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Sample records for previous headaches brought

  1. Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as visits to the doctor. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, published by the International Headache Society, is ... well as visits to the doctor. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, published by the International Headache Society, is ...

  2. Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost everyone has had a headache. Headache is the most common form of pain. It's a major reason people miss days at work or school or visit the doctor. The most common type of headache is a tension headache. Tension headaches are due ...

  3. Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed March 8, 2016. Seifert T. Headache in sports. Current Pain and Headache Reports. 2014;18:448. ... article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/headache/basics/definition/SYM-20050800 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  4. Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should you do about it? Anatomy of a Headache Although it may feel like it, a headache is not actually a pain in your brain. ... to the brain, and this brings on a headache. Different Kinds of Headaches The most common type ...

  5. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex headaches Overview Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice a dull ache in your head ... severe headache just before or during orgasm. Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some ...

  6. Chiropractic care for headaches and dizziness of a 34-year-old woman previously diagnosed with Arnold-Chiari malformation type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergent, Adam W; Cofano, Gregory P

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this case study is to describe the chiropractic care of a patient with headaches and dizziness. A 34-year-old woman with a history of headaches, dizziness, photophobia, and temporary loss of vision aggravated by postural positions while bending forward sought conservative care for her symptoms. She reported a prior diagnosis of Arnold-Chiari malformation (ACM) type 1 by magnetic resonance imaging in 2005 that revealed descending cerebellar tonsils measured at 5 mm with an impression of ACM type 1. A new magnetic resonance image taken in 2013 indicated the cerebellar tonsils measured at 3 mm and did not project through the plane of the foramen magnum. The diagnosis of ACM type 1 was no longer applicable; however, the signs and symptoms of ACM type 1 persisted. She was treated using cervical chiropractic manipulation using diversified technique. The dizziness and headache were resolved after 3 visits. At her 3-month follow-up, she continued to be symptom-free. A patient with headaches and dizziness and a previous diagnosis of ACM type 1 responded positively to chiropractic care.

  7. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... Doctors do not know exactly what causes cluster headaches. They ... (chemical in the body released during an allergic response) or ...

  8. Exercise Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... headaches may require emergency medical attention. Symptoms Primary exercise headaches These headaches: Are usually described as throbbing ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ...

  9. Hijab (headscarf) headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Huma N; Solomon, Glen D

    2015-03-01

    Hijab (headscarf) headache is well known among wearers and is a common topic of discussion. It has never previously been reported in the medical literature. Five women described bilateral headache either prompted by or worsened by donning the hijab, or headscarf. The headache always resolved soon after removal of the headscarf. Hijab headache may also be alleviated by minimal modifications in style while allowing women to maintain their moral conviction. It likely represents an extracranial etiology of headache, and recognition may prevent unnecessary evaluation and suffering in hijab wearers. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  10. Cough Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... secondary cough headaches may require surgery. Symptoms Primary cough headaches Begin suddenly with and just after coughing ... by a dull, aching pain for hours Secondary cough headaches Secondary cough headaches often have symptoms similar ...

  11. Archimedes Brought to Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, U.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-04-29

    Just over 100 years ago in the summer of 1906, a Danish scholar called Johan Ludvig Heiberg travelled to the famous Metochion library of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Constantinople. He had got wind of an intriguing medieval prayer book that had recently been found at the library, and which contained a series of Christian prayers written on parchment recycled from older books. But underneath the scrawlings of a 13th-century medieval monk, the battered manuscript also appeared to contain some strange Greek writing as well as mysterious drawings and mathematical symbols. When Heiberg saw the book, he soon realized that the hidden material in fact contained the thoughts of Archimedes of Syracuse (287-212 BC) - one of the greatest thinkers of the ancient world. It was in November 2003, while on my way to a conference in Germany, that I first realized that the technique might help to uncover the hidden writings in the Archimedes Palimpsest. I had been reading an article in the German magazine GEO about the manuscript and, having previously used X-rays to detect metals in biological systems, realized that XRF could help to detect iron and other common elements in the ink. I immediately e-mailed Abigail Quandt, a conservator at the Walters Art Museum, who was part of a team that had been put in charge of the Archimedes manuscript. I was delighted to find that the team, led by her colleague William Noel, was looking for new ways to study this ancient book. Indeed, it turned out that two other researchers - Gene Hall from Rutgers University and Bob Morton from the oil firm ConocoPhillips - had also suggested using XRF imaging. Another team member - Johns Hopkins University physicist Bill Christens-Barry - had already been thinking of using X-rays too. In March 2004 Hall and the team carried out the first tests on the Palimpsest using X-rays from a commercial generator. Although these tests were promising, the results confirmed my belief that synchrotron radiation

  12. Cervicogenic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edmeads

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available That disease or dysfunction of the neck may present as headache is an idea that is not widely accepted in North American traditional medicine. This review focuses on 'cervicogenic headaches'. Topics include the mechanisms of cervicogenic headache, cervical signs to suspect that a patient's headache originates in the neck, diagnostic manoeuvres that are nonspecific and unreliable, laboratory tests that may assist in establishing a diagnosis of cervicogenic headache and treatment of this condition.

  13. European Headache Federation consensus on technical investigation for primary headache disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, D D; Ashina, M; Craven, A

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary headache disorders is clinical and based on the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society (ICHD-3-beta). However several brain conditions may mimic primary headache disorders and laboratory investigation may be needed. This necessity occurs when the treating...... physician doubts for the primary origin of headache. Features that represent a warning for a possible underlying disorder causing the headache are new onset headache, change in previously stable headache pattern, headache that abruptly reaches the peak level, headache that changes with posture, headache...... require brain MRI, MRA and MRV. Brain MRI with detailed study of the pituitary area and cavernous sinus, is recommended for all TACs. For primary cough headache, exercise headache, headache associated with sexual activity, thunderclap headache and hypnic headache apart from brain MRI additional tests may...

  14. Sinus Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evaluation and management of "sinus headache" in the otolaryngology practice. Otolaryngology Clinics of North America. 2014;47:269. Sinusitis. ... et al. Why the confusion about sinus headache? Otolaryngology Clinics of North America. 2014;47:169. Sinus ...

  15. Cluster Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re at risk of cluster headache. A family history. Having a parent or sibling who has had cluster headache might ... of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  16. Pediatric Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Andrew D

    2015-08-01

    Headache is one of the most common health concerns in children and adolescents, yet remains underrecognized as a disease. A variety of factors, including the unique aspects of childhood headaches, contribute to this underrecognition. Improving recognition of childhood and adolescent headaches and using a standardized approach for their evaluation is expected to lead to the appropriate diagnosis and subsequent additional evaluation and management to improve the overall outcome in children and adolescents with headaches. Building on limited studies in children and adolescents and translating adult studies to children can assist in designing a multidisciplinary treatment plan. This review focuses on some of the unique aspects of evaluating children and adolescents with headaches; the impact of these headaches on school, home, and family function; determination of disability and influence of comorbid conditions; and development of a treatment plan that incorporates acute, preventive, and biobehavioral management tools.

  17. Primary sex headache in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Amy A; Goadsby, Peter J

    2012-08-01

    Primary headache associated with sexual activity is a rare headache disorder that has only been reported twice previously in adolescents. Although it can mimic life-threatening causes of thunderclap-onset headache, primary sex headache is benign, self-limited, and highly responsive to indomethacin. Given the sensitive nature of sexual development in adolescents, it is important that pediatric providers know when to ask about this symptom and how to proceed with diagnostics and therapy when it arises. We report 2 new adolescent cases and review the semiology, epidemiology, and treatment of primary sex headache.

  18. Pediatric Headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slover, Robin; Kent, Sheryl

    2015-08-01

    Pediatric headaches are common, and many may never require intervention by a health care provider. However, migraines can become more difficult to treat, especially if they become chronic daily headaches. Pediatric headache is a subjective and unique experience that requires attention to both psychological and physiologic components in diagnosis and treatment. A biopsychosocial, multidisciplinary approach, including both medication management and psychological treatment, is considered essential for effective management.

  19. Tension headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, D K

    1978-05-01

    Headache is an extremely common symptom, and many headaches undoubtedly have a relationship to stressful situations. The clear definition, however, of a "tension headache" complex and its differentiation from migraine in some patients is difficult. The problems are in the identification of a specific headache pattern induced by stress or "tension" and the relationship of the symptom to involuntary contraction of neck and scalp muscles. Treatment consists of analgesics and occasionally mild tranquilizers. Psychotherapy consists of reassurance and often other supportive measures, including modification of life styles. Various feedback techniques have been reported of value, but their superiority to suggestion and hypnosis is still problematic.

  20. Rethinking headache chronification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P; Smitherman, Todd A; Penzien, Donald B; Lipton, Richard B; Houle, Timothy T

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this series is to examine several threats to the interpretation of headache chronification studies that arise from methodological issues. The study of headache chronification has extensively used longitudinal designs with 2 or more measurement occasions. Unfortunately, application of these designs, when combined with the common practice of extreme score selection as well as the extant challenges in measuring headache frequency rates (eg, unreliability, regression to the mean), induces substantive threats to accurate interpretation of findings. Partitioning the amount of observed variance in rates of chronification and remission attributable to regression artifacts is a critical yet previously overlooked step to learning more about headache as a potentially progressive disease. In this series on rethinking headache chronification, we provide an overview of methodological issues in this area (this paper), highlight the influence of rounding error on estimates of headache frequency (second paper), examine the influence of random error and regression artifacts on estimates of chronification and remission (third paper), and consider future directions for this line of research (fourth paper). © 2013 American Headache Society.

  1. Rebound Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a head injury Gets worse despite rest and pain medication Is a new type in someone older than 50 Wakes you from sleep Consult your doctor if: You usually have two or more headaches a week You take a pain reliever for your headaches more than twice a ...

  2. National Headache Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Headache Topic Sheets (Spanish) Headache FAQ NHF Webinars Education Modules MigrainePro™ Children’s Headache Disorders New Perspectives on Caffeine and Headache War Veterans Health Resource Initiative National Headache Foundation Brochures ...

  3. Tension Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your head Tenderness on your scalp, neck and shoulder muscles Tension headaches are divided into two main categories — ... that monitor and give you feedback on body functions such as muscle tension, heart rate and blood pressure. You then ...

  4. Tension Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... headaches are so common, their effect on job productivity and overall quality of life is considerable, particularly ... Limit alcohol, caffeine and sugar. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any ...

  5. Critical Evaluation of Headache Classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özge, Aynur

    2013-08-01

    Transforming a subjective sense like headache into an objective state and establishing a common language for this complaint which can be both a symptom and a disease all by itself have kept the investigators busy for years. Each recommendation proposed has brought along a set of patients who do not meet the criteria. While almost the most ideal and most comprehensive classification studies continued at this point, this time criticisims about withdrawing from daily practice came to the fore. In this article, the classification adventure of scientists who work in the area of headache will be summarized. More specifically, 2 classifications made by the International Headache Society (IHS) and the point reached in relation with the 3rd classification which is still being worked on will be discussed together with headache subtypes. It has been presented with the wish and belief that it will contribute to the readers and young investigators who are interested in this subject.

  6. Guidelines for the organization of headache education in Europe: the headache school II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rigmor; Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Valade, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    In order to promote education on headache disorders, European Headache Federation (EHF) in conjunction with National Headache Societies organizes educational courses meeting uniform standards according to previous published guidelines. Based on six headache summer schools' experience, an EHF...... subcommittee has reviewed these guidelines, and here the revised version is presented. The goals remain the same: quality courses that will attract physicians and neurologists seeking to increase their knowledge, skills, and understanding in the area of primary and secondary headache. Detailed guidelines...

  7. Tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor; Bendtsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The substantial societal and individual burdens associated with tension-type headache (TTH) constitute a previously overlooked major public health issue. TTH is prevalent, affecting up to 78% of the general population, and 3% suffer from chronic TTH. Pericranial myofascial nociception probably...... is important for the pathophysiology of episodic TTH, whereas sensitization of central nociceptive pathways seems responsible for the conversion of episodic to chronic TTH. Headache-related disability usually can be reduced by identification of trigger factors combined with nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic...

  8. Critical Evaluation of Headache Classifications

    OpenAIRE

    ?ZGE, Aynur

    2013-01-01

    Transforming a subjective sense like headache into an objective state and establishing a common language for this complaint which can be both a symptom and a disease all by itself have kept the investigators busy for years. Each recommendation proposed has brought along a set of patients who do not meet the criteria. While almost the most ideal and most comprehensive classification studies continued at this point, this time criticisims about withdrawing from daily practice came to the fore. I...

  9. Team players against headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaul, Charly; Visscher, Corine M; Bhola, Rhia

    2011-01-01

    for more intense collaboration between these professions and between headache centers is needed. Our aims were to establish closer collaboration and an interchange of knowledge between headache care providers and different disciplines. A scientific session focusing on multidisciplinary headache management...

  10. Headache Sufferers' Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find A Provider Contact Membership Donate 13 Jan Headache Sufferers' Diet Posted at 21:35h in Headache ... No Comments Post A Comment Cancel Reply NATIONAL HEADACHE FOUNDATION Financials Annual Benefit HeadWise Magazine Subscribe to ...

  11. Headache: Hope through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education » Hope Through Research Headache: Hope Through Research Download publication Introduction Why Headaches ... of cancer or HIV/AIDS. top Diagnosing Your Headache How and under what circumstances a person experiences ...

  12. Chronic Daily Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chronic migraine or chronic tension-type headache Hemicrania continua These headaches: Affect only one side of your ... development of migraine-like symptoms In addition, hemicrania continua headaches are associated with at least one of ...

  13. [A rarely known headache: Airplane travel headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Filiz; Erkılınç, Büşra; Çabalar, Murat; Çağırıcı, Sultan; Yayla, Vildan

    2017-01-01

    Recently, headache associated with airplane travel has gained importance with case reports and took its place in the classification of headache in 2013. This rare condition has different spesific characteristic from the primary headaches and its pathophysiology is not clear yet. In this case report, a 27-years-old female patient was diagnosed with the headache associated with airplane travel by history, examination and imaging findings. The possible pathophysiology and treatment were discussed.

  14. Tinnitus and Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Langguth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tinnitus and headache are frequent disorders. Here, we aimed to investigate whether the occurrence of headache among tinnitus patients is purely coincidental or whether tinnitus and headache are pathophysiologically linked. We investigated a large sample of patients with tinnitus and headache to estimate prevalence rates of different headache forms, to determine the relationship between tinnitus laterality and headache laterality, and to explore the relationship between tinnitus and headache over time. Method. Patients who presented at a tertiary referral center because of tinnitus and reported comorbid headache were asked to complete validated questionnaires to determine the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache and to assess tinnitus severity. In addition, several questions about the relationship between headache and tinnitus were asked. Results. Datasets of 193 patients with tinnitus and headache were analysed. 44.6% suffered from migraine, 13% from tension-type headache, and 5.7% from both. Headache laterality was significantly related to tinnitus laterality and in the majority of patients fluctuations in symptom severity of tinnitus and headache were interrelated. Conclusion. These findings suggest a significant relationship between tinnitus and headache laterality and symptom interaction over time and argue against a purely coincidental cooccurrence of tinnitus and headache. Both disorders may be linked by common pathophysiological mechanisms.

  15. Headache and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negro, A; Delaruelle, Z; Ivanova, T A

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review summarizes the existing data on headache and pregnancy with a scope on clinical headache phenotypes, treatment of headaches in pregnancy and effects of headache medications on the child during pregnancy and breastfeeding, headache related complications, and diagnostics...... of headache in pregnancy. Headache during pregnancy can be both primary and secondary, and in the last case can be a symptom of a life-threatening condition. The most common secondary headaches are stroke, cerebral venous thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, pituitary tumor, choriocarcinoma, eclampsia......, preeclampsia, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Migraine is a risk factor for pregnancy complications, particularly vascular events. Data regarding other primary headache conditions are still scarce. Early diagnostics of the disease manifested by headache...

  16. [Headache: classification and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbaat, P A T; Couturier, E G M

    2016-11-01

    There are many types of headache and, moreover, many people have different types of headache at the same time. Adequate treatment is possible only on the basis of the correct diagnosis. Technically and in terms of content the current diagnostics process for headache is based on the 'International Classification of Headache Disorders' (ICHD-3-beta) that was produced under the auspices of the International Headache Society. This classification is based on a distinction between primary and secondary headaches. The most common primary headache types are the tension type headache, migraine and the cluster headache. Application of uniform diagnostic concepts is essential to come to the most appropriate treatment of the various types of headache.

  17. Other primary headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Bahra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ′Other Primary Headaches′ include eight recognised benign headache disorders. Primary stabbing headache is a generally benign disorder which often co-exists with other primary headache disorders such as migraine and cluster headache. Primary cough headache is headache precipitated by valsalva; secondary cough has been reported particularly in association with posterior fossa pathology. Primary exertional headache can occur with sudden or gradual onset during, or immediately after, exercise. Similarly headache associated with sexual activity can occur with gradual evolution or sudden onset. Secondary headache is more likely with both exertional and sexual headache of sudden onset. Sudden onset headache, with maximum intensity reached within a minute, is termed thunderclap headache. A benign form of thunderclap headache exists. However, isolated primary and secondary thunderclap headache cannot be clinically differentiated. Therefore all headache of thunderclap onset should be investigated. The primary forms of the aforementioned paroxysmal headaches appear to be Indomethacin sensitive disorders. Hypnic headache is a rare disorder which is termed ′alarm clock headache′, exclusively waking patients from sleep. The disorder can be Indomethacin responsive, but can also respond to Lithium and caffeine. New daily persistent headache is a rare and often intractable headache which starts one day and persists daily thereafter for at least 3 months. The clinical syndrome more often has migrainous features or is otherwise has a chronic tension-type headache phenotype. Management is that of the clinical syndrome. Hemicrania continua straddles the disorders of migraine and the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and is not dealt with in this review.

  18. Headache and endovascular procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Biase, Stefano; Longoni, Marco; Gigli, Gian Luigi; Agostoni, Elio

    2017-05-01

    The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta) includes headache attributed to intracranial endovascular procedures (EVPs). The aim of this review is to describe the clinical and pathophysiological aspects of headache related to vascular lesions and EVPs. Current studies regarding this issue are contradictory, although generally favouring headache improvement after EVPs. Further large studies are needed to adequately assess the effect of EVPs on headache.

  19. Headache in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soee, Ann Britt L; Skov, Liselotte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific multidisciplinary treatment programme for children with headache and to describe the concept and settings of the Children's Headache Clinic in Denmark. Method: All new patients were included and evaluations were conducted...... after six and 12 months. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments were offered by a team of specialists (physicians, headache nurses, a physiotherapist and a psychologist). Patients: The subjects comprised 169 children (mean age 11.7 (range 4-17), 91 females, 78 males), 39% of whom suffered...... from chronic headache (≥15 days/month). All children were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition; 20% had migraine, 34% tension-type headache, 27% mixed headache, 4% medication- overuse headache, and 15% were diagnosed with other types of headaches...

  20. Experimental headache in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1995-01-01

    The need for valid human experimental models of headache is obvious. Several compounds have been proposed as headache-inducing agents, but only the nitroglycerin (NTG) model has been validated. In healthy subjects, intravenous infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) donor NTG induce a dose......-dependent headache and dilatation of the temporal, radial and middle cerebral artery. NTG-induced headache, although less intense, resembles migraine in pain characteristics, but the accompanying symptoms are rarely present. Cephalic large arteries are dilated during migraine headache as well as during NTG headache....... N-acetylcysteine enhances the formation of NO and potentiates NTG-induced headache, whereas mepyramine, a H1-antagonist capable of blocking histamine-induced headache, has no effect. Thus, the headache is dependent on NO or other steps in the NO cascade. The model is useful for pharmacological...

  1. Principles of headaches evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rosa Rolim de Andrade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT However common tension-type headache is in epidemiologic population-based studies, migraine is the most common diagnosis in patients seeking treatment for headache in primary care. The appropriate evaluation of headache should be as follows: 1 To rule out the most serious underlying pathologies and to look for other secondary causes of headache, 2 To determine the type of primary headache using the patient's history as a primary diagnostic tool. Symptoms can always overlap, particularly between migraine and tension-type headache and between migraine and some secondary causes of headache (such as neurologic or systemic disease. A brief headache screen based only on anamnesis and physical examination data which direct to an underlying pathology is useful to primary care physicians in particular. An imaging study is not necessary in the vast majority of patients presenting with headache. Nevertheless, imaging (usually CT scan is warranted in the patients outlined above.

  2. Somatic symptoms in headache patients: the influence of headache diagnosis, frequency, and comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizels, Morris; Burchette, Raoul

    2004-01-01

    Mood disorders of anxiety and depression are well known to be comorbid with primary headache disorders. Less is known of the comorbidity of other somatic symptoms with headache. Headache Clinic patients were screened with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD), a multidimensional psychiatric screening tool. The prevalence of somatic symptoms was compared by headache diagnosis, frequency of severe headache, and psychiatric diagnosis. Follow-up data were obtained 6 months after consultation. Clinical diagnoses and PRIME-MD data were available for 289 patients. Associated somatic symptoms were more frequent in patients with chronic migraine (mean 5.5, PCDH) (6.3, P=.008) compared to episodic migraine (4.0); in patients with severe headache >2 days per week compared to 2 days per week had significantly higher somatic counts (P=.01). Six-month follow-up data were available for 140 patients. Associated symptoms decreased both for patients with and without decrease in severe headache frequency (mean reduction of 1.0, P=.01 and 0.8, P=.003, respectively). Associated somatic symptoms are more common in patients with chronic migraine and CDH, with more frequent severe headaches, and with associated anxiety or depression. Patients with episodic migraine have similar somatic prevalence as a previously studied primary care population. The spectrum of headache disorders may be characterized as showing increasing somatic prevalence as headaches, particularly severe headaches, become more frequent.

  3. Headaches and Migraines: Headache Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Headaches and Migraines Headache Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of Contents For ... types of headache. Each has distinct symptoms and treatments. Migraine ... and Diagnosis Migraine: The most common of vascular headaches, migraines ...

  4. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  5. Headache - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 简体中文) Expand Section Headaches - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Headaches - ...

  6. Management of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cluster headache is 0.1% and cluster headache is often not diagnosed or misdiagnosed as migraine or sinusitis. In cluster headache there is often a considerable diagnostic delay - an average of 7 years in a population-based survey. Cluster headache is characterized by very severe...... or severe orbital or periorbital pain with a duration of 15-180 minutes. The cluster headache attacks are accompanied by characteristic associated unilateral symptoms such as tearing, nasal congestion and/or rhinorrhoea, eyelid oedema, miosis and/or ptosis. In addition, there is a sense of restlessness...... and agitation. Patients may have up to eight attacks per day. Episodic cluster headache (ECH) occurs in clusters of weeks to months duration, whereas chronic cluster headache (CCH) attacks occur for more than 1 year without remissions. Management of cluster headache is divided into acute attack treatment...

  7. Team players against headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaul, Charly; Visscher, Corine M; Bhola, Rhia

    2011-01-01

    Multidisciplinary approaches are gaining acceptance in headache treatment. However, there is a lack of scientific data about the efficacy of various strategies and their combinations offered by physiotherapists, physicians, psychologists and headache nurses. Therefore, an international platform...... for more intense collaboration between these professions and between headache centers is needed. Our aims were to establish closer collaboration and an interchange of knowledge between headache care providers and different disciplines. A scientific session focusing on multidisciplinary headache management...... was organised at The European Headache and Migraine Trust International Congress (EHMTIC) 2010 in Nice. A summary of the contributions and the discussion is presented. It was concluded that effective multidisciplinary headache treatment can reduce headache frequency and burden of disease, as well as the risk...

  8. Low Tyramine Headache Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No Comments Post A Comment Cancel Reply NATIONAL HEADACHE FOUNDATION Financials Annual Benefit HeadWise Magazine Subscribe to ... field empty if you're human: © 2018 National Headache Foundation Home FAQs Terms Privacy Disclaimer Service Sheet

  9. Team players against headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaul, Charly; Visscher, Corine M; Bhola, Rhia

    2011-01-01

    Multidisciplinary approaches are gaining acceptance in headache treatment. However, there is a lack of scientific data about the efficacy of various strategies and their combinations offered by physiotherapists, physicians, psychologists and headache nurses. Therefore, an international platform f...

  10. Headaches and Sinus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cystic Fibrosis Sinusitis Q&A Complications of Sinusitis Epistaxis (Nosebleeds) Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus ... Cystic Fibrosis Sinusitis Q&A Complications of Sinusitis Epistaxis (Nosebleeds) Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus ...

  11. Headaches. More than just sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauth, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Headaches are among the commonest somatic complaints seen in clinical practice. The International Headache Society differentiates about 190 types of headaches. This article focuses on the variety of secondary headaches with a radiologically identifiable cause. (orig.)

  12. Characteristics of the first 1000 headaches in an outpatient headache clinic registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Ángel L; Rojo, Esther; Herrero, Sonia; Neri, María J; Bautista, Lourdes; Peñas, María L; Cortijo, Elisa; Mulero, Patricia; Fernández, Rosa

    2011-02-01

    To analyze the incidence and characteristics of the first 1000 headaches in an outpatient clinic. Headache is a common cause of medical consultation, both in primary care and in specialist neurology outpatient clinics. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd Edition (ICHD-II), enables headaches to be classified in a precise and reproducible manner. In January 2008, an outpatient headache clinic was set up in Hospital Clínico Universitario, a tertiary hospital in Valladolid, Spain. Headaches were classified prospectively in accordance with ICHD-II criteria. In each case we recorded age and sex, duration of headache, ancillary tests required, and previous symptomatic or prophylactic therapies. In January 2010, the registry included 1000 headaches in 682 patients. The women/men ratio was 2.46/1 and the mean age of the patients was 43.19 ± 17.1 years (range: 14-94 years). Patients were referred from primary care (53.4%), general neurology clinics (36.6%), and other specialist clinics (9%). The headaches were grouped (ICHD-II classification) as follows: group 1 (Migraine), 51.4%; group 2 (Tension-type headache), 16%; group 3 (Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias), 2.6%; group 4 (Other primary headaches) and group 13 (Cranial neuralgias), 3.4%. The diagnostic criteria of chronic migraine were satisfied in 8.5% of migraines. Regarding secondary headaches, 1.1% of all cases were included in group 5 (Headaches attributed to trauma) and 8.3% in group 8 (Headaches attributed to a substance or its withdrawal). Only 3.4% of headaches were classified in group 14 (Unspecified or not elsewhere classified), and 5.2% were included in the groups listed in the ICHD-II research appendix. This registry outlines the characteristics of patients seen in an outpatient headache clinic in a tertiary hospital; our results are similar to those previously reported for this type of outpatient clinic. Migraine was the most common diagnosis. Most headaches can be classified using

  13. The role of fear of pain in headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Anna Katherine; Fulwiler, Joshua C; Smitherman, Todd A

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent headache sufferers are often fearful of pain, which disrupts thought processes, interferes with daily activities, and may maintain headache-related disability through avoidance and associated negative reinforcement. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to (1) examine differences in fear of pain (FOP) between headache sufferers and non-headache controls; (2) examine differences in FOP across primary headache diagnostic groups; (3) assess the extent to which FOP predicts headache variables (eg., severity, frequency, disability); and (4) determine whether FOP mediates the relationship between pain severity and headache-related disability. The sample consisted of 908 young adults (M age = 19.5 years; 64.9% female). Of those, 237 (26.1%) met the diagnostic criteria for episodic tension-type headache (TTH), 232 (25.6%) for episodic migraine (167 [18.4%] without aura and 65 [7.2%] with aura), 38 (4.2%) for chronic migraine, and 19 (2.1%) for chronic TTH; 382 (42.1%) served as non-headache controls. FOP differed among groups, with headache sufferers reporting greater FOP than those without headache; migraineurs typically endorsed greater FOP than those with TTH. Among those with headache, FOP significantly predicted headache severity (R(2)  = 6.1%) and frequency (R(2)  = 4.5%), and accounted for more variance in disability (R(2)  = 17.5%) than gender, anxiety, and depression combined (13.8%). Pain severity and disability were strongly associated (r = 0.61, P headache and plays a significant role in primary headache, particularly in headache-related disability. Findings build upon and extend those from previous chronic pain studies and highlight the need for longitudinal and experimental studies to further explore this construct in headache. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  14. Causality and headache triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  15. Guidelines for the organization of headache education in Europe: the headache school II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rigmor; Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Valade, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    In order to promote education on headache disorders, European Headache Federation (EHF) in conjunction with National Headache Societies organizes educational courses meeting uniform standards according to previous published guidelines. Based on six headache summer schools' experience, an EHF......, a day-to-day program, and a multiple-choice test battery have now been outlined. It is recommended to include practical sessions with patient interviews and hands-on demonstrations of non-pharmacological treatment strategies. For countries that want a 'low cost' education program, a Video School program...... courses meeting uniform standards of excellence....

  16. Headache diaries and calendars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torelli, Paola; Jensen, Rigmor

    2010-01-01

    Headache is one of the most common types of pain and, in the absence of biological markers, headache diagnosis depends only on information obtained from clinical interviews and physical and neurological examinations. Headache diaries make it possible to record prospectively the characteristics...... of every attack and the use of headache calendars is indicated for evaluating the time pattern of headache, identifying aggravating factors, and evaluating the efficacy of preventive treatment. This may reduce the recall bias and increase accuracy in the description. The use of diagnostic headache diaries...... practice for diagnosis and follow-up of treatments; and (2) describe the tools that have been developed for research and their main applications in the headache field. In addition, we include information on diaries available online and proposals for future areas of research....

  17. Prostacyclin (epoprostenol) induces headache in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Troels; Olesen, Jes; Oturai, Peter S

    2008-01-01

    The role of prostanoids in nociception is well established. The headache eliciting effects of prostacyclin (prostaglandin I(2), (PGI(2))) and its possible mechanisms had previously not been systematically studied in man. We hypothesized that infusion of PGI(2) might induce headache...... and vasodilatation of cranial vessels. A stable analog of PGI(2) epoprostenol (10 ng/kg/min) was infused for 25 min into 12 healthy subjects in a cross-over, double-blind study. Headache intensity was scored on a verbal rating scale from 0 to 10. In addition, we recorded mean flow in the middle cerebral artery (V......(mean MCA)) by the transcranial doppler and diameter of the superficial temporal artery (STA) by a high-resolution ultrasonography unit. During the immediate phase (0-30 min) and the post-infusion phase (30-90 min), 11 subjects reported headache on the PGI(2) day and no subjects reported headache...

  18. Headache in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Seby; Hajj-Ali, Rula A

    2014-03-01

    Autoimmune diseases are a group of heterogeneous inflammatory disorders characterized by systemic or localized inflammation, leading to ischemia and tissue destruction. These include disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus and related diseases, systemic vasculitides, and central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis (primary or secondary). Headache is a very common manifestation of CNS involvement of these diseases. Although headache characteristics can be unspecific and often non-diagnostic, it is important to recognize because headache can be the first manifestation of CNS involvement. Prompt recognition and treatment is necessary not only to treat the headache, but also to help prevent serious neurological sequelae that frequently accompany autoimmune diseases. In this review, we discuss headache associated with autoimmune diseases along with important mimics. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  19. [Electrotherapy for headaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutters, B; Koehler, P J

    2016-01-01

    Neuromodulation is being applied increasingly for the treatment of drug resistant headache. Although these techniques are often considered high-tech, electrotherapy for headache has a long history; electric fish have been used for headache treatment since the first century CE. During the eighteenth and nineteenth century, static electricity was a treatment for a wide variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including headache. The efficacy of electrotherapy, however, has been disputed continuously, since opponents were of the opinion that the positive results could be attributed to suggestion. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the electric treatment of headache gradually disappeared. In recent years, there has been a resurgence in the use of electrotherapy, along with the efficacy debate. With this historical review we wish to emphasize the importance of placebo-controlled studies, not only in terms of electrotherapy of headache, but also for the evaluation of neuromodulation for other disorders.

  20. [Headache: Otorhinolaryngological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, O

    2016-01-01

    Headache is the main symptom in a wide variety of diseases of which ear, nose and throat (ENT) entities are only a small fraction but are not reflected in the number of patients. Comprehensive knowledge of the clinical signs of the most common primary headaches, e. g. migraine, is therefore essential for the ENT specialist because the few patients with secondary headache from ENT-related causes must be identified. Reasons for confusing primary headache with e. g. sinusitis are mostly symptoms mediated by the trigeminal nerve, such as nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea because branches of the trigeminal nerve also innervate the meninges. The ENT-specific origin of headaches is characterized by clinical findings of physical organ disease; therefore, from an ENT perspective imaging should be part of the diagnostic procedure as normal imaging findings are indicative of primary headache, which would not normally be treated by an ENT specialist.

  1. Pediatric Headache: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Raquel; DiSabella, Marc T

    2017-03-01

    Headache represents the most common neurologic disorder in the general population including children and is increasingly being recognized as a major source of morbidity in youth related to missed school days and activities. In this article, we take a holistic approach to the child presenting with headache with a focus on the detailed headache history, physical and neurologic examinations, and diagnostic evaluation of these patients. Clinical presentations and classification schema of multiple primary and secondary headache types in children are discussed using the International Headache Criteria (IHCD-3) as a guide, and a summary provided of the various treatment modalities employed for pediatric headache including lifestyle modifications, behavioral techniques, and abortive and preventive medications. Copyright © 2017 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Headaches in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward D; Swartzon, Michael; McGrew, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The physician who cares for athletes and physically active patients will encounter various headache syndromes. These symptoms can be debilitating and result in a spectrum of time away from the patient's exercise routines to death. Knowing key symptoms and signs of headache syndromes may lead to faster recovery and be rewarding for both the patient and physician. This article reviews major headache syndromes and their treatment, with attention to those found in patients who participate in competitive sports and lead active lifestyles.

  3. Epidemiology, etiology and study of clinical findings of headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffarpoor M

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-sectional epidemiological study of headache disorders in neurology clinic of Fatemieh hospital of Semnan (August 22-November 20.1996, information on types of headaches, quality, severity, location, duration, frequency, precipitating factors, age of onset, influence of menstruation and pregnancy, positive familial history, use of oral contraceptive pills and other epidemiological factors including socioeconomic and age/sex composition was collected. The presence of any types of headaches was ascertained by a clinical interview and examination using the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headaches Society. The prevalence of migraine and tension type headache was also analysed in relation to variables of life style (physical activity and sleep pattern and associated signs and symptoms (nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. In this study migraine and tension headache were also compared in variable aspects with each other. 1 Headache was more prevalent in women than men (F/M=3/1. 2 The most common types of headache included: tension type headache (41.4%, migraine (31.2% and unclassified headaches (17.2%. 3 Migraine and T.T.H were more prevalent in early adult life and middle ages. 4 In both migraine and tension type headache the time profiles (duration, frequency, age of onset, quality and location were like that noted in textbook and previous studies. 5 In both migraine and tension type headache the most conspicuous precipitating factor was stress and mental tension and frequent headaches were accompanied with psychiatric problems (e.g depression and or anxiety. 6 Nausea, vomiting, phonophobia and photophobia were the most common associated symptoms in both of them. 7 Positive familial history and aggravation of headache in perimenstual period were more commonly seen in patients with migraine than tension type headache. In conclusion using the operational diagnostic criteria of International Headache Society in

  4. Academic aptitude as a predictor of headache proneness during college: could headache be an outcome of low test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovanitz, Christine A; Thatcher, Dawn Lindsay

    2012-03-01

    Academic work as well as compensated employment has been found adversely associated with frequent headache; headache remains a costly disorder to the person and to society. However, little is known of factors--other than prior headache complaints--that may predict headache frequency over extended periods of time. Based on previous research, effortful task engagement appears to be a contributing factor to headache onset. This suggests that relatively stable attributes that are likely to affect effort expenditure may predict headache frequency over long intervals. The goal of this study was to evaluate the predictability of headache proneness in college-attending students by college aptitude tests administered in high school. Five hundred undergraduate students enrolled in a large public, urban university completed a number of questionnaires. Official admissions records of the college aptitude tests ACT (an acronym for the original test name, the American College Testing), SAT (the Scholastic Aptitude Test), and GPA (grade point average) were obtained and compared to the report of headache frequency. The ACT test mathematics predicted headache proneness in the hypothesized direction, while the ACT English test provided conflicting data; some evidence of gender differences was suggested. While nearly all research on headache and work effectiveness has considered headache to be a cause of reduced efficiency or productivity, this study suggests that a factor which presumably affects the ease of work completion (e.g., scholastic aptitude) may predict headache, at least in some cases within the "work" environment of academia.

  5. Ictal headache and visual sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccioli, M.; Parisi, P.; Tisei, P.; Villa, M. P.; Buttinelli, C.; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite, D. G. A.

    Migrainous headache is reported by patients with photosensitive epilepsy, whereas their relatives complain more often about headache than the relatives of patients with other types of epilepsy. We therefore investigated whether headache itself could be an epileptic symptom related to

  6. Neurostimulation in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe L; Barloese, Mads; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurostimulation has emerged as a viable treatment for intractable chronic cluster headache. Several therapeutic strategies are being investigated including stimulation of the hypothalamus, occipital nerves and sphenopalatine ganglion. The aim of this review is to provide...... effective strategy must be preferred as first-line therapy for intractable chronic cluster headache....

  7. Medication-overuse headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Bendtsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a debilitating condition in which frequent and prolonged use of medication for the acute treatment of pain results in the worsening of the headache. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature on MOH and discuss future avenues for research...

  8. Migraine Headache Treated with Famciclovir and Celecoxib: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaPier, Bradford Lee; Morimoto, Maki; NaPier, Erin

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been speculated to play a role in migraine headache pathophysiology. We present the first successful migraine headache treatment with therapy specifically targeting HSV infection. Case Presentation A previously healthy 21-year-old white woman presented with a severe headache and was diagnosed with severe migraine headache disorder. She initially was treated with standard migraine headache medications without symptomatic improvement. She was then given famciclovir and celecoxib. The patient fully recovered within days and continues to enjoy significant reduction in severity and frequency of symptoms. Discussion Famciclovir and celecoxib may work synergistically against HSV. The virus may play a role in the pathophysiology of migraine headaches, and this is the first case report of successful migraine headache treatment with these medications. Further studies are needed to elucidate the efficacy of these medications in treating migraine disorder. PMID:29236660

  9. Pre-attack signs and symptoms in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoer, Agneta; Lund, Nunu; Beske, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to the premonitory phase of migraine, little is known about the pre-attack (prodromal) phase of a cluster headache. We aimed to describe the nature, prevalence, and duration of pre-attack symptoms in cluster headache. Methods Eighty patients with episodic cluster headache...... or chronic cluster headache, according to ICHD-3 beta criteria, were invited to participate. In this observational study, patients underwent a semi-structured interview where they were asked about the presence of 31 symptoms/signs in relation to a typical cluster headache attack. Symptoms included previously...... reported cluster headache pre-attack symptoms, premonitory migraine symptoms and accompanying symptoms of migraine and cluster headache. Results Pre-attack symptoms were reported by 83.3% of patients, with an average of 4.25 (SD 3.9) per patient. Local and painful symptoms, occurring with a median of 10...

  10. Temporomandibular disorders in headache patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Christiane-Espinola-Bandeira; Oliveira, José-Luiz-Góes; Jesus, Alan-Chester-Feitosa; Maia, Mila-Leite-de Moraes; de Santana, Jonielly-Costa-Vasconcelos; Andrade, Loren-Suyane-Oliveira; Siqueira Quintans, Jullyana-de Souza; Quintans-Junior, Lucindo-José; Conti, Paulo-César-Rodrigues; Bonjardim, Leonardo-Rigoldi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the frequency of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and its seve-rity in individuals with headache. Study Design: 60 adults divided into three groups of 20 individuals: chronic daily headache (CDH), episodic headache (EH) and a control group without headache (WH). Headache diagnosis was performed according to the criteria of International Headache Society and the signs and symptoms of TMD were achieved by using a clinical exam and an anamnestic quest...

  11. Medication Overuse Headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Signe B; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medication overuse headache (MOH) affects between 1% and 2% of the general population but is present in up to 50% of patients seen in headache centers. There are currently no internationally accepted guidelines for treatment of MOH. METHODS: A review of the current literature on MOH...... treatment and pathophysiology. RESULTS: We conclude that headache frequency can be reduced to episodic headache in more than 50% of the patients by simple detoxification and information. Approximately half the patients will not have need for prophylactic medication after withdrawal. Pain perception...... and potentially treatable condition. CONCLUSION: Increased focus on MOH is extremely important, as MOH both can and should be treated and prevented. MOH is thus a diagnosis that should be considered in all chronic headache patients as the very first step in their management strategy. In the general population...

  12. Comorbidity of Headache and Depression After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Sylvia; Smith, Brendon M; Temkin, Nancy; Bell, Kathleen R; Dikmen, Sureyya; Hoffman, Jeanne M

    2016-02-01

    To examine headache and depression over time in individuals who sustained mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Prevalence of headache and depression early after mTBI and at 1 year postinjury as well as the relationship between the two are evaluated. Headache is the most common physical symptom and depression is among the most common psychiatric diagnosis after traumatic brain injury regardless of severity. Headache and depression have been found to be two independent factors related to poor outcome after mTBI, yet there appears to be a paucity of research exploring the comorbidity of these two conditions after injury. Longitudinal survey design over 1 year of 212 participants with mTBI who were admitted to a Level 1 trauma center for observation or other system injuries. Depression was based on a score ≥10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Headache was based on participant report of new or worse-than-preinjury headache since hospitalization (baseline) or within the previous 3 months at 1 year postinjury. The prevalence of headache and depression at baseline was 64% (135/212) and 15% (31/212), respectively. The prevalence of headache and depression at 1 year was 68% (127/187) and 27% (50/187), respectively. The co-occurrence of headache and depression increased from 11% (23/212) at baseline to 25% (46/187) at 1 year. At 1 year, the risk ratio of individuals who had headache to be depressed was 5.43 (95% CI 2.05-14.40) compared to those without headache (P headache is consistently high over the first year after injury, rate of depression increased over the first year for those who were followed. Given the high rate of comorbidity, those with headache may develop depression over time. Evaluation for possible depression in those with headache after mTBI should be conducted to address both conditions over the year following injury. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  13. Guidelines for the organization of headache education in Europe: the headache school II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rigmor; Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Valade, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    of a similar scientific standard has been developed. To be certified for CME credits, patronage, and financial support from EHF, it is highly recommended to adhere to the suggested teaching strategies. We hereby aim to promote and professionalize the education in headache disorders and endorse the educational......In order to promote education on headache disorders, European Headache Federation (EHF) in conjunction with National Headache Societies organizes educational courses meeting uniform standards according to previous published guidelines. Based on six headache summer schools' experience, an EHF......, a day-to-day program, and a multiple-choice test battery have now been outlined. It is recommended to include practical sessions with patient interviews and hands-on demonstrations of non-pharmacological treatment strategies. For countries that want a 'low cost' education program, a Video School program...

  14. Headache yesterday in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Surveys enquiring about burden of headache over a prior period of time (eg, 3 months) are subject to recall bias. To eliminate this as far as possible, we focused on presence and impact of headache on the preceding day (“headache yesterday”). Methods Adults (18-65 years) were surveyed from the general populations of Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, from a work-force population in Spain and from mostly non-headache patient populations of Austria, France and UK. A study of non-responders in some countries allowed detection of potential participation bias where initial participation rates were low. Results Participation rates varied between 11% and 59% (mean 27%). Non-responder studies suggested that, because of participation bias, headache prevalence might be overestimated in initial responders by up to 2% (absolute). Across all countries, 1,422 of 8,271 participants (15-17%, depending on correction for participation bias) had headache yesterday lasting on average for 6 hours. It was bad or very bad in 56% of cases and caused absence from work or school in 6%. Among those who worked despite headache, 20% reported productivity reduced by >50%. Social activities were lost by 24%. Women (21%) were more likely than men (12%) to have headache yesterday, but impact was similar in the two genders. Conclusions With recall biases avoided, our findings indicate that headache costs at least 0.7% of working capacity in Europe. This calculation takes into account that most of those who missed work could make up for this later, which, however, means that leisure and social activities are even more influenced by headache. PMID:24884765

  15. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  16. The methodology of population surveys of headache prevalence, burden and cost: Principles and recommendations from the Global Campaign against Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of headache is very large, but knowledge of it is far from complete and needs still to be gathered. Published population-based studies have used variable methodology, which has influenced findings and made comparisons difficult. Among the initiatives of the Global Campaign against Headache to improve and standardize methods in use for cross-sectional studies, the most important is the production of consensus-based methodological guidelines. This report describes the development of detailed principles and recommendations. For this purpose we brought together an expert consensus group to include experience and competence in headache epidemiology and/or epidemiology in general and drawn from all six WHO world regions. The recommendations presented are for anyone, of whatever background, with interests in designing, performing, understanding or assessing studies that measure or describe the burden of headache in populations. While aimed principally at researchers whose main interests are in the field of headache, they should also be useful, at least in parts, to those who are expert in public health or epidemiology and wish to extend their interest into the field of headache disorders. Most of all, these recommendations seek to encourage collaborations between specialists in headache disorders and epidemiologists. The focus is on migraine, tension-type headache and medication-overuse headache, but they are not intended to be exclusive to these. The burdens arising from secondary headaches are, in the majority of cases, more correctly attributed to the underlying disorders. Nevertheless, the principles outlined here are relevant for epidemiological studies on secondary headaches, provided that adequate definitions can be not only given but also applied in questionnaires or other survey instruments. PMID:24467862

  17. [Changes introduced into the recent International Classification of Headache Disorders: ICHD-III beta classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvis, Robert; Mas, Natàlia; Roig, Carles

    2015-01-16

    The International Headache Society (IHS) has published the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III beta), the most commonly used guide to diagnosing headaches in the world. To review the recent additions to the guide, to explain the new entities that appear in it and to compare the conditions that have had their criteria further clarified against the criteria in the previous edition. We have recorded a large number of clarifications in the criteria in practically all the headaches and neuralgias in the classification, but the conditions that have undergone the most significant clarifications are chronic migraine, primary headache associated with sexual activity, short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks, new daily persistent headache, medication-overuse headache, syndrome of transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. The most notable new entities that have been incorporated are external-compression headache, cold-stimulus headache, nummular headache, headache attributed to aeroplane travel and headache attributed to autonomic dysreflexia. Another point to be highlighted is the case of the new headaches (still not considered entities in their own right) included in the appendix, some of the most noteworthy being epicrania fugax, vestibular migraine and infantile colic. The IHS recommends no longer using the previous classification and changing over to the new classification (ICHD-III beta) in healthcare, teaching and research, in addition to making this new guide as widely known as possible.

  18. [Headache of cervical origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, C; Monteiro, P

    1992-03-01

    It has been known for many years that headaches can originate from abnormalities in the neck. However, their clinical pictures were never sufficiently systematized, at least not enough to allows for research on their pathogenesis. In 1983 Sjaastad et al. described a group of patients with a very uniform and stereotyped headache. Attacks of mild, longlasting, unilateral head pain without side-shift, occurred every few weeks. The headache could be provoked by neck movements, such as extension, rotation or lateral flexion, as well as by external pressure on the neck, eventually spreading to the ipsilateral orbito-frontal-temporal or facial areas. The denomination Cervicogenic Headache (CC) was proposed. Its pathophysiology is presently unknown. The C2 and occipital nerve blockages eliminate the pain. The authors present a typical CC case and make some comments on its clinical picture, pathophysiology, and treatment.

  19. Refractory chronic cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Edvinsson, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cluster headache (CCH) often resists to prophylactic pharmaceutical treatments resulting in patients' life damage. In this rare but pragmatic situation escalation to invasive management is needed but framing criteria are lacking. We aimed to reach a consensus for refractory CCH definition...... for clinical and research use. The preparation of the final consensus followed three stages. Internal between authors, a larger between all European Headache Federation members and finally an international one among all investigators that have published clinical studies on cluster headache the last five years....... Eighty-five investigators reached by email. Proposed criteria were in the format of the International Classification of Headache Disorders III-beta (description, criteria, notes, comments and references). Following this evaluation eight drafts were prepared before the final. Twenty-four (28...

  20. The Yekaterinburg headache initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Olesen, Jes; Osipova, Vera V

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As major causes of global public ill-health and disability, headache disorders are paradoxically ignored in health policy and in planning, resourcing and implementing health services. This is true worldwide. Russia, where the prevalence of headache disorders and levels of attributed...... for a demonstrational interventional project in Russia, undertaken within the Global Campaign against Headache. The initiative proposes three actions: 1) raise awareness of need for improvement; 2) design and implement a three-tier model (from primary care to a single highly specialized centre with academic affiliation......) for efficient and equitable delivery of headache-related health care; 3) develop a range of educational initiatives aimed at primary-care physicians, non-specialist neurologists, pharmacists and the general public to support the second action. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We set these proposals in a context...

  1. Epidemiology and comorbidity of headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovner, L.J.; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2008-01-01

    The burden associated with headache is a major public health problem, the true magnitude of which has not been fully acknowledged until now. Globally, the percentage of the adult population with an active headache disorder is 47% for headache in general, 10% for migraine, 38% for tension-type...... headache, and 3% for chronic headache that lasts for more than 15 days per month. The large costs of headache to society, which are mostly indirect through loss of work time, have been reported. On the individual level, headaches cause disability, suffering, and loss of quality of life that is on a par...

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow in childhood headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, E.S.; Stump, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 16 cranial regions in 23 children and adolescents with frequent headaches using the non-invasive Xenon-133 inhalation technique. Blood flow response to 5% carbon dioxide (CO2) was also determined in 21 patients, while response to 50% oxygen was measured in the two patients with hemoglobinopathy. Included were 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of migraine, 4 with musculoskeletal headaches, and 3 with features of both types. Also studied were 2 patients with primary thrombocythemia, 2 patients with hemoglobinopathy and headaches, 1 patient with polycythemia, and 1 with headaches following trauma. With two exceptions, rCBF determinations were done during an asymptomatic period. Baseline rCBF values tended to be higher in these young patients than in young adults done in our laboratory. Localized reduction in the expected blood flow surge after CO2 inhalation, most often noted posteriorly, was seen in 8 of the 13 vascular headaches, but in none of the musculoskeletal headache group. Both patients with primary thrombocythemia had normal baseline flow values and altered responsiveness to CO2 similar to that seen in migraineurs; thus, the frequently reported headache and transient neurologic signs with primary thrombocythemia are probably not due to microvascular obstruction as previously suggested. These data support the concept of pediatric migraine as a disorder of vasomotor function and also add to our knowledge of normal rCBF values in younger patients. Demonstration of altered vasomotor reactivity to CO2 could prove helpful in children whose headache is atypical

  3. Temporomandibular disorders and migraine headache

    OpenAIRE

    Demarin, Vida; Bašić Kes, Vanja

    2010-01-01

    Migraine headache and temporomandibular disorders show significant overlap in the area or distribution of pain, the gender prevalence and age distribution. Temporomandibular disorders may cause headaches per se, worsen existent primary headaches, and add to the burden of headache disorders. The patients with combined migraine and tension-type headaches had a higher prevelance of temporomandibular disorders. Evidence supporting a close relationship include the increased masticatory...

  4. Factors related to school absenteeism in adolescents with recurrent headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuner, Cora Collette; Smith, Mark Scott; Womack, William M

    2004-03-01

    To examine possible risk and protective factors for school absenteeism among adolescents referred to a hospital-based behavioral treatment program. Data obtained from intake interviews, screening questionnaires, and baseline headache diaries of 283 consecutive adolescents referred for behavioral treatment of recurrent headache were reviewed for demographics, length of headache history, headache type, current headache activity, symptoms of anxiety and depression, perceived self-efficacy regarding headache control, school performance, participation in extracurricular activities, and school absenteeism. The study population was divided into 2 groups at the median number of days missed due to headache in the previous 6 months that school was in session. Adolescents who missed 2 or less days of school due to headache (low absenteeism) were compared with those who missed more than 2 days (high absenteeism). Compared with the low absenteeism group, the high absenteeism group had higher scores on the Children's Depression Inventory (8.7 +/- 6.5 versus 6.8 +/- 6.2, P academic performance (2.1 +/- 1.0 versus 1.7 +/- 0.8, P extracurricular activities. In a referred population, students who missed more school due to headache had higher depression scores and lower academic performance than students who missed less school. A directional relationship, however, cannot be implied from these results. Future studies should investigate the complex relationship between recurrent adolescent headache, potential risk or protective factors, and school absenteeism.

  5. Primary stabbing headache in adults and pediatrics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, Suzanne; Ballaban-Gil, Karen; Robbins, Matthew S

    2014-10-01

    Primary stabbing headache (PSH) is an under-recognized primary headache disorder, which often goes undiagnosed. It is mainly characterized by its ultrashort stabbing quality and can be easily overlooked both by patients and providers as it is often not severe enough to interfere significantly with daily life. However, PSH may be severe and require therapy, and it is important for providers to recognize this headache type, both in adult and pediatric populations, as well as to be able to distinguish it from secondary headache disorders. PSH also may be more common than previously thought.

  6. Cervicogenic headache: too important to be left un-diagnosed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Torbjørn A; Antonaci, Fabio; Sjaastad, Ottar

    2015-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the cervicogenic headache criteria in the new IHS classification of headaches (3rd edition-beta version) and The Cervicogenic Headache International Study Group's (GHISG) criteria from 1998. In a more recent version, the CHISG criteria consist of 7 different items. While "core cases" of cervicogenic headache (CEH) usually fulfill all 7 criteria, the IHS classification--3rd edition beta version--fulfills only 3 criteria. Although the new three beta version represents an improvement from the previous one, it does not quite seem to live up to the expectations for a diagnostic system for routine, clinical use.

  7. Epidemiology and comorbidity of headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovner, L.J.; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2008-01-01

    The burden associated with headache is a major public health problem, the true magnitude of which has not been fully acknowledged until now. Globally, the percentage of the adult population with an active headache disorder is 47% for headache in general, 10% for migraine, 38% for tension......-type headache, and 3% for chronic headache that lasts for more than 15 days per month. The large costs of headache to society, which are mostly indirect through loss of work time, have been reported. On the individual level, headaches cause disability, suffering, and loss of quality of life that is on a par...... with other chronic disorders. Most of the burden of headache is carried by a minority who have substantial and complicating comorbidities. Renewed recognition of the burden of headache and increased scientific interest have led to a better understanding of the risk factors and greater insight...

  8. Pediatric Posttraumatic Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacperski, Joanne; Hung, Ryan; Blume, Heidi K

    2016-02-01

    Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury are common injuries in pediatrics, and posttraumatic headache is the most common complaint following them. Although most children and teens recover from a simple, isolated concussion without incidents within 1-2 weeks, some develop symptoms that can last for months. It is important to manage both acute and persistent posttraumatic headaches appropriately to speed recovery, minimize disability, and maximize function. In this article, we review the definitions, epidemiology, and current recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of acute and persistent posttraumatic headaches. Although this is still a developing field and there is much that we still need to learn about concussion and the best strategies to prevent and treat these injuries and their sequelae, we hope that this review will help providers to understand the current evidence and treatment recommendations to improve care for children with concussion and mild traumatic brain injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Headache service quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Sara; Uluduz, Derya; Gouveia, Raquel Gil

    2016-01-01

    specialised centres operated in one-touch systems, without possibility of controlling long-term management or the success of treatments dependent on this. Conclusions: This first Europe-wide quality study showed that the quality indicators were workable in specialist care. They demonstrated common trends......Background: The study was a collaboration between Lifting The Burden (LTB) and the European Headache Federation (EHF). Its aim was to evaluate the implementation of quality indicators for headache care Europe-wide in specialist headache centres (level-3 according to the EHF/LTB standard). Methods....... The centres were content with their work and their patients were content with their treatment. Including disability and quality-of-life evaluations in clinical assessments, and protocols regarding safety, proved problematic: better standards for these are needed. Some centres had problems with follow-up: many...

  10. Sleep in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, M C J; Jennum, P J; Lund, N T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cluster headache (CH) is a primary headache disorder characterized by severe attacks of unilateral pain following a chronobiological pattern. There is a close connection with sleep as most attacks occur during sleep. Hypothalamic involvement and a particular association...... with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been suggested. Sleep in a large, well-characterized population of CH patients was investigated. METHODS: Polysomnography (PSG) was performed on two nights in 40 CH patients during active bout and one night in 25 age, sex and body mass index matched controls...... in hospital. Macrostructure and other features of sleep were analyzed and related to phenotype. Clinical headache characterization was obtained by semi-structured interview. RESULTS: Ninety-nine nights of PSG were analyzed. Findings included a reduced percentage of REM sleep (17.3% vs. 23.0%, P = 0...

  11. Nummular headache update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Montojo, Teresa; Alvarez, Mónica

    2012-04-01

    Nummular headache is characterized by head pain exclusively felt in a rounded or elliptical area, typically 1 to 6 cm in diameter. The pain remains confined to the same symptomatic area, which does not change in shape or size with time. The symptomatic area may be localized in any part of the head but mostly in the parietal region. Rarely, the disorder may be multifocal, each symptomatic area keeping all the characteristics of nummular headache. The pain is generally mild or moderate, commonly described as oppressive or stabbing, and lasting minutes, hours, or days, with a remitting or unremitting pattern. Superimposed on the baseline pain, there may be spontaneous or triggered exacerbations. During and between symptomatic periods, the affected area may show variable combinations of hypoesthesia, dysesthesia, paresthesia, tenderness, and trophic changes. Nummular headache emerges as a primary disorder with a clear-cut clinical picture developed in a unique topography.

  12. Temporomandibular dysfunction and headache disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciali, José G; Dach, Fabíola

    2015-02-01

    It has been well established that primary headaches (especially migraine, chronic migraine, and tension-type headache) and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) are comorbid diseases, with the presence of one of them in a patient increasing the prevalence of the others. The relationship between the 2 diseases may involve the sharing of common physiopathological aspects. Studies about the treatment of this disease association have shown that a simultaneous therapeutic approach to the 2 diseases is more effective than the separate treatment of each. As a consequence, specialists in orofacial pain are now required to know the criteria for the diagnosis of headaches, and headache physicians are required to know the semiologic aspects of orofacial pain. Nevertheless, a headache may be attributed to TMD, instead be an association of 2 problems - TMD and primary headaches - in these cases a secondary headache, described in item 11.7 of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, is still a controversial topic. Attempts to determine the existence of this secondary headache with a specific or suggestive phenotype have been frustrated. The conclusion that can be reached based on the few studies published thus far is that this headache has a preferential unilateral or bilateral temporal location and migraine-like or tension-type headache-like clinical characteristics. In the present review, we will consider the main aspects of the TMD-headache relationship, that is, comorbidity of primary headaches and TMD and clinical aspects of the headaches attributed to TMD from the viewpoint of the International Headache Society and of a group of specialists in orofacial pain. This paper aims to explore our understanding of the association between TMD and headaches in general and migraine in particular. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  13. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  14. Temporomandibular Disorders and Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, Steven B; Abbott, Jeremy J

    2016-08-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and primary headaches can be perpetual and debilitating musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. The presence of both can affect up to one-sixth of the population at any one time. Initially, TMDs were thought to be predominantly musculoskeletal disorders, and migraine was thought to be solely a cerebrovascular disorder. The further understanding of their pathophysiology has helped to clarify their clinical presentation. This article focuses on the role of the trigeminal system in associating TMD and migraine. By discussing recent descriptions of prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of headache and TMD, we will further elucidate this relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Myelography and headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, B.

    1985-01-01

    The side effects associated with the use of Metrizamide, Iopamidol and Iotrol in two double blind studies on lumbar myelography were determined. The cause of headache is explained on the one hand as the result of the distribution of the contrast substance in the CSF space (early headache) and on the other hand due to the CSF leak through the puncture lesion. Peculiar hints are given for a safe examination technique. Iotrol seems to be the safest contrast substance for intrathecal use, however it should be used in the smallest possible amount to reduce even further contrast-related effects in myelography. (Author)

  16. Temporomandibular Disorders and Headache: A Retrospective Analysis of 1198 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Di Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Headache is one of the most common diseases associated with Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs. The aim of this study was to evaluate, retrospectively, if headache influences TMD’s symptoms. Material and Methods. A total sample of 1198 consecutive TMD patients was selected. After a neurological examination, a diagnosis of headache, according to the latest edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, was performed in 625 subjects. Patients were divided into two groups based on presence/absence of headache: Group with Headache (GwH and Group without Headache (GwoH. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square index were performed. Results. Sociodemographic (gender, marital status, and occupation and functional factors, occlusion (occlusal and skeletal classes, dental formula, and occlusal abnormalities, and familiar pain did not show a statistically significant correlation in either group. Intensity and frequency of neck pain, arthralgia of TMJ, and myalgia showed higher correlation values in GwH. Conclusion. This study is consistent with previous literature in showing a close relationship between headache and TMD. All data underlines that headache makes pain parameters more intense and frequent. Therefore, an early and multidisciplinary treatment of TMDs should be performed in order to avoid the overlay of painful events that could result in pain chronicity.

  17. Temporomandibular Disorders and Headache: A Retrospective Analysis of 1198 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Carlo; D'Urso, Anna; Papi, Piero; Di Sabato, Francesco; Rosella, Daniele; Pompa, Giorgio; Polimeni, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Aim . Headache is one of the most common diseases associated with Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs). The aim of this study was to evaluate, retrospectively, if headache influences TMD's symptoms. Material and Methods . A total sample of 1198 consecutive TMD patients was selected. After a neurological examination, a diagnosis of headache, according to the latest edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, was performed in 625 subjects. Patients were divided into two groups based on presence/absence of headache: Group with Headache (GwH) and Group without Headache (GwoH). Descriptive statistics and Chi-square index were performed. Results . Sociodemographic (gender, marital status, and occupation) and functional factors, occlusion (occlusal and skeletal classes, dental formula, and occlusal abnormalities), and familiar pain did not show a statistically significant correlation in either group. Intensity and frequency of neck pain, arthralgia of TMJ, and myalgia showed higher correlation values in GwH. Conclusion . This study is consistent with previous literature in showing a close relationship between headache and TMD. All data underlines that headache makes pain parameters more intense and frequent. Therefore, an early and multidisciplinary treatment of TMDs should be performed in order to avoid the overlay of painful events that could result in pain chronicity.

  18. Psychiatric comorbidity in chronic daily headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verri, A P; Proietti Cecchini, A; Galli, C; Granella, F; Sandrini, G; Nappi, G

    1998-02-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that chronic daily headache (CDH) occurs in association with psychopathologies: previous studies have focused particularly on migraine. To evaluate this association, we studied, using the DSM-IIIR criteria, a population of 88 patients (18M, 70F) affected by CDH (mean duration 7.4 +/- 8.7 years). We documented the presence of a psychiatric disorder in 90% of this population. The most frequent diagnosis was a comorbidity of anxiety and mood disorders. The comorbidity of psychiatric disorders and headache has important implications as far as treatment is concerned.

  19. Pediatric Posttraumatic Headache: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Meeryo C; Blume, Heidi K

    2016-01-01

    Head injuries are common in pediatrics, and headaches are the most common complaint following mild head trauma. Although moderate and severe traumatic brain injuries occur less frequently, headaches can complicate recovery. There is currently an intense spotlight on concussion and there has been a corresponding increase in the number of children seeking care for headache after mild traumatic brain injury or concussion. Understanding the natural history of, and recognition of factors that are associated with posttraumatic headache will help providers and families to limit disability and may prompt earlier intervention to address disabling headaches. While there are few studies on the treatment of posttraumatic headache, proper evaluation and management of posttraumatic headaches is essential to prevent further injury and to promote recovery. In this article, we will review the current definitions and epidemiology of pediatric posttraumatic headache and discuss current recommendations for the evaluation and management of this syndrome in children and adolescents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Causes of secondary headache (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporomandibular joint, or TMJ, dysfunction, can be a cause of secondary headache. Secondary headaches result from underlying disorders which produce pain as a symptom. The TMJ may become painful and dysfunctional as a result ...

  1. Business management of headache centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, G; Micieli, G; Cavallini, A; Rossi, G; Rossi, G; Rossi, F

    1998-02-01

    Economic evaluation of the costs and benefits of a headache center or unit has become very important for headache specialists. Many of the problems concerning this "financial" approach to headache derive from the model of organization of the Headache Unit, which is dependent on the various approaches to healthcare practiced in the country considered. So far there are two models of headache center that are generally considered: the hospital-based center and the independent center. An argument favoring hospital-based headache clinics is the lower costs, primarily because of their functional connection with the services of a general hospital, i.e., neuroradiology, neurophysiology, routine laboratory analysis, etc. Another is that the headache specialist has the possibility to visit the patients presenting to the emergency room in the acute phase of headache. Independent clinics have greater costs, but are equally as effective as hospital-based models.

  2. Sleep and chronobiology in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, M; Lund, N.; Petersen, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cluster headache (CH) is the headache disorder with the strongest chronobiological traits. The severe attacks of pain occur with diurnal and annual rhythmicity but the precise rhythm and involvement of potential zeitgebers is unknown. Patients complain of poor sleep quality yet...... this has never been studied. We investigated triggers, rhythms, sleep quality and chronotypes in CH. METHODS: Patients and controls completed questionnaires and structured interviews composed of new and previously validated parts including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Morningness......-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Patients were characterized by a CH index, a unified measure of headache burden. RESULTS: A total of 275 CH patients and 145 matched controls were included. The most common trigger was sleep (80%) and a relationship between clusters and daylight was identified. Of the patients, 82...

  3. Ketamine Infusions for Treatment Refractory Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Jared L; Marmura, Michael J; Nahas, Stephanie J; Viscusi, Eugene R

    2017-02-01

    Management of chronic migraine (CM) or new daily persistent headache (NDPH) in those who require aggressive outpatient and inpatient treatment is challenging. Ketamine has been suggested as a new treatment for this intractable population. This is a retrospective review of 77 patients who underwent administration of intravenous, subanesthetic ketamine for CM or NDPH. All patients had previously failed aggressive outpatient and inpatient treatments. Records were reviewed for patients treated between January 2006 and December 2014. The mean headache pain rating using a 0-10 pain scale was an average of 7.1 at admission and 3.8 on discharge (P ketamine well. A number of adverse events were observed, but very few were serious. Subanesthetic ketamine infusions may be beneficial in individuals with CM or NDPH who have failed other aggressive treatments. Controlled trials may confirm this, and further studies may be useful in elucidating more robust benefit in a less refractory patient population. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  4. Headaches in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children: Practice healthy behaviors. Behaviors that promote general good health also may help prevent headaches for your child. These lifestyle measures include getting plenty of sleep, staying physically active, eating healthy meals and snacks, drinking four to eight glasses of water daily, ...

  5. Postdural Puncture Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ghaleb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Postdural puncture headache (PDPH has been a problem for patients, following dural puncture, since August Bier reported the first case in 1898. His paper discussed the pathophysiology of low-pressure headache resulting from leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from the subarachnoid to the epidural space. Clinical and laboratory research over the last 30 years has shown that use of small-gauge needles, particularly of the pencil-point design, is associated with a lower risk of PDPH than traditional cutting point needle tips (Quincke-point needle. A careful history can rule out other causes of headache. A postural component of headache is the sine qua non of PDPH. In high-risk patients , for example, age < 50 years, postpartum, large-gauge needle puncture, epidural blood patch should be performed within 24–48 h of dural puncture. The optimum volume of blood has been shown to be 12–20 mL for adult patients. Complications of AEBP are rare.

  6. [Headache and teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, S

    1997-02-01

    Headache, facial pain and toothache are poorly localized and irradiate in distant areas. Thus, toothache often causes facial pain and headache, but, in turn, it can also be mimicked by several forms of these disorders, in particular by a myoarthropathy of the masticatory system, a migraine, a tension-type headache, a neuropatic pain and a trigeminal neuralgia. The atypical odontalgia is a nonodontogenic form of toothache that is difficult to diagnose; therefore, it leads to a number of invasive dental procedures which normally worsen the pain condition. The atypical odontalgia can often be solely diagnosed by means of a diagnostic block. Headache and facial pain can also be caused by a myoarthropathy of the masticatory system. This disorder is often misdiagnosed, because the signs and symptoms are not pathognomonic, and they are frequently present also in healthy individuals. The disorder has a good prognosis, the therapy is generally simple and follows the treatment principles for chronic musculoskeletal disorders. The burning-mouth syndrome is an other poorly understood form of intraoral pain that occurs primarily in postmenopausal females. Several etiologic factors have been described, but treatment based on one or more of these factors is often ineffective. Spontaneous remission occurs in about half of the patients after several years.

  7. Headache of cervical origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguet, J.L.; Wackenheim, A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors recall cervical etiologies of headache. They distinguish on the one hand the cervico-occipital region with minor and major malformations and acquired lesions, and on the other hand the middle and inferior cervical segment. They also recall the original structuralist analysis of the cervical spine and give the example of the ''cervical triplet''. (orig.) [de

  8. Primary stabbing headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Sjaastad, Ottar

    2010-01-01

    Primary stabbing headache is characterized by transient, cephalic ultrashort stabs of pain. It is a frequent complaint with a prevalence of 35.2%, a female preponderance, and a mean age of onset of 28 years (Vågå study). Attacks are generally characterized by moderate to severe, jabbing or stabbing pain, lasting from a fraction of a second to 3s. Attack frequency is generally low, with one or a few attacks per day. The paroxysms generally occur spontaneously, during daytime. Most patients exhibit a sporadic pattern, with an erratic, unpredictable alternation between symptomatic and non-symptomatic periods. Paroxysms are almost invariably unilateral. Temporal and fronto-ocular areas are most frequently affected. Attacks tend to move from one area to another, in either the same or the opposite hemicranium. Jabs may be accompanied by a shock-like feeling and even by head movement - "jolts" -or vocalization. On rare occasions, conjunctival hemorrhage and monocular vision loss have been described as associated features. Primary stabbing headache may concur, synchronously or independently, with other primary headaches. In contrast to what is the case in adults, in childhood it is not usually associated with other headaches. Treatment is rarely necessary. Indomethacin, 75-150 mg daily, may seem to be of some avail. Celecoxib, nifedipine, melatonin, and gabapentin have been reported to be effective in isolated cases and small series of patients. The drug studies need corroboration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Migraine headaches in a nutshell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the International Headache Society, a migraine is a headache that lasts for 4–72 hours and presents with at least two of the following symptoms: unilateral localisation, moderate to severe pain intensity, aggravation by movement, and a pulsating feeling. The headache is also usually accompanied by nausea ...

  10. SOME OPHTHALMOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HEADACHE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-04-10

    Apr 10, 1971 ... The causes of headache are briefly summarized. The ophthalmologist is often consulred about headaches being due to 'rhe eyes', but although interference with clear vision may occasionally cause headaches, by far the commonest cause of pain in and around rhe eyes is some type of neur- algia affecting ...

  11. Mechanism of brain tumor headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lynne P

    2014-04-01

    Headaches occur commonly in all patients, including those who have brain tumors. Using the search terms "headache and brain tumors," "intracranial neoplasms and headache," "facial pain and brain tumors," "brain neoplasms/pathology," and "headache/etiology," we reviewed the literature from the past 78 years on the proposed mechanisms of brain tumor headache, beginning with the work of Penfield. Most of what we know about the mechanisms of brain tumor associated headache come from neurosurgical observations from intra-operative dural and blood vessel stimulation as well as intra-operative observations and anecdotal information about resolution of headache symptoms with various tumor-directed therapies. There is an increasing overlap between the primary and secondary headaches and they may actually share a similar biological mechanism. While there can be some criticism that the experimental work with dural and arterial stimulation produced head pain and not actual headache, when considered with the clinical observations about headache type, coupled with improvement after treatment of the primary tumor, we believe that traction on these structures, coupled with increased intracranial pressure, is clearly part of the genesis of brain tumor headache and may also involve peripheral sensitization with neurogenic inflammation as well as a component of central sensitization through trigeminovascular afferents on the meninges and cranial vessels. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  12. Team players against headache: multidisciplinary treatment of primary headaches and medication overuse headache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaul, C.; Visscher, C.M.; Bhola, R.; Sorbi, M.J.; Galli, F.; Rasmussen, A.V.; Jensen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Multidisciplinary approaches are gaining acceptance in headache treatment. However, there is a lack of scientific data about the efficacy of various strategies and their combinations offered by physiotherapists, physicians, psychologists and headache nurses. Therefore, an international platform for

  13. Headache - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Migraine - what to ask your doctor; Tension-type headache - what to ask your doctor; Cluster headache - what to ask your doctor ... How can I tell if the headache I am having is dangerous? What are ... headache ? A migraine headache ? A cluster headache ? What medical ...

  14. Temporomandibular disorders in headache patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Christiane-Espinola-Bandeira; Oliveira, José-Luiz-Góes; Jesus, Alan-Chester-Feitosa; Maia, Mila-Leite-de Moraes; de Santana, Jonielly-Costa-Vasconcelos; Andrade, Loren-Suyane-Oliveira; Siqueira Quintans, Jullyana-de Souza; Quintans-Junior, Lucindo-José; Conti, Paulo-César-Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the frequency of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and its seve-rity in individuals with headache. Study Design: 60 adults divided into three groups of 20 individuals: chronic daily headache (CDH), episodic headache (EH) and a control group without headache (WH). Headache diagnosis was performed according to the criteria of International Headache Society and the signs and symptoms of TMD were achieved by using a clinical exam and an anamnestic questionnaire. The severity of TMD was defined by the temporomandibular index (TMI). Results: The TMD signs and symptoms were always more frequent in individuals with headache, especially report of pain in TMJ area (CDH, n=16; EH, n=12; WH, n=6), pain to palpation on masseter (CDH, n=19; EH, n=16; WH, n=11) which are significantly more frequent in episodic and chronic daily headache. The mean values of temporomandibular and articular index (CDH patients) and muscular index (CDH and EH patients) were statistically higher than in patients of the control group, notably the articular (CDH=0.38; EH=0.25;WH=0.19) and muscular (CDH=0.46; EH=0.51; WH=0.26) indices. Conclusions: These findings allow us to speculate that masticatory and TMJ pain are more common in headache subjects. Besides, it seems that the TMD is more severe in headache patients. Key words:Temporomandibular dysfunction, headache disorders. PMID:22926473

  15. Headache of neurally mediated syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Ramesh K; Van Meerbeke, Sara

    2016-12-01

    Neurally mediated syncope and migraine have a complex relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients developing syncope in the laboratory would experience migraine. Thirty-one consecutive patients were evaluated for precipitation of headache during head-up tilt (HUT)-induced syncope (reduction of systolic blood pressure [SBP] >20 mmHg and prodromal symptoms with or without loss of consciousness). Autonomic functions were assessed using heart rate response to deep breathing (HRDB), Valsalva maneuver and HUT. Blood pressure and heart rate (via electrocardiography) were continuously monitored. Headache diagnosis was based on ICHD-3 criteria. Eighteen patients (58%) experienced syncope without headache and 13 (42%) had syncope and headache (SH). No difference was observed in time of syncope onset, reduction in SBP, Valsalva ratio, HRDB or tachycardia during initial 10 minutes of HUT. Of the 13 SH patients, 11 (85%) had a past history of migraine. Two reported headache just before tilt, eight developed headache during tilt and three developed headache only after tilt. Headache resolved within 1-15 minutes in 10 out of 13 patients. No patient experienced migraine. Syncope did not precipitate migraine. Headache during syncope may be due to cerebral hypoperfusion, and cerebral hyperperfusion may cause post-syncopal headache. © International Headache Society 2016.

  16. Headache attributed to airplane travel ('airplane headache'): clinical profile based on a large case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, F; Lisotto, C; Maggioni, F; Zanchin, G

    2012-06-01

    The 'headache attributed to airplane travel', also named 'airplane headache' (AH), is a recently described headache disorder that appears exclusively in relation to airplane flights, in particular during the landing phase. Based on the stereotypical nature of the attacks in all reported cases, we proposed provisional diagnostic criteria for AH in a previously published paper. Up to now 37 cases have been described in the literature. After our paper was disseminated via the Internet, we received several email messages from subjects around the world who had experienced such a peculiar headache. Their cooperation, by completing a structured questionnaire and allowing the direct observation of three subjects, enabled us to carry out a study on a total of 75 patients suffering from AH. Our survey confirmed the stereotypical nature of the attacks, in particular with regard to the short duration of the pain (lasting less than 30 minutes in up to 95% of the cases), the clear relationship with the landing phase, the unilateral pain, the male preponderance, and the absence of accompanying signs and/or symptoms. It is conceivable to consider barotrauma as one of the main mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of AH. The observation that the pain appears inconstantly in the majority of cases, without any evident disorder affecting the paranasal sinuses, could be consistent with a multimodal pathogenesis underlying this condition, possibly resulting in the interaction between anatomic, environmental and temporary concurrent factors. This is by far the largest AH case series ever reported in the literature. The diagnostic criteria that we previously proposed proved to be valid when applied to a large number of patients suffering from this condition. We support its recognition as a new form of headache, to be included in the forthcoming update of the International Headache Society Classification, within '10. Headache attributed to disorder of homoeostasis'. Its formal

  17. Neuroendoscopic treatment of idiopathic occlusion of unilateral foramen of Monro presenting as chronic headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval Shukla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric ventriculomegly due to idiopathic occlusion of the foramen of Monro is rare. Such patients present with clinical features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP. Presentation as chronic headache has not been previously described. In the absence of raised ICP, pursuing surgical treatment raises a clinical dilemma as the headache may be a primary headache with no improvement after surgery. A 21-year-old woman presented with chronic headache. She was found to have asymmetric ventriculomegaly due to the occlusion of the foramen of Monro. She underwent endoscopic septostomy and widening of the foramen of Monro. Her headache subsided after surgery. At 15 months of follow-up, she was free from headache without medications. Unilateral occlusion of the foramen of Monro can present with asymmetric ventriculomegaly resulting in chronic headache. Though the symptoms of raised ICP may not be present, still endoscopic relief of ventriculomegaly leads to cure of headache.

  18. The headache-inducing effect of cilostazol in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, S; Kruuse, Christina; Petersen, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    in migraine patients, but CGRP receptor activation causes an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). In order to investigate the role of cAMP in vascular headache pathogenesis, we studied the effect of cilostazol, an inhibitor of cAMP degradation, in our human experimental headache model. Twelve...... healthy volunteers were included in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study. Placebo or cilostazol (200 mg p.o.) was administered on two separate study days. Headache was scored on a verbal rating scale (0-10) and mechanical pain thresholds were measured with von Frey hairs. The median peak headache...... in previous experiments. The present study thus indicates that increased levels of cAMP may play a role in headache and migraine pathogenesis....

  19. Epidemiological aspects of headache in a workplace setting and the impact on the economic loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, P H M; Gierveld, C M; Karis, H A M; Tiedink, H G M

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiological aspects of headache in a workplace setting and the economical impact. By sending a questionnaire to 1781 employees of a Dutch manufacturing company we tried to assess the prevalence of headache and headache subtype within this working place. Besides the personal view of each responder regarding his/her headache subtype, the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria were used to classify headaches on the basis of reported features. Moreover the missing labour days, as a result of headache, during the previous 4 weeks were measured, as well as the loss of productivity at the working place during an episode of headache; from this an estimate of the economic loss could be calculated. The response rate of the questionnaire was 60.8%. The lifetime prevalence of headache amongst the responders was 53.3%. Of these, 34.5% thought their headache was tension-type headache, 10.6% thought it was migraine, 5.4% mentioned daily headache, and 18.2% mentioned another type of headache. According to the IHS criteria the differentiation was somewhat different: 26.2% of the headache could be classified as tension-type headache and 15% as migraine. When the costs for lost labour days and loss of productivity as a result of all types of headache were accumulated, the economic loss was estimated at 18.933 US dollars in 4 weeks (for the group of responders). In conclusion, headache is related to a substantial economic loss; migraine is probably underestimated in a workplace setting.

  20. Is allodynia influenced by psychological profile in headache patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovati, Carlo; D'Amico, D; Bertora, P; Morandi, E; Mariani, C; Bussone, G

    2009-05-01

    Cutaneous allodynia is a frequent complain in headache patients, particularly in those with migraine. A stronger association is present in patients with migraine with aura and with chronic or transformed migraine. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the psychological profile may be related to the presence/absence of allodynia in a sample of headache patients. The psychological profile of patients was assessed by the SCL90R; the presence of allodynia was assessed by a set of semi-structured questions used in previous studies. For the purpose of the study, patients were divided into subgroups according to the headache type (ICDH-II diagnoses), as well as to the temporal pattern (episodic or chronic). A total of 213 consecutive headache patients were studied. Most patients had episodic migraine (116); 37 had tension-type headache. Overall, 156 patients had episodic headache forms, and 57 had chronic forms. As far as allodynia, 93 were non-allodynic; 120 presented allodynic symptoms during their headaches. No significant difference was found between allodynic and non-allodynic patients neither if studied in a whole group (t test, P = 0.10 NS) nor when patients were evaluated comparing different subgroups on the basis of headache type, and of the episodic/chronic pattern. Our results suggest that the presence/absence of allodynia may not be influenced by the psychological profile.

  1. [Different headache forms of chapter 4 of the International Headache Classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, A; Heinze, A; Göbel, H

    2012-12-01

    Chapter 4 of the International Classification of Headaches contains a group of clinically very heterogeneous primary headache forms. Little is known about the pathogenesis of these headache types and therapy is usually based on isolated case reports and uncontrolled studies. The forms include primary stabbing headache, primary cough headache, primary exertional headache, primary headache associated with sexual activity, hypnic headache, primary thunderclap headache, hemicrania continua and the new daily persistent headache. Some of these headache forms may be of a symptomatic nature and require careful examination, imaging and further tests. Primary and secondary headache forms must be carefully distinguished.

  2. Brought in Dead: An Avoidable Delay in Maternal Deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aruna; Agrawal, Neha

    2016-10-01

    Maternal brought in dead are the patient who dies in the need of adequate medical care. These deaths are often not analyzed sincerely as they are not institutional deaths. Our aim is to find out actual life threatening cause of delay leading to death. Patients brought dead to casualty were seen by the doctors on duty in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal round the clock. Cause of death was analyzed by verbal autopsy of attendants and referral letter from the institute. In this analytical study a complete evaluation of brought deaths from January 2011 to Decmeber 2014 was done. A total of 64 brought in deaths were reported in this 4 year duration. Most common cause of death was postpartum hemorrhage (54.68 %) followed by hypertension (15.62 %) and the most common cause of delay was delay in getting adequate treatment (56.25 %). The brought in dead are the indicator of the three delays in getting health care. Challenges appear to be enormous to be tackled. Timely management proves to be critical in preventing maternal death. Thus it appears that community education about pregnancy and its complications, EmOC training at FRU and strict adherence to referral protocol may help us to reduce the brought dead burden.

  3. Acute headache and persistent headache attributed to cervical artery dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik W; Ashina, Messoud; Magyari, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    The criteria for headache attributed to cervical artery dissection have been changed in the new third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III beta). We have retrospectively investigated 19 patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2006 with cervical artery dissection...... at onset and followed them up six months after dissection. At dissection onset 17/19 patients were classified as headache probably attributed to vascular disorder at the time of dissection using the ICHD second edition (ICHD-II) criteria. In contrast, 17/19 of patients fulfilled the ICHD-III beta criteria...... for Headache or facial or neck pain attributed to cervical carotid or vertebral artery dissection or Headache attributed to intracranial arterial dissection. Six months after dissection five of 19 patients still reported persistent headache attributed to dissection. The study demonstrates that the ICHD...

  4. Perioperative management of postdural puncture headache: Postdural puncture headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unić-Stojanović Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postdural puncture headache (PDPH is a complication of puncture of the dura mater. It is a common side effect of spinal anesthesia, lumbar puncture and occasionally, may accidentally occur in epidural anesthesia. The headache is defined as a bilateral headache that develops within 7 days after lumbar puncture and disappears within 14 days. It has been described in some cases that headaches can last from a few mounts to even years. Factors that increase the risk of PDPH is young age, female sex and pregnancy. Incidence is strongly related to the needle size and type. Case Report: We report a case of a 49-year-old man who was admitted to our Institute for elective veins surgery. We choose spinal anesthesia for this operation and use 25 gauged spinal needle. Patient was hemodynamically stable during the whole surgery without headache and he was discharged home at 1st post operative day. However, after two days, patient came to the hospital complaining of severe headache in frontal and occipital areas, followed by neck stiffness. Our first approach in treatment was conservative therapy. Recumbent positioning, oral and intravenous fluid, 500 mg coffeine iv. bid and morphine 4 qid. The headache persisted for the next 2 days, despite conservative therapy. Our next approach was epidural blood patch like effective treatment for PDPH. First we placed patient in the lateral position and inserted epidural needle at the level L3 - L4. Then we injected 15 ml of autologes blood into epidural space. His headache resolved within one hour of procedure, he denied any further headache one month after discharge. Conclusion: In our case, it was shown that lumbar puncture is an important cause of iatrogenic morbidity in the form of postdural puncture headache. Incidence of headache can be resolved by using thinner needle. When the headache does not respond to conservative therapy, epidural blood patch is a reasonable and effective treatment. Surgical

  5. Primary headache diagnosis among chronic daily headache patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krymchantowski, Abouch Valenty

    2003-06-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH) refers to a group of non-paroxysmal daily or near-daily headaches with peculiar characteristics that are highly prevalent in populations of neurological clinics and not uncommon among non-patient populations. Most of the patients with CDH had, as primary diagnosis, episodic migraine, which, with the time, presented a progressive frequency, pattern modification and loss of specific migraine characteristics. Other CDH patients had chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and hemicrania continua, which evolved thru the time to the daily or near-daily presentation. The objective of this study was to determine the primary headache diagnosis among a population of chronic daily headache patients attending a tertiary center for headache treatment. During a 5-year period 651 consecutive chronic daily headache patients attending a private subspecialty center were studied prospectively. The criteria adopted were those proposed by Silberstein et al (1994, revised 1996). Five hundred seventy four patients (88.1%) had episodic migraine as primary headache before turning into daily presentation, 52 (8%) had chronic tension-type headache, 14 (2.2%) had hemicrania continua and 11 patients (1.7%) had new daily persistent headache. CDH is quite frequent in patients from clinic-based studies suggesting a high degree of disability. Emphasis on education of patients suffering from frequent primary headaches with regard to measures that are able to decrease suffering and disability as well as better medical education directed to more efficient ways to handle these patients are necessary to improve outcome of such a prevalent condition.

  6. Tension-Type Headache - The Normal and Most Prevalent Headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2018-01-01

    PREMISE: Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most prevalent form of primary headache in the general population but paradoxically the least studied headache. PROBLEM: In this article, the epidemiology and diagnostic challenges of TTH are presented and discussed. The typical features and differential...... diagnosis of TTH are highlighted and the situations more likely to raise doubts are discussed. POTENTIAL SOLUTION: A structured approach to the patient and a better comprehension of the very frequent coexistence of migraine and medication overuse headache in the clinical population are emphasized. According...

  7. Pain therapy in practice. What can PET tell us about idiopathic headache?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, A.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of vascular headache as a pathophysiological unity implies that the source of pain is a vascular lesion. However, diagnostic PET scanning of patients suffering from primary headache has brought revolutionary new insights in this field, shedding light on the mechanisms inducing this pain. The new knowledge in general confirms the key aspects of the concept, namely that the pathogenesis of migranous headache can be attributed to an imbalance of the brain stem neurons which control the antinozizeption and the extra- and intracranial blood flow. The pathogenesis of cluster-type headache is assumed to be induced by a disorder of the central nervous system in the pace-maker cells or circadian regions of the hypothalamic grey matter. A possible dilatation of the large vessels near the base is not due to a specific type of headache but rather is an unspecific reaction to trigeminal activation. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Endovascular thrombectomy and post-procedural headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sabrina; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Holtmannspötter, Markus; Hansen, Klaus; Florescu, Anna Maria; Fakhril-Din, Zainab; Petersen, Julie Falkenberg; Ghanizada, Hashmat; Ayata, Cenk; Gaist, David; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the prevalence of post-procedural headache in patients who have undergone thrombectomy for ischemic stroke, and correlated history of migraine with risk of peri-procedural complications. A total of 314 patients underwent thrombectomy at the Danish National Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. Eligible subjects were phone-interviewed using a purpose-developed semi-structured questionnaire according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3, beta version criteria. Among 96 eligible subjects, there was a significant decrease in migraine (p = 0.022) within the first 3 months after EVT compared to 1 year before treatment, which was further evident at interview time (on average 1.6 years after EVT, p = 0.013). A minority of patients experienced headaches for the first time within 3 months of their EVT (migraine 2, TTH 9), which persisted at interview time for subjects with migraine. Out of 12 subjects with peri-procedural complications, 2 had a history of migraine with aura. Thrombectomy leads to a significant decrease in previously known migraine, and new onset of headache in a small subset of patients. A history of migraine does not appear to predispose to peri-procedural complications.

  9. Coping styles of headache sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniatchkin, M; Riabus, M; Hasenbring, M

    1999-04-01

    Psychological factors are important in the chronification and aggravation of headaches. We studied 90 patients suffering from migraine, chronic daily headache (CDH) evolved from migraine, and episodic or chronic tension-type headache (TTH). Emotional, cognitive, and behavioral pain coping were assessed using the Kiel Pain Inventory (KPI), Beck's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory, and Quality of Life Questionnaire. In addition, the clinical course of headache was analyzed using a validated headache diary. The results were as follows. Firstly, the KPI is reliable internally for the assessment of pain-coping strategy employment among headache patients. Secondly, migraine sufferers were characterized by pronounced psychological abnormalities during the headache phase, demonstrating a less adaptive coping behavior. This was in contrast to the TTH patients, who showed more general distress manifesting in elevated anxiety and lower quality of life. The only factor which appeared to be essential for differentiating between migraine and TTH was the intensity of headache. Thirdly, chronic TTH and CDH evolved from migraine demonstrated more pronounced psychological disabilities and more severe clinical courses of headaches than episodic TTH or nontransformed migraine. The predictor variable for transformation of migraine was impairment of well-being/quality of life, and for transformation of TTH, the frequency of headaches and depression. Finally, analgesic misuse seems to be less important for chronification and transformation of headaches than the degree of psychological disability. This study draws attention to the role of psychological factors in the chronification of TTH and transformation of migraine and provides some recommendations for the behavioral treatment of chronic headaches.

  10. Medical Comorbidities in Pediatric Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Howard; Singhi, Samata; Gladstein, Jack

    2016-02-01

    Comorbid conditions frequently occur in pediatric headaches and may significantly affect their management. Comorbidities that have been associated with pediatric headaches include attention-deficit or hyperactivity disorder, autism, developmental disabilities, depression, anxiety, epilepsy, obesity, infantile colic, atopic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The goal of this article is to review these comorbidities associated with pediatric headache, thereby empowering child neurologists to identify common triggers and tailor management strategies that address headache and its comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Familial aggregation of cluster headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simao Cruz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest a strong familial aggregation for cluster headache (CH, but so far none of them have included subjects with probable cluster headache (PCH in accordance with the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Objective To identify cases of probable cluster headache and to assess the familial aggregation of cluster headache by including these subjects. Method Thirty-six patients attending a headache consultation and diagnosed with trigeminal autonomic headaches were subjected to a questionnaire-based interview. A telephone interview was also applied to all the relatives who were pointed out as possibly affected as well as to some of the remaining relatives. Results Twenty-four probands fulfilled the criteria for CH or PCH; they had 142 first-degree relatives, of whom five were found to have CH or PCH, including one case of CH sine headache. The risk for first-degree relatives was observed to be increased by 35- to 46-fold. Conclusion Our results suggest a familial aggregation of cluster headache in the Portuguese population.

  12. Temporomandibular disorders and headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, Steven B; Bassiur, Jennifer P

    2014-05-01

    Headache and temporomandibular disorders should be treated together but separately. If there is marked limitation of opening, imaging of the joint may be necessary. The treatment should then include education regarding limiting jaw function, appliance therapy, instruction in jaw posture, and stretching exercises, as well as medications to reduce inflammation and relax the muscles. The use of physical therapies, such as spray and stretch and trigger point injections, is helpful if there is myofascial pain. Tricyclic antidepressants and the new-generation antiepileptic drugs are effective in muscle pain conditions. Arthrocentesis and/or arthroscopy may help to restore range of motion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Headache Attributed to Craniocervical Dystonia - A Little Known Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Marcos Eugenio Ramalho; Rocha-Filho, Pedro Augusto Sampaio

    2017-02-01

    Craniocervical dystonia is a focal or segmental dystonia in its distribution, classically known as spasmodic torticollis when in its pure cervical presentation. Although craniocervical dystonia has been recognized as a possible cause of headache since the publication of the second version of International Classification of Headache Disorders, there are few studies about this entity. This was a narrative review. Craniocervical dystonia was associated with muscle pain in 67-89% of the cases. Headaches of any kind affected approximately 60% of patients with craniocervical dystonia, and were located mainly in the occipital and cervical regions. Headache attributed to craniocervical dystonia specifically was rarely found, and it was described in only one patient out of 80 in one study. Treatment with botulinum neurotoxin is considered to be the first-line treatment for focal dystonias, including craniocervical dystonia, and besides reducing clinical severity, impairment, and pain scores among the patients with craniocervical dystonia, there were also descriptions of improvements in headaches attributed to craniocervical dystonia and other headaches associated with this dystonia. Headache attributed to craniocervical dystonia has been poorly studied. There is a need for more studies to evaluate its characteristics and treatment. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  14. Nummular headache: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Pareja, Julia

    2003-05-01

    Nummular headache (coin-shaped cephalgia) has an unusual distinct feature: it is characterized by mild-to-moderate pressure-like pain exclusively felt in a rounded or elliptical area typically 2-6 cm in diameter. Although any region of the head may be affected, the parietal area is the common localization of nummular headache. The pain remains confined to the same symptomatic area which does not change in shape or size with time. The pain is continuous but lancinating exacerbations lasting for several seconds or gradually increasing from 10 mins to 2 h may superimpose the baseline pain. The temporal pattern is either chronic or remitting. Pseudoremissions may be observed when the pain reaches a very low grade or only discomfort (not pain) in the affected area is reported. At times, discomfort may prevail. Either during symptomatic periods or interictally, the affected area may show a variable combination of hypoethesia, dysesthesia, paresthesia or tenderness. Physical and supplementary examinations are normal. Nummular headache emerges as a primary clear-cut clinical picture. The particular topography and signs of sensory dysfunction make it reasonable to vent the idea that nummular headache is an extracranial headache, probably stemming from epicranial tissues such as terminal branches of sensitive nerves. Nummular headache may seem to be the paradigm of epicranias (group of headaches and pericranial neuralgias stemming from epicranial tissues). Nummular headache must be distinguished from head pain secondary to local processes and from tender points of more extensive headaches. Although nummular headache may frequently coexist with other primary headaches, it has an independent course. Treatment is seldom necessary and in most cases simple reassurance is sufficient.

  15. A Recurrent Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Dylewski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Case Presentation A 43-year-old man presented to the emergency room in September 2004 with a two-day history of increasing headache, myalgias and low-grade fever. No family members had been ill recently and he denied having nausea or diarrhea. On examination, he was nontoxic, with a temperature of 37.5¡ãC, pulse of 90 beats/min and blood pressure of 146/84 mmHg. Skin rashes were not present, and the neck was supple. The patient claimed that he seldom had headaches but that he had been hospitalized in England 15 years ago for viral meningitis. He remembered receiving antibiotics at the time despite being told it was a viral meningitis. The patient underwent a computed tomography scan of the brain, which was normal, followed by a lumbar puncture. The opening pressure was not recorded, but there were 23x106/L polymorphonuclear cells and 308x106/L lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The CSF protein was elevated at 1.26 g/L (N¡Ü0.45, with a CSF glucose of 2.9 mmol/L compared with a serum value of 5.3 mmol/L. The peripheral white blood cell count was 10.5x109/L, with 8.0x109/L neutrophils.

  16. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of rams brought into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an effort to gain a better understanding into the role played by food animals in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites, we assessed the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in different breeds of rams brought into Abeokuta during a festive season by ... The only protozoan parasite identified was Eimeria spp.

  17. Parasitic Diseases of Ruminants Brought to Two Zonal Veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five years study (2003-2007) of parasitic diseases of ruminants brought to two Zonal Veterinary clinics located in the Southern part of Niger State, Central Nigeria was carried out to establish disease patterns in cattle, sheep and goats. The study was based on the data extracted from the monthly records of parasitic disease ...

  18. Pediatric headache: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Howard; Gladstein, Jack

    2012-02-01

    In this review we describe the epidemiology, classification, and approach to the diagnosis and treatment of episodic and chronic migraine in children. We review both traditional and alternative medications, and offer a glimpse into the future of pediatric headache. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  19. Headache in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanly, John G; Urowitz, Murray B; O'Keeffe, Aidan G

    2013-01-01

    To examine the frequency and characteristics of headaches and their association with global disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).......To examine the frequency and characteristics of headaches and their association with global disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)....

  20. Immediate post-craniotomy headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Ribeiro, Maria do Carmo; Pereira, Carlos U; Sallum, Ana Mc; Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo S; Desantana, Josimari M; da Silva Nunes, Mariangela; Hora, Edilene C

    2013-08-01

    Headache is the most common adverse event immediately following craniotomy and is due to the surgical procedure and meningeal irritation. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of headache during the first week after a craniotomy, as well as headache intensity, whether pain was registered in the patient's medical records, the use of analgesics and predictors of headache. Ninety-one patients who underwent craniotomy were evaluated from the first to the seventh post-operative day. The variables analysed were gender, age, medical history, indication for craniotomy, surgery, occurrence of headache, pain registration in the medical records, length of hospital stay and analgesics consumption. On the second post-operative day, 29.2% of patients had a headache and there was under-reporting of this pain in the patients' records. The analgesics used were non-steroidal anti-inflammatory in 75% of cases. An age of 4 hours (odds ratio = 3.7, P  = 0.019) were associated with the occurrence of immediate post-craniotomy headache. Further training should be provided to professionals caring for patients undergoing craniotomy to better manage post-operative headache.

  1. School lunches and lunches brought from home: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig A; Moreno, Jennette P; El-Mubasher, Abeer; Woehler, Deborah

    2012-08-01

    Considerable effort has been put forth to improve the nutritional quality of school meals by the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). However, a large percentage of children do not obtain their meals from school and instead bring lunch from home. Little research has focused on the content of these lunches. The purpose of the current study was to examine differences between school lunch and lunch brought from home. Children in the 2nd grade from seven schools in a large suburban school district were observed on three separate days. A total of 2107 observations were made, with 38.5% of these being lunches brought from home. Chi-squared analyses evaluated differences in the presence of specific food items between school lunch and lunch brought from home. Compared to children with a school lunch, children with a lunch brought from home were significantly less likely to have fruits (75.9% vs. 45.3%), vegetables (29.1% vs. 13.2%), and dairy (70.0% vs. 41.8%) (p lunch from home were more likely to have snacks high in sugar and/or fat (17.5% vs. 60.0%) and non 100% fruit juice/fruit drink (0.3% vs. 47.2%) (p school lunch. The NSLP has been widely criticized; however, conducting a comparison in this manner demonstrates advantages to children obtaining school lunches. Although it was beyond the scope of this study to examine diet quality (e.g., actual intake and nutrient/caloric density), these results provide compelling evidence that lunches brought from home should be an area of emphasis for research and intervention.

  2. Recent developments in pediatric headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Andrew D

    2010-06-01

    This review will focus on some of the recent findings in pediatric headache including headache characteristics, epidemiology, comorbid associations and treatment updates. Pediatric headache remains a frequent health problem for children and their families, yet there remain many gaps in our knowledge. This review will broadly address some of the recent findings and highlight the gaps in our understanding and treatment of pediatric headache. There will be a focus on pediatric migraine as this has been the best characterized and studied. Our understanding of pediatric headache is improving with increased recognition of the characteristics and associated symptomology. This should further guide the individualized treatment approaches for improved outcome and reduction of progression into adulthood.

  3. Adolescents' medicine use for headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Andersen, Anette; Fotiou, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study reports secular trends in medicine use for headache among adolescents in 20 countries from 1986 to 2010. METHODS: The international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey includes self-reported data about medicine use for headaches among nationally...... representative samples of 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds. We included 20 countries with data from at least three data collection waves, with a total of 380 129 participants. RESULTS: The prevalence of medicine use for headaches varied from 16.5% among Hungarian boys in 1994 to 62.9% among girls in Wales in 1998....... The prevalence was higher among girls than boys in every country and data collection year. The prevalence of medicine use for headaches increased in 12 of 20 countries, most notably in the Czech Republic, Poland, Russia, Sweden and Wales. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of medicine use for headaches among adolescents...

  4. Delayed diagnosis in pediatric headache: an outpatient Italian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Bruno; Dalla Libera, Dacia; De Feo, Donatella; Pavan, Giulia; Annovazzi, Pietro Osvaldo; Comi, Giancarlo

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to assess the time lapse between the onset of recurring headache and the correct diagnosis in a cohort of pediatric patients attending an Italian children's headache center for the first time. One hundred and one patients and parents, referred to the Pediatric Headache Centre of San Raffaele Hospital in Milan, Italy, underwent a semi-structured interview to ascertain features of headache since onset (clinical and family history, presence of childhood periodic syndromes, previously undergone instrumental exams and specialists' examinations before the correct diagnosis, past and current treatment). All patients were evaluated by expert neurologists and their headache was classified according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders II (2004). The median time delay from the onset of the first episode of recurrent headache to definite diagnosis was 20 months (interquartile range 12 to 36 months). A correlation with younger age and a more delayed headache diagnosis was found (r Spearman = 0.25; P = .039). An association between diagnostic delay and positive family history (median 24 months [12 to 48] vs 12 [6 to 24]; P = .014) or female gender (median 18 months [12 to 42] vs. 12 [5 to 30]; P trend = .070) was also evident. Notably, 76 out of 101 patients referred to our Center received an appropriate diagnosis according to International Classification of Headache Disorders II at the time of our visit only. Of note, up to 21% of this group were previously misdiagnosed (for epilepsy 43%, sinusitis 38%, or other diseases 19%), a fact that contributed to a longer time of clinical assessment (median 39 months) before reaching a correct diagnosis. The other group of 80 patients (79%) did not receive a specific diagnosis and treatment, and were not studied until their symptom became chronic and disabling. Pediatric headache is still under-diagnosed and not adequately considered as a health problem in the

  5. Weather and headache onset: a large-scale study of headache medicine purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Kayoko; Noda, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Mieko; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    It is widely recognized that weather changes can trigger headache onset. Most people who develop headaches choose to self-medicate rather than visit a hospital or clinic. We investigated the association between weather and headache onset using large-sample sales of the headache medicine, loxoprofen. We collected daily sales figures of loxoprofen and over-the-counter drugs over a 1-year period from a drugstore chain in western Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. To adjust for changes in daily sales of loxoprofen due to social environmental factors, we calculated a proportion of loxoprofen daily sales to over-the-counter drug daily sales. At the same time, we obtained weather data for the study region from the website of the Japan Meteorological Agency. We performed linear regression analysis to ascertain the association between weather conditions and the loxoprofen daily sales proportion. We also conducted a separate questionnaire survey at the same drugstores to determine the reason why people purchased loxoprofen. Over the study period, we surveyed the sale of hundreds of thousands of loxoprofen tablets. Most people purchased loxoprofen because they had a headache. We found that the sales proportion of loxoprofen increased when average barometric pressure decreased, and that precipitation, average humidity, and minimum humidity increased on loxoprofen purchase days compared to the previous day of purchases. This study, performed using a large dataset that was easy-to-collect and representative of the general population, revealed that sales of loxoprofen, which can represent the onset and aggravation of headache, significantly increased with worsening weather conditions.

  6. Treatment adherence in patients with headache: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Rachelle R; Ryan, Jamie L; Hershey, Andrew D; Powers, Scott W; Aylward, Brandon S; Hommel, Kevin A

    2014-05-01

    To review and critically evaluate the extant research literature pertaining to adherence in youth and adults with headache and to provide recommendations for future research. This article provides the first systematic review of pediatric headache adherence and updates a previous review of treatment adherence in adults with headache. Systematic review of empirical literature. A literature search with no date restriction was conducted using PubMed and PsycINFO electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles. Adherence rates in adults with headache range considerably from 25% to 94% across treatment, assessment method, and definition of adherence utilized. Methods to assess adherence included retrospective prescription claims data, paper or electronic diaries, follow-up appointment attendance, written and verbal self-report of general adherence, verbal self-report of adherence over a specific amount of time via in person interview or telephone, validated adherence measures, adherence questionnaires without validation, and counselor ratings of homework. Each methodology and assessment tool demonstrated strengths and weaknesses. No studies have systematically examined medication adherence in children with headache, and the few available studies examining adherence to behavioral treatment have documented adherence rates ranging from 52% to 86%. Adherence research in adults with headache is growing, but studies demonstrate a number of methodological shortcomings. Adherence research in children with headache, and adherence intervention research in both adults and children, is scant. Future research should use objective measures of adherence, consider over-the-counter medications and medication overuse, examine demographic, psychological, and behavioral correlates of adherence, assess adherence to botulinum toxin type A, and examine the efficacy of adherence interventions in individuals with headache. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  7. Update on chronic daily headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, James R

    2011-02-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH), defined as a primary headache occurring at least 15 days per month, is a problem of worldwide scope, which is seen in 3% to 5% of the population. Though it has been recognized since ancient times, only recently have there been attempts to define and classify it. CDH usually consists of a mixture of migraine and tension-type headaches (TTH), with the more severe headaches having migraine features and the less severe headaches fitting the definition of TTH. Some patients have pure chronic TTH and no migrainous features, and others have only migraine, but most have a mixed migraine-TTH pattern. New daily persistent headache, a CDH pattern that comes on over a few days, constitutes 9% to 10% of this group and is otherwise indistinguishable from CDH. Hemicrania continua (1% of CDH) appears to be unique in being absolutely responsive to indomethacin. Accurate diagnosis of CDH is critical to management, as all organic etiologies of chronic headache must be ruled out. Problems often associated with CDH and complicating the diagnosis are head injury or medication overuse (rebound-withdrawal headache). These accompanying issues must be recognized and treated appropriately in the management plan. Finally, psychiatric problems (unipolar depression, bipolar disease, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive/compulsive disorder) often accompany CDH, as they are comorbid with migraine. These conditions must be recognized and treated along with the headache itself for treatment to succeed fully. Treatment of CDH is multimodal. The cornerstone of therapy is the use of prophylactic antimigraine medications to prevent or modulate the next headache. Amitriptyline, topiramate, valproic acid, and gabapentin have all had class I studies showing effectiveness in reducing headache occurrence. Recent studies with botulinum toxin have also shown effectiveness in reducing the headache burden. Recognition and treatment of medication overuse headache (MOH) must

  8. Investigation by computer tomography in white patients with headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, J.F.K.; De Necker, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    950 Caucasian patients with headache as the principal symptom were examined by computer tomography. Of these 436 were male and 514 female, with ages varying from 3 to 86 years old. Atrophy was found in the majority of cases, followed by previous trauma and/or surgery, vascular conditions, tumours, inflammatory conditions and a variation of other conditions. It seems that more female patients complained of headache. In males 35% of CT examinations turned out to be abnormal against 30% of examinations in females. Only 15% of all positive scans had lesions which were surgically curable. Tumours were found in 9,8% of abnormal scans, or 3% of all patients. CT scanning should not be used as a sreening test in patients with headache. CT scanning should be reserved for those cases with concomitant neurological defect, signs of raised intracranial pressure and acute onset of severe headache with additional positive signs

  9. New-Onset Headache in Patients With Autoimmune Encephalitis Is Associated With anti-NMDA-Receptor Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schankin, Christoph J; Kästele, Fabian; Gerdes, Lisa Ann; Winkler, Tobias; Csanadi, Endy; Högen, Tobias; Pellkofer, Hannah; Paulus, Walter; Kümpfel, Tania; Straube, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    We tested the hypotheses (i) that autoimmune encephalitis is associated with new-onset headache, and (ii) that the occurrence of headache is associated with the presence of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antibodies. Autoimmune encephalitis presents with cognitive dysfunction as well as neuro-psychiatric symptoms. Its pathophysiology might involve antibody-mediated dysfunction of the glutamatergic system as indicated by the presence of anti-NMDA-receptor antibodies in some patients. In this cross-sectional study, patients with autoimmune encephalitis were assessed with a standardized interview for previous headache and headache associated with autoimmune encephalitis. Headache was classified according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition. Clinical and paraclinical findings were correlated with the occurrence of headache. Of 40 patients with autoimmune encephalitis, 19 did not have a history of headache. Of those, nine suffered from encephalitis-associated headache. Seven of these nine had anti-NMDA-receptor antibodies in contrast to only two among the remaining 10 patients without new-onset headache (P = .023, odds ratio: 14, 95% confidence interval: 1.5; 127). In most patients headache occurred in attacks on more than 15 days/month, was severe, and of short duration (less than 4 hours). International Headache Society criteria for migraine were met in three patients. New-onset headache is a relevant symptom in patients with autoimmune encephalitis who have no history of previous headache, especially in the subgroup with anti-NMDA-receptor antibodies. This indicates a thorough investigation for secondary headaches including anti-NMDA-R antibodies for patients with new-onset headache and neuropsychiatric findings. Glutamatergic dysfunction might be important for the generation of head pain but may only occasionally be sufficient to trigger migraine-like attacks in nonmigraineurs. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  10. Carbon monoxide inhalation induces headache in a human headache model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik Winther; Britze, Josefine

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced signalling molecule that has a role in nociceptive processing and cerebral vasodilatation. We hypothesized that inhalation of CO would induce headache and vasodilation of cephalic and extracephalic arteries. Methods In a randomized......, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 12 healthy volunteers were allocated to inhalation of CO (carboxyhemoglobin 22%) or placebo on two separate days. Headache was scored on a verbal rating scale from 0-10. We recorded mean blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) by transcranial...... Doppler, diameter of the superficial temporal artery (STA) and radial artery (RA) by high-resolution ultrasonography and facial skin blood flow by laser speckle contrast imaging. Results Ten volunteers developed headache after CO compared to six after placebo. The area under the curve for headache (0...

  11. Epidemiological, clinical and pharmacological aspects of headache in a university undergraduate population in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, W M; Sawalha, A F; Zyoud, S H; Al-Jabi, S W; Shamseh, F F B; Khalaf, H S

    2010-04-01

    Headache is one of the most common complaints in clinical practice. Few studies regarding headache in university students have been conducted in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence, clinical characteristics, triggering factors and treatment options of headaches in university undergraduate students in Palestine/Middle East. Data were collected by interviewing a sample of 1900 students. The Headache Assessment Quiz was used to measure quality and severity of headache and to collect data on triggering factors and symptom management. A total of 1808 (95.2%) reported having at least one headache episode in the previous year. A positive family history of headache was found in 40% of students. The prevalence rate of frequent headache (tow or more episodes/month) was found in 1096 (60.9%) students; 613 women (55.9%). Of those having frequent headaches, 228 (20.8%) experienced moderate to severe episodes, 341 (31.2%) had pulsating, throbbing and pounding pain, and 274 (25%) had unilateral pain. The most common triggering factors among students with frequent headaches were: tension/stress (78.2%) and sleep deprivation (75.4%). Less than 5% of students sought medical assistance during headache episodes. Most students (79.1%) reported self-therapy with a single analgesic (53.4%), herbs (10.2%) or combination (15.5%), while 20.9% reported using no medication of any type to decrease pain. Paracetamol (48.5%) followed by ibuprofen (4.9%) were the most commonly used non-prescription analgesic drugs. Headache is a prevalent symptom in the college age population. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence of specific types of headaches. Healthcare providers are required to educate this population as well as to assist students in properly diagnosing and treating headache types.

  12. Comprehensive Application of the International Classification of Headache Disorders Third Edition, Beta Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Kun; Cho, Soo-Jin; Kim, Byung-Su; Sohn, Jong-Hee; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Cha, Myoung-Jin; Song, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jae-Moon; Park, Jeong Wook; Chu, Min Kyung; Park, Kwang-Yeol; Moon, Heui-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and usefulness of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition, beta version (ICHD-3β), and compare the differences with the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-2). Consecutive first-visit patients were recruited from 11 headache clinics in Korea. Headache classification was performed in accordance with ICHD-3β. The characteristics of headaches were analyzed and the feasibility and usefulness of this version was assessed by the proportion of unclassified headache disorders compared with ICHD-2. A total of 1,627 patients were enrolled (mean age, 47.4±14.7 yr; 62.8% female). Classification by ICHD-3β was achieved in 97.8% of headache patients, whereas 90.0% could be classified by ICHD-2. Primary headaches (n=1,429, 87.8%) were classified as follows: 697 migraines, 445 tension-type headaches, 22 cluster headaches, and 265 other primary headache disorders. Secondary headache or painful cranial neuropathies/other facial pains were diagnosed in 163 patients (10.0%). Only 2.2% were not classified by ICHD-3β. The main reasons for missing classifications were insufficient information (1.6%) or absence of suitable classification (0.6%). The diagnoses differed from those using ICHD-2 in 243 patients (14.9%). Among them, 165 patients were newly classified from unclassified with ICHD-2 because of the relaxation of the previous strict criteria or the introduction of a new diagnostic category. ICHD-3β would yield a higher classification rate than its previous version, ICHD-2. ICHD-3β is applicable in clinical practice for first-visit headache patients of a referral hospital.

  13. A case of iatrogenic ureteric injury presenting with headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phipps, Simon; Roder, Martin A; Aslan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman was referred to the renal outpatient clinic with a headache caused by severe hypertension. She had given birth 3 months previously by emergency caesarean section after a labor complicated by uterine rupture. She had delivered by caesarean section twice previously....

  14. Headaches and Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confusion . Headache. 2011;51(9):1419–1425. Verhagen AP, Damen L, Berger MY, et al. Behavioral treatments ... health: patterns of use in the United States . Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2009;15(9): ...

  15. Chronic Daily Headache in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of chronic daily headache (CDH, and its impact and related medication use or overuse in adolescents were examined at the Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, and other centers in Taiwan.

  16. Headache after carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suller Marti, A; Bellosta Diago, E; Velázquez Benito, A; Tejero Juste, C; Santos Lasaosa, S

    2017-04-18

    Headache after carotid artery stenting is a headache with onset during the procedure or in the first few hours after it, and where there is no evidence to suggest a complication of that procedure. The purpose of this study is to describe the main features of these headaches based on our clinical experience. Observational prospective study of a sample of patients undergoing carotid artery stenting at Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano Blesa, in Zaragoza, Spain. We recorded sociodemographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, carotid artery disease, and history of primary headache; data were gathered using structured interviews completed before and 24hours after the procedure. We included 56 patients (mean age 67±9.52 years); 84% were men. Twelve patients (21.4%) experienced headache, 83.3% of whom were men; mean age was 60.58±9.31 years. Headache appeared within the first 6hours in 7 patients (58.4%) and during the procedure in 4 (33.3%). Pain lasted less than 10minutes in 4 patients (33.3%) and between 10 and 120minutes in 5 (41.7%). Headache affected the frontotemporal area in 7 patients (58.3%); 7 patients (58.3%) described pain as unilateral. It was oppressive in 8 patients (66.7%) and of moderate intensity in 6 (50%). Nine patients (75%) required no analgesics. We found no statistically significant associations with any of the variables except for age (P=.007; t test). In our sample, headache after carotid artery stenting was mild to moderate in intensity, unilateral, oppressive, and short-lasting. Further studies are necessary to gain a deeper knowledge of its characteristics and associated risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Headache yesterday in Karnataka state, India: prevalence, impact and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Timothy J; Rao, Girish N; Kulkarni, Girish B; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Stovner, Lars J

    2016-12-01

    The Global Campaign against Headache has pioneered evaluation of the prevalence and impact of headache on the preceding day ("headache yesterday") as a new approach to the estimation of headache-attributed burden, avoiding recall error. We report its application in Karnataka State, southern India. In a door-to-door survey, biologically unrelated adults (aged 18-65 years) were randomly sampled from urban and rural areas in and around Bengaluru and interviewed by trained researchers using a validated, structured questionnaire. Enquiry into headache applied ICHD-II diagnostic criteria and included questions about headache on the day preceding the interview (headache yesterday [HY]). There were 2329 participants (participation proportion 92.6 %; males 1141 [49.0 %], females 1188 [51.0 %]; mean age 38.0 [±12.7] years; 1103 [47.4 %] from rural areas, 1226 [52.6 %] urban). HY was reported by 138 participants (males 33 [2.9 %], females 105 [8.8 %]): the 1-day prevalence of headache was 5.9 %. Mean duration of HY was 7.0 ± 8.5 h, so that 1.7 % of the population (5.9 % * 7.0/24), on average, had headache at any moment in time yesterday. Mean intensity on a scale of 1-3 was 2.0 [±0.8]. Lost productivity due to HY was reported by 83.3 % of participants with HY: 37.7 % able to do less than half of what they had planned and 13.0 % able to do nothing. Productivity loss at population level (being the productivity loss within the entire adult population, every single day, attributable to headache) was 3.0 %. This method of enquiry, free from recall error, confirmed a very high level of headache-attributed burden in Karnataka: previous estimates based on 3-month recall may even have been too low. Until another study is done in the country, these are the best data for all India. They demonstrate need for action nationwide to mitigate this burden, and correct action will ultimately almost certainly be cost-saving.

  18. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Problems of Geriatric Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviyan Ghandehari

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no difference in clinical characteristics of headache between old individuals and younger’s. However, differential diagnosis of migrainous aura and transient ischemic attacks may be difficult in old people who frequently have vascular risk factors. Old people have less headache than the young’s. Chronic tension headache is the most common primary type of headache in the elderly. Chronic paroxismal hemicrania and headache due to giant cell arterities are specified to the elderly, Secondary headaches; e.g headache due to cervical spondylosis and brain tumors is more common in the old people than young. Old people poorly tolerate headache drugs, i.e. Ergotamine, Triptans and Tricyclics. Trigeminal neuralgia is often seen in the elderly and is resistant to medical therapy in the old people. Headache could be the main manifestation of depression in old people. Headaches secondary to disorders of internal medicine; i.e. hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have importance in the elderly. Subarachnoid hemorrhage is considered in every old person with sudden onset explosive headache especially in cases with decreased consciousness and neck stiffness. Old individuals use a collection of different drugs due to suffering various diseases and commonly have drug induced headaches. Neuroimaging should be performed in a geriatric patient with new onset sever headache without medical disorder or consumption of drug induced headache. Some of the old people suffer of multiple types of headache.

  19. "WHICH Headache to Investigate, WHEN, and HOW?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, K

    2016-11-01

    Headache is a common problem in medical practice. The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta) 1 divides all headaches into two broad categories. Most headaches seen in practice belong to the category of primary headaches, where there is no underlying structural cause identifiable. Less than 10% headaches in practice belong to the category of secondary headaches where there is an underlying condition, that can sometimes be ominous and life-threatening. Fear of missing a treatable serious secondary headache disorder is the most important reason why we need to investigate headache patients. There is no dilemma in investigating the patient when the clinical presentation is straightforward but when the headache presents differently or with 'red flags,' it can sometimes be quite challenging to order the right investigation and rapidly arrive at the right diagnosis. This article looks at some of the elusive headache scenarios and outlines an approach that addresses the issue of 'appropriate' investigation in the headache patient. With advancing technology and increasing expertise, the author feels it is time now to do away with the practice of ordering an exhaustive battery of tests in all headache patients. With experience, clinicians can learn to choose tests judiciously and order specific tests based on a working diagnosis. As the title suggests, knowing 'WHEN to order WHAT test in WHICH headache patient? ' forms the theme of this article. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  20. What's in children's backpacks: foods brought from home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kristie L; Must, Aviva; Eliasziw, Misha; Folta, Sara C; Goldberg, Jeanne

    2014-09-01

    Forty-one percent of elementary schoolchildren bring lunch to school on any given day. Forty-five percent bring snacks. Surprisingly, little is known about the foods and beverages they bring. This cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the GREEN (Growing Right: Eco-friendly Eating and Nutrition) Project Lunch Box Study sought to characterize foods and beverages brought from home to school by elementary schoolchildren and compare the quality of packed lunches with National School Lunch Program standards and packed snacks with Child and Adult Care Food Program requirements. Lunches and snacks from 626 elementary schoolchildren were assessed and evaluated using digital photography and a supplemental food checklist. Food and beverage types most likely to be provided for lunch were sandwiches (59%), snack foods (42%), fruit (34%), desserts (28%), water (28%), and sugar-sweetened beverages (24%). Twenty-seven percent of lunches met at least three of five National School Lunch Program standards. At snack, snack foods (62%), desserts (35%), and sugar-sweetened beverages (35%) were more common than fruits (30%), dairy foods (10%), and vegetables (3%). Only 4% of snacks met two of four Child and Adult Care Food Program standards. Future research is needed to understand the multiple determinants of food-packing behavior, including constraints faced by families. School wellness policies should consider initiatives that work collaboratively with parents to improve the quality of foods brought from home. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tension-Type Headache - The Normal and Most Prevalent Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2018-02-01

    Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most prevalent form of primary headache in the general population but paradoxically the least studied headache. In this article, the epidemiology and diagnostic challenges of TTH are presented and discussed. The typical features and differential diagnosis of TTH are highlighted and the situations more likely to raise doubts are discussed. A structured approach to the patient and a better comprehension of the very frequent coexistence of migraine and medication overuse headache in the clinical population are emphasized. According to the IHS classification, several diagnoses should be applied but still some clinicians prefer to apply a single combined diagnosis in the severely affected patients, namely chronic migraine. Such uneven practice may complicate the diagnostic comparability and the entire management of TTH. The present treatment strategies for TTH are summarized and hopefully an increased awareness of TTH can translate into better quality of care and a more specific diagnosis and treatment for the numerous TTH sufferers. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  2. Carbachol induces headache, but not migraine-like attacks, in patients with migraine without aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, H W; Wienecke, T; Olesen, J

    2009-01-01

    Schytz HW, Wienecke T, Olesen J & Ashina M. Carbachol induces headache, but not migraine-like attacks, in patients with migraine without aura. Cephalalgia 2009. London. ISSN 0333-1024Carbachol induces headache in healthy subjects, but the migraine eliciting effect of carbachol has not previously...... been studied. We hypothesized that the cholinomimetic agonist carbachol would induce headache and migraine-like attacks in migraineurs. Carbachol (3 microg/kg) or placebo was randomly infused into 18 patients with migraine without aura in a double-blind crossover study. Headache was scored on a verbal...

  3. Application of ICHD-II Criteria in a Headache Clinic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhao; Di, Hai; Dai, Wei; Liang, Jingyao; Pan, Meiyan; Zhang, Mingjie; Zhou, Zhibin; Li, Zheng; Liu, Ruozhuo; Yu, Shengyuan

    2012-01-01

    Background China has the huge map and the largest population in the world. Previous studies on the prevalence and classification of headaches were conducted based on the general population, however, similar studies among the Chinese outpatient population are scarce. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of 1843 headache patients enrolled in a North China headache clinic of the General Hospital for Chinese People's Liberation Army from October 2011 to May 2012, with the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd Edition (ICHD-II). Methods and Results Personal interviews were carried out and a detailed questionnaire was used to collect medical records including age, sex and headache characteristics. Patients came from 28 regions of China with the median age of 40.9 (9–80) years and the female/male ratio of 1.67/1. The primary headaches (78.4%) were classified as the following: migraine (39.1%), tension-type headache (32.5%), trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (5.3%) and other primary headache (1.5%). Among the rest patients, 12.9% were secondary headaches, 5.9% were cranial neuralgias and 2.5% were unspecified or not elsewhere classified. Fourteen point nine percent (275/1843) were given an additional diagnosis of chronic daily headache, including medication-overuse headache (MOH, 49.5%), chronic tension-type headache (CTTH, 32.7%) and chronic migraine (CM, 13.5%). The visual analogue scale (VAS) score of TTH with MOH was significantly higher than that of CTTH (6.8±2.0 vs 5.6±2.0, Pheadache clinic outpatients in a tertiary hospital of North China that migraine is the most common diagnosis. Furthermore, most headaches in this patient population can be classified using ICHD-II criteria. PMID:23239993

  4. Headache during airplane travel ("airplane headache"): first case in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kararizou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Evangelos; Paraskevas, George P; Vassilopoulou, Sofia D; Naoumis, Dimitrios; Kararizos, Grigoris; Spengos, Konstantinos

    2011-08-01

    Headache related to airplane flights is rare. We describe a 37-year-old female patient with multiple intense, jabbing headache episodes over the last 3 years that occur exclusively during airplane flights. The pain manifests during take-off and landing, and is located always in the left retro-orbital and frontotemporal area. It is occasionally accompanied by dizziness, but no additional symptoms occur. Pain intensity diminishes and disappears after 15-20 min. Apart from occasional dizziness, no other symptoms occur. The patient has a history of tension-type headache and polycystic ovaries. Blood tests and imaging revealed no abnormalities. Here, we present the first case in Greece. We review the current literature on this rare syndrome and discuss on possible pathophysiology and the investigation of possible co-factors such as anxiety and depression.

  5. [Chronic daily headache in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Cuisset, J-M; Vallée, L

    2008-12-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH) affects 2-4% of adolescent females and 0.8-2% of adolescent males. Chronic daily headache is diagnosed when headaches occur more than 4h/day, 15 headache days per month or more, over a period of 3 consecutive months, without an underlying pathology. It is manifested by severe intermittent, migraine-like headaches as well as by chronic baseline headaches. Both Silberstein-Lipton criteria and the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) can be used to classify chronic daily headache in children and adolescents. Chronic daily headache is classified into four diagnostic categories: transformed (Silberstein-Lipton criteria)/chronic (ICHD) migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Children and adolescents with chronic daily headache frequently have sleep disturbance, pain at other sites, dizziness, medication-overuse headache, and a psychiatric comorbidity (anxiety and mood disorders). Chronic daily headache frequently results in school absence. Successful approaches to treatment include reassurance, education, use of preventative medication, avoidance of analgesics, and helping the child return to a functional daily routine and a regular school schedule.

  6. Chalenges and opportunities brought by foreign direct investments in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Barbosa Silva Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the challenges and opportunities brought by foreign direct investment in general and in Brazil particularly. The study is based on literature review and statistical data show that foreign direct investments have important effects on the business environment of the host country as they bring productivity improvement, formal employment and income generation, increase on the export level, establishment of firms with high innovation standards and the capacity to improve the quality of national products, with some degree of technology diffusion, increases in the network of suppliers and possible buyers, and the introduction of new strategies of business management, logistics as well as other ways of modernizing industrial structures. It concludes that the major benefits from foreign direct investments are the change on local companies strategies. The study also shows that investments are concentrated on most developed areas and that there is no specific strategy for investment attraction to the less economically favored areas of Brazil.

  7. CHALENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES BROUGHT BY FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVELINE BARBOSA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the challenges and opportunities brought by foreign directinvestment in general and in Brazil particularly. The study is based on literature review andstatistical data show that foreign direct investments have important effects on the businessenvironment of the host country as they bring productivity improvement, formal employmentand income generation, increase on the export level, establishment of firms with highinnovation standards and the capacity to improve the quality of national products, with somedegree of technology diffusion, increases in the network of suppliers and possible buyers, andthe introduction of new strategies of business management, logistics as well as other ways ofmodernizing industrial structures. It concludes that the major benefits from foreign directinvestments are the change on local companies strategies. The study also shows thatinvestments are concentrated on most developed areas and that there is no specific strategy forinvestment attraction to the less economically favored areas of Brazil

  8. Psychological functioning in headache sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasik, F; Blanchard, E B; Arena, J G; Teders, S J; Teevan, R C; Rodichok, L D

    1982-05-01

    The present study examined the psychological test responses of 99 headache sufferers and 30 matched nonheadache controls. Headache subjects were of four types: migraine (n = 26), muscle contraction (n = 39), combined migraine-muscle contract ion (n = 22), and cluster (n = 12). Measures consisted of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, a modified hostility scale derived from the MMPI, Back Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Autonomic Perception Questionnaire, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Social Readjustment Rating Scale, Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist, Schalling-Sifneos Scale, Need for Achievement, and Hostile Press. Significant differences were found on five clinical scales of the MMPI--1, 2, 3, 6, and 7. Of the non-MMPI scales, only the Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist and Trait Anxiety Inventory were significant. Control subjects revealed no significant findings on any tests. The headache groups fell along a continuum, beginning with cluster subjects, who showed only minimal distress, continuing through migraine and combined migraine-muscle contraction, and ending with muscle contraction subjects, who revealed the greatest degree of psychological disturbance. However, none of the headache groups could be characterized by marked elevations on any of the psychological tests, which contrasts with past research findings. It is suggested that the present results may be more representative of the "typical" headache sufferer.

  9. Female cluster headache in the United States of America: what are the gender differences? Results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Todd D; Fishman, Royce S

    2012-06-15

    headache does not appear to alter fertility rates in female cluster headache sufferers. m. Personal burden: cluster headache causes significantly more personal burden in women than men with more loss of employment and/or need of disability, as well as more homebound days. Overall women and men with cluster headache have a similar presentation but there are some distinct differences that have been suggested in smaller studies of female cluster headache that we have now verified, while some of our study conclusions have not been shown previously. One major limitation to the study is a lack of validation of diagnosis. A substantial false positive cluster headache diagnosis rate, especially in females, cannot be excluded by the study methods utilized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tinnitus Patients with Comorbid Headaches: The Influence of Headache Type and Laterality on Tinnitus Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Langguth

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBoth clinical experience and clinical studies suggest a relationship between tinnitus and headache. Here, we aimed to investigate the influence of comorbid headache type and headache laterality on tinnitus characteristics.MethodThe Tinnitus Research Initiative database was screened for patients of the Tinnitus Center of the University Regensburg who reported comorbid headaches. These patients were contacted to complete additional validated questionnaires. Based on these data, patients were categorized according to headache type and headache laterality, and their clinical characteristics were compared with tinnitus patients, who did not report comorbid headaches.ResultsData from 193 patients with tinnitus and comorbid headaches were compared with those from 765 tinnitus patients without comorbid headaches. Tinnitus patients with comorbid headache have higher scores in tinnitus questionnaires, a lower quality of life and more frequently comorbidities such as painful sensation to loud sounds, vertigo, pain (neck, temporomandibular, and general, and depressive symptoms when compared with tinnitus patients without headaches. Both headache laterality and headache type interact with the degree of comorbidity with higher impairment in patients with left-sided and bilateral headaches as well as in patients with migraine or cluster headache.ConclusionThe observed increased impairment in tinnitus patients with comorbid headache can be explained as an additive effect of both disorders on health-related quality of life. The more frequent occurrence of further comorbidities suggests a generally increased amplification of sensory signals in a subset of tinnitus patients with comorbid headaches.

  11. Headache in children with Chiari I malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldo, Irene; Tangari, Marta; Mardari, Rodica; Perissinotto, Egle; Sartori, Stefano; Gatta, Michela; Calderone, Milena; Battistella, Pier Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Headache is the most common symptom of Chiari 1 malformation, a condition characterized by the herniation of cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. However, the headache pattern of cases with Chiari 1 malformations is not well defined in the literature, especially in children. The aim of this retrospective chart review was to evaluate the frequency and the characteristics of headache in children with Chiari 1 malformation at initial evaluation and during follow up. Forty-five cases with tonsillar ectopia were selected among 9947 cases under 18 years of age who underwent neuroimaging between 2002 and 2010. A semistructured clinical interview (mean follow-up: 5.2 years) was conducted. Headache was classified according to the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Possible associations between clinical picture, in particular headache pattern, but also other signs and symptoms attributable to Chiari 1 malformation, and the extent of tonsillar ectopia were found for 3 different groups: those with borderline (headache, and 9/33 (27%) of those patients (5 with mild and 4 with severe tonsillar ectopia) reported headache attributed to Chiari 1 malformation. In our studied pediatric population, the most common symptom for cases diagnosed with Chiari 1 malformation was headache, and headache attributed to Chiari 1 malformation was the most common headache pattern in patients with Chiari 1 malformation. The presence of headache attributed to Chiari 1 malformation along with 3 other signs or symptoms of Chiari 1 malformation were highly predictive of severe tonsillar ectopia. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  12. Frequency of Migraine Headaches in Patients With Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Brinder; Whipple, Mary O; Tepper, Stewart J; Mohabbat, Arya B; Stillman, Mark; Vincent, Ann

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of migraine headache in a large cohort of patients with fibromyalgia using a brief migraine headache-screening tool. Several studies report a high prevalence of fibromyalgia among patients with migraine headaches, but there is a dearth of research evaluating the frequency of migraine headaches in patients with fibromyalgia, despite clinical observations suggesting that migraine headaches are common in patients with fibromyalgia. This was a cross-sectional survey study. Patients (N = 3717) with a previous diagnosis of fibromyalgia who were members of the Mayo Clinic Fibromyalgia Registry were contacted by electronic survey and asked to complete a brief demographic and medical history questionnaire and the validated ID-Migraine screener. A total of 1730 patients (46.5%) completed the electronic survey. The majority of participants were white (97.2%), female (92.5%), with a mean age of 56.2 (±13.1) years. Of the respondents, 966 (55.8%) met criteria for migraine headaches. Hypertension (309 [32.3%] vs. 294 [40.1%], P = .004), asthma (312 [32.5%] vs. 189 [25.9%], P = .011), irritable bowel syndrome (520 [54.6%] vs. 348 [47.6], P = .017), chronic fatigue syndrome (486 [50.7%] vs. 271 [37.1], P fibromyalgia. Clinicians who care for either population must be aware that these conditions commonly overlap and can significantly increase a patient's cumulative disease burden. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  13. Oxygen treatment of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anja S; Barloese, Mads C J; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Our aim was to review the existing literature to document oxygen's therapeutic effect on cluster headache. METHOD: A PubMed search resulted in 28 hits, and from these and their references we found in total 11 relevant studies. We included six studies that investigated the efficacy......, but not a prophylactic effect. Despite the fact that only a few high-quality RCT studies are available, oxygen treatment is close to an ideal treatment because it is effective and safe. However, sufferers of cluster headache do not always have access to oxygen because of logistic and financial concerns....

  14. Noninvasive neuromodulation in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Láinez, Miguel J A; Jensen, Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuromodulation is an alternative in the management of medically intractable cluster headache patients. Most of the techniques are invasive, but in the last 2 years, some studies using a noninvasive device have been presented. The objective of this article is to review the data......: In the last decade, invasive neuromodulation treatments have demonstrated good efficacy in cluster refractory patients. Noninvasive approaches such as the noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation have shown efficacy in one trial and could be an easier alternative in the management of this debilitating headache. We...

  15. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with chronic tension-type headache: results of a headache clinic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paolo; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Faroni, Jessica; Malpezzi, Maria G; Cesarino, Francesco; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2006-04-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the rates, pattern, and presence of predictors of complementary and alternative medicine use in a clinical population of patients with chronic tension-type headache. The use of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of headaches is a growing phenomenon about which little is known. A total of 110 chronic tension-type headache patients attending a headache clinic participated in a physician-administered structured interview designed to gather information on complementary and alternative medicine use. Past use of complementary and alternative therapies was reported by 40% of the patients surveyed (22.7% in the previous year). Chronic tension-type headache patients prefer complementary and alternative practitioner-administered physical treatments to self-treatments, the most frequently used being chiropractic (21.9%), acupuncture (17.8%), and massage (17.8%). Only 41.1% of the patients perceived complementary and alternative therapies to be beneficial. The most common source of recommendation of complementary and alternative medicine was a friend or relative (41.1%). Most of the chronic tension-type headache patients used complementary and alternative treatment as a specific intervention for their headache (77.3%). Almost 60% of complementary and alternative medicine users had not informed their medical doctors of their use of complementary and alternative medicine. The most common reasons given for choosing to use a complementary or alternative therapy was the "potential improvement of headache" it offered (45.4%). The patients who had used more complementary and alternative treatments were found to be those recording a higher lifetime number of visits to conventional medical doctors, those with a comorbid psychiatric disorder, those enjoying a higher (household) income, and those who had never tried a preventive pharmacological treatment. Our findings suggest that headache-clinic chronic tension-type headache

  16. Nitroglycerin-induced headache is not dependent on histamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Olesen, J

    1994-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of migraine pain have not yet been clarified. Monoamine and the peptide neurotransmitters involved in neurogenic inflammation do not cause significant head pain. Our previous studies of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and histamine-induced headaches have suggested that nitric...

  17. Patient's medicines brought to hospital: an overlooked resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, G J

    1993-10-27

    To quantify potential cost advantages and identify practical safeguards required for utilising patients own medicines while in hospital, and returning them on discharge. All medicines brought in by patients in two wards of a geriatric assessment and rehabilitation unit at Auckland Hospital were examined by the pharmacist, and their suitability for re-issue assessed. Medicines were regarded as suitable for use where they could be positively identified, had been dispensed within 3 months of admission, or if packed in foil, provided the expiry date and manufacturer identification were on the foil. Medicines (260 items) totalling $2,976, assessed over a 6 month period, were regarded as suitable for use by the patient, with a mean value of $11.36 per patient. Patients own medicines used within the hospital with a unit-of-issue distribution system, and taken home by them on discharge, would provide appreciable savings for the hospital medicine budget and reduction in waste of the overall health dollar.

  18. Biopsychosocial correlates of headache: what predicts pediatric headache occurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner-Herwig, Birgit; Morris, Lisette; Heinrich, Marion

    2008-04-01

    The study aims at identifying biopsychosocial risk factors for headache in children and adolescents aged 9 to 14. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomly drawn population sample of families with children in the above age group. Questionnaires were mailed to parents and children (n=6400), on whose data this report is based. The objective of the study was to establish a profile of risk factors regarding the occurrence of headache. Headache, as the criterion variable, was ranked according to its frequency in the last 6 months (no, rare, monthly, weekly). Independent variables came from 6 domains: health, socioeconomic, family, school, leisure/peers, and psychological factors. Data analysis was conducted via multinomial regression analyses in a 4-step strategy: (1) analysis of age and sex as control variables; (2) analysis of single variables from each of the 6 domains (controlled for age and sex); (3) domain analyses; and (4) comprehensive analysis including all significant variables from the domain analyses. Age and sex explained a small but significant proportion of the variance in headache frequency (3.5%). All health variables, several socioeconomic, and most family- and school-related as well as the psychological variables demonstrated a significant association with the criterion in the single variable models. However, only a few of the variables related to leisure/peer activities reached significance. The domain model comprising health variables explained 27% of the variance, achieving the best model fit, followed by the psychological model with 13%. The comprehensive model was able to explain one third of the total variance in headache occurrence. Contrary to our hypothesis, the addition of psychosocial variables to health-related predictors did not markedly improve model fit.

  19. Headaches: Reduce Stress to Prevent the Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent headaches. Relaxation techniques can reduce symptoms of stress, including headaches. Making time for pleasurable activities, such as listening to music, dancing, playing a sport, reading a book or playing with your pet ...

  20. Cluster-like headache aura status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langedijk, M; van der Naalt, J; Luijckx, GJ; De Keyser, J

    We describe a patient with successive attacks (40 to 90 minutes) of cluster-like headache associated with aphasia, and contralateral hemihypesthesia and hemiplegia. The condition can best be described as cluster-like headache aura status.

  1. Comorbidities associated with epilepsy and headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalles P. Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Comorbidities are often associated with chronic neurological diseases, such as headache and epilepsy. OBJECTIVES: To identify comorbidities associated with epilepsy and headaches, and to determine possible drug interactions. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire with information about type of epilepsy/headache, medical history, and medication was administered to 80 adult subjects (40 with epilepsy and 40 with chronic headache. RESULTS: Patients with epilepsy had an average of two comorbidities and those with headache of three. For both groups, hypertension was the most prevalent. On average, patients with epilepsy were taking two antiepileptic medications and those with headache were taking only one prophylactic medication. Regarding concomitant medications, patients with epilepsy were in use, on average, of one drug and patients with headache of two. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with chronic neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and headaches, have a high number of comorbidities and they use many medications. This may contribute to poor adherence and interactions between different medications.

  2. Headaches. More than just sinusitis; Kopfschmerzen. Mehr als nur Sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauth, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Goettingen (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

    2011-09-15

    Headaches are among the commonest somatic complaints seen in clinical practice. The International Headache Society differentiates about 190 types of headaches. This article focuses on the variety of secondary headaches with a radiologically identifiable cause. (orig.)

  3. Temporomandibular disorders, facial pain, and headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Steven D

    2012-05-01

    Headaches and facial pain are common in the general population. In many cases, facial pain can be resultant from temporomandibular joint disorders. Studies have identified an association between headaches and temporomandibular joint disorders suggesting the possibility of shared pathophysiologic mechanisms of these 2 maladies. The aim of this paper is to elucidate potential commonalities of these disorders and to provide a brief overview of an examination protocol that may benefit the headache clinician in daily practice. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  4. Epidemiology of concurrent headache and sleep problems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Nunu; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Barloese, Mads

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: There are no previous epidemiologic studies on concurrent headache and sleep problems (HSP). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of HSP in Denmark, broadly characterize those with HSP, and examine associations between HSP and socioeconomic/lifestyle factors. METHODS......: A total of 129,150 randomly selected individuals were invited to participate in the Danish National Health Survey 2010. Respondents were asked about headache, sleep problems, depression and anxiety in the last two weeks, health-related lifestyle and quality of life (SF-12). Socioeconomic data were...... retrieved from national registers. Prevalence proportions were adjusted for stratified sampling and non-response. Regression analyses examined associations between HSP and socioeconomic/lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Of 68,518 respondents, 16.3% reported only headache, 21.1% only sleep problems, and 18.1% HSP...

  5. Acute treatment of migraine headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2010-04-01

    Optimum acute treatment of migraine requires prevention of headache as a top priority. Recognition of the multitude of migraine presentations, the frequency of total headache attacks, and number of days of headache disability are critical. Successful treatment requires excellent patient-clinician communication enhancing confidence and mutual trust based on patient needs and preferences. Optimum management of acute migraine nearly always requires pharmacologic treatment for rapid resolution. Migraine-specific triptans, dihydroergotamine, and several antiinflammatories have substantial empirical clinical efficacy. Older nonspecific drugs, particularly butalbital and opioids, contribute to medication overuse headache and are to be avoided. Clinicians should utilize evidence-based acute migraine-specific therapy stressing the imperative acute treatment goal of early intervention, but not too often with the correct drug, formulation, and dose. This therapy needs to provide cost-effective fast results, meaningful to the patient while minimizing the need for additional drugs. Migraine-ACT evaluates 2-hour pain freedom with return to normal function, comfort with treatment, and consistency of response. Employ a thoroughly educated patient, formulary, testimonials, stratification, and rational cotherapy against the race to central sensitization for optimum outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  6. SOME OPHTHALMOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HEADACHE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-04-10

    Apr 10, 1971 ... during prolonged reading or writing, are common contri- butory factors. Nevertheless, many patients do benefit by having their refractive errors corrected. ... blocking of the ipsilateral nostril, and flushing of the same side of the face. Kunkle and Anderson' found that in 90 patients with cluster headaches, ...

  7. Oxygen therapy for cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anja S; Barloese, Mads Cj; Lund, Nunu Lt

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to investigate possible differences in effect between three types of masks in the acute treatment of cluster headache (CH). Patients and methods Fifty-seven CH patients according to ICHD-II-criteria participated in a single-blinded, semi-randomized, placebo...

  8. Blunt Head Trauma and Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Chelse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from New York Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital examined whether having an isolated headache following minor blunt head trauma was suggestive of traumatic brain injury (TBI among a large cohort of children 2-18 years of age.

  9. Tension type headaches: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A detailed history increases the chances of a correct diagnosis being made, and subsequent effective management. The patient history should include: .... Stress. A positive association between stress intensity and headache frequency was demonstrated in a longitudinal, population- based study on more than 5 000 ...

  10. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of headaches among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    type headache, 36 (2.4%) for migraine headache, and 133 (8.9%) had nonclassified headaches. The most frequent headache‑associated symptoms are photophia – 100 students (6.7%), phonophobia – 159 students (10.6%), while 62 students ...

  11. Some opthalmological aspects of headache | Macgregor | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The causes of headache are briefly summarized. The ophthalmologist is often consulted about headaches being due to 'the eyes', but although interference with clear vision may occasionally cause headaches, by far the commonest cause of pain in and around rhe eyes is some type of neuralgia affecting rhe first division of ...

  12. Headache associated with cough : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordenier, Ann; De Hertogh, Willem; De Keyser, Jacques; Versijpt, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Headache only triggered by coughing is a rather uncommon condition. The aim of the present review is to present an overview of the diagnosis, clinical characteristics, pathophysiology and treatment of both primary and symptomatic cough headache and discuss other relevant headache disorders affected

  13. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headaches and hormones: What's the connection? Being female has some real health advantages, but not when it comes to headaches — particularly ... a relationship between headaches and hormonal changes. The hormones estrogen (ES-truh-jen) and progesterone (pro-JES- ...

  14. Association between headache and temporomandibular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelhuda, Amira Mokhtar; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Sang-Yun; Kim, Young-Kyun

    2017-12-01

    Headaches are one of the most common conditions associated with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). In the present paper, we evaluated the relationship between headache and TMD, determined whether headache influences the symptoms of TMD, and reported two cases of TMD accompanied by headache. Our practical experience and a review of the literature suggested that headache increases the frequency and intensity of pain parameters, thus complicating dysfunctional diseases in both diagnostic and treatment phases. Therefore, early and multidisciplinary treatment of TMD is necessary to avoid the overlap of painful events that could result in pain chronicity.

  15. A Survey of Headache Medicine Physicians on the Likeability of Headaches and Their Personal Headache History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Randolph W; Ghosh, Kamalika

    2016-03-01

    Two prior studies have shown an increased prevalence of migraine among physicians who are headache medicine specialists (HMS). There have been no studies of the prevalence of other headache disorders among HMS. A prior survey showed that neurologists like to treat some headaches more than others but there has not been a similar survey of HMS. The aim of the survey was to learn more about the prevalence of headaches among HMS and which headache disorders they like to treat. An email survey was sent to 749 physician members of the American Headache Society who were asked to respond to the following statement using a 5-point Likert scale (from 1, strongly disagree to 5, strongly agree): "I like to treat patients with the following types of headaches or syndromes." They were asked, "Have you personally suffered from any of the following at any time during your life: episodic migraine (EM), chronic migraine (CM), refractory migraine (RM), episodic cluster (EC), chronic cluster (CC), new daily persistent headache (NDPH), and postconcussion syndrome (PCS)." The response rate was 15.8% (n = 118) with a mean age of 51.4 years, 64.4% males, and 85.6% neurologists. HMS reported likeability for treating disorders in rank order as follows: EM (mean = 4.69, SD = 0.61); CM (mean = 4.20, SD = 0.94); RM (mean = 3.62, SD = 1.17); EC (mean = 4.37, SD = 0.80); CC (mean = 3.68, SD = 1.10); NDPH (mean = 3.52, SD = 1.21); and PCS (mean = 3.66, SD = 1.18). The lifetime prevalence of disorders was as follows: EM, 69.5% (85.7% in females and 60.5% in males); CM, 13.6% (19% in females and 10.5% in males); RM, .9% (2.4% females and 0% males); EC, 1.7% (0% females and 2.6% males); CC, 0%; NDPH, 0%, and PCS, 4.2% (7.1% females and 2.6% males). HMS with a personal history of EM (mean = 4.73, SD = 0.51) showed a significant preference (t130  = 7.30, P headaches (mean = 3.90, SD = 0.77). HMS preferred to treat some

  16. Challenges in developing drugs for primary headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther; Hargreaves, Richard; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-01-01

    This review considers the history of drug development in primary headaches and discusses challenges to the discovery of innovative headache therapeutics. Advances in headache genetics have yet to translate to new classes of therapeutics and there are currently no clear predictive human biomarkers...... for any of the primary headaches that can guide preventative drug discovery and development. Primary headache disorder subtypes despite common phenotypic presentation are undoubtedly heterogeneous in their pathophysiology as judged by the variability of response to headache medicines. Sub......, despite having promising effects in basic pain models, have not delivered efficacy in the clinic. Future efforts may triage novel physiological mediators using human experimental models of headache pain to support drug discovery strategies that target active pathways pharmacologically....

  17. Characteristics of headache and its relationship with disease severity in patients with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Dürdane; Barut, Hatice; Duygu, Fazilet; Çevik, Betül; Kurt, Semiha; Sümbül, Orhan

    2018-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a fatal, tick-borne disease. The classic clinical presentation of CCHF is characterized by sudden onset of high fever, chills, and severe headache. There are no previous reports on the characteristics of headaches caused by CCHF. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between CCHF-induced headache and the clinical course of the disease. We included 60 patients with headache diagnosed with CCHF; they were divided into two groups: group 1 included patients with hospital stay 7 days. The control group included 43 viral pneumonia patients with headache. Patients described the characteristics of headaches and also self-rated the severity with a numeric pain scale that classified headache as either mild or severe. In the group with CCHF, 66.7% of the reported headaches met criteria for diagnosis of migraine. This ratio was significantly higher than that in the control group (37.5%). The headache severity scores in group 1 were lower than those in group 2. The hospitalization length was shorter (p=0.004) and the platelet levels were higher in CCHF patients with mild headache compared with CCHF patients with severe headache (p=0.005). CCHF patients had more often and severe headaches than the controls. The severity of headache may be associated with the severity of vascular endothelial damage, vasodilatation, and abnormal release of inflammatory cytokines in CCHF similar in migraine. Most CCHF patients experienced migraine-like headaches, suggesting that cerebral vessel involvement might be important in both CCHF and migraine.

  18. Characteristics of headache in relation to the manifestation of Susac syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Obelienienė

    Full Text Available Susac syndrome is characterized by a clinical triad of encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusion, and hearing loss. Due to the absence of the whole complex of the triad in the majority of cases at disease presentation, the syndrome often remains underdiagnosed and untreated. Headache is estimated to affect up to 80% of Susac syndrome patients, but the relevance of headache characteristics and profile is not yet clear. The proposed diagnostic criteria of the European Susac Consortium acknowledge headache as a possible brain manifestation if it is new, described as migrainous or oppressive, and precedes the other symptoms by not more than 6 months.Herein, a case series of different migraine-like headache associations attributed to Susac syndrome is presented and discussed in relevance with previously published literature. Our patients experienced different presentations of migraine-like headache related with Susac syndrome: exacerbation and chronification of headache just before the manifestation of the first symptoms of Susac syndrome, the manifestation of headache during the first episode of the syndrome, and an increasing frequency of headache during the course of the disease. The diagnosis of Susac syndrome in all three cases was confirmed by typical clinical symptoms and findings in retinal fluorescein angiography, audiometry, and brain magnetic resonance imaging, based on the diagnostic criteria of the European Susac Consortium.Based on the analysis of our presented cases, we conclude that headache attributed to Susac's syndrome is of migraine-like type but could be of different presentations in relation to the onset of the syndrome. Keywords: Susac syndrome, Headache, Migraine-like headache, Multiple sclerosis

  19. Endothelin receptor A -231 G>A polymorphism: no linkage to primary pediatric headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, Veronica; Garbo, Greta; Battistella, PierAntonio; Miccichè, Flavia; Stecca, Anna; Terrazzino, Salvatore; Franzoi, Malida; Tripoli, Elisa; Leon, Alberta; Clementi, Maurizio

    2006-03-01

    To assess whether the biallelic -231 G>A polymorphism of the endothelin type A receptor (EDNRA) gene, previously shown to be a marker of increased risk for developing migraine, has a role in the susceptibility to primary pediatric headache. Several studies suggest that endothelin has a role in migraine. A recent association study has shown that the biallelic -231 G>A polymorphism of the EDNRA gene is associated to migraine in an elderly population. A total of 126 consecutive unrelated pediatric patients affected by primary headache, classified according to the International Headache Society criteria in migraine (migraine with aura, n = 3; migraine without aura, n = 80), and tension-type headache (episodic tension-type headache, n = 36; chronic tension-type headache, n = 7) patients, were recruited to the study. Sixty-seven healthy blood donors were used as a control group. Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal swabs or blood samples and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for the above-mentioned polymorphism. Allele and genotype frequencies for primary headache patients were analyzed in comparison with the control group. No significant differences were found in the distribution of the EDNRA -231 G>A polymorphic variant when considering both genotype (migraine chi2 = 2.78, P = .25; tension-type headache chi2 = 3.58, P = .17) and allelic frequencies (migraine chi2 = 1.48, P = .22; tension-type headache chi2 = 0.39, P = .56). Furthermore, no significant genotype-related difference was found in relation to clinical features, such as age at onset, frequency, and length of the attacks. Our study shows that the -231 G>A polymorphism in the EDNRA gene is neither associated with primary juvenile headache nor significantly correlated with main clinical features characteristic of the headache pathology in pediatric settings.

  20. Association of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with migraine and headache after a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaya, Mariana C; Lowe, Sarah R; Asad, Asad L; Subramanian, S V; Waters, Mary C; Rhodes, Jean

    2017-05-01

    Previous research shows that migraine and general headache symptoms increase after traumatic events. Questions remain about whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) produces migraine/headache symptoms, or if individuals afflicted by migraine/headache are especially likely to develop PTSD. We test whether PTSD symptoms following a natural disaster are associated with higher odds of reporting frequent headaches/migraines postdisaster. We decompose PTSD into intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptom clusters to examine which, if any, are uniquely related to headache/migraine postdisaster. We use prospectively collected pre- and postdisaster data to explore whether overall PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters are associated with migraine/headache in a sample of Hurricane Katrina survivors. We account for severity of hurricane exposure and control for baseline migraine and headache problems to reduce the probability that heightened PTSD susceptibility among those who already suffered from the conditions could explain observed associations. PTSD symptoms were associated with higher odds of experiencing frequent headaches or migraines with a standard deviation change in PTSD score corresponding to over twice the odds (95% confidence interval [1.64, 2.68]) of having trouble with frequent headaches or migraines in the post-Katrina period. Each additional point on the intrusion subscale (sample M [SD] = 1.6 [1.1]) was associated with 55% higher odds of reporting frequent headache/migraine (95% confidence interval [1.03, 2.33]), but we found no association with avoidance or hyperarousal symptoms. Clinicians and disaster planners should be aware that disaster survivors might be at heightened risk of migraine/headache episodes, and those experiencing intrusive reminders may be most affected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The methodology of population surveys of headache prevalence, burden and cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovner, Lars Jacob; Al Jumah, Mohammed; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2014-01-01

    Headache to improve and standardize methods in use for cross-sectional studies, the most important is the production of consensus-based methodological guidelines. This report describes the development of detailed principles and recommendations. For this purpose we brought together an expert consensus group...... to include experience and competence in headache epidemiology and/or epidemiology in general and drawn from all six WHO world regions. The recommendations presented are for anyone, of whatever background, with interests in designing, performing, understanding or assessing studies that measure or describe...... are, in the majority of cases, more correctly attributed to the underlying disorders. Nevertheless, the principles outlined here are relevant for epidemiological studies on secondary headaches, provided that adequate definitions can be not only given but also applied in questionnaires or other survey...

  2. Carbon monoxide may be an important molecule in migraine and other headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik W; Hauge, Mette K

    2014-01-01

    of cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathways. Here, we review the literature about carbon monoxide-induced headache and its possible mechanisms. CONCLUSION: We suggest, for the first time, that carbon monoxide may play an important role in the mechanisms of migraine and other headaches.......INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide was previously considered to just be a toxic gas. A wealth of recent information has, however, shown that it is also an important endogenously produced signalling molecule involved in multiple biological processes. Endogenously produced carbon monoxide may thus play...... an important role in nociceptive processing and in regulation of cerebral arterial tone. DISCUSSION: Carbon monoxide-induced headache shares many characteristics with migraine and other headaches. The mechanisms whereby carbon monoxide causes headache may include hypoxia, nitric oxide signalling and activation...

  3. Headache and pregnancy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, A; Delaruelle, Z; Ivanova, T A; Khan, S; Ornello, R; Raffaelli, B; Terrin, A; Reuter, U; Mitsikostas, D D

    2017-10-19

    This systematic review summarizes the existing data on headache and pregnancy with a scope on clinical headache phenotypes, treatment of headaches in pregnancy and effects of headache medications on the child during pregnancy and breastfeeding, headache related complications, and diagnostics of headache in pregnancy. Headache during pregnancy can be both primary and secondary, and in the last case can be a symptom of a life-threatening condition. The most common secondary headaches are stroke, cerebral venous thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, pituitary tumor, choriocarcinoma, eclampsia, preeclampsia, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Migraine is a risk factor for pregnancy complications, particularly vascular events. Data regarding other primary headache conditions are still scarce. Early diagnostics of the disease manifested by headache is important for mother and fetus life. It is especially important to identify "red flag symptoms" suggesting that headache is a symptom of a serious disease. In order to exclude a secondary headache additional studies can be necessary: electroencephalography, ultrasound of the vessels of the head and neck, brain MRI and MR angiography with contrast ophthalmoscopy and lumbar puncture. During pregnancy and breastfeeding the preferred therapeutic strategy for the treatment of primary headaches should always be a non-pharmacological one. Treatment should not be postponed as an undermanaged headache can lead to stress, sleep deprivation, depression and poor nutritional intake that in turn can have negative consequences for both mother and baby. Therefore, if non-pharmacological interventions seem inadequate, a well-considered choice should be made concerning the use of medication, taking into account all the benefits and possible risks.

  4. Personality traits in chronic daily headache patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity: an observational study in a tertiary care headache center

    OpenAIRE

    Rausa, Marialuisa; Cevoli, Sabina; Sancisi, Elisa; Grimaldi, Daniela; Pollutri, Gabriella; Casoria, Michela; Grieco, Daniela; Bisi, Alberto; Cortelli, Pietro; Pozzi, Euro; Pierangeli, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that patients with Chronic Daily Headache (CDH) have higher levels of anxiety and depressive disorders than patients with episodic migraine or tension-type headache. However, no study has considered the presence of psychiatric comorbidity in the analysis of personality traits. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and specific personality traits in CDH patients, exploring if specific personality traits are associa...

  5. Headache following intracranial neuroendovascular procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Eric P; Moskowitz, Shaye I; Tepper, Stewart J; Gupta, Rishi; Novak, Eric; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam; Stillman, Mark J

    2012-05-01

    Predicting who will develop post-procedure headache (PPH) following intracranial endovascular procedures (IEPs) would be clinically useful and potentially could assist in reducing the excessive diagnostic testing so often obtained in these patients. Although limited safety data exist, the use of triptans or dihydroergotamine (DHE) often raise concern when used with pre/post-coiled aneurysms. We sought to determine risk factors for PPH following IEP, to evaluate the utility of diagnostic testing in patients with post-coil acute headache (HA), and to record whether triptans and DHE have been used safely in this clinical setting. We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult patients undergoing IEPs. Bivariate analyses were conducted to compare patients who did and did not develop PPH. We reviewed records pertaining to 372 patients, of whom 263 underwent intracranial coil embolizations, 21 acrylic glue embolizations, and 88 stent placements. PPH occurred in 72% of coil patients, 33% of glue patients, and 14% of stent patients. Significant risk factors for post-coil HA were female gender, any pre-coil HA history, smoking, and anxiety/depression. A pre-stent history of HA exceeding 1 year's duration, and smoking were risk factors for post-stent HA. A pre-glue history of HA exceeding 1 year was the only risk factor for post-glue HA. In the small subgroup available for study, treatment with triptans or DHE was not associated with adverse events in pre/post-coiled aneurysms. Diagnostic testing was low yield. Occurrence of PPH was common after IEPs and especially so with coiling and in women, smokers, and those with anxiety/depression, and was often of longer duration than allowed by current International Classification of Headache Disorders-II criteria. The yield of diagnostic testing was low, and in a small subgroup treatment with triptans or DHE did not cause adverse events in pre/post-coiled aneurysms. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  6. Comorbidity of headache and functional constipation in children: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaloo, Soror; Dehghani, Seyyed Mohsen; Hashemi, Seyyed Mohammad; Heydari, Mojtaba; Heydari, Seyyed Taghi

    2014-10-01

    Constipation and headache are prevalent conditions among children worldwide. Previous studies have shown the relationship between upper gastrointestinal complaints and headache in children. However, the association with lower gastrointestinal complaints such as constipation has not been investigated until present. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between headache and chronic functional constipation in children aged 4-12 years old. This cross-sectional study has evaluated the prevalence of headache in 326 children in Shiraz, Iran 2012. All the subjects and their parents were interviewed based on a structured questionnaire for the diagnosis of constipation and headache. Children with constipation were selected from the Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic Affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The control group was selected from healthy children attending Shiraz schools. Diagnosis of headache and constipation were made based on the second Edition of The International Headache Classification (ICHD-2) and ROME III criteria, respectively. Headache prevalence among children with constipation was significantly higher (19.8%) than that of the control group (5.6%) [Odds ratio (OR) 4.192, pconstipated children (14.9% vs. 1.4%, in the control group, respectively, pconstipation, which can result from the effect of these comorbid conditions with emotional stress, depression, and anxiety.

  7. Factors Associated With Medication-Overuse Headache in Patients Seeking Treatment for Primary Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Kelly R; Roland, Malcolm M; Smitherman, Todd A

    2018-03-09

    Although risk factors for medication-overuse headache have been identified within the general population, most studies have neglected clinical samples. The present study examined the relative and combined associations of these factors with medication-overuse headache in a sample of US adults seeking treatment for primary headache disorders. Treatment-seeking headache patients provided data on demographics, headache variables, psychiatric variables, use of headache medications, and use of other prescription medications and substances. A classification tree selection strategy was utilized within this cross-sectional study to differentiate between those with and without medication-overuse headache, and a final multivariable model assessed their combined utility. Forty-three of 164 participants (26.2%) met diagnostic criteria for medication-overuse headache. Relative to non-medication-overuse headache participants, participants with medication-overuse headache reported greater headache-related disability (odds ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.18), escape and avoidance responses indicative of fear of pain (odds ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.15), and use of combination medications for headache (odds ratio = 3.10, 95% confidence interval = 1.51-6.36). The final multivariable model differentiated well between the 2 groups (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = .78; 95% confidence interval = .71-.86). Items that assess headache-related disability, use of combination medications, and fear of pain help identify patients who are currently overusing acute headache medications and may serve as indicators of treatment progress. Future studies should apply similar analytic approaches longitudinally to identify headache sufferers at risk for medication-overuse headache prior to headache progression. © 2018 American Headache Society.

  8. Headaches of otolaryngological interest: current status while awaiting revision of classification. Practical considerations and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farri, A; Enrico, A; Farri, F

    2012-04-01

    In 1988, diagnostic criteria for headaches were drawn up by the International Headache Society (IHS) and is divided into headaches, cranial neuralgias and facial pain. The 2(nd) edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) was produced in 2004, and still provides a dynamic and useful instrument for clinical practice. We have examined the current IHC, which comprises 14 groups. The first four cover primary headaches, with "benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood" being the forms of migraine of interest to otolaryngologists; groups 5 to 12 classify "secondary headaches"; group 11 is formed of "headache or facial pain attributed to disorder of cranium, neck, eyes, ears, nose, sinuses, teeth, mouth or other facial or cranial structures"; group 13, consisting of "cranial neuralgias and central causes of facial pain" is also of relevance to otolaryngology. Neither the current classification system nor the original one has a satisfactory collocation for migraineassociated vertigo. Another critical point of the classification concerns cranio-facial pain syndromes such as Sluder's neuralgia, previously included in the 1988 classification among cluster headaches, and now included in the section on "cranial neuralgias and central causes of facial pain", even though Sluder's neuralgia has not been adequately validated. As we have highlighted in our studies, there are considerable similarities between Sluder's syndrome and cluster headaches. The main features distinguishing the two are the trend to cluster over time, found only in cluster headaches, and the distribution of pain, with greater nasal manifestations in the case of Sluder's syndrome. We believe that it is better and clearer, particularly on the basis of our clinical experience and published studies, to include this nosological entity, which is clearly distinct from an otolaryngological point of view, as a variant of cluster headache. We agree with experts in the field of headaches, such as

  9. Chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache are associated with concomitant low back pain: results of the German Headache Consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Min-Suk; Manack, Aubrey; Schramm, Sara; Fritsche, Guenther; Obermann, Mark; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Moebus, Susanne; Katsarava, Zaza

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between low and frequent low back pain and chronic migraine (CM) and chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) in a large, German population-based sample. Headaches were diagnosed according to International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 criteria and categorized according to frequency (episodic 1-14 days/month or chronic ≤15 days/month) and headache type (migraine or TTH). We defined frequent low back pain as self-reported low back pain on ≥15 days/month. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. There were 5605 respondents who reported headache in the previous year, of whom 255 (4.5%) had Chronic Headache. Migraine was diagnosed in 2933 respondents, of whom 182 (6.2%) had CM. TTH was diagnosed in 1253 respondents, of whom 50 (4.0%) had CTTH. Among 9944 respondents, 6030 reported low back pain, of whom 1267 (21.0%) reported frequent low back pain. In adjusted models, the odds of having frequent low back pain were between 2.1 (95% CI 1.7-2.6) and 2.7 (95% CI 2.3-3.2) times higher in all episodic headache subtypes when compared to No Headache. The odds of having frequent low back pain were between 13.7 (95% CI 7.4-25.3) and 18.3 (95% CI 11.9-28.0) times higher in all chronic headache subtypes when compared to No Headache. Low and frequent low back pain was associated with CM and CTTH. Multiple explanations may contribute to the association of headache and back pain, including the notion that the neurobiology of chronic headache, independent of primary headache type, not only involves the trigeminal pain pathway, but is also a part of abnormal general pain processing. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Temporomandibular disorders dysfunction in headache patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Christiane-Espinola-Bandeira; Oliveira, José-Luiz-Góes; Jesus, Alan-Chester-Feitosa; Maia, Mila-Leite-de Moraes; de Santana, Jonielly-Costa-Vasconcelos; Andrade, Loren-Suyane-Oliveira; Quintans, Jullyana-de Souza Siqueira; Quintans-Junior, Lucindo-José; Conti, Paulo-César-Rodrigues; Bonjardim, Leonardo-Rigoldi

    2012-11-01

    To identify the frequency of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and its severity in individuals with headache. 60 adults divided into three groups of 20 individuals: chronic daily headache (CDH), episodic headache (EH) and a control group without headache (WH). Headache diagnosis was performed according to the criteria of International Headache Society and the signs and symptoms of TMD were achieved by using a clinical exam and an anamnestic questionnaire. The severity of TMD was defined by the temporomandibular index (TMI). The TMD signs and symptoms were always more frequent in individuals with headache, especially report of pain in TMJ area (CDH, n=16; EH, n=12; WH, n=6), pain to palpation on masseter (CDH, n=19; EH, n=16; WH, n=11) which are significantly more frequent in episodic and chronic daily headache. The mean values of temporomandibular and articular index (CDH patients) and muscular index (CDH and EH patients) were statistically higher than in patients of the control group, notably the articular (CDH=0.38; EH=0.25;WH=0.19) and muscular (CDH=0.46; EH=0.51; WH=0.26) indices. These findings allow us to speculate that masticatory and TMJ pain are more common in headache subjects. Besides, it seems that the TMD is more severe in headache patients.

  11. Acute headache diagnosis in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmakidis, Constantine; Dayal, Ashlesha K.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize demographic and clinical features in pregnant women presenting with acute headache, and to identify clinical features associated with secondary headache. Methods: We conducted a 5-year, single-center, retrospective study of consecutive pregnant women presenting to acute care with headache receiving neurologic consultation. Results: The 140 women had a mean age of 29 ± 6.4 years and often presented in the third trimester (56.4%). Diagnoses were divided into primary (65.0%) and secondary (35.0%) disorders. The most common primary headache disorder was migraine (91.2%) and secondary headache disorders were hypertensive disorders (51.0%). The groups were similar in demographics, gestational ages, and most headache features. In univariate analysis, secondary headaches were associated with a lack of headache history (36.7% vs 13.2%, p = 0.0012), seizures (12.2% vs 0.0%, p = 0.0015), elevated blood pressure (55.1% vs 8.8%, p headache history (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.7–14.5) had an increased association with secondary headache, while psychiatric comorbidity (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.021–0.78) and phonophobia (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09–0.91) had a reduced association with secondary headache. Conclusions: Among pregnant women receiving inpatient neurologic consultation, more than one-third have secondary headache. Diagnostic vigilance should be heightened in the absence of a headache history and if seizures, hypertension, or fever are present. Attack features may not adequately distinguish primary vs secondary disorders, and low thresholds for neuroimaging and monitoring for preeclampsia are justified. PMID:26291282

  12. Headache and obesity in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Christopher B; Scher, Ann I; Recober, Ana; Peterlin, B Lee

    2014-05-01

    Childhood obesity and headache are both significant health concerns that often have a marked impact both personally and socially, that if not addressed can carry over into adulthood. For many individuals, these effects may be magnified when obesity and headache are seen in conjunction. It is this overlap between obesity and headache in children, as well as similarities in the known mechanism of action for feeding and headache, which led to a suspected association between the two. Unfortunately, although recent studies have supported this association, only a limited number have been conducted to directly address this. Furthermore, despite rising rates of childhood obesity and headache, the associated medical comorbidities, and the significant financial cost for these conditions, there is a relative void in studies investigating treatment options that address both underlying conditions of obesity and headache in children.

  13. Secondary headaches attributed to arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assarzadegan, Farhad; Hesami, Omid; Aryani, Omid; Mansouri, Behnam; Beladi moghadam, Nahid

    2013-01-01

    Mild (140 to 159/90 to 99 mmHg) or moderate (160 to 179/100 to 109 mmHg) chronic arterial hypertension does not appear to cause headache. Whether moderate hypertension predisposes patients to headache at all remains controversial, but there is little evidence that it does. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with mild and moderate hypertension has shown no convincing relationship between blood pressure fluctuations over a 24-hour period and presence or absence of headache. However, headaches are associated to various disorders that lead to abrupt, severe, and paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure. In this paper, the secondary headaches attributed to acute crises of hypertension and the criteria for diagnosing each of them have been reviewed. These are headaches attributed to pheochromocytoma, hypertensive crisis without encephalopathy, hypertensive encephalopathy, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and acute pressure response to exogenous agents. PMID:24250915

  14. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy plus Amitriptyline for Children and Adolescents with Chronic Migraine Reduces Headache Days to ≤4 Per Month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, John W; Hershey, Andrew D; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita M; LeCates, Susan L; Allen, Janelle R; Slater, Shalonda K; Zafar, Marium; Kabbouche, Marielle A; O'Brien, Hope L; Shenk, Chad E; Rausch, Joseph R; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Powers, Scott W

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis of results from a previously published trial (Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT00389038) in chronic migraine in children and adolescents was to examine if participants who received cognitive behavioral therapy and amitriptyline reached a greater level of reduction in headache frequency that no longer indicated a recommendation for preventive treatment as compared to those who received headache education and amitriptyline. Chronic migraine negatively affects children's home, school, and social activities. Preventive medication therapy is suggested for 5 or more headaches per month. Reduction to one headache day per week or less may suggest that preventive treatment is no longer indicated and provide a clinically relevant outcome for treatment efficacy and patient care. Randomized study participants (N = 135) kept a daily record of their headache frequency during 20 weeks of treatment and during a 1 year follow-up period. Baseline headache frequency was determined at the end of a 28 day screening period. Post treatment frequency was determined at 20 weeks (N = 128 completed) and post treatment follow-up was measured 12 months later (N = 124 completed). A chi-square test of independence was conducted by treatment group and by time point to determine group differences in the proportion of headache days experienced. At 20 weeks (post treatment), 47% of the cognitive behavioral therapy plus amitriptyline group had ≤4 headache days per month compared to 20% of the headache education plus amitriptyline group, (P = .0011), and 32% of the cognitive behavioral therapy plus amitriptyline group had ≤3 headache days per month at 20 weeks compared to 16% of the headache education plus amitriptyline group, (P = .0304). At the month 12 follow-up, 72% of the cognitive behavioral therapy plus amitriptyline group had ≤4 headache days per month compared to 52% of the headache education plus amitriptyline group

  15. Application of ICHD-II criteria in a headache clinic of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: China has the huge map and the largest population in the world. Previous studies on the prevalence and classification of headaches were conducted based on the general population, however, similar studies among the Chinese outpatient population are scarce. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of 1843 headache patients enrolled in a North China headache clinic of the General Hospital for Chinese People's Liberation Army from October 2011 to May 2012, with the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd Edition (ICHD-II. METHODS AND RESULTS: Personal interviews were carried out and a detailed questionnaire was used to collect medical records including age, sex and headache characteristics. Patients came from 28 regions of China with the median age of 40.9 (9-80 years and the female/male ratio of 1.67/1. The primary headaches (78.4% were classified as the following: migraine (39.1%, tension-type headache (32.5%, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (5.3% and other primary headache (1.5%. Among the rest patients, 12.9% were secondary headaches, 5.9% were cranial neuralgias and 2.5% were unspecified or not elsewhere classified. Fourteen point nine percent (275/1843 were given an additional diagnosis of chronic daily headache, including medication-overuse headache (MOH, 49.5%, chronic tension-type headache (CTTH, 32.7% and chronic migraine (CM, 13.5%. The visual analogue scale (VAS score of TTH with MOH was significantly higher than that of CTTH (6.8±2.0 vs 5.6±2.0, P<0.001. The similar result was also observed in VAS score between migraine with MOH and CM (8.0±1.5 vs 7.0±1.5, P = 0.004. The peak age at onset of TTH for male and female were both in the 3(rd decade of life. However, the age distribution at onset of migraine shows an obvious sex difference, i.e. the 2(nd decade for females and the 1(st decade for males. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study revealed the characteristics of the headache clinic

  16. Role of serotonin in pathogenesis of analgesic induced headache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikiatkhachorn, A.

    1999-12-16

    Analgesic abuse has recently been recognized as a cause of deterioration in primary headache patients. Although the pathogenesis of this headache transformation is still obscure, and alteration of central pain control system is one possible mechanism. A number of recent studies indicated that simple analgesics exert their effect by modulating the endogenous pain control system rather than the effect at the peripheral tissue, as previously suggested. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine ; 5-HT) has long been known to play a pivotal role in the pain modulatory system in the brainstem. In the present study, we investigated the changes in 5-HT system in platelets and brain tissue. A significant decrease in platelet 5-HT concentration (221.8{+-}30.7, 445.3{+-}37.4 and 467.2{+-}38.5 ng/10{sup 9} platelets, for patients with analgesic-induced headache and migraine patients, respectively, p<0.02) were evident in patients with analgesic induced headache. Chronic paracetamol administration induced a decrease in 5-HT{sub 2} serotonin receptor in cortical and brain stem tissue in experimental animals (B{sub max}=0.93{+-}0.04 and 1.79{+-}0.61 pmol/mg protein for paracetamol treated rat and controls, respectively, p<0.05). Our preliminary results suggested that chronic administration of analgesics interferes with central and peripheral 5-HT system and therefore possibly alters the 5-HT dependent antinociceptive system. (author)

  17. A Comparison of Cerebral Blood Flow in Migraineurs During Headache, Headache-Free and Treatment Periods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bednarczyk, Edward

    1999-01-01

    ...: Otherwise healthy patients with a minimum of one migraine headache per month (IHS criteria) were scanned using H215O, and positron emission tomography, within 24 hours of the onset of migraine headache...

  18. Post-myelogram headache - physiological or psychological?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.; Maynard, N.; Briggs, M.; Anslow, P.; McPherson, K.; Northover, J.

    1991-01-01

    Psychological aspects of post-lumbar puncture headache have hitherto received little attention. A hundred consecutive patients admitted for elective myelography were studied. Post-myelogram headache was assessed by an independent observer and found to be strongly associated with normality of the test (P<0.001). Psychological testing showed a trend between Hospital Anxiety Depression score and normality of myelogram as well as development of headache, although this did not achieve statistical significance. This study suggestet that there is a large psychological as well as organic component to post-myelogram headache. (orig.)

  19. [Chronic daily headache: I. Diagnosis and pathophysiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volcy-Gómez, M

    Chronic daily headache (CDH), or headache more than 15 days/month or over 180 days/year, is one of the main reasons for visits to specialised headache centres and accounts for up to 5% of primary headaches. Our objective was to determine the classification, epidemiology, risk factors and pathophysiology of CDH by reviewing the literature. CDH has a prevalence of 2 to 3% in the general population and is subdivided into two groups according to the headache duration. The first group (more than four hours) represents over 90% patients; includes chronic migraine (60 to 87.4%), chronic tension-type headache (0.9 to 28.8%), new daily persistent headache (0.8 to 20%) and hemicrania continua (2.2%), which represents over 90% of patients. The second group (less than four hours) is made up of cluster, chronic paroxysmal hemicranial, idiopathic stabbing-type headache and cranial neuralgias. The pathophysiology of CDH is multifactorial; it has been suggested that genetic factors, peripheral and central neuronal dysfunction derived from the alteration of protein and receptor synthesis, inadequate release of inhibitory and excitatory neuropeptides, imbalance, excitatory and inhibitory neuropeptides concentration imbalance, in association with abuse of analgesics, high comorbidity with psychiatric disorders (anxiety, depression and panic) and sleep disorders may all be involved. CDH is a frequent cause of headache and chronic migraine is the main presenting symptom. Pathophysiology is multifactorial; there is a strong association with analgesic abuse, high comorbidity with psychiatric disorders and sleep disorders.

  20. Cerebral blood flow changes in cluster headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.W.; Hachinski, V.C.; Cooper, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Serial cerebral blood flod studies performed by the intra-carotid 133 Xenon method were fortuitously determined during the course of a cluster headache in a 32 year old man. The initial study was performed about 10 min after the headache began and showed values at the upper limit of normal. Twenty min after the headache started a second procedure showed that the autoregulatory response on hyperventilation was normal. Ergotamine tartrate was given intra-muscularly 23 min after the headache began and there was partial relief. A third cerebral blood flow estimation showed abnormally high values. The probable reasons for this are discussed. (author)

  1. Young adults' medicine use for headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koushede, Vibeke; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Andersen, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Over-the-counter analgesic (OTCA) use is increasingly common and may have potential harmful side effects. The primary reason for using analgesics is headache symptoms. Whether OTCA use for headache is sensitive to psychosocial and social circumstances is an understudied topic.......Over-the-counter analgesic (OTCA) use is increasingly common and may have potential harmful side effects. The primary reason for using analgesics is headache symptoms. Whether OTCA use for headache is sensitive to psychosocial and social circumstances is an understudied topic....

  2. Radiological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, S.; Kirsch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Headache is very common and affects almost everyone at some point. It is one of the most common disorders that leads patients to see their physician. All different forms have the nociception via trigeminal nerve fibers in common. Beside the clinical course headaches are classified as either primary or secondary, with the latter having an identifiable structural or biochemical cause. Imaging has a low diagnostic yield in primary headache but play an important role in the differential diagnosis of secondary forms. An overview of different forms of secondary headache is given, outlining diagnostic procedures and the morphologic imaging features of each syndrome.

  3. Development of chronic daily headache : A clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, E.L.H.; Schroevers, M.; Honkoop, P.C.; Sorbi, M.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the development of chronic daily headache in 258 headache practice patients, 50 men and 208 women. Chronic daily headache was defined as headaches occurring at least 5 days per week for at least 1 year. Twenty-two percent of the patients had daily headaches from the onset, and 78%

  4. CPD: The patient with daily headaches. | Maizels | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The term "chronic daily headache" (CDH) describes a variety of headache types, of which chronic migraine is the most common. Daily headaches often are disabling and may be challenging to diagnose and treat. Medication overuse, or drug rebound headache, is the most treatable cause of refractory daily headache.

  5. Tension type headaches: a review | Magazi | South African Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Headache disorders are a common condition affecting present-day societies worldwide. Headaches are classified by the International Headache Society as being either primary or secondary. Primary headaches are those without an underlying, physical cause, e.g. migraine, cluster and other benign-type headaches.

  6. Group Education and Multidisciplinary Management for Chronic Headaches Among Adolescents in a Military Treatment Facility: A Retrospective Chart Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Andrew; Faux, Brian M; Zickefoose, Betty A; Aden, James; Kapunan, Patricia E; Roberts, Timothy A

    2018-02-07

    To assess the effect of group education on the frequency of chronic headaches among adolescents. Chronic headaches are a common problem among adolescents with significant psychosocial morbidity. Brief education on lifestyle interventions to decrease headache frequency has established benefits among adult patients but is less proven among adolescents. This study is a chart review examining our experience with a group education program for 155 adolescents, aged 12-17 years old, enrolled in the U.S. military medical system with at least 3 months of chronic headaches who were referred to a headache evaluation clinic. The primary outcome of our study was self-reported number of days with a headache in the previous 30 days based on patient recall. We used a paired samples t-test to measure the change in headache frequency between the frequency reported at the headache class and follow-up more than 6 months after the class. Most of the adolescents seen in the program were female (114/155 [73.5%]) and suffered from migraine headaches (108/155 [69.8%]). Severe headache-related disability was reported by 40.6% of subjects (63/155). Subjects reported an average of 19 days with headache during the previous 30 days. Females and patients with higher headache-related disability reported a higher number of days with headache. Participation in the group education was associated with an 11.5 (SD 11.9, P < .001) day decrease in the frequency of headaches during the previous 30 days at follow-up at least 6 months after the class, with largest decline seen in patients with the highest level of migraine-related disability at baseline. Based on our retrospective chart review study, group education on headache evaluation and lifestyle management has potential as an effective, low-cost intervention for treatment of chronic headaches among adolescents. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Migraines may be triggered by foods, such as chocolate, certain cheeses, or monosodium glutamate (MSG). Caffeine withdrawal, ... such as: Bleeding in the area between the brain and the thin tissue that covers the brain ( ...

  8. Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  9. [Consensus paper of the German Migraine and Headache Society on the structure of headache care facilities in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziniak, M; Malzacher, V; Förderreuther, S; Jürgens, T; Kropp, P; May, A; Straube, A

    2014-04-01

    This consensus paper introduces a classification of headache care facilities on behalf of the German Migraine and Headache Society. This classification is based on the recommendations of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) and the European Headache Federation (EHF) and was adapted to reflect the specific situation of headache care in Germany. It defines three levels of headache care: headache practitioner (level 1), headache outpatient clinic (level 2) and headache centers (level 3). The objective of the publication is to define and establish reliable criteria in the field of headache care in Germany.

  10. Rounding behavior in the reporting of headache frequency complicates headache chronification research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Timothy T; Turner, Dana P; Houle, Thomas A; Smitherman, Todd A; Martin, Vincent; Penzien, Donald B; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-06-01

    To characterize the extent of measurement error arising from rounding in headache frequency reporting (days per month) in a population sample of headache sufferers. When reporting numerical health information, individuals tend to round their estimates. The tendency to round to the nearest 5 days when reporting headache frequency can distort distributions and engender unreliability in frequency estimates in both clinical and research contexts. This secondary analysis of the 2005 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention study survey characterized the population distribution of 30-day headache frequency among community headache sufferers and determined the extent of numerical rounding ("heaping") in self-reported data. Headache frequency distributions (days per month) were examined using a simplified version of Wang and Heitjan's approach to heaping to estimate the probability that headache sufferers round to a multiple of 5 when providing frequency reports. Multiple imputation was used to estimate a theoretical "true" headache frequency. Of the 24,000 surveys, headache frequency data were available for 15,976 respondents diagnosed with migraine (68.6%), probable migraine (8.3%), or episodic tension-type headache (10.0%); the remainder had other headache types. The mean number of headaches days/month was 3.7 (standard deviation = 5.6). Examination of the distribution of headache frequency reports revealed a disproportionate number of responses centered on multiples of 5 days. The odds that headache frequency was rounded to 5 increased by 24% with each 1-day increase in headache frequency (odds ratio: 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.23 to 1.25), indicating that heaping occurs most commonly at higher headache frequencies. Women were more likely to round than men, and rounding decreased with increasing age and increased with symptoms of depression. Because of the coarsening induced by rounding, caution should be used when distinguishing between episodic and chronic

  11. The Course of Headache in Patients With Moderate-to-Severe Headache Due to Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chang-Ki; Joo, Jin-Yang; Kim, Yong Bae; Shim, Yu Shik; Lim, Yong Cheol; Shin, Yong Sam; Chung, Joonho

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the course of headache in patients with moderate-to-severe headache due to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and to identify its predisposing factors. Little is known about the long-term course of headache in patients with aSAH. Since September 2009, patients with aSAH have had their headaches prospectively rated using a numeric rating scale (NRS). From this database containing 838 patients, 217 were included and all included patients met the following criteria: (1) presence of ruptured intracranial aneurysms on computed tomography angiography or magnetic resonance angiography; (2) alert consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale 15); (3) newly onset moderate-to-severe headache (NRS ≥ 4) due to ruptured intracranial aneurysms; and (4) good clinical outcome at discharge (modified Rankin Scale 0, 1, or 2). We observed the changes in NRS scores from initial to 12-month follow-up and identified the predisposing factors of NRS changes. Of the 217 patients, 182 (83.9%) experienced improvement in NRS score ≤ 3 upon discharge. The NRS scores at discharge were significantly lower than those on admission (P headache improvement included previous stroke (odds ratio [OR] = 0.141; 95% CI 0.051-0.381; P headache treated with medication (OR = 0.079; 95% CI 0.010-0.518; P = .008), and endovascular treatment (EVT; OR = 2.531; 95% CI 1.141-5.912; P = .026). The NRS scores tended to decrease continuously until the 12-month follow-up. EVT and symptomatic vasospasm were independently associated with a decrease of NRS in the follow-up periods. The course of headache in patients with aSAH continuously improved during the 12 months of follow-up. Headache improvement might be expected in patients who were treated with EVT and in those who did not have previous stroke or headache. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  12. The anterior hypothalamus in cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkink, Enrico B; Schmitz, Nicole; Schoonman, Guus G; van Vliet, Jorine A; Haan, Joost; van Buchem, Mark A; Ferrari, Michel D; Kruit, Mark C

    2017-10-01

    Objective To evaluate the presence, localization, and specificity of structural hypothalamic and whole brain changes in cluster headache and chronic paroxysmal hemicrania (CPH). Methods We compared T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of subjects with cluster headache (episodic n = 24; chronic n = 23; probable n = 14), CPH ( n = 9), migraine (with aura n = 14; without aura n = 19), and no headache ( n = 48). We applied whole brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using two complementary methods to analyze structural changes in the hypothalamus: region-of-interest analyses in whole brain VBM, and manual segmentation of the hypothalamus to calculate volumes. We used both conservative VBM thresholds, correcting for multiple comparisons, and less conservative thresholds for exploratory purposes. Results Using region-of-interest VBM analyses mirrored to the headache side, we found enlargement ( p cluster headache compared to controls, and in all participants with episodic or chronic cluster headache taken together compared to migraineurs. After manual segmentation, hypothalamic volume (mean±SD) was larger ( p cluster headache compared to controls (1.72 ± 0.15 ml) and migraineurs (1.68 ± 0.19 ml). Similar but non-significant trends were observed for participants with probable cluster headache (1.82 ± 0.19 ml; p = 0.07) and CPH (1.79 ± 0.20 ml; p = 0.15). Increased hypothalamic volume was primarily explained by bilateral enlargement of the anterior hypothalamus. Exploratory whole brain VBM analyses showed widespread changes in pain-modulating areas in all subjects with headache. Interpretation The anterior hypothalamus is enlarged in episodic and chronic cluster headache and possibly also in probable cluster headache or CPH, but not in migraine.

  13. Headache in Patients With Pituitary Lesions: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, Paul; Iuliano, Sherry; Weizenbaum, Emma; Laws, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Headache is a presenting feature in 37% to 70% of patients with pituitary tumor. Other pituitary lesions may also present with headache, and together these lesions account for about 20% of all primary brain lesions. Although pituitary lesions have been associated with headache, the exact nature of the relationship remains undefined. It is not always clear whether the presenting headache is an unrelated primary headache, a lesion-induced aggravation of a preexisting primary headache, or a separate secondary headache related to the lesion. To characterize headache in patients referred to a multidisciplinary neuroendocrine clinic with suspected pituitary lesions and to assess changes in headache in those who underwent surgery. We used a self-administered survey of headache characteristics completed by patients upon presentation and after any pituitary surgical procedure. One hundred thirty-three participants completed the preoperative questionnaire (response rate of 99%). The overall prevalence of headache was 63%. Compared to patients without headache, the group with headache was more likely to be female (P = .001), younger (P = .001), and to have had a prior headache diagnosis (P headache localized to the anterior region of the head. Fifty-one patients with headache underwent transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Headache was not associated with increased odds of having surgery (odds ratio, 0.90). At 3 months, 81% of surgically treated patients with headache who completed the postoperative questionnaire (21/26) reported improvement or resolution of headaches. No patient who completed the postoperative questionnaire (44/84) reported new or worsened headache. Frequent, disabling headaches are common in patients with pituitary lesions referred for neuroendocrine consultation, especially in younger females with a preexisting headache disorder. Surgery in this group was associated with headache improvement or resolution in the majority and was not found to cause or worsen

  14. Clinical aspects of perimenstrual headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2009-02-01

    Menstrual migraine (MM) is either pure, if attacks are limited solely during the perimenstrual window (PMW), or menstrually related (MRM), if two of three PMWs are associated with attacks with additional migraine events outside the PMW. Acute migraine specific therapy is equally effective in MM and non-MM. Although the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II classifies MM without aura, data suggest this needs revision. The studies on extended-cycle oral contraceptives suggest benefits for headache-prone individuals. Triptan mini-prophylaxis outcomes are positive, but a conclusion of "minimal net benefit compared to placebo" is not entirely unwarranted. In a 2008 evidence-based review, grade B recommendations exist for sumatriptan (50 and 100 mg), mefenamic acid (500 mg), and riza-triptan (10 mg) for the acute treatment of MRM. For the preventive mini-prophylactic treatment of MRM, grade B recommendations are provided for transcutaneous estrogen (1.5 mg), frovatriptan (2.5 mg twice daily), and naratriptan (1 mg twice daily).

  15. Obesity in children with headaches: association with headache type, frequency, and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Sarit; Shahar, Eli; Schiff, Aharon; Gordon, Shirie

    2013-06-01

    To examine the association between obesity and the different types of primary headaches, and the relation to headache frequency and disability The association between obesity and headache has been well established in adults, but only a few studies have examined this association in children, in particular, the relationship between obesity and different types of primary headaches. The authors retrospectively evaluated 181 children evaluated for headaches as their primary complaint between 2006 and 2007 in their Pediatric Neurology Clinic. Data regarding age, gender, headache type, frequency, and disability, along with height and weight were collected. Body mass index was calculated, and percentiles were determined for age and sex. Headache type and features were compared among normal weight, at risk for overweight, and overweight children. A higher prevalence (39.8%) of obesity was found in our study group compared with the general population. The diagnosis of migraine, but not of tension-type headache, was significantly associated with being at risk for overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.21-4.67, P = .01) or overweight (OR = 2.29, 95% confidence interval 0.95-5.56, P = .04). A significant independent risk for overweight was present in females with migraine (OR = 4.93, 1.46-8.61, P = .006). Regardless of headache type, a high body mass index percentile was associated with increased headache frequency and disability, but not with duration of attack. Obesity and primary headaches in children are associated. Although obesity seems to be a risk factor for migraine more than for tension-type headache, it is associated with increased headache frequency and disability regardless of headache type. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  16. Evaluation of headache severity after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Swope, PharmD, BCPS

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Headache after SAH is persistent and treatment refractory. There may be an association with development of vasospasm and worsening of headache. Novel treatment strategies to attenuate headache in this population are needed.

  17. Headaches and Migraines: Migraine 101 Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for migraine headaches. Dietary triggers for migraines include: Chocolate Cheese Food additives such as MSG Alcohol A, B, and C A, B, C, and D True/False: Migraines sometimes run in families. True/False: A bad headache is usually a sign of a brain tumor. Answer Key False. In most cases of ...

  18. Headache among medical and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri-de-Barros, João Eliezer; Alencar, Mauricio José de; Berchielli, Luis Felipe; Castelhano Junior, Luis Carlos

    2011-06-01

    Headaches occur frequently and thus are a key component of sociocentric medical education. To study headaches among students of medicine and psychology in a single university. This was a questionnaire-based survey of a cohort of students of medicine and psychology. The overall lifetime prevalence of headache was 98% and over the last year, 91%. Tensional headache accounted for 59% and migraine 22% in medicine; and 48.5% and 32% respectively in psychology. Forty-five percent reported that headaches had a variable sporadic impact on their productivity. The self-medication rate was 77%. Thirty-six percent reported worsening since admission to the university. The prevalence of headaches was very high. Tension-type headaches predominated in males and migraine in females. Tension-type was more frequent among medical students than among psychology students; migraine was more frequent in psychology (more females) than in medicine. Both kinds of students reported that headaches caused low interference with daily activities. The students reported that their symptoms had worsened since admission to the university.

  19. Psychiatric comorbidity in pediatric chronic daily headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Shalonda K; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita M; Allen, Janelle R; LeCates, Susan L; Kabbouche, Marielle A; O'Brien, Hope L; Hershey, Andrew D; Powers, Scott W

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in youth with chronic daily headache (CDH) and to examine relationships between psychiatric status and CDH symptom severity, as well as headache-related disability. Standardized psychiatric interviews (Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, KSADS) were conducted with 169 youth ages 10-17 diagnosed with CDH. Participants provided prospective reports of headache frequency with a daily headache diary and completed measures of symptom severity, headache-related disability (PedMIDAS) and quality of life (PedsQL). Results showed that 29.6% of CDH patients met criteria for at least one current psychiatric diagnosis, and 34.9% met criteria for at least one lifetime psychiatric diagnosis. No significant relationship between psychiatric status and headache frequency, duration, or severity was found. However, children with at least one lifetime psychiatric diagnosis had greater functional disability and poorer quality of life than those without a psychiatric diagnosis. Contrary to research in adults with chronic headaches, most youth with CDH did not appear to be at an elevated risk for comorbid psychiatric diagnosis. However, patients with a comorbid psychiatric diagnosis were found to have higher levels of headache-related disability and poorer quality of life. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  20. Blunted autonomic response in cluster headache patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads; Brinth, Louise; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cluster headache (CH) is a disabling headache disorder with chronobiological features. The posterior hypothalamus is involved in CH pathophysiology and is a hub for autonomic control. We studied autonomic response to the head-up tilt table test (HUT) including heart rate variability...

  1. Clinical aspects of headache in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Huma U; Cho, Tracey A

    2014-05-01

    Headaches are commonly seen in those patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are the most common form of pain reported among HIV patients. There have been relatively few studies attempting to determine the rates and phenotypes of the headaches that occur in patients with HIV. Patients with HIV are susceptible to a much broader array of secondary headache causes, sometimes with atypical manifestations due to a dampened inflammatory response. The investigation of a headache in the HIV patient should be thorough and focused on making sure that secondary and HIV-specific causes are either ruled out or treated if present. An effective treatment plan should incorporate the use of appropriate pharmacological agents along with the integration of non-pharmacological therapies, such as relaxation and lifestyle regulation. When treating for headaches in patients with HIV, it is important to keep in mind comorbidities and other medications, especially combination antiretroviral therapy. For those with complicated headache histories, referral to a specialized headache center may be appropriate. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  2. Neurobiology and sleep disorders in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads Christian Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Cluster headache is characterized by unilateral attacks of severe pain accompanied by cranial autonomic features. Apart from these there are also sleep-related complaints and strong chronobiological features. The interaction between sleep and headache is complex at any level and evidence suggests...

  3. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Headaches among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... 42.5%). Based on age, TTH was the most prevalent head subtype reported by 60.4% of students below 21 years followed by migrainous headache in 69.5% of students. The other headache types by their age and sex distribution are shown in Table 3. Majority of the students (90.2%) used acetaminophen.

  4. Clinical Evaluation of Cervicogenic Headache: A Clinical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Toby; Briffa, Kathy; Hopper, Diana

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a common complaint that affects the majority of the population at some point in their lives. The underlying pathological bases for headache symptoms are many, diverse, and often difficult to distinguish. Classification of headache is principally based on the evaluation of headache symptoms as well as clinical testing. Although manual therapy has been advocated to treat a variety of different forms of headache, the current evidence only supports treatment for cervicogenic headache ...

  5. Cluster headache in childhood: case series from a pediatric headache center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Rosanna; Capuano, Alessandro; Torriero, Roberto; Tarantino, Samuela; Properzi, Enrico; Vigevano, Federico; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Childhood-onset cluster headache is an excruciatingly painful and distressing condition. A retrospective study was conducted on charts of patients referring to our Headache Center. Those diagnosed as cluster headache were selected. We identified 11 children (6 males and 5 females). The mean age of cluster headache onset was 10 years (range: 5-16). All children had episodic cluster headache. All children had unilateral orbital pain; 7 patients had throbbing pain, whereas 4 children complained stabbing pain. The mean duration of the attack was 86 minutes (ranging from 30 to 180 minutes). The frequency of episodes was between 1 and 4 per day. All children had the typical cluster headache autonomic features, such as lacrimation, conjunctival injection, ptosis, and nostril rhinorrhea. Steroids showed a good clinical efficacy in interrupting cluster headache recurrence. As symptomatic drugs, acetaminophen as well as ibuprofen were ineffective; indomethacin was effective in 1 case.

  6. Complementary and Integrative Approaches for Pediatric Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Sita

    2016-02-01

    In this article, the use of complementary and integrative medicine for the management of pediatric headache is reviewed. Despite limited numbers of studies for pediatric headaches, children and families seek these services. Integrative medicine focuses on treating the whole person, integrating conventional medicine with mind-body-spirit methods. Nutriceuticals include dietary supplements in the form of vitamins (vitamin D), minerals (magnesium), coenzyme Q, butterbur, and melatonin. Acupuncture, stimulation, physical therapy and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulations (TENS) or Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) may also be useful in selected patients. The efficacy of all these therapeutic alternatives in pediatric headache is presented here. Primary care providers, neurologists, and headache specialists alike need to be informed of such interventions and integrate these approaches, when appropriate, in the management of children with headaches. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Neurotrophic factors in tension-type headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan B. Domingues

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurotrophic factors (NF are involved in pain regulation and a few studies have suggested that they may play a pathophysiological role in primary headaches. The aim of this study was to investigate NF levels in patients with tension type headache (TTH. We carried out a cross sectional study including 48 TTH patients and 48 age and gender matched controls. Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, and Headache Impact Test were recorded. Serum levels of NF were determined by ELISA. There were not significant differences between NF levels between TTH patients and controls. Patients with chronic and episodic TTH had not significant differences in NF levels. The presence of headache at the time of evaluation did not significantly alter the levels of NF. Depression and anxiety scores as well as headache impact did not correlate with NF levels. Our study suggest that the serum levels of NF are not altered in TTH.

  8. Harry Potter and the curse of headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftell, Fred; Steiner, Timothy J; Thomas, Hallie

    2007-06-01

    Headache disorders are common in children and adolescents. Even young male Wizards are disabled by them. In this article we review Harry Potter's headaches as described in the biographical series by JK Rowling. Moreover, we attempt to classify them. Regrettably we are not privy to the Wizard system of classifying headache disorders and are therefore limited to the Muggle method, the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Harry's headaches are recurrent. Although conforming to a basic stereotype, and constant in location, throughout the 6 years of his adolescence so far described they have shown a tendency to progression. Later descriptions include a range of accompanying symptoms. Despite some quite unusual features, they meet all but one of the ICHD-II criteria for migraine, so allowing the diagnosis of 1.6 Probable migraine.

  9. Neurostimulation for neck pain and headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jennifer; Ball, Perry A; Fanciullo, Gilbert J

    2014-03-01

    Patients with medically refractory headache disorders are a rare and challenging-to-treat group. The introduction of peripheral neurostimulation (PNS) has offered a new avenue of treatment for patients who are appropriate surgical candidates. The utility of PNS for headache management is actively debated. Preliminary reports suggested that 60-80% of patients with chronic headache who have failed maximum medical therapy respond to PNS. However, complications rates for PNS are high. Recent publication of 2 large randomized clinical trials with conflicting results has underscored the need for further research and careful patient counseling. In this review, we summarize the current evidence for PNS in treatment of chronic migraine, trigeminal autonomic cephalagias and occipital neuralgia, and other secondary headache disorders. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  10. Chronic headache: the role of the psychologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Robert A

    2010-02-01

    The role of the psychologist in chronic headache needs to be tailored to the patient's presentation. For some patients, psychological issues need to be directly addressed (eg, psychiatric comorbidity, difficulties coping with headache, significant problems with sleep and/or stress, medication overuse, and history of abuse). Other situations (eg, patients' beliefs about their readiness to change ability to actively manage headaches, medication adherence, and managing triggers) involve behavioral/psychological principles even when there is no direct contact with a psychologist. This article reviews the literature on the importance of psychological issues in headache management and provides suggestions for how to address behavioral and cognitive factors and their potential for improved headache care.

  11. Cluster headache: present and future therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Massimo; Giustiniani, Alessandro; Cecchini, Alberto Proietti

    2017-05-01

    Cluster headache is characterized by severe, unilateral headache attacks of orbital, supraorbital or temporal pain lasting 15-180 min accompanied by ipsilateral lacrimation, rhinorrhea and other cranial autonomic manifestations. Cluster headache attacks need fast-acting abortive agents because the pain peaks very quickly; sumatriptan injection is the gold standard acute treatment. First-line preventative drugs include verapamil and carbolithium. Other drugs demonstrated effective in open trials include topiramate, valproic acid, gabapentin and others. Steroids are very effective; local injection in the occipital area is also effective but its prolonged use needs caution. Monoclonal antibodies against calcitonin gene-related peptide are under investigation as prophylactic agents in both episodic and chronic cluster headache. A number of neurostimulation procedures including occipital nerve stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation and the more invasive hypothalamic stimulation are employed in chronic intractable cluster headache.

  12. Are headache and temporomandibular disorders related? A blinded study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, V.; Thede-Schmidt-Hansen, P.; Svensson, P.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate overlaps between headache and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a clinical headache population and to describe the prevalence of TMD in headache patients, 99 patients referred to a specialized headache centre were diagnosed according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC....../TMD) and classified in headache groups according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition for headache diagnoses in a blinded design. The prevalence of TMD in the headache population was 56.1%. Psychosocial dysfunction caused by TMD pain was observed in 40.4%. No significant...

  13. Characteristics of headache in relation to the manifestation of Susac syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obelienienė, Diana; Macaitytė, Raminta; Balnytė, Renata; Pėstininkaitė, Rūta; Gleiznienė, Rymantė; Balčiūnienė, Jūratė

    2017-01-01

    Susac syndrome is characterized by a clinical triad of encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusion, and hearing loss. Due to the absence of the whole complex of the triad in the majority of cases at disease presentation, the syndrome often remains underdiagnosed and untreated. Headache is estimated to affect up to 80% of Susac syndrome patients, but the relevance of headache characteristics and profile is not yet clear. The proposed diagnostic criteria of the European Susac Consortium acknowledge headache as a possible brain manifestation if it is new, described as migrainous or oppressive, and precedes the other symptoms by not more than 6 months. Herein, a case series of different migraine-like headache associations attributed to Susac syndrome is presented and discussed in relevance with previously published literature. Our patients experienced different presentations of migraine-like headache related with Susac syndrome: exacerbation and chronification of headache just before the manifestation of the first symptoms of Susac syndrome, the manifestation of headache during the first episode of the syndrome, and an increasing frequency of headache during the course of the disease. The diagnosis of Susac syndrome in all three cases was confirmed by typical clinical symptoms and findings in retinal fluorescein angiography, audiometry, and brain magnetic resonance imaging, based on the diagnostic criteria of the European Susac Consortium. Based on the analysis of our presented cases, we conclude that headache attributed to Susac's syndrome is of migraine-like type but could be of different presentations in relation to the onset of the syndrome. Copyright © 2018 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Incidence of Headache After Traumatic Brain Injury in China: A Large Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongmei; Pi, Hongying; Ma, Lili; Su, Xinyang; Wang, Jianrong

    2016-04-01

    There have yet to be any large-scale studies in China on headaches after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We evaluate the incidence of headache after TBI and investigate risk factors and functional outcome in a large tertiary center with a high caseload. A total of 543 patients (82% men, 18% women) with a mean age of 48.4 ± 18.6 years presenting with TBI were prospectively enrolled in this study between March 2011 and July 2013. Patient demographics, severity of TBI, incidence and classification of headache, and treatment information were collected during initial hospitalization and at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up. Of our 543 patients (82% men, 18% women), 62% were injured in motor vehicle collisions and 27% in falls. Most patients (97%) were considered to have mild TBI. Follow-up rates at 3, 6, and 12 months were 91%, 75%, and 61%, respectively. Only 12% of patients reported pre-TBI headaches, whereas 58% of respondents reported headache at 3 months follow-up, 54% at 6 months follow-up, and 49% at 1 year follow-up. No statistically significant correlations between age, sex, or TBI severity and posttraumatic headaches were observed. We present the findings of the first study on headaches after TBI in China. Headaches were found to occur in most patients with TBI and persisted through the first year after injury. The incidence of posttraumatic headache observed here is comparable with previously published studies outside China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cervicalgia, cervicocranialgia, and cervicogenic headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Tabeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain syndromes in the neck and head regions are one of the most difficult conditions to be interpreted in clinical practice. Craniocervical anatomical and physiological features are a basis for development of mixed pain syndromes showing as a polymorphic clinical picture in the presence of not only painful, but also tonic muscle, autonomic, postural, vestibular, and other disorders. The current concept of cervicocranialgia is based on the views and convergence between cranial (trigeminal and upper cervical afferents, as supported by clinical and experimental data. These mechanisms are responsible for referred pain phenomena that are so characteristic of myofascial pain syndromes in the neck, head, and face. Myofascial pain may both be independent and occur in other types of primary headaches, specifically in migraine and tension headache. In these cases, the clinical symptomatology takes the features that are highly characteristic of myofascial pain: referred pain with a typical pattern of its spread, as well as trigger points and pain associated with postural loads and other physical factors. These peculiarities should be kept in mind when diagnosing pain syndromes in the craniocervical region. Current approaches to managing patients with cervicocranialgias encompass relief of pain and tonic muscle disorders and compensation for postural disturbances. For this, it is customary to use pharmacotherapy with antidepressants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and myorelaxants. Effective analgesia in these patients still remains an unsolved problem. Analysis of clinical trials can identify the most effective analgesic and safe agents for pharmacotherapy. The phenomena of myofascial pain determine the expediency of using myorelaxants that exert an intrinsic analgesic effect and reduce tonic muscle phenomena.

  16. Associations between stress and migraine and tension-type headache: results from a school-based study in adolescents from grammar schools in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde-Busch, Astrid; Blaschek, Astrid; Heinen, Florian; Borggräfe, Ingo; Koerte, Inga; Straube, Andreas; Schankin, Christoph; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2011-05-01

    Stress is considered the major contributor to migraine and tension-type headache in adolescents. Previous studies have focused on general stressors, whereas the aim of the present study was to investigate associations between individuals' stressful experiences and different types of headache. Adolescents from 10th and 11th grades of grammar schools filled in questionnaires. Stressful experiences were measured with the Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress. Type of headache was classified according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Linear regressions, adjusted for sex and grade, were calculated to estimate differences in stress scores that can be attributed to migraine, tension-type headache or miscellaneous headache. A total of 1260 questionnaires were analysed. Tension-type headache, migraine and co-existing migraine plus tension-type headache were found in 48.7%, 10.2% and 19.8% of the participants. In subjects with migraine or co-existing migraine plus tension-type headache, high increases in stress scores were found in all investigated dimensions, whereas much weaker and inconsistent associations were found in subjects with tension-type headache only. The characteristic of migraine is more associated with stressful experiences than this is the case for tension-type headache. This suggests that adolescent migraine patients might especially benefit from behavioural interventions regarding stress.

  17. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  18. Endoscopic Solution to Rhinogenic Contact Headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Abdul Cader Segana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Headache is a common complaint that brings patients to multidisciplinary clinics. It is utmost important to have meticulous clinical diagnosis of patients with rhinogenic and non sinusogenic headaches. The diagnosis has become easier with the advent of modern endoscopy and endoscopic sinus surgical techniques. This study aims to investigate the role of some anatomical nasal abnormalities in rhinogenic contact headache and to evaluate response to endoscopic surgery.   Materials and Method A prospective study was conducted at a secondary level regional referral Hospital in the Sultanate of Oman. Patients with long-lasting, frequent, severe headaches not amenable to medical treatment, above 20 years of age were taken into consideration. Routine nasal endoscopy, Computerized tomography scan of the paranasal sinuses, Nasal decongestion and various surgical techniques to correct the anatomical abnormalities were included in our study and results were correlated statistically.   Result There was a male predominance in our study with duration of headache ranging from 2 weeks to 5 years. There was a preponderance of headache in frontal region in our study group. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy and CT scan of PNS revealed Deviated nasal septum / septal spur, concha bullosa, Haller cell, pneumatised uncinate process and agar nasi cells. The overall success rate of the surgery in relieving headaches, measured by the MIDAS- VAS score, was approximately 75 %. The non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test, Chi square and paired T tests shows that the following study has rejected the null hypothesis as statistically significant where the P value <0.05.   Discussion Researchers have examined the contact points as a source of rhinogenic / contact headache. Intranasal mucosal contact released substance P, causing pain and headache, Substance P has a potent vasodilator effect. Vasodilatation and perivascular inflammation are the final common pathways in

  19. Squamous Carcinoma of the Lung Presenting as Migraine-Type Headache: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswaran Waran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Orthostatic hypotension has long been recognised as a paraneoplastic effect of lung cancer. Lung cancer presenting with orthostatic hypotension and migraine-type headaches has not been previously described in the literature. Case Report: A 62-year-old Caucasian male presented with headaches, typical of his migraine, after a 30-year migraine-free period. An examination revealed a significant postural drop in BP with reflex tachycardia and no other features of dysautonomia. Investigations showed a metastatic squamous cell lung cancer. Pharmacological treatment of orthostatic hypotension resolved the migraine-type headaches. Discussion: Orthostatic hypotension is associated with lung cancer. Prompt pharmacological treatment in patients not responding to non-pharmacological therapy can provide relief from disabling symptoms of orthostatic hypotension. In this patient, this included symptoms consistent with migraine-type headaches.

  20. Clinical evaluation of cervicogenic headache: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Toby; Briffa, Kathy; Hopper, Diana

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a common complaint that affects the majority of the population at some point in their lives. The underlying pathological bases for headache symptoms are many, diverse, and often difficult to distinguish. Classification of headache is principally based on the evaluation of headache symptoms as well as clinical testing. Although manual therapy has been advocated to treat a variety of different forms of headache, the current evidence only supports treatment for cervicogenic headache (CGH). This form of headache can be identified from migraine and other headache forms by a comprehensive musculoskeletal examination. Examination and subsequent diagnosis is essential not only to identify patients with headache where manual therapy is appropriate but also to form a basis for selection of the most appropriate treatment for the identified condition. The purpose of this paper is to outline, in clinical terms, the classification of headache, so that the clinician can readily identify those patients with headache suited to manual therapy.

  1. Comparison of comorbidities of migraine and tension headache in a pediatric headache clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidlitz-Markus, Tal; Zolden, Shirit; Haimi-Cohen, Yishai; Zeharia, Avraham

    2017-10-01

    Objective To compare comorbidities between migraine and tension headache in patients treated in a tertiary pediatric headache clinic. Methods Files of patients with migraine or tension headache attending a pediatric headache clinic were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of organic comorbidities. Additionally, patients were screened with the self-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to identify nonorganic comorbidities. If necessary, patients were referred to a pediatric psychiatrist, psychologist or social worker for further evaluation. Results The study cohort comprised 401 patients: 200 with migraine and 201 with tension headache. The main organic comorbidities were atopic disease, asthma, and first-reported iron-deficiency anemia; all occurred with statistical significance more often with migraine than with tension headache (Familial Mediterranean fever was six times more frequent in the migraine group than in the tension headache group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Nonorganic comorbidities (psychiatric, social stressors) were associated significantly more often with tension headache than with migraine (48.3% versus 33%; p = 0.03). Conclusions Children and adolescents with migraine or tension headache treated in a dedicated clinic have high rates of organic and nonorganic comorbidities. In this setting, patients with migraine have significantly more organic comorbidities, and patients with tension headache, significantly more nonorganic comorbidities.

  2. Obesity and headache: part I--a systematic review of the epidemiology of obesity and headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Nu Cindy; Scher, Ann I; Moghekar, Abhay; Bond, Dale S; Peterlin, B Lee

    2014-02-01

    Individually, both obesity and headache are conditions associated with a substantial personal and societal impact. Recent data support that obesity is comorbid with headache in general and migraine specifically, as well as with certain secondary headache conditions such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension. In the current manuscript, we first briefly review the epidemiology of obesity and common primary and secondary headache disorders individually. This is followed by a systematic review of the general population data evaluating the association between obesity and headache in general, and then obesity and migraine and tension-type headache disorders. Finally, we briefly discuss the data on the association between obesity and a common secondary headache disorder that is associated with obesity, idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Taken together, these data suggest that it is important for clinicians and patients to be aware of the headache/migraine-obesity association, given that it is potentially modifiable. Hypotheses for mechanisms of the obesity-migraine association and treatment considerations for overweight and obese headache sufferers are discussed in the companion manuscript, as part II of this topic. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  3. 45 CFR 2554.20 - How are issues brought to the attention of the ALJ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are issues brought to the attention of the ALJ? 2554.20 Section 2554.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION... § 2554.20 How are issues brought to the attention of the ALJ? (a) All applications to the ALJ for an...

  4. Are headache and temporomandibular disorders related? A blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballegaard, V; Thede-Schmidt-Hansen, P; Svensson, P; Jensen, R

    2008-08-01

    To investigate overlaps between headache and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a clinical headache population and to describe the prevalence of TMD in headache patients, 99 patients referred to a specialized headache centre were diagnosed according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) and classified in headache groups according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition for headache diagnoses in a blinded design. The prevalence of TMD in the headache population was 56.1%. Psychosocial dysfunction caused by TMD pain was observed in 40.4%. No significant differences in TMD prevalence were revealed between headache groups, although TMD prevalence tended to be higher in patients with combined migraine and tension-type headache. Moderate to severe depression was experienced by 54.5% of patients. Patients with coexistent TMD had a significantly higher prevalence of depression-most markedly in patients with combined migraine and tension-type headache. Our studies indicate that a high proportion of headache patients have significant disability because of ongoing chronic TMD pain. The trend to a higher prevalence of TMD in patients with combined migraine and tension-type headache suggests that this could be a risk factor for TMD development. A need for screening procedures and treatment strategies concerning depression in headache patients with coexistent TMD is underlined by the overrepresentation of depression in this group. Our findings emphasize the importance of examination of the masticatory system in headache sufferers and underline the necessity of a multidimensional approach in chronic headache patients.

  5. Presentation of chronic daily headache : A clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, E L H; Schroevers, M.; Honkoop, P.C.; Sorbi, M.

    We studied the presentation of chronic daily headache in 258 patients from a private headache practice, 50 men and 208 women. Chronic daily headache was defined as headaches, occurring at least 5 days per week for at least 1 year. Seventy-seven percent of the patients experienced the onset of

  6. Selective attention of students suffering from primary headaches in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Headache patients frequently complain about difficulties in attention and concentration, even when they are headache-free and psychometric studies concerning attentional deficits in headache patients between attacks are scarce. Objective: To evaluate selective attention of headache patients in a pain free ...

  7. Pediatric headache: update on recent research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Andrew D

    2012-02-01

    Primary headache are one of the most common health complaints in children and adolescents, yet there remain significant gaps in our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of these conditions. Recently, there have been several areas of research that have assisted with filling this gap in our knowledge. These areas include a better understanding of the disease characteristics including additional associated symptoms and the refinement of the description of related conditions and comorbidities; continued examination of the epidemiology of primary headaches; the progression of migraine across these developmental ages; the molecular and physiological changes; and the potential role for vitamins and cofactor deficiencies in the pathophysiology. These studies continue to add to our fund of knowledge on the basis of migraine and tension-type headache as primary neurological conditions and their impact on the developing brain. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  8. Sphenoid Sinusitis and Migraine-Type Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Three case histories of children (ages 10, 12, and 14 years with isolated sphenoid sinusitis who presented with acute, subacute, and chronic headache symptoms resembling migraine are reported from the University of Texas-Houston Medical School.

  9. Neurobiology and sleep disorders in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads Christian Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Cluster headache is characterized by unilateral attacks of severe pain accompanied by cranial autonomic features. Apart from these there are also sleep-related complaints and strong chronobiological features. The interaction between sleep and headache is complex at any level and evidence suggests...... that it may be of critical importance in our understanding of primary headache disorders. In cluster headache several interactions between sleep and the severe pain attacks have already been proposed. Supported by endocrinological and radiological findings as well as the chronobiological features, predominant...... theories revolve around central pathology of the hypothalamus. We aimed to investigate the clinical presentation of chronobiological features, the presence of concurrent sleep disorders and the relationship with particular sleep phases or phenomena, the possible role of hypocretin as well as the possible...

  10. Neurostimulation therapies for primary headache disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magis, Delphine; Jensen, Rigmor; Schoenen, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Most pharmacological treatments of primary headache disorders are partially effective and have cumbersome side effects. Therapies with better efficacy and tolerance are needed. Neurostimulation techniques may have this potential. This is an attempt to summarize the latest clinical trial results...

  11. Reduced Baroreflex Sensitivity in Cluster Headache Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads C J; Mehlsen, Jesper; Brinth, Louise

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Important elements of cluster headache (CH) pathophysiology may be seated in the posterior hypothalamus. Cranial autonomic features are inherent, but involvement of systemic autonomic control is still debated. We aimed to characterize autonomic function as investigated...

  12. Young adolescents' use of medicine for headache:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Use of medicines for headache is common among young adolescents but little is known about their sources of supply and access to medicines. The purpose was to describe sources of supply, availability and accessibility at home and to examine if supply, availability and accessibility were...... associated with medicine use. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in eight schools where all fifth and seventh grade students (11- and 13-year-olds) answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic factors, health and medicine use. Response rate: 84.0%, n = 595. RESULTS: The reported prevalence of headache...... at least monthly was 45.0%, and 42.5% had used medicines for headache during the past month. 68.2% reported that medicines for headache were always available at home, and 22.2% were allowed to use these without asking for permission. Most pupils received medicine from their parents (73.1%) and physicians...

  13. Headaches during Pregnancy: What's the Best Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of fluids. Follow a regular sleep schedule. Sleep deprivation might contribute to headaches during pregnancy. Consider biofeedback. ... Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the ...

  14. Obesity and Headache: Part I – A Systematic Review of the Epidemiology of Obesity and Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Nu Cindy; Scher, Ann I.; Moghekar, Abhay; Bond, Dale S.; Peterlin, B. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Individually, both obesity and headache are conditions associated with a substantial personal and societal impact. Recent data support that obesity is comorbid with headache in general and migraine specifically, as well as with certain secondary headache conditions such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension. In the current manuscript, we first briefly review the epidemiology of obesity and common primary and secondary headache disorders individually. This is followed by a systematic review of the general population data evaluating the association between obesity and headache in general, and then obesity and migraine and tension-type headache disorders. Finally, we briefly discuss the data on the association between obesity and a common secondary headache disorder that is associated with obesity, idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Taken together, these data suggest that it is important for clinicians and patients to be aware of the headache/migraine-obesity association, given that it is potentially modifiable. Hypotheses for mechanisms of the obesity-migraine association and treatment considerations for overweight and obese headache sufferers are discussed in the companion manuscript, as part II of this topic. PMID:24512574

  15. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  16. Therapeutic Strategy for Chronic Headache in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O. Lezhenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic efficacy of a combined homeopathic preparation Cefavora, which consists of alcoholic extracts of Ginkgo biloba, hawthorn (Crataegus and white mistletoe (Viscum album, has been studied in the treatment of chronic tension-type headache in children. It has been shown that alongside with elimination of headache manifestations, the use of homeopathic medicine has contributed to the normalization of adaptive mechanisms of autonomic regulation in children indicating its high therapeutic efficacy.

  17. Cervicogenic headache: Differential diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Nikolayevich Barinov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issues of differential diagnosis of cervicocranialgia with tension headache and migraine with concomitant cervical myofascial syndrome. It considers the basic mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these nosological entities and common approaches to their treatment. The mechanisms of pathogenetic action of myorelaxants are shown in cervicocranialgia and myofascial pain syndromes. Methods for mini-invasive therapy for cervicogenic headache and other musculoskeletal disorders are presented.

  18. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  19. Headache in an emergency room in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bigal

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: When experiencing a headache attack, Brazilian patients usually look for a primary care service, where they are seen by general clinicians. In the town of Ribeirão Preto, these clinicians routinely refer patients to the Emergency Room of the University Hospital. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of primary care by analyzing retrospectively the medical records of patients with a complaint of headache seen in this emergency room during the year of 1996. DESIGN: retrospective study. SETTIING: Emergency Room of the Universital Hospital, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, reference unit. PARTICIPANTS:1254 patients. The patients who sought the Emergency Room (ER of the University Hospital of Ribeirão Preto, during the year of 1996 with a complaint of headache were studied retrospectively. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Etiology, age, diagnosis, secondary cause, laboratory tests. RESULTS: Of the 1254 patients seen (61% women, 1190 (94.9% were discharged after the administration of parenteral analgesics before they had spent 12 hours in the room. Only 64 (5.1% patients remained for more than 12 hours. Of the patients who spent less than 12 hours in the room, 71.5% had migraine or tension type headache and did not require subsidiary exams for diagnosis. Of the patients who spent more than 12 hours in the room, 70.3% had secondary headaches. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude the primary care for headache is unsatisfactory in the Ribeirão Preto region. Many patients with primary headache are referred to tertiary care services, indicating the need for the dissemination of the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society to general practitioners.

  20. Migraine aura symptoms: Duration, succession and temporal relationship to headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Michele; Linde, Mattias; Sances, Grazia; Ghiotto, Natascia; Guaschino, Elena; Allena, Marta; Terrazzino, Salvatore; Nappi, Giuseppe; Goadsby, Peter J; Tassorelli, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    As there are no biological markers, a detailed description of symptoms, particularly temporal characteristics, is crucial when diagnosing migraine aura. Hitherto these temporal aspects have not been studied in detail. We conducted a prospective diary-aided study of the duration and the succession of aura symptoms and their temporal relationship with headache. Fifty-four patients completed the study recording in a diary the characteristics of three consecutive auras ( ITALIC! n = 162 auras). The median duration of visual, sensory and dysphasic symptoms were 30, 20 and 20 minutes, respectively. Visual symptoms lasted for more than one hour in 14% of auras ( ITALIC! n = 158), sensory symptoms in 21% of auras ( ITALIC! n = 52), and dysphasic symptoms in 17% of auras ( ITALIC! n = 18). Twenty-six percent of patients had at least one aura out of three with one symptom lasting for more than one hour. In aura with multiple symptoms the subsequent symptom, second versus first one or third versus second, might either start simultaneously (34 and 18%), during (37 and 55%), with the end (5 and 9%), or after (24 and 18%) the previous aura symptom. The headache phase started before the aura (9%), simultaneously with the onset of aura (14%), during the aura (26%), simultaneously with the end of aura (15%) or after the end of aura (36%). We provide data to suggest that symptoms may last longer than one hour in a relevant proportion of auras or migraine with aura patients, and that there is a high variability of scenarios in terms of time relationship among aura symptoms and between aura and headache. © International Headache Society 2015.

  1. Are headache and temporomandibular disorders related? A blinded study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, V.; Thede-Schmidt-Hansen, P.; Svensson, P.

    2008-01-01

    /TMD) and classified in headache groups according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition for headache diagnoses in a blinded design. The prevalence of TMD in the headache population was 56.1%. Psychosocial dysfunction caused by TMD pain was observed in 40.4%. No significant......To investigate overlaps between headache and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a clinical headache population and to describe the prevalence of TMD in headache patients, 99 patients referred to a specialized headache centre were diagnosed according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC...... differences in TMD prevalence were revealed between headache groups, although TMD prevalence tended to be higher in patients with combined migraine and tension-type headache. Moderate to severe depression was experienced by 54.5% of patients. Patients with coexistent TMD had a significantly higher prevalence...

  2. [Headache in a pediatric emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, A; Mangini, S; Salvati, P; Celle, M E; Di Pietro, P

    2008-01-01

    Headache, a very frequent symptom in pediatrics, can severely affect the child and his family's life quality, representing an important reason of access to a Pediatric Emergency Department. From a clinical point of view, it is useful to subdivide headaches in primary and secondary ones. As far as the primary ones are concerned, the common migraine without aura is recognised as the most frequent in the child, while the most recurrent among the second ones are due to infective processes, and they represent 57% of the patients admitted to ED for headache with acute onset. We analyzed data collected from June 2000 to December 2006, at the Pediatric Emergency Department of Institute "G. Gaslini" Genoa, concerning the admissions of patients with headache, with particular attention to the necessity of coming up with a clinical and diagnostical path. During the study, there have been 228.255 admissions, 2.214 of which with a diagnosis of discharge from ED of headache (55% males, 45% females). After triage, 14,3% has been evaluated as white code, 74,3% as green one, 10,8% as yellow one and 0,6% as red code. Final outcome of these patients has been hospitalization for 38%, OBI for 8%, home or ambulatory control for 54%. The accesses to ED for headache are increasing. Better information of the family is needed, with coordination among territorial structures and clinic management in ED.

  3. Temporomandibular disorders in adolescents with headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, Anna; Żarowski, Marcin; Steinborn, Barbara; Hedzelek, Wiesław; Wiśniewska-Spychała, Beata; Dorocka-Bobkowska, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    Headache is a common complaint in all age groups and is a frequent cause of medical consultations and hospitalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of bite and non-bite parafunctions as well as the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in adolescents presenting with primary headaches. Parents of adolescents presented with headaches to the Department of Developmental Neurology within a 12-month period were asked to complete a questionnaire developed by the authors of this study. Of the 1000 patients evaluated, 19 females and 21 males, aged 13 to 17 years, met the inclusion criterion - a confirmed clinical diagnosis of migraine or a tension headache according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition. The diagnostic algorithm of the study group consisted of a full medical history, an assessment of the occurrence of bite habits and a physical examination based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Bite and non-bite parafunctions were found in 36 of the study group patients. A significant difference (p = 0.0003) between the number of bite parafunctions and non-bite parafunctions was found in females but not in males. However, bite parafunctions were more frequent in boys compared to girls (p = 0.01). Our findings suggest that it may be useful for pediatricians and neurologists to include TMD dysfunctions as a part of a standard examination of adolescents presenting with persistent headaches.

  4. Functioning of Women with Migraine Headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Talarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Migraines are one of the most commonly occurring ailments affecting the nervous system. The aim of this research paper was to evaluate the effect migraines have on the everyday functioning of women. Method. The study involved women with diagnosed migraine headaches (IHS-2004 undergoing treatment at a neurological clinic. In order to evaluate the influence of headaches on the everyday functioning of women, a MSQ v.2 questionnaire was used, whereas pain severity was assessed on a linear VAS scale. Results. Among the clinical factors, the most influential was the frequency of headaches. Headache duration was particularly significant for women below the age of 40. Pain severity cited at 8–10 pts on the VAS significantly disrupted and limited everyday functioning. On the emotional function subscale, the most influential factors were age, education, and the frequency of headaches. Conclusions. On account of headache frequency emerging as the most significant influencing factor, it is of the utmost importance to inform patients of the value of taking prophylactic measures. Central to this is the identification of factors that trigger the onset of migraines. This approach would greatly aid the individual in choosing the appropriate treatment, either pharmacological or others.

  5. Chronic headache and comorbidities: a two-phase, population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ariovaldo; Costa, Esther Coelho; Gomes, João Bosco; Leite, Frederico Motta; Gomez, Rodrigo Santiago; Vasconcelos, Luiz Paulo; Krymchantowski, Abouch; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2010-09-01

    Studies using resources of a public family health program to estimate the prevalence of chronic daily headaches (CDH) are lacking. To estimate the 1-year prevalence of CDH, as well as the presence of associated psychiatric and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) comorbidities, on the entire population of a city representative of the rural area of Brazil. This was a cross-sectional, population-based, 2-phase study. In the first phase, health agents interviewed all individuals older than 10 years, in a rural area of Brazil. In the second stage, all individuals who reported headaches on 4 or more days per week were then evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. CDH were classified according to the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2). Medication overuse headache was diagnosed, as per the ICHD-2, after detoxification trials. Psychiatric comorbidities and TMD were diagnosed based on the DSM-IV and on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders criteria, respectively. A total of 1631 subjects participated in the direct interviews. Of them, 57 (3.6%) had CDH. Chronic migraine was the most common of the CDH (21, 36.8%). Chronic tension-type headache (10, 17.5%), medication overuse headache (13, 22.8%) and probable medication overuse headache (10, 17.5%) were also common. Psychiatric disorders were observed in 38 (67.3%) of the CDH subjects. TMD were seen in 33 (58.1)% of them. The prevalence of CDH in the rural area of Brazil is similar to what has been reported in previous studies. A significant proportion of them have psychiatric comorbidities and/or TMD. In this sample, comorbidities were as frequent as reported in convenience samples from tertiary headache centers.

  6. Pathophysiology of Headaches with a Prominent Vascular Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Pareja

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular changes, whether preliminary or secondary, seem to accompany most headaches. The literature concerning pathophysiological mechanisms in headaches where vascular phenomena are a major, integral part, ie, migraine and cluster headache syndrome, is reviewed and the most common forms of headache associated with cerebrovascular disease are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the vascular phenomena and on the abundant hypotheses and theories regarding headache mechanisms. This review also presents alternative explanatory models, and compares the available anatomical, physiological and biochemical results.

  7. Guidelines for the organization of headache education in Europe: the headache school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonaci, Fabio; Láinez, José Miguel; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Couturier, Emile G M; Agosti, Reto; Afra, Judit; Färkkilä, Markus; Obelieniene, Diana; Valade, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    According to its mission statement, one of the goals of the European Headache Federation (EHF) is to "educate Europe" about headache through the teaching of the key health personnel, such as young physicians and all those involved in headache management, about the seriousness of headache disorders. The countries of Europe share a close geographical proximity that facilitates international exchanges, particularly between university faculties. In recent years, this has, indeed, been the working basis of European educational endeavours in the field of headache. For a number of years, annual summer schools were organized in different European countries and a permanent Summer Headache School was set up in Cambridge (to be held every alternate year). The last summer headache school was held in Vilnius in 2002. In the past decade, a patronage scheme was also set up, which, combining two or more countries (one developed, one or more developing), allowed international exchanges of doctors and students for training purposes. In some centres, participants were also able to gain clinical practice and research experience by staying at the host institutions for extended periods of time. As a result of all this activity there have emerged, in Europe, "clusters" of people with a particular interest in headache. However, the rapid growth of insight into headache (new molecules, new headache categories, etc.) has contributed to a widening of the scientific gap between developing and developed countries. Moreover, in the past four years, due to the relative restriction of national/international drug company budgets, it has proved possible to organize only relatively inexpensive teaching courses. As a result, countries whose medical communities had been developing a "headache culture" now find themselves destined to be increasingly held back. Therefore, the EHF, in order to promote education on headache in Europe at national level, felt there was a need for guidelines for the

  8. Detoxification of medication-overuse headache by a multidisciplinary treatment programme is highly effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Signe B; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    the acceptability, feasibility and outcome of these two regimes in a non-randomised open-label study. Methods: Patients able to undergo outpatient detoxification, with medication-overuse headache that had previously been unsuccessfully treated by specialists and without significant co-morbidities were treated...... and only 61.9% of these patients needed prophylactics after two months compared with 84.8% in programme A. Conclusions: Both structured detoxification programmes proved highly effective with one-year close follow-up in previously treatment-resistant patients with medication-overuse headache. We suggest...... multidisciplinary education for patients in groups and delaying initiation of prophylactics until after the detoxification....

  9. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  10. Neuromodulation of chronic headaches: position statement from the European Headache Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The medical treatment of patients with chronic primary headache syndromes (chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, chronic cluster headache, hemicrania continua) is challenging as serious side effects frequently complicate the course of medical treatment and some patients may be even medically intractable. When a definitive lack of responsiveness to conservative treatments is ascertained and medication overuse headache is excluded, neuromodulation options can be considered in selected cases. Here, the various invasive and non-invasive approaches, such as hypothalamic deep brain stimulation, occipital nerve stimulation, stimulation of sphenopalatine ganglion, cervical spinal cord stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation are extensively published although proper RCT-based evidence is limited. The European Headache Federation herewith provides a consensus statement on the clinical use of neuromodulation in headache, based on theoretical background, clinical data, and side effect of each method. This international consensus further gives recommendations for future studies on these new approaches. In spite of a growing field of stimulation devices in headaches treatment, further controlled studies to validate, strengthen and disseminate the use of neurostimulation are clearly warranted. Consequently, until these data are available any neurostimulation device should only be used in patients with medically intractable syndromes from tertiary headache centers either as part of a valid study or have shown to be effective in such controlled studies with an acceptable side effect profile. PMID:24144382

  11. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH.

  12. Headache during cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pison, Laurent; Peeters, Pim; Blaauw, Yuri; Vernooy, Kevin; Kumar, Narendra; Philippens, Suzanne; Crijns, Harry J; Vlaeyen, Johan; Schoenen, Jean; Timmermans, Carl

    2015-06-01

    Headache has been reported to occur during cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). No study has systematically analysed this phenomenon. Twenty consecutive patients with symptomatic AF underwent cryoballoon ablation without sedation. Headache was evaluated before, during, and after the first cryoapplication in every pulmonary vein (PV) using a visual representation of a head for location of the headache, a numerical rating scale (NRS) for measuring pain intensity and the short-form McGill pain questionnaire (MPQ) for qualitative analysis of pain. The order in which the PVs were ablated was randomized. Sixteen (80%) patients perceived mainly frontal headache during cryoablation. The overall NRS scores were significantly higher during (5.1 ± 1.7), compared with before (2.7 ± 1.4), and after (3.5 ± 2.2) a cryoapplication (P < 0.05). The NRS score was significantly higher during ablation of the first PV. The intensity of the perceived headache was not related to the temperature reached 150 s after initiation of a cryoapplication (P = 0.81). Of the MPQ, three sensory adjectives and one affective adjective averaged between scores 1 and 2, representing mild-to-moderate severity of pain. The majority of patients treated by balloon cryoablation experienced headache during a cryoapplication. There was no correlation between the temperature reached during a cryoballoon freeze and the intensity of the headache. Cryoballoon ablation of the first PV was significantly more painful than the remaining PVs. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Alcoholic drinks as triggers in primary headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panconesi, Alessandro; Franchini, Michela; Bartolozzi, Maria Letizia; Mugnai, Stefania; Guidi, Leonello

    2013-08-01

    This project aims to investigate the role of alcoholic drinks (ADs) as triggers for primary headaches. Patients followed in the Headache Centre and presenting with migraine without aura, migraine with aura (MA), chronic migraine (CM), and tension-type headache (TH) were asked if their headache was precipitated by AD and also about their alcohol habits. Individual characteristics and drink habits were evaluated within two binary logistic models. About one half (49.7%) of patients were abstainers, 17.6% were habitual consumers, and 32.5% were occasional consumers. Out of 448 patients, only 22 (4.9%), all with migraine, reported AD as a trigger factor. None of 44 patients with MA and none of 47 patients with TH reported AD as a trigger factor. Among those patients with migraine who consume AD, only 8% reported that AD can precipitate their headache. Multivariate analyses showed that AD use, both occasional and habitual, is unrelated to TH. Moreover, analysis performed among migraine patients, points out that occasional and habitual drinkers have a lower risk of presenting with CM than abstainers, although statistical significance occurred only among occasional drinkers. Only 3% of migraine patients who abstain from AD reported that they do not consume alcohol because it triggers their headache. Our study shows that AD acts as headache triggers in a small percentage of migraine patients. Differing from some prior studies, our data suggest that AD do not trigger MA and TH attacks. Moreover, the percentage of abstainers in our sample is higher compared with that reported in general population surveys. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Cluster Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaosa, S Santos; Diago, E Bellosta; Calzada, J Navarro; Benito, A Velázquez

    2017-06-01

     Patients with cluster headache tend to have a dysregulation of systemic blood pressure such as increased blood pressure variability and decreased nocturnal dipping. This pattern of nocturnal nondipping is associated with end-organ damage and increased risk of cardiovascular disease.  To determine if cluster headache is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.  Cross-sectional study of 33 cluster headache patients without evidence of cardiovascular disease and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in all subjects. We evaluate anthropometric, hematologic, and structural parameters (carotid intima-media thickness and ankle-brachial index).  Of the 33 cluster headache patients, 16 (48.5%) were nondippers, a higher percentage than expected. Most of the cluster headache patients (69.7%) also presented a pathological ankle-brachial index. In terms of the carotid intima-media thickness values, 58.3% of the patients were in the 75th percentile, 25% were in the 90th percentile, and 20% were in the 95th percentile. In the control group, only five of the 30 subjects (16.7%) had a nondipper pattern ( P  =   0.004), with 4.54% in the 90th and 95th percentiles ( P  =   0.012 and 0.015).  Compared with healthy controls, patients with cluster headache presented a high incidence (48.5%) of nondipper pattern, pathological ankle-brachial index (69.7%), and intima-media thickness values above the 75th percentile. These findings support the hypothesis that patients with cluster headache present increased risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Post-traumatic headache: is it for real? Crossfire debates on headache: pro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann, Mark; Keidel, Matthias; Diener, Hans-Christoph

    2010-04-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury is very common in Western societies, affecting approximately 1.8 million individuals in the USA. Even though between 30% and 90% of patients develop post-traumatic headache, post-traumatic headache remains a very controversial disorder. Particularly when it comes to chronic post-traumatic headache following mild closed head injury and headache attributed to whiplash injury. Some experts are disputing its existence as a genuine disorder. Indistinct disease classification, unresolved pathophysiological mechanism, and the role of accident-related legal issues further fuel this controversy. The complex combination of pain and neuropsychological symptoms needs further research in understanding the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms associated with the acute headache following trauma but more so the mechanisms associated with the development of chronic pain in some patients. Investigators should refrain from oversimplifying these complex mechanisms as hysteric exaggeration of everyday complains and from implying greed as motivation for this potentially very disabling disease.

  16. Clinical characteristics of migraine and episodic tension-type headache in relation to old and new diagnostic criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Langemark, M; Andersson, P G

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-one patients were diagnosed as having migraine, tension headache or both according to previously used criteria. Then we performed a standardized interview to determine the frequency and severity of headache characteristics used in the new operational diagnostic criteria of the International...... Headache Society (IHS). In every patient the original diagnosis fulfilled also the IHS criteria, but in 9 patients the criteria were only fulfilled in half or less of the attacks, and applying the IHS criteria they also achieved an additional diagnosis. In one patient these attacks did not fulfill the pain...

  17. Headache classification and aspects of reproductive life in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhado, Eliana M; Bigal, Marcelo E; Galego, Andressa R; Galdezzani, João P; Queiroz, Luiz P

    2014-01-01

    To classify headaches as a function of the menstrual cycle and to contrast aspects relating to the reproductive cycle as a function of headache type. Participants responded to a structured questionnaire consisting of 44 questions. Detailed headache information, enabling the classification of headaches, and questions relating to the menstrual cycle were obtained. The sample consisted of 422 students. Menstrual headaches were experienced by 31.8%. Migraine without aura (MO) occurred in 13.3%, migraine with aura (MA) in 7.8%, and probable migraine in 6.4%. Women with MA were significantly more likely to have reached menarche at earlier ages than women without headaches (p=0.03). Use of a hormonal contraceptive was related to the function of having MA headaches or not. Most female college students are affected by menstrual headaches. Although the vast majority experience MO, other headaches also occur. Women with MA are equally likely to receive hormonal contraceptives as others.

  18. Diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Eric; Ohrbach, Richard; List, Thomas; Anderson, Gary; Jensen, Rigmor; John, Mike T; Nixdorf, Donald; Goulet, Jean-Paul; Kang, Wenjun; Truelove, Ed; Clavel, Al; Fricton, James; Look, John

    2012-07-01

    We assessed and compared the diagnostic accuracy of two sets of diagnostic criteria for headache secondary to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). In 373 headache subjects with TMD, a TMD headache reference standard was defined as: self-reported temple headache, consensus diagnosis of painful TMD and replication of the temple headache using TMD-based provocation tests. Revised diagnostic criteria for Headache attributed to TMD were selected using the RPART (recursive partitioning and regression trees) procedure, and refined in half of the data set. Using the remaining half of the data, the diagnostic accuracy of the revised criteria was compared to that of the International Headache Society's International Classification of Headache Diseases (ICHD)-II criteria A to C for Headache or facial pain attributed to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. Relative to the TMD headache reference standard, ICHD-II criteria showed sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 33%. The revised criteria for Headache attributed to TMD had sensitivity of 89% with improved specificity of 87% (p headache that is changed with jaw movement, function or parafunction and (2) provocation of that headache by temporalis muscle palpation or jaw movement. Having significantly better specificity than the ICHD-II criteria A to C, the revised criteria are recommended to diagnose headache secondary to TMD.

  19. Intravenous Sodium Valproate for Acute Pediatric Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, David; Sun, Benjamin; O'Brien, Patricia; Hansen, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Headaches are common in the pediatric population, and increase in prevalence with age. The abortive medications currently used have a number of potential side effects. Sodium valproate (VPA) has been shown to be effective for acute treatment in the adult population, but no data exist in the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of VPA for acute pediatric headache in the emergency department. This was a retrospective case series of all patients pediatric emergency department (PED) at two tertiary care pediatric hospitals and with a final diagnosis of migraine or headache who received parenteral VPA. Data collected included patient demographics, pain reduction, length of stay, and final disposition. From July 2010 to February 2014, there were 16 patients who received VPA for acute headache in the PED; 4 were excluded. Eighty-three percent were discharged home. Mean length of stay in the PED before VPA was 395 min, and 120 min after VPA administration. Patients achieved a 17% mean pain score reduction before VPA and approximately an additional 40% mean pain reduction after VPA infusion. VPA appears to be an effective agent for acute pediatric headache in this small series. Patients responded well to VPA in a relatively short amount of time. Further studies are needed to evaluate its effectiveness in combination with other first-line medications or as a single agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fear of pain in pediatric headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura E; Pielech, Melissa; Cappucci, Stefanie; Lebel, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    The current study provides the first measure of pain-related fear for pediatric headache patients. From a large pediatric headache clinic, a cross-sectional cohort of 206 children and adolescents completed measures of pain-related fear, anxiety sensitivity, catastrophizing, pain acceptance, functional disability, and school functioning. The two-factor solution of the Fear of Pain Questionnaire (FOPQ) was confirmed from the originally derived structure with pediatric headache patients. Simultaneously regressing FOPQ subscales fear of pain and activity avoidance on theorized construct validity measures demonstrated that fear of pain was more closely linked with anxiety sensitivity and pain catastrophizing while activity avoidance had a strong negative association with pain acceptance (activity engagement and pain willingness). Pain-related fear was not significantly associated with pain level. After controlling for demographic factors and pain, fear of pain and activity avoidance accounted for an additional 26% of the variance in functional disability and school functioning outcomes, with activity avoidance accounting for much of this relationship. Although typically considered an influential construct among musculoskeletal patients, pain-related fear is also an important factor influencing functioning among pediatric headache patients, with the dimension of activity avoidance particularly salient. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Headache patterns in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragasudha Botta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics, patterns, and factors associated with headache in patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we recruited conscious CVT patients who were able to give reliable history after consent. Institutional ethics approval was obtained. The diagnosis of CVT was based on the clinical and imaging parameters. Data regarding headache characteristic, severity (visual analog scale [VAS], imaging findings and outcome was recorded. Results: Forty-seven patients (19 males and 28 females with mean age 29.7 ± 8.7 years were recruited. The mean duration of headache was 12.6 ± 26.8 days, and VAS was 79.38 ± 13.41. Headache onset was acute in 51.1%, subacute in 42.6%, thunderclap in 4.3%, and chronic in 2.1%; location was holocranial in 36.2%, frontal in 27.7% patients; description was throbbing in 44.7% and aching in 25.5% patients. Superior sagittal sinus and transverse sinus were involved in 63.8% cases each. The prothrombotic factors were anemia in 55.3%, puerperal in 38.3%, hyperhomocysteinemia in 29.8%, and polycythemia in 19.1%. Conclusion: Holocranial and bifrontal headache of increasing severity may be a marker of CVT. This may be useful in clinical judgment in identifying conscious patients with CVT.

  2. Evaluation of headache service quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarava, Zaza; Gouveia, Raquel Gil; Jensen, Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evaluating quality of health care is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to the advancement of health-care delivery. We recently developed a set of quality indicators for headache care, intended to be applicable across countries, cultures and settings so that deficienc......BACKGROUND: Evaluating quality of health care is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to the advancement of health-care delivery. We recently developed a set of quality indicators for headache care, intended to be applicable across countries, cultures and settings so...... that deficiencies in headache care worldwide might be recognized and rectified. These indicators themselves require evaluation and proof of fitness for purpose. This pilot study begins this process. METHODS: We tested the quality indicators in the tertiary headache centres of the University of Duisburg......: The questionnaires were easily understood by both HCPs and patients and were not unduly time-consuming. The results from the two headache centres were comparable despite their differences in structure, staffing and language. These findings met the purpose of the study. Diagnoses were made according to ICHD criteria...

  3. Diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management of cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jan; May, Arne

    2018-01-01

    Cluster headache is a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia characterised by extremely painful, strictly unilateral, short-lasting headache attacks accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic symptoms or the sense of restlessness and agitation, or both. The severity of the disorder has major effects on the patient's quality of life and, in some cases, might lead to suicidal ideation. Cluster headache is now thought to involve a synchronised abnormal activity in the hypothalamus, the trigeminovascular system, and the autonomic nervous system. The hypothalamus appears to play a fundamental role in the generation of a permissive state that allows the initiation of an episode, whereas the attacks are likely to require the involvement of the peripheral nervous system. Triptans are the most effective drugs to treat an acute cluster headache attack. Monoclonal antibodies against calcitonin gene-related peptide, a crucial neurotransmitter of the trigeminal system, are under investigation for the preventive treatment of cluster headache. These studies will increase our understanding of the disorder and perhaps reveal other therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Management of headache disorders in the Emergency Department setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pari, Elisa; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Gipponi, Stefano; Venturelli, Elisabetta; Liberini, Paolo; Rao, Renata; Padovani, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    Headache is a common presenting complaint in the Emergency Department. The aim of this study was to delineate the demographic profile of patients presenting a chief complaint of headache and to assess the application of diagnostic algorithms for the management of these patients. We examined patients admitted to the Spedali Civili Hospital ED between January 2005 and December 2009 who complained of headache not related to trauma and all patients hospitalized for headache in Neurological Clinic, from ED, between January 2008 and December 2009. 7495 patients were examined at ED for headaches. 72 % of patients were discharged, 22 % were admitted. From 2005 to 2009, there was a definite decrease in the rate of hospitalization due to headache (15 vs 9.9 % in Department of Neurology and 26 vs 18.9 % in all Departments). Considering the decrease year by year, this reduction was significant from 2007 to 2008, when the algorithms were adopted. The most common diagnosis in the ED was "Non-specific headache" (41 %), followed by "Primary headaches and complications of primary headaches" (20.8 %), "Secondary headaches not associated with risk of serious disease" (20.4 %) and "Secondary headache associated with risk of serious disease" (5 %). Over 2-year period (2008-2009) we found an increase in the diagnosis of "Primary headaches and complications of primary headaches" and "Secondary headaches associated with risk of serious disease" compared with a decrease of "nonspecific headache" and "secondary headaches not associated with risk of serious disease". The use of the diagnostic algorithms and collaborative network between the ED and the Headache Center can improve the management of patients with headache in ED.

  5. A COMPARISON OF HEADACHE AND NON-HEADACHE SUFFERERS ON MEASURES OF SOCIAL SUPPORT AND MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAM CL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 138 headaches sufferers and 138 subjects without headaches were studied to investigate if there were differences between headache and non-headache sufferers in terms of their mental health and social support levels. The overall results of this study indicated that headache sufferers, as compared with non-headache sufferers had slightly more mental health problems, and more social support from their family members. When the results were scrutinised in more detail, it was observed that headache sufferers reported that they felt less capable of making decisions about things, were not always able to face up to their problems, and sometimes thought about themselves as a worthless. Given that the study was based on a community, rather than clinic sample, further research would be required to examine the differing the types of headaches that people are suffering from, and the intensity of the headaches, in relation to mental health problems.

  6. Clinical Studies on HWANGRYUNHAEDOKTANG Herbal Acupuncture Therapy on Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Dae-Yong

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are many treatments for headache. We suggested the clinical effect and utilization of HWANGRYUNHAEDOKTANG herbal acupuncture on headache. Methods: 1. We injected distillation of HWANGRYUNHAEDOKTANG(2.0cc on Both Pung-Ji(GB20 of patients. In 20 minutes later, We examined therapeutic value of headache. 2. We examined effects of HWANGRYUNHAEDOKTANG Herbal acupuncture by sex , age, area of headache, period of history, degree of headache. Results and Conclusions: 1. There was a significantly effect of HWANGRYUNHAEDOKTANG Herbal acupuncture on headache. 2. In therapeutic value, The effect of HWANGRYUNHAEDOKTANG Herbal acupuncture by each type is significant.

  7. Tension‑Type Headache - Psychiatric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Campos Mendes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tension‑type headaches (Ctt are the most frequent headaches in the general population and those with higher socio‑economic impact, given the high degree of disability they cause. Objective: The authors propose to conduct a review of the available literature on the subject, from a psychiatric perspective. Discussion: Several studies have identified a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, personality traits and ineffective coping mechanisms in patients with Ctt, so it is essential to understand this relationship and the impact of these psychopathological factors on this kind of headaches. Conclusion: Their clinical and therapeutic approach is hampered by these and other factors and multiple strategies of pharmacological and psycho‑behavioral treatment have been used on them, however, scientific evidence is still scarce.

  8. Endovascular thrombectomy and post-procedural headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sabrina; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Holtmannspötter, Markus

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the prevalence of post-procedural headache in patients who have undergone thrombectomy for ischemic stroke, and correlated history of migraine with risk of peri-procedural complications. A total of 314 patients underwent thrombectomy at the Danish National Hospital from...... January 2012 to December 2014. Eligible subjects were phone-interviewed using a purpose-developed semi-structured questionnaire according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3, beta version criteria. FINDINGS: Among 96 eligible subjects, there was a significant decrease in migraine...... (p = 0.022) within the first 3 months after EVT compared to 1 year before treatment, which was further evident at interview time (on average 1.6 years after EVT, p = 0.013). A minority of patients experienced headaches for the first time within 3 months of their EVT (migraine 2, TTH 9), which...

  9. Deep brain stimulation for cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grover, Patrick J; Pereira, Erlick A C; Green, Alexander L

    2009-01-01

    Cluster headache is a severely debilitating disorder that can remain unrelieved by current pharmacotherapy. Alongside ablative neurosurgical procedures, neuromodulatory treatments of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and occipital nerve simulation have emerged in the last few years as effective...... treatments for medically refractory cluster headaches. Pioneers in the field have sought to publish guidelines for neurosurgical treatment; however, only small case series with limited long-term follow-up have been published. Controversy remains over which surgical treatments are best and in which...... circumstances to intervene. Here we review current data on neurosurgical interventions for chronic cluster headache focusing upon DBS and occipital nerve stimulation, and discuss the indications for and putative mechanisms of DBS including translational insights from functional neuroimaging, diffusion weighted...

  10. The International Classification of Headache Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J.

    2008-01-01

    A set of related medical disorders that lack a proper classification system and diagnostic criteria is like a society without laws. The result is incoherence at best, chaos at worst. For this reason, the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) is arguably the single most important...... universally accepted, and criticism of the classification has been minor relative to that directed at other disease classification systems. Over the 20 years following publication of the first edition of the ICHD, headache research has rapidly accelerated despite sparse allocation of resources to that effort....... In summary, the ICHD has attained widespread acceptance at the international level and has substantially facilitated both clinical research and clinical care in the field of headache medicine Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  11. Behavioral and nonpharmacologic treatments of headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, A E

    2001-07-01

    Cognitive-behavioral analysis and the multiaxial assessment of relevant behavioral domains (headache frequency and severity, analgesic and abortive use and misuse, behavioral and stress-related risk factors, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and degree of overall functional impairment) help set the stage for CBT of headache disorders. Controlled studies of CBTs for migraine, such as biofeedback and relaxation therapy, have a prophylactic efficacy of about 50%, roughly equivalent to propranolol. Cluster headache responds poorly to behavioral treatment. The persistent overuse of symptomatic medication impedes the effectiveness of behavioral and prophylactic medical therapies. Behavioral treatment can help sustain improvement after analgesic withdrawal, however, and prevent relapse in cases of analgesic overuse. Cognitive factors (e.g., an enhanced sense of self-efficacy and internal locus of control) appear to be important mediators of successful behavioral treatment. Patients with CDH are more likely to overuse symptomatic medication (and in some cases abuse analgesics), have more psychiatric comorbidity; have more functional impairment and disability, and are at least as likely to experience stress-related intensification of headache as patients whose episodic headaches occur less than 15 days per month. Despite the significance of these behavioral factors, patients with CDH (particularly those with migrainous features) are less likely to benefit from behavioral treatment without concomitant prophylactic medication than is the case for episodic TTH and migraine sufferers. Continuous daily pain may be more refractory to behavioral treatment as a solo modality than CDH marked by at least some pain-free days or periods of time. The combination of behavioral therapies with prophylactic medication creates a synergistic effect, increasing efficacy beyond either type of treatment alone. Compliance-enhancement techniques, including behavioral contracts for patients with

  12. Headache Exacerbates Pain Characteristics in Temporomandibular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Yuri Martins; Alves da Costa, Dayse Regina; de Lima Ferreira, Ana Paula; Porporatti, André Luís; Svensson, Peter; Rodrigues Conti, Paulo César; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of headache in adults with masticatory myofascial pain (MMP) on the outcome variables clinical pain (ie, self-reported pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity), sleep quality, and pain catastrophizing. A total of 97 patients with MMP were diagnosed with co-existing headache (MMPH group, n = 50) or without headache (MMP group, n = 47) according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). The outcome parameters were the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); the Catastrophizing Thoughts subscale of the Pain-Related Self-Statement Scale (PRSS-C); pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles; and self-reported facial pain intensity measured on a 0- to 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Student t test for independent samples (α = 1.2%) and factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (α = 5%) were used to analyze the data. The MMPH group showed significantly impaired sleep quality (mean ± standard deviation [SD] PSQI score 9.1 ± 3.5) compared with the MMP group (7.2 ± 3.4; P = .008). Subscale scores on the PRSS-C were significantly higher in the MMPH (2.1 ± 1.2) than in the MMP group (1.6 ± 1.4, uncorrected P = .048). Also, the PPTs (kgf/cm²) of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles were significantly lower in the MMPH group (1.52 ± 0.53; 1.29 ± 0.43, respectively) than in the MMP group (2.09 ± 0.73; 1.70 ± 0.68, respectively; P headache patients had lower PPTs in the anterior temporalis muscle (P = .041) in comparison with non-headache patients. Co-existence of headache further exacerbates clinical characteristics in patients with painful TMD, which implies involvement of common mechanisms and pathways of vulnerability in these patients.

  13. Are neurology residents interested in headache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Veiga, A B; Santos-Lasaosa, S; Viguera Romero, J; Pozo-Rosich, P

    The years of residency are the pillars of the subsequent practice in every medical specialty. The aim of our study is to evaluate the current situation, degree of involvement, main interests, and perceived quality of the training received by Spanish residents of neurology, specifically in the area of headache. A self-administered survey was designed by the Headache Study Group of the Spanish Society of Neurology (GECSEN) and was sent via e-mail to all residents who were members of the Society as of May 2015. Fifty-three residents completed the survey (N = 426, 12.4%): 6% were first year residents, 25.5% second year, 23.5% third year, and 45% fourth year residents, all from 13 different Spanish autonomous communities. The areas of greatest interest are, in this order: Vascular neurology, headache, and epilepsy. Of them, 85% believe that the area of headache is undervalued. More than half of residents (52.8%) do not rotate in specific Headache Units and only 35.8% complete their training dominating anaesthetic block and toxin infiltration techniques. Of them, 81.1% believe that research is scarce or absent; 69.8% have never made a poster/presentation, 79.3% have not published and only 15% collaborate on research projects in this area. Lastly, 40% believe that they have not received adequate training. Headache is among the areas that interest our residents the most; however, we believe that we must improve their training both at a patient healthcare level and as researchers. Thus, increasing the number of available courses, creating educational web pages, involving residents in research, and making a rotation in a specialised unit mandatory are among the fundamental objectives of the GECSEN. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Habituation and sensitization in primary headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The phenomena of habituation and sensitization are considered most useful for studying the neuronal substrates of information processing in the CNS. Both were studied in primary headaches, that are functional disorders of the brain characterized by an abnormal responsivity to any kind of incoming innocuous or painful stimuli and it’s cycling pattern over time (interictal, pre-ictal, ictal). The present review summarizes available data on stimulus responsivity in primary headaches obtained with clinical neurophysiology. In migraine, the majority of electrophysiological studies between attacks have shown that, for a number of different sensory modalities, the brain is characterised by a lack of habituation of evoked responses to repeated stimuli. This abnormal processing of the incoming information reaches its maximum a few days before the beginning of an attack, and normalizes during the attack, at a time when sensitization may also manifest itself. An abnormal rhythmic activity between thalamus and cortex, namely thalamocortical dysrhythmia, may be the pathophysiological mechanism subtending abnormal information processing in migraine. In tension-type headache (TTH), only few signs of deficient habituation were observed only in subgroups of patients. By contrast, using grand-average responses indirect evidence for sensitization has been found in chronic TTH with increased nociceptive specific reflexes and evoked potentials. Generalized increased sensitivity to pain (lower thresholds and increased pain rating) and a dysfunction in supraspinal descending pain control systems may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of central sensitization in chronic TTH. Cluster headache patients are chrarcterized during the bout and on the headache side by a pronounced lack of habituation of the brainstem blink reflex and a general sensitization of pain processing. A better insight into the nature of these ictal/interictal electrophysiological dysfunctions in primary

  15. Occipital headaches and neuroimaging in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Joshua J; Gelfand, Amy A; Goadsby, Peter J; Bass, Nancy

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the common thinking, as reinforced by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta), that occipital headaches in children are rare and suggestive of serious intracranial pathology. We performed a retrospective chart review cohort study of all patients ≤18 years of age referred to a university child neurology clinic for headache in 2009. Patients were stratified by headache location: solely occipital, occipital plus other area(s) of head pain, or no occipital involvement. Children with abnormal neurologic examinations were excluded. We assessed location as a predictor of whether neuroimaging was ordered and whether intracranial pathology was found. Analyses were performed with cohort study tools in Stata/SE 13.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX). A total of 308 patients were included. Median age was 12 years (32 months-18 years), and 57% were female. Headaches were solely occipital in 7% and occipital-plus in 14%. Patients with occipital head pain were more likely to undergo neuroimaging than those without occipital involvement (solely occipital: 95%, relative risk [RR] 10.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-77.3; occipital-plus: 88%, RR 3.7, 95% CI 1.5-9.2; no occipital pain: 63%, referent). Occipital pain alone or with other locations was not significantly associated with radiographic evidence of clinically significant intracranial pathology. Children with occipital headache are more likely to undergo neuroimaging. In the absence of concerning features on the history and in the setting of a normal neurologic examination, neuroimaging can be deferred in most pediatric patients when occipital pain is present. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Obesity in the pediatric headache population: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Andrew D; Powers, Scott W; Nelson, Timothy D; Kabbouche, Marielle A; Winner, Paul; Yonker, Marcy; Linder, Steven L; Bicknese, Alma; Sowel, Michael K; McClintock, William

    2009-02-01

    To examine the prevalence of obesity, the relationship between weight compared with headache frequency and disability, and effect of weight change on headache outcomes within a pediatric headache population. Headache and obesity are both common conditions in children and adults. Research in adults has suggested a relationship between the 2 conditions. This relationship has not yet been explored within a pediatric population. The effect of obesity and weight change on headache outcomes may have important implications for clinical care. Data on height, weight, age, and gender, as well as headache frequency and disability, were collected on 913 consecutive patients at 7 pediatric headache centers, the body mass index (BMI) calculated and the BMI percentile determined. The same data were collected on patients seen at 3- (n = 213) and 6-month (n = 174) follow-up for comparative analysis. The prevalence of overweight patients at initial visit did not significantly differ from the general pediatric population. BMI percentile was significantly correlated with headache frequency and disability at initial visit, although the correlations were relatively small. For children who were obese or at risk for overweight as initial visit, change in BMI was significantly positively correlated with change in headache frequency at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Obesity is associated with headache frequency and disability in the pediatric headache population. For children who are overweight, weight loss can contribute to a reduction in headaches over time. Clinicians should consider child weight status in providing care for pediatric headache.

  17. Commercially available mobile phone headache diary apps: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundert, Amos S; Huguet, Anna; McGrath, Patrick J; Stinson, Jennifer N; Wheaton, Mike

    2014-08-19

    Headache diaries are often used by headache sufferers to self-monitor headaches. With advances in mobile technology, mobile electronic diary apps are becoming increasingly common. This review aims to identify and evaluate all commercially available mobile headache diary apps for the two most popular mobile phone platforms, iOS and Android. The authors developed a priori a set of 7 criteria that define an ideal headache diary app intended to help headache sufferers better understand and manage their headaches, while providing relevant data to health professionals. The app criteria were intended as minimum requirements for an acceptable headache diary app that could be prescribed by health care professionals. Each app was evaluated and scored against each criterion. Of the 38 apps identified, none of the apps met all 7 app criteria. The 3 highest scoring apps, meeting 5 of the app criteria, were iHeadache (developed by Better QOL), ecoHeadache (developed by ecoTouchMedia), and Headache Diary Pro (developed by Froggyware). Only 18% of the apps were created with scientific or clinical headache expertise and none of the apps reported on psychometric properties. Despite the growing market and demand, there is a concerning lack of scientific expertise and evidence base associated with headache diary apps.

  18. Commercially Available Mobile Phone Headache Diary Apps: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Anna; McGrath, Patrick J; Stinson, Jennifer N; Wheaton, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background Headache diaries are often used by headache sufferers to self-monitor headaches. With advances in mobile technology, mobile electronic diary apps are becoming increasingly common. Objective This review aims to identify and evaluate all commercially available mobile headache diary apps for the two most popular mobile phone platforms, iOS and Android. Methods The authors developed a priori a set of 7 criteria that define an ideal headache diary app intended to help headache sufferers better understand and manage their headaches, while providing relevant data to health professionals. The app criteria were intended as minimum requirements for an acceptable headache diary app that could be prescribed by health care professionals. Each app was evaluated and scored against each criterion. Results Of the 38 apps identified, none of the apps met all 7 app criteria. The 3 highest scoring apps, meeting 5 of the app criteria, were iHeadache (developed by Better QOL), ecoHeadache (developed by ecoTouchMedia), and Headache Diary Pro (developed by Froggyware). Only 18% of the apps were created with scientific or clinical headache expertise and none of the apps reported on psychometric properties. Conclusions Despite the growing market and demand, there is a concerning lack of scientific expertise and evidence base associated with headache diary apps. PMID:25138438

  19. Comorbid Psychological Conditions in Pediatric Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Hope L; Slater, Shalonda K

    2016-02-01

    Children and adolescents with chronic daily headaches (CDH) often have comorbid psychological conditions, though their prevalence is unclear. Pediatric patients with CDH may have higher rates of disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, some researchers have found that scores on depression and anxiety screening measures for pediatric patients with migraine are within reference range. Barriers to identify patients with psychiatric disorders have included limited validated screening tools and lack of available mental health resources. Several validated screening tools have recently been used in studies of pediatric patients with CDH. Once identified, treatment of comorbid psychological conditions may lead to improved functioning and headache outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavioral treatment of headaches: extending the reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasik, F

    2012-05-01

    Behavioral treatments (predominantly biofeedback, relaxation, and cognitive-behavioral) have been utilized in headache management for many decades. Although effective, they have not been as widely implemented as desired, chiefly due to their time-intensive nature, special therapist qualifications, and patient costs. This paper focuses on ways to make these treatments more affordable and more readily accessible to patients. Various alternative delivery models have been explored. This paper reviews progress to date on three such approaches for treating recurrent headaches in adults--prudent limited office contact, Internet delivery, and mass media approaches. Clinical outcomes, advantages, and disadvantages of these approaches are reviewed in brief.

  1. Temporomandibular disorders and tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongini, Franco

    2007-12-01

    Pathologies currently defined as temporomandibular disorders may be different in nature. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders and craniofacial and cervical myogenous pain (MP) are distinct pathologies but may be superimposed and share some etiologic factors. Tension-type headache (TTH) may often be associated with craniofacial and cervical pain, and the same pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment may be efficacious for both. Psychiatric comorbidity (depression and/or anxiety disorder) is less frequent in sheer TMJ disorders, compared with MP and TTH. A screening for the presence of an underlying psychiatric disorder should be part of the clinical evaluation in patients suffering from headache and facial pain.

  2. [Imaging in the evaluation of headaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacowry Pala, K; Platon, A; Delémont, C

    2013-09-25

    Headache is a common complaint in primary care medicine. Most of the time, they are primary and benign headaches, with no need for further investigations; nevertheless, in the presence of red flags, a brain imaging is warranted. The diagnostic approach depends upon the most likely suspected cause and the degree of emergency. In those situations, a head CT scan without and with contrast is the exam of choice in most patients, because it is helpful for identifying intracranial lesions or bleeding. The MRI, more sensible, is preferred in the ambulatory setting for investigation and follow-up of intracranial tumoral or infectious diseases.

  3. Acupuncture for the prevention of tension-type headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Klaus; Allais, Gianni; Brinkhaus, Benno; Fei, Yutong; Mehring, Michael; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Vickers, Andrew; White, Adrian R

    2016-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is often used for prevention of tension-type headache but its effectiveness is still controversial. This is an update of our Cochrane review originally published in Issue 1, 2009 of The Cochrane Library. Objectives To investigate whether acupuncture is a) more effective than no prophylactic treatment/routine care only; b) more effective than ‘sham’ (placebo) acupuncture; and c) as effective as other interventions in reducing headache frequency in adults with episodic or chronic tension-type headache. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and AMED to 19 January 2016. We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to 10 February 2016 for ongoing and unpublished trials. Selection criteria We included randomised trials with a post-randomisation observation period of at least eight weeks, which compared the clinical effects of an acupuncture intervention with a control (treatment of acute headaches only or routine care), a sham acupuncture intervention or another prophylactic intervention in adults with episodic or chronic tension-type headache. Data collection and analysis Two review authors checked eligibility; extracted information on participants, interventions, methods and results; and assessed study risk of bias and the quality of the acupuncture intervention. The main efficacy outcome measure was response (at least 50% reduction of headache frequency) after completion of treatment (three to four months after randomisation). To assess safety/acceptability we extracted the number of participants dropping out due to adverse effects and the number of participants reporting adverse effects. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). Main results Twelve trials (11 included in the previous version and one newly identified) with 2349 participants (median 56, range 10 to 1265) met the inclusion criteria

  4. Autonomic dysfunction in pediatric patients with headache: migraine versus tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabner, Jonathan; Caruso, Alessandra; Zurakowski, David; Lazdowsky, Lori; LeBel, Alyssa

    2016-12-01

    To examine symptoms indicating central nervous system (CNS) autonomic dysfunction in pediatric patients with migraine and tension-type headache. A retrospective chart review assessed six symptoms (i.e. constipation, insomnia, dizziness, blurry vision, abnormal blood pressure, and cold and clammy palms and soles) indicating central nervous system (CNS) autonomic dysfunction in 231 patients, ages 5-18 years, diagnosed with migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), or Idiopathic Scoliosis (IS). Higher frequencies of "insomnia," "dizziness," and "cold and clammy palms and soles" were found for both migraine and TTH patients compared to the IS control group (P pediatric headache patients is discussed.

  5. N-acetylcysteine enhances nitroglycerin-induced headache and cranial arterial responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1992-01-01

    with N-acetylcysteine (100 mg/kg) or placebo. Arterial diameters were measured with high frequency ultrasound, and pain was scored by use of a previously evaluated 10-point scale. Plasma levels of free (n = 2) and total (n = 11) N-acetylcysteine were determined. N-Acetylcysteine potentiated the headache...

  6. Migraine Headache Treatment & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a variety of drugs for these treatment methods. Headache drug use should be monitored by a physician, ... new treatments or perhaps ways to block debilitating headache pain. Studies by other investigators are adding insight ...

  7. Laboratory tests of headache disorders - Dawn of a new era?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther; Olesen, Jes

    2016-01-01

    Context The classification of headache disorders has improved over the years, but further work is needed to develop and improve headache diagnosis within headache subtypes. The present review is a call for action to implement laboratory tests in the classification and management of primary and some...... if well-reputed tertiary headache centers commence developing and implementing laboratory tests in order to improve the classification and treatment of headache patients....... secondary headaches. Background In this narrative review we present and discuss published tests that might be useful in phenotyping and/or diagnosis of long-lasting headache disorders such as migraine, tension-type headache, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, trigeminal neuralgia and persisting secondary...

  8. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  9. Association of excessive daytime sleepiness with migraine and headache frequency in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavem, Knut; Kristiansen, Håvard Anton; Kristoffersen, Espen Saxhaug; Kværner, Kari Jorunn; Russell, Michael Bjørn

    2017-12-01

    Some previous studies have postulated an association between migraine and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). This study evaluated the association of EDS with migraine and headache frequency in a general population, after adjusting for potential confounding variables. The study was a postal survey of a random age and gender-stratified sample of 40,000 persons aged 20 to 80 years old drawn by the National Population Register in Norway. The questionnaire included questions about migraine, headache, the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and various comorbidities. EDS was defined as ESS > 10. The association of EDS and migraine/headache were analysed by bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. A total of 21,177 persons responded to the ESS and were included in the analyses. The odds ratio (OR) for EDS was increased for migraineurs (1.42 (95% CI 1.31─1.54), p 179 days per year compared to those without headache in multivariable analysis. In a general population, the odds for EDS increased significantly with the headache frequency, irrespective of migraine status. EDS was not associated with reported migraine in multivariable analysis.

  10. Temporomandibular Disorders and Headache: A Retrospective Analysis of 1198 Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Di Paolo, Carlo; D'Urso, Anna; Papi, Piero; Di Sabato, Francesco; Rosella, Daniele; Pompa, Giorgio; Polimeni, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Aim. Headache is one of the most common diseases associated with Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs). The aim of this study was to evaluate, retrospectively, if headache influences TMD’s symptoms. Material and Methods. A total sample of 1198 consecutive TMD patients was selected. After a neurological examination, a diagnosis of headache, according to the latest edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, was performed in 625 subjects. Patients were divided into two group...

  11. Airplane headache: a further case report of a young man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domitrz, Izabela

    2010-12-01

    Headache with normal examinations and imaging, occurring during an airplane flight has been rarely reported. We present a young patient with a new type of headache that appeared during flights: take-off and landing of a plane and was not associated with other conditions. This airplane headache is rather rare in population and the pathophysiology of this type is not clear. Secondary causes must be ruled out before the diagnosis of a primary headache is made.

  12. No Laughing Matter: Gelastic Migraine and Other Unusual Headache Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Paul G; Robertson, Carrie E

    2016-05-01

    Primary and secondary headache disorders have established diagnostic criteria in the International Classification of Headache Disorders IIIb, as well as classic findings, which although not part of the formal criteria are often suggestive of a particular diagnosis. At times, headache disorders can involve unusual symptoms that lack an identifiable secondary cause. This review will discuss some of these unusual symptoms, including headache associated auditory and olfactory symptoms, as well as two case reports involving gelastic migraine and migrainous thoracalgia.

  13. Caffeine in the management of patients with headache

    OpenAIRE

    Lipton, Richard B.; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Robbins, Matthew S.; Garas, Sandy Yacoub; Patel, Ketu

    2017-01-01

    Caffeinated headache medications, either alone or in combination with other treatments, are widely used by patients with headache. Clinicians should be familiar with their use as well as the chemistry, pharmacology, dietary and medical sources, clinical benefits, and potential safety issues of caffeine. In this review, we consider the role of caffeine in the over-the-counter treatment of headache. The MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched by combining “caffeine” with the terms “headach...

  14. Nummular headache associated with focal hair heterochromia in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabscheck, Gabriel; Andrews, Peter Ian

    2010-11-01

    Nummular headache (NH) is a recently described headache syndrome where continuous or intermittent pain is localised to a coin-shaped region of the skull. NH can be a primary headache disorder or secondary to intracranial or extracranial pathology. We report a four-year-old boy who presented with nummular headache co-localised with a patch of discoloured hair and propose a common aetiology.

  15. Neuroimaging in childhood headache: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexiou, George A. [University of Ioannina, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, P.O. Box 103, Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2013-07-15

    Headache is a common complaint in children, one that gives rise to considerable parental concern and fear of the presence of a space-occupying lesion. The evaluation and diagnosis of headache is very challenging for paediatricians, and neuroimaging by means of CT or MRI is often requested as part of the investigation. CT exposes children to radiation, while MRI is costly and sometimes requires sedation or general anaesthesia, especially in children younger than 6 years. This review of the literature on the value of neuroimaging in children with headache showed that the rate of pathological findings is generally low. Imaging findings that led to a change in patient management were in almost all cases reported in children with abnormal signs on neurological examination. Neuroimaging should be limited to children with a suspicious clinical history, abnormal neurological findings or other physical signs suggestive of intracranial pathology. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the clinical findings that warrant neuroimaging in children with headache. (orig.)

  16. Recurrent Pediatric Headaches: Behavioral Concepts and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Keith D.

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent pediatric headaches are increasingly understood to be a function of both respondent and operant processes. In particular, the environment is thought to elicit internal autonomic instability and to evoke external maladaptive pain behavior. While medical interventions often provide an appropriate first line treatment, behavioral…

  17. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasik, Frank; Schwartz, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Headaches are quite common in children and adolescents, and they appear to persist into adulthood in a sizable number of individuals. Assessment approaches (interview, pain diaries, and general and specific questionnaires) and behavioral treatment interventions (contingency management, relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavior therapy) are…

  18. Chronic frequent headache in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiendels, Natalie Janette

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a large questionnaire-based study on the epidemiology of chronic frequent headache (CFH) in the Dutch adult population. It also includes information on triptan (over)use from the Drug Information Project (GIP database) and the results of a withdrawal trial in

  19. Chronic daily headache in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshia, Shashi S

    2012-02-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH) may be primary or secondary. Secondary causes can be suspected through "red flags" in the history and examination. With a prevalence of at least 1% and several associations, primary CDH is a common, often complex, chronic pain syndrome in children and adolescents. The intricate associations between stressors, psychiatric disorders (especially anxiety and depression), and CDH can be explained by "the limbically augmented pain syndrome" proposed by Rome and Rome. Disorders of sleep and other pain syndromes also may co-occur. For these reasons, a multiaxial classification is ideal. Many with primary CDH have features of both chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, contributing to confusion in subtyping. Primary CDH is often transformed from a primary episodic headache type, stressors being most responsible. Genetic factors also may facilitate chronification. Management should be biopsychosocial, family-centered, and often multidisciplinary, drugs being only one component. Treatment is still based on consensus, not evidence. Girls, migraineurs, and those with psychiatric comorbidity, medication overuse, and CDH onset before the age of 13 years and lasting for 2 years or longer, are at high risk for persistence; hence, such patients should be followed up into adult life. A classification for CDH should be included in the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders.

  20. Neuroimaging in childhood headache: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiou, George A.; Argyropoulou, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Headache is a common complaint in children, one that gives rise to considerable parental concern and fear of the presence of a space-occupying lesion. The evaluation and diagnosis of headache is very challenging for paediatricians, and neuroimaging by means of CT or MRI is often requested as part of the investigation. CT exposes children to radiation, while MRI is costly and sometimes requires sedation or general anaesthesia, especially in children younger than 6 years. This review of the literature on the value of neuroimaging in children with headache showed that the rate of pathological findings is generally low. Imaging findings that led to a change in patient management were in almost all cases reported in children with abnormal signs on neurological examination. Neuroimaging should be limited to children with a suspicious clinical history, abnormal neurological findings or other physical signs suggestive of intracranial pathology. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the clinical findings that warrant neuroimaging in children with headache. (orig.)

  1. Pediatric Inpatient Headache Therapy: What is Available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbouche, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Status migrainosus is defined by the international classification of headache disorders (ICHD) criteria as a debilitating migraine lasting more then 72 hours. The epidemiology of status migrainosus is still unknown in adult and children, and frequently underdiagnosed. Children and adolescents often end up in the emergency room with an intractable headache that failed outpatient therapy. Six to seven percent of these children do not respond to acute infusion therapy and require hospitalization. It is imperative that more aggressive therapy is considered when patients are affected by a severe intractable headache to prevent further disability and returning the child to baseline activity. Multiple therapies are available for adults and children. Studies for acute therapy in the emergency room are available in adults and pediatric groups. Small studies are available for inpatient therapy in children and, along with available therapies for children and adolescents, are described in this review. A review of the literature shows growing evidence regarding the use of dihydroergotamine intravenously once patients are hospitalized. Effectiveness and safety have been proven in the last decades in adults and small studies in the pediatric populations. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  2. Primary headaches in restless legs syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies conducted among migraineurs have shown an association between migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS. We chose RLS patients and looked for migraine to exclude sample bias. Materials and Methods: 99 consecutive subjects of idiopathic RLS were recruited from the sleep clinic during four months period. Physician diagnosis of headache and depressive disorder was made with the help of ICHD-2 and DSM-IV-TR criteria, respectively. Sleep history was gathered. Severity of RLS and insomnia was measured using IRLS (Hindi version and insomnia severity index Hindi version, respectively. Chi-square test, one way ANOVA and t-test were applied to find out the significance. Results: Primary headache was seen in 51.5% cases of RLS. Migraine was reported by 44.4% subjects and other types of ′primary headaches′ were reported by 7.1% subjects. Subjects were divided into- RLS; RLS with migraine and RLS with other headache. Females outnumbered in migraine subgroup (χ2 =16.46, P<0.001. Prevalence of depression (χ2 =3.12, P=0.21 and family history of RLS (χ2 =2.65, P=0.26 were not different among groups. Severity of RLS (P=0.22 or insomnia (P=0.43 were also similar. Conclusion: Migraine is frequently found in RLS patients in clinic based samples. Females with RLS are prone to develop migraine. Depression and severity of RLS or insomnia do not affect development of headache.

  3. Outcomes of Chronic Daily Headache in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The outcomes and predictors of chronic daily headache (CDH were determined in a 2-year longitudinal study of a sample of 122 adolescents (32 male/90 female; ages 12-14 with annual telephone follow-up by neurologists at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan.

  4. Outcome of Chronic Daily Headache in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A community-based sample of 122 adolescents aged 12-14 years with chronic daily headache (CDH was established in 2000 at University centers in Taiwan by a survey of 7,900 students in 5 selected public middle schools.

  5. Acupuncture laser in treating headache pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smesny, Dunja B.

    1990-09-01

    Cervicoocipital headache observed in 112 patient were treated, half of them with acupuncture, and other 50% with He-e laser (con tinuous emission- lo mW, 633nm: IEC). With this treatment was also combined an exercise program ne cesary for the mobilisation of functionaly blocked vertebral segment.

  6. Headaches from ear, nose and throat diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reck, R.

    1984-01-01

    Headaches are a frequent symptom in ENT-patients. The complex sensory innervation of the ear, nose and paranasal sinuses is demonstrated. Heterotopic or referred pain must be differentiated from homotopic pain that is experienced at the point of injury. The nervous pathways of heterotopic otalgia are shown. The quality of pain of the most common rhinological and otological diseases is reported. (orig.) [de

  7. Part I--Evaluation of pediatric post-traumatic headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchefsky, Elana; Dubrovsky, Alexander Sasha; Friedman, Debbie; Shevell, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Brain injury is one of the most common injuries in the pediatric age group, and post-traumatic headache is one of the most common symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury in children. This is an expert opinion-based two-part review on pediatric post-traumatic headaches. Part I will focus on an overview and approach to the evaluation of post-traumatic headache. Part II will focus on the medical management of post-traumatic headache. Relevant articles were reviewed, and an algorithm is proposed. We review the epidemiology, classification, pathophysiology, and clinical approach to evaluating patients with post-traumatic headache. A comprehensive history and physical examination are fundamental to identifying the headache type(s). Identifying the precise headache phenotype is important to help guide treatment. Most of the post-traumatic headaches are migraine or tension type, but occipital neuralgia, cervicogenic headache, and medication overuse headache also occur. Postconcussive signs often resolve within 1 month, and individuals whose signs persist longer may benefit from an interprofessional approach. Rigorous evaluation and diagnosis are vital to treating post-traumatic headaches effectively. A multifaceted approach is needed to address all the possible contributing factors to the headaches and any comorbid conditions that may delay recovery or alter treatment choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Should non acute and recurrent headaches have neuroimaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramakantb

    Background: Headache is a common complaint in general practice and it is known that most headaches are primary and that the yield of neuroimaging like cranial computed tomography (CT) in headache is generally low. In this study, we were able to demonstrate that the yield of neuroimaging in non-acute and recurrent ...

  9. Cluster headache and sleep, is there a connection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barløse, Mads; Jennum, P; Knudsen, S

    2012-01-01

    study of seven episodic cluster headache patients, but it was suggested that further studies into the correlation between cluster headache attacks and the microstructure of sleep are relevant. The connection between cluster headache and the hypocretins is currently under investigation. SUMMARY...

  10. Classification and clinical features of primary headache in Akaki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2mikitser

    Family history of tension headache was found in. 40%. The clinical profiles of tension headache were bilateral headache localized to the forehead in a band like pressure or tightness with a mild to moderate intensity and anorexia. Some of the triggering factors were annoyance or stress, change of weather, smell, and ...

  11. [A chronic problem-the chronic headache patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, A

    2004-10-01

    Chronic daily headache is a frequent problem which affects 3-5% of the population. Until the 2nd edition of the IHS headache classification, the diagnosis of chronic headache was synonymous with the diagnosis of chronic tension type headache. Now one has to differentiate, not only in symptomatic headache, but also between other primary headache syndromes, such as chronic migraine, hemicrania continua and acute persisting daily headache. Epidemiological studies point to a particular importance of chronic migraine and headache due to chronic analgetica use, since both types of headache are responsible for more than 60% of all cases with chronic headache. Although the mechanisms which cause chronification of headache are not well understood, the new headache classification prompts some direct therapeutical consequences: 1) the indication for drug withdrawal and 2) the indication for a migraine preventive therapy. In general, as with other chronic pain syndromes, there is increasing evidence that a multimodal therapy, consisting of patient education, behavioral therapy and pharmacological therapy, is more successful than a singular therapy.

  12. A reflection on agile requirements engineering: solutions brought and challenges posed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inayat, Irum; Moraes, Lauriane; Daneva, Maia; Salim, Siti Salwah; Paasivaara, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The software development industry has rapidly accepted agile methods. Empirical studies suggest that due to their flexible and emergent nature, agile methods brought solutions to several chronic problems of traditional software development methods. One among the many is the acceptance of

  13. 13 CFR 142.19 - How are issues brought to the attention of the ALJ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are issues brought to the attention of the ALJ? 142.19 Section 142.19 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... attention of the ALJ? All applications to the ALJ for an order or ruling are made by motion, stating the...

  14. When should virtual cybercrime be brought under the scope of the criminal law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, Litska; Rogers, Marcus; Seigfried-Spellar, Kathryn C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is about the question when virtual cybercrime should be brought under the scope of the criminal law. By virtual cybercrime I mean crime that involves a specific aspect of computers or computer networks: virtuality. Examples of virtual cybercrime are: virtual child pornography, theft of

  15. 5 CFR 316.702 - Excepted positions brought into the competitive service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excepted positions brought into the competitive service. 316.702 Section 316.702 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... provisions of § 316.402. (d) An employee who was serving under an excepted appointment with a definite time...

  16. Long Lasting Impairment of Taste and Smell as Side Effect of Lithium Carbonate in a Cluster Headache Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Coo, Ilse F; Haan, Joost

    2016-07-01

    Preventive treatment with lithium carbonate is a therapeutic option for chronic cluster headache. Lithium can lead to a broad spectrum of severe side effects, many of which are generally unknown. One week after starting treatment with lithium, a 55-year-old man with chronic cluster headache noticed a strange and unpleasant taste of various foods and a diminished smell. After 4 weeks, he decided to stop the therapy because of these complaints, but 9 months later both taste and smell still had not returned to normal. We present the first description of long-lasting dysgeusia and hyposmia as a side effect of lithium therapy in cluster headache. Dysgeusia has only rarely been reported as a side effect of lithium in other conditions and hyposmia has not previously been reported. Physicians should be aware of this rare, but severe, side effect when prescribing lithium. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  17. May headache triggered by odors be regarded as a differentiating factor between migraine and other primary headaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Néto, Raimundo Pereira; Rodrigues, Ânderson Batista; Cavalcante, Dandara Coelho; Ferreira, Pedro Henrique Piauilino Benvindo; Nasi, Ema Pereira; Sousa, Kamila Maria de Holanda; Peres, Mário Fernando Pietro; Valença, Marcelo Moraes

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this article is to characterize olfactory stimulation as a trigger of headaches attacks and differentiation between migraine and other primary headaches. Participants and methods The study was prospective and experimental, with comparison of groups. A total of 158 volunteers (73 men and 85 women) were diagnosed with primary headaches, according to the criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition (beta version) (ICHD-3β). The study was conducted by two examiners; one of them was assigned to diagnose the presence and type of primary headache, while the other was responsible for exposing the volunteers to odor and recording the effects of this exposure. Results Of the 158 volunteers with headache, there were 72 (45.6%) cases of migraine and 86 (54.4%) with other primary headaches. In both groups, there were differences in headache characteristics (χ 2  = 4.132; p = 0.046). Headache attacks (25/72; 34.7%) and nausea (5/72; 6.9%) were triggered by odor only in patients with migraine, corresponding to 19.0% (30/158) of the sample, but in none with other primary headaches (χ 2  = 43.78; p Headache occurred more often associated with nausea ( p = 0.146) and bilateral location ( p = 0.002) in migraineurs who had headache triggered by odor. Headache was triggered after 118 ± 24.6 min and nausea after 72.8 ± 84.7 min of exposure to odor. Conclusions The odor triggered headache attacks or nausea only in migraineurs. Therefore, headache triggered by odors may be considered a factor of differentiation between migraine and other primary headaches and this trigger seems very specific of migraine.

  18. Quality indicators in headache care: an implementation study in six Italian specialist-care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellesi, L; Benemei, S; Favoni, V; Lupi, C; Mampreso, E; Negro, A; Paolucci, M; Steiner, T J; Ulivi, M; Cevoli, S; Guerzoni, S

    2017-12-01

    Headache disorders are highly prevalent, and have a substantial and negative impact on health worldwide. They are largely treatable, but differences in structure, objectives, organization and delivery affect the quality of headache care. In order to recognize and remedy deficiencies in care, the Global Campaign against Headache, in collaboration with the European Headache Federation, recently developed a set of quality indicators for headache services. These require further assessment to demonstrate fitness for purpose. This is their first implementation to evaluate quality in headache care as a multicentre national study. Between September and December 2016, we applied the quality indicators in six Italian specialist headache centres (Bologna, Firenze, Modena, Padova, Roma Campus Bio-Medico and Roma Sapienza). We used five previously developed assessment instruments, translated into Italian according to Lifting The Burden's translation protocol for hybrid documents. We took data from 360 consecutive patients (60 per centre) by questionnaire and from their medical records, and by different questionnaires from their health-care providers (HCPs), including physicians, nurses, psychologists and nursing assistants. The findings, comparable between centres, confirmed the feasibility and practicability of using the quality indicators in Italian specialist headache centres. The questionnaires were easily understood by HCPs and patients, and were not unduly time-consuming. Diagnoses were almost all (> 97%) according to ICHD criteria, and routinely (100%) reviewed during follow-up. Diagnostic diaries were regularly used by 96% of physicians. Referral pathways from primary to specialist care existed in five of the six clinics, as did urgent referral pathways. Instruments to assess disability and quality of life were not used regularly, a deficiency that needs to be addressed. This Italy-wide survey confirmed in six specialist centres that the headache service quality

  19. Intellectual Profile of Adolescents with Headache: A Case–Control Study Using the WISC-IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Chiappedi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few literature evidences about the intellectual profile of adolescents with headache and no study has used the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV in patients with a diagnosis of headache according to the ICHD-III-beta. We recruited 30 patients (age 11–14 years; male:female = 1:2 seen for headache in a tertiary center in Northern Italy and 30 healthy controls matched for age and sex, recruited in a public school from the same geographic area. The diagnosis of headache was done according to the ICHD-III criteria (beta version: the case group was composed of 16 patients with migraine and 14 with tension-type headache. Cognitive functioning was assessed using the WISC-IV. Recruited patients with idiopathic headache diagnosis had on average a cognitive function within the normal range. We found no statistically significant differences in the total Intellective Quotient comparing patients with headache and controls; the Working Memory Index was, however, lower in patients with headache (p = 0.012, and in particular, we found a lower Digit Span (p < 0.001. We also found a borderline statistical difference (p = 0.051 between case and controls Verbal Comprehension Index (CVI, which was due to a lower score in the Similarities subtest (p < 0.001. Our results suggest that, although within normal limits, cognitive functioning of adolescents with headache differs from that of healthy peers regarding memory and verbal skills. The Working Memory Index is related to the subject’s ability to store new information and keep them in short-term memory, to maintain focused attention and to manipulate them to find solutions. The difference in Similarities is also important because it provides a measure of the level of verbal reasoning and concept formation; it is also a measure of verbal abstract thinking skills relevant for language development, lexical knowledge, auditory comprehension, memory

  20. Pediatric Aspects of Headache Classification in the International Classification of Headache Disorders-3 (ICHD-3 beta version).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAbee, Gary N; Morse, Anne Marie; Assadi, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    This analysis looks at the applicability of the International Classification of Headache Disorders-3 beta (ICHD-3 beta) to various headache syndromes of children and adolescents. Areas of similarities and differences between adult and pediatric headaches are addressed as they relate to the ICHD-3 beta.

  1. The prevalence and impact of headache in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Luiz P; Silva Junior, Ariovaldo A

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil, several epidemiological studies on headache have been produced, most with an emphasis on prevalence and the association of primary headaches with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population. Data on the burden of headache, however, are scarce. The aim of this paper is to review all Brazilian population-based studies on headache, as well as to analyze the Migraine Disability Assessment Score (MIDAS) data collected with the PhD thesis of the senior author (LPQ). A literature review was performed using the keywords ("headache" or "migraine") and ("epidemiology" or "prevalence") and (Brazil). Another part of this paper will look at unpublished data on disability (MIDAS), collected with the prevalence data of the Brazilian nationwide epidemiological study of headache. There are 6 published epidemiological studies of headache in Brazil. The mean 1-year prevalence of headache in Brazil is 70.6%, of migraine 15.8%, of tension-type headache (TTH) 29.5%, and of chronic daily headache (CDH) 6.1%. Disability is significantly higher: in females compared to males; in patients with migraine and CDH compared to patients with TTH; and in those with headaches ≥15 days per month rather than those with episodic headaches. There was also a positive relationship between pain intensity and severity of disability. Patients with higher disability used more both abortive and prophylactic medication. The mean prevalence of headache in Brazil, and some of its subtypes, is similar to the rates described in other countries of the world. Disability is higher in females, in patients with migraine, in individuals with headaches ≥15 days per month, and in those with severe head pain. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  2. The complex interrelations between two paroxysmal disorders: headache and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianchetti, Carlo; Avanzini, Giuliano; Dainese, Filippo; Guidetti, Vincenzo

    2017-06-01

    The interrelations between headache/migraine and epileptic seizures are an interesting topic, still lacking a systematization, which is the objective of the present revision. We organize the general setting on: (a) a distinction between pre-ictal, ictal, post-ictal and inter-ictal headaches, assuming "ictal" as epileptic seizure, and (b) the kind of headache, if it is of migraine type or not. Concerning pre-ictal migraine/headache, the necessity of its differentiation from an epileptic headache presenting as an aura of a seizure is stressed; this is connected with the indefiniteness of the term "migralepsy". The term "migraine aura-triggered seizure" should be used only in front of a proven triggering effect of migraine. Epileptic headache (called also "ictal epileptic headache") is a well-characterized entity, in which different types of head pain may occur and an ictal EEG is necessary for the diagnosis. It may present as an isolated event ("isolated epileptic headache"), requiring a differential diagnosis from other kinds of headache, or it may be uninterruptedly followed by other epileptic manifestations being in this case easily identifiable as an epileptic aura. Hemicrania epileptica is a very rare variant of epileptic headache, characterized by the ipsilaterality of head pain and EEG paroxysms. Ictal non-epileptic headache needs to be differentiated from epileptic headache. Post-ictal headaches are a frequent association of headache with seizures, particularly in patients suffering also from inter-ictal headache-migraine. The reported systematization of the topic led us to suggest a classification which is shown in Appendix.

  3. Classification of Headache Disorders: Extending to a Multiaxial System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul R

    2016-11-01

    This article argues for extending the International Classification of Headache Disorders to include information that goes beyond diagnosis. The obvious model is a multiaxial system as has been developed for other taxonomies. An axis for recording disability and impact on functioning, and an axis for recording the triggers of headache/migraine, are perhaps the strongest contenders for adding to the system, but there are other possibilities such as lifestyle factors relevant to headache. Extensions such as these would contribute to headache management, provide clear targets for change, and encourage adoption of a biopsychosocial perspective. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  4. Intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis: a rare cause of headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Adam; Quencer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic bone marrow production, known as extramedullary hematopoiesis, may result in symptoms due to compression on normal structures. We present the multimodality imaging findings and subsequent management of a rare case of symptomatic extramedullary hematopoiesis within the calvarium. Case report. A 54-year-old male with a history of myelofibrosis and no previous diagnosis of a headache disorder presented to the emergency department with worsening severe bilateral headaches. A nonenhanced CT of the brain was performed and diffuse extra-axial nodular hyperdensities were visualized. MRI of the brain demonstrated diffuse extra-axial avidly enhancing nodular masses, dural thickening and marked susceptibility. No paravertebral masses, typical for extramedullary hematopoiesis, were present in the chest or abdomen. Although the clinical team considered a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis, we suggested a noninvasive confirmatory test. The subsequent Tc99m sulfur colloid scan corroborated the diagnosis. The patient was then referred to radiation oncology for treatment. In summary, extramedullary hematopoiesis is a hematologic compensatory disorder that rarely occurs within the CNS and may cause neurological compromise due to compression on underlying structures. The diagnosis can be made with noninvasive imaging and treated with low dose radiation therapy. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  5. Pediatric Headache and Epilepsy Comorbidity in the Pragmatic Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasiliou, Antigone S; Bregianni, Marianna; Nikaina, Irene; Kotsalis, Charalambos; Paraskevoulakos, Evangelos; Bazigou, Helen

    2016-04-01

    Demographic and clinical data were collected from three cross-sectional samples, from the headache and epilepsy clinics according to respective protocols. During structured interviews, we examined the co-occurrence of headaches and epilepsy in children and their families: (1) 172 children from the headache clinic, were questioned for the number and type of epileptic seizures and epilepsy diagnosis. (2) Around 70 children from the epilepsy clinic for the frequency and type of headaches and headache syndrome diagnosis. (3) A total of 149 parents of children with benign childhood epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BCECTS) and childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), for the relative frequency of headaches in first- and second-degree relatives. Out of 172, 84 (48.8%) children with headache had a migraine and 60 (34.9%) had tension headaches; 3 children (1.7%) had epilepsy or unprovoked seizures. Migraine and epilepsy, co-occurred in 2/84 (2.3%). Eight out of 70 patients with epilepsy had headaches (11.4%); none had migraine. Around 43% of patients with BCECTS or CAE had a family history of headache, more prevalent in first-degree relatives of children with BCECTS than CAE. Contrary to existing literature, migraine and epilepsy, co-occurred infrequently in these highly selected samples. Family history of headache was frequent in patients with BCECTS and CAE, without any significant difference between the two. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Relationship Between Carbon Dioxide Levels and Reported Congestion and Headaches on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Robert; Wear, Mary; Young, Millennia; Cobel, Christopher; Mason, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Congestion is commonly reported during spaceflight, and most crewmembers have reported using medications for congestion during International Space Station (ISS) missions. Although congestion has been attributed to fluid shifts during spaceflight, fluid status reaches equilibrium during the first week after launch while congestion continues to be reported throughout long duration missions. Congestion complaints have anecdotally been reported in relation to ISS CO2 levels; this evaluation was undertaken to determine whether or not an association exists. METHODS: Reported headaches, congestion symptoms, and CO2 levels were obtained for ISS expeditions 2-31, and time-weighted means and single-point maxima were determined for 24-hour (24hr) and 7-day (7d) periods prior to each weekly private medical conference. Multiple imputation addressed missing data, and logistic regression modeled the relationship between probability of reported event of congestion or headache and CO2 levels, adjusted for possible confounding covariates. The first seven days of spaceflight were not included to control for fluid shifts. Data were evaluated to determine the concentration of CO2 required to maintain the risk of congestion below 1% to allow for direct comparison with a previously published evaluation of CO2 concentrations and headache. RESULTS: This study confirmed a previously identified significant association between CO2 and headache and also found a significant association between CO2 and congestion. For each 1-mm Hg increase in CO2, the odds of a crew member reporting congestion doubled. The average 7-day CO2 would need to be maintained below 1.5 mmHg to keep the risk of congestion below 1%. The predicted probability curves of ISS headache and congestion curves appear parallel when plotted against ppCO2 levels with congestion occurring at approximately 1mmHg lower than a headache would be reported. DISCUSSION: While the cause of congestion is multifactorial, this study showed

  7. Sociodemographic differences in diagnosis and treatment of pediatric headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jack; Harman, Jeffrey; Pakalnis, Ann; Lo, Warren; Prescod, Jessica

    2010-04-01

    The authors investigated the sociodemographic differences in receiving a headache diagnosis for pediatric health care visits using 2 nationally representative databases--the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. For those visits involving a headache diagnosis, the authors explored 2 possible disparities in care--being diagnosed by a neurologist and being prescribed an evidence-based medication. A headache diagnosis was less common during visits for private insurance patients versus Medicaid patients. In addition, while a headache diagnosis was equally likely for visits by Caucasian American children versus African American children and children of other races, visits for the latter 2 groups were less likely to involve a headache diagnosis from a neurologist. Finally, only 37% of the headache visits involved a prescription of an evidence-based medication. The authors conclude that some sociodemographic disparities exist in pediatric headache care across the United States.

  8. Occipital Nerve Blocks for Pediatric Posttraumatic Headache: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Trevor A; Orr, Serena; Bodell, Lisa; Lockyer, Lisette; Rajapakse, Thilinie; Barlow, Karen M

    2015-08-01

    Posttraumatic headache is one of the most common and disabling symptoms after traumatic brain injury. However, evidence for treating posttraumatic headache is sparse, especially in the pediatric literature. This retrospective chart review evaluated the use of occipital nerve blocks in adolescents treated for posttraumatic headache following mild traumatic brain injury, presenting to the Complex Concussion and Traumatic Brain Injury clinic. Fifteen patients (mean age 15.47; range: 13-17) received occipital nerve block for posttraumatic headache. Follow-up was obtained in 14 patients at 5.57 (standard deviation = 3.52) months postinjury. The headache burden was high, with all except one having headaches 15 or more days per month (median 30, range 10-30). Sixty-four percent reported long-term response to the occipital nerve blocks, with associated improved quality of life and decreased postconcussion symptom scores (P headache. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Headache and facial pain: differential diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Fox, Roger W; Martin, Vincent T; Lockey, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    Headaches affect 90% of the population sometime during their life. Most are benign and fleeting, some are serious and life-threatening, and others require ongoing medical consultation and treatment. A careful history and physical is necessary to establish a differential diagnosis and to guide the choice of testing to make an accurate diagnosis. The most common types of headaches are discussed in this review. They are divided into primary and secondary headache disorders as classified by the International Headache Society. Primary headache disorders include migraine without and with aura, cluster and tension-type headaches. Secondary headaches are those that occur as a result of some other disorder and include brain tumors, rhinosinusitis, diseases of intracranial and extracranial vasculature, and temporomandibular joint disease. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dystonic Head Tremor and the Coexistence of Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit A. Hulzenga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Head tremor may be observed in the presence of cervical dystonia and sometimes coexists with headache. We wished to investigate the presence of headache in dystonic head tremor.Methods: We studied the files of 19 patients from our outpatient clinic (1997–2017 with dystonic head tremor and assessed the co-occurrence of headache. We also performed a literature search of the topic.Results: Cervicogenic headache was present in nearly 37% of patients with dystonic head tremor. More than 85% of our patients presented with a “no-no” head tremor.Discussion: Headache is common in dystonic head tremor. Cervicogenic headache seems to be more frequent in patients with dystonic head tremor than in the general population. Future studies should compare the presence of cervicogenic headache in essential head tremor patients with that in patients suffering from dystonic head tremor.

  11. Automated solid-phase subcloning based on beads brought into proximity by magnetic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Elton P; Nikoshkov, Andrej; Uhlen, Mathias; Rockberg, Johan

    2012-01-01

    In the fields of proteomics, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology there is a need for high-throughput and reliable cloning methods to facilitate construction of expression vectors and genetic pathways. Here, we describe a new approach for solid-phase cloning in which both the vector and the gene are immobilized to separate paramagnetic beads and brought into proximity by magnetic force. Ligation events were directly evaluated using fluorescent-based microscopy and flow cytometry. The highest ligation efficiencies were obtained when gene- and vector-coated beads were brought into close contact by application of a magnet during the ligation step. An automated procedure was developed using a laboratory workstation to transfer genes into various expression vectors and more than 95% correct clones were obtained in a number of various applications. The method presented here is suitable for efficient subcloning in an automated manner to rapidly generate a large number of gene constructs in various vectors intended for high throughput applications.

  12. Automated Solid-Phase Subcloning Based on Beads Brought into Proximity by Magnetic Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Elton P.; Nikoshkov, Andrej; Uhlén, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    contact by application of a magnet during the ligation step. An automated procedure was developed using a laboratory workstation to transfer genes into various expression vectors and more than 95% correct clones were obtained in a number of various applications. The method presented here is suitable...... and the gene are immobilized to separate paramagnetic beads and brought into proximity by magnetic force. Ligation events were directly evaluated using fluorescent-based microscopy and flow cytometry. The highest ligation efficiencies were obtained when gene- and vector-coated beads were brought into close...... for efficient subcloning in an automated manner to rapidly generate a large number of gene constructs in various vectors intended for high throughput applications....

  13. An overview of the geotechnical damage brought by the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanta Hazarika,; Takaji Kokusho,; Kayen, Robert E.; Dashti, Shideh; Yutaka Tanoue,; Shuuichi Kuroda and Kentaro Kuribayashi,; Daisuke Matsumoto,; Furuichi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.0 (Japanese intensity = 7) that struck on April 16 brought devastation in many areas of Kumamoto Prefecture and partly in Oita Prefecture in Kyushu Region, Japan. The earthquake succeeds a foreshock of magnitude 6.5 (Japanese intensity = 7) on April 14. The authors conducted two surveys on the devastated areas: one during April 16-17, and the other during May 11-14. This report summarizes the damage brought to geotechnical structures by the two consecutive earthquakes within a span of twenty-eight hours. This report highlights some of the observed damage and identifies reasons for such damage. The geotechnical challenges towards mitigation of losses from such earthquakes are also suggested.

  14. Prevalence of primary headache disorders in Fayoum Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbiny, Naglaa A; Masoud, Mohamed; Shalaby, Nevin M; Shehata, Hatem S

    2015-01-01

    There is abundance of epidemiological studies of headache in developed and western countries; however, data in developing countries and in Egypt are still lacking. This study aims to detect the prevalence of primary headache disorders in both urban and rural sectors in Fayoum governorate, Egypt. A total of 2600 subjects were included using multi-stage stratified systematic random sampling, with respondent rate of 91.3 %. A pre-designed Arabic version, interviewer-administered, pilot tested structured questionnaire was developed according to The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version), and this questionnaire was validated and the strength of agreement in headache diagnosis was good. The 1-year headache prevalence was 51.4 %, which was more prevalent in urban dwellers. The most common primary headache type was episodic tension type headache (prevalence; 24.5 %), followed by episodic migraine (prevalence; 17.3 %), both types peaked in midlife. Headache disorders were more common in females with exception of cluster headache that showed the expected male dominance. The risk of chronic headache increased more than one fold and half when the participants were females, married, and in those with high education. More than 60 % of our participants did not seek medical advice for their headaches problem; this percentage was higher in rural areas. Primary headache disorders are common in Egypt; prevalence rate was comparable with western countries with exception of episodic tension headache. Still headache is under-estimated and under-recognized in Egypt and this problem should be targeted by health care providers.

  15. Coexistence of contralateral cluster headache and probable paroxysmal hemicrania: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavia, Pauri; Chiara, Lepre

    2016-01-01

    The trigeminal autonomic cephalagias (TACs) are short-lasting unilateral headaches associated with autonomic features. Even if coexistence of different ipsilateral TACs in the same patient has been previously reported in few papers, the simultaneous occurrence of contralateral TACs is not described previously. A 50 years old working man complained, at the end of his cluster period, a new TAC, fitting the criteria for probable paroxysmal hemicrania. The dramatic improvement of this last cephalalgia with indomethacin treatment confirmed the diagnosis. There is a clear overlap in clinical diagnosis between cluster headache (CH) and paroxysmal hemicrania (PH) and similarities are somewhat greater than differences. The originality of this report is the coexistence of contralateral TACs in the same patients at the same moment. According neuroimaging studies, CH hypothalamic activation occurs ipsilateral to the side of the headache while in PH hypothalamic activation occurs contralateral to the side of headache. It could be suggested that a continuous hypothalamic activation give a maladaptive plasticity recruiting closed neuronal aggregates responsible for the developing of PH after a long period of CH, confirming the central origin of both CH and PH. Further studies need to confirm this hypothesis.

  16. Greater occipital nerve blockade in cervicogenic headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINCENT MAURICE B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervicocogenic headache (CeH is a relatively common disorder. Although no ideal treatment is available so far, blockades in different structures and nerves may be temporarily effective. We studied the effects of 1-2 mL 0.5% bupivacaine injection at the ipsilateral greater occipital nerve (GON in 41 CeH patients. The pain is significantly reduced both immediately and as long as 7 days after the blockade. The improvement is less marked during the first two days, a phenomenon we called "tilde pattern". GON blockades may reduce the pool of exaggerated sensory input and antagonize a putative "wind-up-like effect" which may explain the headache improvement.

  17. Personality traits in chronic daily headache patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity: an observational study in a tertiary care headache center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausa, Marialuisa; Cevoli, Sabina; Sancisi, Elisa; Grimaldi, Daniela; Pollutri, Gabriella; Casoria, Michela; Grieco, Daniela; Bisi, Alberto; Cortelli, Pietro; Pozzi, Euro; Pierangeli, Giulia

    2013-03-04

    Previous studies suggest that patients with Chronic Daily Headache (CDH) have higher levels of anxiety and depressive disorders than patients with episodic migraine or tension-type headache. However, no study has considered the presence of psychiatric comorbidity in the analysis of personality traits. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and specific personality traits in CDH patients, exploring if specific personality traits are associated to headache itself or to the psychiatric comorbidity associated with headache. An observational, cross-sectional study. Ninety-four CDH patients with and without medication overuse were included in the study and assessed by clinical psychiatric interview and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) as diagnostic tools. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) were afterwards administered. Patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity were compared. Further analyses were made by splitting the whole group according to the headache diagnosis and the presence or not of medication overuse. Psychiatric comorbidity was detected in 44 patients (46.8%) (group A) and was absent in the remaining 50 patients (53.2%) (group B). Mood and anxiety disorders were the most frequently diagnosed (43.6%).In the overall group, mean scores of MMPI-2 showed a high level in the so-called neurotic triad; in particular the mean score in the Hypochondriasis subscale was in the pathologic area (73.55 ± 13.59), while Depression and Hysteria scores were moderate but not severe (62.53 and 61.61, respectively). In content scales, score in Health Concern was also high (66.73).Group A presented higher scores compared to Group B in the following MMPI-2 subscales: Hypochondriasis (p= .036), Depression (p= .032), Hysteria (pCDH patients with psychiatric comorbidity while a high concern about their general health status was a common feature in

  18. Pediatric mixed headache -The relationship between migraine, tension-type headache and learning disabilities - in a clinic-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genizi, Jacob; Khourieh Matar, Amal; Schertz, Mitchell; Zelnik, Nathanel; Srugo, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Headache is a common complaint among children. The most common primary headache syndromes in childhood are migraine and TTH. However many times they seem to overlap. The purpose of our study was to assess the relationship between pediatric migraine, tension-type headache (TTH) and learning disabilities. Children presenting with headache to three pediatric neurology clinics in the last 5 years were assessed. Two hundred sixty-two children, 5-18 years of age, who met the criteria for migraine were included. Of 262 children (54 % female) who had migraine, 26.2 % had migraine with aura. 59 children (22.5 % of the full sample) reported also having headaches that met the criteria for episodic TTH/mixed headaches. Females were more than 2.8 times more likely to experience mixed headaches than males (OR: 2.81, 95 % CI: 1.43-5.54; p 0.20). Children who had migraine with aura were less likely to have mixed headaches than children who did not have aura (OR: 0.26, 95 % CI: 0.11-0.63; p headaches were 2.7 times more likely to have a learning disability than children with migraine alone. Episodic TTH and migraine without aura (mixed headaches) in children might be part of a continuum, which can explain the high incidence of their co-occurrence as opposed to migraine with aura. Children with mixed headaches have a higher incidence of learning disability compare to those with migraine alone.

  19. Influence of headache frequency on clinical signs and symptoms of TMD in subjects with temple headache and TMD pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gary C; John, Mike T; Ohrbach, Richard; Nixdorf, Donald R; Schiffman, Eric L; Truelove, Edmond S; List, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    The relationship of the frequency of temple headache to signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders (TMD) was investigated in a subset of a larger convenience sample of community TMD cases. The study sample included 86 painful TMD, nonheadache subjects; 309 painful TMD subjects with varied frequency of temple headaches; and 149 subjects without painful TMD or headache for descriptive comparison. Painful TMD included Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders diagnoses of myofascial pain, TMJ arthralgia, and TMJ osteoarthritis. Mild to moderate-intensity temple headaches were classified by frequency using criteria based on the International Classification of Headache Disorder, 2nd edition, classification of tension-type headache. Outcomes included TMD signs and symptoms (pain duration, pain intensity, number of painful masticatory sites on palpation, mandibular range of motion), pressure pain thresholds, and temple headache resulting from masticatory provocation tests. Trend analyses across the painful TMD groups showed a substantial trend for aggravation of all of the TMD signs and symptoms associated with increased frequency of the temple headaches. In addition, increased headache frequency showed significant trends associated with reduced PPTs and reported temple headache with masticatory provocation tests. In conclusion, these findings suggest that these headaches may be TMD related, as well as suggesting a possible role for peripheral and central sensitization in TMD patients. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Medication overuse headache and chronic migraine in a specialized headache centre: field-testing proposed new appendix criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeeberg, P; Olesen, Jes; Jensen, R

    2009-01-01

    The classification subcommittee of the International Headache Society (IHS) has recently suggested revised criteria for medication overuse headache (MOH) and chronic migraine (CM). We field tested these revised criteria by applying them to the headache population at the Danish Headache Centre...... and the possibility of a renewed effect of prophylactic drugs due to medication withdrawal. We therefore recommend the implementation of the appendix criteria for both MOH and CM into the main body of the International Classification of Headache Disorders....... and compared the results with those using the current criteria. For CM we also tested two alternative criteria, one requiring > or = 4 migraine days/month and > or = 15 headache days/month, the second requiring > or = 15 headache days/month and > or = 50% migraine days. We included 969 patients with migraine...

  1. A Rare Cause of Headache: Aspergillus Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehnaz Arıcı

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal sinusitis are mostly seen in immunosuppressive individuals and somtimes which can be mortal. Most frequently species of Aspergillus were isolated from, clinical forms of mycotic sinonasal disease.Surgical debridement,sinus ventilation and medical therapy in treatment of fungal sinusitis, are recommended. In this article, a case of healthy immune patient with fungal sinusitis who peresent with headache was repoted.

  2. [Prozac treatment of chronic tension headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaia, T G

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarizes the experience of therapy of chronic tension type headache (TTH) with prozac (fluoxetine)--a selective serotonine reuptake inhibitor. The data are presented concerning clinical psychologic examination of 20 outpatients with chronic TTH both before and after therapy with prozac in daily dose of 20 mg during 6 weeks. Background study of the patients revealed severe depression (according to Beck's and SCL-90 scales), anxiety (Spilberger scale) and alexitimia (Toronto scale). Before the treatment, a frequency of TTH attacks was at least four times a week, the intensivity was equal to 8.9 scores according to visual analogous scale. Together with a headache there were psychopathologic and psychoautonomic manifestations. After the course of therapy the headaches disappeared completely in 25%, while considerable improvement was observed in 75% of the patients. The levels of depression, anxiety, somatization have decreased significantly too. Side effects as well as withdrawal syndrome weren't found. The role of depression in formation of chronic TTH, as well as the role of alixetimia in formation of somatizated variation of the depression were considered.

  3. Comprehensive Headache Experience in Collegiate Student-Athletes: An Initial Report From the NCAA Headache Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Tad; Sufrinko, Alicia; Cowan, Robert; Scott Black, W; Watson, Dave; Edwards, Bill; Livingston, Scott; Webster, Keith; Akers, David; Lively, Mathew; Kontos, Anthony P

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of primary headache disorders in the general population provides a unique challenge in the evaluation of headache occurring in the context of sport. Despite a wealth of studies exploring the epidemiology of headache in the layperson, little is known about the prevalence and nature of headaches in collegiate student-athletes. These scenarios are challenging in the return to play context, as it is often unclear whether an athlete has an exacerbation of a primary headache disorder, new onset headache unrelated to trauma, or has suffered a concussive injury. To establish the prevalence and nature of headaches in collegiate student-athletes. Retrospective cross-sectional survey. This cross-sectional survey evaluated the characteristics and prevalence of headache in 834 student-athletes from four NCAA Division-I institutions. Because headache occurrence may vary by sport (collision, contact, non-contact), by sex, and medical history, our sample included male and female athletes in a variety of sports, with differing degrees of contact exposure. The 20 question survey collected data on personal and family history of headache, as well as concussion history. A total of 23.7% (n = 198) of participants reported having a personal history of migraine, 25.2% (n = 210) history of sinus headache, and 12.3% (n = 103) history of tension type headache. Among athletes with a prior history of concussion, 46.3% (n = 25) of females reported a history of migraine, while only 32.2% of males reported history of migraine (χ 2  = 3.421, P = .064). The etiology of increased prevalence of migraine in our study is unclear. Whether this is due to increased awareness of headache disorders, a consequence of contact exposure, or a predisposition for migraine development in this age group remains unclear. Further studies are indicated. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  4. [Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and cerebrovascular constriction syndrome in the differential diagnosis of post-partum headaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz López, N; Cano Hernández, B; Balbás Álvarez, S

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum headache can be due to many causes. In a patient with previous epidural analgesia, the headache can be attributed to post-dural puncture headache, even if the symptoms are not typical of this clinical entity. We report a case of a post-partum with accidental dural tap during the insertion of an epidural catheter for labour analgesia, and who referred to headaches in the third post-partum day. Initially, a post-dural puncture headache was suspected, but the subsequent onset of seizures and visual impairment meant that the diagnosis had to be reconsidered. In this case report, the clinical and pathophysiological features of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, as well as the differential diagnosis of post-partum headaches are described. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Biofeedback therapy for pediatric headache: factors associated with response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Heidi K; Brockman, Libby N; Breuner, Cora C

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this study was to measure the effect of biofeedback therapy on pediatric headache and to identify factors associated with response to biofeedback therapy. In the United States, 17% of children have frequent or severe headaches. Biofeedback therapy (BFT) appears to be an effective treatment for headaches in adults and is often recommended for children with headaches, but there are few data in the pediatric population. It is also not clear which patients are most likely to benefit from biofeedback therapy. We examined the records of patients, aged 8 to 18 years old, who were referred to a pediatric BFT clinic for management of headache between 2004 and 2008. We extracted data regarding patient and headache characteristics, medication use, family history, and measures of depression, anxiety, and somatization. Chronic headache was defined as ≥4 headache days/week. Positive response to biofeedback was defined as a 50% reduction in number of headache days/week or hours/week, or ≥3-point decrease in severity (0-10 scale) between first and last visits. We analyzed the responder rate for those with episodic and chronic headaches and performed multivariable analysis to determine what factors were associated with headache response to biofeedback therapy. We analyzed records from 132 children who attended ≥2 biofeedback sessions. Median headache frequency dropped from 3.5 to 2 headache days/week between the first and last visits. The response rate was 58% overall; 48% for chronic headaches and 73% episodic headaches. In multivariate analysis, ability to raise hand temperature by >3°F at the last visit and use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were associated with a positive response, and preventive medication use was associated with nonresponse. Anxiety, depression, and somatization were not significantly associated with response to biofeedback therapy. Biofeedback therapy appears to be an effective treatment for children and adolescents

  6. PECULIARITIES OF HEADACHES IN CHILDREN WITH RHEUMATIC ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Podkletnova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Headache is the more often seen complaint in patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA at the visit to the neurologist. The objective of this study is analysis of headaches in children with different types of RA. 166 patients with different types of rheumatoid arthritis were examined, 65 (39,1% children had complaints to the headaches. All patients with complaints to the headaches underwent complex examination — taking neurological history, neurological examination, and radiography of cervical part of spinal column in 2 projections, Doppler sonography of cervical vessels, eye grounds examination. Analysis of symptoms of headaches makes possible dividing it to the main types in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: craniocervicalgia, vascular headaches, and secondary headaches on the ground of RA exacerbation, intoxication, and steroid arterial hypertension, and stress headaches. It was shown, that headaches can be a result of both disease and its antirheumatic treatment.Key words: children, headaches, juvenile arthritis.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(3:27-34

  7. Headache induced by the use of combined oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Gianni; Gabellari, Ilaria Castagnoli; Airola, Gisella; Borgogno, Paola; Schiapparelli, Paola; Benedetto, Chiara

    2009-05-01

    Although combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are a safe and highly effective method of birth control, they may also give rise to problems of clinical tolerability in migraine patients. Indeed, headache is among the most common side effects reported with the use of COCs, frequently leading to their being discontinued. The latest International Classification of Headache Disorders identified at least two entities evidently related to the use of COCs, i.e., exogenous hormone-induced headache and estrogen-withdrawal headache. As to the former, the newest formulations of COCs are generally well tolerated by migraine without aura patients, but can worsen headache in migraine with aura patients. Headache associated with COCs, generally, tends to improve as their use continues. However, although it is not yet clear if there is an association between headache and the composition of COCs (both in the type and amount of hormones), it has been observed that the incidence of headache during COC use seems greater if migraine is associated with menstrual trigger. The estrogen-withdrawal headache is a headache that generally appears within the first 5 days after cessation of estrogen use and resolves within 3 days, even if in some cases it may appear on the sixth or seventh day after pill suspension and lasts more than 3 days.

  8. Headache research and medical practice in Brazil: an historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valença, Marcelo Moraes; da Silva, Amanda Araújo; Bordini, Carlos Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Since the creation of the Brazilian Headache Society in 1978, substantial developments have taken place in both research and clinical practice in the field of headache medicine in Brazil. The Society now has almost 300 members throughout the country, actively working to improve the health of the general population and, in particular, diagnose and treat headache disorders. In addition, in a few large cities, such as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Curitiba, and Porto Alegre, headache specialists have come together to promote research projects and increase knowledge in the field through MSc, PhD, and postdoctoral programs. Furthermore, scientific journals have emerged and books have been published to record and disseminate Brazilian scientific production in headache medicine. In this narrative review, we will briefly describe some important aspects of headache medicine in Brazil from prehistoric times to the present day, discuss the origin of headache medicine as a specialty in Brazil, the principal publications dealing with headache disorders, the use of plants and other unconventional forms of treatment used by faith healers, the main training centers, and the research produced to date by Brazilians. In conclusion, in recent years enormous progress has been made in headache medicine in Brazil stimulating us to review and expand our role in an increasingly international scenario. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  9. Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Without Typical Thunderclap Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Valérie; Ducros, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by severe headache and diffuse segmental intracranial arterial constriction that resolve within three months. Stroke, which is the major complication of RCVS, can result in persistent neurological disability, and rarely causes death. Diagnosis of RCVS early in the clinical course might improve outcomes. Although recurrent thunderclap headache is the clinical hallmark of RCVS, the absence of such a pattern should not lead to discard the diagnosis. Our literature review shows that RCVS can also manifest as an unspecific headache, such as a single severe headache episode, a mild or a progressive headache. Moreover, a subset of patients with severe RCVS presents without any headache, but frequently with seizures, focal neurological deficits, confusion or coma, in the setting of stroke or posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. These patients may be aphasic or in comatose state, explaining their inability to give their own medical history. They may have forgotten the headache they had a few days before more dramatic symptoms, or may have a variant of the classical RCVS. By consequence, an RCVS should be suspected in patients with any unusual headache, whether thunderclap or not, and in patients with cryptogenic stroke or convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage, whether the patient also has headache or not. Diagnosis in such cases relies on the demonstration of reversible multifocal intracranial arterial stenosis and the exclusion of other causes. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  10. Sleep features and central sensitization symptoms in primary headache patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tommaso, Marina; Delussi, Marianna; Vecchio, Eleonora; Sciruicchio, Vittorio; Invitto, Sara; Livrea, Paolo

    2014-09-26

    Association between sleep disorders and headache is largely known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep quality and quantity in a large cohort of primary headache patients, in order to correlate these scores with symptoms of central sensitization as allodynia, pericranial tenderness and comorbidity with diffuse muscle-skeletal pain. One thousand six hundreds and seventy primary headache out patients were submitted to the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) within a clinical assessment, consisting of evaluation of frequency of headache, pericranial tenderness, allodynia and coexistence of fibromyalgia syndrome (FM). Ten groups of primary headache patients were individuated, including patients with episodic and chronic migraine and tension type headache, mixed forms, cluster headache and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Duration but not sleep disturbances score was correlated with symptoms of central sensitization as allodynia and pericranial tenderness in primary headache patients. The association among allodynia, pericranial tenderness and short sleep characterized chronic migraine more than any other primary headache form. Patients presenting with FM comorbidity suffered from sleep disturbances in addition to reduction of sleep duration. Self reported duration of sleep seems a useful index to be correlated with allodynia, pericranial tenderness and chronic headache as a therapeutic target to be assessed in forthcoming studies aiming to prevent central sensitization symptoms development.

  11. [Prevalence and indirect costs of headache in a Brazilian Company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, M; Rodrigues, A de J; De Oliveira, G V; De Souza, K F; Doi, L M; Rocha, M B; Saporta, M A; Orleans, R B; Kotecki, R; Estrela, V V; De Medeiros, V A; Borges, W I

    1998-12-01

    Employees from a Brazilian oil company research centre (n = 993) were interviewed on the occurrence of headache during a 30 days period. Headache prevalence was 49.8%, with a mean frequency of 4.3 +/- 7.0 attacks per month, lasting 12.2 +/- 21.4 hours each. According to the International Headache Society diagnostic criteria, migraine (5.5%), episodic tension-type headache (26.4%), chronic tension-type headache (1.7%) and headaches not fulfilling the criteria for such disorders (16.2%) were observed. Women suffered comparatively more headache and specifically migraine than men. The pain interfered with work productivity in 10% of the subjects, corresponding to 538.75 hours off. According to an indirect costs estimation for each headache, the company may loose up to US$125.98 per employee annually. Since among headaches migraine has the highest indirect cost, migraine prevention and treatment is particularly important at the working environment. Migraine frequency may be prevented to a large extent, resulting on positive effects in both the quality of life and productivity. The cost-benefit ratio clearly favours therapeutic and preventive programs against chronic headaches.

  12. Olfactory hallucination in childhood primary headaches: case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M A S; Donaldson, Sarah; Akor, Francis; Cahill, Denise; Akilani, Raed

    2015-03-01

    Although olfactory hallucination (OH) has been reported in patients with primary headaches, olfactory aura has not been recognised by the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2). In this study, we examined the frequency and characteristics of OH among children and adolescents with primary headaches. 839 neurologically normal patients with primary headaches (537 migraine) were eligible for the assessment of olfactory hallucination. Headache diagnosis was based on the ICHD. Data were prospectively collected during clinic sessions and using headache diaries. Olfactory hallucination was reported exclusively during headache attacks by 21/839 (2.5%) patients, all of whom had migraine. The prevalence of olfactory hallucination was 3.9% among migraineurs (6.5% among those with migraine aura). Olfactory hallucination shortly followed the onset of headaches and lasted from 15 to 50 minutes. Of those with MA, 10 patients had visual aura; two had somatosensory aura; one had motor aura; and two had a combination of visual and somatosensory aura. Using the ICHD-2, both OH and migraine aura occurred in the same headache attacks. In 12/15 patients, OH occurred simultaneously with migraine aura, whereas in 3/12 patients, it preceded aura. Our findings show that olfactory hallucination occurs in migraine and it has similarities to migraine aura. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Part II--Management of pediatric post-traumatic headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchefsky, Elana; Dubrovsky, Alexander Sasha; Friedman, Debbie; Shevell, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Post-traumatic headache is one of the most common symptoms occurring after mild traumatic brain injury in children. This is an expert opinion-based two-part review on pediatric post-traumatic headaches. In part II, we focus on the medical management of post-traumatic headaches. There are no randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of therapies specifically for pediatric post-traumatic headaches. Thus, the algorithm we propose has been extrapolated from the primary headache literature and small noncontrolled trials of post-traumatic headache. Most post-traumatic headaches are migraine or tension type, and standard medications for these headache types are used. A multifaceted approach is needed to address all the possible causes of headache and any comorbid conditions that may delay recovery or alter treatment choices. For acute treatment, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories can be used. If the headaches have migrainous features and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories are not effective, triptans may be beneficial. Opioids are not indicated. Medication overuse should be avoided. For preventive treatments, some reports indicate that amitriptyline, gabapentin, or topiramate may be beneficial. Amitriptyline is a good choice because it can be used to treat both migraine and tension-type headaches. Nerve blocks, nutraceuticals (e.g. melatonin), and behavioral therapies may also be useful, and lifestyle factors, especially adequate sleep hygiene and strategies to cope with anxiety, should be emphasized. Improved treatment of acute post-traumatic headache may reduce the likelihood of developing chronic headaches, which can be especially problematic to effectively manage and can be functionally debilitating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Headache among patients with HIV disease: prevalence, characteristics, and associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Kale E; Kirkland, Karl; Many, W J; Smitherman, Todd A

    2012-03-01

    Headache is one of the most common medical complaints reported by individuals suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), but limited and conflicting data exist regarding their prevalence, prototypical characteristics, and relationship to HIV disease variables in the current era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The aims of the present cross-sectional study were to characterize headache symptoms among patients with HIV/AIDS and to assess relations between headache and HIV/AIDS disease variables. Two hundred HIV/AIDS patients (49% female; mean age = 43.22 ± 12.30 years; 74% African American) from an internal medicine clinic and an AIDS outreach clinic were administered a structured headache diagnostic interview to assess headache characteristics and features consistent with International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-II diagnostic semiologies. They also completed 2 measures of headache-related disability. Prescribed medications, most recent cluster of differentiation (CD4) cell count, date of HIV diagnosis, possible causes of secondary headache, and other relevant medical history were obtained via review of patient medical records. One hundred seven patients (53.5%) reported headache symptoms, the large majority of which were consistent with characteristics of primary headache disorders after excluding 4 cases attributable to secondary causes. Among those who met criteria for a primary headache disorder, 88 (85.44%) met criteria for migraine, most of which fulfilled ICHD-II appendix diagnostic criteria for chronic migraine. Fifteen patients (14.56%) met criteria for episodic or chronic tension-type headache. Severity of HIV (as indicated by CD4 cell counts), but not duration of HIV or number of prescribed antiretroviral medications, was strongly associated with headache severity, frequency, and disability and also distinguished migraine from TTH. Problematic headache is highly prevalent

  15. Epilepsy and headaches: Further evidence of a link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çilliler, Asli Ece; Güven, Hayat; Çomoğlu, Selim Selçuk

    2017-05-01

    Epilepsy and primary headaches are two of the most common neurologic conditions that share some common clinical characteristics, and can affect individuals of all age groups around the world. In recent years, the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms potentially common to both headaches and epileptic seizures have been the subject of scrutiny. The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies and types of headaches in patients with epilepsy, and evaluate any temporal relationship with epileptic seizures. Demographic data, epilepsy durations, seizure frequencies, seizure types and antiepileptic medications used were captured of 349 patients who were followed up at our epilepsy outpatient clinic. Patients who experienced headaches were grouped based on the type of headaches and on whether their headaches occurred in the preictal, postictal or interictal period. Three hundred forty-nine patients (190 females, 159 males) were enrolled in the study. The patients' average age was 30.9±13.1 years, and average epilepsy duration was 13.5±10.9 years. The types of epileptic seizures were partial in 19.8% of patients, generalized in 57.9%, and secondary generalized in 20.3% of patients. Some 43.6% of the patients did not experience headaches, and 26.9% had migraine and 17.2% tension-type headaches. Headaches could not be classified in 12.3% of patients. The headaches occurred preictally in 9.6%, postictally in 41.6% and interictally in 8.6% of patients. The ratio of headaches was lower in male patients compared with females, and females experienced migraine-type headaches more frequently compared with males (p=0.006). Migraine-type headaches were less frequent a mong patients who experienced less than one seizure per year, but more frequent (p=0.017) among those who experienced more than one seizure per month, but less than one seizure per week. Migraine-type headaches were significantly more frequent (p=0.015) among patients receiving polytherapy compared with

  16. Informal Patient Payments and Bought and Brought Goods in the Western Balkans – A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Buch Mejsner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Informal patient payments for healthcare are common in the Western Balkans, negatively affecting public health and healthcare. Aim To identify literature from the Western Balkans on what is known about informal patient payments and bought and brought goods, to examine their effects on healthcare and to determine what actions can be taken to tackle these payments. Methods After conducting a scoping review that involved searching websites and databases and filtering with eligibility criteria and quality assessment tools, 24 relevant studies were revealed. The data were synthesized using a narrative approach that identified key concepts, types of evidence, and research gaps. Results The number of studies of informal patient payments increased between 2002 and 2015, but evidence regarding the issues of concern is scattered across various countries. Research has reported incidents of informal patient payments on a wide scale and has described various patterns and characteristics of these payments. Although these payments have typically been small – particularly to providers in common areas of specialized medicine – evidence regarding bought and brought goods remains limited, indicating that such practices are likely even more common, of greater magnitude and perhaps more problematic than informal patient payments. Only scant research has examined the measures that are used to tackle informal patient payments. The evidence indicates that legalizing informal patient payments, introducing performance-based payment systems, strengthening reporting, changing mentalities and involving the media and the European Union (EU or religious organizations in anti-corruption campaigns are understood as some of the possible remedies that might help reduce informal patient payments. Conclusion Despite comprehensive evidence regarding informal patient payments, data remain scattered and contradictory, implying that informal patient payments are a

  17. Informal Patient Payments and Bought and Brought Goods in the Western Balkans – A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch Mejsner, Sofie; Eklund Karlsson, Leena

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Informal patient payments for healthcare are common in the Western Balkans, negatively affecting public health and healthcare. Aim: To identify literature from the Western Balkans on what is known about informal patient payments and bought and brought goods, to examine their effects on healthcare and to determine what actions can be taken to tackle these payments. Methods: After conducting a scoping review that involved searching websites and databases and filtering with eligibility criteria and quality assessment tools, 24 relevant studies were revealed. The data were synthesized using a narrative approach that identified key concepts, types of evidence, and research gaps. Results: The number of studies of informal patient payments increased between 2002 and 2015, but evidence regarding the issues of concern is scattered across various countries. Research has reported incidents of informal patient payments on a wide scale and has described various patterns and characteristics of these payments. Although these payments have typically been small – particularly to providers in common areas of specialized medicine – evidence regarding bought and brought goods remains limited, indicating that such practices are likely even more common, of greater magnitude and perhaps more problematic than informal patient payments. Only scant research has examined the measures that are used to tackle informal patient payments. The evidence indicates that legalizing informal patient payments, introducing performance-based payment systems, strengthening reporting, changing mentalities and involving the media and the European Union (EU) or religious organizations in anti-corruption campaigns are understood as some of the possible remedies that might help reduce informal patient payments. Conclusion: Despite comprehensive evidence regarding informal patient payments, data remain scattered and contradictory, implying that informal patient payments are a complex phenomenon

  18. How urgent are cases brought to the emergency department by ambulance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Yuksel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Emergency departments are the first places to which patients present with unexpected or unforeseen health problems. The purpose of this study was to assess the urgency of cases brought by ambulance to the Hospital on the basis of a three-level triage system. Methods: This study was performed between 01.06.2013 and 31.09.2013 at the Diyarbakır Education and Research Hospital. Our emergency service unit is a third degree service for all adult patient groups and all child trauma types. Triage of patients brought to the emergency department by ambulance was performed by emergency medicine specialists. Patients’ vital findings, identity data and triage categories were assessed. Results: 712 patients were included, 382 (53.7% male and 330 (46.3% female, with a mean age of 45. In this study, 619 (86.9% patients were transferred from the scene and 93 (13.1 between hospitals, 483 (67.8% patients were brought by emergency medicine technician (EMT teams, 107 (15% by physician-led teams, 107 (15 by paramedic teams and 15 (2.1% by other teams, 442 (62.1% patients were assessed as yellow, 141 (19.8% as green and 129 (19.1% as red zone. Five hundred eighty (81.5% patients were discharged and 115 (15.9% were hospitalized. Conclusion: Emergency health services are clearly developing rapidly in Turkey. In order for pre-hospital emergency health services not to be abused, we think that these services should be up to the standards of those in developed countries and that public awareness needs to be increased, particularly with regard to triage. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 126-129

  19. Choosing wisely in headache medicine: the American Headache Society's list of five things physicians and patients should question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Elizabeth; Weizenbaum, Emma; Frishberg, Benjamin; Silberstein, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to draw attention to tests and procedures associated with low-value care in headache medicine, the American Headache Society (AHS) joined the Choosing Wisely initiative of the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation. The AHS president appointed an ad hoc "Choosing Wisely" task force of the AHS. The committee surveyed AHS members to develop a candidate list of items for the AHS "Top 5" list of low-value care in headache medicine. Through a process of literature review and consensus, the final list of five items was chosen. Draft recommendations went through several rounds of revision and a process of outside review. The AHS Board of Directors approved the final list of "Five Things." The five recommendations approved by the AHS Board of Directors are: (1) don't perform neuroimaging studies in patients with stable headaches that meet criteria for migraine; (2) don't perform computed tomography imaging for headache when magnetic resonance imaging is available, except in emergency settings; (3) don't recommend surgical deactivation of migraine trigger points outside of a clinical trial; (4) don't prescribe opioid- or butalbital-containing medications as a first-line treatment for recurrent headache disorders; and (5) don't recommend prolonged or frequent use of over-the-counter pain medications for headache. We recommend that headache medicine specialists and other physicians who evaluate and treat headache disorders should use this list when discussing care with patients. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  20. A new type of headache, headache associated with airplane travel: preliminary diagnostic criteria and possible mechanisms of aetiopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berilgen, M Said; Müngen, Bulent

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the reports indicating a form of headache that occurs during commercial aircraft travel. This headache, called airplane headache by some authors, is believed to be a new type of headache. The headache has very specific characteristics and all of the cases exhibited very stereotypical symptoms. The headache starts suddenly during the ascent and/or descent of the commercial aircraft. It has a mean duration of 20 minutes, which is usually unilateral and commonly localized to periorbital region. The headache is described to be severe, and has a stabbing or jabbing nature, and generally subsides in a short time. In some cases, an organic cause can be identified whereas in others no organic pathology could be found. We described the clinical features of 22 cases who suffered from a headache that occurred during airplane travel. We examined other cases with similar features reported in the literature and proposed preliminary diagnostic criteria for this new form of headache. We also discussed the possible patholophysiological mechanisms that may cause this headache.

  1. Electronic kinetic energy decrease as two metallic parallel C nanotubes are brought together from infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, Norman H.; Rubio, Angel

    2006-01-01

    By utilising the virial theorem, an expression is derived from the recent work of Dobson et al. for the initial decrease of electronic kinetic energy as two metallic parallel C nanotubes of equal diameter are brought together from infinity to a (still large) separation. To yield the dispersion energy proposed by Dobson et al. [J.F. Dobson, A. White, A. Rubio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 073201], it is shown that it is the initial drop in the kinetic energy that is responsible for the long-range attractive interaction

  2. Childhood headache attributed to airplane travel: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kirsty; Rafiq, Nadia; Prabhakar, Prab; Ahmed, Mas

    2015-05-01

    Headache attributed to airplane flights is a rare form of headache disorder. This case study describes an 11-year-old girl with recurrent, severe, frontal headaches occurring during airplane travel. The episodes were associated with dizziness and facial pallor but no additional symptoms and showed spontaneous resolution on landing. Blood tests and imaging revealed no abnormalities. The present case fulfils the criteria for airplane headache recently included in the revised edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III Beta). Only a few cases of airplane headache have been reported in children. To our knowledge, this is the fourth case. We review the current literature on this rare syndrome and discuss various proposed pathophysiological mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Unique Migraine Subtypes, Rare Headache Disorders, and Other Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goadsby, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    The medical aphorism that common things happen commonly makes unique (and less common) migraine subtypes especially appropriate to review for the general neurologist. This article also identifies some rare headache disorders and other disturbances, and offers strategies to manage them. This article discusses migraine with brainstem aura, which is troublesome clinically and has had a change in terminology in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition, beta version (ICHD-3 beta), and hemiplegic migraine, which is also troublesome in practice. The rare headache disorder hypnic headache and the exploding head syndrome are also discussed. When hypnic headache is recognized, it is eminently treatable, while exploding head syndrome is a benign condition with no reported consequences. Unique migraine subtypes, rare headache disorders, and other disturbances present to neurologists. When recognized, they can often be managed very well, which offers significant benefits to patients and practice satisfaction to neurologists.

  4. Different types of headache in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badry, Reda; Gamal, Rania M

    2015-05-01

    Headache in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is considered a common neurological finding, although the relationship is unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate frequency and characteristics of different types of headache in patients with SLE. 40 SLE patients were chosen from those referred to the out patient clinic using the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for the diagnosis of SLE. Headache classification was done regarding the ICD-II criteria in the patients. Headache severity was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and subjects with VAS ≥4 were included in the study. 30 patients out of 40 SLE patients (75%) have different headache types: tension type in 37.5% (n = 15) and migraine in 30% (n = 12), cluster 2.5% (n = 1), and intracranial hypertension 5% (n = 2) of all patients. Headache is frequent in SLE especially tension and migraine types, but overall, it is not associated with disease activity.

  5. The child with headache in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conicella, Elena; Raucci, Umberto; Vanacore, Nicola; Vigevano, Federico; Reale, Antonino; Pirozzi, Nicola; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2008-07-01

    To investigate clinical features of a pediatric population presenting with headache to a pediatric emergency department (ED) and to identify headache characteristics which are more likely associated with serious, life-threatening conditions in distinction from headaches due to more benign processes. Although headache is a common problem in children visiting a pediatric ED, a few studies thus far have attempted to identify the clinical characteristics most likely associated with suspected life-threatening disease. A retrospective chart review of all consecutive patients who presented with a chief complaint of headache at ED over a 1-year period was conducted. Etiologies were classified according to the International Headache Society diagnostic criteria 2nd edition. Four hundred and thirty-two children (0.8% of the total number of visits) aged from 2 to 18 years (mean age 8.9 years) were enrolled in our study. There were 228 boys (53%) and 204 girls (47%). School-age group was the most represented (66%). The most common cause of headache was upper respiratory tract infections (19.2%). The remaining majority of non-life-threatening headache included migraine (18.5%), posttraumatic headache (5.5%), tension-type headache (4.6%). Serious life-threatening intracranial disorders (4.1%) included meningitis (1.6%), acute hydrocephalus (0.9%), tumors (0.7%). We found several clinical clues which demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with dangerous conditions: pre-school age, recent onset of pain, occipital location, and child's inability to describe the quality of pain and objective neurological signs. Differential diagnosis between primary and secondary headaches can be very difficult, especially in an ED setting. The majority of headaches are secondary to respiratory infectious diseases and minor head trauma. Our data allowed us to identify clinical features useful to recognize intracranial life-threatening conditions.

  6. Headache in traumatic brain injuries from blunt head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Peter S; Holmes, James F; Hoyle, John; Atabaki, Shireen; Tunik, Michael G; Lichenstein, Richard; Miskin, Michelle; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    To determine the risk of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in children with headaches after minor blunt head trauma, particularly when the headaches occur without other findings suggestive of TBIs (ie, isolated headaches). This was a secondary analysis of a prospective observational study of children 2 to 18 years with minor blunt head trauma (ie, Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 14-15). Clinicians assessed the history and characteristics of headaches at the time of initial evaluation, and documented findings onto case report forms. Our outcome measures were (1) clinically important TBI (ciTBI) and (2) TBI visible on computed tomography (CT). Of 27 495 eligible patients, 12 675 (46.1%) had headaches. Of the 12 567 patients who had complete data, 2462 (19.6%) had isolated headaches. ciTBIs occurred in 0 of 2462 patients (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-0.1%) in the isolated headache group versus 162 of 10 105 patients (1.6%; 95% CI: 1.4%-1.9%) in the nonisolated headache group (risk difference, 1.6%; 95% CI: 1.3%-1.9%). TBIs on CT occurred in 3 of 456 patients (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.1%-1.9%) in the isolated headache group versus 271 of 6089 patients (4.5%; 95% CI: 3.9%-5.0%) in the nonisolated headache group (risk difference, 3.8%; 95% CI: 2.3%-4.5%). We found no significant independent associations between the risk of ciTBI or TBI on CT with either headache severity or location. ciTBIs are rare and TBIs on CT are very uncommon in children with minor blunt head trauma when headaches are their only sign or symptom. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. [Migraine and other primary headaches in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Hugo A

    2007-01-01

    Migraine diagnosis only relies on clinical characteristics of the episodes and therefore on the doctor's skill and experience. It is recognized that migraine inclusively in the pediatric group is underdiagnosed and inadequately treated. The International Headache Society recently reviewed the international headache classification and incorporated some clinical criteria according to the different age groups. Pediatricians and pediatric neurologists now have a new document and should become familiar with it. This paper discusses these new criteria for migraine and other primary headaches.

  8. Primary Headache in Yemen: Prevalence and Common Medications Used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah A. Abdo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Primary headaches is a major medical concern in certain Arabic countries, for example Oman, Jordan, and Qatar. This study was aimed at increasing understanding of the prevalence of headache in Arabic countries and identifying common medications used for treatment because of the lack of research done in this field in Yemen. Methods. This is a cross-sectional observational study conducted by recruiting case-series of adults and elderly who have primary headache within the age group from 18 to 85 years. 12640 subjects received a simple explanation for the aim of the study as ethical issue. The subjects were allowed to complete a self-conducted screening questionnaire. The data were diagnosed according to the International Headache Society’s diagnostic criteria (2004. Results. The results showed that 76.5% of the primary headache is prevalent at least once per year, 27.1% of the tension type headache (TTH was the maximum percentage of type of headache, and 14.48% of the migraine headache (MH was the minimum percentage. On the other hand, the relationship between the primary headache and age of subjects was statistically significant (P0.05. In addition, 70.15% of the subjects said that headache attacks affected their activity of daily livings (ADL. 62.26% of the subjects used the medications without medical advice regarding their headache. 37.73% of the subjects relied on medical professionals (physicians and pharmacist regarding analgesics use. The most common agent used among the medications was paracetamol (38.4%. Others included ibuprofen, aspirin, diclofenac sodium, naproxen, mefenamic acid, ergotamine and (11.45% were unknown agents. Conclusion. We concluded that absence of health attention from the Yemeni Community and education from the health system in the country regarding analgesics use and their potential risk led to abuse of such medications and could be a reason beyond high prevalence of headache in Yemen.

  9. Central and peripheral mechanisms in chronic tension-type headache

    OpenAIRE

    Lipchik, Gay L.; Holroyd, Kenneth A.; France, Christopher R.; Kvaal, Steven A.; Segal, David; Cordingley, Gary E.; Rokicki, Lori A.; McCool, Heidi R.

    1996-01-01

    The second exteroceptive suppression of masseter muscle activity (ES2) and tenderness in pericranial muscles were evaluated in 112 young adults who met IHS criteria in the following diagnostic classifications: 31 chronic tension headache, 31 episodic tension headache, 33 migraine without aura and 17 migraine with aura. An additional 31 subjects served as controls. Pericranial muscle tenderness better distinguished diagnostic subgroups and better distinguished recurrent headache sufferers from...

  10. Pediatric Headache and Sleep Disturbance: A Comparison of Diagnostic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabner, Jonathan; Kaczynski, Karen J; Simons, Laura E; LeBel, Alyssa

    2018-02-01

    To examine whether sleep disturbance differs by headache diagnosis in a pediatric sample, and whether this effect remains when other factors affecting sleep are included. Primary headache disorders can be severe and disabling, impacting a child's functioning and quality of life. Many children and adolescents with chronic headaches also experience sleep difficulties, and there is likely a bidirectional relationship between headaches and sleep difficulties. Sleep problems may intensify functional and developmental difficulties in youth with chronic headaches. Despite this, research on sleep has largely been conducted only on those with migraines, with a dearth of studies including samples with tension-type headache (TTH) or new daily persistent-headache (NDPH). This retrospective chart review included 527 patients, ages 7-17 years, with a primary headache diagnosis of migraine (n = 278), TTH (n = 157), and NDPH (n = 92). Patients completed measures of disability, anxiety, and depression and their parents completed measures of sleep disturbance. Sleep disturbance was greater in patients with TTH (10.34 ± 5.94, P = .002) and NDPH (11.52 ± 6.40, P sleep disturbance was significantly associated with higher levels of functional disability (rs ≥ .16), anxiety (rs ≥ .30), and depression (rs ≥ .32). Additionally, higher pain levels were significantly associated with greater sleep disturbance among TTH patients (r = .23), with this association non-significant among the other headache groups. When simultaneously examining demographic, pain-related, and emotional distress factors, older age, higher levels of disability and depression, and NDPH diagnosis were all significant predictors of greater sleep disturbance (r 2  = .25). Assessment and treatment of sleep problems in pediatric patients with chronic headache is important with several contextual and headache diagnostic factors influencing the severity of sleep disturbance

  11. Upper cervical ligament testing in a patient with os odontoideum presenting with headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintken, Paul E; Metrick, Lisa; Flynn, Timothy W

    2008-08-01

    Resident's case problem. The role of premanipulative testing of the cervical spine is an area of controversy, and there are very few data to inform and guide practitioners on the use of ligamentous stability tests when assessing the upper cervical spine. A 23-year-old female was referred to physical therapy by a neurologist for the management of intractable headaches of possible musculoskeletal origin. Her Neck Disability Index score was 54% and she rated her headache pain from 3/10 to 9/10 on a Numerical Pain Rating Scale. She reported a 2-year history of intermittent lower extremity paresthesias without a known mechanism or current symptoms. She was treated in physical therapy for 11 visits with improvements in cervical range of motion, strength, and intensity of her headaches, but noted no change in the frequency of headaches. She was subsequently referred to the primary author for a second opinion and potential manual therapy interventions. Initial neurological screening examination for upper and lower motor neuron lesions was unremarkable. Assessment of the transverse ligament, using the anterior shear test in supine, brought on paresthesias in both feet and her toes. The paresthesias continued after the cessation of the test. The Sharp-Purser test performed in sitting, immediately after the transverse ligament test, abolished the paresthesias. She was then referred back to her primary care physician for further evaluation. Subsequent radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the patient had a C2-C3 Klippel-Feil congenital fusion and os odontoideum. The patient was examined by a neurosurgeon who concluded that she was not a surgical candidate. Her neurological symptoms completely resolved, but she continued to have headaches. Os odontoideum is a clinically important condition, given that the mobile dens may render the transverse ligament incompetent, leading to atlantoaxial instability. Both the role and sequencing of upper cervical ligamentous

  12. Automated solid-phase subcloning based on beads brought into proximity by magnetic force.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton P Hudson

    Full Text Available In the fields of proteomics, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology there is a need for high-throughput and reliable cloning methods to facilitate construction of expression vectors and genetic pathways. Here, we describe a new approach for solid-phase cloning in which both the vector and the gene are immobilized to separate paramagnetic beads and brought into proximity by magnetic force. Ligation events were directly evaluated using fluorescent-based microscopy and flow cytometry. The highest ligation efficiencies were obtained when gene- and vector-coated beads were brought into close contact by application of a magnet during the ligation step. An automated procedure was developed using a laboratory workstation to transfer genes into various expression vectors and more than 95% correct clones were obtained in a number of various applications. The method presented here is suitable for efficient subcloning in an automated manner to rapidly generate a large number of gene constructs in various vectors intended for high throughput applications.

  13. What’s in Children’s Backpacks: Foods Brought from Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Eliasziw, Misha; Folta, Sara C.; Goldberg, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one percent of elementary schoolchildren bring lunch to school on any given day. Fortyfive percent bring snacks. Surprisingly, little is known about the foods and beverages they bring. The present cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the GREEN Project Lunch Box Study sought to: (1) characterize foods and beverages brought from home to school by elementary schoolchildren, and (2) compare the quality of packed lunches to National School Lunch Program (NSLP) standards and packed snacks to Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) requirements. Lunches and snacks from 626 elementary schoolchildren were assessed and evaluated using digital photography and a supplemental food checklist. Food and beverage types most likely to be provided for lunch were sandwiches (59%), snackfoods (42%), fruit (34%), desserts (28%), water (28%) and sugar-sweetened beverages (24%). Twenty-seven percent of lunches met at least three of five NSLP standards. At snack, snackfoods (62%), desserts (35%) and sugar-sweetened beverages (35%) were more common than fruits (30%), dairy foods (10%), and vegetables (3%). Only 4% of snacks met two of four CACFP standards. Future research is needed to understand the multiple determinants of food packing behavior, including constraints faced by families. School wellness policies should consider initiatives that work collaboratively with parents to improve the quality of foods brought from home. PMID:25037557

  14. Seasonal Variation in Emergency Department Visits Among Pediatric Headache Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakalnis, A; Heyer, G L

    2016-09-01

    To ascertain whether seasonal variation occurs in emergency department (ED) visits for headache among children and adolescents. A retrospective review was conducted using the electronic medical records of ED visits for headache at a tertiary children's hospital through calendar years 2010-2014. Using ICD-9 diagnostic codes for headache and migraine, the numbers of headache visits were determined and compared by season and during school months vs summer months. A total of 6572 headache visits occurred. Headache visits increased during the fall season (133 ± 27 visits per month) compared with other seasons (101 ± 19 visits per month), P ≤ .002, but did not differ when comparing school months (113 ± 25 visits per month) and summer months (100 ± 24 visits per month), P = .1. The corresponding increase in ED visits during the fall season coincides with the start of the school year. Academic stressors and the change in daily schedule may lead to more headaches and more ED headache visits among school-aged youth. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  15. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists...... of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our...

  16. Update of Inpatient Treatment for Refractory Chronic Daily Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Tzu-Hsien; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH) is a group of headache disorders, in which headaches occur daily or near-daily (>15 days per month) and last for more than 3 months. Important CDH subtypes include chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, hemicrania continua, and new daily persistent headache. Other headaches with shorter durations (CDH. Common comorbidities of CDH are medication overuse headache and various psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Indications of inpatient treatment for CDH patients include poor responses to outpatient management, need for detoxification for overuse of specific medications (particularly opioids and barbiturates), and severe psychiatric comorbidities. Inpatient treatment usually involves stopping acute pain, preventing future attacks, and detoxifying medication overuse if present. Multidisciplinary integrated care that includes medical staff from different disciplines (e.g., psychiatry, clinical psychology, and physical therapy) has been recommended. The outcomes of inpatient treatment are satisfactory in terms of decreasing headache intensity or frequency, withdrawal from medication overuse, reducing disability, and improving life quality, although long-term relapse is not uncommon. In conclusion, inpatient treatment may be useful for select patients with refractory CDH and should be incorporated in a holistic headache care program.

  17. Headaches and myofascial temporomandibular disorders: overlapping entities, separate managements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, P C R; Costa, Y M; Gonçalves, D A; Svensson, P

    2016-09-01

    There are relevant clinical overlaps between some of the painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and headache conditions that may hamper the diagnostic process and treatment. A non-systematic search for studies on the relationship between TMD and headaches was carried out in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase. Important pain mechanisms contributing to the close association and complex relationship between TMD and headache disorders are as follows: processes of peripheral and central sensitisation which take place in similar anatomical areas, the possible impairment of the descending modulatory pain pathways and the processes of referred pain. In addition, the clinical examination does not always provide distinguishing information to differentiate between headaches and TMD. So, considering the pathophysiology and the clinical presentation of some types of headache and myofascial TMD, such overlap can be considered not only a matter of comorbid relationship, but rather a question of disorders where the distinction lines are sometimes hard to identify. These concerns are certainly reflected in the current classification systems of both TMD and headache where the clinical consequences of diagnosis such as headache attributed to or associated with TMD are uncertain. There are several similarities in terms of therapeutic strategies used to manage myofascial TMD and headaches. Considering all these possible levels of interaction, we reinforce the recommendation for multidisciplinary approaches, by a team of oro-facial pain specialists and a neurologist (headache specialist), to attain the most precise differential diagnosis and initiate the best and most efficient treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Quality in the provision of headache care. 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Michele; Jenkinson, Crispin; Perera, Suraj

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define "quality" of headache care, and develop indicators that are applicable in different settings and cultures and to all types of headache. No definition of quality of headache care has been formulated. Two sets of quality indicators, proposed in the US and UK...... the findings we proposed a large number of putative quality indicators, and refined these and reduced their number in consultations with larger international groups of stakeholder representatives. We formulated a definition of quality from the quality indicators. Five main themes were identified: (1) headache...

  19. Surgical outcome in headache due to mucosal contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Fumiyuki; Yabe, Haruna; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    Headaches is classified as primary and secondary, with secondary originating in head and neck conditions, the most important etiology being acute sinusitis. Headache due to mucosal contact, rarely encountered by otorhinolaryngologists, is an important secondary headache, whose criteria are defined by the International Classification of Headache Disorders to include intermittent pain localized in the periorbital and medial canthal or temporozygomatic regions, evidence that pain is attributable to mucosal contact and the presence of mucosal contact in the absence of acute rhinosinusitis, obtained using clinical examinations, nasal endoscopy, and/or computed tomography (CT). After mucosal contact is surgically corrected pain usually disappears permanently within 7 days. We reviewed mucosal contact headaches in 63 subjects undergoing nasal or paranasal surgery from April 2007 to March 2008. Of those 7 were diagnosed with headaches due to contact points in nasal mucosa, ranging from canthal to the temporozygomatic. The most common contact, between the middle turbinate and nasal septum, was seen in 6 of the 7. Surgery eliminated symptoms in 4 and ameliorated them in 3 indicating effective headache management. Subjects with severe headaches or localized periorbital and medial canthal pain regions, mucosal contact involvement is ruled out when CT allows no lesions. When mucosal contact headache is suspected, however surgery should be considered as a last resort. (author)

  20. Complementary and integrative medicine in the management of headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstine, Denise; Chen, Christina Y; Bauer, Brent

    2017-05-16

    Headaches, including primary headaches such as migraine and tension-type headache, are a common clinical problem. Complementary and integrative medicine (CIM), formerly known as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), uses evidence informed modalities to assist in the health and healing of patients. CIM commonly includes the use of nutrition, movement practices, manual therapy, traditional Chinese medicine, and mind-body strategies. This review summarizes the literature on the use of CIM for primary headache and is based on five meta-analyses, seven systematic reviews, and 34 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The overall quality of the evidence for CIM in headache management is generally low and occasionally moderate. Available evidence suggests that traditional Chinese medicine including acupuncture, massage, yoga, biofeedback, and meditation have a positive effect on migraine and tension headaches. Spinal manipulation, chiropractic care, some supplements and botanicals, diet alteration, and hydrotherapy may also be beneficial in migraine headache. CIM has not been studied or it is not effective for cluster headache. Further research is needed to determine the most effective role for CIM in patients with headache. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Neuroimaging and other investigations in patients presenting with headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum W Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Headache is very common. In the United Kingdom, it accounts for 4.4% of primary care consultations, 30% of referrals to neurology services and 0.5-0.8% of alert patients presenting to emergency departments. Primary headache disorders account for the majority of patients and most patients do not require investigation. Warning features (red flags in the history and on examination help target those who need investigation and what investigations are required. This article summarizes the typical presentations of the common secondary headaches and what neuroimaging and other investigations are appropriate for each headache type.

  2. Naratriptan in the Prophylactic Treatment of Cluster Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuo; Mitsufuji, Takashi; Asano, Yoshio; Shimazu, Tomokazu; Kato, Yuji; Tanahashi, Norio; Maruki, Yuichi; Sakai, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Toshimasa; Araki, Nobuo

    2017-10-01

    Objective Naratriptan has been reported to reduce the frequency of cluster headache. The purpose of this study was to determine whether naratriptan is effective as a prophylactic treatment for cluster headache in Japan. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all 43 patients with cluster headache who received preventive treatment with naratriptan from April 2009 to April 2015. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd Edition (beta version) (ICHD-3 beta) was used to diagnose cluster headache. This study was conducted at 3 centers (Department of Neurology, Saitama Medical University; Saitama Neuropsychiatric Institute; Saitama Medical University International Medical Center). Patients were recruited from these specialized headache outpatient centers. Naratriptan was taken before the patient went to bed. Results The study population included 30 men (69.8%) and 13 women (30.2%). Twenty-two cases received other preventive treatments (51.2%), while 21 cases only received naratriptan (48.8%). Among the 43 cases, 37 patients (86.0%) achieved an improvement of cluster headache on naratriptan. Conclusion Naratriptan has been suggested as a preventive medicine for cluster headache because of the longer the biological half-life in comparison to other triptans. The internal use of naratriptan 2 hours before attacks appears to achieve a good response in patients with cluster headache.

  3. The course of headache in idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, H M; Rönnbäck, C; Wegener, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    of the remaining 20 patients reported sustained chronic headache. Early age of onset and high diagnostic intracranial pressure (ICP) were associated with better headache outcome (≤1 headache days/month) after a year. Papilledema decreased rapidly within the first 2 months of diagnosis. After 1 year, OCT measures......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our aim was to prospectively describe the course of headache during the first year of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed IIH were consecutively included from December 2010 to June 2013. Treatment according to standard...

  4. Devising and validating a headache diary in a series of patients with chronic daily headache from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel F Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To devise and test the reliability and validity of a brief headache diary in a series of Colombian patients with chronic daily headache. METHODS: The study was designed in five stages: selection of domains (group of patients and experts; initial devising of the items (writing group; identification of non-understandable items (n=20; assessment of internal consistency (n=100; assessment of validity and assessment of sensitivity to change during seven consecutive days (n=25, 175 observations. RESULTS: Five domains were selected: headache presence, severity and length of pain, analgesics intake, and missing workdays. The headache diary is internally consistent (≈75% of rotated variance, correlates with the medical interview (Spearman's rho and Kendall's tau over 0.8 for each domain and it has an adequate and stable sensitivity and specificity (82 to 96%. CONCLUSIONS: This headache diary is a reliable and valid instrument and represents the most important features affecting Colombian patients with chronic daily headache.

  5. Ultrasound for critical care physicians: atypical headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotway MB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. A 76 year old woman presented with complaints of a new onset of headache especially on the right. Brain CT scan and MRI were unremarkable. Her erythrocyte sedimentation rate was markedly elevated. An ultrasound of the chest was performed (Figures 1 and 2. What does the ultrasound show? 1. Aortic aneurysm 2. Aortic insufficiency 3. Aortic stenosis 4. Aortic wall thickening 5. 1 and 2 6. 1 and 4 7. 2 and 4

  6. Temporomandibular disorders, headaches and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M

    2015-03-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are a major cause of non-dental orofacial pain with a suggested prevalence of 3% to 5% in the general population. TMDs present as unilateral or bilateral pain centered round the pre-auricular area and can be associated with clicking and limitation in jaw movements. It is important to ascertain if there are other comorbid factors such as headaches, widespread chronic pain and mood changes. A biopsychosocial approach is crucial with a careful explanation and self-care techniques encouraged.

  7. Classification of perimenstrual headache: clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, E Anne

    2012-10-01

    Although more than 50% of women with migraine report an association between migraine and menstruation, menstruation has generally considered to be no more than one of a variety of different migraine triggers. In 2004, the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders introduced specific diagnostic criteria for menstrual migraine. Results from research undertaken subsequently lend support to the clinical impression that menstrual migraine should be seen as a distinct clinical entity. This paper reviews the recent research and provides specific recommendations for consideration in future editions of the classification.

  8. Phantom headache: pain-memory-emotion hypothesis for chronic daily headache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Sanjay; Golwala, Purva

    2011-06-01

    The neurobiology of chronic pain, including chronic daily headache (CDH) is not completely understood. "Pain memory" hypothesis is one of the mechanisms for phantom limb pain. We reviewed the literature to delineate a relation of "pain memory" for the development of CDH. There is a direct relation of pain to memory. Patients with poor memory have less chance to develop "pain memory", hence less possibility to develop chronic pain. Progressive memory impairment may lead to decline in headache prevalence. A similar relation of pain is also noted with emotional or psychiatric symptoms. Literature review suggests that there is marked overlap in the neural network of pain to that of memory and emotions. We speculate that pain, memory, and emotions are interrelated in triangular pattern, and each of these three is related to other two in bidirectional pattern, i.e., stimulation of one of these will stimulate other symptoms/networks and vice versa (triangular theory for chronic pain). Longstanding or recurrent noxious stimuli will strengthen this interrelation, and this may be responsible for chronicity of pain. Reduction of both chronic pain and psychological symptoms by cognitive behavioral therapy or psychological interventions further suggests a bidirectional interrelation between pain and emotion. Longitudinal studies are warranted on the prevalence of headache and other painful conditions in patients with progressive memory impairment to delineate the relation of pain to memory. Interrelation of headache to emotional symptoms should also be explored.

  9. 19 CFR 10.36a - Vehicles, pleasure boats and aircraft brought in for repair or alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... aircraft brought in for repair or alteration. (a) A vehicle (such as an automobile, truck, bus, motorcycle... vehicle, pleasure boat, or aircraft for repair or alteration (as defined in §§ 10.8, 10.490, 10.570, and... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vehicles, pleasure boats and aircraft brought in...

  10. Informal Patient Payments and Bought and Brought Goods in the Western Balkans - A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch Mejsner, Sofie; Eklund Karlsson, Leena

    2017-07-03

    Informal patient payments for healthcare are common in the Western Balkans, negatively affecting public health and healthcare. To identify literature from the Western Balkans on what is known about informal patient payments and bought and brought goods, to examine their effects on healthcare and to determine what actions can be taken to tackle these payments. After conducting a scoping review that involved searching websites and databases and filtering with eligibility criteria and quality assessment tools, 24 relevant studies were revealed. The data were synthesized using a narrative approach that identified key concepts, types of evidence, and research gaps. The number of studies of informal patient payments increased between 2002 and 2015, but evidence regarding the issues of concern is scattered across various countries. Research has reported incidents of informal patient payments on a wide scale and has described various patterns and characteristics of these payments. Although these payments have typically been small - particularly to providers in common areas of specialized medicine - evidence regarding bought and brought goods remains limited, indicating that such practices are likely even more common, of greater magnitude and perhaps more problematic than informal patient payments. Only scant research has examined the measures that are used to tackle informal patient payments. The evidence indicates that legalizing informal patient payments, introducing performance-based payment systems, strengthening reporting, changing mentalities and involving the media and the European Union (EU) or religious organizations in anti-corruption campaigns are understood as some of the possible remedies that might help reduce informal patient payments. Despite comprehensive evidence regarding informal patient payments, data remain scattered and contradictory, implying that informal patient payments are a complex phenomenon. Additionally, the data on bought and brought goods

  11. Factors Contribute to Headache-Related Disability in Teens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Heyer, Geoffrey; Pakalnis, Ann; Binkley, Philip F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Our aim was to describe the relationship between risk factors, such as stress, depression, and anxiety and potentially protective factors against pediatric headache-related disability, such as mindfulness, resilience, and self-compassion, and to determine teens’ interest in mind-body skills training to help reduce headache-related disability. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey among adolescents seen in an academic neurology clinic reporting four or more headaches monthly using standardized instruments to determine the relationship between putative risk and protective factors as well as physiologic markers of inflammation and vagal tone and headache-related disability. Results Among the 29 participants, 31% were male, the average age was 14.8 years, average headache frequency was 11.6 per month, and the most commonly reported trigger was stress (86%). The only risk or protective factor significantly associated with headache-related disability was depression (r=0.52, P=0.004). Depression was negatively correlated with mindfulness, resilience, and self-compassion (Pheadache-related disability or depression. There was strong interest in learning skills like slow, deep breathing practices supported by a smart phone app to reduce stress and the negative impact of headaches on daily life. Discussion Among teens with frequent migraine headaches, depression is the strongest risk factor for headache-related disability. Stress is viewed as a headache trigger, and teens reported wanting to learn simple stress management strategies supported by a smart phone application to help reduce headache-related disability. PMID:26810775

  12. Acute tension type headache, cognitive function and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Paul Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Research has shown that migraine is often associated with memory problems. There have, however, been few studies of tension type headache (TTH and cognition. People who report frequent headaches often report high levels of negative affect. However, less is known about the acute effects of tension type headache on mood. To address these gaps in our knowledge, two studies examined the effects of acute TTH on cognitive performance and mood. Methods: Both studies involved one group of participants completing a battery of tasks when they had a TTH and when they had no headache. Another group (the control was headache free on both occasions. Duration of the headache was greater than 30 minutes and less than 4 hours. In the no headache condition the participants were headache free for at least 24 hours. In the first study 12 participants (6 with TTH, 6 controls completed a computerised battery measuring mood and aspects of cognition. In the second study 22 participants (7 TTH, 5 after TTH and10 controls completed paper and pencil mood and cognitive tasks.Results: In the first study having a headache was associated with an increase in negative affect both before and after the tasks. Three performance tasks showed impairments when the participants had headaches: logical reasoning was slower and less accurate; retrieval from semantic memory was slower; and reaction times in the categoric search task were slower. Results from the second study confirmed the global increase in negative affect when the person has a TTH. The results confirmed the impairments in the logical reasoning and semantic processing tasks and also showed that those with a TTH had greater psychomotor slowing and were more easily distracted. Effects did not continue after the headache had gone.Conclusions: Two small-scale studies have shown that TTH is associated with negative affect and impaired cognitive function. It is now of interest to determine whether OTC treatment

  13. Classification and clinical features of headache patients: an outpatient clinic study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jiying; Fan, Xiaoping; Li, Xuelian; Ran, Li; Tan, Ge; Chen, Lixue; Wang, Kuiyun; Liu, Bowen

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze and classify the clinical features of headache in neurological outpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively from March to May 2010 for headache among general neurological outpatients attending the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Personal interviews were carried out and a questionnaire was used to collect medical records. Diagnosis of headache was according to the International classification of headache disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Headache patients accounted for 19.5% of the general neurology clinic outpatients. A total of 843 (50.1%) patients were defined as having primary headache, 454 (27%) secondary headache, and 386 (23%) headache not otherwise specified (headache NOS). For primary headache, 401 (23.8%) had migraine, 399 (23.7%) tension-type headache (TTH), 8 (0.5%) cluster headache and 35 (2.1%) other headache types. Overall, migraine patients suffered (1) more severe headache intensity, (2) longer than 6 years of headache history and (3) more common analgesic medications use than TTH ones (p headaches than migraine patients, and typically headache frequency exceeded 15 days/month (p headache patients were defined as chronic daily headache. Almost 20% of outpatient visits to the general neurology department were of headache patients, predominantly primary headache of migraine and TTH. In outpatient headaches, more attention should be given to headache intensity and duration of headache history for migraine patients, while more attention to headache frequency should be given for the TTH ones.

  14. Cluster headache or narrow angle glaucoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Palimar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47 year old man with episodes of attacks of pain, redness and mild blurring of vision was investigated for narrow angle glaucoma in view of shallow anterior chambers and a cupped optic disc. The history was reviewed following a spontaneous attack in hospital, which had features other than acute glaucoma. A diagnosis of cluster headache was made on the basis of tests. Cluster headache has been defined as unilateral intense pain, involving the eye and head on one side, usually associated with flushing, nasal congestion and lacrimation; the attacks recurring one or more times daily and lasting 20 - 120 minutes. Such attacks commonly continue for weeks or months and are separated by an asymptomatic period of months to years. This episodic nature, together with unilaterality and tendency to occur at night, closely mimics narrow angle glaucoma. Further, if patients have shallow anterior chambers and disc cupping, the differentiation becomes more difficult yet critical. Resource to provocative tests is often the only answer as the following case report demonstrates.

  15. Prevalence of Migraine Headache in Epileptic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayena Jabbehdari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders which a physician might come across in his career life. On the other hand, migraine is common disorders in society chronic headache such as migraine in epileptic patients give ride to difficulties in seizure treatment due to altering the sleeping pattern and calmness disarrangement. Therefore, early diagnosis and suitable treatment in epileptic patients is definitely inevitable, and it will help in a more desirable patients' treatment. So we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of migraine in epileptic patients and relation between these two disorders. Number of 150 epileptic patients attended to neurology clinic of Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital and Iranian Epilepsy Association between June 2010 to May 2011 were fulfilled the questionnaire, and the data has been assessed by SPSS software. In this study, we used MS-Q (migraine screening -questionnaire designed for early diagnosis of migraine in the general population. From all patients filling the questionnaire, the prevalence of migraine (with or without aura was as follows: 23 persons had criteria compatible with migraine with aura; 26 patients had migraine without aura. Migraine was more common in these patients: persons with academic degrees, women, patients who were used 2 antiepileptic drugs, and patients with high BMI. In this study, we showed that migraine in epileptic patients is more prevalent than the general population. Thus, early diagnosis and efficient treatment of migraine headache in these patients is mandatory. More studies are needed for evaluation of this issue.

  16. Severe headache following ozone therapy: Pneumocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toman, Hüseyin; Özdemir, Uğur; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Lüleci, Nurettin

    2017-07-01

    Pneumocephalus is defined as air in the cranial cavity. Pneumocephalus can result from inadvertent dural puncture during lumbar epidural anesthesia or epidural steroid injection. Presently described is case of 41-year-old woman who had undergone lumbar disc hernia operation but due to ongoing complaints, was diagnosed as having failed back surgery syndrome. Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty was performed. In the operating room, under sterile conditions and under sedoanalgesia, Racz catheter was inserted in caudal area and guided to epidural area with scope. In accordance with Madrid Declaration, 20 ug/mL concentration and 5 mL volume oxygen-ozone mixture was injected. After waiting 5 minutes, 0.25% bupivacaine + 80 mg triamcinolone + 1500 units hyaluronidase was administered through the catheter. After epidural neuroplasty procedure, when patient was taken to gurney, she complained of severe headache and nausea. Computed tomography scans of head were done immediately, and consistent with pneumocephalus, air was observed in right lateral ventricle frontal horn, interhemispheric fissure, and superior cerebellar cistern. Patient was placed in Trendelenburg position and intravenous fluid was replaced. Analgesics and bed rest were recommended as treatment. Patient was discharged from hospital on the second day. Within a week, headache pain and other complaints had resolved. In this article, the case of a failed back surgery patient who was postoperatively treated with medical ozone and experienced complication of pneumocephalus is discussed in context of literature data.

  17. Thunderclap headache: Diagnostic considerations and neuroimaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, A.M.; Bradley, M.D.; Stoodley, N.G.; Renowden, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Thunderclap headache (TCH) is an acute and severe headache that has maximum intensity at onset; TCH can be primary or secondary. Primary TCH is diagnosed when no underlying cause is discovered; however, imaging is crucial in distinguishing secondary causes, which are wide-ranging. The radiologist should be aware of the list of potential diagnoses. Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is the most common cause of secondary TCH. Aneurysmal SAH accounts for the majority of cases, although other causes should also be considered and these include perimesencephalic haemorrhage, arteriovenous malformations, and dural arteriovenous fistula as well as reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Conditions that may present with TCH, with or without SAH include cervical artery dissection and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Ischaemic stroke, pituitary apoplexy, and posterior reversible leucoencephalopathy are other potential causes, whereas non-vascular causes include colloid cysts of the third ventricle and spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Imaging features are reviewed with reference to clues gleaned from initial imaging using computed tomography, as well as characteristics that should be sought using magnetic resonance imaging or angiographic imaging

  18. Headache service quality: evaluation of quality indicators in 14 specialist-care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Sara; Uluduz, Derya; Gouveia, Raquel Gil; Jensen, Rigmor; Siva, Aksel; Uygunoglu, Ugur; Gvantsa, Giorgadze; Mania, Maka; Braschinsky, Mark; Filatova, Elena; Latysheva, Nina; Osipova, Vera; Skorobogatykh, Kirill; Azimova, Julia; Straube, Andreas; Eren, Ozan Emre; Martelletti, Paolo; De Angelis, Valerio; Negro, Andrea; Linde, Mattias; Hagen, Knut; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Zidverc-Trajkovic, Jasna; Podgorac, Ana; Paemeleire, Koen; De Pue, Annelien; Lampl, Christian; Steiner, Timothy J; Katsarava, Zaza

    2016-12-01

    The study was a collaboration between Lifting The Burden (LTB) and the European Headache Federation (EHF). Its aim was to evaluate the implementation of quality indicators for headache care Europe-wide in specialist headache centres (level-3 according to the EHF/LTB standard). Employing previously-developed instruments in 14 such centres, we made enquiries, in each, of health-care providers (doctors, nurses, psychologists, physiotherapists) and 50 patients, and analysed the medical records of 50 other patients. Enquiries were in 9 domains: diagnostic accuracy, individualized management, referral pathways, patient's education and reassurance, convenience and comfort, patient's satisfaction, equity and efficiency of the headache care, outcome assessment and safety. Our study showed that highly experienced headache centres treated their patients in general very well. The centres were content with their work and their patients were content with their treatment. Including disability and quality-of-life evaluations in clinical assessments, and protocols regarding safety, proved problematic: better standards for these are needed. Some centres had problems with follow-up: many specialised centres operated in one-touch systems, without possibility of controlling long-term management or the success of treatments dependent on this. This first Europe-wide quality study showed that the quality indicators were workable in specialist care. They demonstrated common trends, producing evidence of what is majority practice. They also uncovered deficits that might be remedied in order to improve quality. They offer the means of setting benchmarks against which service quality may be judged. The next step is to take the evaluation process into non-specialist care (EHF/LTB levels 1 and 2).

  19. Psychosocial factors associated with migraine and tension-type headache in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Kobzeva, Natalia R; Gilev, Denis V; Kislyak, Nadezhda V; Olesen, Jes

    2017-11-01

    Background In our previous study of workers, blood donors and medical students, students stood out with a higher 1-year prevalence of migraine (28%) and tension-type headache (TTH) (74%). General factors associated with headache were common for all groups except low physical activity. The hypothesis of this study was therefore that a number of psychosocial factors relating to the personal sphere would better explain the high prevalence of migraine and TTH in students. Methods The study population consisted of 1042 students (719 females, 323 males, mean age 20.6, range 17-40). Headache diagnoses and associated factors were identified by direct professional semi-structured interview. We also interviewed about the following psychosocial factors: dissatisfaction with study, dissatisfaction with family life, dissatisfaction for personal reasons, bad financial situation, overwork, stress, not enough sleep, insomnia, depressed mood, anxiety, irritability, tendency towards conflicts and not being married. We report psychosocial factors associated with headache according to diagnosis and sex using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results Several factors were significantly associated with migraine and TTH in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, two psychosocial factors were statistically significantly associated with migraine in all students: irritability (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.6) and overwork (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.5). Insomnia (2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.9) and depressed mood (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.2) were associated with migraine only in females. Two psychosocial factors were associated with TTH: dissatisfaction with study in males (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.8) and depressed mood in females (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.5). Conclusion Psychosocial factors from the personal sphere showed significant association with migraine and TTH in students. Such factors should therefore be major targets for preventive efforts to reduce the prevalence of primary

  20. Informal Patient Payments and Bought and Brought Goods in the Western Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch Mejsner, Sofie; Eklund Karlsson, Leena

    2017-01-01

    Informal payments for healthcare are common in the Western Balkans, although these payments negatively affect public health and health care. To identify literature from the Western Balkans on what is known about informal payments and bought and brought goods, to examine their effects on healthcare......, of greater magnitude and more problematic than informal payments. Only scant research has examined the measures that are used to tackle informal payments and corruption. The evidence indicates that legalizing informal payments, introducing performance-based payment systems, strengthening reporting, changing...... mentalities and involving the media and the EU or religious organizations in anti-corruption campaigns are understood as some of the possible remedies that might help reduce informal payments. Despite comprehensive evidence regarding informal payments, data remain scattered and contradictory, implying...

  1. Survey of Opioid and Barbiturate Prescriptions in Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Headache Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minen, Mia T; Lindberg, Kate; Wells, Rebecca E; Suzuki, Joji; Grudzen, Corita; Balcer, Laura; Loder, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    To educate physicians about appropriate acute migraine treatment guidelines by determining (1) where headache patients were first prescribed opioids and barbiturates, and (2) the characteristics of the patient population who had been prescribed opioids and barbiturates. Several specialty societies issued recommendations that caution against the indiscriminate use of opioids or barbiturate containing medications for the treatment of migraine. These medications are still being prescribed in various medical settings and could put headache specialists in a difficult position when patients request these agents. Patients presenting to a headache center comprised of eight physicians were asked to complete a survey that assessed headache types, comorbid conditions, and whether they had ever been prescribed opioids or barbiturates. If they responded affirmatively to the latter question, they were asked about the prescribing doctor, medication effectiveness, and whether they were currently on the medication. Data collection took place over a one month period. Two hundred forty-four patients were given the survey and 218 of these patients completed it. The predominant diagnosis was migraine (83.9%). More than half of the patients reported having been prescribed an opioid (54.8%) or a barbiturate (56.7%). About one fifth were on opioids (19.4%) or barbiturates (20.7%) at the time of completing the survey. Most patients reported being on opioids for more than 2 years (24.6%) or less than one week (32.1%). The reasons most frequently cited for stopping opioids were that the medications did not help (30.9%) or that they saw a new doctor who would not prescribe them (29.4%). Among patients who had previously been on barbiturates, 32.2% had been on these for over 2 years. Most patients (61.8%) stopped barbiturates because they did not find the medication helpful, while 17.6% said they saw a new doctor who would not prescribe them. The physician specialty most frequently cited as

  2. The buffering effect of family functioning on the psychological consequences of headache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Zandieh, Sara; Dehghani, Mohsen; Assazadegan, Farhad; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2017-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine whether high family functioning mitigates the association between headache intensity and distress. The sample consisted of 124 patients with chronic or recurrent headache. Patients completed validated questionnaires about headache intensity, family functioning, and

  3. SUNCT Headache (Short-Lasting, Unilateral, Neuralgiform with Conjunctival Injection and Tearing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders SUNCT Headache Information Page SUNCT Headache Information Page What research is being done? The NINDS conducts a wide range of research on headache disorders. This research aims to discover ways to ...

  4. A Genome-Wide Association Study Finds Genetic Associations with Broadly-Defined Headache in UK Biobank (N=223,773).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Weihua; Adams, Mark J; Hebert, Harry L; Deary, Ian J; McIntosh, Andrew M; Smith, Blair H

    2018-02-01

    Headache is the most common neurological symptom and a leading cause of years lived with disability. We sought to identify the genetic variants associated with a broadly-defined headache phenotype in 223,773 subjects from the UK Biobank cohort. We defined headache based on a specific question answered by the UK Biobank participants. We performed a genome-wide association study of headache as a single entity, using 74,461 cases and 149,312 controls. We identified 3343 SNPs which reached the genome-wide significance level of P<5×10 -8 . The SNPs were located in 28 loci, with the top SNP of rs11172113 in the LRP1 gene having a P value of 4.92×10 -47 . Of the 28 loci, 14 have previously been associated with migraine. Among 14 new loci, rs77804065 with a P value of 5.87×10 -15 in the LINC02210-CRHR1 gene was the top SNP. Significant relationships between multiple brain tissues and genetic associations were identified through tissue expression analysis. We also identified significant positive genetic correlations between headache and many psychological traits. Our results suggest that brain function is closely related to broadly-defined headache. In addition, we found that many psychological traits have genetic correlations with headache. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Headaches in Pregnancy | Diarra | Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Headaches are a common problem in pregnancy and often receive scant attention from the clinician. This may be due to an incomplete understanding of the condition. Although sometimes innocuous, headaches are also associated with some very dangerous conditions that occur during pregnancy. This manuscript ...

  6. Sleep disturbances in tension-type headache and migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Fernández-Muñoz, Juan J.; Palacios-Ceña, María; Parás-Bravo, Paula; Cigarán-Méndez, Margarita; Navarro-Pardo, Esperanza

    2017-01-01

    Current research into the pathogenesis of tension-type headache (TTH) and migraine is focused on altered nociceptive pain processing. Among the potential factors that influence sensitization mechanisms, emotional stress, depression, or sleep disorders all have an essential role: they increase the excitability of nociceptive firing and trigger hyperalgesic responses. Sleep disturbances and headache disorders share common brain structures and pathogenic mechanisms and TTH, migraine, and sleep disturbances often occur together; for example, 50% of individuals who have either TTH or migraine have insomnia. Moreover, insomnia and poor sleep quality have been associated with a higher frequency and intensity of headache attacks, supporting the notion that severity and prevalence of sleep problems correlate with headache burden. It should be noted that the association between headaches and sleep problems is bidirectional: headache can promote sleep disturbances, and sleep disturbances can also precede or trigger a headache attack. Therefore, a better understanding of the factors that affect sleep quality in TTH and migraine can assist clinicians in determining better and adequate therapeutic programs. In this review, the role of sleep disturbances in headaches, and the association with depression, emotional stress, and pain sensitivity in individuals with TTH or migraine are discussed. PMID:29399051

  7. Headache classification and aspects of reproductive life in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M. Melhado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To classify headaches as a function of the menstrual cycle and to contrast aspects relating to the reproductive cycle as a function of headache type. Method: Participants responded to a structured questionnaire consisting of 44 questions. Detailed headache information, enabling the classification of headaches, and questions relating to the menstrual cycle were obtained. Results: The sample consisted of 422 students. Menstrual headaches were experiencedby 31.8%. Migraine without aura (MO occurred in 13.3%, migraine with aura (MA in 7.8%, and probable migraine in 6.4%. Women with MA were significantly more likely to have reached menarche at earlier ages than women without headaches (p=0.03. Use of a hormonal contraceptive was related to the function of having MA headaches or not. Conclusion: Most female college students are affected by menstrualheadaches. Although the vast majority experience MO, other headaches also occur. Women with MA are equally likely to receive hormonal contraceptives as others.

  8. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronfort, G.; Nilsson, N.; Haas, M.; Evans, R.; Goldsmith, C. H.; Assendelft, W. J.; Bouter, L. M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive physical treatments are often used to treat common types of chronic/recurrent headache. OBJECTIVES: To quantify and compare the magnitude of short- and long-term effects of non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headaches. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the

  9. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brønfort, Gert; Haas, Mitchell; Evans, Roni L.; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Assendelft, Willem J.J.; Bouter, Lex M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non-invasive physical treatments are often used to treat common types of chronic/recurrent headache. Objectives: To quantify and compare the magnitude of short- and long-term effects of non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headaches. Search methods: We searched the

  10. Efficacy of spinal manipulation for chronic headache: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronfort, Gert; Assendelft, Willem J.J.; Evans, Roni; Haas, Mitchell; Bouter, Lex

    2001-01-01

    Background: Chronic headache is a prevalent condition with substantial socioeconomic impact. Complementary or alternative therapies are increasingly being used by patients to treat headache pain, and spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is among the most common of these. Objective: To assess the

  11. Headache and temporomandibular disorders: evidence for diagnostic and behavioural overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaros, A G; Urban, D; Locke, J

    2007-06-01

    To assess the diagnostic and behavioural overlap of headache patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), individuals recruited from the general population with self-described headaches were compared with non-headache controls. The examination and diagnostic procedures in the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for TMD were applied to both sets of subjects by a blinded examiner. Following their examination, subjects used experience sampling methods to obtain data on pain, tooth contact, masticatory muscle tension, emotional states and stress. Results showed that a significantly higher proportion of the headache patients received an RDC/TMD diagnosis of myofascial pain than non-headache controls. Headache patients also reported significantly more frequent and intense tooth contact, more masticatory muscle tension, more stress and more pain in the face/head and other parts of the body than non-headache controls. These results are similar to those reported for TMD patients and they suggest that headache patients and TMD patients overlap considerably in diagnosis and oral parafunctional behaviours.

  12. Stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion in intractable cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgens, Tim P; Schoenen, Jean; Rostgaard, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OVERVIEW: Chronic cluster headache (CCH) is a debilitating headache disorder with a significant impairment of the patients' lives. Within the past decade, various invasive neuromodulatory approaches have been proposed for the treatment of CCH refractory to standard preventive drug...

  13. Prospective study of sentinel headache in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linn, F.H.H.; Wijdicks, E.F.M.; Graaf, Y. van der; Weerdesteyn-van Vliet, F.A.C.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Gijn, J. van

    1994-01-01

    Retrospective surveys of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage suggest that minor episodes with sudden headache (warning leaks) may precede rupture of an aneurysm, and that early recognition and surgery might lead to improved outcome. We studied 148 patients with sudden and severe headache

  14. Transcranial Doppler study in patients with cluster headache ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hemodynamic changes occur in the cerebral blood flow during cluster headache. Objective: The aim of the present work was to study the middle cerebral artery blood flow velocities and vasoreactivity in cluster headache patients as baseline values and after administration of 100% oxygen during the cluster ...

  15. Transcranial Doppler study in patients with cluster headache

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soleiman A.M. Tahoon

    2013-03-11

    Mar 11, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Hemodynamic changes occur in the cerebral blood flow during cluster headache. Objective: The aim of the present work was to study the middle cerebral artery blood flow veloc- ities and vasoreactivity in cluster headache patients as baseline values and after administration of.

  16. Disorders presenting with headache as the sole symptom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Headache is one of the commonest medical complaints , and ranks high among the reasons why people consult neurologists and general practitioners .Most headache patients are, however, managed suboptimally ; and indeed, many neurologists find outpatient headachemanagement one of the least engaging parts of ...

  17. Clinic and Emergency Room Evaluation and Testing of Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Barbara L; Ward, Thomas N

    2015-10-01

    Evaluation of the headache patient in the outpatient clinic and emergency department (ED) has different focuses and goals. The focus of this paper is to review the evaluation of patients in both settings with mention of evaluation in the pediatric and pregnant patient population.  The patient's history should drive the practitioner's decision and evaluation choices. We review recommendations made by the American Board of Internal Medicine and American Headache Society through the Choosing Wisely Campaign, which has an emphasis on choosing the right imaging modality for the clinical situation and elimination/prevention of medication overuse headache, as well as the US Headache Consortium guidelines for migraine headache. We will also review focusing on ED evaluation of the pediatric patient and pregnant patient presenting with headache. At the end of the review we hope to have provided you with a framework to think about the headache patient and what is the appropriate test in the given clinical setting in order to ensure that the patient gets the right diagnosis and is set on a path to the appropriate management plan. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  18. Headache associated disability in medical students at the Kenyatta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study headache associated disability in a group of medical students at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Study design: Cross sectional survey. Results: Between October 1994 and January 1995 we conducted a survey on headache characteristics on medical students at both the Kenya Medical Training Centre ...

  19. Headache associated with airplane travel: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Ajith; Mathew, Mini; Iype, Thomas; Sandeep, P; Jabeen, Afshan; Ayyappan, K

    2013-01-01

    Airplane travel headache is rare and has recently been described as a new form of headache associated with a specific situation. Of the 1,208 patients with primary headaches attending a tertiary care neurology hospital, two (0.16%) patients satisfied the criteria for headache related to airplane travel. Both the patients fulfilled the proposed diagnostic criteria for airplane travel headache. This unique headache had a mean duration of 24 minutes, localized to the medial supraorbital region described as having an intense jabbing or stabbing character that occurred exclusively and maximally during aircraft landing or take-off, following which pain intensity subsided . This rare headache felt on aircraft descent is probably due to the squeeze effect on the frontal sinus wall, when air trapped inside it contracts producing a negative pressure leading to mucosal edema, transudation and intense pain. Use of nasal decongestants either alone or in combination with naproxen sodium prior to ascent and descent abated the headache episodes. Awareness about this unique entity is essential to provide proper treatment and avoid patient suffering.

  20. Multidisciplinary Team Treatment Approaches to Chronic Daily Headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai-Srivastava, Soma; Sigman, Erica; Uyeshiro Simon, Ashley; Cleary, Lyssa; Ginoza, Lori

    2017-10-01

    In this review, we focus on nonmedication treatment approaches to chronic daily headaches and chronic migraine. We review the current scientific data on studies using multimodal treatments, especially physical therapy and occupational therapy, and provide recommendations on the formation of interdisciplinary headache teams. Chronic daily headache, which includes chronic migraine, is a particularly challenging clinical entity which often involves multiple headache types and comorbidities. A team approach in treating these patients may be particularly useful. We review all current studies performed with at least one or more other modality in addition to usual medical treatment, with a focus on physical and occupational therapy. Emphasis on physical and occupational therapy with an explanation of their methods and role in multidisciplinary treatment is a pivotal part of this review. We also suggest approaches to setting up a multimodality clinic for the busy headache clinician. Setting up a collaborative, multidisciplinary team of specialists in headache practices with the goal of modifying physical, environmental, and psychological triggers for chronic daily headaches may facilitate treatment of these refractory patients. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  1. Headache characteristics during the development of tolerance to nitrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, I; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Olesen, J

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in nitrate-induced headache and in spontaneous migraine attacks. Organic nitrates act as prodrugs for NO and headache is a predominant adverse effect of nitrates but often disappears during continuous treatment. Insight...

  2. The Effect of Migraine Headache on Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that migraine headaches are common and debilitating, little is known about their effect on educational attainment. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the relationship between migraine headache and three outcomes: high school grade point average, the probability of graduating…

  3. Clinical Profile of Primary Headache disorders in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common primary headache subtypes were migraine and tension type headache. Migraine without aura (MWOA) was commoner than migraine with aura (MWA) (58% and 42% respectively). Associated symptoms, such as nausea (OR=6.5, 95%CI= 2.98-14.48), vomiting (OR=19, 95%CI= 7.38-51.35 and visual ...

  4. The art of history-taking in a headache patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ravishankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Headache is a common complaint that makes up for approximately 25% of any neurologists outpatient practice. Yet, it is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Ninety percent of headaches seen in practice are due to a primary headache disorder where there are no confirmatory tests, and neuroimaging studies, if done, are normal. In this situation, a good headache history allows the physician to recognize a pattern that in turn leads to the correct diagnosis. A comprehensive history needs time, interest, focus and establishment of rapport with the patient. When to ask what question to elicit which information, is an art that is acquired by practice and improves with experience. This review discusses the art of history-taking in headache patients across different settings. The nuances of headache history-taking are discussed in detail, particularly the questions related to the time, severity, location and frequency of the headache syndrome in general and the episode in particular. An emphasis is made on the recognition of red flags that help in the identification of secondary headaches.

  5. Should non acute and recurrent headaches have neuroimaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Seventy-four cases that were referred to the specialist neurology clinic with complaints of chronic and recurrent headaches without focal neurological defi cit that had CT scan were reviewed consecutively using the short form of the International Classification of Headache Disorders second edition (ICHD 2) criteria ...

  6. Diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Eric; Ohrbach, Richard; List, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We assessed and compared the diagnostic accuracy of two sets of diagnostic criteria for headache secondary to temporomandibular disorders (TMD).......We assessed and compared the diagnostic accuracy of two sets of diagnostic criteria for headache secondary to temporomandibular disorders (TMD)....

  7. Management of children and young people with headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, William P; Agrawal, Shakti

    2017-04-01

    Headache is very common in children and young people. The correct advice and treatment requires consideration of a wide differential diagnosis between primary and secondary headaches, and also of the different types of primary headache. The International Classification of Headache Disorders gives useful descriptions and diagnostic criteria that are especially useful for primary headaches. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guideline 150 provides evidence-based recommendations on treatments for adults and young people from age 12 years. However, the same principles can be applied to younger children when a specific diagnosis can be made. Key recommendations from the NICE Quality Standards include, establishing a precise diagnosis if possible, avoiding, diagnosing and treating medication overuse headache, and combining a triptan with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug or paracetamol as the first-line acute/rescue treatment for migraine with or without aura. Although rare in children and young people, it is important to diagnose new daily persistent headache, as it responds poorly or not at all to medication; and paroxysmal hemicrania as it responds very well to indomethacin but not to other commonly used analgesics. When faced with difficulties in reaching a precise diagnosis or in finding effective therapies, further advice should be sought from a children's headache clinic or specialist. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Headache in the parturient: Pathophysiology and management of post-dural puncture headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Headache in the postpartum period is common and multifactorial in origin. Apart from primary causes such as tension headaches and migraine, secondary headaches such as post-dural puncture headache (PDPH are increasingly common because of increasing use of regional anaesthesia and analgesia during childbirth. Preventive measures for PDPH include the use of smaller gauge pencil-point needles for spinal blocks; epidural needles of 18 G or less; using saline rather than air for epidural space identification and the use of ultrasound guidance, especially for difficult cases such as morbid obesity and spinal deformities. In case of accidental dural puncture (ADP, the choice is between inserting the catheter in an adjacent space or intrathecal catheterization. Current evidence seems to be in favour of inserting the epidural catheter into the subarachnoid space and using the intrathecal catheter for analgesia/anaesthesia after prominently labelling it as intrathecal, to prevent misuse. It should be removed after at least 24 hours and a 10 ml bolus of saline injected before removal of catheter may be helpful. Either way, having written protocols for the management of accidental dural puncture helps to reduce the incidence of PDPH. PDPH can be disabling in severity and can mar the whole experience of childbirth. In addition, severe untreated PDPH can cause complications such as nerve palsies, subdural hematoma and cerebral venous thrombosis. Conservative methods of treatment should be tried first such as adequate hydration, paracetamol, caffeine, sumatriptan or ACTH/hydrocortisone. Epidural blood patching is the most effective treatment for PDPH. It is more effective if done 24-48 hours after dural puncture. It is an invasive procedure with its own complications as well as a failure rate of up to 30%, so that a second or even third patch may be necessary. Both these facts should be intimated to the patient beforehand. Meticulous follow-up and evaluation

  9. An investigation of the manifest dream content associated with migraine headaches: a study of the dreams that precede nocturnal migraines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather-Greener, G Q; Comstock, D; Joyce, R

    1996-01-01

    Clinical observations of a relationship between unpleasant dreams and migraine headaches have been reported previously. Due to the anecdotal quality of these case reports, this study empirically investigated the significance of this relationship. Dream content categories were selected corresponding to emotional factors associated with stress that trigger migraine headaches. A total of 37 migraineurs recorded 10 dreams each, 5 that preceded migraines and 5 that did not. Univariate F tests revealed that 4 of the 5 variables contributed significantly to the overall effect, specifically anger, misfortune, apprehension, and aggressive interactions. Recommendations include discussing the predictive value of dreams with regard to nocturnal migraine attacks, and therapeutic implications are suggested.

  10. Effect of resistance training on headache symptoms in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Jensen, Rigmor H.; Dalager, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Background: While strength training for the neck and shoulder muscles may be effective in reducing headache, the optimal combination of exercise frequency and duration is unknown. This study investigates the effect of different time-wise combinations of one weekly hour of strength training...... for the neck and shoulder muscles on headache frequency, intensity, and use of analgesics. Methods: A total of 573 office workers were randomly allocated at the cluster-level to five groups; 3 20 min a week of minimally supervised (3MS), 1 60 (1WS), 3 20 (3WS) or 9 7 (9WS) min a week of supervised high......-intensity strength training for 20 weeks, or to a reference group without training (REF). Headache frequency, intensity, and use of analgesics in relation to headache were determined by questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Results: The intention-to-treat analysis showed reduced headache frequency and intensity...

  11. Chronic unremitting headache associated with Lyme disease-like illness

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    Pedro Andre Kowacs

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Lyme-disease-like illness (BLDLI or Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome is a unique zoonosis found in Brazil. It reproduces all the clinical symptoms of Lyme disease except for the high frequencies of relapse and the presence of autoimmune manifestations. Two cases of borreliosis manifesting with unremitting headache, which is a symptom associated with late-stage BLDLI, were presented. Clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of the BLDLI and its associated headaches were showed and discussed in this article. BLDLI diagnosis requires additional attention by physicians, since the disease has a tendency to progress to the late, recurrent stage or the chronic form, and the associated headache can be confused with chronic primary headache or with analgesic-overuse one. Special attention should be paid to patients with headaches who have traveled to endemic areas.

  12. Primary Headaches and School Performance-Is There a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genizi, J; Guidetti, V; Arruda, M A

    2017-07-01

    Headache is a common complaint among children and adolescents. School functioning is one of the most important life domains impacted by chronic pain in children. This review discusses the epidemiological and pathophysiological connections between headaches and school functioning including a suggested clinical approach. The connection between recurrent and chronic headache and learning disabilities might be psychosocial (fear of failure) or anatomical (malfunctioning of the frontal and prefrontal areas). Only few population-based and clinical studies were done and good studies are still needed in order to understand the complex relationship better. However, relating to our patients' learning and school performance, history is crucial when a child with primary headaches is evaluated. Learning disabilities seem to have a high prevalence among children with primary headache syndromes especially migraine. The connection between the two is complex and might be either part of a common brain pathophysiology and/or a consequence of poor quality of life.

  13. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists...... of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our...... reduction in frequency. An increase in days with use of medication was found. Increased awareness of low CSF pressure headache is emphasized and a controlled larger randomized study is needed to confirm the results. However the present results, allows us to conclude that EBP in treatment-refractory low CSF...

  14. Chronic post-traumatic headache after mild head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard, Dorte; Forchhammer, Hysse; Teasdale, Tom

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aetiology behind chronic post-traumatic headache (CPTH) after mild head injury is unclear and management is complicated. In order to optimize treatment strategies we aimed to characterize a CPTH population. METHODS: Ninety patients with CPTH and 45 patients with chronic primary...... headaches were enrolled from the Danish Headache Center. All patients were interviewed about demographic and headache data. They completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, SF-36 and a headache diary. RESULTS: The CPTH group experienced more cognitive...... levels of disability for the CPTH patients suggests directions for further research into what important factors are embedded in the patients' PTSD symptoms and might explain their prolonged illness....

  15. Neurophysiological tests and neuroimaging procedures in non-acute headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, G; Friberg, L; Jänig, W

    2004-01-01

    , a history of seizures and/or focal neurological signs or symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be indicated. 6 If attacks can be fully accounted for by the standard headache classification [International Headache Society (IHS)], a positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission......The use of instrumental examinations in headache patients varies widely. In order to evaluate their usefulness, the most common instrumental procedures were evaluated, on the basis of evidence from the literature, by an EFNS Task Force (TF) on neurophysiological tests and imaging procedures in non......-acute headache patients. The conclusions of the TF regarding each technique are expressed in the following guidelines for clinical use. 1 Interictal electroencephalography (EEG) is not routinely indicated in the diagnostic evaluation of headache patients. Interictal EEG is, however, indicated if the clinical...

  16. Risk of headache, temporomandibular dysfunction, and local sensitization in male professional boxers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Puente, Miguel; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel; Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Ordoñez, Francisco J

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate differences in the incidence of headache, trigeminal nerve mechanosensitivity, and temporomandibular functionality in professional male boxers (exposed to repetitive craniofacial trauma) who were actively training and without severe previous injuries compared with handball players. Case-control study. University-based physical therapy research clinic. Eighteen boxers (mean age, 23±4.61y) as the cases group, and 20 handball players as the comparison group (mean age, ±2y, and sex matched), were included. All participants (N=38) completed the assessment protocol. Not applicable. Measurements were taken of the headache impact (Headache Impact Test-6) and the pressure pain threshold over the trigeminal nerve sensory branches, the masseter muscle, and the tibialis anterior muscle. The secondary outcome measure included the temporomandibular function (Helkimo Clinic Index). The boxers showed slight mandibular function impairment, local muscular and neural sensitization, and a higher impact from headaches than did the handball players. The between-group comparison found significant differences in all outcome measures (P<.05), except in the tibialis anterior muscle pressure pain threshold on the dominant (P=.958) and the nondominant (P=.453) sides. Professional male boxers seem to suffer a greater headache impact and local sensitization of the craniomandibular region than do professional handball players. It cannot be determined whether these findings are short-lasting, as a result of the training activity, or long-lasting. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Headache after pediatric traumatic brain injury: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Heidi K; Vavilala, Monica S; Jaffe, Kenneth M; Koepsell, Thomas D; Wang, Jin; Temkin, Nancy; Durbin, Dennis; Dorsch, Andrea; Rivara, Frederick P

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of headache 3 and 12 months after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). This is a prospective cohort study of children ages 5 to 17 years in which we analyzed the prevalence of headache 3 and 12 months after mild TBI (mTBI; n = 402) and moderate/severe TBI (n = 60) compared with controls with arm injury (AI; n = 122). The prevalence of headache 3 months after injury was significantly higher after mTBI than after AI overall (43% vs 26%, relative risk [RR]: 1.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-2.3]), in adolescents (13-17 years; 46% vs 25%, RR: 1.8 [95% CI: 1.1-3.1]), and in girls (59% vs 24%, RR: 2.4 [95% CI: 1.4-4.2]). The prevalence of headache at 3 months was also higher after moderate/severe TBI than AI in younger children (5-12 years; 60% vs 27%; RR: 2.0 [95% CI: 1.2-3.4]). Twelve months after injury, TBI was not associated with a significantly increased frequency of headache. However, girls with mTBI reported serious headache (≥ 5 of 10 pain scale rating) more often than controls (27% vs 10%, RR: 2.2 [95% CI: 0.9-5.6]). Pediatric TBI is associated with headache. A substantial number of children suffer from headaches months after their head injury. The prevalence of headache during the year after injury is related to injury severity, time after injury, age, and gender. Girls and adolescents appear to be at highest risk of headache in the months after TBI.

  18. Experiences and perceptions of people with headache: a qualitative study

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    Elliott Alison M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few qualitative studies of headache have been conducted and as a result we have little in-depth understanding of the experiences and perceptions of people with headache. The aim of this paper was to explore the perceptions and experiences of individuals with headache and their experiences of associated healthcare and treatment. Methods A qualitative study of individuals with headache, sampled from a population-based study of chronic pain was conducted in the North-East of Scotland, UK. Seventeen semi-structured interviews were conducted with adults aged 65 or less. Interviews were analysed using the Framework approach utilising thematic analysis. Results Almost every participant reported that they were unable to function fully as a result of the nature and unpredictability of their headaches and this had caused disruption to their work, family life and social activities. Many also reported a negative impact on mood including feeling depressed, aggressive or embarrassed. Most participants had formed their own ideas about different aspects of their headache and several had searched for, or were seeking, increased understanding of their headache from a variety of sources. Many participants reported that their headaches caused them constant worry and anguish, and they were concerned that there was a serious underlying cause. A variety of methods were being used to manage headaches including conventional medication, complementary therapies and self-developed management techniques. Problems associated with all of these management strategies emerged. Conclusion Headache has wide-ranging adverse effects on individuals and is often accompanied by considerable worry. The development of new interventions or educational strategies aimed at reducing the burden of the disorder and associated anxiety are needed.

  19. Headache and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Daniela A G; Bigal, Marcelo E; Jales, Luciana C F; Camparis, Cinara M; Speciali, José G

    2010-02-01

    A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of migraine, episodic tension-type headaches (ETTH), and chronic daily headaches (CDH), as well as the presence of symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in the adult population. The potential comorbidity of headache syndromes and TMD has been established mostly based on clinic-based studies. A representative sample of 1230 inhabitants (51.5% women) was interviewed by a validated phone survey. TMD symptoms were assessed through 5 questions, as recommended by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain, in an attempt to classify possible TMD. Primary headaches were diagnosed based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders. When at least 1 TMD symptom was reported, any headache happened in 56.5% vs 31.9% (P headache as the reference, the prevalence of at least 1 TMD symptom was increased in ETTH (prevalence ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.20-1.79), migraine (2.10, 1.80-2.47) and CDH (2.41, 1.84-3.17). At least 2 TMD symptoms also happened more frequently in migraine (4.4, 3.0-6.3), CDH (3.4; 1.5-7.6), and ETTH (2.1; 1.3-3.2), relative to individuals with no headaches. Finally, 3 or more TMD symptoms were also more common in migraine (6.2; 3.8-10.2) than in no headaches. Differences were significant for ETTH (2.7 1.5-4.8), and were numerically but not significant for CDH (2.3; 0.66-8.04). Temporomandibular disorder symptoms are more common in migraine, ETTH, and CDH relative to individuals without headache. Magnitude of association is higher for migraine. Future studies should clarify the nature of the relationship.

  20. Patients with sudden onset headache not meeting the criteria of the International Headache Society for new daily persistent headache. How to classify them?

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    Paulo Hélio Monzillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective analysis of the records of 1348 patients regularly treated at the headache clinic of Department of Neurology of Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. Sixty-two patients reported history of daily and persistent headache. From the 62 patients selected, only 21 (group 1 could be diagnosed with new daily-persistent headache (NDPH according to the International Headache Society (HIS 2004 criteria. The 41 remaining patients (group 2 could not be diagnosed with NDPH according to IHS-2004 once they presented two or more migraine attack-related symptoms, such as: nausea, photophobia, phonophobia and vomiting, in different combinations. It was not possible to classify them in groups 1 to 4 of primary headaches either. How to classify them? We suggest that the criteria are revised. And one way we can classify them, would be the subdivision: NDPH with migraine features and without migraine features that would allow the inclusion of all individuals present who has a daily and persistent headache from the beginning

  1. [Management of chronic daily headache in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C

    2009-01-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH) affects 2 to 4% of adolescent females and 0,8 to 2% of adolescent males. CDH is diagnosed when headaches occur more than 4 hours a day, for greater than or equal to 15 headache days per month, over a period of 3 consecutive months, without an underlying pathology. It is manifested by severe intermittent headaches, that are migraine-like, as well as a chronic baseline headache. Silberstein and Lipton divided patients into four diagnostic categories: transformed migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily-persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. The second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders did not comprise any CDH category as such, but provided criteria for all four types of CDH: chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily-persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Evaluation of CDH needs to include a complete history and physical examination to identify any possibility of the headache representing secondary headaches. Children and adolescents with CDH frequently have sleep disturbance, pain at other sites, dizziness, medication-overuse headache and a psychiatric comorbidity (anxiety and mood disorders). CDH frequently results in school absence. CDH management plan is dictated by CDH subtype, the presence or absence of medication overuse, functional disability and presence of attacks of full-migraine superimposed. Reassuring, explaining, and educating the patient and family, starting prophylactic therapy and limiting aborting medications are the mainstay of treatment. It includes pharmacologic (acute and prophylactic therapy) and nonpharmacologic measures (biobehavioral management, biofeedback-assisted relaxation therapy, and psychologic or psychiatric intervention). Part of the teaching process must incorporate life-style changes, such as regulation of sleep and eating habits, regular exercise, avoidance of identified triggering factors and stress management. Emphasis must be

  2. A pilot educational intervention for headache and concussion: The headache and arts program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minen, Mia T; Boubour, Alexandra

    2018-04-13

    Using a science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) curriculum, we developed, piloted, and tested the Headache and Arts Program. This program seeks to increase knowledge and awareness of migraine and concussion among high school students through a visual arts-based curriculum. We developed a 2-week Headache and Arts Program with lesson plans and art assignments for high school visual arts classes and an age-appropriate assessment to assess students' knowledge of migraine and concussion. We assessed students' knowledge through (1) the creation of artwork that depicted the experience of a migraine or concussion, (2) the conception and implementation of methods to transfer knowledge gained through the program, and (3) preassessment and postassessment results. The assessment was distributed to all students prior to the Headache and Arts Program. In a smaller sample, we distributed the assessment 3 months after the program to assess longitudinal effects. Descriptive analyses and p values were calculated using SPSS V.24 and Microsoft Excel. Forty-eight students participated in the research program. Students created artwork that integrated STEAM knowledge learned through the program and applied creative methods to teach others about migraine and concussion. At baseline, students' total scores averaged 67.6% correct. Total scores for the longitudinal preassessment, immediate postassessment, and delayed 3-month postassessment averaged 69.4%, 72.8%, and 80.0% correct, respectively. The use of a visual arts-based curriculum may be effective for migraine and concussion education among high school students. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. The effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on histamine induced headache and arterial dilatation in migraineurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, L H; Christiansen, I; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2003-01-01

    We have previously proposed that histamine causes migraine via increased NO production. To test this hypothesis, we here examined if the NOS inhibitor, L-NG methylarginine hydrochloride (L-NMMA:546C88), could block or attenuate histamine induced migraine attacks and responses of the middle cerebral......, temporal and radial arteries. In a double blind crossover design 12 patients were randomized to receive pretreatment with L-NMMA (6 mg/kg) or placebo i.v. over 15 min followed on both study days by histamine (0.5 microg/kg/min) i.v. for 20 min. Headache scores, mean maximal blood velocity (Vmean......) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) (transcranial doppler) and diameters of temporal and radial arteries (high resolution ultrasound) were repeatedly measured. Pre-treatment with L-NMMA, had no effect on histamine induced headache or migraine, but also had no effect on the magnitude of histamine induced...

  4. Prevalence of tick infestation in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshaverinia, Ali; Moghaddas, Elham

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of tick infestation and identify tick species that parasitize dromedary camels. Since April 2012 through March 2013, a total of 400 camels that brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir were examined for tick infestation. Out of the total 400 camels examined, 237 were infested and annual prevalence of tick infestation 59.25 % (95 % CI 54-64) was calculated. The higher prevalence rates were found in the summer and spring, especially the summer that prevalence rate was the highest. A total of 1,122 ticks were collected from the infested camels and identified by stereomicroscopy. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick species and comprised 70.76 % of the collected ticks. The frequency of other species was as follows: H. excavatum (19.25 %), H. anatolicum (4.81 %), H. asiaticum (4.72 %), Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.17 %), H. detritum (0.09 %), H. impeltatum (0.09 %) and H. schulzei (0.09 %). Based on the results of present study, it is concluded that camels mostly harbor Hyalomma spp. The species of this genus are the most notorious ticks for transmission of human and animal diseases. Therefore, appropriate tick control measures need to be employed and pour-on method for acaricide application is suggested because this method is fast, easy and suitable for use by camel owners in deserts.

  5. Characteristics of Elderly-Onset (≥65 years) Headache Diagnosed Using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition Beta Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tae Jin; Kim, Yong Jae; Kim, Byung Kun; Kim, Byung Su; Kim, Jae Moon; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Moon, Heui Soo; Cha, Myoung Jin; Park, Kwang Yeol; Sohn, Jong Hee; Chu, Min Kyung; Cho, Soo Jin

    2016-10-01

    New-onset headache in elderly patients is generally suggestive of a high probability of secondary headache, and the subtypes of primary headache diagnoses are still unclear in the elderly. This study investigated the characteristics of headache with an older age at onset (≥65 years) and compared the characteristics between younger and older age groups. We prospectively collected demographic and clinical data of 1,627 patients who first visited 11 tertiary hospitals in Korea due to headache between August 2014 and February 2015. Headache subtype was categorized according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition Beta Version. In total, 152 patients (9.3%, 106 women and 46 men) experienced headache that began from 65 years of age [elderly-onset group (EOG)], while the remaining 1,475 patients who first experienced headache before the age of 65 years were classified as the younger-age-at-onset group (YOG). Among the primary headache types, tension-type headache (55.6% vs. 28.8%) and other primary headache disorders (OPH, 31.0% vs. 17.3%) were more common in the EOG than in the YOG, while migraine was less frequent (13.5% vs. 52.2%) (p=0.001) in the EOG. Among OPH, primary stabbing headache (87.2%) was more frequent in the EOG than in the YOG (p=0.032). The pain was significantly less severe (p=0.026) and the frequency of medication overuse headache was higher in EOG than in YOG (23.5% vs. 7.6%, p=0.040). Tension-type headache and OPH headaches, primarily stabbing headache, were more common in EOG patients than in YOG patients. The pain intensity, distribution of headache diagnoses, and frequency of medication overuse differed according to the age at headache onset.

  6. An examination of Gestalt contact styles, anger and anxiety levels of headache and non headache groups (Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Kudiaki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Object: In migraine and tension type headaches, which constitute the largest part of primary headache disorders, the importance of psychological factors and psychotherapy applications are reported consistently. In the gestalt therapy approach, studies on physical disorders and body have a special precaution and it is assumed that the physical disorders that are highly related to psychological factors such as headache may be related to Gestalt contact patterns. This study was conducted to investigate Gestalt contact patterns, anger and anxiety levels, and to identify variables that predict contact patterns in the groups with and without headache. Methods: In the first group, migrain and tension type headache, there were 161 (141 female/20 male participants and in the group without headache there were 126 participants (94 female/32 male. There were 287 participants in total. Data was collected through Personal Information Form, Gestalt Contact Styles Scale – Revised Form, Multidimensional Anger Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results: The comparisons of groups in terms contact styles, anger and anxiety yields that the individuals in headache group engage in retroflection, deflection and desensitization contact styles more than individuals who do not have headaches and they have higher anger and anxiety levels. Similarly, the results of the regression analysis show that the negative attitudes towards oneself, others and the world are an important predictor of retroflection and deflection contacts styles. Also, the attitude of desensitization seems to play a role in decreasing anxious reactions and decreasing quiet responses. Discussion: The results indicate that unhealthy contact styles, anger and anxiety experiences have negative effects on headache. Thus, Gestalt therapy based psychotherapy techniques can me recommended to be an important foundation for treatment of headaches.

  7. Migraine and tension-type headache triggers in a Greek population

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    Vasilios Constantinides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and tension type headache are the two most common primary headaches. The purpose of this study was to detect differences in clinical characteristics and headache triggers and in a Greek cohort of 51 migraineurs and 12 patients with tension-type headache. (TTH Migraine patients had a significantly lower age at headache onset and frequency, higher mean visual analogue scale (VAS and greater maximum duration of headache episodes compared to TTH patients. They did not differ from (TTH patients in quality of headache, laterality of pain, way of headache installation and progression and temporal pattern of headaches. Nausea, vomiting and phonophobia were more frequent in migraine. Triggering of headaches by dietary factors was associated with migraine, whereas there was no difference between the two groups in any of the other headache triggers. Stress, both physical and psychological, were particularly common in both patient groups.

  8. MIGRAIN AND TENSION TYPE HEADACHE IN CHILDREN: THE APPROACH TO EFFECTIVE TREATMENT. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sergeev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Headache is one of the most common complaints of children and adolescents. The most often causes of cephalgia in children are primary headaches (mainly migraine and tension-type headache. Recently there has been a significant increase in prevalence of primary headaches, which can be due to the changes of children’s way of life. The lack of the strict recommendations on symptomatic and preventive treatment of primary headaches in children in Russia often leads to erroneous indications. Inappropriate treatment can result in migraine and tension-type headache course aggravation with the formation of chronic daily headache, development of medicine-induced headache and other undesirable side-effects. The literature review covers the questions of therapy of the main forms of primary headaches in children: migraines and tension-type headaches. In the first part of the article the issues of diagnostics, algorithm of treatment and non-medicinal methods of treatment of headaches are discussed.

  9. Prevalence and impact of headache in undergraduate students in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, characteristics and impact of headache among university students. METHOD: The criteria established by the International Headache Society were used to define the primary headache subtypes and the Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire (MIDAS, to assess the disability. The students were then grouped into six categories: [1] migraine; [2] probable migraine; [3] tension-type headache; [4] probable tension-type headache; [5] non-classifiable headache; [6] no headache. RESULTS: Of all undergraduate students interviewed, 74.5% had at least one headache episode in the last three months. Regarding disability, there was a significant difference between the headache types (p<0.0001. In the post-hoc analysis, migraine was the headache type with most reported disability. CONCLUSION: Headache is a highly prevalent condition among the students at the University of Caxias do Sul. This disease may have a major impact on the students' lives and in some cases, ultimately lead to educational failure.

  10. Migraine headache in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, Farzad; Razmeh, Saeed; Habibzadeh, Neda; Zavari, Arefeh; Nabovvati, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Migraine is a neurological disorder that afflicts many people in the world and can cause severe disability during the attacks. The pathophysiology of migraine is complex and not fully understood. It seems that migraine is common in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). However, the association between migraine headache and IIH is still unclear. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of migraine headache and associated factors in IIH patients. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 68 patients diagnosed with IIH underwent a medical history interview and a neurological examination. The diagnosis of migraine was based on the four diagnostic criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3rd edition. Forty-five patients (63.2%) met the diagnostic criteria of migraine headache. There was no significant difference between patients with and without migraine headache in respect of their age, gender, body mass. This study revealed high prevalence of migraine headache in IIH patients; appropriate treatment can reduce their headache and prevent unnecessary treatments for IIH. PMID:29071043

  11. Headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders and masticatory myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazuhiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Matsukawa, Yumiko; Dezawa, Ko; Nakaya, Yuka; Chen, Jui-Yen; Noma, Noboru; Oka, Shunichi; Iwata, Koichi; Imamura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the temporal association between temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-related symptoms and headache during TMD treatment for patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to TMD (HATMD) specified in the Diagnostic criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) and International classification of headache disorders (ICHD)-3 beta. The study enrolled 34 patients with HATMD induced by masticatory myofascial pain but not by temporomandibular arthralgia. Facial pain intensity, the pressure pain threshold of pericranial muscles, and maximum unassisted opening of the jaw were assessed at an initial examination and before and after physical therapy. The intensity and frequency of headache episodes and tooth contact ratio were also recorded before and after the intervention. Headache intensity and frequency significantly decreased, and these reductions were temporally related to improvements in facial pain intensity, maximum unassisted opening, and pressure pain threshold during TMD treatment. Linear regression analysis showed significant correlations between facial pain intensity and headache intensity and between tooth contact ratio and pressure pain threshold. Among patients who fulfilled the DC/TMD and ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria for HATMD, headache improved during TMD treatment, and the improvement was temporally related to amelioration of TMD symptoms. These findings suggest that sensitization in the central and peripheral nervous systems is responsible for HATMD. (J Oral Sci 58, 195-204, 2016).

  12. Nitric oxide-related drug targets in headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jes

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY: Nitric oxide (NO) is a very important molecule in the regulation of cerebral and extra cerebral cranial blood flow and arterial diameters. It is also involved in nociceptive processing. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a pro-drug for NO, causes headache in normal volunteers and a so-called del......SUMMARY: Nitric oxide (NO) is a very important molecule in the regulation of cerebral and extra cerebral cranial blood flow and arterial diameters. It is also involved in nociceptive processing. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a pro-drug for NO, causes headache in normal volunteers and a so......-called delayed headache that fulfils criteria for migraine without aura in migraine sufferers. Blockade of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) by L-nitromonomethylarginine effectively treats attacks of migraine without aura. Similar results have been obtained for chronic the tension-type headache and cluster headache....... Inhibition of the breakdown of cyclic guanylate phosphate (cGMP) also provokes migraine in sufferers, indicating that cGMP is the effector of NO-induced migraine. Similar evidence suggests an important role of NO in the tension-type headache and cluster headache. These very strong data from human...

  13. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis and Headache--A Case-Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparaco, Marco; Feleppa, Michele; Bigal, Marcelo E

    2015-06-01

    Headache happens in the majority of patients with Cerebral Venous Thrombosis (CVT) being sometimes the sole manifestation of the disease. Herein we report a case-series of CVT, focusing on headache characteristics. Etiological, clinical, and radiological features of 25 consecutive adult patients with CVT were compiled from August 2005 to December 2013. Diagnosis of CVT was confirmed by brain magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance venography. All patients underwent extensive systematic etiological and genetic work-up at admission. A structured questionnaire about the characteristics of headache was responded by all participants. Headache was reported by 23 out of 25 (92%) of participants, being by far the most frequent symptom. It was the sole manifestation in nearly one third of the patients (8/25, 32.0%). Headache was typically severe (19/23, 82.6%) and throbbing (16/23, 69.5%), with sudden onset (13/23, 56.5%) and non-remitting (20/23, 86.9%) characteristics. The sinus most frequently involved was the transverse sinus (24/25, 96.0%), either alone or in association with other sinuses. Headache is the most frequent symptom and sometimes the sole presentation of CVT. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  14. Productivity losses attributable to headache, and their attempted recovery, in a heavy-manufacturing workforce in Turkey: implications for employers and politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selekler, H Macit; Gökmen, Gürsel; Alvur, T Müge; Steiner, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Headache disorders cause substantial productivity losses through absenteeism and impaired effectiveness at work (presenteeism). We had previously found these losses to be high in a mostly male, heavy-manufacturing workforce at Ford Otomotiv Sanayi AŞ (FO), in north-western Turkey. Here we aimed to confirm this finding in a year-long study to eliminate any effect of seasonal variation. The question then was how much of this lost productivity could be recovered by the effective provision of headache care. We used the HALT-30 Index to estimate productivity losses, surveying FO's entire workforce (N = 7,200) during annual health-checks provided by the company's on-site health clinic. Then we established, and widely advertised, a headache clinic within the same health clinic, providing specialist care free for 15 months. Outcome measures were HALT-30, company sickness records and the HURT questionnaire. Usable data were collected from 5,916 employees (82.2 %; 5,485 males [92.7 %], 431 females [7.3 %]; mean age 32.5 ± 5.4 years). One-month headache prevalence was 45.4 % (n = 2,688). Productivity losses were reported by 968 employees (16.4 %) and, per affected employee, increased from 0.23 to 7.56 days/month as headache frequency increased (P productivity losses, those with headache on 10-14 days (n = 104; 1.8 %) another 18.5 %. With increasing headache frequency, absenteeism/presenteeism ratio (overall 1:16) declined from about 1:4 to about 1:25 in those with headache on ≥10 days/month. Headache frequency and lost productivity were higher in females than males (P productivity losses in this young mostly male workforce correlated with but were not wholly explained by headache frequency. A small minority of employees with high-frequency headache contributed highly disproportionately to the productivity losses. These should be the target of interventions aimed at productivity recovery. It is not clear what form such interventions should

  15. Temporomandibular disorders, sleep bruxism, and primary headaches are mutually associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Giovana; Franco, Ana Lúcia; Gonçalves, Daniela Aparecida; Speciali, José Geraldo; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo; Camparis, Cinara Maria

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the association among temporomandibular disorders (TMD), sleep bruxism, and primary headaches, assessing the risk of occurrence of primary headaches in patients with or without painful TMD and sleep bruxism. The sample consisted of 301 individuals (253 women and 48 men) with ages varying from 18 to 76 years old (average age of 37.5 years). The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were used to classify TMD. Sleep bruxism was diagnosed by clinical criteria proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, and primary headaches were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II. Data were analyzed by chi-square and odds ratio tests with a 95% confidence interval, and the significance level adopted was .05. An association was found among painful TMD, migraine, and tension-type headache (P headache (3.7; 1.59-8.75). With regard to sleep bruxism, the association was significant only for chronic migraine (3.8; 1.83-7.84). When the sample was stratified by the presence of sleep bruxism and painful TMD, only the presence of sleep bruxism did not increase the risk for any type of headache. The presence of painful TMD without sleep bruxism significantly increased the risk in particular for chronic migraine (30.1; 3.58-252.81), followed by episodic migraine (3.7; 1.46-9.16). The association between painful TMD and sleep bruxism significantly increased the risk for chronic migraine (87.1; 10.79-702.18), followed by episodic migraine (6.7; 2.79-15.98) and episodic tension-type headache (3.8; 1.38-10.69). The association of sleep bruxism and painful TMD greatly increased the risk for episodic migraine, episodic tension-type headache, and especially for chronic migraine.

  16. Potential risk factors for psychiatric disorders in patients with headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimnuan, Chaichana; Asawavichienjinda, Thanin; Srikiatkhachorn, Anan

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidities are common among patients with headache. These can compromise the quality of life of patients and may affect the result of treatment. No available systematic study concerning this problem has been conducted in Thailand. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of psychiatric disorders in patients with headache in tertiary care facility. The study was conducted at the Headache Clinic, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. One hundred and thirteen patients were enrolled. Diagnosis of headache was made based on International Classification of Headache Disorders II system. Mental disorders were assessed using Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Other possible risk factors were extracted using significant physical symptoms count and accumulated risk for mental disorder. Of the 113 samples analyzed, the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorder was found to be 29.2%, 9.7%, and 27.4%, respectively. No definite relationship between headache types and mental disorders was observed. High number of significant physical complaints and health concerns significantly increased the risk for depression (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.6 to 13.5) while the level of possible risk for mental disorder was associated with an increased risk for somatoform disorder (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2 to 2.2). The study confirmed high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in patients with headache. The results of this study will raise the awareness of physicians to possible underlying mental disorders in patients with headache and facilitate appropriate treatment or psychiatric referral. © 2011 American Headache Society.

  17. A review of sweet taste potentiation brought about by divalent oxygen and sulfur incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, G

    1992-01-01

    The plethora of high-potency sweetener research has allowed the construction of important structure-taste relationships. In light of new structure-taste relationships, it is instructive to review sweet taste potentiation brought about by divalent oxygen and sulfur incorporation. The taste of sulfur-containing organic compounds was reviewed in Japanese by Yasuo Ariyoshi in 1977. Several new representative examples of sweet taste potentiation and taste dichotomy (sweet and bitter) found within similar classes of oxygen- and sulfur-containing organic compound: amides, dipeptides, ureas, sulfamates, sulfonamides, oximes, sugars, dihydroisocoumarins, and others are reviewed. Special attention is given to the thioethers and thioureas in sulfamates, dipeptides, aryl ureas, and hybrid dipeptide ureas. The most notable contributions have arisen from the work of Nofre and Tinti at Université Claude Bernard in Lyons, France. A common trend emerges with certain sweeteners when a carbon atom is strategically replaced by sulfur or oxygen atoms. The net result is an increase in the sweetness two- to tenfold. With saccharins, the usual bitter, metallic taste is removed. Sweet taste receptor models that have been published are mainly based on the original Shallenberger and Acree model of the glucophores AH-B with contributions from Kier (AH-B-X). AH is a proton donor group, B is a proton acceptor group, and X is some hydrophobic group. All of the models have overlooked the contributions of divalent sulfur (often in place of oxygen) in bringing about sweetness potentiation. There is no precedence for localizing the energy-minimized structures of sulfur-containing sweeteners in a binding mode that includes sulfur. These sulfur potentiation loci are analyzed and illustrated in a computer-generated sweetener model to show the specific region in which sulfur is being "recognized" as a potentiating feature.

  18. Butalbital and pediatric headache: stay off the downward path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Alessandra; Lazdowsky, Lori; Rabner, Jonathan; Haberman, Jason; LeBel, Alyssa

    2015-02-01

    Despite limited evidence from the literature surrounding safety or efficacy, butalbital-containing medicines (BCMs) have maintained their rank as "go-to" prescribed migraine and headache relief drugs in the United States, despite bans on these barbiturates in Germany and other European countries. Providers at the Pediatric Headache Program at Boston Children's Hospital recommend that clinicians prescribe triptan-based medications instead of BCMs, given the known negative side effects of BCMs on the general population, and the uncertain longitudinal trajectory of BCMs on developing brains. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  19. The pediatrician's guide to managing the difficult pediatric headache patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claar, Robyn Lewis; McDonald-Nolan, Lori; LeBel, Alyssa

    2012-02-01

    Pediatric headache is a common pain complaint in children and adolescents, and pediatricians are the first source of headache assessment and treatment. This article provides guidelines for pediatricians in managing difficult headache patients typically seen in our practice. The 3 categories we typically evaluates and treats include (a) "It's medical, not psychological"; (b) "You're the only doctor who can help me"; and (c) "My child is perfect." A brief case presentation illustrates each of these categories of patients. Specific recommendations for treatment, as well as guidelines for parents, are provided.

  20. Headache in the writings of Elizabeth Gaskell (1810-1865).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, A J

    2015-11-01

    Mrs Elizabeth Gaskell was a celebrated author of the Victorian era, a friend of both Charles Dickens and Charlotte Brontë and the latter's first biographer. References to headache in Mrs Gaskell's six major novels, published between 1848 and 1866 as well as some of her shorter fiction, have been collated. These multiple references suggest that Elizabeth Gaskell used headache as a narrative device, possibly based on her own experience of headache and that of female acquaintances, most notably Charlotte Brontë. © The Author(s) 2013.