Windows 95 computer. The TCP SYN Flood attack will be simulated against a Microsoft Windows 2000 IIS FTP Server. Distributed DOS will be demonstrated by simulating a distribution zombie program that will carry the Ping of Death attack. This paper will demonstrate the potential damage from DOS attacks and analyze the ramifications of the damage.

  17. Cyber Attacks During the War on Terrorism: A Predictive Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vatis, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... Just as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 defied what many thought possible, cyber attacks could escalate in response to United States and allied retaliatory measures against the terrorists...

  18. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited...

  19. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.

  20. RISK DISCLOSURE AGAINST ATTACK ON CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    This paper analyzes the government's defensive and disclosure strategies to reduce the damage caused by terrorists that attack critical infrastructures using subjective game theory. The government recognizes a terrorist as a hidden opponent and the government's decision making about the policies against terror attacks depends on the belief about the existence of terrorist. In addition, it is not necessarily true that the government and the terrorist play the common game and make their decisions. Considering these points, the paper formulates the model in which the government and the terrorist formulate the subjective games respectively, and they induce the strategies using the equilibriums of their subjective games. The paper concluded that the government's disclosure about the implementation of the countermeasure, rather than the disclosure of warning level related with the belief about the existence of terrorist, brings about the higher increment of the subjective payoffs of the government.

  1. Marine microalgae attack and feed on metazoans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berge, Terje; Poulsen, Louise K.; Moldrup, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Free-living microalgae from the dinoflagellate genus Karlodinium are known to formmassive blooms in eutrophic coastal waters worldwide and are often associated with fish kills. Natural bloom populations, recently shown to consist of the two mixotrophic and toxic species Karlodinium armiger...... and Karlodinium veneficum have caused fast paralysis and mortality of finfish and copepods in the laboratory, and have been associated with reduced metazooplankton biomass in-situ. Here we show that a strain of K. armiger (K-0688) immobilises the common marine copepod Acartia tonsa in a densitydependent manner...... and collectively ingests the grazer to promote its own growth rate. In contrast, four strains of K. veneficum did not attack or affect the motility and survival of the copepods. Copepod immobilisation by the K. armiger strain was fast (within 15min) and caused by attacks of swarming cells, likely through...

  2. Cascade-based attacks on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Adilson E.; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2002-12-01

    We live in a modern world supported by large, complex networks. Examples range from financial markets to communication and transportation systems. In many realistic situations the flow of physical quantities in the network, as characterized by the loads on nodes, is important. We show that for such networks where loads can redistribute among the nodes, intentional attacks can lead to a cascade of overload failures, which can in turn cause the entire or a substantial part of the network to collapse. This is relevant for real-world networks that possess a highly heterogeneous distribution of loads, such as the Internet and power grids. We demonstrate that the heterogeneity of these networks makes them particularly vulnerable to attacks in that a large-scale cascade may be triggered by disabling a single key node. This brings obvious concerns on the security of such systems.

  3. Research About Attacks Over Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is expected to continue expanding in the next few years and people will start to see some of the following benefits in their real lives. Security of cloud computing environments is the set of control-based technologies and policies absolute to adhere regulatory compliance rules and protect information data applications and infrastructure related with cloud use. In this paper we suggest a model to estimating the cloud computing security and test the services provided to users. The simulator NG-Cloud Next Generation Secure Cloud Storage is used and modified to administer the proposed model. This implementation achieved security functions potential attacks as defined in the proposed model. Finally we also solve some attacks over cloud computing to provide the security and safety of the cloud.

  4. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases...

  5. Target Heart Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  6. Alcohol and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  7. Caffeine and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  8. Protein and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  9. Heart failure - medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  10. Increased intrinsic brain connectivity between pons and somatosensory cortex during attacks of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2017-01-01

    The neurological disturbances of migraine aura are caused by transient cortical dysfunction due to waves of spreading depolarization that disrupt neuronal signaling. The effects of these cortical events on intrinsic brain connectivity during attacks of migraine aura have not previously been......-based approach focusing on cortical visual areas and areas involved in migraine pain, and a data-driven independent component analysis approach to detect changes in intrinsic brain signaling during attacks. In addition, we performed the analyses after mirroring the MRI data according to the side of perceived......-sided pain. For aura-side normalized data, we found increased connectivity during attacks between visual area V5 and the lower middle frontal gyrus in the symptomatic hemisphere (peak voxel: P = 0.0194, (x, y, z) = (40, 40, 12). The present study provides evidence of altered intrinsic brain connectivity...

  11. Fighting Through a Logistics Cyber Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    cumulative cost of cyber-attacks was more than the combined global black market cost of cocaine, heroin and marijuana. These alarming figures raised...the country to its knees. The Luftwaffe was uncontested in the Battle of Britain until radar’s ability to detect inbound aircraft provided the...manifest information in IGC and provides inbound passenger manifest data to the aerial port of debarkation (APOD) and other receiving activities for

  12. Are blockchains immune to all malicious attacks?

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, blockchain technology has attracted considerable attention. It records cryptographic transactions in a public ledger that is difficult to alter and compromise because of the distributed consensus. As a result, blockchain is believed to resist fraud and hacking. Results: This work explores the types of fraud and malicious activities that can be prevented by blockchain technology and identifies attacks to which blockchain remains vulnerable. Conclusions: This study ...

  13. An Explanation of Nakamoto's Analysis of Double-spend Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Ozisik, A. Pinar; Levine, Brian Neil

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental attack against blockchain systems is the double-spend attack. In this tutorial, we provide a very detailed explanation of just one section of Satoshi Nakamoto's original paper where the attack's probability of success is stated. We show the derivation of the mathematics relied upon by Nakamoto to create a model of the attack. We also validate the model with a Monte Carlo simulation, and we determine which model component is not perfect.

  14. Iraqi violence, Saudi attack and further bombings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-03-15

    Iraq moved closer to all-out civil war following an attack on the Imam Ali al-Hadi mosque in Samarra, one of Shi'i Islam's holiest shrines, on 22nd February. In the days that followed, several hundred Iraqis died in inter-communal violence. Attacks on installations close to the Basrah Oil Terminal were reported. Earlier in the month, the main oil storage facility in Kirkuk was bombed, forcing the Northern Oil Company to shut-in the 0.3 mn bpd field. Oil and electricity supplies in southern Iraq were cut by attacks on installations some 40 miles south of Baghdad. Turkey agreed to resume product exports to Iraq after a deal was agreed on repaying Iraqi debts of $1 bn to Turkish suppliers. An official Australian inquiry into illegal payments made under the UN's oil-for-food programme is to investigate allegations involving two Australian-controlled oil firms. (author)

  15. Predictors of Stroke After Transient Ischemic Attack in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Laura L; Watson, Christopher G; Kapur, Kush; Danehy, Amy R; Rivkin, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) in children has received far less attention compared with TIA in adults. The risk factors of stroke after TIA in children are relatively unknown. We aimed to determine the percentage of children who have stroke after TIA and the risk factors associated with stroke after TIA. We searched the medical records at Boston Children's Hospital for the year 2010 to find children who were evaluated for TIA to determine associated risk factors of stroke after TIA. We included children who were evaluated in 2009 through 2010 for TIA and had magnetic resonance imaging. We examined follow-up imaging through August 2014 for subsequent stroke. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for factors in our cohort who are associated with stroke after presentation with TIA. We identified 63 children who experienced a TIA. The mean time of imaging follow-up was 4.5 years after TIA presentation. Of the 63 children, 10 (16%) developed radiological evidence of ischemic cerebral injury within the follow-up period. Four of the 10 (6%) demonstrated diffusion abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging at TIA presentation, whereas 8 (13%) had a stroke after their TIA. Arteriopathy, female sex, and autoimmune disorders were significantly associated with stroke after TIA. In our cohort of children, stroke occurred after TIA at a rate similar to that seen in adults, but the risk factors for stroke after TIA in children are different. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  17. Quantitative Attack Tree Analysis via Priced Timed Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Ruijters, Enno Jozef Johannes; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram; Vicario, Enrico

    The success of a security attack crucially depends on the resources available to an attacker: time, budget, skill level, and risk appetite. Insight in these dependencies and the most vulnerable system parts is key to providing effective counter measures. This paper considers attack trees, one of the

  18. Pareto Efficient Solution of Attack-Defence Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming

    Attack-defence trees are a promising approach for representing threat scenarios and possible countermeasures in a concise and intuitive manner. An attack-defence tree describes the interaction between an attacker and a defender, and is evaluated by assigning parameters to the nodes, such as

  19. Vulnerability Assessment by Learning Attack Specifications in Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Leal Franqueira, V.; Lopes, Raul H.C.

    This paper presents an evolutionary approach for learning attack specifications that describe attack scenarios. The objective is to find vulnerabilities in computer networks which minimise the cost of an attack with maximum impact. Although we focus on Insider Threat, the proposed approach applies

  20. Attacks on the AJPS Mersenne-based cryptosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. de Boer (Koen); L. Ducas (Léo); S. Jeffery (Stacey); R. M. de Wolf (Ronald)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractAggarwal, Joux, Prakash and Santha recently introduced a new potentially quantum-safe public-key cryptosystem, and suggested that a brute-force attack is essentially optimal against it. They consider but then dismiss both Meet-in-the-Middle attacks and LLL-based attacks. Very soon after

  1. 12 CFR 747.17 - Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding... INVESTIGATIONS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 747.17 Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. If an interlocutory appeal or collateral attack is brought in any court concerning all or any part of an...

  2. 12 CFR 308.17 - Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding... PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 308.17 Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. If an interlocutory appeal or collateral attack is brought in any...

  3. 12 CFR 19.17 - Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding... OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 19.17 Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. If an interlocutory appeal or collateral attack is brought in any court concerning all...

  4. Limit Asthma Attacks Caused by Colds or Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma: Limit asthma attacks caused by colds or flu A cold or the flu can trigger an asthma attack. Here's why — and how to keep your sneeze ... plan. If you notice warning signs of an asthma attack — such as coughing, wheezing, chest tightness or shortness ...

  5. Link-layer Jamming Attacks on S-MAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Hartel, Pieter H.; den Hartog, Jeremy; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2004-01-01

    We argue that among denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, link-layer jamming is a more attractive option to attackers than radio jamming is. By exploiting the semantics of the link-layer protocol (aka MAC protocol), an attacker can achieve better efficiency than blindly jamming the radio signals alone.

  6. Link-layer jamming attacks on S-MAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Hartel, Pieter H.; den Hartog, Jeremy; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    We argue that among denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, link-layer jamming is a more attractive option to attackers than radio jamming is. By exploiting the semantics of the link-layer protocol (aka MAC protocol), an attacker can achieve better efficiency than blindly jamming the radio signals alone.

  7. Regression Nodes: Extending attack trees with data from social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullee, Jan-Willem; Montoya, L.; Pieters, Wolter; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    In the field of security, attack trees are often used to assess security vulnerabilities probabilistically in relation to multi-step attacks. The nodes are usually connected via AND-gates, where all children must be executed, or via OR-gates, where only one action is necessary for the attack step to

  8. What Can We Learn?--The Algonquin Bear Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Describes a bear attack in Algonquin Park in Lake Opeongo (Canada) in which a man and woman were killed. Hypothesizes that the bear deliberately preyed on its victims and concludes that the bear was physically normal. Despite this isolated attack, the chance of being attacked by a black bear when camping is virtually nonexistent. (KS)

  9. Quantitative Verification and Synthesis of Attack-Defence Scenarios Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming; Parker, David

    Attack-defence trees are a powerful technique for formally evaluating attack-defence scenarios. They represent in an intuitive, graphical way the interaction between an attacker and a defender who compete in order to achieve conflicting objectives. We propose a novel framework for the formal

  10. Modeling and Analysis of Information Attack in Computer Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepyne, David

    2003-01-01

    ... (as opposed to physical and other forms of attack) . Information based attacks are attacks that can be carried out from anywhere in the world, while sipping cappuccino at an Internet cafe' or while enjoying the comfort of a living room armchair...

  11. Presentation Attack Detection for Iris Recognition System Using NIR Camera Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Baek, Na Rae; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-01-01

    Among biometric recognition systems such as fingerprint, finger-vein, or face, the iris recognition system has proven to be effective for achieving a high recognition accuracy and security level. However, several recent studies have indicated that an iris recognition system can be fooled by using presentation attack images that are recaptured using high-quality printed images or by contact lenses with printed iris patterns. As a result, this potential threat can reduce the security level of an iris recognition system. In this study, we propose a new presentation attack detection (PAD) method for an iris recognition system (iPAD) using a near infrared light (NIR) camera image. To detect presentation attack images, we first localized the iris region of the input iris image using circular edge detection (CED). Based on the result of iris localization, we extracted the image features using deep learning-based and handcrafted-based methods. The input iris images were then classified into real and presentation attack categories using support vector machines (SVM). Through extensive experiments with two public datasets, we show that our proposed method effectively solves the iris recognition presentation attack detection problem and produces detection accuracy superior to previous studies. PMID:29695113

  12. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings deflect bird attacks under low light intensities with UV wavelengths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olofsson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Predators preferentially attack vital body parts to avoid prey escape. Consequently, prey adaptations that make predators attack less crucial body parts are expected to evolve. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings have long been thought to have this deflective, but hitherto undemonstrated function.Here we report that a butterfly, Lopinga achine, with broad-spectrum reflective white scales in its marginal eyespot pupils deceives a generalist avian predator, the blue tit, to attack the marginal eyespots, but only under particular conditions-in our experiments, low light intensities with a prominent UV component. Under high light intensity conditions with a similar UV component, and at low light intensities without UV, blue tits directed attacks towards the butterfly head.In nature, birds typically forage intensively at early dawn, when the light environment shifts to shorter wavelengths, and the contrast between the eyespot pupils and the background increases. Among butterflies, deflecting attacks is likely to be particularly important at dawn when low ambient temperatures make escape by flight impossible, and when insectivorous birds typically initiate another day's search for food. Our finding that the deflective function of eyespots is highly dependent on the ambient light environment helps explain why previous attempts have provided little support for the deflective role of marginal eyespots, and we hypothesize that the mechanism that we have discovered in our experiments in a laboratory setting may function also in nature when birds forage on resting butterflies under low light intensities.

  13. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings deflect bird attacks under low light intensities with UV wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Martin; Vallin, Adrian; Jakobsson, Sven; Wiklund, Christer

    2010-05-24

    Predators preferentially attack vital body parts to avoid prey escape. Consequently, prey adaptations that make predators attack less crucial body parts are expected to evolve. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings have long been thought to have this deflective, but hitherto undemonstrated function. Here we report that a butterfly, Lopinga achine, with broad-spectrum reflective white scales in its marginal eyespot pupils deceives a generalist avian predator, the blue tit, to attack the marginal eyespots, but only under particular conditions-in our experiments, low light intensities with a prominent UV component. Under high light intensity conditions with a similar UV component, and at low light intensities without UV, blue tits directed attacks towards the butterfly head. In nature, birds typically forage intensively at early dawn, when the light environment shifts to shorter wavelengths, and the contrast between the eyespot pupils and the background increases. Among butterflies, deflecting attacks is likely to be particularly important at dawn when low ambient temperatures make escape by flight impossible, and when insectivorous birds typically initiate another day's search for food. Our finding that the deflective function of eyespots is highly dependent on the ambient light environment helps explain why previous attempts have provided little support for the deflective role of marginal eyespots, and we hypothesize that the mechanism that we have discovered in our experiments in a laboratory setting may function also in nature when birds forage on resting butterflies under low light intensities.

  14. Presentation Attack Detection for Iris Recognition System Using NIR Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Among biometric recognition systems such as fingerprint, finger-vein, or face, the iris recognition system has proven to be effective for achieving a high recognition accuracy and security level. However, several recent studies have indicated that an iris recognition system can be fooled by using presentation attack images that are recaptured using high-quality printed images or by contact lenses with printed iris patterns. As a result, this potential threat can reduce the security level of an iris recognition system. In this study, we propose a new presentation attack detection (PAD method for an iris recognition system (iPAD using a near infrared light (NIR camera image. To detect presentation attack images, we first localized the iris region of the input iris image using circular edge detection (CED. Based on the result of iris localization, we extracted the image features using deep learning-based and handcrafted-based methods. The input iris images were then classified into real and presentation attack categories using support vector machines (SVM. Through extensive experiments with two public datasets, we show that our proposed method effectively solves the iris recognition presentation attack detection problem and produces detection accuracy superior to previous studies.

  15. Presentation Attack Detection for Iris Recognition System Using NIR Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Baek, Na Rae; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-04-24

    Among biometric recognition systems such as fingerprint, finger-vein, or face, the iris recognition system has proven to be effective for achieving a high recognition accuracy and security level. However, several recent studies have indicated that an iris recognition system can be fooled by using presentation attack images that are recaptured using high-quality printed images or by contact lenses with printed iris patterns. As a result, this potential threat can reduce the security level of an iris recognition system. In this study, we propose a new presentation attack detection (PAD) method for an iris recognition system (iPAD) using a near infrared light (NIR) camera image. To detect presentation attack images, we first localized the iris region of the input iris image using circular edge detection (CED). Based on the result of iris localization, we extracted the image features using deep learning-based and handcrafted-based methods. The input iris images were then classified into real and presentation attack categories using support vector machines (SVM). Through extensive experiments with two public datasets, we show that our proposed method effectively solves the iris recognition presentation attack detection problem and produces detection accuracy superior to previous studies.

  16. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  17. Take heart!

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Recently, ten new semi-automatic defibrillators were installed at various locations around CERN. This is a preventive measure intended to provide cardiac arrest victims with the best possible response. The first responder could be you!   The Director-General has welcomed the initiative of the Medical Service and Fire Brigade for the installation of ten new semi-automatic defibrillators. You have probably seen them on your way to the restaurant, for example:  brand new semi-automatic defibrillators, ready for an emergency. Housed in a white wall-mounted case, the bright red defibrillators are marked with a white heart symbol crossed by a lightning bolt (see photo). The defibrillator is designed so that anyone can use it. “Anyone can use it, you don’t need to be a health professional,” says Dr Reymond from CERN's Medical Service. Together with the CERN Fire Brigade, he is behind the initiative to have these units put in place. And with good reason, as the unit...

  18. Analyzing the Effectiveness of the Self-organized Public-Key Management System on MANETs under the Lack of Cooperation and the Impersonation Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Eduardo; Dos Santos, Aldri Luiz; Lima, Michele N.; Albini, Luiz Carlos Pessoa

    Among the key management schemes for MANETs, the Self-Organized Public-Key Management System (PGP-Like) is the main chaining-based key management scheme. It is fully self-organized and does not require any certificate authority. Two kinds of misbehavior attacks are considered to be great threats to PGP-Like: lack of cooperation and impersonation attacks. This work quantifies the impact of such attacks on the PGP-Like. Simulation results show that PGP-Like was able to maintain its effectiveness when submitted to the lack of cooperation attack, contradicting previously theoretical results. It correctly works even in the presence of more than 60% of misbehaving nodes, although the convergence time is affected with only 20% of misbehaving nodes. On the other hand, PGP-Like is completely vulnerable to the impersonation attack. Its functionality is affected with just 5% of misbehaving nodes, confirming previously theoretical results.

  19. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones affect every cell in the human body, and the cardiovascular changes associated with increased levels of thyroid hormones are especially well described. As an example, short-term hyperthyroidism has positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on the heart, leading to a hyperdynamic...... with CVD, LD and DM both before and after the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Although the design used does not allow a stringent distinction between cause and effect, the findings indicate a possible direct association between hyperthyroidism and these morbidities, or vice versa....... vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions...

  20. Clinical Outcomes in 3343 Children and Adults With Rheumatic Heart Disease From 14 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Two-Year Follow-Up of the Global Rheumatic Heart Disease Registry (the REMEDY Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zühlke, Liesl; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Engel, Mark E; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Mackie, Pam; Cupido-Katya Mauff, Blanche; Islam, Shofiqul; Daniels, Rezeen; Francis, Veronica; Ogendo, Stephen; Gitura, Bernard; Mondo, Charles; Okello, Emmy; Lwabi, Peter; Al-Kebsi, Mohammed M; Hugo-Hamman, Christopher; Sheta, Sahar S; Haileamlak, Abraham; Daniel, Wandimu; Goshu, Dejuma Yadeta; Abdissa, Senbeta G; Desta, Araya G; Shasho, Bekele A; Begna, Dufera M; ElSayed, Ahmed; Ibrahim, Ahmed S; Musuku, John; Bode-Thomas, Fidelia; Yilgwan, Christopher C; Amusa, Ganiyu A; Ige, Olukemi; Okeahialam, Basil; Sutton, Christopher; Misra, Rajeev; Abul Fadl, Azza; Kennedy, Neil; Damasceno, Albertino; Sani, Mahmoud U; Ogah, Okechukwu S; Elhassan, Taiwo OlunugaHuda H M; Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Adeoye, Abiodun M; Mntla, Phindile; Ojji, Dike; Mucumbitsi, Joseph; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2016-11-08

    There are few contemporary data on the mortality and morbidity associated with rheumatic heart disease or information on their predictors. We report the 2-year follow-up of individuals with rheumatic heart disease from 14 low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. Between January 2010 and November 2012, we enrolled 3343 patients from 25 centers in 14 countries and followed them for 2 years to assess mortality, congestive heart failure, stroke or transient ischemic attack, recurrent acute rheumatic fever, and infective endocarditis. Vital status at 24 months was known for 2960 (88.5%) patients. Two-thirds were female. Although patients were young (median age, 28 years; interquartile range, 18-40), the 2-year case fatality rate was high (500 deaths, 16.9%). Mortality rate was 116.3/1000 patient-years in the first year and 65.4/1000 patient-years in the second year. Median age at death was 28.7 years. Independent predictors of death were severe valve disease (hazard ratio [HR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80-3.11), congestive heart failure (HR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.70-2.72), New York Heart Association functional class III/IV (HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.32-2.10), atrial fibrillation (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.10-1.78), and older age (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.02 per year increase) at enrollment. Postprimary education (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54-0.85) and female sex (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.52-0.80) were associated with lower risk of death. Two hundred and four (6.9%) patients had new congestive heart failure (incidence, 38.42/1000 patient-years), 46 (1.6%) had a stroke or transient ischemic attack (8.45/1000 patient-years), 19 (0.6%) had recurrent acute rheumatic fever (3.49/1000 patient-years), and 20 (0.7%) had infective endocarditis (3.65/1000 patient-years). Previous stroke and older age were independent predictors of stroke/transient ischemic attack or systemic embolism. Patients from low- and lower-middle-income countries had significantly higher age- and sex

  1. Unified communications forensics anatomy of common UC attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Nicholas Mr

    2013-01-01

    Unified Communications Forensics: Anatomy of Common UC Attacks is the first book to explain the issues and vulnerabilities and demonstrate the attacks, forensic artifacts, and countermeasures required to establish a secure (UC) environment. This book is written by leading UC experts Nicholas Grant and Joseph W. Shaw II and provides material never before found on the market, including: analysis of forensic artifacts in common UC attacks an in-depth look at established UC technologies and attack exploits hands-on understanding of UC attack vectors and associated countermeasures

  2. Quantitative Verification and Synthesis of Attack-Defence Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming; Parker, David

    2016-01-01

    analysis of quantitative properties of complex attack-defence scenarios, using an extension of attack-defence trees which models temporal ordering of actions and allows explicit dependencies in the strategies adopted by attackers and defenders. We adopt a game-theoretic approach, translating attack...... which guarantee or optimise some quantitative property, such as the probability of a successful attack, the expected cost incurred, or some multi-objective trade-off between the two. We implement our approach, building upon the PRISM-games model checker, and apply it to a case study of an RFID goods...

  3. [Definition of acute heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metra, Marco; Carbone, Giorgio; Lombardi, Carlo; Borghi, Claudio; Vescovo, Giorgio

    2014-02-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a potentially life-threatening condition that may arise as a deterioration of a previous heart failure or may be the first presentation of heart failure. Several causes or precipitating factors have been listed, as well as different mechanisms have been described, thus leading to a broad spectrum of clinical presentations. Symptoms and signs of AHF have a strong clinical and prognostic significance and are kept into consideration to guide disease management. In particular, a higher clinical severity or a worse prognosis are associated with lower blood pressure levels, fluid overload, evidence of myocardial ischemia or renal impairment. Putatively, interventions addressed to restore these factors may play a role in the management of AHF.

  4. Advanced Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Advanced Heart Failure Updated:May 9,2017 When heart failure (HF) ... Making This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  5. Hybrid attacks on model-based social recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Gao, Min; Rong, Wenge; Li, Wentao; Xiong, Qingyu; Wen, Junhao

    2017-10-01

    With the growing popularity of the online social platform, the social network based approaches to recommendation emerged. However, because of the open nature of rating systems and social networks, the social recommender systems are susceptible to malicious attacks. In this paper, we present a certain novel attack, which inherits characteristics of the rating attack and the relation attack, and term it hybrid attack. Furtherly, we explore the impact of the hybrid attack on model-based social recommender systems in multiple aspects. The experimental results show that, the hybrid attack is more destructive than the rating attack in most cases. In addition, users and items with fewer ratings will be influenced more when attacked. Last but not the least, the findings suggest that spammers do not depend on the feedback links from normal users to become more powerful, the unilateral links can make the hybrid attack effective enough. Since unilateral links are much cheaper, the hybrid attack will be a great threat to model-based social recommender systems.

  6. Machine Learning Methods for Attack Detection in the Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozay, Mete; Esnaola, Inaki; Yarman Vural, Fatos Tunay; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R; Poor, H Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Attack detection problems in the smart grid are posed as statistical learning problems for different attack scenarios in which the measurements are observed in batch or online settings. In this approach, machine learning algorithms are used to classify measurements as being either secure or attacked. An attack detection framework is provided to exploit any available prior knowledge about the system and surmount constraints arising from the sparse structure of the problem in the proposed approach. Well-known batch and online learning algorithms (supervised and semisupervised) are employed with decision- and feature-level fusion to model the attack detection problem. The relationships between statistical and geometric properties of attack vectors employed in the attack scenarios and learning algorithms are analyzed to detect unobservable attacks using statistical learning methods. The proposed algorithms are examined on various IEEE test systems. Experimental analyses show that machine learning algorithms can detect attacks with performances higher than attack detection algorithms that employ state vector estimation methods in the proposed attack detection framework.

  7. False Positive and False Negative Effects on Network Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yilun

    2018-01-01

    Robustness against attacks serves as evidence for complex network structures and failure mechanisms that lie behind them. Most often, due to detection capability limitation or good disguises, attacks on networks are subject to false positives and false negatives, meaning that functional nodes may be falsely regarded as compromised by the attacker and vice versa. In this work, we initiate a study of false positive/negative effects on network robustness against three fundamental types of attack strategies, namely, random attacks (RA), localized attacks (LA), and targeted attack (TA). By developing a general mathematical framework based upon the percolation model, we investigate analytically and by numerical simulations of attack robustness with false positive/negative rate (FPR/FNR) on three benchmark models including Erdős-Rényi (ER) networks, random regular (RR) networks, and scale-free (SF) networks. We show that ER networks are equivalently robust against RA and LA only when FPR equals zero or the initial network is intact. We find several interesting crossovers in RR and SF networks when FPR is taken into consideration. By defining the cost of attack, we observe diminishing marginal attack efficiency for RA, LA, and TA. Our finding highlights the potential risk of underestimating or ignoring FPR in understanding attack robustness. The results may provide insights into ways of enhancing robustness of network architecture and improve the level of protection of critical infrastructures.

  8. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore......, in periods following large attacks a new attack is more likely to be small compared to other periods. Finally, we analyze the long-run consequences of the recruitment effect. We show that it leads to more counterterrorism, more small attacks, and a higher sum of terrorism damage and counterterrorism costs...

  9. Euxesta spp. NEW PEST IN Zea mays L. VAR. rugosa: ASSOCIATION WITH Heliothis zea ATTACKS IN SPRING AND SUMMER SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Curis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The "corn silk fly" of maize (Euxesta spp. Loew, 1868 appeared in 2005 in Santa Fe (Argentina, causing damage to the ears. The attacks are related to temperature, crop growth stage and previous attack of other pests. For this new pest, we determined the species present, the damage on Bt sweet corn plantings in two seasons (August and February, the association of attacks with Heliothis zea (Boddie, 1850 and the presence of parasitoids. Larvae counts of H. zea and Euxesta spp. began in the phenological stage of R2 and ended in R5 and consisted of removing at random from each batch (three for each planting season four ears. In laboratory we determined the percentage of damage on the ears and number of larvae of Euxesta spp. and H. zea, discriminated by size. Fly was identified as E. eluta, damage was greatest in the early spring planting corn. Attacks were correlated with H. zea.

  10. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-related Disorders in Denmark After the Breivik Attacks in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Dinesen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren D

    2017-11-01

    On 22 July 2011, Anders Breivik killed 77 adults and children in Norway. Having recently documented increases in the incidence of trauma- and stressor-related disorders in Denmark after the 9/11 attacks, we hypothesized that the Breivik attacks-due to their geographic proximity-would be followed by even larger increases in Denmark. Using population-based data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (1995-2012), we conducted an intervention analysis of the change in the incidence of trauma- and stressor-related disorders after the Breivik attacks. The incidence rate increased by 16% over the following 1½ years after the Breivik attacks, corresponding to 2736 additional cases. In comparison, 9/11 was followed by a 4% increase. We also present evidence of a subsequent surge in incidence stimulated by media attention. This study bolsters previous findings on extra-national consequences of terrorism and indicates that geographic proximity and media coverage may exacerbate effects.

  11. Inflamação sistêmica causada pela periodontite crônica em pacientes vítimas de ataque cardíaco isquêmico agudo Systemic inflammation caused by chronic periodontitis in acute ischemic heart attack patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José de Oliveira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Processos inflamatórios e infecciosos mediados por bactérias em sítios distantes têm sido descritos como fator de risco à doença coronariana isquêmica aguda (DCIA. MÉTODOS: Cento e oitenta e um pacientes com DCIA, com e sem periodontites crônicas, foram incluídos neste estudo. Os pacientes foram admitidos no HC da UNICAMP e estratificados em três grupos: grupo 1 - pacientes com periodontite crônica grave (31 homens e 19 mulheres; média de idade 55,1 ± 11,29 anos; grupo 2 - pacientes com periodontite crônica leve (40 homens e 28 mulheres; média de idade 54,8 ± 10,37 anos; grupo 3 - pacientes desdentados (43 homens e 20 mulheres; média de idade 67,5 ± 8,55 anos. Amostras sanguíneas foram coletadas para mensurar os perfis lipídico, hematológico e glicêmico. Além disso, biópsias de 17 artérias coronárias com aterosclerose e igual número de artérias mamárias internas sem degeneração aterosclerótica no grupo 1 foram investigadas. Para análise estatística utilizou-se a análise de variância (ANOVA e o teste de Scheffé para comparações múltiplas. RESULTADOS: Triglicérides e LDL estavam elevados no grupo 1 em relação ao grupo 2. O HDL apresentou-se reduzido em 20% dos pacientes do grupo 1, e em 8% nos desdentados. A glicemia estava elevada no grupo 1. DNA de bactérias periodontais foram detectados em 58,8% das artérias coronárias. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes com DCIA e periodontite crônica grave podem apresentar perfil lipídico alterado, como também microorganismos associados com as periodontites crônicas graves podem permear dentro de vasos coronarianos.OBJECTIVE: Infectious and inflammatory processes mediated by bacteria in distant sites have been described as a risk factor for acute ischemic heart disease (AIHD. METHODS: One hundred one patients with AIHD with and without chronic periodontitis (CP were included in this study. Patients were admitted to the HC UNICAMP and stratified into three

  12. Cyber Attacks and Energy Infrastructures: Anticipating Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desarnaud, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the likelihood of cyber-attacks against European energy infrastructures and their potential consequences, particularly on the electricity grid. It also delivers a comparative analysis of measures taken by different European countries to protect their industries and collaborate within the European Union. The energy sector experiences an unprecedented digital transformation upsetting its activities and business models. Our energy infrastructures, sometimes more than a decade old and designed to remain functional for many years to come, now constantly interact with light digital components. The convergence of the global industrial system with the power of advanced computing and analytics reveals untapped opportunities at every step of the energy value chain. However, the introduction of digital elements in old and unprotected industrial equipment also exposes the energy industry to the cyber risk. One of the most compelling example of the type of threat the industry is facing, is the 2015 cyber-attack on the Ukraine power grid, which deprived about 200 000 people of electricity in the middle of the winter. The number and the level of technical expertise of cyber-attacks rose significantly after the discovery of the Stuxnet worm in the network of Natanz uranium enrichment site in 2010. Energy transition policies and the growing integration of renewable sources of energy will intensify this tendency, if cyber security measures are not part of the design of our future energy infrastructures. Regulators try to catch up and adapt, like in France where the authorities collaborate closely with the energy industry to set up a strict and efficient regulatory framework, and protect critical operators. This approach is adopted elsewhere in Europe, but common measures applicable to the whole European Union are essential to protect strongly interconnected energy infrastructures against a multiform threat that defies frontiers

  13. LAN attack detection using Discrete Event Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubballi, Neminath; Biswas, Santosh; Roopa, S; Ratti, Ritesh; Nandi, Sukumar

    2011-01-01

    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for determining the link layer or Medium Access Control (MAC) address of a network host, given its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address. ARP is a stateless protocol and any IP-MAC pairing sent by a host is accepted without verification. This weakness in the ARP may be exploited by malicious hosts in a Local Area Network (LAN) by spoofing IP-MAC pairs. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to circumvent these attacks; however, these techniques either make IP-MAC pairing static, modify the existing ARP, patch operating systems of all the hosts etc. In this paper we propose a Discrete Event System (DES) approach for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for LAN specific attacks which do not require any extra constraint like static IP-MAC, changing the ARP etc. A DES model is built for the LAN under both a normal and compromised (i.e., spoofed request/response) situation based on the sequences of ARP related packets. Sequences of ARP events in normal and spoofed scenarios are similar thereby rendering the same DES models for both the cases. To create different ARP events under normal and spoofed conditions the proposed technique uses active ARP probing. However, this probing adds extra ARP traffic in the LAN. Following that a DES detector is built to determine from observed ARP related events, whether the LAN is operating under a normal or compromised situation. The scheme also minimizes extra ARP traffic by probing the source IP-MAC pair of only those ARP packets which are yet to be determined as genuine/spoofed by the detector. Also, spoofed IP-MAC pairs determined by the detector are stored in tables to detect other LAN attacks triggered by spoofing namely, man-in-the-middle (MiTM), denial of service etc. The scheme is successfully validated in a test bed. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Key Recovery Attacks on Recent Authenticated Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Dobraunig, Christoph; Eichlseder, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we cryptanalyze three authenticated ciphers: AVALANCHE, Calico, and RBS. While the former two are contestants in the ongoing international CAESAR competition for authenticated encryption schemes, the latter has recently been proposed for lightweight applications such as RFID systems...... and wireless networks. All these schemes use well-established and secure components such as the AES, Grain-like NFSRs, ChaCha and SipHash as their building blocks. However, we discover key recovery attacks for all three designs, featuring square-root complexities. Using a key collision technique, we can...

  15. Twisted Polynomials and Forgery Attacks on GCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelraheem, Mohamed Ahmed A. M. A.; Beelen, Peter; Bogdanov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Polynomial hashing as an instantiation of universal hashing is a widely employed method for the construction of MACs and authenticated encryption (AE) schemes, the ubiquitous GCM being a prominent example. It is also used in recent AE proposals within the CAESAR competition which aim at providing...... in an improved key recovery algorithm. As cryptanalytic applications of our twisted polynomials, we develop the first universal forgery attacks on GCM in the weak-key model that do not require nonce reuse. Moreover, we present universal weak-key forgeries for the nonce-misuse resistant AE scheme POET, which...

  16. Competitive Reactions to Advertising and Promotion Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Jan-Benedict E. M. Steenkamp; Vincent R. Nijs; Dominique M. Hanssens; Marnik G. Dekimpe

    2005-01-01

    How do competitors react to each other's price-promotion and advertising attacks? What are the reasons for the observed reaction behavior? We answer these questions by performing a large-scale empirical study on the short-run and long-run reactions to promotion and advertising shocks in over 400 consumer product categories over a four-year time span. Our results clearly show that the most predominant form of competitive response is passive in nature. When a reaction does occur, it is usually ...

  17. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  18. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  19. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  20. Dolichoectasia and Small Vessel Disease in Young Patients With Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Vincent; Grittner, Ulrike; Fazekas, Franz; McCabe, Dominick J H; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Kessler, Christof; Martus, Peter; Norrving, Bo; Ringelstein, Erich Bernd; Schmidt, Reinhold; Tanislav, Christian; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Rolfs, Arndt; Enzinger, Christian

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated whether basilar dolichoectasia is associated with markers of cerebral small vessel disease in younger transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients. We used data from the SIFAP1 study (Stroke in Young Fabry Patients), a large prospective, hospital-based, screening study for Fabry disease in young (ischemic attack/stroke patients in whom detailed clinical data and brain MRI were obtained, and stroke subtyping with TOAST classification (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) was performed. Dolichoectasia was found in 508 of 3850 (13.2%) of patients. Dolichoectasia was associated with older age (odds ratio per decade, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.44), male sex (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.42), and hypertension (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.70). Dolichoectasia was more common in patients with small infarctions (33.9% versus 29.8% for acute lesions, P =0.065; 29.1% versus 16.5% for old lesions, P ischemic attack and ischemic stroke. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Retrospective evaluation of coyote attacks in dogs: 154 cases (1997-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenthal, Virginia M; Bergman, Philip; Murtaugh, Robert J

    2017-05-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and outcome of known attacks in client-owned dogs caused by the common coyote, Canis latrans. Retrospective observational study. Private referral hospital. One hundred fifty-four client-owned dogs known to be attacked by coyotes. None. Records from a private referral hospital from May 1997 through December 2012 were reviewed. Time of day and month/season of year, signalment, body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, body weight, location and severity of wounds inflicted, common injuries, length of hospitalization, necessity of surgical wound repair under anesthesia, antimicrobial use and mortality were recorded. Eighty-six percent of dogs presenting following coyote attack weighed Dogs with bite wounds to the thorax had the highest mortality at 21.3%. Criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) based on admission vital signs were met in 58.8% of dogs and the presence of SIRS was significantly associated with mortality (P hernia (9/154; 5.8%), and abdominal penetrating wounds (8/146; 5.5%). Dogs dogs are a problem in Southern California and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, especially in dogs with wounds to the thorax. Aggressive management involving surgical wound repair was associated with survival to discharge. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  2. Recent computer attacks via Instant Messaging

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. Several computers at CERN have recently been broken into by attackers who have tricked users of Instant Messaging applications (e.g. MSN, Yahoo Messenger, etc.) into clicking on web links which appeared to come from known contacts. The links appeared to be photos from ‘friends’ and requested software to be installed. In practice, attacker software was installed and the messages did not come from real contacts. In the past such fake messages were mainly sent by email but now a wider range of applications are being targeted, including Instant Messaging. Cybercriminals are making growing use of fake messages to try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer. Anti-virus software cann...

  3. Consciousness in non-epileptic attack disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuber, Markus; Kurthen, M

    2011-01-01

    Non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD) is one of the most important differential diagnoses of epilepsy. Impairment of consciousness is the key feature of non-epileptic attacks (NEAs). The first half of this review summarises the clinical research literature featuring observations relating to consciousness in NEAD. The second half places this evidence in the wider context of the recent discourse on consciousness in neuroscience and the philosophy of mind. We argue that studies of consciousness should not only distinguish between the 'level' and `content' of consciousness but also between 'phenomenal consciousness' (consciousness of states it somehow "feels to be like") and 'access consciousness' (having certain 'higher' cognitive processes at one's disposal). The existing evidence shows that there is a great intra- and interindividual variability of NEA experience. However, in most NEAs phenomenal experience - and, as a precondition for that experience, vigilance or wakefulness - is reduced to a lesser degree than in those epileptic seizures involving impairment of consciousness. In fact, complete loss of "consciousness" is the exception rather than the rule in NEAs. Patients, as well as external observers, may have a tendency to overestimate impairments of consciousness during the seizures.

  4. Command Disaggregation Attack and Mitigation in Industrial Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A cyber-physical attack in the industrial Internet of Things can cause severe damage to physical system. In this paper, we focus on the command disaggregation attack, wherein attackers modify disaggregated commands by intruding command aggregators like programmable logic controllers, and then maliciously manipulate the physical process. It is necessary to investigate these attacks, analyze their impact on the physical process, and seek effective detection mechanisms. We depict two different types of command disaggregation attack modes: (1 the command sequence is disordered and (2 disaggregated sub-commands are allocated to wrong actuators. We describe three attack models to implement these modes with going undetected by existing detection methods. A novel and effective framework is provided to detect command disaggregation attacks. The framework utilizes the correlations among two-tier command sequences, including commands from the output of central controller and sub-commands from the input of actuators, to detect attacks before disruptions occur. We have designed components of the framework and explain how to mine and use these correlations to detect attacks. We present two case studies to validate different levels of impact from various attack models and the effectiveness of the detection framework. Finally, we discuss how to enhance the detection framework.

  5. Command Disaggregation Attack and Mitigation in Industrial Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Peng; Zhu, Pei-Dong; Hu, Yi-Fan; Cui, Peng-Shuai; Zhang, Yan

    2017-10-21

    A cyber-physical attack in the industrial Internet of Things can cause severe damage to physical system. In this paper, we focus on the command disaggregation attack, wherein attackers modify disaggregated commands by intruding command aggregators like programmable logic controllers, and then maliciously manipulate the physical process. It is necessary to investigate these attacks, analyze their impact on the physical process, and seek effective detection mechanisms. We depict two different types of command disaggregation attack modes: (1) the command sequence is disordered and (2) disaggregated sub-commands are allocated to wrong actuators. We describe three attack models to implement these modes with going undetected by existing detection methods. A novel and effective framework is provided to detect command disaggregation attacks. The framework utilizes the correlations among two-tier command sequences, including commands from the output of central controller and sub-commands from the input of actuators, to detect attacks before disruptions occur. We have designed components of the framework and explain how to mine and use these correlations to detect attacks. We present two case studies to validate different levels of impact from various attack models and the effectiveness of the detection framework. Finally, we discuss how to enhance the detection framework.

  6. Speeding up detection of SHA-1 collision attacks using unavoidable attack conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. Stevens (Marc); D. Shumow

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCounter-cryptanalysis, the concept of using cryptanalytic techniques to detect cryptanalytic attacks, was introduced by Stevens at CRYPTO 2013 [22] with a hash collision detection algorithm. That is, an algorithm that detects whether a given single message is part of a colliding message

  7. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  8. Device independent quantum key distribution secure against coherent attacks with memoryless measurement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKague, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Device independent quantum key distribution (QKD) aims to provide a higher degree of security than traditional QKD schemes by reducing the number of assumptions that need to be made about the physical devices used. The previous proof of security by Pironio et al (2009 New J. Phys. 11 045021) applies only to collective attacks where the state is identical and independent and the measurement devices operate identically for each trial in the protocol. We extend this result to a more general class of attacks where the state is arbitrary and the measurement devices have no memory. We accomplish this by a reduction of arbitrary adversary strategies to qubit strategies and a proof of security for qubit strategies based on the previous proof by Pironio et al and techniques adapted from Renner.

  9. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  10. Phylogeny, ecology, and heart position in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Gabriel E A; Hicks, James W; Manzani, Paulo R; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Wang, Tobias; Secor, Stephen M; Garland, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of all animals is affected by gravitational pressure gradients, the intensity of which varies according to organismic features, behavior, and habitat occupied. A previous nonphylogenetic analysis of heart position in snakes-which often assume vertical postures-found the heart located 15%-25% of total body length from the head in terrestrial and arboreal species but 25%-45% in aquatic species. It was hypothesized that a more anterior heart in arboreal species served to reduce the hydrostatic blood pressure when these animals adopt vertical postures during climbing, whereas an anterior heart position would not be needed in aquatic habitats, where the effects of gravity are less pronounced. We analyzed a new data set of 155 species from five major families of Alethinophidia (one of the two major branches of snakes, the other being blind snakes, Scolecophidia) using both conventional and phylogenetically based statistical methods. General linear models regressing log(10) snout-heart position on log(10) snout-vent length (SVL), as well as dummy variables coding for habitat and/or clade, were compared using likelihood ratio tests and the Akaike Information Criterion. Heart distance to the tip of the snout scaled isometrically with SVL. In all instances, phylogenetic models that incorporated transformation of the branch lengths under an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of evolution (to mimic stabilizing selection) better fit the data as compared with their nonphylogenetic counterparts. The best-fit model predicting snake heart position included aspects of both habitat and clade and indicated that arboreal snakes in our study tend to have hearts placed more posteriorly, opposite the trend identified in previous studies. Phylogenetic signal in relative heart position was apparent both within and among clades. Our results suggest that overcoming gravitational pressure gradients in snakes most likely involves the combined action of several cardiovascular and

  11. Managing burn victims of suicide bombing attacks: outcomes, lessons learnt, and changes made from three attacks in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chim, Harvey; Yew, Woon Si; Song, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Terror attacks in Southeast Asia were almost nonexistent until the 2002 Bali bomb blast, considered the deadliest attack in Indonesian history. Further attacks in 2003 (Jakarta), 2004 (Jakarta), and 2005 (Bali) have turned terrorist attacks into an ever-present reality. The authors reviewed medical charts of victims evacuated to the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burns Centre during three suicide attacks involving Bali (2002 and 2005) and the Jakarta Marriott hotel (2003). Problems faced, lessons learnt, and costs incurred are discussed. A burns disaster plan drawing on lessons learnt from these attacks is presented. Thirty-one patients were treated at the SGH Burns Centre in three attacks (2002 Bali attack [n = 15], 2003 Jakarta attack [n = 14], and 2005 Bali attack [n = 2]). For the 2002 Bali attack, median age was 29 years (range 20 to 50 years), median percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) was 29% (range 5% to 55%), and median abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6 (range 3 to 10). Eight of 15 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. For the 2003 Jakarta attack, median age was 35 years (range 24 to 56 years), median percentage of TBSA was 10% (range 2% to 46%), and median ABSI was 4 (range 3 to 9). A large number of patients had other injuries. Problems faced included manpower issues, lack of bed space, shortage of blood products, and lack of cadaver skin. The changing nature of terror attacks mandates continued vigilance and disaster preparedness. The multidimensional burns patient, complicated by other injuries, is likely to become increasingly common. A burns disaster plan with emphasis on effective command, control, and communication as well as organisation of health care personnel following a 'team concept' will do much to ensure that the sudden onset of a crisis situation at an unexpected time does not overwhelm hospital manpower and resources.

  12. A Secure Localization Approach against Wormhole Attacks Using Distance Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Wei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wormhole attacks can negatively affect the localization in wireless sensor networks. A typical wormhole attack can be launched by two colluding attackers, one of which sniffs packets at one point in the network and tunnels them through a wired or wireless link to another point, and the other relays them within its vicinity. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the wormhole attack on the localization and propose a novel distance-consistency-based secure localization scheme against wormhole attacks, which includes three phases of wormhole attack detection, valid locators identification and self-localization. The theoretical model is further formulated to analyze the proposed secure localization scheme. The simulation results validate the theoretical results and also demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme.

  13. Extended Password Recovery Attacks against APOP, SIP, and Digest Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yu; Wang, Lei; Ohta, Kazuo; Kunihiro, Noboru

    In this paper, we propose password recovery attacks against challenge-response authentication protocols. Our attacks use a message difference for a MD5 collision attack proposed in IEICE 2008. First, we show how to efficiently find a message pair that collides with the above message difference. Second, we show that a password used in authenticated post office protocol (APOP) can be recovered practically. We also show that the password recovery attack can be applied to a session initiation protocol (SIP) and digest authentication. Our attack can recover up to the first 31 password characters in a short time and up to the first 60 characters faster than the naive search method. We have implemented our attack and confirmed that 31 characters can be successfully recovered.

  14. Attack and Vulnerability Penetration Testing: FreeBSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hanan Abdullah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer system security has become a major concern over the past few years. Attacks, threasts or intrusions, against computer system and network have become commonplace events. However, there are some system devices and other tools that are available to overcome the threat of these attacks. Currently, cyber attack is a major research and inevitable. This paper presents some steps of penetration in FreeBSD operating system, some tools and new steps to attack used in this experiment, probes for reconnaissance, guessing password via brute force, gaining privilege access and flooding victim machine to decrease availability. All these attacks were executed and infiltrate within the environment of Intrusion Threat Detection Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (ITD UTM data set. This work is expected to be a reference for practitioners to prepare their systems from Internet attacks.

  15. Analysis of Network Vulnerability Under Joint Node and Link Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongcheng; Liu, Shumei; Yu, Yao; Cao, Ting

    2018-03-01

    The security problem of computer network system is becoming more and more serious. The fundamental reason is that there are security vulnerabilities in the network system. Therefore, it’s very important to identify and reduce or eliminate these vulnerabilities before they are attacked. In this paper, we are interested in joint node and link attacks and propose a vulnerability evaluation method based on the overall connectivity of the network to defense this attack. Especially, we analyze the attack cost problem from the attackers’ perspective. The purpose is to find the set of least costs for joint links and nodes, and their deletion will lead to serious network connection damage. The simulation results show that the vulnerable elements obtained from the proposed method are more suitable for the attacking idea of the malicious persons in joint node and link attack. It is easy to find that the proposed method has more realistic protection significance.

  16. Why cryptography should not rely on physical attack complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    This book presents two practical physical attacks. It shows how attackers can reveal the secret key of symmetric as well as asymmetric cryptographic algorithms based on these attacks, and presents countermeasures on the software and the hardware level that can help to prevent them in the future. Though their theory has been known for several years now, since neither attack has yet been successfully implemented in practice, they have generally not been considered a serious threat. In short, their physical attack complexity has been overestimated and the implied security threat has been underestimated. First, the book introduces the photonic side channel, which offers not only temporal resolution, but also the highest possible spatial resolution. Due to the high cost of its initial implementation, it has not been taken seriously. The work shows both simple and differential photonic side channel analyses. Then, it presents a fault attack against pairing-based cryptography. Due to the need for at least two indepe...

  17. Spatial proximity and the risk of psychopathology after a terrorist attack

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaggio, Charles; Galea, Sandro; Emch, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies concerned with the relation of proximity to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and subsequent psychopathology have produced conflicting results. The goals of this analysis are to assess the appropriateness of using Bayesian hierarchical spatial techniques to answer the question of the role of proximity to a mass trauma as a risk factor for psychopathology. Using a set of individual-level Medicaid data for New York State, and controlling for age, gender, median household...

  18. Sleep Deprivation Attack Detection in Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattasali, Tapalina; Chaki, Rituparna; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-01-01

    Deployment of sensor network in hostile environment makes it mainly vulnerable to battery drainage attacks because it is impossible to recharge or replace the battery power of sensor nodes. Among different types of security threats, low power sensor nodes are immensely affected by the attacks which cause random drainage of the energy level of sensors, leading to death of the nodes. The most dangerous type of attack in this category is sleep deprivation, where target of the intruder is to maxi...

  19. Countermeasures for unintentional and intentional video watermarking attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguillaume, Frederic; Csurka, Gabriela; Pun, Thierry

    2000-05-01

    These last years, the rapidly growing digital multimedia market has revealed an urgent need for effective copyright protection mechanisms. Therefore, digital audio, image and video watermarking has recently become a very active area of research, as a solution to this problem. Many important issues have been pointed out, one of them being the robustness to non-intentional and intentional attacks. This paper studies some attacks and proposes countermeasures applied to videos. General attacks are lossy copying/transcoding such as MPEG compression and digital/analog (D/A) conversion, changes of frame-rate, changes of display format, and geometrical distortions. More specific attacks are sequence edition, and statistical attacks such as averaging or collusion. Averaging attack consists of averaging locally consecutive frames to cancel the watermark. This attack works well for schemes which embed random independent marks into frames. In the collusion attack the watermark is estimated from single frames (based on image denoising), and averaged over different scenes for better accuracy. The estimated watermark is then subtracted from each frame. Collusion requires that the same mark is embedded into all frames. The proposed countermeasures first ensures robustness to general attacks by spread spectrum encoding in the frequency domain and by the use of an additional template. Secondly, a Bayesian criterion, evaluating the probability of a correctly decoded watermark, is used for rejection of outliers, and to implement an algorithm against statistical attacks. The idea is to embed randomly chosen marks among a finite set of marks, into subsequences of videos which are long enough to resist averaging attacks, but short enough to avoid collusion attacks. The Bayesian criterion is needed to select the correct mark at the decoding step. Finally, the paper presents experimental results showing the robustness of the proposed method.

  20. A taxonomy of distributed denial of service attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Donno, Michele; Giaretta, Alberto; Dragoni, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks which are now even more powerful and easier to achieve than the past. Understanding how these attacks work, in all their different forms, represents a first crucial step to tackle this urgent issue. To this end, in this paper we propose a new up-to-date taxonomy...... and a comprehensive classification of current DDoS attacks....