Sample records for previous generations aids

  1. A recent increase in AIDS at Lyon University Hospitals: patient characteristics and comparisons with previous years. (United States)

    Baratin, D; Marceillac, E; Trepo, C; Cotte, L; Peyramond, D; Chidiac, C; Touraine, J L; Livrozet, J M; Fabry, J; Vanhems, P


    A 36% increase in the incidence of AIDS was observed in 2002/2003 compared with 2000/2001 at Lyon University Hospitals. We compared the characteristics of these patients with the characteristics of those diagnosed previously with AIDS. Data for all patients with AIDS diagnosed at Lyon University Hospitals were analyzed. The data were collected prospectively. Multiple logistic regression was used for analysis. The variables independently associated with an AIDS diagnosis in 2002/2003 compared with the 1985-1989 period were: homosexual exposure [odds ratio (OR) 0.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2-0.8]; heterosexual exposure in an endemic area (OR 22.5; 95% CI 6.8-74.8), compared with other exposure to HIV; lymphoma as initial AIDS event (OR 10.3; 95% CI 2.7-39.1) compared with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; and age at first AIDS event aged 34-38 years (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.0-6.4), aged 39-46 years (OR 5.1; 95% CI 2.2-11.8), and aged 47-84 years (OR 10.6; 95% CI 4.5-25.1) compared with aged <30 years. The variables independently associated with an AIDS diagnosis in 2002/2003 compared with the 1997/2001 period were age at first AIDS event aged 34-38 years (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.9) compared with aged <30 years. Recently diagnosed AIDS patients differed from those diagnosed previously, showing an epidemic switch in different populations. The characteristics of the AIDS population in 2002/2003 might reflect public health messages disseminated around 10 years ago or more for the prevention of HIV transmission. Anticipation of populations affected by the AIDS epidemic is difficult.

  2. Previously Unidentified Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in HIV/AIDS Cases Associate with Clinical Parameters and Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Anokhin


    Full Text Available The genetic background of an individual plays an important role in the progression of HIV infection to AIDS. Identifying previously unknown or uncharacterized single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that associate with disease progression may reveal important therapeutic targets and provide a greater understanding of disease pathogenesis. In the present study, we employed ultra-high multiplex PCR on an Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing platform to sequence 23 innate immune genes from 94 individuals with HIV/AIDS. This data was used to identify potential associations of SNPs with clinical parameters and disease progression. SNPs that associated with an increased viral load were identified in the genes for the interleukin 15 receptor (IL15RA, toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7, tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5, and two killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR2DL1 and KIR2DL3. Additionally, SNPs that associated with progression from HIV infection to AIDS were identified in two 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase genes (OAS2 and OAS3. In contrast, other SNPs identified in OAS2 and OAS3 genes, as well as in the TRIM5 and KIR2DS4 genes, were associated with a slower progression of disease. Taken together, our data demonstrates the utility of ultra-high multiplex PCR in identifying polymorphisms of potential clinical significance and further,identifies SNPs that may play a role in HIV pathogenesis.

  3. Computer Aided Implementation using Xilinx System Generator


    Eriksson, Henrik


    The development in electronics increases the demand for good design methods and design tools in the field of electrical engeneering. To improve their design methods Ericsson Microwave Systems AB is interested in using computer tools to create a link between the specification and the implementation of a digital system in a FPGA. Xilinx System Generator for DSP is a tool for implementing a model of a digital signalprocessing algorithm in a Xilinx FPGA. To evaluate Xilinx System Generator two t...

  4. The bone-anchored hearing aid: a solution for previously unresolved otologic problems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snik, A.F.M.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.


    A major challenge for otologists treating middle ear infection is to obtain a dry ear and optimal hearing. If the patient needs amplification and uses an air conduction hearing aid, the ear mold, occluding the ear canal, may provoke or aggravate the infection in the middle ear and thus cause

  5. AIDS Cholangiopathy in an Asymptomatic, Previously Undiagnosed Late-Stage HIV-Positive Patient from Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Gao


    Full Text Available AIDS-associated cholangiopathy is a form of biliary tract inflammation with stricture formation seen in AIDS patients who are severely immunosuppressed. It is no longer common in countries in which HAART therapy is widely employed but is still seen in underdeveloped countries. The majority of patients are symptomatic at the time of presentation. Herein, we describe a seventy-four-year-old woman who presented with unilateral leg swelling after a prolonged airplane flight. She was otherwise entirely asymptomatic. Routine laboratory testing was notable for a hypochromic microcytic anemia, slight leukopenia, and mild hypoalbuminemia. Liver enzymes were all elevated. Deep venous thrombosis was confirmed, and a CT scan of the chest disclosed no pulmonary emboli. However, the visualized portion of the abdomen showed dilatation of the common bile and pancreatic ducts. This was confirmed on ultrasonography and MRCP, and no obstructive lesions were noted. An ERCP revealed a dilated common bile duct without filling defects or strictures. A balloon occlusion cholangiogram showed strictures and beading of the intrahepatic ducts. Shortly thereafter, serology for HIV returned positive along with a depressed CD4 cell count, and the patient was diagnosed with AIDS-associated cholangiography.

  6. Examination of Previously Published Data to Identify Patterns in the Social Representation of 'Hearing Aids' Across Countries. (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Ratinaud, Pierre; Tympas, Aristotle; Danermark, Berth; Germundsson, Per


    Societal factors seem to exercise a strong influence on hearing aid uptake, use, and satisfaction. In particular, knowledge, perception, and attitude of people will have bearing towards their and others health behavior and decisions. The current study aimed at understanding the perception of hearing aids by adults belonging to the general population in different countries. The study employed a crosssectional design. A sample of 404 adults from India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom were recruited by relying on a convenience sampling. Previously published data was re-analyzed but it was applied for different approach. Free association task was used to collect the data. They were asked to provide up to five words or phrases that come to mind when thinking about "hearing aids." The data was initially analyzed based on qualitative content analysis. This was followed by quantitative cluster analysis and chi square analysis. The content analysis suggested 39 main categories of responses related to hearing aids. The cluster analysis resulted in five main clusters, namely: 1) positive attitude, 2) external factors, 3) hearing aid use and satisfaction, 4) etiology, and 5) benefits and limitations of technology. A few demographic factors (i.e., education, occupation type, country) showed association with different clusters, although country of origin seemed to be associated with most clusters. The study provides us with unique insights into the perception of hearing aids by the general public, and additionally, the way demographic variables may influence these perceptions.

  7. AIDSCAP. Saving a generation: Ethiopian youth rally to prevent AIDS. (United States)

    Henry, K


    Afraid that they were infected with HIV and would die in several years, several young adults formed the Save Your Generation Association (SYGA) to warn other young people about the threat of HIV/AIDS. SYGA has since become a registered Ethiopian nongovernmental organization (NGO) with a paid staff of 14 and more than 6000 dues-paying members. It is one of seven NGOs which received support from the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) project over 3 years to bring HIV/AIDS prevention education to out-of-school youth in six urban areas of Ethiopia. The projects recruited young volunteers and enlisted the aid of community organizations to inform and motivate the tens of thousands of school dropouts and other unemployed young people. Bored and hopeless, these youths often turn to dangerous escape mechanisms involving drugs, alcohol, and sex with multiple partners. The local government helped the NGOs find their target population and provided meeting space for HIV/AIDS prevention activities.

  8. A study on NMI report generation with computer aid diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaona; Li Zhimin; Zhao Xiangjun; Qiu Jinping


    An expert system of intelligent diagnosis, computer aid diagnosis and computerized report generation and management for an nuclear medicine imaging (NMI) was performed. The mathematic model with finite set mapping for the diagnosis was evaluated. The clinical application shows, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of it was 85.7% ∼ 93.4% and 92% ∼ 95.6% respectively. Therefore, its application may be extended

  9. The National Strategic Plan of South Africa: what are the prospects of success after the repeated failure of previous AIDS policy? (United States)

    Wouters, Edwin; van Rensburg, H C J; Meulemans, H


    implementation. The strength of this article lies in its systematic analysis of previous policy responses, as a basis for appraising current AIDS policy. Although such an approach tends to simplify the complexities of the actual policy environment, it nonetheless draws to the attention of policy participants the importance of and the complex interrelationships among the different dimensions of AIDS policy.

  10. New-generation flexible ureterorenoscopes are more durable than previous ones. (United States)

    Traxer, Olivier; Dubosq, Francis; Jamali, Karim; Gattegno, Bernard; Thibault, Philippe


    To determine the deterioration in the maximal active deflection and flow capabilities of a new-generation flexible ureteroscope (URS). We performed 50 ureterorenoscopies using the same URS: a Karl Storz 11278 AU1 Flex-X, which is capable of a 270 degree active deflection in the ventral and dorsal directions. Postoperatively, we evaluated the maximal active ventral and dorsal deflection, irrigation flow at 100 cm H2O, and the number of broken optical fibers. The URS was used for a total of 76 hours, 15 minutes (average 95 minutes per procedure). The maximal ventral deflection had deteriorated from 270 degrees to 208 degrees at the last procedure. The maximal dorsal deflection had decreased from 270 degrees to 133 degrees. The irrigation flow at 100 cm H2O had decreased from 50 mL/min initially to 40 mL/min at the last procedure. The number of broken image fibers had reached six at the 50th procedure. One repair was necessary at the 50th procedure because of a laser perforation of the working channel. The need for repair occurs less frequently with the new-generation of URSs, especially when they are used by an experienced endourologist. In the future, improvements in the durability of the flexible URS will still be key for widespread use of the technique and especially to limit damage by the laser to the working channel.

  11. Daily Plasmodium yoelii infective mosquito bites do not generate protection or suppress previous immunity against the liver stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Kurt A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human populations that are naturally subjected to Plasmodium infection do not acquire complete protection against the liver stage of this parasite despite prolonged and frequent exposure. However, sterile immunity against Plasmodium liver stage can be achieved after repeated exposure to radiation attenuated sporozoites. The reasons for this different response remain largely unknown, but a suppressive effect of blood stage Plasmodium infection has been proposed as a cause for the lack of liver stage protection. Methods Using Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL, the response generated in mice subjected to daily infective bites from normal or irradiated mosquitoes was compared. The effect of daily-infected mosquito bites on mice that were previously immunized against P. yoelii liver stage was also studied. Results It was observed that while the bites of normal infected mosquitoes do not generate strong antibody responses and protection, the bites of irradiated mosquitoes result in high levels of anti-sporozoite antibodies and protection against liver stage Plasmodium infection. Exposure to daily infected mosquito bites did not eliminate the protection acquired previously with a experimental liver stage vaccine. Conclusions Liver stage immunity generated by irradiated versus normal P. yoelii infected mosquitoes is essentially different, probably because of the blood stage infection that follows normal mosquito bites, but not irradiated. While infective mosquito bites do not induce a protective liver stage response, they also do not interfere with previously acquired liver stage protective responses, even if they induce a complete blood stage infection. Considering that the recently generated anti-malaria vaccines induce only partial protection against infection, it is encouraging that, at least in mouse models, immunity is not negatively affected by subsequent exposure and infection with the parasite.

  12. New Diagnosis of AIDS Based on Salmonella enterica subsp. I (enterica Enteritidis (A Meningitis in a Previously Immunocompetent Adult in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Elton


    Full Text Available Salmonella meningitis is a rare manifestation of meningitis typically presenting in neonates and the elderly. This infection typically associates with foodborne outbreaks in developing nations and AIDS-endemic regions. We report a case of a 19-year-old male presenting with altered mental status after 3-day absence from work at a Wisconsin tourist area. He was febrile, tachycardic, and tachypneic with a GCS of 8. The patient was intubated and a presumptive diagnosis of meningitis was made. Treatment was initiated with ceftriaxone, vancomycin, acyclovir, dexamethasone, and fluid resuscitation. A lumbar puncture showed cloudy CSF with Gram negative rods. He was admitted to the ICU. CSF culture confirmed Salmonella enterica subsp. I (enterica Enteritidis (A. Based on this finding, a 4th-generation HIV antibody/p24 antigen test was sent. When this returned positive, a CD4 count was obtained and showed 3 cells/mm3, confirming AIDS. The patient ultimately received 38 days of ceftriaxone, was placed on elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide (Genvoya for HIV/AIDS, and was discharged neurologically intact after a 44-day admission.

  13. The performance of a Solar Aided Power Generation plant with diverse “configuration-operation” combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Jiyun; Hu, Eric; Nathan, Graham J.


    Highlights: • Four configurations of solar preheaters have been proposed. • Three typical operation strategies of solar preheaters have been identified. • 12 “configuration-operation” combinations has been proposed. • There are superior combinations to achieve the highest solar thermal performance. - Abstract: Solar Aided Power Generation is an efficient way to integrate solar thermal energy into a fossil fuel fired power plant for solar power generation purposes. In this particular power plant, the solar heat is used to displace the extraction steam to preheat the feedwater to the boiler. The heat exchanger, which facilitates the heat exchange between the solar heat carried by the heat transfer fluid and the feedwater, is termed a solar preheater. Four possible configurations of the solar preheater, namely Parallel 1, Parallel 2, Series 1 and Series 2, are proposed in this paper. In this type of plant, the extraction steam flow rates must be adjusted according to the solar input. The ways to control the extraction steam flow rates are termed solar preheater operation strategies. Three typical strategies: the Constant Temperature control, Variable Temperature control with high to low temperature feedwater heater displacement and Variable Temperature control with low to high temperature feedwater heater displacement have been identified. Each configuration can be operated with one of the three strategies, resulting in twelve “configuration-operation” combinations/scenarios (shown in Table 1). Previous assessments and modelling of such a plant have only been based on a single combination. In this paper, a Solar Aided Power Generation plant, modified from a typical 300 MW power plant, is used to understand the plant’s performance for all twelve of the available combinations. The results show that the instantaneous and annual technical performances of such a plant are dependent on the combinations used. The scenario 10 (Table 1) is superior to the

  14. Addressing HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda: does social capital generation by NGOs matter? (United States)

    Muriisa, Roberts Kabeba; Jamil, Ishtiaq


    HIV/AIDS has had devastating impacts in many countries, Uganda in particular. However, Uganda is depicted as one of the most successful countries in fighting HIV/AIDS. Among others, Uganda's success story is attributed to the open general environment which allows open discussions surrounding HIV/AIDS when other countries such as South Africa and Kenya denied the existence of the disease in their countries. In addition, the success is attributed to the policy which allowed many actors to participate in the fight against the disease. The primary focus of this article is to map the process of social capital generation by NGOs and how social capital benefits enhance mitigation of HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda. The key to social capital is nurturing relationships. In this regard, HIV/AIDS NGOs play a central role in the way individuals, groups and communities interact, and how various kinds of social relations are forged with people living with HIV/AIDS and especially for those who are HIV infected. NGOs' success in reducing the number of HIV/AIDS cases in Uganda is based on their abilities to generate social capital. This involves inclusion and building social networks and empowerment at the individual and community levels, and disseminating information to reduce social stigma as well as discrimination. We used a mixed-method strategy to collect data for this study. We used a structured questionnaire having quantitative and qualitative question sets which focused on different social capital measurement indicators. We used observations and in-depth face-to-face interviews. A major finding of the study is that the ways individuals and groups are connected and interact with each other are important mechanisms for alleviating HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda.

  15. Study Navigator: An Algorithmically Generated Aid for Learning from Electronic Textbooks (United States)

    Agrawal, Rakesh; Gollapudi, Sreenivas; Kannan, Anitha; Kenthapadi, Krishnaram


    We present "study navigator," an algorithmically-generated aid for enhancing the experience of studying from electronic textbooks. The study navigator for a section of the book consists of helpful "concept references" for understanding this section. Each concept reference is a pair consisting of a concept phrase explained…

  16. Hospital environment: Generator of stigma and rejection of pregnant women with HIV/aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Munévar-Torres


    Full Text Available Introduction: For the mothers included in this study, pregnancy is normal until they are diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. Studies on experiences in hospital environments are scarce. Objective: To understand the experiences of pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS during prenatal attention in two hospitals. Materials and methods: Interpretative phenomenological qualitative study, in which ten women, diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy and selected according to relevance and adequacy, participated. The sample size was established by theoretical saturation. Data were collected during in-depth interviews and analyzed through Colaizzi strategy. Results: Categorizing the hospital environment as a generator of stigma and rejection of pregnant women with HIV/AIDS is part of a research project on living with HIV/AIDS during pregnancy. The hospital environment shows the spaces and actors around these mothers during diagnosis and treatment of this infection. Participants refer to the first stage as “accidental diagnosis” and described attention as full of “reckless professionals”. Conclusions: Attitudes and behaviors of health professionals can generate a hostile environment for pregnant women with HIV/AIDS, heightening negative feelings, fears and uncertainties. However, they can also offer a friendly and human scenario that contributes to care and trust between professionals and pregnant women, thus helping mothers to cope with this complex experience.

  17. Fracture resistance of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-generated composite resin-based molar crowns. (United States)

    Harada, Akio; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Inagaki, Ryoichi; Örtengren, Ulf; Niwano, Yoshimi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Egusa, Hiroshi


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether different fabrication processes, such as the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system or the manual build-up technique, affect the fracture resistance of composite resin-based crowns. Lava Ultimate (LU), Estenia C&B (EC&B), and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic IPS e.max press (EMP) were used. Four types of molar crowns were fabricated: CAD/CAM-generated composite resin-based crowns (LU crowns); manually built-up monolayer composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-monolayer crowns); manually built-up layered composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-layered crowns); and EMP crowns. Each type of crown was cemented to dies and the fracture resistance was tested. EC&B-layered crowns showed significantly lower fracture resistance compared with LU and EMP crowns, although there was no significant difference in flexural strength or fracture toughness between LU and EC&B materials. Micro-computed tomography and fractographic analysis showed that decreased strength probably resulted from internal voids in the EC&B-layered crowns introduced by the layering process. There was no significant difference in fracture resistance among LU, EC&B-monolayer, and EMP crowns. Both types of composite resin-based crowns showed fracture loads of >2000 N, which is higher than the molar bite force. Therefore, CAD/CAM-generated crowns, without internal defects, may be applied to molar regions with sufficient fracture resistance. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  18. NIH Research: Dr. Anthony S. Fauci: "An AIDS-Free Generation Is Closer Than We Might Think" (United States)

    ... to be done to achieve an AIDS-free generation? We need to expand access to antiretroviral treatment and scientifically proven HIV prevention tools to everyone who needs them. Success or failure rests ... an AIDS-free generation, those who are already infected or at risk ...

  19. Evaluation methods of solar contribution in solar aided coal-fired power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yong; Zhai, Rongrong; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Yongping; Yan, Qin


    Highlights: • Five methods for evaluating solar contribution are analyzed. • Method based on the second law of thermodynamics and thermal economics is more suitable for SACPGS. • Providing reliable reference for the formulation of feed-in tariff policies in China. - Abstract: Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize solar thermal energy to couple with coal-fired power plants of various types by adopting characteristics of different thermal needs of plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will become unnecessary, meanwhile the intermittent and unsteady nature of power generation can be avoided. In addition, large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and energy saving can be achieved. With the ever-deepening analyses of solar aided coal-fired power plants, the contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power is worth further exploration. In this paper, five common evaluation methods of solar contribution are analyzed, and solar aided coal-fired power plants of 1000 MW, 600 MW and 330 MW are studied with these five methods in a comparative manner. Therefore, this study can serve as a theoretical reference for future research of evaluation methods and subsidies for new energy

  20. A method of computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens environment (United States)

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Kempa, W.; Paprocka, I.


    Currently in CAD/CAE/CAM systems it is possible to create 3D design virtual models which are able to capture certain amount of knowledge. These models are especially useful in an automation of routine design tasks. These models are known as self-generative or auto generative and they can behave in an intelligent way. The main difference between the auto generative and fully parametric models consists in the auto generative models ability to self-organizing. In this case design model self-organizing means that aside from the possibility of making of automatic changes of model quantitative features these models possess knowledge how these changes should be made. Moreover they are able to change quality features according to specific knowledge. In spite of undoubted good points of self-generative models they are not so often used in design constructional process which is mainly caused by usually great complexity of these models. This complexity makes the process of self-generative time and labour consuming. It also needs a quite great investment outlays. The creation process of self-generative model consists of the three stages it is knowledge and information acquisition, model type selection and model implementation. In this paper methods of the computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens CAD/CAE/CAM software are presented. There are the five methods of self-generative models preparation in NX with: parametric relations model, part families, GRIP language application, knowledge fusion and OPEN API mechanism. In the paper examples of each type of the self-generative model are presented. These methods make the constructional design process much faster. It is suggested to prepare this kind of self-generative models when there is a need of design variants creation. The conducted research on assessing the usefulness of elaborated models showed that they are highly recommended in case of routine tasks automation. But it is still difficult to distinguish

  1. Fracture resistance of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-generated composite resin-based molar crowns


    Harada, A; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Inagaki, R.; Ørtengren, Ulf Thore; Niwano, Y.; Sasaki, Keiichi; Egusa, Hiroshi


    Accepted manuscript version.Published version available at The aim of this study was to investigate whether different fabrication processes, such as the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system or the manual build-up technique, affect the fracture resistance of composite resin-based crowns. Lava Ultimate (LU), Estenia C&B (EC&B), and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic IPS e.max press (EMP) were used. Four types of molar ...

  2. [AIDS-related primary CNS non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with previous Epstein-Barr virus panuveitis. A clinico-pathological report]. (United States)

    Ruiz-Bilbao, S; Hernández, À; Gómez-Sánchez, S; Romeu, J; Llobera L, L; Carrato, C; Anglada, R; Sabala, A; Matas, L


    Patient with AIDS and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) uveitis. The PCR of the aqueous and vitreous humor was positive for EBV, and DNA quantification was 56.602×10(6) copies/ml in the vitreous humor, 173,400 copies/ml in the peripheral blood, and negative in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The patient developed a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), diagnosed in the autopsy. The EBV is a rare cause of uveitis and it may be necessary to perform a quantitative PCR to reach the diagnosis. High amounts of EBV DNA are associated with a greater incidence of NHL. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of the operation of non-displaced feedwater heaters on the performance of Solar Aided Power Generation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Jiyun; Hu, Eric; Nathan, Graham J.


    Highlights: • Impact of non-displaced feedwater heater on plant’s performance has been evaluated. • Two operation strategies for non-displaced feedwater heater has been proposed. • Constant temperature strategy is generally better. • Constant mass flow rate strategy is suit for rich solar thermal input. - Abstract: Solar Aided Power Generation is a technology in which low grade solar thermal energy is used to displace the high grade heat of the extraction steam in a regenerative Rankine cycle power plant for feedwater preheating purpose. The displaced extraction steam can then expand further in the steam turbine to generate power. In such a power plant, using the (concentrated) solar thermal energy to displace the extraction steam to high pressure/temperature feedwater heaters (i.e. displaced feedwater heaters) is the most popular arrangement. Namely the extraction steam to low pressure/temperature feedwater heaters (i.e. non-displaced feedwater heaters) is not displaced by the solar thermal energy. In a Solar Aided Power Generation plants, when solar radiation/input changes, the extraction steam to the displaced feedwater heaters requires to be adjusted according to the solar radiation. However, for the extraction steams to the non-displaced feedwater heaters, it can be either adjusted accordingly following so-called constant temperature strategy or unadjusted i.e. following so-called constant mass flow rate strategy, when solar radiation/input changes. The previous studies overlooked the operation of non-displaced feedwater heaters, which has also impact on the whole plant’s performance. This paper aims to understand/reveal the impact of the two different operation strategies for non-displaced feedwater heaters on the plant’s performance. In this paper, a 300 MW Rankine cycle power plant, in which the extraction steam to high pressure/temperature feedwater heaters is displaced by the solar thermal energy, is used as study case for this purpose. It

  4. [The level of first aid and basic life support for the next generation of physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severien, I.; Tan, E.C.T.H.; Metz, J.C.; Biert, J.; Berden, H.J.J.M.


    According to Dutch medical-education guidelines junior doctors are expected to be able to carry out first aid and basic life support. We determined the level of first aid and basic life support of junior doctors at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, The Netherlands. Of the 300 junior

  5. A Generation at Risk: The Global Impact of HIV/AIDS on Orphans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by: G Foster, C Levi and J Williamson. Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-521-65264-3. This publication helps us to understand the impacts of HIV/AIDS on OVC in the family and community-based care, households and communities; needs of OVC and responses in the educational system; psychosocial ...

  6. Decision aiding in public policy generation and implementation: a multicriteria approach to evaluate territorial resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franca Norese


    Full Text Available A decision aid process should be the result of an interaction between analysts, decision makers and stakeholders. Decision aiding is sometimes required when the problem situation is new and a formal decision system does not exist. Its role becomes that of facilitating the Intelligence phase of a decision process. In other situations, a criticism of certain policy making processes and their use of data, which may be available in institutional databases or are required as indicators for the decision process, motivates an intervention oriented towards structure knowledge and improvements of these processes. A preliminary study, which includes modelling and application of multi-criteria methods, can clarify a complex and new situation, propose a consistent approach for the later phases of a decision process or propose a different and more effective use of the data. A case study is proposed here to describe this methodological approach in relation to the disaster resilience of municipalities near the mbrone River, in Tuscany (Italy.

  7. A novel technique for reference point generation to aid in intraoral scan alignment. (United States)

    Renne, Walter G; Evans, Zachary P; Mennito, Anthony; Ludlow, Mark


    When using a completely digital workflow on larger prosthetic cases it is often difficult to communicate to the laboratory or chairside Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing system the provisional prosthetic information. The problem arises when common hard tissue data points are limited or non-existent such as in complete arch cases in which the 3D model of the complete arch provisional restorations must be aligned perfectly with the 3D model of the complete arch preparations. In these instances, soft tissue is not enough to ensure an accurate automatic or manual alignment due to a lack of well-defined reference points. A new technique is proposed for the proper digital alignment of the 3D virtual model of the provisional prosthetic to the 3D virtual model of the prepared teeth in cases where common and coincident hard tissue data points are limited. Clinical considerations: A technique is described in which fiducial composite resin dots are temporarily placed on the intraoral keratinized tissue in strategic locations prior to final impressions. These fiducial dots provide coincident and clear 3D data points that when scanned into a digital impression allow superimposition of the 3D models. Composite resin dots on keratinized tissue were successful at allowing accurate merging of provisional restoration and post-preparation 3D models for the purpose of using the provisional restorations as a guide for final CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Composite resin dots placed temporarily on attached tissue were successful at allowing accurate merging of the provisional restoration 3D models to the preparation 3D models for the purposes of using the provisional restorations as a guide for final restoration design and manufacturing. In this case, they allowed precise superimposition of the 3D models made in the absence of any other hard tissue reference points, resulting in the fabrication of ideal final restorations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. SPLPKG WFCMPR WFAPPX, Wilson-Fowler Spline Generator for Computer Aided Design And Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, S.K.


    1 - Description of program or function: The three programs SPLPKG, WFCMPR, and WFAPPX provide the capability for interactively generating, comparing and approximating Wilson-Fowler Splines. The Wilson-Fowler spline is widely used in Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems. It is favored for many applications because it produces a smooth, low curvature fit to planar data points. Program SPLPKG generates a Wilson-Fowler spline passing through given nodes (with given end conditions) and also generates a piecewise linear approximation to that spline within a user-defined tolerance. The program may be used to generate a 'desired' spline against which to compare other Splines generated by CAD/CAM systems. It may also be used to generate an acceptable approximation to a desired spline in the event that an acceptable spline cannot be generated by the receiving CAD/CAM system. SPLPKG writes an IGES file of points evaluated on the spline and/or a file containing the spline description. Program WFCMPR computes the maximum difference between two Wilson-Fowler Splines and may be used to verify the spline recomputed by a receiving system. It compares two Wilson-Fowler Splines with common nodes and reports the maximum distance between curves (measured perpendicular to segments) and the maximum difference of their tangents (or normals), both computed along the entire length of the Splines. Program WFAPPX computes the maximum difference between a Wilson- Fowler spline and a piecewise linear curve. It may be used to accept or reject a proposed approximation to a desired Wilson-Fowler spline, even if the origin of the approximation is unknown. The maximum deviation between these two curves, and the parameter value on the spline where it occurs are reported. 2 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 1600 evaluation points (SPLPKG), 1000 evaluation points (WFAPPX), 1000 linear curve breakpoints (WFAPPX), 100 spline Nodes

  9. Generation of Electricity from Abattoir Waste Water with the Aid of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    *MOMOH, O L Y; NEAYOR, B. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,*University of Port Harcourt, Choba, PMB 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. E-mail: and ABSTRACT: The generation of electricity from high strength abattoir waste water has been demonstrated ...

  10. Generation of Electricity from Abattoir Waste Water with the Aid of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The generation of electricity from high strength abattoir waste water has been demonstrated to be feasible at room temperature using a novel electron acceptor as catholyte in dual-chambered microbial fuel cell systems with agar- salt bridge inter-connection. The utilization of this electron acceptor in the single ...

  11. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming (United States)

    Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Abd Rahman, Safura; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md


    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes.

  12. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramly, Mohammad Rizal; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Rahman, Safura Abd; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md


    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes

  13. Sociocultural Constraints: The Relation between Generations in the United States, Parental Education, Income, Hispanic Origin and the Financial Aid Packages of Hispanic Undergraduate Students (United States)

    Del Razo, Parvati Heliana


    The purpose of this study was to find out if the demographic variables of country of origin, generation in the United States (immigration status), income and parental education had an impact on the financial aid packages of Hispanic undergraduate students. This dissertation asked: What is the relation between generation in the United States,…

  14. Next Generation Sequencing As an Aid to Diagnosis and Treatment of an Unusual Pediatric Brain Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Glod


    Full Text Available Classification of pediatric brain tumors with unusual histologic and clinical features may be a diagnostic challenge to the pathologist. We present a case of a 12-year-old girl with a primary intracranial tumor. The tumor classification was not certain initially, and the site of origin and clinical behavior were unusual. Genomic characterization of the tumor using a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA-certified next-generation sequencing assay assisted in the diagnosis and translated into patient benefit, albeit transient. Our case argues that next generation sequencing may play a role in the pathological classification of pediatric brain cancers and guiding targeted therapy, supporting additional studies of genetically targeted therapeutics.

  15. Computer-Aided Generation of Result Text for Clinical Laboratory Texts


    Kuzmak, Peter M.; Miller, R. E.


    Efficient processing of non-numeric textual data is a frequent requirement with medical computer applications such as clinical laboratory result reporting. In such instances, it is often desirable that the computer control the generation of the text to ensure that the intended meaning is conveyed. This paper describes a technique for interactively selecting predefined text segments to form complex textual reports for laboratory tests. The approach, which uses algorithms based on augmented tra...

  16. Performance evaluation of solar aided feedwater heating of coal-fired power generation (SAFHCPG) system under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-juan, Hou; Zhen-yue, Yu; Yong-ping, Yang; Si, Chen; Na, Luo; Junjie, Wu


    Highlights: • The performance of a SAFHCPG system at design point is analyzed. • The solar radiation intensity and the electrical load demand on the grid side are considered in the annual performance analysis. • The optimum aperture area of the solar field has been discussed based on the annual performance. - Abstract: Integrating solar energy with a coal-fired power plant or other power systems has been proved to be an efficient way to utilize solar energy for power generation. Solar aided feedwater heating of a coal-fired power generation (SAFHCPG) system, which is mainly discussed in this paper, is chosen as an option for its easy operation and flexible control nature. The performance of a SAFHCPG system at design point is analyzed under various load conditions in the paper. As the results show in Table 4, the lower load of coal-fired unit that solar aid, the lower solar-to-electric efficiency will be. For a SAFHCPG system, its performance is influenced by the solar radiation intensity and the electrical load demand on the grid side. The correlation between the annual performance of a SAFHCPG plant and the two key factors is discussed and then the optimal aperture area of solar field is derived. The result shows that, for the case studied the optimal aperture area of solar field and the lowest LEC (Levelized Electricity Costs) are: 115395 m 2 and 0.472 ¥/kW h in a typical year; 138945 m 2 and 1.010 ¥/kW h in an extremely low radiation year; 91845 m 2 and 0.426 ¥/kW h in an extremely high radiation year respectively

  17. A Computer-Aided Bibliometrics System for Journal Citation Analysis and Departmental Core Journal Ranking List Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Chearng Shiue


    Full Text Available Due to the tremendous increase and variation in serial publications, faculties in department of university are finding it difficult to generate and update their departmental core journal list regularly and accurately, and libraries are finding it difficult to maintain their current serial collection for different departments. Therefore, the evaluation of a departmental core journal list is an important task for departmental faculties and librarians. A departmental core journal list not only helps departments understand research performances of faculties and students, but also helps librarians make decisions about which journals to retain and which to cancel. In this study, a Computer-Aided Bibliometrics System was implemented and two methodologies (JCDF and LibJF were proposed in order to generate a departmental core journal ranking list and make the journal citation analysis. Six departments were taken as examples, with MIS as the major one. One journal citation pattern was found and the ratio of Turning point-to-No. journal was always around 0.07 among the 10 journals and 6 departments. After comparing with four methodologies via overlapping rate and standard deviation distances, the two proposed methodologies were shown to be better than questionnaire and library subscription method.

  18. Reinforcement interval type-2 fuzzy controller design by online rule generation and q-value-aided ant colony optimization. (United States)

    Juang, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Chia-Hung


    This paper proposes a new reinforcement-learning method using online rule generation and Q-value-aided ant colony optimization (ORGQACO) for fuzzy controller design. The fuzzy controller is based on an interval type-2 fuzzy system (IT2FS). The antecedent part in the designed IT2FS uses interval type-2 fuzzy sets to improve controller robustness to noise. There are initially no fuzzy rules in the IT2FS. The ORGQACO concurrently designs both the structure and parameters of an IT2FS. We propose an online interval type-2 rule generation method for the evolution of system structure and flexible partitioning of the input space. Consequent part parameters in an IT2FS are designed using Q -values and the reinforcement local-global ant colony optimization algorithm. This algorithm selects the consequent part from a set of candidate actions according to ant pheromone trails and Q-values, both of which are updated using reinforcement signals. The ORGQACO design method is applied to the following three control problems: 1) truck-backing control; 2) magnetic-levitation control; and 3) chaotic-system control. The ORGQACO is compared with other reinforcement-learning methods to verify its efficiency and effectiveness. Comparisons with type-1 fuzzy systems verify the noise robustness property of using an IT2FS.

  19. Mode of Strong Earthquake Recurrence In Central Ionian Islands (greece). Possible Triggering Due To Coulomb Stress Changes Generated By The Occurrence of Previous Strong Shocks (United States)

    Papadimitriou, E.

    The spatial-temporal distribution of shallow strong (M>6.3) earthquakes occurring in the area of central Ionian Islands is analyzed. These shocks generated on two adja- cent fault segments with different strike, but both associated with strike-slip faulting, constituting the boundary between continental collision to the north and oceanic sub- duction to the south. Seismic activity is confined in short time intervals alternating by much longer relatively quiescent periods. Each active period consists of a relatively large event or series (two to four) of events occurring closely both in space and time. This alteration was observed to happen four times since 1867, from when complete data exist for the study area. Since the phenomenon is not strictly periodic and during each active period multiple events occurred, it is attempted to interpret the seismic behavior on the basis of possible triggering. It is then investigated how changes in Coulomb Failure Function (DCFF) associated with one or more earthquakes may trig- ger subsequent events. Both the coseismic slip due to the generation of the strong earthquakes and stress build up associated with the two major fault segments were taken into account for the DCFF calculation. Earthquakes can be modeled as static dislocations in elastic half-space, and the stress pattern has been inverted according to the geometry and slip of each of the faults that ruptured in the chain of events. These calculations show that 13 out of 14 earthquakes with M>6.3 were preceded by a static stress change that encouraged failure. The magnitude of the stress increases transferred from one earthquake to another ranged from 0.01 MPa (0.1 bar) to over 0.1 MPa (1 bar). Maps of current DCFF provide additional information to long-term earthquake prediction. Areas of positive DCFF have been identified at two sites in Ke- falonia and Lefkada faults, respectively, where the next strong events are expected to occur.

  20. A model based on feature objects aided strategy to evaluate the methane generation from food waste by anaerobic digestion. (United States)

    Yu, Meijuan; Zhao, Mingxing; Huang, Zhenxing; Xi, Kezhong; Shi, Wansheng; Ruan, Wenquan


    A model based on feature objects (FOs) aided strategy was used to evaluate the methane generation from food waste by anaerobic digestion. The kinetics of feature objects was tested by the modified Gompertz model and the first-order kinetic model, and the first-order kinetic hydrolysis constants were used to estimate the reaction rate of homemade and actual food waste. The results showed that the methane yields of four feature objects were significantly different. The anaerobic digestion of homemade food waste and actual food waste had various methane yields and kinetic constants due to the different contents of FOs in food waste. Combining the kinetic equations with the multiple linear regression equation could well express the methane yield of food waste, as the R 2 of food waste was more than 0.9. The predictive methane yields of the two actual food waste were 528.22 mL g -1  TS and 545.29 mL g -1  TS with the model, while the experimental values were 527.47 mL g -1  TS and 522.1 mL g -1  TS, respectively. The relative error between the experimental cumulative methane yields and the predicted cumulative methane yields were both less than 5%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Computer-aided design and computer-aided modeling (CAD/CAM) generated surgical splints, cutting guides and custom-made implants: Which indications in orthognathic surgery? (United States)

    Scolozzi, P


    The purpose of the present report was to describe our indications, results and complications of computer-aided design and computer-aided modeling CAD/CAM surgical splints, cutting guides and custom-made implants in orthognathic surgery. We analyzed the clinical and radiological data of ten consecutive patients with dentofacial deformities treated using a CAD/CAM technique. Four patients had surgical splints and cutting guides for correction of maxillomandibular asymmetries, three had surgical cutting guides and customized internal distractors for correction of severe maxillary deficiencies and three had custom-made implants for additional chin contouring and/or mandibular defects following bimaxillary osteotomies and sliding genioplasty. We recorded age, gender, dentofacial deformity, surgical procedure and intra- and postoperative complications. All of the patients had stable cosmetic results with a high rate of patient satisfaction at the 1-year follow-up examination. No intra- and/or postoperative complications were encountered during any of the different steps of the procedure. This study demonstrated that the application of CAD/CAM patient-specific surgical splints, cutting guides and custom-made implants in orthognathic surgery allows for a successful outcome in the ten patients presented in this series. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, R.K.; Callow, R.A.; Larson, T.K.; Ransom, V.H.


    An expert system called the ATHENA AIDE that assists in the preparation of input models for the ATHENA thermal-hydraulics code has been developed by researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ATHENA AIDE uses a menu driven graphics interface and rule-based and object-oriented programming techniques to assist users of the ATHENA code in performing the tasks involved in preparing the card image input files required to run ATHENA calculations. The ATENA AIDE was developed and currently runs on single-user Xerox artificial intelligence workstations. Experience has shown that the intelligent modeling environment provided by the ATHENA AIDE expert system helps ease the modeling task by relieving the analyst of many mundane, repetitive, and error prone procedures involved in the construction of an input model. This reduces errors in the resulting models, helps promote standardized modeling practices, and allows models to be constructed more quickly than was previously possible

  3. Evergreen Valley College Matriculation Aide Intervention Evaluation: Success Rates of Fall 1992 Sections Using a Matriculation Aide Compared to Non-Intervention Sections for the Same Semester and Two Previous Semesters, English 321, 322, 330, and Math 12. Research Report #408. (United States)

    Kangas, Jon

    In fall 1992, a study was performed at Evergreen Valley College, in San Jose, California, to determine whether the presence of full-time instructional aides and part-time matriculation aides in four specific courses (English 321, 322, 330, and Math 12) led to increases in student success. Success was defined as receipt of a grade of…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  5. Gel-aided sample preparation (GASP)--a simplified method for gel-assisted proteomic sample generation from protein extracts and intact cells. (United States)

    Fischer, Roman; Kessler, Benedikt M


    We describe a "gel-assisted" proteomic sample preparation method for MS analysis. Solubilized protein extracts or intact cells are copolymerized with acrylamide, facilitating denaturation, reduction, quantitative cysteine alkylation, and matrix formation. Gel-aided sample preparation has been optimized to be highly flexible, scalable, and to allow reproducible sample generation from 50 cells to milligrams of protein extracts. This methodology is fast, sensitive, easy-to-use on a wide range of sample types, and accessible to nonspecialists. © 2014 The Authors. PROTEOMICS published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. System of diagnosis of generators computer aided integrated into a movable laboratory; Sistema de diagnostico de generadores asistido por computadora integrado a un laboratorio movil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Torre Vega, H. Octavio; Escorsa Morales, Oscar; Castaneda Parra, Adelina; Garcia- Colon H, Rodolfo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Lopez Azamar, Ernesto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)


    The development of the Movable Laboratory is presented, which will allow to combine and document the knowledge acquired by more than ten years of experience in diagnosis of electrical generators. The development of the project is divided into three main parts: laboratory design, data acquisition system (Datec) and system of diagnosis of generators computer aided (Cadis). [Spanish] Se presenta el desarrollo del Laboratorio Movil, el cual permitira conjuntar y documentar el conocimiento adquirido por mas de diez anos de experiencia en diagnostico de generadores electricos. El desarrollo del proyecto se divide en tres grandes partes: diseno de laboratorio, sistema de adquisicion de datos (Datec) y sistema de diagnostico de generadores asistido por computadora (Cadis).

  7. HIV / AIDS (United States)

    ... As the leading U.S. government institute for HIV/AIDS research, NIAID is committed to conducting the research necessary ... Budget & Planning Mission and Planning Overview Councils & Committees AIDS Research Advisory Committee AIDS Research Advisory Committee Agenda AIDS ...

  8. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak


    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  9. Efficacy and safety of afatinib in Chinese patients with EGFR-mutated metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously responsive to first-generation tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI) and chemotherapy: comparison with historical cohort using erlotinib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Victor H. F.; Leung, Dennis K. C.; Choy, Tim-Shing; Lam, Ka-On; Lam, Pui-Mei; Leung, To-Wai; Kwong, Dora L. W.


    Afaitnib has shown anti-tumor activity against metastatic EGFR-mutated NSCLC after prior failure to first generation EGFR-TKI and chemotherapy. We prospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of afatinib in Chinese patients who previously failed first-generation TKI and chemotherapy under a compassionate use program (CUP) and compared to the erlotinib cohort. Patients who suffered from metastatic EGFR-mutated NSCLC previously responsive to first-generation TKI and chemotherapy received afatinib until progression, loss of clinical benefits or intolerable toxicity. Treatment response, survival and safety were evaluated and compared to the erlotinib cohort. Twenty-five and 28 patients received afatinib and erlotinib respectively. More patients in the afatinib group had worse performance status (ECOG 2) than the erlotinib group (p = 0.008). After a median follow-up of 12.1 months, afatinib demonstrated comparable objective response rate (ORR) (20.0 % vs. 7.1 %, p = 0.17) but significantly higher disease control rate (DCR) (68.0 % vs. 39.3 %, p = 0.04) compared to erlotinib. Median progression-free survival (PFS) (4.1 months [95 % CI, 2.7–5.5 months] vs. 3.3 months [95 % CI, 2.2–4.3 months], p = 0.97) and overall survival (OS) were not different between the two groups (10.3 months [95 % CI, 7.5–13.0 months] vs. 10.8 months [95 % CI, 7.4–14.2 months], p = 0.51). Multivariate analyses revealed that age ≤70 years and time to progression (TTP) ≥18 months for the 1 st TKI therapy were prognostic of PFS (p = 0.006 and p = 0.008 respectively). Afatinib caused less rash (60.0 % vs. 67.9 %, p = 0.04) but more diarrhea (60.0 % vs. 10.7 %, p = 0.002) compared to erlotinib. Afatinib produced encouraging clinical efficacy as 2 nd TKI therapy with manageable safety profiles in our Chinese patients after failure to another TKI and systemic chemotherapy. This study was registered at (NCT02625168) on 3 December 2015

  10. How Next-Generation Sequencing Has Aided Our Understanding of the Sequence Composition and Origin of B Chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alevtina Ruban


    Full Text Available Accessory, supernumerary, or—most simply—B chromosomes, are found in many eukaryotic karyotypes. These small chromosomes do not follow the usual pattern of segregation, but rather are transmitted in a higher than expected frequency. As increasingly being demonstrated by next-generation sequencing (NGS, their structure comprises fragments of standard (A chromosomes, although in some plant species, their sequence also includes contributions from organellar genomes. Transcriptomic analyses of various animal and plant species have revealed that, contrary to what used to be the common belief, some of the B chromosome DNA is protein-encoding. This review summarizes the progress in understanding B chromosome biology enabled by the application of next-generation sequencing technology and state-of-the-art bioinformatics. In particular, a contrast is drawn between a direct sequencing approach and a strategy based on a comparative genomics as alternative routes that can be taken towards the identification of B chromosome sequences.

  11. NUMEL: a computer aided design suite for the assessment of the steady state, static/dynamic stability and transient responses of nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, D.; Lightfoot, P.


    NUMEL is a computer aided design suite for the assessment of the steady state, static/dynamic stability and transient responses of nuclear steam generators. The equations solved are those of a monotube coflow or counterflow heat exchanger. The advantages of NUMEL are its fast execution speed, robustness, extensive validation and flexibility coupled with ease of use. The code can simultaneously model up to four separate sections (e.g. reheater, HP boiler). This document is a user manual and describes in detail the running of the NUMEL suite. In addition, a discussion is presented of the necessary approximations involved in representing a serpentine or helical AGR boiler as a monotube counterflow heat exchanger. To date, NUMEL has been applied to the modelling of AGR, Fast Reactor and once through Magnox and conventional boilers. Other versions of the code are available for specialist applications, e.g. Magnox and conventional recirculation boilers. (author)

  12. Next-Generation Sequencing-Aided Rapid Molecular Diagnosis of Occult Macular Dystrophy in a Chinese Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-He Qi


    Full Text Available Purpose: To show early, rapid and accurate molecular diagnosis of occult macular dystrophy (OMD in a four-generation Chinese family with inherited macular dystrophy.Methods: In the current study, we comprehensively screened 130 genes involved in common inherited non-syndromic eye diseases with next-generation sequencing-based target capture sequencing of the proband of a four-generation Chinese family that has suffered from maculopathy without a definitive diagnosis for over 10 years. Variants were filtered and analyzed to identify possible disease-causing variants before validation by Sanger sequencing.Results: Two heterozygous mutations—RP1L1 c.133 C > T (p.Arg45Trp, which is a hot spot for OMD, and ABCA4 c.6119 G > A (p.Arg2040Gln, which was identified in Stargardt’s disease were found in three patients, but neither of the mutations was found in the unaffected individuals in the same family, who are phenotypically normal or in the normal control volunteers.Conclusion: These results cannot only confirm the diagnosis of OMD in the proband, but also provide presymptomatic diagnosis of the proband’s children before the onset of visual acuity impairment and guidance regarding the prognosis and management of these patients. Heterozygous mutations of RP1L1 c.133 C > T (p.Arg45Trp and ABCA4 c.6119 G > A (p.Arg2040Gln are likely responsible for OMD. Our results further extend our current understanding of the genetic basis of OMD, and emphasize the importance of molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling for OMD.

  13. Simultaneous degradation of bad wine and electricity generation with the aid of the coexisting biocatalysts Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter roseus. (United States)

    Rengasamy, Karthikeyan; Berchmans, Sheela


    This study describes the cooperative effect of the two biocatalysts Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter roseus for biodegradation as well as current generation. The electro activity of the biofilms of these two microorganisms was investigated by the bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol and glucose using cyclic voltammetry. Two chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were constructed using single culture of A. aceti (A-MFC), and G. roseus (G-MFC) and also using mixed culture (AG-MFC). Each MFC was fed with four different substrates viz., glucose, ethanol, acetate and bad wine. AG-MFC produced higher power density with glucose (1.05 W/m(3)), ethanol (1.97 W/m(3)), acetate (1.39 W/m(3)) and bad wine (3.82 W/m(3)). COD removal (94%) was maximum for acetate fed MFCs. Higher coulombic efficiency was obtained with bad wine (45%) as the fuel. This work provides the scope of using these biofuel cells in wineries for performing the dual duty of bad wine degradation along with current generation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. System of aid for the starting of the steam generator of a thermoelectric unit; Sistema de ayuda para el arranque del generador de vapor de una unidad termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero R, Agustin; Suarez C, Dionisio A; Aquino E, Juan C; Diaz H, Carlos A; Cruz T, Jorge A; Sanchez L, Jose A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    This article presents the development of an on line aid system, whose objective is to aid the operator of a thermoelectric unit, providing the information that is required to carry out the heating and pressurization of the steam generator in the shortest possible time. The former takes place respecting the operation limits determined by the manufacturer and the conditions of security established to carry out the maneuvers of operation of the equipment. The system incorporates a scheme of predictive control, based on a neuronal model that estimates the optimal position of two final elements of control to fulfill with the curves of reference for the temperature and pressure of the main steam. The system is based on an architecture client-server and uses technology Web for the access of the information through a navigator of the Internet. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de ayuda en linea, cuyo objetivo es asistir al operador de una unidad termoelectrica, proporcionando la informacion que requiere para llevar a cabo el calentamiento y presurizacion del generador de vapor en el menor tiempo posible. Lo anterior se efectua respetando los limites de operacion determinados por el fabricante y las condiciones de seguridad establecidas para efectuar las maniobras de operacion de los equipos. El sistema incorpora un esquema de control predictivo, basado en un modelo neuronal, que estima la posicion optima de dos elementos finales de control para cumplir con las curvas de referencia para la temperatura y presion del vapor principal. El sistema esta basado en una arquitectura cliente-servidor y utiliza tecnologia Web para el acceso a la informacion a traves de un navegador del Internet.

  15. Educational aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkeit, S.


    Educational aids include printed matter, aural media, visual media, audiovisual media and objects. A distinction is made between learning aids, which include blackboards, overhead projectors, flipcharts, wallcharts and pinboards, and learning aids, which include textbooks, worksheets, documentation and experimental equipment. The various aids are described and their use explained. The aids available at the School for Nuclear Technology of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre are described

  16. Computer-aided evaluation of low-dose and low-contrast agent third-generation dual-source CT angiography prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). (United States)

    Dankerl, Peter; Hammon, Matthias; Seuss, Hannes; Tröbs, Monique; Schuhbaeck, Annika; Hell, Michaela M; Cavallaro, Alexander; Achenbach, Stephan; Uder, Michael; Marwan, Mohamed


    To evaluate the performance of computer-aided evaluation software for a comprehensive workup of patients prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) using low-contrast agent and low radiation dose third-generation dual-source CT angiography. We evaluated 30 consecutive patients scheduled for TAVI. All patients underwent ECG-triggered high-pitch dual-source CT angiography of the aortic root and aorta with a standardized contrast agent volume (30 ml Imeron350, flow rate 4 ml/s) and low-dose (100 kv/350 mAs) protocol. An expert (10 years of experience) manually evaluated aortic root and iliac access dimensions (distance between coronary ostia and aortic annulus, minimal/maximal diameters and area-derived diameter of the aortic annulus) and best CT-predicted fluoroscopic projection angle as the reference standard. Utilizing computer-aided software (syngo.via), the same pre-TAVI workup was performed and compared to the reference standard. Mean CTDI[Formula: see text] was 3.46 mGy and mean DLP 217.6 ± 12.1 mGy cm, corresponding to a mean effective dose of 3.7 ± 0.2 mSv. Computer-aided evaluation was successful in all but one patient. Compared to the reference standard, Bland-Altman analysis indicated very good agreement for the distances between aortic annulus and coronary ostia (RCA: mean difference 0.8 mm; 95 % CI 0.4-1.2 mm; LM: mean difference 0.9 mm; 95 % CI 0.5-1.3 mm); however, we demonstrated a systematic overestimation of annulus- derived diameter using the software (mean difference 44.4 mm[Formula: see text]; 95 % CI 30.4-58.3 mm[Formula: see text]). Based on respective annulus dimensions, the recommended prosthesis size (Edwards SAPIEN 3) matched in 26 out of the 29 patients (90 %). CT-derived fluoroscopic projection angles showed an excellent agreement for both methods. Out of 58 iliac arteries, 15 (25 %) arteries could not be segmented by the software. Preprocessing time of the software was 71 ± 11 s (range 51-96

  17. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model...... of the main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces...

  18. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn


    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  19. AIDS (image) (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  20. Engagement of Gay Men and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in the Response to HIV: A Critical Step in Achieving an AIDS-Free Generation. (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Beyrer, Chris; Sullivan, Patrick S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Baral, Stefan D


    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be at elevated risk for HIV acquisition and transmission secondary to biological and behavioral characteristics, social and sexual network characteristics, community environmental factors, and structural factors. HIV incidence rates remain high among MSM in both low- and high-income settings, and in both concentrated and more generalized HIV epidemic settings. While data quality tends to be poorer, the best estimates collectively suggest that MSM have up to 20 times the odds of living with HIV as compared to other reproductive aged adults across low- and middle-income countries. Recent prevention strategies to lower biological HIV transmission and acquisition risks, including the early use of antiretrovirals to decrease infectiousness for those living with HIV, and pre-exposure prophylaxis for those at significant risk of HIV acquisition, have demonstrated the potential to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemics among MSM. However, the coverage and effectiveness of these approaches is limited by structural factors including the punitive legal frameworks and institutional discrimination that contribute to limited uptake, challenges to adherence, and suboptimal health-seeking behaviors among MSM. More intensive efforts will be required to reach MSM who do not currently have access to relevant and effective prevention and treatment services or elect not to access these services given enacted and/or perceived stigma. Respect for human rights, including efforts to aggressively confront and combat the forms of stigma that are preventing us from achieving an AIDS-Free generation, are needed for all people including gay men and other MSM.

  1. The Macroeconomics of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Morrissey, Oliver; Tarp, Finn


    This Special Issue explores macroeconomic effects of aid from various perspectives through a blend of studies, both conceptual and empirical in nature. The overall aim is to enhance the understanding of the macroeconomic dimensions of aid in the policy and research communities, and to inspire...... further innovative work in this important area. This opening article provides a scene setting summary of five generations of aid research, with a particular focus on how the JDS has contributed to this literature, and ends with an overview of the papers included in this Issue....

  2. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  3. Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... prefer the open-fit hearing aid because their perception of their voice does not sound “plugged up.” ... My voice sounds too loud. The “plugged-up” sensation that causes a hearing aid user’s voice to ...

  4. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn


    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  5. Toward computerized morphometric facilities: a review of 58 software packages for computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction, quantification, and picture generation from parallel serial sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, D. P.; Lamers, W. H.; Los, J. A.; Strackee, J.


    This review gives an inventory of 58 computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction applications in the domain of biomedical research. It is devoted to the formulation of a set of recommendations thought to be necessary for improved performance of software packages in this field. These

  6. Exploring Hearing Aid Problems: Perspectives of Hearing Aid Owners and Clinicians. (United States)

    Bennett, Rebecca J; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Meyer, Carly J; Eikelboom, Robert H

    To gather perspectives of hearing aid owners and hearing healthcare clinicians with regard to problems that arise after hearing aid fitting and use these perspectives to generate a conceptual framework to gain a better understanding of these problems. Participants included a group of 17 hearing aid owners and a group of 21 hearing healthcare clinicians; data collection occurred separately for each group. Participants each attended two group sessions in Perth, Western Australia, wherein they: (1) generated statements describing the problems associated with hearing aids and (2) grouped and rated the statements to identify key themes. Concept mapping was used to generate a conceptual framework. Participants identified four concepts regarding hearing aid problems as follows: (1) hearing aid management; (2) hearing aid sound quality and performance; (3) feelings, thoughts, and behaviors; and (4) information and training. While hearing aid owners and clinicians generated similar results regarding the concepts derived, the clinicians reported that the problems identified had a greater negative impact on hearing aid success than did hearing aid owners. The magnitude and diversity of hearing aid problems identified in this study highlight the ongoing challenges that hearing aid owners face and suggest that current processes for hearing aid fitting can be improved. Problems relating to hearing aid management were most often deemed to have the greatest impact on hearing aid success and be the most preventable/solvable, and thus are a good starting point when addressing hearing aid-related problems.

  7. Software diagnostic aids on Aladdin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisert, D.E.; Stott, J.P.


    The upgrade of the Aladdin control system included many enhancements in the software. Some of the new diagnostic aids provided are: intelligent temporary logging of all readbacks for at least the previous 12 hours, permanent logging of specified readbacks into disk files, temporary logging of beam positions at an operator-specified interval, an alarm system for all devices, including range limits for analogue readbacks that should remain fixed and window limits which automatically track readbacks that should decay or increase monotonically, automated checklists to verify the devices are within the specified operating range for a particular phase of operation, latched digital signals to capture momentary changes. The software has been designed to alert the operator when something is wrong, without generating a flood of unimportant messages, and to make it possible to observe and record readbacks over a range of time scales. The latter capability is essential for tracking down marginal components and correlating observed problems with possible causes. The algorithms used for these diagnostic aids, and how well they perform their desired tasks, are described in this paper. (orig.)

  8. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair


    which investigated the strategies these states have adopted in talks with aid donors, the sources of leverage they have been able to bring to bear in negotiations, and the differing degrees of control that they have been able to exercise over the policies agreed in negotiations and those implemented......This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...

  9. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  10. Computer aided product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinou, Leonidas; Bagherpour, Khosrow; Gani, Rafiqul


    A general methodology for Computer Aided Product Design (CAPD) with specified property constraints which is capable of solving a large range of problems is presented. The methodology employs the group contribution approach, generates acyclic, cyclic and aromatic compounds of various degrees......-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) and gas solubility. Finally, a computer program based on the extended methodology has been developed and the results from five case studies highlighting various features of the methodology are presented....

  11. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni


    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  12. Hearing Aid with Visual Indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention comprises a hearing aid, which has a casing containing a signal receiving part for receiving an audio signal, an audio transducer for providing an audio signal to the user, a signal transmission path between the signal receiving part and the audio transducer, whereby a battery...... is provided for powering the signal receiving part, the signal path and the audio transducer, and where further means are provided for assessing the function of the hearing aid and for generating an electrical indication signal which indicates the function of the hearing aid and where further means...... are provided for intermittently generating a power signal in response to the electrical indication signal and where means are provided for converting the power signal into a light signal, such that the light signal is visible from outside the hearing aid....

  13. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano


    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how......Can Citizen Consumers Make a Difference? DIIS researcher contributes to a Boston Review - New Democracy Forum In the current issue of Boston Review (November/December 2011), contributors to a ‘New Democracy Forum’ debate whether Citizen Consumers can make a difference in stimulating responsible...

  14. [Will AIDS overtake them?]. (United States)

    Boukhari, S

    UNICEF estimates that the streets are now the home of some 5 million African children aged 7-15 who are victims of rapid population growth and urbanization as well as the disintegration of traditional family structure. These children, deprived of a home and of all parental control, are potentially very vulnerable to the threat of AIDS. Prostitution, which is almost institutionalized in the most impoverished urban areas, represents for young girls the most immediate means of survival and occasionally even of helping their families. Male prostitution is highly tabu and marginal in sub-Saharan Africa, and is only slightly developed around the tourist hotels. Homeless children are somewhat protected against contamination through the blood by their lack of access to health care. Intravenous drugs are rare in Africa, and drug use is at most an indirect risk factor for AIDS to the extent that in increases the need for money and weakens the immune system. The frequency of sexually transmitted diseases, deplorable hygienic conditions, and poor general health of homeless children increase their risk of contracting the virus. Many homeless children do not even know of the existence of condoms and in any event condoms are usually inaccessible or too costly for them. Homeless children, like the general population, have false ideas about AIDS that discourage self-protective behaviors. In addition they are cut off from the activities of existing prevention programs. In a context of permanent daily insecurity, AIDS appears as just 1 more menace among others. According to an anthropologist working with the UNESCO program to help homeless children, the only way of making such children aware of the threat of AIDS in the large African cities will be to increase the number of prevention programs targeted at them. At the same time, the children need to be educated and taught an income-generating skill; in short, they need to be given a reason to believe in the future.

  15. Next generation phenotyping in Emanuel and Pallister-Killian syndrome using computer-aided facial dysmorphology analysis of 2D photos. (United States)

    Liehr, T; Acquarola, N; Pyle, K; St-Pierre, S; Rinholm, M; Bar, O; Wilhelm, K; Schreyer, I


    High throughput approaches are continuously progressing and have become a major part of clinical diagnostics. Still, the critical process of detailed phenotyping and gathering clinical information has not changed much in the last decades. Forms of next generation phenotyping (NGP) are needed to increase further the value of any kind of genetic approaches, including timely consideration of (molecular) cytogenetics during the diagnostic quest. As NGP we used in this study the facial dysmorphology novel analysis (FDNA) technology to automatically identify facial phenotypes associated with Emanuel (ES) and Pallister-Killian Syndrome (PKS) from 2D facial photos. The comparison between ES or PKS and normal individuals expressed a full separation between the cohorts. Our results show that NPG is able to help in the clinic, and could reduce the time patients spend in diagnostic odyssey. It also helps to differentiate ES or PKS from each other and other patients with small supernumerary marker chromosomes, especially in countries with no access to more sophisticated genetic approaches apart from banding cytogenetics. Inclusion of more facial pictures of patient with sSMC, like isochromosome-18p-, cat-eye-syndrome or others may contribute to higher detection rates in future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Digital processing technology for bone-anchored hearing aids: randomised comparison of two devices in hearing aid users with mixed or conductive hearing loss. (United States)

    Hill-Feltham, P; Roberts, S A; Gladdis, R


    This study compared the performance of two new bone-anchored hearing aids with older bone-anchored hearing aids that were not fully digital. Fourteen experienced bone-anchored hearing aid users participated in this cross-over study. Performance of their existing bone-anchored hearing aid was assessed using speech-in-noise testing and questionnaires. Participants were then fitted with either a Ponto Pro or a BP100 device. After four weeks of use with each new device, the same assessments were repeated. Speech-in-noise testing for the 50 per cent signal-to-noise ratio (the ratio at which 50 per cent of responses were correct) showed no significant differences between the Ponto Pro and the BP100 devices (p = 0.1) However, both devices showed significant improvement compared with the participants' previous bone-anchored hearing aid devices (p bone-anchored hearing aids demonstrated superior speech processing compared with the previous generation of devices. There were no substantial differences between the two digital devices in either objective or subjective tests.

  17. HIV/AIDS - resources (United States)

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... information on AIDS : -- AIDS Info -- The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention --

  18. Animal Bites: First Aid (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: . Mayo ...

  19. Aiding surveillance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    generator in itself.4 Yet surveillance unconstrained by legal frameworks, human rights protections, and the rule of law has the ... Analysis of the potential adverse implications of using personal information is often completely ..... acknowledge the potential of new information technologies to strengthen electoral processes,.

  20. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  1. HIV and AIDS (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español HIV and AIDS KidsHealth / For Kids / HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  2. Heart attack first aid (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle becomes ...

  3. Breathing difficulties - first aid (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  4. Gastroenteritis: First Aid (United States)

    First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of your stomach and intestines. Common causes are: Viruses. Food or water contaminated by ...

  5. Snakebites: First Aid (United States)

    First aid Snakebites: First aid Snakebites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most North American snakes aren't dangerous to humans. Some exceptions include the rattlesnake, coral snake, water moccasin ...

  6. A generation at risk: a cross-sectional study on HIV/AIDS knowledge, exposure to mass media, and stigmatizing behaviors among young women aged 15-24 years in Ghana. (United States)

    Asamoah, Charity Konadu; Asamoah, Benedict Oppong; Agardh, Anette


    HIV/AIDS stigmatizing behaviors are a huge barrier to early detection and treatment of individuals with the AIDS virus. HIV/AIDS stigma and related consequences are debilitating, especially for vulnerable populations. This study sought to assess whether young women's HIV/AIDS knowledge levels and exposure to mass media (television and radio) have an influence on their stigmatizing behaviors and role as agents of stigma towards individuals living with HIV and AIDS. The data used for this study originated from the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011. Binary and multiple (stepwise) logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between HIV/AIDS knowledge, frequency of exposure to mass media, and HIV/AIDS stigmatizing behaviors among young women aged 15-24 years in Ghana. Of the 3573 young women, 80% of 15-19-year-olds and 76% of 20-24-year-olds had at least one stigmatizing behavior towards persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Young women with increased knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and frequent exposure to mass media (television and radio) had lesser tendency to stigmatize or act as agents of stigma towards PLHA (proportion with at least one stigmatizing behavior per subgroup - HIV/AIDS knowledge: those with highest knowledge score 579 [70.1%], those with lowest knowledge score 28 [90.3%]; mass media: those with daily exposure 562 [73.4%], those not exposed at all 249 [89.2%]). There was a graded negative 'exposure-response' association between the ranked variables: HIV/AIDS knowledge, mass media, and HIV/AIDS stigmatizing behaviors. The significant inverse association between HIV/AIDS knowledge, frequency of exposure to mass media, and HIV/AIDS stigmatizing behaviors persisted even after adjusting for all other covariates in the multiple logistic regression models. It is extremely important to increase HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and reduce stigma among young women in Ghana through targeted HIV/AIDS factual knowledge transfer. The

  7. Aid and AIDS: a delicate cocktail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Reuser, M.


    Development assistance targeting health overwhelmingly concentrates on HIV/AIDS. This column argues that that focus neglects critical demographic issues and degrades health infrastructure, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The prime rule for AIDS aid should be “First, do no harm”.

  8. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sher L Hendrickson


    Full Text Available The human mitochondrial genome includes only 13 coding genes while nuclear-encoded genes account for 99% of proteins responsible for mitochondrial morphology, redox regulation, and energetics. Mitochondrial pathogenesis occurs in HIV patients and genetically, mitochondrial DNA haplogroups with presumed functional differences have been associated with differential AIDS progression.Here we explore whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within 904 of the estimated 1,500 genes that specify nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins (NEMPs influence AIDS progression among HIV-1 infected patients. We examined NEMPs for association with the rate of AIDS progression using genotypes generated by an Affymetrix 6.0 genotyping array of 1,455 European American patients from five US AIDS cohorts. Successfully genotyped SNPs gave 50% or better haplotype coverage for 679 of known NEMP genes. With a Bonferroni adjustment for the number of genes and tests examined, multiple SNPs within two NEMP genes showed significant association with AIDS progression: acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 4 (ACSM4 on chromosome 12 and peroxisomal D3,D2-enoyl-CoA isomerase (PECI on chromosome 6.Our previous studies on mitochondrial DNA showed that European haplogroups with presumed functional differences were associated with AIDS progression and HAART mediated adverse events. The modest influences of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes found in the current study add support to the idea that mitochondrial function plays a role in AIDS pathogenesis.

  9. A Multi-Step and Multi-Level Approach for Computer Aided Molecular Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, Peter Mathias; Gani, Rafiqul


    A general multi-step approach for setting up, solving and solution analysis of computer aided molecular design (CAMD) problems is presented. The approach differs from previous work within the field of CAMD since it also addresses the need for a computer aided problem formulation and result analysis....... The problem formulation step incorporates a knowledge base for the identification and setup of the design criteria. Candidate compounds are identified using a multi-level generate and test CAMD solution algorithm capable of designing molecules having a high level of molecular detail. A post solution step...

  10. 77 FR 72195 - World AIDS Day, 2012 (United States)


    ... generation at home and abroad--a goal that, while ambitious, is within sight. Through the President's... goal. We can beat this disease. On World AIDS Day, in memory of those no longer with us and in...

  11. Generative Design Masterclass


    Dean, Lionel T.


    A two day masterclass in generative design delivered by Dean at University of Technology, Sydney, Australia. The audience were University staff and research students. The demonstration used the Grasshopper scripting plug-in for the Computer Aided Design package Rhino.

  12. Black Eye: First Aid (United States)

    First aid Black eye Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a ... 13, 2018 Original article: . Mayo ...

  13. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... for aid in the future...

  14. The Master Hearing Aid (United States)

    Curran, James R.


    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  15. AIDS in the developing countries. (United States)

    Tinker, J


    Without a medical miracle, it seems inevitable that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic will become not only the most serious public health problem of this generation but a dominating issue in 3rd world development. As a present-day killer, AIDS in developing countries is insignificant compared to malaria, tuberculosis, or infant diarrhea, but this number is misleading in 3 ways. First, it fails to reflect the per capita rate of AIDS cases. On this basis, Bermuda, French Guyana, and the Bahamas have much higher rates than the US. Second, there is extensive underreporting of AIDS cases in most developing nations. Finally, the number of AIDS cases indicates where the epidemic was 5-7 years ago, when these people became infected. Any such projections of the growth of 3rd world AIDS epidemics are at this time based on epidemiologic data from the industrialized rations of the north and on the assumption that the virus acts similarly in the south as it does in the US and Europe. Yet, 3rd world conditions differ. Sexually transmitted diseases usually are more prevalent, and people have a different burden of other diseases and of other stresses to the immune system. In Africa, AIDS already is heavily affecting the mainstream population in some nations. Some regions will approach net population declines over the next decade. How far their populations eventually could decline because of AIDS is unclear and will depend crucially on countermeasures taken or not taken over the next 1-2 years. In purely economic terms, AIDS will affect the direct costs of health care, expenses which are unrealistic for most 3rd world countries. Further, the vast majority of deaths from AIDS in developing countries will occur among those in the sexually active age groups -- the wage earners and food producers. Deaths in this age group also will reduce the labor available for farming and industry. AIDS epidemics also may have significant effects on foreign investment in the 3rd

  16. Social Support Predicts Hearing Aid Satisfaction. (United States)

    Singh, Gurjit; Lau, Sin-Tung; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen


    The goals of the current research were to determine: (1) whether there is a relationship between perceived social support and hearing aid satisfaction, and (2) how well perceived social support predicts hearing aid satisfaction relative to other correlates previously identified in the literature. In study 1, 173 adult ((Equation is included in full-text article.)age = 68.9 years; SD = 13.4) users of hearing aids completed a survey assessing attitudes toward health, hearing, and hearing aids, as well as a questionnaire assessing Big-Five personality factors (Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism) either using paper and pencil or the Internet. In a follow-up study designed to replicate and extend the results from study 1, 161 adult ((Equation is included in full-text article.)age = 32.8 years; SD = 13.3) users of hearing aids completed a similar survey on the Internet. In study 2, participants also completed a measure of hearing aid benefit and reported the style of their hearing aid. In studies 1 and 2, perceived social support was significantly correlated with hearing aid satisfaction (respectively, r = 0.34, r = 0.51, ps hearing aid satisfaction scores was predicted by perceived social support, satisfaction with one's hearing health care provider, duration of daily hearing aid use, and openness. In study 2, 43% of the variance in hearing aid satisfaction was predicted by perceived social support, hearing aid benefit, neuroticism, and hearing aid style. Overall, perceived social support was the best predictor of hearing aid satisfaction in both studies. After controlling for response style (i.e., acquiescence or the tendency to respond positively), the correlation between perceived social support and hearing aid satisfaction remained the same in study 1 (r = 0.34, p hearing aids, a finding that was replicated in a different sample of participants investigated in study 2. A significant relationship between perceived

  17. How to Get Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... Consumer Products Hearing Aids How to get Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... my hearing aids? How do I get hearing aids? Before getting a hearing aid, you should consider ...

  18. Challenges in Meeting HIV/AIDS Counselling Needs in Nigeria (United States)

    Gesinde, Abiodun M.


    The HIV/AIDS pandemic is recognized globally as the greatest health challenge of the present generation. It is widely acknowledged to be the foremost killer disease in Africa. Since the first AIDS case was publicly announced in 1986, the astronomical increase in victims has been a matter of concern. The rates of HIV/AIDS infection indicate that…

  19. Investigating the Knowledge, Skills, and Tasks Required for Hearing Aid Management: Perspectives of Clinicians and Hearing Aid Owners. (United States)

    Bennett, Rebecca J; Meyer, Carly J; Eikelboom, Robert H; Atlas, Marcus D


    The purpose of this study is to identify hearing aid owners' and clinicians' opinions of the knowledge, skills, and tasks required for hearing aid management and the importance of each of these to overall success with hearing aids. Concept mapping techniques were used to identify key themes, wherein participants generated, sorted, and rated the importance of statements in response to the question "What must hearing aid owners do in order to use, handle, manage, maintain, and care for their hearing aids?" Twenty-four hearing aid owners (56 to 91 years of age; 54.2% men, 45.8% women) and 22 clinicians (32 to 69 years of age; 9.1% men, 90.9% women) participated. Participants identified 111 unique items describing hearing aid management within 6 concepts: (a) "Daily Hearing Aid Use," (b) "Hearing Aid Maintenance and Repairs," (c) "Learning to Come to Terms with Hearing Aids," (d) "Communication Strategies," (e) "Working With Your Clinician," and (f) "Advanced Hearing Aid Knowledge." Clinicians' opinions of the importance of each statement varied only slightly from the opinions of the hearing aid owner group. Hearing aid owners indicated that all 6 concepts were of similar importance, whereas clinicians indicated that the concept "Advanced Hearing Aid Knowledge" was significantly less important than the other 5 concepts. The results highlight the magnitude of information and skill required to optimally manage hearing aids. Clinical recommendations are made to improve hearing aid handling education and skill acquisition.

  20. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole


    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...... in CACE enhancing efficient flow of information between the tools supporting the following phases of the design process. In principle, this flow has to be two-way, and more or less automated, in order to enable the engineer to observe the propagation of the particular design decisions taken at various...... levels.The major conclusions of the paper are related with identifying the factors affecting the software tool integration in a way needed to facilitate design "inter-phase" communication. These are: standard application interfaces, dynamic data exchange mechanisms, code generation techniques and general...

  1. Diagnostic aids: the Surgical Sieve revisited. (United States)

    Chai, Jason; Evans, Lloyd; Hughes, Tom


    Diagnostic errors are well documented in the literature and emphasise the need to teach diagnostic skills at an early stage in medical school to create effective and safe clinicians. Hence, there may be a place for diagnostic aids (such as the Surgical Sieve) that provide a framework for generating ideas about diagnoses. With repeated use of the Surgical Sieve in teaching sessions with students, and prompted by the traditional handheld wheels used in antenatal clinics, we developed the Compass Medicine, a handheld diagnostic wheel comprising three concentric discs attached at the centre. We report a preliminary study comparing the Surgical Sieve and the Compass Medicine in generating differential diagnoses. A total of 48 third-year medical students from Cardiff University participated in a study aimed at measuring the efficacy of diagnostic aids (Surgical Sieve and Compass Medicine) in generating diagnoses. We quantified the effect each aid had on the number of diagnoses generated, and compared the size of the effect between the two diagnostic aids. There may be a place for diagnostic aids that provide a framework for generating ideas about diagnoses RESULTS: The study suggests that both diagnostic aids prompted users to generate a greater number of diagnoses, but there was no significant difference in the size of effect between the two diagnostic aids. We hope that our study with diagnostic aids will encourage the use of robust tools to teach medical students an easily visualised framework for diagnostic thinking. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  2. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section


    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir


    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  3. HIV/AIDS Basics (United States)

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  4. First aid kit (United States)

    ... this page: // First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  5. Poisoning first aid (United States)

    ... page: // Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...

  6. First Aid and Safety (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid & Safety Keeping your child safe is your top ... do in an emergency, how to stock a first-aid kit, where to call for help, and more. ...

  7. Head injury - first aid (United States)

    ... Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  8. Electrical Shock: First Aid (United States)

    ... using a dry, nonconducting object made of cardboard, plastic or wood. Begin CPR if the person shows ... org/first-aid/first-aid-electrical-shock/basics/art-20056695 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  9. Electrical Burns: First Aid (United States)

    ... using a dry, nonconducting object made of cardboard, plastic or wood. Begin CPR if the person shows ... org/first-aid/first-aid-electrical-burns/basics/ART-20056687 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  10. First Aid: Influenza (Flu) (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth / For Parents / First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  11. A Multi-step and Multi-level approach for Computer Aided Molecular Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A general multi-step approach for setting up, solving and solution analysis of computer aided molecular design (CAMD) problems is presented. The approach differs from previous work within the field of CAMD since it also addresses the need for a computer aided problem formulation and result analysis....... The problem formulation step incorporates a knowledge base for the identification and setup of the design criteria. Candidate compounds are identified using a multi-level generate and test CAMD solution algorithm capable of designing molecules having a high level of molecular detail. A post solution step...... using an Integrated Computer Aided System (ICAS) for result analysis and verification is included in the methodology. Keywords: CAMD, separation processes, knowledge base, molecular design, solvent selection, substitution, group contribution, property prediction, ICAS Introduction The use of Computer...

  12. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn


    . There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...... investment. We conclude by stressing the need for more theoretical work before this kind of cross-country regressions are used for policy purposes....

  13. Computer-aided cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Jones, B.


    In late 1992, the remedial investigation of operable unit 2 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Superfund site in Fernald, Ohio was in trouble. Despite years of effort--including an EPA-approved field-investigation work plan, 123 soil borings, 51 ground-water-monitoring wells, analysis of more than 650 soil and ground-water samples, and preparation of a draft remedial-investigation (RI) report--it was not possible to conclude if contaminated material in the unit was related to ground-water contamination previously detected beneath and beyond the site boundary. Compounding the problem, the schedule for the RI, feasibility study and record of decision for operable unit 2 was governed by a DOE-EPA consent agreement stipulating penalties of up to $10,000 per week for not meeting scheduled milestones--and time was running out. An advanced three-dimensional computer model confirmed that radioactive wastes dumped at the Fernald, Ohio Superfund site had contaminated ground water, after years of previous testing has been inconclusive. The system is now being used to aid feasibility and design work on the more-than-$1 billion remediation project

  14. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests. (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P


    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  15. Stroke: First Aid (United States)

    First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when blood flow to your ... cells start dying. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...

  16. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.


    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  17. To reiterate the concept of self-aid and buddy-aid for combat wounded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-jie HE


    Full Text Available Explore new concept of self-aid and buddy-aid for combat wounded based on the emergency timeliness and the challenges we are going to face in the future combats, the importance of self-aid, buddy-aid and rescue are discussed. The concept and characteristics of self-aid and buddy-aid in our army are reviewed, and the care of the wounded in foreign armies were reviewed. Based on the experiences gained from previous combats, and the results of "Medical Service Mission-2014 Drill", it was believed that the emergency rescue of battle wounded should follow the timeliness rule and the principle of self-aid and buddy-aid technology. It might be beneficial to use cell protective agent, urgent relief of life-threatening conditions such as profuse bleeding from extremities, suffocation, pneumothorax, and traumatic shock etc., in order to stabilize the general condition of the wounded, according to the regime of "Platinum 10 minutes" and "golden 1 hour", self-aid and buddy-aid might play an important role in preventing early death and late morbidity of the wounded, thus helps reduce the mortality rate or the victims of combat wounds. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.11.01

  18. Evaluating aid effectiveness in the aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    The purpose of the present evaluation study is to discuss influential empirical studies that attempt to estimate the impact of foreign aid on economic growth. The study draws on a previous evaluation study, which introduces the general econometric methodology involved in making assessments about...... the aggregate impact of aid (Dalgaard and Hansen, 2009). With point of departure in this study the present report gives a critical assessment of the empirical literature on the topic....

  19. Why foreign aid fails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopijević Miroslav


    Full Text Available The main point of this paper is that foreign aid fails because the structure of its incentives resembles that of central planning. Aid is not only ineffective, it is arguably counterproductive. Contrary to business firms that are paid by those they are supposed to serve (customers, aid agencies are paid by tax payers of developed countries and not by those they serve. This inverse structure of incentives breaks the stream of pressure that exists on the commercial market. It also creates larger loopholes in the principle-agent relationship on each point along the chain of aid delivery. Both factors enhance corruption, moral hazard and negative selection. Instead of promoting development, aid extends the life of bad institutions and those in power. Proposals to reform foreign aid – like aid privatization and aid conditionality – do not change the existing structure of the incentives in aid delivery, and their implementation may just slightly improve aid efficacy. Larger improvement is not possible. For that reason, foreign aid will continue to be a waste of resources, probably serving some objectives different to those that are usually mentioned, like recipient’s development poverty reduction and pain relief.

  20. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  1. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the determinants...... of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  2. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn


    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid...

  3. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    This paper considers the relationship between external aid and development in Mozambique from 1980 to 2004. The main objective is to identify the specific mechanisms through which aid has influenced the developmental trajectory of the country and whether one can plausibly link outcomes to aid...... inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  4. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures. (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael


    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  5. Fractures (Broken Bones): First Aid (United States)

    First aid Fractures (broken bones) Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fracture is a ... 10, 2018 Original article: . Mayo Clinic ...

  6. How much do parents know about first aid for burns? (United States)

    Davies, M; Maguire, S; Okolie, C; Watkins, W; Kemp, A M


    Prompt first aid reduces burn morbidity. With an estimated 19,000 children attending emergency departments (ED) with a burn or scald every year in the UK, a parent's knowledge of first aid is particularly important. This study evaluates the extent and source of this knowledge. Parents attending the emergency and antenatal departments of a University Hospital answered a structured questionnaire detailing demographics, knowledge of burns first aid and its source. Knowledge was stratified into 4 categories: contraindicated, poor, inadequate and adequate. Individual chi-squared tests and ordered logistic regressions were performed to relate knowledge to demographic features. The 106 respondents (44% men) reflected a wide range of socio-economic (SE) grouping and educational level. Overall 32% had an adequate knowledge of burns first aid while 43% had poor or no knowledge. There was no significant correlation between gender, educational status or age and knowledge; however those from higher SE groups (pfirst aid training (pfirst aid training, 74% had adequate knowledge. The logistic regression accounting for all significant variables showed that previous first aid training was the most influential factor in knowledge of first aid (pfirst-aid knowledge. Overall, the knowledge of burns first aid among parents is inadequate and correlates with lower SE groups. There was a significant association between knowledge and previous first aid training. Results suggest that targeting burns first aid training to all new parents, particularly those in low income households, would be of value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone


    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  8. AIDS: the global challenge. (United States)

    Mann, J


    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a worldwide epidemic that affects all countries, developing and industrialized. The impacts of AIDS range from social, cultural, psychological to the economic and political. The World Health Organization (WHO) has mobilized international and national interest and resources to work on AIDS control and prevention. AIDS spreads in 3 ways mother to child, through blood, and sexually. Screening blood supplies can prevent the spread of AIDS. In 1987, 105 countries reported 49,132 cases to WHO, and estimated indicated over 100,000 cases. WHO estimate that by 1991 there will be over 1 million cases worldwide. Infant mortality rates due to AIDS may be 10-20/1000 births where 10% of pregnant women are infected. Homosexual, or bisexual men and intravenous drug users from 20 to 49 year old make up most of the cases of AIDS in North and South America, Europe, and Australia. It is estimated that Africa has over 1 million AIDS infected people but accurate counts are not available. There have been a small number of cases reported in Asia, and most of these have resulted from contaminated blood. It is currently estimated that 10- 30% of HIV infected persons will develop AIDS, and 25-50% will develop an AIDS related disease within 5 years. The majority of HIV infected persons will develop AIDS within 10 years and the rest, AIDS related diseases. The cost of a patient can run for $50,000-150,000 in direct medical care in industrialized countries. Since most of the people infected are from 20-49 years of age, their most productive years, a country's social and economic development is threatened. Education is presently the only way to prevent the spread of AIDS, and therefore all governments, as well as health and medical professional must make a extraordinary commitment.

  9. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  10. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  11. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy. (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K


    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  12. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses. (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.


    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  13. Representing AIDS in Comics. (United States)

    Czerwiec, M K


    Matthew P. McAllister wrote: "Comic books can and have contributed positively to the discourse about AIDS: images that encourage true education, understanding and compassion can help cope with a biomedical condition which has more than a biomedical relevance" [1]. With this in mind, I combined a 23-narrator oral history and my personal memoir about an inpatient Chicago AIDS hospital unit in my book, Taking Turns: Stories from HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371. In doing so, I built upon the existing rich history of HIV/AIDS in comics, which this article will briefly describe. Although not a comprehensive review of the intersection of AIDS and comics, the book is a tour through influences that proved useful to me. In addition, in making my book, I faced a distinct ethical issue with regard to representing patient experiences with HIV/AIDS, and I describe here how I addressed it. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  15. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B


    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  16. Radiographic imaging of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mohammed Bashir


    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists

  17. AIDS in South Africa. (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H


    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  18. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context


    Ruf, Alexander


    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  19. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section]. (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir


    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  20. Music and Hearing Aids (United States)

    Moore, Brian C. J.


    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  1. Music and Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. K. Madsen


    Full Text Available The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  2. Music and hearing aids. (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J


    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. AIDS is your business. (United States)

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M


    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense.

  4. computer-aided root aided root aided root aided root-locus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    equation are the same as the poles of the close loop system. Ideally, a desired performance can be achieved a control system by adjusting the location of roots in the s-plane by varying one or mo system parameters. Root-locus Method is a line. 8023278605. AIDED ROOT. AIDED ROOT-LOCUS NUMERICAL TECHNIQUE.

  5. First Aid: Warts (United States)

    ... Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid: Warts ... / First Aid: Warts Print Warts are common skin infections that can affect any area of the body, ...

  6. Neurological Complications of AIDS (United States)

    ... Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Patient Organizations amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research 120 Wall Street 13th Floor New York NY New York, ... Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Patient Organizations amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research 120 Wall Street 13th Floor New York NY New York, ...

  7. AIDS Epidemiological models (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar


    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  8. AIDS and economic disruption. (United States)

    Johnson, G S


    Child and adult mortality increases in Cameroon due to AIDS will cause life expectancy to fall by as many as 8 years, from just over 50 to just over 40 years. The social consequences of AIDS include grieving, stigmatizing, and the large-scale disruption of family and community structures. Widows and widowers due to AIDS mortality are affected differently from each other, with the widows of men who have died from AIDS facing potential sociocultural and economic hardship. The economic consequences of AIDS in Bamenda and elsewhere in Cameroon will occur mainly through the epidemic's impact upon the size and quality of the labor force. By killing a significant number of male and female workers aged 15-60 years, AIDS will reduce the size and growth rate of the labor force. Despite, rapid population growth, labor is a relatively scarce factor of agricultural production in Cameroon. The spread of HIV in rural areas, combined with the intensity and scarcity of agricultural labor, suggests that AIDS will have an impact upon production and per capita incomes, and increase the already high rates of hunger and absolute poverty. In the context of HIV/AIDS, young people must be empowered to make informed decisions about sex. Adolescents are most at risk because they tend to experiment more than married couples and have many sex partners. Sexual activity begins as early as age 8 years and penetrative sex at age 13 or earlier. The author considers the factors which encourage adolescents to engage in sexual activities.

  9. [Oral lymphomas in AIDS]. (United States)

    Llanes, F; López, G; Asenjo, J A; Martín, C


    We present two cases of AIDS in drug-addicts, with mouth lymphoma. The diagnosis was established by a gum biopsy which gave high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma lymphoblastic "B" type. It is very rare that the oral mucous is affected by lymphomas, but in AIDS and immunodeficiencies it is more common.

  10. First Aid: Croup (United States)

    ... Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid: Croup KidsHealth / For Parents / First Aid: Croup Print Croup is a viral infection in the upper airway, around the vocal ...

  11. HIV and AIDS (United States)

    ... one HIV test by the time they are teens. If you are having sex, have had sex in the past, or shared ... reviewed: October 2015 More on this topic for: ... Get AIDS? Can You Get HIV From Having Sex With Someone Who Has AIDS? View more Partner ...

  12. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer


    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i) sign...

  13. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn


    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  14. Puppetry and AIDS education. (United States)

    Friedman, G


    The effectiveness of puppet theater in communicating information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been demonstrated in a project launched in 1988 by the African Research and Education Puppetry Program (AREPP). Puppetry is a vital part of the Bambara, Bozo, and Yoruba cultures. "Puppets Against AIDS" tells the story of a condom refuser who transmits the AIDS virus to his wife and their infant. An evaluation conducted by social epidemiologists in 1989 found the production to be comprehensive in its educational messages and effective in contributing to the audiences' knowledge and intended behavioral changes. A discussion period follows the production. The show was subsequently incorporated into an existing community-based AIDS education program. Because AIDS touches upon sensitive and often taboo areas of social life, the dissemination of information through puppets is not perceived as threatening as interpersonal interaction.

  15. Implementing AIDS Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace C. Huerta


    Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.

  16. HIV-induced immunodeficiency and mortality from AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Abrams, Donald; Pradier, Christian


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate deaths from AIDS-defining malignancies (ADM) and non-AIDS-defining malignancies (nADM) in the D:A:D Study and to investigate the relationship between these deaths and immunodeficiency. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: Patients (23 437) were followed prospectively......-fold higher latest CD4 cell count was associated with a halving of the risk of ADM mortality. Other predictors of an increased risk of ADM mortality were homosexual risk group, older age, a previous (non-malignancy) AIDS diagnosis and earlier calendar years. Predictors of an increased risk of nADM mortality...

  17. Books average previous decade of economic misery. (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios


    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  18. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev


    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  19. Genome-wide erasure of DNA methylation in mouse primordial germ cells is affected by AID deficiency. (United States)

    Popp, Christian; Dean, Wendy; Feng, Suhua; Cokus, Shawn J; Andrews, Simon; Pellegrini, Matteo; Jacobsen, Steven E; Reik, Wolf


    Epigenetic reprogramming including demethylation of DNA occurs in mammalian primordial germ cells (PGCs) and in early embryos, and is important for the erasure of imprints and epimutations, and the return to pluripotency. The extent of this reprogramming and its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We previously showed that the cytidine deaminases AID and APOBEC1 can deaminate 5-methylcytosine in vitro and in Escherichia coli, and in the mouse are expressed in tissues in which demethylation occurs. Here we profiled DNA methylation throughout the genome by unbiased bisulphite next generation sequencing in wild-type and AID-deficient mouse PGCs at embryonic day (E)13.5. Wild-type PGCs revealed marked genome-wide erasure of methylation to a level below that of methylation deficient (Np95(-/-), also called Uhrf1(-/-)) embryonic stem cells, with female PGCs being less methylated than male ones. By contrast, AID-deficient PGCs were up to three times more methylated than wild-type ones; this substantial difference occurred throughout the genome, with introns, intergenic regions and transposons being relatively more methylated than exons. Relative hypermethylation in AID-deficient PGCs was confirmed by analysis of individual loci in the genome. Our results reveal that erasure of DNA methylation in the germ line is a global process, hence limiting the potential for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. AID deficiency interferes with genome-wide erasure of DNA methylation patterns, indicating that AID has a critical function in epigenetic reprogramming and potentially in restricting the inheritance of epimutations in mammals.

  20. Zimbabwe's national AIDS levy: A case study. (United States)

    Bhat, Nisha; Kilmarx, Peter H; Dube, Freeman; Manenji, Albert; Dube, Medelina; Magure, Tapuwa


    We conducted a case study of the Zimbabwe National AIDS Trust Fund ('AIDS Levy') as an approach to domestic government financing of the response to HIV and AIDS. Data came from three sources: a literature review, including a search for grey literature, review of government documents from the Zimbabwe National AIDS Council (NAC), and key informant interviews with representatives of the Zimbabwean government, civil society and international organizations. The literature search yielded 139 sources, and 20 key informants were interviewed. Established by legislation in 1999, the AIDS Levy entails a 3% income tax for individuals and 3% tax on profits of employers and trusts (which excluded the mining industry until 2015). It is managed by the parastatal NAC through a decentralized structure of AIDS Action Committees. Revenues increased from inception to 2006 through 2008, a period of economic instability and hyperinflation. Following dollarization in 2009, annual revenues continued to increase, reaching US$38.6 million in 2014. By policy, at least 50% of funds are used for purchase of antiretroviral medications. Other spending includes administration and capital costs, HIV prevention, and monitoring and evaluation. Several financial controls and auditing systems are in place. Key informants perceived the AIDS Levy as a 'homegrown' solution that provided country ownership and reduced dependence on donor funding, but called for further increased transparency, accountability, and reduced administrative costs, as well as recommended changes to increase revenue. The Zimbabwe AIDS Levy has generated substantial resources, recently over US$35 million per year, and signals an important commitment by Zimbabweans, which may have helped attract other donor resources. Many key informants considered the Zimbabwe AIDS Levy to be a best practice for other countries to follow.


    Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala


    Worldwide, there is a consensus that parents must be involved in children's HIV/AIDS education. However, there is little evidence that speaks to this advocacy for improving adolescent health. This study developed and tested four hypotheses about (i) the relationship between parents' and adolescents' knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission routes and prevention strategies conditional upon (ii) parents' gender, (iii) communication about sexuality, and (iv) the parent-adolescent education gap. The sample consisted of 306 parent-adolescent dyads from the 2002 Cameroon Family and Health Survey. Adolescents were aged 12-19 years. Overall, fifteen items about HIV/AIDS transmission routes and prevention strategies were analysed. Descriptive results showed that parents fared better than adolescents regardless of the AIDS fact considered. An exception was the correct use of condoms (parents 57% vs adolescents 61%). The generation gap probably explains this result: parents are more conservative, reluctant and distant from condoms compared with adolescents, who are more receptive and open to discussing sex with peers. Multivariate ordered logistic regressions showed a significant positive effect of parents' HIV/AIDS knowledge on adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge, thus supporting the main hypothesis of direct parental influences. Parent-adolescent communication about sexuality showed positive and significant effects on adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge, suggesting an 'enhancing effect' when combined with the effect of parents' HIV/AIDS knowledge. Against the background that parents in sub-Saharan Africa do not teach their children about sexuality, the study demonstrated that families can play an important role in HIV/AIDS education. These findings have major implications for HIV/AIDS interventions involving adolescents, parents or both, in fostering accurate HIV/AIDS knowledge among adolescents, which could lead to protective sexual behaviours.

  2. Capability of satellite-aided ballistic capture (United States)

    Luo, Z.-F.; Topputo, F.


    In this paper we study a special instance of ballistic capture dynamics: the case in which the capture orbit about a planet experiences a close passage to one or more of its natural satellites. The capability of the satellites in improving ballistic capture is assessed. The dynamical framework considers at least the gravitational attractions of the Sun, the planet, and its satellites, all acting on a massless particle. The effect of the satellites is introduced explicitly by modifying a previously developed method, which relies on three-dimensional stable sets and n-body dynamics with precise ephemeris. Once a stability criterium is defined, initial conditions defined over a computational grid are integrated forward and backward. This allows us to classify orbits into different sets. Ballistic capture orbits with prescribed features are generated by manipulating these sets. Two indices, namely the hyperbolic velocity and the stability index, are used to assess the performance of pre- and post-capture portions, respectively. A Pareto frontier is used to extract orbits of practical interest. Case studies are performed in the context of Earth and Jupiter environments. Comparing to the situation with no moons, the satellite-aided ballistic capture can evidently increase the pre-capture energy and post-capture stability, so making it possible to have permanent capture of a particle at zero-cost. This is a desirable feature in mission design.

  3. HIV / AIDS and tourism. (United States)

    Forsythe, S


    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways.

  4. Osseous involvement in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, Edson; Pereira, Abercio Arantes


    The radiological findings of eight patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who developed bone lesions were analyzed in conjunction with twelve similar published cases. Our series included three patients with lymphoma, two with bacillary angiomatosis, two with tuberculosis and one with staphylococcal osteomyelitis. All the lesions were lithic regardless of the etiology. Both in our cases and in those previously published bone repair was only seen in cases of bacillary angiomatosis treated with erythromycin. No pathognomonic findings were observed. However, the association of skin and bone lesions in immuno deficient patients should always bring the consideration of bacillary angiomatosis in the differential diagnosis. This is particularly relevant since this a condition amenable to treatment once correctly identified. The radiological findings in the lymphoma and tuberculosis patients have not been described previously. (author). 9 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  5. HIV, AIDS, and the Future (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  6. Women and HIV/AIDS (United States)

    ... AIDS email updates Enter email Submit HIV and AIDS The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a sexually ... health Pregnancy and HIV View more HIV and AIDS resources Related information Birth control methods Caregiver stress ...

  7. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden (United States)

    ... of Minority Research at the NIH Office of AIDS Research (OAR). Of adults and adolescents diagnosed with AIDS ... Dr. Victoria Cargill of the NIH Office of AIDS Research. Summer 2009 Issue: Volume 4 Number 3 Pages ...

  8. Negative stereotypes examined through the HIV and AIDS discourse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies reporting perceptions of HIV and AIDS by white youth in South Africa suggest both explicit and implicit racial stereotypes and negative attitudes. This paper contributes to the literature on the discourse of racial stereotypes found in discussions about HIV and AIDS. The study was conducted in the suburb of ...

  9. Macroeconomic Impact of HIV and AIDS on the Zimbabwean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zimbabwe is one of the countries severely affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The high prevalence of the disease is not only a health problem but has become an economic problem, yet little effort had previously been directed at establishing the exact magnitude of HIV/AIDS' economic impact. Using a human capital ...

  10. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.


    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  11. Hearing Aid and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Fatahi


    Full Text Available In order to develop oral communication, hearing impaired infants and young children must be able to hear speech comfortably and consistently. To day children with all degrees of hearing loss may be condidates for some kinds of amlification. As children differ from adults, many Factors should be consider in hearing aid selection, evaluation and fitting. For example the child age when he or she is candidate for custom instruments? Do we consider programmable Hearing aid? Are multi memory instruments appropriate for them? What about directional microphones? What style of hearing aid do we select? In this paper such questions are Answered.

  12. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh


    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  13. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  14. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR. (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian


    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  15. Aiding Violence or Peace? The Impact of Foreign Aid on the Risk of Civil Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ree, J.; Nillesen, E.


    This paper considers the impact of foreign aid on the risk of civil conflict. Previous studies on this topic have not properly addressed the problem of endogeneity between aid and conflict as well as the distorting influences of country specific time invariant effects. We propose GDP levels of donor

  16. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.


    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  17. HIV/AIDS (United States)

    ... pain Fatigue HIV/AIDS Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  18. HIV/AIDS (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  19. Toothache: First Aid (United States)

    ... 2017. What causes a toothache? Academy of General Dentistry. Accessed Oct. 5, 2017. FDA drug safety communication: Reports of a rare, but serious and potentially ...

  20. First Aid Tips (United States)

    ... Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI for Kids » First Aid Tips Listen All About Vision About the Eye ...

  1. Choking: First Aid (United States)

    ... the Heimlich maneuver and CPR in a certified first-aid training course. Choking (Heimlich maneuver). American College of Emergency ... and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved.

  2. Types of Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... certain situations (for example, background noise and whistle reduction). They also have greater flexibility in hearing aid programming so that the sound they transmit can be matched to the needs ...

  3. HIV/AIDS (United States)

    ... first signs of HIV infection Diarrhea Weight loss Oral yeast infection (thrush) Shingles (herpes zoster) Progression to AIDS Thanks ... eyes, digestive tract, lungs or other organs. Candidiasis. Candidiasis ... tongue, esophagus or vagina. Cryptococcal meningitis. Meningitis is ...

  4. House OK's Russian aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothstein, L.


    This article discusses the 2.5 Billion dollar aid package to Russia which House Appropriations Foreign Operations Subcommittee Chairman David Obey successfully defended on the House floor last June. Arizona Republican Jon Kyl offered an admendment that would cut 700 million from the package and was defeated with a 118 to 140 vote. The bill is currently in the hands of the Senate. The controversy over the bill and details concerning the aid package are discussed. The aid deal includes 250 million dollars for nuclear reactor safety and energy as well as environmental technical assistance, 655 million dollars to aid private sector development, and 704 million dollars for additional technical and economic assistance

  5. Foreign Aid Explorer) (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  6. Drug abuse first aid (United States)

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  7. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest...... is crowded out by a fall in savings. Studies of the effect on growth show an insignificant positive effect. Studies of the effect on growth, conditional on something else, have till now shown weak results. The Dutch Disease effect of aid has been ignored. The best aggregate estimate is that since its start...... in the early 1960s aid has increased the standard of living in the poor countries by 20%....

  8. AidData (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AidData is a research and innovation lab making information on development finance more accessible and actionable. Tracking more than $6 trillion dollars from 90+...

  9. Hearing aid adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko


    to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem is the way...... in which the hearing aid user’s implicit and often unrealistic expectations are handled. This kind of research has potential application for developing a model of best practices....

  10. AIDS in Africa. (United States)

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S


    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khan


    Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is increasingly becoming a major public health problem in our country. Currently, the reported cases represent only the 'tip of the iceberg' of the problem. In view of the fact that no cure or vaccine for the disease has yet been found, spreading knowledge and removing misconceptions is about the only way that AIDS can be effectively tackled.This handbook, developed by Prof. Shankar Chowdhury and associates, seeks to address all levels of medical and non-medical AIDS workers, as well as the layman. It deals with topics ranging from biology of the virus, symptoms and transmission of disease, to prevention, counselling for infected persons and action plan for AIDS education.The biology of the virus and the immune system is described in simple terms, as well as methods of testing for HIV, and what these test results mean. The progression of disease in adults and children, development of symptoms, diagnostic criteria for AIDS, treatment and outcome of disease is dealt with. How AIDS spreads between people, and the health risk for health workers and families is examined. The various ways in which transmission of HIV can be prevented is looked at in detail, including public health measures, national and internatonal action, and ethical and human rights issues involved.

  12. The First Aid Training Picture. (United States)

    Moore, Ian


    Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

  13. Mommy, Daddy--What's AIDS? (United States)

    National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.

    This brochure is designed to help parents answer the questions that their children may ask them about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It provides basic information about AIDS and HIV, as well as sources for further information, such as the National AIDS Hotline. It…

  14. Assisting Older Persons With Adjusting to Hearing Aids. (United States)

    Lane, Kari R; Clark, M Kathleen


    This intervention study tested the feasibility and initial effect of Hearing Aid Reintroduction (HEAR) to assist persons aged 70 to 85 years adjust to hearing aids. Following this 30-day intervention, hearing aid use increased between 1 and 8 hr per day with 50% of participants able to wear them for at least 4 hr. Hearing aid satisfaction improved from not satisfied to satisfied overall. The study demonstrated that HEAR is feasible and could improve hearing aid use of a substantial number of older persons who had previously failed to adjust to their hearing aids and had given up. However, further testing among a larger and more diverse population is needed to better understand the effectiveness and sustainability of the intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. A Multimodal Communication Aid for Global Aphasia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Dalsgaard, Paul; Lindberg, Børge


    seldom have identical symptoms, the focus of this paper is placed on the development of a highly dedicated communication aid adaptive to the individual patients’ needs. The paper investigates whether or not such a highly dedicated communication aid based on multimodal representations of communicative......This paper presents the basic rationale behind the development and testing of a multimodal communication aid especially designed for people suffering from global aphasia, and thus having severe expressive difficulties. The principle of the aid is to trigger patient associations by presenting...... various multimodal representations of communicative expressions. The aid can in this way be seen as a conceptual continuation of previous research within the field of communication aids based on uni-modal (pictorial) representations of communicative expressions. As patients suffering from global aphasia...

  16. [AIDS: "We will win"]. (United States)

    Chabrier, H


    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood.

  17. Women and AIDS: introduction. (United States)

    Krieger, N; Margo, G


    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  18. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen


    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  19. Factors associated with success with hearing aids in older adults. (United States)

    Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly; Lovelock, Karen; Lampert, Michelle; Khan, Asad


    To examine associations between audiological and non-audiological factors and successful hearing aid use in older adults. In a retrospective study, audiological factors, attitudinal beliefs (as derived from the health belief model), client demographics, psychological factors, and age-related factors were evaluated. Participants included 160 individuals, 60 years or older, with unilateral or bilateral hearing impairment (HI), fitted with hearing aids for the first time in the previous two years. Participants were assigned to either an unsuccessful hearing aid owner group (n=75) or a successful hearing aid owner group (n=85) based on their self-reported hearing aid use and benefit. A multivariate, binomial logistic regression model indicated five factors associated with group membership: participants who had greater support from significant others; more difficulties with hearing and communication in everyday life before getting hearing aids; more positive attitudes to hearing aids; coupled with greater perceived self-efficacy for advanced handling of hearing aids; or who were receiving more gain from their devices; were more likely to be successful hearing aid owners. These findings highlight the importance of addressing non-audiological factors in order to assist older adults achieve success with hearing aids.

  20. Doing well with AIDS: three case illustrations. (United States)

    Kendall, J; Gloersen, B; Gray, P; McConnell, S; Turner, J; West, J


    This report focuses on the abilities of three people diagnosed with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) to maximize their state of well-being. The purpose of this ongoing investigation is to identify factors that may help enhance AIDS patients' states of well-being, ultimately achieving the provision of holistic and life-giving nursing care. A naturalistic approach was used to generate an understanding of the concept, "doing well." Five themes regarding "doing well" with AIDS emerged from the interview data. These themes include: autonomy/mastery over the disease; existential/spiritual journey toward understanding; self-acceptance; staying active and involved; and positive thinking. Nursing implications of these themes are discussed.

  1. Computer Aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Conte, Elisa; Abildskov, Jens

    and computer-aided tools and methods for property prediction and computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) principles. This framework is applicable for solvent selection and design in product design as well as process design. The first module of the framework is dedicated to the solvent selection and design...... in terms of: physical and chemical properties (solvent-pure properties); Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) characteristic (solvent-EHS properties); operational properties (solvent–solute properties). 3. Performing the search. The search step consists of two stages. The first is a generation and property...... identification of solvent candidates using special software ProCAMD and ProPred, which are the implementations of computer-aided molecular techniques. The second consists of assigning the RS-indices following the reaction–solvent and then consulting the known solvent database and identifying the set of solvents...

  2. Early AIDS dementia complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountz, J.M.; Speed, N.M.; Adams, K.; Schwartz, J.A.; Gross, M.D.; Ostrow, D.G.


    A frequent complication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is AIDS dementia complex (ADC). The authors evaluated seven patients with AIDS (aged 28-55 years, all male) for ADC by psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, CT scanning, and IMP-SPECT. Six of seven patients exhibited cognitive or behavioral abnormalities. Neuropsychological testing showed general deficits but no cases of explicit dementia. SPECT showed marked abnormalities in two cases: posterior temporal-parietal diminution of tracer uptake in one case (posterior/anterior=0.81) and marked right/left subcortical asymmetry (1.17) in the other. In three additional cases there was asymmetric tracer uptake in the subcortical and parietal regions. CT findings were normal in all seven cases. The authors conclude that functional imaging with the use of IMP-SPECT may be a useful method to follow ADC progression and response to therapy

  3. Aids : A Rampant Intruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Chandra


    Full Text Available The HIV/AIDS epidemic represents the most serious public health problem in India. There is no denial of the enormity of the problem. The prevalence of infection in all parts of the world highlights the spread from urban to rural areas and from high risk to general population. It is esti­mated that as on end of year 2004, 39.4 million people were infected with the virus. Migration of labour, low lit­eracy levels leading to low awareness, gender disparities, prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and reproduc­tive tract infections are some of the factors attributed to the spread of HIV/AIDS.4.9 million ( 4.3 million - 6.4 million people have aquired HIV infection only in one year of span - 2004. The global AIDS epidemic killed 3.1 million ( 2,8 million- 3.5 million people in the past year.

  4. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between ...... substantial heterogeneity between countries. There is also good evidence that donor behaviour continues to evolve over time. As such, past trends in aid supplies are unlikely to provide a good guide to those of the future....

  5. Acute abdomen in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.


    The CT scans of 80 patients with both AIDS and acute abdominal pain were reviewed. CT identifiable causes of pain included perforation (four); colitides (15); septic infarctions (six); abscesses (10); bowel obstruction due to tumor (four); ascending cholangitis (two); enterovesical fistula (one); and sacral osteomyelitis (one). CT affected management in 40% of patients by narrowing diagnostic possibilities, triaging between surgical versus nonsurgical emergencies, and directing diagnostic procedures. CT was an expeditious triage modality for evaluating the critically ill patient with AIDS and acute abdominal pain

  6. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel


    What determines how much foreign aid donors provide? Existing answers to this question point to a complex range of influences. However, the tasks of distinguishing between long- and short-run factors, as well as differences between donors, have not been adequately addressed. Taking advantage...... of data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...

  7. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand


    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper......, an interactive personalization system based on Gaussian process regression and active learning is proposed, which personalize the hearing aids based directly on what the user perceives. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant difference between a truly personalized setting obtained with the proposed system...

  8. Pulmonary manifestation of AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, U.; Dinkel, E.; Laaff, H.; Wuertemberger, G.; Senn, H.; Vaith, P.; Kroepelin, T.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.


    We reviewed retrospectively the clinical records of 28 patients with AIDS staged group IV according to CDC-criteria. Among these, 19 had pulmonary disease: most of them (n=17) had pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (Pcp). 12/17 patients with proven Pcp displayed typical X-ray findings with diffuse perihilar interstitial infiltration sparing lung periphery. 3/17 had atypical features and 2 normal chest x-ray findings. These data are important to identify patients with pulmonary complications of AIDS. (orig.) [de

  9. Computerized operator decision aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, A.B.


    This article explores the potential benefits associated with the use of computers in nuclear plants by the operating crew as an aid in making decisions. Pertinent findings are presented from recently completed projects to establish the context in which operating decisions have to be made. Key factors influencing the decision-making process itself are also identified. Safety parameter display systems, which are being implemented in various forms by the nuclear industry, are described within the context of decision making. In addition, relevant worldwide research and development activities are examined as potential enhancements to computerized operator decision aids to further improve plant safety and availability

  10. Financial Aid Policy: Lessons from Research. NBER Working Paper No. 18710 (United States)

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith


    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. The increasing size and complexity of the nation's student aid system has generated questions about…

  11. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict


    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua


    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  12. Computer-Aided Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    . In this contribution, the concept of template-based modeling is presented and application is highlighted for the specific case of catalytic membrane fixed bed models. The modeling template is integrated in a generic computer-aided modeling framework. Furthermore, modeling templates enable the idea of model reuse...... with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene, and, for the performance evaluation of an atomizer product. In the first case study, the reactor type is where the reactions are thermodynamically limited......, such as, steam reforming and the production of olefins from inexpensive paraffins via dehydrogenation. The generated process model is based on Fickian diffusion model, which is the most widely used to account for the intraparticle mass transfer resistance. The model of the process can help to predict...

  13. The AIDS dilemma: drug diseases blamed on a passenger virus. (United States)

    Duesberg, P; Rasnick, D


    Almost two decades of unprecedented efforts in research costing US taxpayers over $50 billion have failed to defeat Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and have failed to explain the chronology and epidemiology of AIDS in America and Europe. The failure to cure AIDS is so complete that the largest American AIDS foundation is even exploiting it for fundraising: 'Latest AIDS statistics-0,000,000 cured. Support a cure, support AMFAR.' The scientific basis of all these unsuccessful efforts has been the hypothesis that AIDS is caused by a sexually transmitted virus, termed Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and that this viral immunodeficiency manifests in 30 previously known microbial and non-microbial AIDS diseases. In order to develop a hypothesis that explains AIDS we have considered ten relevant facts that American and European AIDS patients have, and do not have, in common: (1) AIDS is not contagious. For example, not even one health care worker has contracted AIDS from over 800,000 AIDS patients in America and Europe. (2) AIDS is highly non-random with regard to sex (86% male); sexual persuasion (over 60% homosexual); and age (85% are 25-49 years old). (3) From its beginning in 1980, the AIDS epidemic progressed non-exponentially, just like lifestyle diseases. (4) The epidemic is fragmented into distinct subepidemics with exclusive AIDS-defining diseases. For example, only homosexual males have Kaposi's sarcoma. (5) Patients do not have any one of 30 AIDS-defining diseases, nor even immunodeficiency, in common. For example, Kaposi's sarcoma, dementia, and weight loss may occur without immunodeficiency. Thus, there is no AIDS-specific disease. (6) AIDS patients have antibody against HIV in common only by definition-not by natural coincidence. AIDS-defining diseases of HIV-free patients are called by their old names. (7) Recreational drug use is a common denominator for over 95% of all American and European AIDS patients, including male homosexuals. (8

  14. The origins of AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepin, Jacques


    ... urbanisation, prostitution and large-scale colonial medical campaigns intended to eradicate tropical diseases combined to disastrous effect to fuel the spread of the virus from its origins in Léopoldville to the rest of Africa, the Caribbean and ultimately worldwide. This is an essential new perspective on HIV/ AIDS and on the lessons that must be learned if we are to avoi...

  15. Machine Aids to Translation. (United States)

    Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz


    Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

  16. Enteric parasites and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Cimerman


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the importance of intestinal parasites in patients with AIDS, showing relevant data in the medical literature, with special emphasis on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of enteroparasitosis, especially cryptosporidiasis, isosporiasis, microsporidiasis and strongyloidiasis. DESIGN: Narrative review.

  17. Agglomeration and aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)


    textabstractA key issue in development economics is the explanation of core-periphery patterns around the world. Combining this issue with that of analyzing unilateral transfers (e.g. foreign aid) points in the direction of the use of New Economic Geography (NEG) models which, so far, has not been

  18. 1 HIV AND AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    It presents a situation analysis for HIV/AIDS infection including a range of prevention and treatment activities. The spread of the infection and disease would have damaging consequences if not controlled. The country's experience suggests that there are certain aspects of this development problem which require urgent and ...

  19. First Aid Challenge (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  20. More than First Aid (United States)

    Schoessler, Sally


    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  1. Gender, HIV and AIDS. (United States)

    Vlassoff, C


    Gender refers to differences in behavior, cultural expectations, and the social roles of males and females within particular social structures. A gender approach to health and illness includes not only biological aspects, but also the social, cultural, and economic contexts of those affected. A gender approach to the impact of HIV and AIDS therefore must take into account female and male roles in terms of factors which affect the risk of exposure and infection, responsibility for preventive actions, responsibility for caring for people with AIDS, and access to health care and treatment. A gender analysis of health is concerned with the well-being of individuals as human beings with personal needs, priorities, and preferences within the context of everyday experience. The gender and tropical diseases framework incorporates the three following principal dimensions: economic/production, social reproduction, and personal. This framework applies to the impact of HIV and AIDS on men and women as described in the case presented in the text of a man and woman in Africa infected with HIV. The man became ill with what clinically appeared to be AIDS. He refused, however, to have his blood tested for the presence of antibodies to HIV and would not tell anyone, especially his family, about his condition. The ongoing illness crippled the man and his family financially, and ultimately killed him. After his death, his wife was confirmed HIV-seropositive. She now travels by bus to work and lies in bed despondent at night.

  2. CitizenAID. (United States)


    CitizenAID is an easy-to-use app that informs users how to provide care in mass casualty situations, including shootings, knife attacks and bomb incidents. The authors are well known and respected specialists in trauma care and disaster management.

  3. Computer aided design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barache, J.M.; Beltranda, G.; Blanc, P.


    In order to ensure that the data transmitted to the managment system is of the required quality and consistent with the general control command protocols, computer aided design (CAD) was employed for level N4. One describes the use of CAD for the control system of N4 [fr

  4. AIDS, haemophiliacs and, Haitians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    19 Feb 1983 ... Vieira er at. hint that cytomegalovirus (CMV) might have played a part in the immunosuppression, and there have been other reports of CMV infection preceding disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma, another manifestation of. AIDS in homosexual men in San Francisco. In this series, reported by Drew er al., 5 all ...

  5. Performance Aided Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario


    in the design process, and use it as a source of inspiration for developing unique, innovative, adapted to the context design solutions. The paper will describe the roots of Performance Aided Design, the outline of its development, and the tools being developed as plugin for Grasshopper, the parametric design...

  6. Leishmaniasis and AIDS coinfection* (United States)

    Hozannah, Adriana; Santos, Monica; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Talhari, Carolina


    Cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection has been reported in Brazil since the initial description of AIDS in the country. We report an HIV-positive patient under antiretroviral treatment who presented with cutaneous leishmaniasis which was successfully treated with meglumine antimoniate. PMID:24474115

  7. Fighting AIDS with evidence

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    In South Africa's health system, basic informa- tion on patients' health status and treatment history is not routinely captured in the form of patient profiles. This poses risks ... slums that ring South Africa's cities. This leaves the poorest and most AIDS-affected popula- tions with limited access to transportation to treatment sites.

  8. The origins of AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepin, Jacques


    ... of tropical diseases interconnected to fuel the communication of HIV-1 in the 1960s, as the country struggled to adapt to its newfound independence. With a unique synthesis of historical, political and medical elements, this book adds a coherent and necessary historical perspective to recent molecular studies of the chronology of the HIV/AIDS pandemic"--Provided by publisher.

  9. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences (United States)

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard


    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  10. AIDS: there's hope. (United States)


    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices.

  11. AIDS risk knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions among multi-ethnic adolescents. (United States)

    Dusenbury, L; Botvin, G J; Baker, E; Laurence, J


    The purpose of this study was to determine how much young adolescents know about AIDS and AIDS risk and to identify areas of confusion that might serve as important targets of educational intervention. A multiethnic (43% white, 33% black, 18% Latino) sample of 303 seventh-grade students (48% male) in 3 schools in the greater New York area completed questionnaires assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions concerning AIDS and AIDS risk. Consistent with previous studies with older adolescents, the major finding in this study was that young adolescents had a high degree of knowledge concerning AIDS and AIDS risk. There were 2 areas of confusion concerning AIDS risk. Specifically, 31% of adolescents did not correctly identify "not having sex" as the most effective way of preventing AIDS, and 33% believed that AIDS could be spread through casual contact. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention.

  12. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)


    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  13. Pediatric Hearing Aid Management: Challenges among Hispanic Families. (United States)

    Caballero, Ana; Muñoz, Karen; White, Karl; Nelson, Lauri; Domenech-Rodriguez, Melanie; Twohig, Michael


    Hearing aid fitting in infancy has become more common in the United States as a result of earlier identification of hearing loss. Consistency of hearing aid use is an area of concern for young children, as well as other hearing aid management challenges parents encounter that may contribute to less-than-optimal speech and language outcomes. Research that describes parent hearing aid management experiences of Spanish-speaking Hispanic families, or the extent of their needs, is not available. To effectively support parent learning, in a culturally sensitive manner, providers may benefit from having a better understanding of the needs and challenges Hispanic families experience with hearing aid management. The purpose of the current study was to describe challenges with hearing aid management and use for children from birth to 5 yr of age, as reported by Spanish-speaking parents in the United States, and factors that may influence hearing aid use. This study used a cross-sectional survey design. Forty-two Spanish-speaking parents of children up to 5 yr of age who had been fitted with hearing aids. Responses were obtained from surveys mailed to parents through early intervention programs and audiology clinics. Descriptive statistics were used to describe frequencies and variance in responses. Forty-seven percent of the parents reported the need for help from an interpreter during audiology appointments. Even though parents received information and were taught skills by their audiologist, many wanted to receive more information. For example, 59% wanted to know how to meet other parents of children who have hearing loss, although 88% had previously received this information; 56% wanted to know how to do basic hearing aid maintenance, although 71% had previously received instruction. The two most frequently reported hearing aid use challenges were fear of losing the hearing aids, and not seeing benefit from the hearing aids. Hearing aid use during all waking hours was

  14. HIV/AIDS and Infections (United States)

    Having HIV/AIDS weakens your body's immune system. It destroys the white blood cells that fight infection. This puts ... such as crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis) Having HIV/AIDS can make infections harder to treat. People ...

  15. Living with HIV/AIDS (United States)

    ... destroying the white blood cells that fight infection. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. Infection with HIV is serious. But thanks to ...

  16. American Foundation for AIDS Research (United States)

    ... the Press Corporate Support amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research Research Overview Grants Countdown to a Cure for AIDS amfAR Institute for HIV Cure Research amfAR Research Consortium on HIV Eradication: (ARCHE) Publications ...

  17. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh


    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  18. The 'end of AIDS' project: Mobilising evidence, bureaucracy, and big data for a final biomedical triumph over AIDS. (United States)

    Leclerc-Madlala, Suzanne; Broomhall, Lorie; Fieno, John


    Efforts are currently underway by major orchestrators and funders of the global AIDS response to realise the vision of achieving an end to AIDS by 2030. Unlike previous efforts to provide policy guidance or to encourage 'best practice' approaches for combatting AIDS, the end of AIDS project involves the promotion of a clear set of targets, tools, and interventions for a final biomedical solution to the epidemic. In this paper, we examine the bureaucratic procedures of one major AIDS funder that helped to foster a common vision and mission amongst a global AIDS community with widely divergent views on how best to address the epidemic. We focus on the methods, movements, and materials that are central to the project of ending AIDS, including those related to biomedical forms of evidence and big data science. We argue that these approaches have limitations and social scientists need to pay close attention to the end of AIDS project, particularly in contexts where clinical interventions might transform clinical outcomes, but where the social, economic, and cultural determinants of HIV and AIDS remain largely intact and increasingly obscured.

  19. Aid and the environment: Uganda


    Kateregga, Eseza


    This paper seeks to (i) establish the areas in which aid from the major donors is concentrated; (ii) examine how aid has been allocated to the environmental sectors, and (iii) review the factors behind the success of environmental projects. Using data from the database, the distribution of environment-related aid, commitments and disbursements from the major donors over the period 2005 - 11 is examined. Recipients of aid and donors were interviewed to learn their perceptions on ai...

  20. Clinical aromatherapy and AIDS. (United States)

    Buckle, Jane


    Clinical aromatherapy is the use of essential oils for expected outcomes that are measurable and is a therapy that is used as part of nursing care in Switzerland, Germany, Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and, more recently, the United States. Essential oils are steam distillates obtained from aromatic plants. These volatile extracts have been used for many years by French hospitals against airborne bacteria and fungi. As antimicrobial agents, essential oils may be appropriate in HIV/AIDS for specific opportunistic infections. Aromatherapy can also alter perceptions of chronic pain, help maintain skin integrity, and is useful in stress management. Methods of application vary depending on the site of infection and the psychological profile of the patient and can include inhalation, compresses, baths, massage, and the "m" technique. This article will explore the potential use of essential oils in HIV/AIDS focusing on four opportunistic infections: Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and herpes simplex types I and II.

  1. Mutual aid fund commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    The composition of the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund for 2011 is as follows: President: Pascal Droux Vice-president: Connie Potter Treasurer: Louis Pereira Deputy treasurer: Barbara Brugger Secretary: Sonia Casenove Deputy secretary: Isabelle Mardirossian Members: Christopher David Thomas   Jean-Claude Vialis (GAC member)   Marie-Luce Falipou   Gunilla Santiard (Jean-Claude Vialis’s alternate) The role of the Fund is to provide financial help to members of personnel and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund who are in need of exceptional financial assistance. All requests are treated in the strictest confidence. Should you wish to apply for aid from the Fund, kindly contact any member of the Board as given above or Social Services, tel.74479 – 73867.

  2. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, F.; Steudel, H.; Klotz, D.; Bonn Univ.; Bonn Univ.


    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur. (orig.) [de

  3. Research Report: HIV/AIDS (United States)

    ... thereby achieve a true cure for the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This Research Report is designed to highlight the state of ... Style AMA Style NIDA. (2012, July 1). HIV/AIDS. Retrieved from NIDA. "HIV/AIDS." National Institute on ...

  4. How Do People Get AIDS? (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Do People Get AIDS? Print en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  5. What Is HIV/AIDS? (United States)

    ... Office of Adolescent Health OAR NIH Office of AIDS Research OCR HHS Office for Civil Rights OFBNP HHS ... Personal Stories Photos PLWHA People Living with HIV/AIDS Podcasts PrEP Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Prevention PWID People Who Inject Drugs Research Research Agenda Ryan White Ryan White HIV/AIDS ...

  6. AIDS in Thailand. (United States)

    Ryan, M P


    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes.

  7. JPRS Report, Epidemiology, Aids (United States)


    after developing symptoms. According to a recent survey, about 200 Buddhist monks Official figures released by the Thai Public Health Min- have...34bourgeois ideas" and "bourgeois China, another more fearsome sexually transmitted fatal lifestyles ," which caused the appearance in China of illness-AIDS...protected from urban ways-but this seems to be totally sively the details of patients’ lifestyles . But of the 51 false. positive cases the hospital

  8. Nuclear medicine in the management of the aids patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J.


    For the medical diagnostic imaging specialist in general, and for the nuclear medicine physician specifically, the AIDS epidemic has generated an enormous demand to develop a means of making early diagnoses of the complications of AIDS. For the most part this has meant the early detection, and when possible, the characterization of the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that are a major source of morbidity and mortality for the AIDS patient. Detection of opportunistic infections has been helpful in reclassifying HIV-seropositive patients as having AIDS. This paper reports on nuclear medicine used to evaluate the efficacy and the complications of treatment in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Most recently, functional brain imaging has been used for the diagnosis and follow-up of the AIDS dementia complex. (author). 77 refs., 8 figs

  9. Nuclear medicine in the management of the AIDS patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J.


    For the medical diagnostic imaging specialist in general, and for the nuclear medicine physician specifically, the AIDS epidemic has generated an enormous demand to develop a means of making early diagnoses of the complications of AIDS. For the most part this has meant the early detection, and when possible, the characterization of the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that are a major source of morbidity and mortality for the AIDS patient. Detection of opportunistic infections has been helpful in reclassifying HIV-seropositive patients as having AIDS. This paper reports on nuclear medicine used to evaluate the efficacy and the complications of treatment in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Most recently, functional brain imaging has been used for the diagnosis and follow-up of the AIDS dementia complex

  10. A New Lagrangian Relaxation Method Considering Previous Hour Scheduling for Unit Commitment Problem (United States)

    Khorasani, H.; Rashidinejad, M.; Purakbari-Kasmaie, M.; Abdollahi, A.


    Generation scheduling is a crucial challenge in power systems especially under new environment of liberalization of electricity industry. A new Lagrangian relaxation method for unit commitment (UC) has been presented for solving generation scheduling problem. This paper focuses on the economical aspect of UC problem, while the previous hour scheduling as a very important issue is studied. In this paper generation scheduling of present hour has been conducted by considering the previous hour scheduling. The impacts of hot/cold start-up cost have been taken in to account in this paper. Case studies and numerical analysis presents significant outcomes while it demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Pulmonary infection in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seog Joon; Im, Jung Gi; Seong, Chang Kyu; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Song, Jae Woo


    To analyze the clinical and radiological manifestations of pulmonary infection in patients with AIDS. We reviewed the medical records and analyzed retrospectively analysed the chest radiographs(n=3D24) and CT scans(n=3D11) of 26 patients with AIDS who had been followed up at our institute from 1987 to June 1998. Pulmonary infections were confirmed by sputum smear and culture(n=3D18), pleural examination(n=3D3), bronchoalveolar lavage(n=3D3), autopsy(n=3D4), transbronchial lung biopsy(n=3D1) or clinical history(n=3D9). The study group included 23 men and three women aged 25-54(average 35.2) years. We correlated the radiologic findings with CD4 lymphocyte counts. Pulmonary infections included tuberculosis(n=3D22), pneumocystis carinii pneumonia(n=3D9), cytomegalovirus(n=3D3), and unidentified bacterial pneumonia(n=3D2). Radiologically pulmonary tuberculosis was classified as primary tuberculosis(n=3D11;mean CD4 counts:41.3 cells/mm 3 ) and post-primary tuberculosis(n=3D11;mean CD4 counts:251.3cells/mm 3 ). CT findings of tuberculosis included lymphadenitis(n=3D6), bronchogenic spread(n=3D5), large consolidation(n=3D4), esophago-mediastinal fistula(n=3D2), and cavity(n=3D1). Tuberculosis in AIDS responded rapidly to anti-TB medication with complete or marked resolution of lesions within three months. Radiologic findings of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia included diffuse ground glass opacities, cysts, and reticular opacities. Tuberculosis was the most common infection in patients with AIDS in Korea, and this is attributed to the high prevalence of tuberculosis. Radiological findings varied with CD4+cell count, showing those of primary tuberculosis as a patient's CD4+ cell count decreased. Pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS responded rapidly to anti-Tb medication. =20

  12. Awareness, attitudes and practices of first aid among school teachers in Mangalore, south India. (United States)

    Joseph, Nitin; Narayanan, Thanneermalai; Bin Zakaria, Saifuddin; Nair, Abhishek Venugopal; Belayutham, Lavina; Subramanian, Aathiya Mihiraa; Gopakumar, K G


    Circumstances requiring medical attention are common at schools. Teachers are often the first individuals to witness and handle situations requiring first aid and medical emergencies. To determine awareness, attitudes and practices of school teachers and the facilities available at schools with respect to administration of first aid. Data were obtained from 146 teachers in nine schools in Mangalore, India, using a self-administered questionnaire. The schools were also inspected for first aid equipment and facilities. Only 69 (47%) teachers had received first aid training previously. Poor and moderate knowledge of first aid was observed among 19 (13%) and 127 (87%) teachers, respectively. Only eight teachers knew the correct procedure for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Most teachers 96 (66%) were willing to administer first aid if provided with the required training. A total of 74 teachers reported having practised first aid in response to a situation arising at their school. Wounds (36%) and syncopal attack (23%) were among the commonly encountered situations requiring first aid management at schools. Teachers' confidence level in administering first aid was significantly associated with prior training in first aid (p=0.001). First aid kits were available in only five of the nine schools surveyed. The current competency level among teachers in Mangalore to administer first aid is inadequate. Measures need to be taken at schools to ensure initiation of first aid training followed by periodic training for teachers in first aid.

  13. [AIDS prevention in Germany]. (United States)

    Pott, E


    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  14. Bystander first aid in trauma - prevalence and quality: a prospective observational study. (United States)

    Bakke, H K; Steinvik, T; Eidissen, S-I; Gilbert, M; Wisborg, T


    Bystander first aid and basic life support can likely improve victim survival in trauma. In contrast to bystander first aid and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, little is known about the role of bystanders in trauma response. Our aim was to determine how frequently first aid is given to trauma victims by bystanders, the quality of this aid, the professional background of first-aid providers, and whether previous first-aid training affects aid quality. We conducted a prospective 18-month study in two mixed urban-rural Norwegian counties. The personnel on the first ambulance responding to trauma calls assessed and documented first aid performed by bystanders using a standard form. A total of 330 trauma calls were included, with bystanders present in 97% of cases. Securing an open airway was correctly performed for 76% of the 43 patients in need of this first-aid measure. Bleeding control was provided correctly for 81% of 63 patients for whom this measure was indicated, and prevention of hypothermia for 62% of 204 patients. Among the first-aid providers studied, 35% had some training in first aid. Bystanders with documented first-aid training gave better first aid than those where first-aid training status was unknown. A majority of the trauma patients studied received correct pre-hospital first aid, but still there is need for considerable improvement, particularly hypothermia prevention. Previous first-aid training seems to improve the quality of first aid provided. The effect on patient survival needs to be investigated. © 2015 The Authors. The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Polyurethane - positioning aids in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzen, G.; Boeck, E.G.; Thelen, M.; Kutzner, J.


    A simple and cheap method is described for the manufacturing of individual positioning aids made of foamed polyurethane. Some examples are given to demonstrate the applicability of these positioning aids for the irradiation of different body regions. The reproducibility of the radiation field in the head and neck area was investigated with and without positioning aid. It was proved that the field is adjusted more exactly when positioning aids are applied. The dosimetric investigations performed showed a negligible influence of foamed polyurethane on the radiation quality. So the positioning aids could be left within the radiation field when drawing the field borders. (orig.) [de





    This paper studies the relationship between donor governments' Official Development Assistance (ODA) decisions and corruption in recipient countries over the period 1999-2010. Previous studies found that donors do not penalize recipients on the basis of corruption. Using a rich panel data set, this paper estimates the effect of corruption on aid using donor-recipient fixed effects and disaggregating aid into sectors which may vary in sensitivity to corruption. Overall, there is a moderately s...

  17. Computer-aided system for cryogenic research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, V.P.; Zhelamsky, M.V.; Mozin, I.V.; Repin, S.S.


    A computer-aided system is developed for the more effective choice and optimization of the design and manufacturing technologies of the superconductor for the magnet system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) with the aim to ensure the superconductor certification. The computer-aided system provides acquisition, processing, storage and display of data describing the proceeding tests, the detection of any parameter deviations and their analysis. Besides, it generates commands for the equipment switch off in emergency situations. ((orig.))

  18. Development Aid and Growth: An association converging to zero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos,, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    This note deals with a paradox: A literature growing exponentially in spite of the fact that it keeps finding the same result. We draw upon the findings of 106 empirical studies, of which 32 appeared in the last 4 years, to examine whether development aid generates economic growth. The studies...... report aid effects that have been steadily falling over time. The newer studies find a steady continuation of the downward trend. Using meta-regression analysis, we show that total aid has never had an effect on economic growth. Theoretically, this result might be due to simultaneity bias...

  19. Anticipating Job Aiding and Training Requirements (United States)


    towards individuals representing the Millenial generation. Some key characteristics of Millenials include the following:  Technologically savvy...Need for on-going learning The learning preferences (or learning style) of Millenials favor teamwork, experiential activities, structure, and...there is mounting evidence that Millenials have a different relationship with information and learning than those from previous generations

  20. HAART in HIV/AIDS Treatments: Future Trends. (United States)

    Lu, Da-Yong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Xu, Bin; Ding, Jian; Lu, Ting-Ren


    AIDS (acquired immune deficient syndrome) is a deadly human viral infectious disease caused by HIV (human immune-deficient virus) infection. Almost every AIDS patient losses his/her life before mid 1990s. AIDS was once the 1st disease killer in US (1993). After one decade hard work, antiviral drug cocktails-high active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) have been invented for almost all HIV infection treatments. Due to the invention of HAART, 80-90% HIV/AIDS patients still effectively response to HAART for deadly AIDS episode controls and life saving. Yet, this type of HIV therapeutics is incurable. HIV/AIDS patients need to take HAART medications regularly and even life-long. To counteract this therapeutic drawback, more revolutionary efforts (different angles of therapeutic modes/attempts) are urgently needed. In this article, the major progresses and drawbacks of HIV/AIDS chemotherapy (HAART) to HIV/AIDS patients have been discussed. Future trends (updating pathogenesis study, next generations of drug developments, new drug target discovery, different scientific disciplinary and so on) are highlighted. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  1. [No remedy for AIDS?]. (United States)

    Ramirez, M M


    Vila Mimosa, a site of street prostitution in Rio de Janeiro since the 1930s, is the place of work for over 2000 prostitution who charge an average of $3-4 per client. Several years ago the Association of Prostitutes of Rio de Janeiro (APRJ) was founded by Eunice Coelho Reis. APRJ membership has increased steadily and its list of accomplishments is impressive. A state hospital performs free medical examinations of APRJ members, and the Brazilian family planning association BEMFAM provides 180,000 condoms each month. AIDS control projects have also been successful, and no APRJ members have contracted HIV infection. In the country with the 4th highest rate of infection, the rigid norm of condom use adopted by the prostitutes of Vila Mimosa has led to effective prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. The prostitutes report however that a large proportion of their clients resist condom use, sometimes violently. The proportion of seropositive individuals who are women has been rising steadily. Family Health International estimates that the proportion of new cases among women has risen from 25% in 1990 to 40% at present. AIDS prevention campaigns are attempting to persuade women to "negotiate" condom use during sex. But power relations between the sexes place women at a disadvantage. Men often make the sexual decisions. Socialization patterns of females in Latin America are oriented to maternity. Passive sexual behavior has become a primary obstacle to adoption of safer sex practices. The World Health Organization estimates that currently 9-11 million persons are latent carriers of the HIV virus. Prostitution originating in poverty and unemployment, the vulnerability of adolescents who begin their sexual lives with little knowledge of contraception or sexually transmitted diseases, and the lack of sex education that transcends the biological to consider interpersonal relations are all factors that hinder AIDS prevention.

  2. AIDS and family planning. (United States)


    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training.

  3. Computer aided drug design (United States)

    Jain, A.


    Computer based method can help in discovery of leads and can potentially eliminate chemical synthesis and screening of many irrelevant compounds, and in this way, it save time as well as cost. Molecular modeling systems are powerful tools for building, visualizing, analyzing and storing models of complex molecular structure that can help to interpretate structure activity relationship. The use of various techniques of molecular mechanics and dynamics and software in Computer aided drug design along with statistics analysis is powerful tool for the medicinal chemistry to synthesis therapeutic and effective drugs with minimum side effect.

  4. First aid in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sulley, Robert


    Achieve the best possible standard with this bestselling book of traditional practice and guidance - now in colour!. First Aid in Mathematics provides all the help and support needed for learning and practising Mathematics. It offers comprehensive coverage of core mathematical topics in clear and accessible language. It is suitable for both native English speakers and students of English as a second language and can be used in class, or as a reference and revision book. - Develops a strong basis of understanding with core topics covered in clear and accessible language. - Improves student's ab

  5. [Adolescence and AIDS]. (United States)


    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  6. Migration and AIDS. (United States)

    Decosas, J; Kane, F; Anarfi, J K; Sodji, K D; Wagner, H U


    A successful short-term solution to transmission of AIDS in Western Africa by migrants involves provision of accessible and acceptable basic health and social services to migrants at their destination. The aim is to establish a sense of security and community, which is a health requirement. When migrants are excluded from community life or victimized as carriers of HIV infections, they will be driven by basic survival needs and dysfunctional social organization, which results in the rapid spread of HIV. Closing borders and mass deportation may not be an option. The long-term solution is population policy, environmental protection, and economic development. The focus on mapping the spread of AIDS must shift to a consideration of the migrant social conditions that make them vulnerable to AIDS. The issue of migration and AIDS will be addressed at the First European Conference on Tropical Medicine in October 1995 in Hamburg, Germany. In Uganda, HIV seroprevalence rates ranged from 5.5% among the stable population to 12.4% among internal migrants moving between villages to 16.3% among migrants from other areas. A World Bank project is operating in Western Africa, which traces seasonal male migration from the Cameroon to Liberia, Senegal to Nigeria, and from the Sahel to the coast during dry seasons. National border rules may influence the routes but not the extent of migration. A major destination place is Cote d' Ivoire, which has 25% of total population comprised of migrants from other countries and one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Western Africa. On plantations prostitutes are brought in. Each prostitute serves about 25 workers. The pattern of sexual mixing contributes to the high HIV rates. Female migration is smaller and usually concentrated in prostitution at place of destination. Illiteracy and poverty drive women migrants into the trade. Their frequent health problems are malaria, pelvic pain, menstrual irregularity, vaginal discharge, and genital

  7. Hearing Aids Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globally, hearing loss is the second most frequent disability. About 80% of the persons affected by hearing loss do not use hearing aids. The goal of this edited volume is to present a theoretically founded, interdisciplinary approach geared at understanding and improving social interaction...... impacted by hearing loss and (non-) use of hearing technologies. The researchers report on pilot studies from Australia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Switzerland and the USA. Using Conversation Analysis, the studies identify problems and serve as points of departure for possible solutions. Researchers...

  8. Aid Policy and the Macroeconomic Management of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn


    , and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over......This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility...... heated” debate on aid needs redirecting toward more rigorous analysis, in which the advantages—and disadvantages—of using aid for development can be evaluated in a calmer manner....

  9. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is localized to subnuclear domains enriched in splicing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yi, E-mail:; Ericsson, Ida, E-mail:; Doseth, Berit, E-mail:; Liabakk, Nina B., E-mail:; Krokan, Hans E., E-mail:; Kavli, Bodil, E-mail:


    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is the mutator enzyme in adaptive immunity. AID initiates the antibody diversification processes in activated B cells by deaminating cytosine to uracil in immunoglobulin genes. To some extent other genes are also targeted, which may lead to genome instability and B cell malignancy. Thus, it is crucial to understand its targeting and regulation mechanisms. AID is regulated at several levels including subcellular compartmentalization. However, the complex nuclear distribution and trafficking of AID has not been studied in detail previously. In this work, we examined the subnuclear localization of AID and its interaction partner CTNNBL1 and found that they associate with spliceosome-associated structures including Cajal bodies and nuclear speckles. Moreover, protein kinase A (PKA), which activates AID by phosphorylation at Ser38, is present together with AID in nuclear speckles. Importantly, we demonstrate that AID physically associates with the major spliceosome subunits (small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, snRNPs), as well as other essential splicing components, in addition to the transcription machinery. Based on our findings and the literature, we suggest a transcription-coupled splicing-associated model for AID targeting and activation. - Highlights: • AID and its interaction partner CTNNBL1 localize to Cajal bodies and nuclear speckles. • AID associates with its activating kinase PKA in nuclear speckles. • AID is linked to the splicing machinery in switching B-cells. • Our findings suggest a transcription-coupled splicing associated mechanism for AID targeting and activation.

  10. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is localized to subnuclear domains enriched in splicing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yi; Ericsson, Ida; Doseth, Berit; Liabakk, Nina B.; Krokan, Hans E.; Kavli, Bodil


    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is the mutator enzyme in adaptive immunity. AID initiates the antibody diversification processes in activated B cells by deaminating cytosine to uracil in immunoglobulin genes. To some extent other genes are also targeted, which may lead to genome instability and B cell malignancy. Thus, it is crucial to understand its targeting and regulation mechanisms. AID is regulated at several levels including subcellular compartmentalization. However, the complex nuclear distribution and trafficking of AID has not been studied in detail previously. In this work, we examined the subnuclear localization of AID and its interaction partner CTNNBL1 and found that they associate with spliceosome-associated structures including Cajal bodies and nuclear speckles. Moreover, protein kinase A (PKA), which activates AID by phosphorylation at Ser38, is present together with AID in nuclear speckles. Importantly, we demonstrate that AID physically associates with the major spliceosome subunits (small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, snRNPs), as well as other essential splicing components, in addition to the transcription machinery. Based on our findings and the literature, we suggest a transcription-coupled splicing-associated model for AID targeting and activation. - Highlights: • AID and its interaction partner CTNNBL1 localize to Cajal bodies and nuclear speckles. • AID associates with its activating kinase PKA in nuclear speckles. • AID is linked to the splicing machinery in switching B-cells. • Our findings suggest a transcription-coupled splicing associated mechanism for AID targeting and activation

  11. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid (United States)


    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in improving the hearing of people with conduction or mixed hearing loss. The Technology The (BAHA) is a bone conduction hearing device that includes a titanium fixture permanently implanted into the mastoid bone of the skull and an external percutaneous sound processor. The sound processor is attached to the fixture by means of a skin penetrating abutment. Because the device bypasses the middle ear and directly stimulates the cochlea, it has been recommended for individuals with conduction hearing loss or discharging middle ear infection. The titanium implant is expected to last a lifetime while the external sound processor is expected to last 5 years. The total initial device cost is approximately $5,300 and the external sound processor costs approximately $3,500. Review of BAHA by the Medical Advisory Secretariat The Medical Advisory Secretariat’s review is a descriptive synthesis of findings from 36 research articles published between January 1990 and May 2002. Summary of Findings No randomized controlled studies were found. The evidence was derived from level 4 case series with relative small sample sizes (ranging from 30-188). The majority of the studies have follow-up periods of eight years or longer. All except one study were based on monaural BAHA implant on the side with the best bone conduction threshold. Safety Level 4 evidence showed that BAHA has been be implanted safely in adults and children with success rates of 90% or higher in most studies. No mortality or life threatening morbidity has been reported. Revision rates for tissue reduction or resiting were generally under 10% for adults but have been reported to be as high as 25% in pediatric studies. Adverse skin reaction around the skin penetration site was the most common complication reported. Most of these

  12. SOPHIA: Soft Orthotic Physiotherapy Hand Interactive Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair C. McConnell


    Full Text Available This work describes the design, fabrication, and initial testing of a Soft Orthotic Physiotherapy Hand Interactive Aid (SOPHIA for stroke rehabilitation. SOPHIA consists of (1 a soft robotic exoskeleton, (2 a microcontroller-based control system driven by a brain–machine interface (BMI, and (3 a sensorized glove for passive rehabilitation. In contrast to other rehabilitation devices, SOPHIA is the first modular prototype of a rehabilitation system that is capable of three tasks: aiding extension based assistive rehabilitation, monitoring patient exercises, and guiding passive rehabilitation. Our results show that this prototype of the device is capable of helping healthy subjects to open their hand. Finger extension is triggered by a command from the BMI, while using a variety of sensors to ensure a safe motion. All data gathered from the device will be used to guide further improvements to the prototype, aiming at developing specifications for the next generation device, which could be used in future clinical trials.

  13. National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the importance of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and the work of CDC.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  14. International Development Aid Allocation Determinants


    Tapas Mishra; Bazoumana Ouattara; Mamata Parhi


    This paper investigates the factors explaining aid allocation by bilateral and multilateral donors. We use data for 146 aid recipient countries over the period 1990-2007 and employ Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates Approach (BACE) approach and find that both the recipient need and donor interest motives are `significant' determinants of bilateral and multilateral aid allocation process. Our results also indicate that the measures for recipient need and donor interests vary from bilate...

  15. Computer-aided system design (United States)

    Walker, Carrie K.


    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  16. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad


    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  17. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akramov, Kamiljon T


    .... Specifically, the study explores how different categories of aid affect economic growth, whether the quality of governance is significant in explaining differences in economic growth, and whether...

  18. National Latino AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast highlights National Latino AIDS Awareness Day, to increase awareness of the disproportionate impact of HIV on the Hispanic or Latino population in the United States and dependent territories. The podcast reminds Hispanics or Latinos that they have the power to take control of their health and protect themselves against HIV.  Created: 10/8/2014 by Office of Health Equity, Office of the Director, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 10/14/2014.

  19. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  20. Human stool contains a previously unrecognized diversity of novel astroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoyan


    Full Text Available Abstract Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astrovirus MLB1 and astrovirus VA1, were identified in diarrhea patients. In this study, we used consensus astrovirus primers targeting the RNA polymerase to define the diversity of astroviruses present in pediatric patients with diarrhea on two continents. From 416 stool specimens comprising two different cohorts from Vellore, India, 35 samples were positive. These positive samples were analyzed further by either sequencing of the ~400 bp amplicon generated by the consensus PCR or by performing additional RT-PCR specific for individual astroviruses. 19 samples contained the classic human astrovirus serotypes 1-8 while 7 samples were positive for the recently described astrovirus MLB1. Strikingly, from samples that were positive in the consensus PCR screen but negative in the specific PCR assays, five samples contained sequences that were highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Sequence analysis suggested that three novel astroviruses, tentatively named astroviruses VA2, MLB2 and VA3, were present in these five patient specimens (AstV-VA2 in 2 patients, AstV-MLB2 in 2 patients and AstV-VA3 in one patient. Using the same RT-PCR screening strategy, 13 samples out of 466 tested stool specimens collected in St. Louis, USA were positive. Nine samples were positive for the classic human astroviruses. One sample was positive for AstV-VA2, and 3 samples were positive for AstV-MLB2 demonstrating that these two viruses are globally widespread. Collectively, these findings underscore the tremendous diversity of astroviruses present in fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Given that a significant fraction of diarrhea etiologies is currently unknown, it is plausible that these or other yet unrecognized astroviruses may be

  1. Computer aided design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, J.D.; Cowden, T.; Haenni, D.R.; Hargis, C.


    The research program at the Cyclotron Institute frequently requires special purpose printed circuit boards. These are used either in data acquisition equipment or for control of an experiment. Also during this period of building the new K500 machine, many special boards will be needed for the computerized control system. Due to the very tedious and time consuming process of producing a printed circuit board by the usual drawing techniques, an inexpensive computer aided design (CAD) system was sought. Such a system of software, called P-CAD EDA, was purchased from Personal CAD Systems Inc. and the required hardware to run it was assembled. This hardware consisted of equipping an IBM PC with 640 kilo-bytes of memory, a 20 Mbyte hard disk drive, 2 floppy disk drives, a color monitor, a Calcomp 1043 plotter, a mouse and an Epson FX-80 printer. A block diagram of the system is shown

  2. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements. (United States)

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian


    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. [Buccal manifestations of AIDS]. (United States)

    Burlibaşa, C; Tovaru, S


    The disease determined by HIV, increasingly more frequent, is affecting certain groups of patients (homosexuals, drug addicts, polytransfused subjects). The clinical picture at the onset is not specific. Later on in the course of the disease the immunological capacity of defense of the organism is affected and a series of symptoms including fever, infections with bacteria, lymph-node inflammation, encephalopathies, Kaposi sarcoma will develop. Apparently buccal infections with fungi are the earliest manifestations, and they are followed, by order of frequency, by herpetic lesions, "hairy" leucoplasia, tumours. Transmission through the saliva from the patient to the stomatologist of the HIV infection is theoretically possible due to scratches on the physicians' hands. Prophylactic measures are described for the stomatologists treating AIDS patients, as well as for the sterilization of the instruments.

  4. AIDS and sex tourism. (United States)

    Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C


    Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior.

  5. Aid and good governance: Examining aggregate unintended effects of aid. (United States)

    Dijkstra, Geske


    Although donors generally aim to improve governance in recipient countries by various means, critics claim that the aggregate effect of large aid flows is the deterioration of governance. Aid is said to weaken domestic accountability, sustain authoritarian regimes, increase political instability, weaken government capacities, and increase corruption. Conducting a systematic search in Web of Science, this paper reviews the empirical evidence for these unintended aggregate effects of aid on the political, administrative, and judicial dimensions of good governance. It finds that the negative effects of aid on governance are much exaggerated. The aggregate effect of aid on democracy has become more positive after the Cold War, and the effect of aid on government capacity and on reducing corruption has also improved over time. Furthermore, most studies show a positive effect of aid on political stability. These findings imply that donor intentions matter: donors that are serious about their intended effects on governance are able to mitigate the possible negative unintended effects of their aid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report (United States)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.


    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  7. First Aid Knowledge Among University Students in Jordan. (United States)

    Khatatbeh, Moawiah


    This study has aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge about the first aid process among the university students in Jordan. The study population consisted of students of the 14 scientific and unscientific faculties at Yarmouk University, Jordan. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 883 students. The majority of participants were females (65.9%) with mean age (standard deviation) of 19.9 (2.6) years. Only 29.2% of students had previous first aid experience. When asked, only 11% of students knew the normal respiration rate of an adult in 1 min. Results revealed that female students, having previous first aid experience, and being a student of the health sciences and scientific colleges were the only factors had significant statistical associations with better level of first aid knowledge. The students' knowledge about first aid is not at an adequate level. It would be advisable that first aid course be handled as a separate and practical course at secondary school level.

  8. DNA/RNA hybrid substrates modulate the catalytic activity of purified AID. (United States)

    Abdouni, Hala S; King, Justin J; Ghorbani, Atefeh; Fifield, Heather; Berghuis, Lesley; Larijani, Mani


    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) converts cytidine to uridine at Immunoglobulin (Ig) loci, initiating somatic hypermutation and class switching of antibodies. In vitro, AID acts on single stranded DNA (ssDNA), but neither double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) oligonucleotides nor RNA, and it is believed that transcription is the in vivo generator of ssDNA targeted by AID. It is also known that the Ig loci, particularly the switch (S) regions targeted by AID are rich in transcription-generated DNA/RNA hybrids. Here, we examined the binding and catalytic behavior of purified AID on DNA/RNA hybrid substrates bearing either random sequences or GC-rich sequences simulating Ig S regions. If substrates were made up of a random sequence, AID preferred substrates composed entirely of DNA over DNA/RNA hybrids. In contrast, if substrates were composed of S region sequences, AID preferred to mutate DNA/RNA hybrids over substrates composed entirely of DNA. Accordingly, AID exhibited a significantly higher affinity for binding DNA/RNA hybrid substrates composed specifically of S region sequences, than any other substrates composed of DNA. Thus, in the absence of any other cellular processes or factors, AID itself favors binding and mutating DNA/RNA hybrids composed of S region sequences. AID:DNA/RNA complex formation and supporting mutational analyses suggest that recognition of DNA/RNA hybrids is an inherent structural property of AID. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Computer–aided analysis of the performance of diesel generator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  10. Computer–aided analysis of the performance of diesel generator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The average monthly /yearly down time over a period of years can be deduced. Results of the analysis of some water pumping stations are presented. The software is user-friendly and is designed to assist technical and managerial staff in assessing the performance of water pumping stations. [Global Jnl Engineering Res.

  11. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald


    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  12. Map-based decision aids for fire support (United States)

    Yarosh, Victor


    The Fire Control Division at ARDEC is developing prototype decision aid tools to enable fire support echelons to rapidly respond to requests for fire support. Decision aids on fire support platforms can assist in route planning, site selection, and develop mobility overlays to enable the shooter to rapidly move into position and prepare for the fire mission. The Decision Aid system utilizes an integrated design approach which has each module interacting with the others by sharing data bases and common algorithms to provide recommended courses of action for route planning and generation, position selection, self defense, logistics estimates, situational awareness and fire mission planning aids such as tactical assessment, tactical planning, sustainment, etc. The Decision Aid system will use expert system artificial intelligence which will be developed from knowledge bases utilizing object oriented design. The modules currently reason on Defense Mapping Agency Interim Terrain Data and Digital Terrain Elevation Data and collect mission, intelligence, and sensor data from the digitized battlefield information distribution system to provide the crew or mission planners with intelligent recommendations. The system can provide a trade off analysis of time vs. safety, enable commanders to rapidly respond to fire support request, automatically generate OpOrders, and create overlays which depict mobility corridors, NBC areas, friendly units, overhead concealment, communications, and threat areas. The Decision Aids system can provide a vastly improved mobility, situational awareness, and decision cycle capabilities which can be utilized to increase the tempo of battle.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević Agima


    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine perceptions of service providers in the healthcare on their awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, as well as the relationship of the above parameters and the existence of stigma and discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS. Method: The type of the study was a behavioral cross sectional study. The survey was conducted in 2012, on a representative sample of health workers in Montenegro. The main survey instrument was specifically designed questionnaire that consisted of six parts, out of which one was related to knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Data were analyzed by methods of inferential statistics. Results: More than four out of ten respondents have never attended educational workshops on HIV/AIDS. Research has shown that there is a highly significant statistical correlation between estimates of their own knowledge about HIV / AIDS and previous educations. Almost two-thirds of respondents, who attended some type of education in the field of HIV/AIDS, believe to have a satisfactory level of knowledge in the area. Conclusion: Health care service providers evaluate their knowledge of HIV/AIDS as insufficient.

  14. Generating Units (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  15. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable Dev...

  16. Aid, Social Policy, and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn


    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture as an introduction to the UNU-WIDER Special Issue. Beginning in the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Dev...

  17. World AIDS Day PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    December 1 is World AIDS Day. In this PSA, communities are encouraged to get tested for HIV.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  18. Aids and the nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, M.L.; Levy, R.M.; Bredesen, D.E.


    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease

  19. Aid, Environment and Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Tarp, Finn


    -income countries. Development aid, by itself, cannot “save the planet.” Nevertheless, development aid and development institutions do have the potential to become important catalytic actors in achieving developmental and global environmental objectives. This requires bold reforms and political action. Without...

  20. Aid and Sectoral Labour Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer


    The paper examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth of labour productivity. A sectoral decomposition shows...

  1. Aid and Authoritarianism in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and Angola, the book exposes shifting donor interests and rhetoric as well as the impact of foreign aid on military assistance, rural development, electoral processes and domestic politics. In the process, it raises an urgent and too often neglected question: to what extent are foreign aid programmes...

  2. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation (United States)


    In addition, this chapter develops a microeconomic model to explore donors’ aid allocation decisions and their potential impact on aid effectiveness...the promotion of market-based principles to restructure macroeconomic policies in developing countries. The greater focus explained by successful development 29 efforts of number of countries in the region, such as Republic of Korea, Malaysia , Singapore, and Peoples

  3. [Implantable middle ear hearing aids]. (United States)

    à Wengen, D F


    Conventional acoustic hearing aids are limited in their performance. Due to physical laws their amplification of sound is limited to within 5 kHz. However, the frequencies between 5 and 10 kHz are essential for understanding consonants. Words can only be understood correctly if their consonants can be understood. Furthermore noise amplification remains a problem with hearing aids. Other problems consist of recurrent infections of the external auditory canal, intolerance for occlusion of the ear canal, feedback noise, and resonances in speech or singing. Implantable middle ear hearing aids like the Soundbridge of Symphonix-Siemens and the MET of Otologics offer improved amplification and a more natural sound. Since the first implantation of a Soundbridge in Switzerland in 1996 almost one thousand patients have been implanted worldwide. The currents systems are semi-implantable. The external audio processor containing the microphone, computer chip, battery and radio system is worn in the hair bearing area behind the ear. Implantation is only considered after unsuccessful fitting of conventional hearing aids. In Switzerland the cost for these implantable hearing aids is covered by social insurances. Initially the cost for an implant is higher than for hearing aids. However, hearing aids need replacement every 5 or 6 years whereas implants will last 20 to 30 years. Due to the superior sound quality and the improved understanding of speech in noise, the number of patients with implantable hearing aids will certainly increase in the next years. Other middle ear implants are in clinical testing.

  4. Aid allocation through various official and private channels: need, merit and self-interest as motives of German donors


    Nunnenkamp, Peter; Öhler, Hannes


    Previous literature largely ignores the heterogeneity of aid channels used by each single donor country. We estimate Tobit models to assess the relative importance of recipient need, recipient merit and self-interest of donors for various channels of official and private German aid across a large sample of recipient countries in 2005-2007. Our findings strongly underscore the need for a disaggregated analysis of aid allocation. Aid channels differ significantly in the extent to which need and...

  5. Accident Diagnosis and Prognosis Aide (ADPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, A.D.; Touchton, R.A.


    This presentation provides a demonstration of a prototypical expert system developed by Technology Applications, Inc. (TAI) under a contract with the Department of Energy as a part of their Small Business Innovation Research Program. The Accident Diagnosis and Prognosis Aide (ADPA) Demonstration Prototype is a working scale model of a real-time expert system which: Diagnoses an accident situation (as well as a number of underlying failures, events, and conditions deduced along the way). Calculates the change in the likelihood of core damage as a function of the events and failures diagnosed. Dynamically generates a recovery procedure tailored to the specific plant state at hand

  6. Computer-aided power systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kusic, George


    Computer applications yield more insight into system behavior than is possible by using hand calculations on system elements. Computer-Aided Power Systems Analysis: Second Edition is a state-of-the-art presentation of basic principles and software for power systems in steady-state operation. Originally published in 1985, this revised edition explores power systems from the point of view of the central control facility. It covers the elements of transmission networks, bus reference frame, network fault and contingency calculations, power flow on transmission networks, generator base power setti

  7. The indirect cost of AIDS. (United States)

    Gupta, A


    AIDS afflicts mainly people aged 15-45 years. The syndrome seriously threatens the social and economic development, and even political stability, of nations by depriving them of citizens in their most productive years. AIDS now dominates public health programs and health services in several countries and may eventually dominate in many more. As the number of AIDS cases rises steeply over the next few years, the economic, social, political, and cultural impact will be difficult to control. AIDS deserves special attention. The spread of AIDS, HIV, sex education, risk groups, desired interventions, and saving costs are discussed. Public health surveillance for HIV is critical in areas where an extensive spread of the virus has not yet occurred. Nongovernmental organizations can play a vital role in prevention, care, and community support programs.

  8. First aid manual in an android environment. (United States)

    Theodoromanolakis, Panos; Zygouras, Nikolaos; Mantas, John


    The First Aid Manual constitutes a detailed guide which contains useful information and suggested acts for potential pathogenic conditions in everyday life, given in an Android environment. The aim of the project is the capability of eliciting information regarding First Aid, by means of a widespread use device, such as smartphones. For the conduction of the project a database was used, into which the information was incorporated, in order to be later reloaded into the Eclipse environment. It will there receive its final form as an executable file for android cellphones. The executable file axx.apk originated an application which, providing the user with 6 main categories (definition, epidemiological evidence, aggravating factors, symptoms, what to do, what to avoid, acts) gives them access to an easy navigation and enables them to provide first grade care, without the requirement of any previous experience. The more and more advanced needs of the modern lifestyle, combined with technological achievements have created a complex system of social fabric, having of course an effect also on the area of human accidents. Hence, First Aid information given in the environment of a mobile phone can prove to be a useful tool for anyone, in case of an accident.

  9. Temporal visual cues aid speech recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Xiang; Ross, Lars; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue


    BACKGROUND: It is well known that under noisy conditions, viewing a speaker's articulatory movement aids the recognition of spoken words. Conventionally it is thought that the visual input disambiguates otherwise confusing auditory input. HYPOTHESIS: In contrast we hypothesize that it is the temp......BACKGROUND: It is well known that under noisy conditions, viewing a speaker's articulatory movement aids the recognition of spoken words. Conventionally it is thought that the visual input disambiguates otherwise confusing auditory input. HYPOTHESIS: In contrast we hypothesize...... that it is the temporal synchronicity of the visual input that aids parsing of the auditory stream. More specifically, we expected that purely temporal information, which does not convey information such as place of articulation may facility word recognition. METHODS: To test this prediction we used temporal features...... of audio to generate an artificial talking-face video and measured word recognition performance on simple monosyllabic words. RESULTS: When presenting words together with the artificial video we find that word recognition is improved over purely auditory presentation. The effect is significant (p...

  10. A Self-Fitting Hearing Aid (United States)

    Keidser, Gitte; Dillon, Harvey; Hartley, Lisa


    The need for reliable access to hearing health care services is growing globally, particularly in developing countries and in remotely located, underserved regions in many parts of the developed world. Individuals with hearing loss in these areas are at a significant disadvantage due to the scarcity of local hearing health care professionals and the high cost of hearing aids. Current approaches to making hearing rehabilitation services more readily available to underserved populations include teleaudiology and the provision of amplification devices outside of the traditional provider-client relationship. Both strategies require access to such resources as dedicated equipment and/or specially trained staff. Another possible strategy is a self-fitting hearing aid, a personal amplification device that is equipped with an onboard tone generator to enable user-controlled, automated, in situ audiometry; an onboard prescription to determine the initial hearing aid settings; and a trainable algorithm to enable user-controlled fine-tuning. The device is thus assembled, fitted, and managed by the user without the need for audiological or computer support. This article details the self-fitting concept and its potential application in both developing and developed countries. Potential advantages and disadvantages of such a device are discussed, and considerations for further investigations into the concept are presented. Overall, the concept is considered technologically viable with the main challenges anticipated to be development of clear, simple user instructions and a delivery model that ensures reliable supplies of instant-fit ear tips and batteries. PMID:22143873

  11. Generational diversity. (United States)

    Kramer, Linda W


    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  12. Need, Merit or Self-Interest - What Determines the Allocation of Aid?


    Anke Hoeffler; Verity Outram


    Previous studies into aid allocation have concluded that foreign aid is allocated not only according to development needs but also according to donor self-interest. We revisit this topic and allow for donor as well as recipient specific effects in our analysis. Our results indicate that roughly half of the predicted value of aid is determined by donor specific effects. Of the remaining variation, recipient need accounts for 36 percent and donor self-interest for about 16 percent. This suggest...

  13. Gallium scintigraphy in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Wall, Hans; Provan, I.; Murray, C.; Dwyer, M.; Jones, P.D.


    Gallium-67 scanning, indicated either for the elucidation of symptoms or for the assessment of appropriate therapy, was performed in 56 AIDS patients who underwent a total of 77 scans from 1986 to 1988. The age range of the patients was 13-66 years with an average age of 39 years. The majority of patients (95%) were male homosexuals. Gallium scanning has been applied to a wide spectrum of malignancies and to the detection of occult infections. Several mechanisms of uptake have been postulated for the localization of gallium. In general, gallium-67 acts as an analogue of the ferric ion, binding to transferrin soon after intravenous injection. It is believed that it is bound to transferrin receptors on the surface of tumour cells with subsequent intracellular transport. In infection, the association is probably with lactoferrin elaborated by polymorphonuclear cells and siderophores elaborated by bacteria. Gallium-67 is normally distributed to bone and bone marrow, liver, spleen, breast and bowel. In particular, the concentration in the ascending and transverse colon necessitates adequate bowel preparation. Lacrimal, nasopharyngeal and genital activity may also be seen. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  14. Economic Analysis of HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa


    Nýdrle, Tomáš


    HIV/AIDS is a real threat for Sub-Saharan Countries. It increased adult mortality substantially. HIV/AIDS pandemic causes the death of the most productive part of affected population. Human capital passing on to future generations is limited. Low economic performance and income inequality induce higher HIV vulnerability. Contra wise HIV/AIDS has significant negative effect on the welfare of affected population. The sources of pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa are not only social and cultural. He...

  15. AIDS: "it's the bacteria, stupid!". (United States)

    Broxmeyer, Lawrence; Cantwell, Alan


    Acid-fast tuberculous mycobacterial infections are common in AIDS and are regarded as secondary "opportunistic infections." According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, TB is the major attributable cause of death in AIDS patients. Could such bacteria play a primary or causative role in AIDS? Certainly, In screening tests for HIV, there is frequent, up to 70%, cross-reactivity, between the gag and pol proteins of HIV and patients with mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis. By 1972, five years before gays started dying in the U.S., Rolland wrote Genital Tuberculosis, a Forgotten Disease? And ironically, in 1979, on the eve of AIDS recognition, Gondzik and Jasiewicz showed that even in the laboratory, genitally infected tubercular male guinea pigs could infect healthy females through their semen by an HIV-compatible ratio of 1 in 6 or 17%, prompting him to warn his patients that not only was tuberculosis a sexually transmitted disease, but also the necessity of the application of suitable contraceptives, such as condoms, to avoid it. Gondzik's solution and date of publication are chilling; his findings significant. Since 1982 Cantwell et al found acid-fast bacteria closely related to tuberculosis (TB) and atypical tuberculosis in AIDS tissue. On the other hand molecular biologist and virologist Duesberg, who originally defined retroviral ultrastructure, has made it clear that HIV is not the cause of AIDS and that the so-called AIDS retrovirus has never been isolated in its pure state. Dr. Etienne de Harven, first to examine retroviruses under the electron, agrees. In 1993 HIV co-discoverer Luc Montagnier reported on cell-wall-deficient (CWD) bacteria which he called "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. He suspected these as a necessary "co-factor" for AIDS. Remarkably, Montagnier remained silent on Cantwell's reports of acid-fast bacteria which could simulate "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. Mattman makes clear that the differentiation between

  16. HINT for Squint: A Computer Reliant Diagnostic Aid for Strabismus


    Gieszl, Louis R.; Morris, Jacqueline; Guyton, David L.


    This paper provides an outline of methods used for the implementation of a computer reliant diagnostic aid in the medical specialty of Ophthalmology. Some problems have been associated with many previous diagnostic models. A careful review indicates that the most serious problems were:

  17. Interval change analysis to improve computer aided detection in mammography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timp, S.; Karssemeijer, N.


    We are developing computer aided diagnosis (CAD) techniques to study interval changes between two consecutive mammographic screening rounds. We have previously developed methods for the detection of malignant masses based on features extracted from single mammographic views. The goal of the present


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Jimmy Adedokun


    Full Text Available Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to aid selectivity practice.

  19. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Shoffstall-Cone


    Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  20. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program. (United States)

    Shoffstall-Cone, Sarah; Williard, Mary


    In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska's Tribal Health Organizations (THO) developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA) Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  1. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances. (United States)


    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  2. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance. (United States)


    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  3. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  4. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...




  6. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation. (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A


    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  7. From Phonomecanocardiography to Phonocardiography computer aided (United States)

    Granados, J.; Tavera, F.; López, G.; Velázquez, J. M.; Hernández, R. T.; López, G. A.


    Due to lack of training doctors to identify many of the disorders in the heart by conventional listening, it is necessary to add an objective and methodological analysis to support this technique. In order to obtain information of the performance of the heart to be able to diagnose heart disease through a simple, cost-effective procedure by means of a data acquisition system, we have obtained Phonocardiograms (PCG), which are images of the sounds emitted by the heart. A program of acoustic, visual and artificial vision recognition was elaborated to interpret them. Based on the results of previous research of cardiologists a code of interpretation of PCG and associated diseases was elaborated. Also a site, within the university campus, of experimental sampling of cardiac data was created. Phonocardiography computer-aided is a viable and low cost procedure which provides additional medical information to make a diagnosis of complex heart diseases. We show some previous results.

  8. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients. (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio


    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  9. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.


    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  10. AIDS. Grim news for Asia. (United States)


    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh.

  11. Myths about AIDS in Cambodia. (United States)

    Nariddh, M C


    HIV has been reported in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, as well as in the northwestern provinces of Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, and Kompong Chhnang. Unofficial reports indicate the presence of HIV in three northeastern provinces. According to World Health Organization data, 382 people were infected with HIV in Cambodia as of March 1994, but the national AIDS program estimates that 2000-4000 Cambodians may be HIV-seropositive. Small surveys in 1992 identified HIV infection rates to be 4.5% among patients of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and 9.2% among prostitutes. A seroprevalence rate of 4.3% was found in 1993 among clients of STD clinics and others requesting HIV testing. These rather marked levels of infection exist in Cambodia even though HIV was first identified in the country as recently as 1991 among screened blood from volunteer donors. By December 1993, the rate of positive results from blood donors had increased to 1.97%.; the rate of infection among blood donors is expected to double to approximately 4% in 1994. People in Cambodia variously believe that AIDS is nonexistent, AIDS is a problem of other countries, can be transmitted by mosquitoes, healthy people do not have AIDS, a cure exists for AIDS, AIDS can be contracted only from prostitutes, AIDS is the most severe state of syphilis, and AIDS is only a propaganda ploy of condom producers to market their products. It is therefore proving extremely difficult to convince people that AIDS is a truly threatening disease against which they should protect themselves, especially when symptoms are rarely present during the early stage of infection. Health education campaigns, videos, posters, and accurate reporting in the media will, however, help change minds and hopefully induce HIV-preventive behaviors. Of interest, the article notes that virtually every prostitute in Cambodia has at least two-three STDs.

  12. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign. (United States)

    Clements, A


    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital.

  13. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Overview Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV/ ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Last Reviewed: August 25, 2017 ...

  14. HIV/AIDS and the Flu (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ( ... people with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  15. Global Communications: Opportunities for Trade and Aid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    Global Communications: Opportunities for Trade and Aid examines the question of how telecommunication related aid policies might be designed to support both United States trade and foreign aid goals...

  16. AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers from the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP) work to improve the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of HIV infection, AIDS, and AIDS-related tumors,...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Savchenko


    Full Text Available The concept and possible variants of mechatronic bearings designs of the fourth generation with sensors of angular position and tiny vibroresonance drives for kinematics management during the working process, with built-in diagnostics aid functioning on the basis of the analysis of separator rotation speed fluctuations have been offered.

  18. Addressing HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda: does social capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the success is attributed to the policy which allowed many actors to participate in the fight against the disease. The primary focus of this article is to map the process of social capital generation by NGOs and how social capital benefits enhance mitigation of HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda. The key to social capital ...

  19. A computer aided tolerancing tool, II: tolerance analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, O.W.; Haalboom, F.J.; Jonge poerink, H.J.; van Slooten, F.; van Slooten, F.; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.


    A computer aided tolerance analysis tool is presented that assists the designer in evaluating worst case quality of assembly after tolerances have been specified. In tolerance analysis calculations, sets of equations are generated. The number of equations can be restricted by using a minimum number

  20. Appraisal of the inherent socio-demographic dynamics of HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. Agwu a, V. Pazos a , J. C. Ihongbe b & J. Ssengendo c

    staging done not earlier than one month prior to this investigation and must be currently registered HIV/AIDS patients at any of. TASO, Uganda Cares, Comboni hospital and Ishaka Adventist hospital. Selection of districts and HIV/AIDS centres were based on (district and centre) participation in our previous similar study.

  1. Human-resources strategies for managing HIV/AIDS: the case of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous work has focused on HIV prevalence among forestry workers and the impact of HIV/AIDS on the sustainability of forest resources. Following a review of work examining the impacts of HIV/AIDS on the South African economy, this article presents original qualitative research examining the responses of company ...

  2. Pulmonary involvement of Kaposi sarcoma in an AIDS patient: radiologic and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Jun Woo; Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Yu Jin; Im, Jung Gi [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Kaposi sarcoma is the most common malignancy in aquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and when disseminated may involve any organ system. Pulmonary involvement of Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS patients has not been previously reported in Korea and we report one such case, confirmed pathologically at autopsy.

  3. Kwazulu-Natal minibus taxi drivers' perceptions on HIV and AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, the minibus taxi drivers are largely becoming another high-risk category in the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Although previous studies have shown that knowledge of HIV and AIDS is relatively high among the taxi drivers it is still not clear how this sub-population perceive the support rendered to them with regard ...

  4. The Return to Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik


    We estimate the average rate of return on investments financed by aid and by domestic resource mobilisation, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop a correlated random coefficients model to estimate the average returns. Across...... different estimators and two different data sources for GDP and investment our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return on aid projects and with aggregate estimates of the rate...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABRUDAN Ovidiu


    Full Text Available For the authors of this paper, the teaching aids were and will always be a priority in their teaching activity. The contents of this paper is the result of a long strained period of efforts made to improve the teaching process, a period in which the teaching aids were permanently improved – as a result of attentively monitoring the students’ results. We can say that motivated students, who wanted to become mechanical engineers, used these teaching aids successfully in their learning activity.

  6. The return to foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop...... a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...

  7. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.


    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  8. Ergogenic aids in sport (United States)

    Santesteban Moriones, Virginia; Ibáñez Santos, Javier


    Introduction: Very few nutritional supplements have scientifically demonstrated their effectiveness as an ergogenic aid. This review will examine creatine monohydrate (MC), the β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), sodium bicarbonate (BS), the β-alanine and caffeine. Objectives: To analyze the effi cacy, mechanisms of action, dose, side effects and some sports that can benefit from their consumption. Methods: Searching in PubMed bibliographic database reviews from the last 15 years and original articles from the last 5 years of the studied substances. Results: Doses of 20 mg/day for 4-7 days are effective in improving strength and muscular power and performance in short and repeated sprints. HMB at doses of 3 g/day for at least 2 weeks contributes to increased lean mass and fat-free mass. The intake of 0.3 g/kg of BS improves performance on tests of 400-1,500 meters in athletics and intermittent sprints. Meanwhile, doses of 80 mg/kg/day of β-alanine for 4-10 weeks may improve performance in high-intensity intermittent exercise. Finally, caffeine at doses of 2 mg/kg improves responsiveness and 3-6 mg/kg improves performance in endurance tests. Conclusions: The revised supplements have shown their efficacy in physical performance, but it is needed to keep in mind that most studies have been conducted with recreational-level athletes. Generally, the better the individual´s fitness level is the less improvement in physical performance the supplement shows. However, an increase of only 1% may sometimes allow the athlete to advance several positions in a final. Finally, we should draw attention to the importance of optimizing nutrition before considering the introduction of sports supplements, especially in children and youth. All analyzed substances have scientific basis supporting its ergogenic effect. All of them can be found in the market with Certificate of Quality and Purit


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim A. Saleh


    Full Text Available Computer Aided Process Planning ( CAPP has been recognized as playing a key role in Computer Integrated Manufacturing ( CIM . It was used as a bridge to link CAD with CAM systems, in order to give the possibility of full integration in agreement with computer engineering to introduce CIM. The benefits of CAPP in the real industrial environment are still to be achieved. Due to different manufacturing applications, many different CAPP systems have been developed. The development of CAPP techniques needs to a summarized classification and a descriptive analysis. This paper presents the most important and famous techniques for the available CAPP systems, which are based on the variant, generative or semi-generative methods, and a descriptive analysis of their application possibilities.

  10. Diagnosis of Beta-thalassaemia major in previously transfused patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Rehman, Z.; Karamat, K.A.


    Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of blood transfusion(s) on the haematological picture of beta-thalassaemia major. Results: Out of the 280 patients 109 (39%) had received one or more blood transfusions (cases). The remaining 171 patients who did not receive any transfusion served as controls. The mean MCV, MCH and Hb-F in cases were significantly higher than in the controls (p 4 transfusions (17%) (p=0.016). In the occasionally transfused patients Hb-F level was directly related to the time since last transfusion. In 44/109 (40%) transfused patients (Hb-F>30%) the diagnosis of thalassaemia was not difficult. In 54/109 (50%) patients (Hb-:5-30%) the diagnosis was aided by parent's study, while PCR for thalassaemia mutation was required in 11/109 (10%) patients (Hb-F <5%). Conclusion: In most transfused patients of thalassaemia major MCV and MCH were significantly higher while Hb-F was lower than in the un-transfused patients. There was a linear correlation between Hb-F level and time since last transfusion in the occasionally transfused patients. However, the reduction in Hb-F level was more marked and sustained in multipally transfused patients. Parent's study and PCR are useful aids in establishing the correct diagnosis in these patients. (author)

  11. Randomized controlled trials of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment in Africa: results from the Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialized Register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babalwa Zani

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To effectively address HIV/AIDS in Africa, evidence on preventing new infections and providing effective treatment is needed. Ideally, decisions on which interventions are effective should be based on evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Our previous research described African RCTs of HIV/AIDS reported between 1987 and 2003. This study updates that analysis with RCTs published between 2004 and 2008. OBJECTIVES: To describe RCTs of HIV/AIDS conducted in Africa and reported between 2004 and 2008. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialized Register in September 2009. Two researchers independently evaluated studies for inclusion and extracted data using standardized forms. Details included location of trials, interventions, methodological quality, location of principal investigators and funders. RESULTS: Our search identified 834 RCTs, with 68 conducted in Africa. Forty-three assessed prevention-interventions and 25 treatment-interventions. Fifteen of the 43 prevention RCTs focused on preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. Thirteen of the 25 treatment trials focused on opportunistic infections. Trials were conducted in 16 countries with most in South Africa (20, Zambia (12 and Zimbabwe (9. The median sample size was 628 (range 33-9645. Methods used for the generation of the allocation sequence and allocation concealment were adequate in 38 and 32 trials, respectively, and 58 reports included a CONSORT recommended flow diagram. Twenty-nine principal investigators resided in the United States of America (USA and 18 were from African countries. Trials were co-funded by different agencies with most of the funding obtained from USA governmental and non-governmental agencies. Nineteen pharmaceutical companies provided partial funding to 15 RCTs and African agencies co-funded 17 RCTs. Ethical approval was reported in 65 trials and informed consent in 61 trials. CONCLUSION: Prevention trials dominate the trial

  12. AIDS and Rural Livelihoods. Dynamics and Diversity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, Anke; Rugalema, G.; Gillespie, S.


    HIV and AIDS continue to devastate the livelihoods of millions of Africans and represent the major public health challenge in many countries. More people die of AIDS each day than from wars, famine and floods combined, while an orphaned generation of children must be provided for. Yet despite

  13. Optical and nonoptical aids for reading and writing in individuals with acquired low vision. (United States)

    Monteiro, Mayla Myrina Bianchim; Montilha, Rita de Cássia Ietto; Carvalho, Keila Miriam Monteiro de; Gasparetto, Maria Elisabete Rodrigues Freire


    To evaluate the use of optical and nonoptical aids during reading and writing activities in individuals with acquired low vision. This study was performed using descriptive and cross-sectional surveys. The data collection instrument was created with structured questions that were developed from an exploratory study and a previous test based on interviews, and it evaluated the following variables: personal characteristics, use of optical and nonoptical aids, and activities that required the use of optical and nonoptical aids. The study population included 30 subjects with acquired low vision and visual acuities of 20/200-20/400. Most subjects reported the use of some optical aids (60.0%). Of these 60.0%, the majority (83.3%) cited spectacles as the most widely used optical aid. The majority (63.3%) of subjects also reported the use of nonoptical aids, the most frequent ones being letter magnification (68.4%), followed by bringing the objects closer to the eyes (57.8%). Subjects often used more than one nonoptical aid. The majority of participants reported the use of optical and nonoptical aids during reading activities, highlighting the use of spectacles, magnifying glasses, and letter magnification; however, even after the use of these aids, we found that the subjects often needed to read the text more than once to understand it. During writing activities, all subjects reported the use of optical aids, while most stated that they did not use nonoptical aids for such activities.

  14. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote


    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  15. HIV/AIDS in Women (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV often ...

  16. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Network (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS Conferences Job Opportunities A Year in Review Social Media Twitter Feed Featured Content Newsletter Article A Message from the Future ACTG Network Chair Dr. Judith Currier Go to ACTG Newsletters » ...

  17. The Sobering Geography of AIDS. (United States)

    Palca, Joseph


    The rate at which the epidemic of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is spreading in North America, Asia, Latin America, and Africa is discussed. The number of people infected globally and in low-risk urban populations is presented. (KR)

  18. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR): First Aid (United States)

    ... minutes. To learn CPR properly, take an accredited first-aid training course, including CPR and how to use an ... and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved.

  19. Visual Landing Aids (VLA) Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Visual Landing Aids (VLA) Laboratory serves to support fleet VLA systems by maintaining the latest service change configuration of currently deployed VLA...

  20. WHERE2 Location Aided Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Armin; Agapiou, George; Brunel, Loïc


    This paper presents an overview of preliminary results of investigations within the WHERE2 Project on identifying promising avenues for location aided enhancements to wireless communication systems. The wide ranging contributions are organized according to the following targeted systems: cellular...

  1. Hearing Aid Fitting & Electrophysiologic Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Jalaei


    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of deaf individual is one of the important subjects that has attracted attention of many researchers during past centuries. Different opinions have been established in this direction. Electrophysiologic tests were established and developed parallel to developments in rehabilitation. Therefore, opinion of using electrophysiologic test for evaluation and fitting of hearing aid became gradually popular. Ultimately, the electrophysiologic tests are used in evaluation and fitting of hearing aid in two ways: 1-Direct way 2- Indirect way "nIn direct way aided ABR is obtained and special attention is paid to wave V. This technique has many difficulties. Inindirect way, electrophysiologic tests such, ECochG, OAE and ABR, AMLR, ALR and P300 and other objective tests are used, especially in infants and neonates for evaluating the state of hearing. Researches are continuing in this field. It is probable to have aided electrophysiologic responses with speech stimuli in near future.

  2. Pakistan combats hidden AIDS menace. (United States)


    The conservative Islamic society in Pakistan associates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with prostitution, homosexuality, and drug abuse, activities which are prohibited in Pakistan. There are 1000 reported cases of HIV, 55 with advanced AIDS (53 have died) in Pakistan. Birjees Mazhar Kazi, head of the National AIDS Program, believes that, based on the computer model of the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of HIV cases in Pakistan can be 50,000 to 80,000. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government has allocated $2 million for AIDS prevention. Although some officials argue that Islamic strictures and traditional social pressures discourage sexual license, the poor public health and education standards in Pakistan make it vulnerable to AIDS. Drug abuse has risen in the last 20 years; there are an estimated 1.5 million heroin users among an estimated 3 million addicts. According to Health Ministry Director General Naik Muhammad Shaikh, the government has established 30 HIV/AIDS screening centers and is sponsoring a law that would require all blood banks to provide only safe blood and blood products for transfusion. Marvi states that the reuse and poor disposal of needles, a common practice in Pakistan, could be responsible for most of the transmission there of AIDS and hepatitis C. Health experts acknowledge the obstacles placed in the way of AIDS awareness campaigns by sex taboos and religious sensitivities; condoms cannot be mentioned or displayed in shops, or used in electronic or print media campaigns. They can be mentioned in a recorded message on a 24-hr AIDS hotline. Community-based and nongovernmental organizations are being used to reach segments of society who cannot use the hotline. Eunuchs (hijras), who are much in demand as "female" entertainers at weddings, are particularly resistant to safe sex messages, according to Abid Atiq, head of the information and education section of the

  3. HIV/AIDS and time allocation in rural Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bignami-Van Assche


    Full Text Available AIDS morbidity and mortality are expected to have a large impact on households' labor supply in rural Malawi since they reduce the time that adults can spend on production for subsistence and on income generating activities. However, the data demands for estimating this impact are high, limiting the amount of empirical evidence. In this paper, we utilize a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative data, including biomarkers for HIV, collected by the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project, to analyze the impact of AIDS-related morbidity and mortality on time allocation decisions for rural Malawians. We evaluate both the direct effect of HIV/AIDS on the time allocation of affected individuals as well as its indirect effect on the time allocation of surviving household members. We find that the latter is the most important effect of AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, especially on women's time. Specifically, AIDS induces diversification of income sources, with women reallocating their time from work-intensive (typically farming and heavy chores to cash-generating tasks (such as casual labor.

  4. Instant Generation (United States)

    Loveland, Elaina


    Generation Z students (born between 1995-2010) have replaced millennials on college campuses. Generation Z students are entrepreneurial, desire practical skills with their education, and are concerned about the cost of college. This article presents what need to be known about this new generation of students.

  5. Isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The patent describes an isotope generator incorporating the possibility of stopping elution before the elution vessel is completely full. Sterile ventilation of the whole system can then occur, including of both generator reservoir and elution vessel. A sterile, and therefore pharmaceutically acceptable, elution fluid is thus obtained and the interior of the generator is not polluted with non-sterile air. (T.P.)

  6. Can You Give First Aid? (United States)

    Bontrager, Frances M.

    This pamphlet is a guide for first aid. Areas discussed are: (1) the first-aid box; (2) how to call a doctor; (3) what to do before the doctor comes; (4) how to stop bleeding; (5) what to do for shock; (6) when breathing stops; (7) how to treat an unconscious person; (8) what to do for broken bones; (9) what to do for burns; (10) minor wounds and…

  7. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  8. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  9. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling (United States)


    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  10. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section. (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y


    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  11. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation]. (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao


    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  12. Do Visual Aids Really Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Fish


    Full Text Available Educational webcasts or video lectures as a teaching tool and a form of visual aid have become widely used with the rising prevalence of online and blended courses and with the increase of web-based video materials. Thus, research pertaining to factors enhancing the effectiveness of video lectures, such as number of visual aids, is critical. This study compared student evaluations before and after embedding additional visual aids throughout video lectures in an online course. Slide transitions occurred on average every 40 seconds for the pre-treatment group with approximately 600 visuals total, compared to slide transitions every 10 seconds for the post-treatment group with approximately 2,000 visuals total. All students received the same audio recordings. Research questions addressed are: (1 Are student perceptions of the effectiveness of examples used to illustrate concepts affected by number of visual aids? (2 Is the extent to which students feel engaged during the lectures affected by number of visual aids? (3 Are students’ perceived overall learning experiences affected by number of visual aids? Surprisingly, results indicate that for questions #1 and #3, student ratings of those who viewed videos with fewer visuals rated their experiences higher than students who viewed more visuals. There was no significant difference found for question #2. Conclusion: Although some visuals have been shown to enhance learning, too many visuals may be a deterrent to learning.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imadduddin Parhani


    Full Text Available Depression is a major mental health problem today. This is very important because people with depression productivity will decrease and this is very bad for a society and a country that is building. There are at least four chronic diseases that allow the depression sufferer, one of which is HIV and AIDS. Given the uncertainty over the fate of people living with HIV and AIDS had the potential to give rise to feelings of anxiety and depression. Someone who is infected with HIV and AIDS will be overcome by a feeling of dying, guilt about the behavior that makes infection, and taste sequestered by others.The cause of depression in people with HIV and AIDS by cognitive approach that is the mindset of people who deviate from the pattern of the logical interpretation or misinterprets an event or events, focusing on the negative situations that happened to him, and hope that pessimistic and negative about the future. Symptoms are raised is their depressed mood, decreased interest or pleasure in absolute terms, average of worthlessness or excessive guilt, thoughts of death. Response or reaction that occurs is refused, angry, and depressed when he learned he was infected with HIV and AIDS, and eventually be able to accept his situation. Efforts are being made to reduce depression are manifold. One is through social support to colleagues who also have HIV and AIDS.

  14. Computer aided taxonomy (CAT): Approach for understanding systematics of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Kavlekar, D.P.; Chandramohan, D.

    Computer aided taconomy (CAT) is gaining importance day by day. In order to familiarise the taxonomy and its continuing usage an attempt has made to develop a module for knowing the systematics of organisms and to generate automatic numerical code...

  15. Graph Generator Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lothian, Joshua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Sarah S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sullivan, Blair D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baker, Matthew B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schrock, Jonathan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Poole, Stephen W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allowed the emulation of different application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report examines existing synthetic graph generator implementations in preparation for further study on the properties of their generated synthetic graphs.

  16. Wavelets for computer-aided breast cancer diagnosis (United States)

    Myers, Lemuel R., Jr.; Kocur, Catherine M.; Rogers, Steven K.; Eisenbies, Chris; Hoffmeister, Jeffrey W.


    More than 50 million women over the age of 40 are currently at risk for breast cancer in the United States. Computer-aided diagnosis, used as a `second opinion' to radiologists, will aid in decreasing the number of false readings of mammograms. A novel feature extraction method is presented that provides increased classification power. Wavelets, previously only exploited for their segmentation benefits, are explored as features for classification. Daubechies4, Daubechies20, and biorthogonal wavelets are each investigated. Applied to 94 difficult-to- diagnose digitized microcalcification cases, performance is 74 percent correct classifications. Feature selection techniques are presented which further improve wavelet classification performance to 88 percent correct classification.

  17. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh


    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  18. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh


    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  19. Diaspora and development aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman


    globalisation/travel & telecommunication/flow of resources and mobility. It is also possible to argue that the two major emerging global powers China and India together with their relatively successful Diaspora contributed to this development. With the current economic and deteriorating conditions......, the citizenship model (channelling development through the state- e.g. China & India, the associational model ( organisational social capital generation) and finally the transnational partnership model (multidiaspora)........ Somalis are found almost any place in the world, including Greenland according to BBC programme from 2003. The debate on Diaspora re-emerged in the social sciences following an increased migration from South to North (due to the probably the end of the cold war). In addition there is an increased...



    Adedokun, Adeniyi Jimmy; Abiodun O. Folawewo, Abiodun O.


    Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM) technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to a...

  1. Comparison of hearing aid outcome measures in adult hearing aid users


    Miggiani, Pauline; Tabone, Nadine;


    Hearing aid outcome measures have become an essential part of audiological intervention. This study aimed to explore hearing aid benefit in Maltese hearing aid users through subjective and objective outcome measures. The Profil Imqassar dwar il-Benefiċċju tal-Hearing Aids (PIBHA), a translated version of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) questionnaire, was used to subjectively examine hearing aid benefit in 56 adult hearing aid users fallin...

  2. Life-history traits in an evergreen Mediterranean oak respond differentially to previous experimental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rey Benayas


    Full Text Available Living organisms respond both to current and previous environments, which can have important consequences on population dynamics. However, there is little experimental evidence based on long-term field studies of the effects of previous environments on the performance of individuals. We tested the hypothesis that trees that establish under different environmental conditions perform differently under similar post-establishment conditions. We used the slow-growing, evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia as target species. We analyzed the effects of previous environments, competition effects and tradeoffs among life-history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction. We enhanced seedling establishment for three years by reducing abiotic environmental harshness by means of summer irrigation and artificial shading in 12 experimental plots, while four plots remained as controls. Then these treatments were interrupted for ten years. Seedlings under ameliorated environmental conditions survived and grew faster during early establishment. During the post-management period, previous treatments 1 did not have any effect on survival, 2 experienced a slower above-ground growth, 3 decreased root biomass as indicated from reflectivity of Ground Penetration Radar, 4 increased acorn production mostly through a greater canopy volume and 5 increased acorn production effort. The trees exhibited a combination of effects related to acclimation for coping with abiotic stress and effects of intra-specific competition. In accordance with our hypothesis, tree performance overall depended on previous environmental conditions, and the response was different for different life-history traits. We recommend early management because it increased plot cover, shortened the time to attain sexual maturity and increased the amount of acorn production. Plots such as those assessed in this study may act as sources of propagules in deforested

  3. Computer-Aided Parallelizer and Optimizer (United States)

    Jin, Haoqiang


    The Computer-Aided Parallelizer and Optimizer (CAPO) automates the insertion of compiler directives (see figure) to facilitate parallel processing on Shared Memory Parallel (SMP) machines. While CAPO currently is integrated seamlessly into CAPTools (developed at the University of Greenwich, now marketed as ParaWise), CAPO was independently developed at Ames Research Center as one of the components for the Legacy Code Modernization (LCM) project. The current version takes serial FORTRAN programs, performs interprocedural data dependence analysis, and generates OpenMP directives. Due to the widely supported OpenMP standard, the generated OpenMP codes have the potential to run on a wide range of SMP machines. CAPO relies on accurate interprocedural data dependence information currently provided by CAPTools. Compiler directives are generated through identification of parallel loops in the outermost level, construction of parallel regions around parallel loops and optimization of parallel regions, and insertion of directives with automatic identification of private, reduction, induction, and shared variables. Attempts also have been made to identify potential pipeline parallelism (implemented with point-to-point synchronization). Although directives are generated automatically, user interaction with the tool is still important for producing good parallel codes. A comprehensive graphical user interface is included for users to interact with the parallelization process.

  4. Experiences In The Design And Use Of An Expert System For Computer-Aided Control System Design (United States)

    Birdwell, J. Douglas; Cockett, J. Robin B.


    An expert system, the Computer-Aided Systems and Control. Analysis and Design Environment (CASCADE) has been implemented for the design of multivariable controllers for linear plants, using the linear quadratic Gaussian/loop transfer recovery (LQG/I,T11.) design methodology [1,2,3]. The expert system was implemented using a novel shell, DECIDE [4,5], which uses a decision expression methodology and incorporates explanation and backtracking, and linkage with the numeric and graphics software necessary for control system analysis and design. CASCADE was evaluated by generating trial designs for several realistic applications in the following areas: High voltage DC power transmission, robot manipulator path tracking, large structure active stiffening, aircraft stability augmentation, wind power cogeneration, bioreactor control, and steam power plant control. Since these designs were performed by graduate students, this provided an evaluation of the CASCADE implementation as both an expert system-based design package and an aid in education. We found that not only was the expert system useful for computer-aided design and education; it also served to demonstrate several subtle fallacies in the theoretical design methodology. Our surmise is that these fallacies had remained undiscovered because of the significant investment required in the mechanics of the design process in previous work. The expert system allowed attention to be focused-on a codification of design knowledge rather than on the algorithmic details.

  5. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral... Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all... aid training shall be made available to all interested miners. [61 FR 50436, Sept. 26, 1996] ...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.98 - First aid. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 1915.98 Section 1915.98 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.98 First aid...) Unless a first aid room and a qualified attendant are close at hand and prepared to render first aid to...

  7. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary to...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting aid...

  9. Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research. (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald, Ed.


    Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

  10. Remittances and the Effectiveness of Foreign Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minasyan, Anna; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    We argue that donors could improve the effectiveness of foreign aid by pursuing complementary and coherent non-aid policies. In particular, we hypothesize that aid has stronger growth effects if recipients receive more aid from donors who allow for (temporary) worker mobility and (more permanent)

  11. Social disparities, communication inequalities, and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes in India. (United States)

    Ackerson, Leland K; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Arya, Monisha; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula


    Promoting awareness, increasing knowledge, and eliminating stigma is important for stopping the spread of HIV/AIDS. The relation of social determinants and communication inequalities with HIV/AIDS-related cognitive processes has not been studied previously in India. Gender-stratified Poisson regression models of 123,459 women and 73,908 men in the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey were used to calculate relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals for these associations. Results indicated that there are significant inequalities in mass media use among different social classes. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about prevention and transmission of AIDS and negatively associated with HIV/AIDS-related stigma. These associations attenuated when use of various mass media types were added to the models with television showing the strongest effect. Mass media may be helpful in reducing social disparities in HIV/AIDS outcomes.

  12. Community senior first aid training in Western Australia: its extent and effect on knowledge and skills. (United States)

    Lynch, Dania M; Gennat, Hanni C; Celenza, Tony; Jacobs, Ian G; O'Brien, Debra; Jelinek, George A


    To define the extent of Senior First Aid training in a sample of the Western Australian community, and to evaluate the effect of previous training on first aid knowledge and skills. A telephone survey of a random sample from suburban Perth and rural Western Australia; and practical assessment of first aid skills in a subsample of those surveyed. 30.4% of respondents had completed a Senior First Aid certificate. Trained individuals performed consistently better in theoretical tests (p=0.0001) and practical management of snakebite (p=0.021) than untrained. However, many volunteers, both trained and untrained, demonstrated poor skills in applying pressure immobilisation bandaging and splinting the limb adequately despite electing to do so in theory. Overall knowledge and performance of first aid skills by the community are poor, but are improved by first aid training courses.

  13. The Effects of Financial Aid in High School on Academic and Labor Market Outcomes: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    We investigate the effects of financial aid on student employment and academic outcomes in high school. We exploit administrative differences in the amount of financial aid received based on timing of birth to identify the causal effects of interest. Specifically, individuals born early...... in a quarter receive less financial aid than comparable individuals born late in the previous quarter. We find that receiving less aid induces individuals to work more during high school. However, we do not find any evidence that receiving less financial aid and thereby working more is associated with any...

  14. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  15. Radiographic evaluation of AIDS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blang, S.D.; Witheman, M.L.; Donovan Post, M.J.; Casillas, J.V. [Miami Univ., FL (United States). Dept. of Radiology


    Morphological imaging, based on the use of various techniques including ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the characterization, diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). While the presence of thoracic infections, the most frequently observed illnesses in AIDS patients, can best be performed by using conventional chest films and CT, the assessment of cerebral involvement in AIDS patients - characterized by the presence of focal masses, demyelination, meningitis, and infarction - is best achieved using MRI. The work-up of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms should include the use of ultrasound for the evaluation of visceral involvement and lymphadenopathy, completed by CT to further characterize pathologic conditions in either the bowel or visceral organs. Ultrasound is the screening exam of choice in AIDS patients with suspected renal disease, but other methods may be necessary for the assessment of the complications due to pharmacological treatment. Musculoskeletal complications may require the combined use of all the above methods, since they may be caused by infections, tumors and rheumatologic illness. The use of the radiographic methods for the detection of the numerous forms of infections and malignancies in AIDS patients is described in detail for the various body districts.

  16. Radiographic evaluation of AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Blang, S.D.; Witheman, M.L.; Donovan Post, M.J.; Casillas, J.V.


    Morphological imaging, based on the use of various techniques including ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the characterization, diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). While the presence of thoracic infections, the most frequently observed illnesses in AIDS patients, can best be performed by using conventional chest films and CT, the assessment of cerebral involvement in AIDS patients - characterized by the presence of focal masses, demyelination, meningitis, and infarction - is best achieved using MRI. The work-up of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms should include the use of ultrasound for the evaluation of visceral involvement and lymphadenopathy, completed by CT to further characterize pathologic conditions in either the bowel or visceral organs. Ultrasound is the screening exam of choice in AIDS patients with suspected renal disease, but other methods may be necessary for the assessment of the complications due to pharmacological treatment. Musculoskeletal complications may require the combined use of all the above methods, since they may be caused by infections, tumors and rheumatologic illness. The use of the radiographic methods for the detection of the numerous forms of infections and malignancies in AIDS patients is described in detail for the various body districts

  17. How to perform first aid. (United States)

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John


    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: .


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Atanasiu


    Full Text Available This article aims to offer to the non-specialist reader a concise introduction to the main elements of the state aid acquis, and inform on what lies ahead of Romania in the accession process in relation to state aid control, based on the precedent of the 2004 enlargement. It also discusses the current state of affairs in Romania in the domain of state aid control, with a particular view to the situation of the steel and coal sectors. Section I covers the legal concept of state aid, the substantive rules applicable to state aid – the general ban and exemptions from it, the Commission’s control and monitoring powers, and the regime currently applicable to coal and steel aid. Section II relates the experience of the countries that joined the EU in May 2004 in the negotiation of state aid issued under the Competition Chapter, discusses the notion of “existing aid” (i.e. state aid given in the candidate countries previous to accession but which continues to produce effects after accession in the context of enlargement, and overviews the agreed transitional arrangements. Section III turns to the legislative and institutional context for the control of state aid in Romania, and to topical issues related to state aid in the context of the negotiations on the Competition Chapter.

  19. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance. (United States)


    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  20. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  1. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  2. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  3. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  4. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  5. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  6. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings. (United States)


    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate. (United States)


    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  8. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  9. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children. (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L


    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  10. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk. (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald


    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  12. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant? (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  13. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  14. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.


    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  15. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  16. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  17. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  18. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  19. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped. (United States)


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  20. Parental HIV/AIDS status and death, and children's psychological wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doku Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana has an estimated one million orphans, 250,000 are due to AIDS parental deaths. This is the first study that examined the impact of parental HIV/AIDS status and death on the mental health of children in Ghana. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, 4 groups of 200 children (children whose parents died of AIDS, children whose parents died of causes other than AIDS, children living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS, and non-orphaned children whose parents are not known to be infected with HIV/AIDS aged between 10 and 19 were interviewed on their hyperactivity, emotional, conduct, and peer problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Children whose parents died of AIDS showed very high levels of peer problems [F (3,196 = 7.34, p Conclusion Orphans and children living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS are at heightened risks for emotional and behavioural disorders and that efforts to address problems in children affected by HIV/AIDS must focus on both groups of children. Parallel to this, researchers should see these findings as generated hypotheses (rather than conclusions calling for further exploration of specific causal linkages between HIV/AIDS and children's mental health, using more rigorous research tools and designs.

  1. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy. (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R


    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  2. Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlis, N.E.


    The adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique data system which uses computer controlled data systems, video cameras and recorders, analog-to-digital conversion, environmental sensors, and digital recorders to collect sensor data. The data can be viewed either manually or with a special computerized data-reduction system which adds new data to a data base stored on a magnetic disc recorder. This report provides a synoptic account of the AIDS as it presently exists. Modifications to the purchased subsystems are described, and references are made to publications which describe the Sandia-designed subsystems


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Zainuddin


    Full Text Available Infectious diseases HIV/AIDS is a global health problem. According to WHO (2000 reported that 58 million people in the world are infected with HIV, within the 22 million people died from AIDS or 7000 people die every day. HIV Infection caused decrease and disorder of humoral and cellular immunity. Intestinal mucosal normally shows a physiologic inflamation that account for intestinal mucosal integrity. Diarhhea in HIV infection due to immune deficiency can caused by pathogen and non pathogen. Acute and chronic diarrhea usually found in HIV infection patient, the latter is more frequent. HIV enteropathy cause chronic diarrhea without pathogen infection because intestinal mucous damage by HIV direct infection. Treatment is characterized as causative supportive and symptomatic treatment causal, supportive and Symptomatic. Immunonutrient is very important within management patient HIV/AIDS.

  4. Generative Semantics. (United States)

    King, Margaret

    The first section of this paper deals with the attempts within the framework of transformational grammar to make semantics a systematic part of linguistic description, and outlines the characteristics of the generative semantics position. The second section takes a critical look at generative semantics in its later manifestations, and makes a case…

  5. Generative collectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, W.; Avital, M.; Sabherwal, R.; Sumner, M.


    Analyzing generative group activities against the backdrop of an increasingly connected world, this theory development paper introduces the concept of "generative collectives" as a new framework for classifying internet-based collectives and a novel theoretical lens for explaining why some

  6. Generational Phenomenology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    by Xers, and how Millennials not only accept but expect diversity (320 ff.). However, nothing is actually said to the effect that generational relations might be affected by the different styles of thinking, speaking, and values of women. Moreover, it seems likely that generations and their relations are different for people of color,.

  7. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.


    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  8. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.


    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  9. Pulse Generator (United States)

    Greer, Lawrence (Inventor)


    An apparatus and a computer-implemented method for generating pulses synchronized to a rising edge of a tachometer signal from rotating machinery are disclosed. For example, in one embodiment, a pulse state machine may be configured to generate a plurality of pulses, and a period state machine may be configured to determine a period for each of the plurality of pulses.

  10. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.


    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  11. Generative Semantics (United States)

    Bagha, Karim Nazari


    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  12. Nuclear thermal rocket clustering: 1, A summary of previous work and relevant issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buksa, J.J.; Houts, M.G.


    A general review of the technical merits of nuclear thermal rocket clustering is presented. A summary of previous analyses performed during the Rover program is presented and used to assess clustering in the context of projected Space Exploration Initiative missions. A number of technical issues are discussed including cluster reliability, engine-out operation, neutronic coupling, shutdown core power generation, shutdown reactivity requirements, reactor kinetics, and radiation shielding. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable (United States)

    Achim, Cristian L.; Boivin, Michael J.; Brew, Bruce J.; Clifford, David B.; Colosi, Deborah A.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Heaton, Robert K.; Gallo-Diop, Amadou; Grant, Igor; Kanmogne, Georgette D.; Kumar, Mahendra; Letendre, Scott; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Nath, Avindra; Pardo, Carlos A.; Paul, Robert H.; Pulliam, Lynn; Robertson, Kevin; Royal, Walter; Sacktor, Ned; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Smith, Davey M.; Valcour, Victor; Wigdahl, Brian; Wood, Charles


    In May 2012, the Division of AIDS Research at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) organized the “Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable” in conjunction with the 11th International Symposium on Neurovirology and the 2012 Conference on HIV in the Nervous System. The meeting was held in New York, NY, USA and brought together NIMH-funded investigators who are currently working on projects related to the neurological complications of AIDS (NeuroAIDS) in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America in order to provide an opportunity to share their recent findings and discuss the challenges encountered within each country. The major goals of the roundtable were to evaluate HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and determine if it may be directly attributable to distinct HIV subtypes or clades and to discuss the future priorities for global NeuroAIDS research. At the “Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable”, presentations of preliminary research indicated that HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment is prevalent in all countries examined regardless of which HIV clade is present in the region. The only clear-cut difference between HIV-1 clades was in relation to subtypes A and D in Uganda. However, a key point that emerged from the discussions was that there is an urgent need to standardize neurocognitive assessment methodologies across the globe before definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding the relationship between HIV clade diversity and neuropathogenesis. Future research directions were also discussed at the roundtable with particular emphasis on the potential of viral and host factor molecular interactions to impact the pathophysiology of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) from a global perspective. PMID:23354550

  14. [Nurses' experiences with euthanasia in AIDS patients]. (United States)

    van der Brug, Y M; de Lange, J; Philipsen, H


    This article describes the experiences of nurses concerning the activities related to euthanasia of patients with aids. The nurses were employed in departments where relatively young, mature people wanted to arrange their own death. Our findings are based on six in-depth interviews with experienced nurses, that are part of a qualitative study into the experiences of nurses in taking leave of terminal patients with aids. The research strategy was based on the Grounded Theory. In order to analyse the experiences of the nurses, four phases were distinguished: set date and time unto application of lethal agent; application unto becoming unconscious; unconsciousness to death; death until transferring the body from the unit. Feelings that occur when taking leave of the patient, if not already taken care of at an earlier instant, play a major role in the phase from application to becoming unconscious. The fact that a deadly agent is being administered can generate feelings of guilt and anxiety. The period from unconsciousness to death is one of waiting. During this period nurses feel alienated and alone. The nurses indicated explicitly that an adequate preparation, evaluation and support are extremely important.

  15. Sexuality and Aging: discussions about AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Marinho da Silveira


    Full Text Available The aging population as well as the sexual liberation has caused many taboos to be broken, and even greater access to drugs that stimulate sexual activity provided for the elderly a sense of greater security to maintain sexual activity, this has generated an increase in cases of AIDS in these individuals. AIDS is a disease caused by the HIV virus that affects the body's immune system and presented as one of the most complex and challenging ever faced by mankind pandemics. Sexuality in the elderly that was neglected by researchers, professionals and society in general, until very recently, today is cause for concern. Based on this, the objective of this study was a reflection on the process of aging of the population and a rising rate of HIV infection among the elderly. It is intended to emphasize that, despite its increase, this segment still appears to be invisible to the eyes of society and the state and that the frequency and quality of sexual activity has not been accompanied by information and actions for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases that portion of the population.

  16. Machine Aided Indexing and the NASA Thesaurus (United States)

    vonOfenheim, Bill


    Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) is a Web-based application program for aiding the indexing of literature in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Database. MAI was designed to be a convenient, fully interactive tool for determining the subject matter of documents and identifying keywords. The heart of MAI is a natural-language processor that accepts, as input, any user-supplied text, including abstracts, full documents, and Web pages. Within seconds, the text is analyzed and a ranked list of terms is generated. The 17,800 terms of the NASA Thesaurus serve as the foundation of the knowledge base used by MAI. The NASA Thesaurus defines a standard vocabulary, the use of which enables MAI to assist in ensuring that STI documents are uniformly and consistently accessible. Of particular interest to traditional users of the NASA Thesaurus, MAI incorporates a fully searchable thesaurus display module that affords word-search and hierarchy- navigation capabilities that make it much easier and less time-consuming to look up terms and browse, relative to lookup and browsing in older print and Portable Document Format (PDF) digital versions of the Thesaurus. In addition, because MAI is centrally hosted, the Thesaurus data are always current.

  17. First aid knowledge, attitude, practice, and associated factors among kindergarten teachers of Lideta sub-city Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Ganfure, Gemechu; Ameya, Gemechu; Tamirat, Ababe; Lencha, Bikila; Bikila, Dereje


    Injuries are very common and can occur at any point of time in a day. Unintended injuries in kindergarten children are the most common and need immediate life saving care which is known as first aid. This study aimed to investigate knowledge, attitude, practice, and associated factors of first aid among kindergarten teachers of Lideta sub-city Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among kindergarten teachers. Data was collected using pretested, structured and self-administered questionnaire S1 File. The collected data was entered in to Epi Data version 3.1 software and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify association between kindergarten teachers' knowledge and attitudes towards first aid and different variables. Odds ratios with 95% CI and pfirst aid. Eighty percent of teachers encountered with children in need of first aid. Kindergarten teachers older than 35 years [AOR = 4.2, 95%CI: (1.02, 16.9)], five years' experience [AOR = 3.1, 95%CI: (1.2, 7.6)], having previous first aid training [AOR = 3.1, 95%CI: (1.2, 7.7)], source of first aid information and teachers serving in private kindergarten are associated with having knowledge of first aid. Long time experience, type of kindergarten, previous training, and exposure to children in need of first aid were positive association with attitude towards first aid. Low first aid knowledge and high positive attitude among kindergarten teachers. Having long time experience, being older age, previous first aid training, and serving in private kindergarten were positively associated with first aid knowledge and positive attitude. Creating awareness and including first aid courses in the kindergarten teachers' curriculum need to be considered.

  18. Governing AIDS through aid to civil society: Global solutions meet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to explore how international donors influence civil society organisations (CSOs) in Mozambique through funding mechanisms, the creation of partnerships, or inclusion in targeted programmes. The main focus is the relationship between donors and AIDS non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

  19. Democracy Aid and Electoral Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Tobias; Loftis, Matthew


    for this by analyzing incumbent turnover in elections following poor economic performance – the economic vote – as a measure of voting to achieve performance accountability. In our analysis of over 1,100 elections in 114 developing countries between 1975 and 2010, we find distinct evidence that increasing receipt...... cannot tell us how well democracy aid supports the central promise of democracy: accountable government. Since institutions can be subverted in various ways that undermine accountability, it is vital to know whether democracy aid supports accountability to assess its overall success. We provide evidence...

  20. State aid in the EU law and national law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago


    Full Text Available Due to emphasized negative implications, state aid in contemporary law is more and more the subject of legal rules of supra-national and international law, and consequently it is more and more frequently the subject of national laws. The systems of state aid are based on the principle of general non-allowedness of state aid, which is relativised with wide exceptions and the form of allowed and conditionally allowed forms of state aid. In the EU law, a complex and differentiated system of legal regime on state aid is created aimed at preventing the Member States to protect or promote their companies at the expense or harm of competition within the EU. Compared to the regulations that refer to subsidies and that are created at the international level, within the WTO, these regulations are much more detailed and they cover a wide spectrum of different forms of state aid. National laws are accepting the EU concept as a novelty, which is valid in particular for countries in the process of the EU integrations. This has been done in our law as well by enacting of the Law on state aid control. This Law regulates general conditions for granting, granting control, and utilization of state assistance, with the essential objective to establish and provide for competitive market conditions and introduction of order in the field that has not been regulated previously. At the same time, this means a successful fulfillment of the obligations related to pre-accession harmonization of this field, which is a necessary pre-condition for accession of our country into this group of countries since the EU standards and requirements have been fully observed with the above-mentioned Law.

  1. Performance of second generation 10-watt Stirling generator set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.; Ritter, D.


    The purpose of the Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) development program is to devise a generator that produces at least 10 watts of DC power continuously with 58 to 60 watts of thermal input from a radioisotope. The first generation, or laboratory version, of a 10 watt Stirling generator set was described in previous IECEC proceedings. The second generation version of the generator set has been built and tested. The significant changes include the implementation of vacuum foil insulation with a much smaller volume, hermetic sealing, and elimination of most of the diagnostic instrumentation used for laboratory development. This paper describes the performance and operating characteristics of the second generation machine and compares it to the first generation machine. Endurance testing of the first generation machine and key components is also described

  2. Improving nuclear power plant safety through operator aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In October 1986, the IAEA convened a one-week Technical Committee Meeting on Improving Nuclear Power Plant Safety Through Operator Aids. The term ''operator aid'' or more formally ''operator support system'' refers to a class of devices designed to be added to a nuclear power plant control station to assist an operator in performing his job and thereby decrease the probability of operator error. The addition of a carefully planned and designed operator aid should result in an increase in nuclear power plant safety and reliability. Operator aids encompass a wide range of devices from the very simple, such as color coding a display to distinguish it out of a group of similar displays, to the very complex, such as a computer-generated video display which concentrates a number of scattered indicator readings located around a control room into a concise display in front of the operator. This report provides guidelines and information to help make a decision as to whether an operator aid is needed, what kinds of operator aids are available and whether it should be purchased or developed by the utility. In addition, a discussion is presented on advanced operator aids to provide information on what may become available in the future. The broad scope of these guidelines makes it most suitable for use by a multi-disciplinary team. The document consists of two parts. The recommendations and results of the meeting discussions are given in the first part. The second part is the annex where the papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting are printed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 10 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2. (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda


    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  4. [Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in Chile. December 2003]. (United States)


    From 1984, when the first case of AIDS was diagnosed in Chile, to December 2003, 6.060 patients with AIDS and 6.514 with asymptomatic HIV infection have been notified to a passive national surveillance system; around 3,800 have died due to the infection. Magnitude of the under reporting is discussed. Assumed routes of the infection have been: sexual (94.1%), blood--largely intravenous drug use--(4.3%) and vertical transmission (1.6%). According to analysis performed by the National Commission on AIDS (CONASIDA), a governmental office, HIV/AIDS epidemic in Chile is characterized by: predominance in male homo/bisexuals, urban and rural distribution, impoverishment of the affected people, diagnosis made mainly during adulthood and a steady trend to affecting more women and heterosexuals at large. Since 2001 there has been a continuous increase in access to standard antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for those cared for by the public health system, reaching free coverage for 100% of this population by 2003, which has determined a significant decrease in the rate AIDS-associated clinical manifestations while reaching an stop of the previously increasing lethality of the infection (from a 15% increase from 1993-1997 to 0.2% from 1998-2003).

  5. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine


    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.


    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  6. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking


    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET


    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  7. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern


    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  8. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings


    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.


    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  9. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy. (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  10. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit. (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D


    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  11. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby


    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla


    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  12. Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor (United States)

    Soni, Bharat K.


    NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the CAGI: Computer Aided Grid Interface system. The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and/or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

  13. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings. (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M


    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  14. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.


    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  15. The role of video in health education on HIV / AIDS. (United States)

    Dijkstra, R


    Films and videos have been used by priests for many years to reach thousands of village people. The films are often dubbed in the local language or a commentator explains the scenes. Films have also been made and distributed about AIDS. Bukumbi Hospital used those films created in Tanzania to educate its personnel when the AIDS Committee was established in 1990. The hospital then took its health education sessions to villages and nearby institutions. When the AIDS Committee had access to video, it was usually used during the second visit to a community after the committee had already held a health education session with the local choir. While video can attract many people for meetings, it can also show an AIDS patient, his feelings, and the feelings of relatives. Videos can also directly teach viewers how to use condoms. Local applications, generating participation, and interactive health promotion are discussed. The AIDS Committee at Bukumbi Hospital has also produced its own experimental interactive video, focusing upon sexual attitudes and behavior.

  16. Electronic filters, hearing aids and methods (United States)

    Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); O'Connell, Michael P. (Inventor); Zheng, Baohua (Inventor)


    An electronic filter for an electroacoustic system. The system has a microphone for generating an electrical output from external sounds and an electrically driven transducer for emitting sound. Some of the sound emitted by the transducer returns to the microphone means to add a feedback contribution to its electical output. The electronic filter includes a first circuit for electronic processing of the electrical output of the microphone to produce a filtered signal. An adaptive filter, interconnected with the first circuit, performs electronic processing of the filtered signal to produce an adaptive output to the first circuit to substantially offset the feedback contribution in the electrical output of the microphone, and the adaptive filter includes means for adapting only in response to polarities of signals supplied to and from the first circuit. Other electronic filters for hearing aids, public address systems and other electroacoustic systems, as well as such systems, and methods of operating them are also disclosed.

  17. Adaptive Peircean decision aid project summary assessments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, Michael E.


    This efforts objective was to identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain. The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill's's canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment/domain to assess predictions from the reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of utility provided for a number of ancillary queries.

  18. The development of AIDS or AIDS-related conditions in a cohort of HIV antibody-positive homosexual men during a 3-year follow-up period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Kolby, P; Sindrup, J


    One hundred and thirty-three homosexual men seropositive for the antibody against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were enrolled in a prospective study in 1984-85. The 3-year cumulative incidences of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related conditions, by life-table analyses...... progressive loss of CD4 lymphocytes followed by clinical signs of immune deficiency, and that differences among previous cohorts with respect to disease progression are probably due to differences in the duration of infection....

  19. Using a pregnancy decision support program for women choosing birth after a previous caesarean in Japan: A mixed methods study. (United States)

    Torigoe, Ikuyo; Shorten, Allison


    Opportunities for women and providers to use decision aids and share decisions about birth after caesarean in practice are currently limited in Japan. This is despite known benefits of decision aids to support value-sensitive healthcare decisions. To explore Japanese women's decision making experiences using a decision aid program for birth choices after caesarean. A mixed methods study was conducted among 33 consenting pregnant women with previous caesarean in five obstetrics institutions located in the western part of Japan. Outcome measures included change in level of decisional conflict, change in knowledge, and preference for birth method. Semi-structured interviews examined women's decision making experiences, and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The participants in the program experienced a statistically significant improvement in knowledge and reduction in decisional conflict about birth after caesarean. Four themes were identified in the qualitative data related to decision making: change in women's knowledge about birth choices, clarifying women's birth preference, feelings about shared decision making, and contrasting feelings after receiving information. This study confirmed potential benefits of using the decision aid program. However, uncertainty about mode of birth continued for some women immediately prior to the birth. This finding emphasized the need to identify additional ways to support women emotionally throughout the process of decision making about birth after caesarean. It was feasible to adapt the decision aid for use in clinical practice. Future research is necessary to examine its effectiveness when implemented in Japanese clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nef does not contribute to replication differences between R5 pre-AIDS and AIDS HIV-1 clones from patient ACH142

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekosh David


    Full Text Available Abstract AIDS-associated, CCR5-tropic (R5 HIV-1 clones, isolated from a patient that never developed CXCR4-tropic HIV-1, replicate to a greater extent and cause greater cytopathic effects than R5 HIV-1 clones isolated before the onset of AIDS. Previously, we showed that HIV-1 Env substantially contributed to the enhanced replication of an AIDS clone. In order to determine if Nef makes a similar contribution, we cloned and phenotypically analyzed nef genes from a series of patient ACH142 derived R5 HIV-1 clones. The AIDS-associated Nef contains a series of residues found in Nef proteins from progressors 1. In contrast to other reports 123, this AIDS-associated Nef downmodulated MHC-I to a greater extent and CD4 less than pre-AIDS Nef proteins. Additionally, all Nef proteins enhanced infectivity similarly in a single round of replication. Combined with our previous study, these data show that evolution of the HIV-1 env gene, but not the nef gene, within patient ACH142 significantly contributed to the enhanced replication and cytopathic effects of the AIDS-associated R5 HIV-1 clone.

  1. Flywheel Generator


    Yuniarsih, Pratitis; Bachtiyar, Fahmi; Rosyidin, Mufti; Prabawanto, Trisakti


    Lately, the needs of energy is increasing but its availability is very limited. Therefore,it is important to do more research on energy reform. Generator is one of the alternative energy which commonly used by the public, but it has a minus value such as the voltage instability and low efficiency of the generator . Based on those issues,so we made an application flywheel in electrical generator, which aims to produce a concept of power efficiency increase, stabilize the output voltage of the ...

  2. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics (United States)

    ... people died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2016. Sub-Saharan Africa, which bears the heaviest burden of HIV and ... 232-6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open TOP

  3. Dietetic Aide. [Teacher's Copy]. Revised. (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    The curriculum guide, one of a series prepared to assist teacher-coordinators in promoting and teaching home economics cooperative education programs, provides a course of study for the dietetic aide occupation. In addition to a brief overview, job description, and job analysis of the occupation, the guide's four main sections are: instructional…

  4. maXImum medical aid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 4, 1990 ... exclude the patient's contribution in the form of co-payments and, in respect of many medical aid schemes, also exclude expenditure on medicines for hospitalised patients. An accurate estimate of aggregate expenditure on medicines in the private sector would be closer to 30% of total expenditure. This ...

  5. Exclusive Rights and State Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard


    Exclusive rights are granted in order to regulate markets as one of several possible tools of public intervention. The article considers the role of State aid law in the regulation of exclusive rights. Whereas the right of Member States to organise markets as monopolies and the choice of provider...

  6. State Funded Financial Aid Report. (United States)

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, Denver.

    This report summarizes Colorado student aid program expenditures for 1994-95. It briefly describes the following program types: need-based grants, merit-based grants, Colorado work-study, diversity grants, required federal matches, Colorado nursing scholarships, and categorical programs. Highlights of the report reveal the following: state…

  7. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow (United States)

    ... Animal bite - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 2 Go to slide 2 out of 2 Overview To treat a minor bite, first wash your hands thoroughly with soap to avoid ...

  8. A Hearing Aid Primer 1 (United States)

    Yetter, Carol J.


    This hearing aid primer is designed to define the differences among the three levels of hearing instrument technology: conventional analog circuit technology (most basic), digitally programmable/analog circuit technology (moderately advanced), and fully digital technology (most advanced). Both moderate and advanced technologies mean that hearing…

  9. Declaring world war on AIDS. (United States)

    MacSween, S


    There were over 10,000 delegates from all over the world at the 5th International Conference on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Montreal, Canada. A continuing debate throughout the conference by gay rights and AIDS support groups criticized an international obsession with scientific methods in fighting the epidemic. They indicated little financial and moral support from policy makers for health workers and those in high risk groups. Developing country representatives indicated the major threats of AIDS exposure includes huge numbers of street children, the growing numbers of migrant workers, the rapid expansion of cities, widespread prostitution and homosexuality, inadequate sanitation, and lack of health care resources. In West African cities there are a large number of prostitutes that have AIDS and are uneducated and poor. Researchers on sex behavior indicated that 1 of 3 white middle class males will have sexual activity with a prostitute once in his lifetime, 1 of 4 male college students between 17-22 years of age has had anal sex, and 3 of 4 persons, whether heterosexual or homosexual have had a sexual with the gender opposite to that of their normal partner. The risks for health care workers to not appear to be higher than normal except in the states of New York, Florida, and California where high risk populations are present. Some health care workers may not take precautions because of time constraints and less than 10% of paramedics surveyed took proper precautions at any time.

  10. Changing the Course of AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann


    " and "back stage" and Victor Turner's notion of "liminality." So-called front-stage behavior includes that of workplace peer educators who give training sessions to coworkers within vertically structured communication programs run by HIV/AIDS managers; back-stage interventions include educators...




  12. [AIDS and Aids: anthropological observations apropos the AIDS phenomenon in Lobaye, Central African Republic]. (United States)

    Epelboin, A


    Human infestation by retrolentivirus which are incriminated in human disease called AIDS turns to be a "serious endemic". Once adequate medicine and vaccine discovered, it could perhaps be jugulated or eradicated in ethno-ecosystems combining a high socioeconomic level and a heavy attendance of efficient biomedicine. These criteria fit in neither with Quarter, nor with Third World, nor with worlds which do not think or live Health, Illness, Death, Misfortune in the same terms than those inspired by biomedical philosophies. Native logic apprehends AIDS as any form of sequence of misfortune, without taking care of its physiopathologic and epidemiologic specificity.

  13. TIPS Placement in Swine, Guided by Electromagnetic Real-Time Needle Tip Localization Displayed on Previously Acquired 3-D CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Stephen B.; Magee, Carolyn; Acker, David E.; Venbrux, Anthony C.


    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of guiding a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure with an electromagnetic real-time needle tip position sensor coupled to previously acquired 3-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: An electromagnetic position sensor was placed at the tip of a Colapinto needle. The real-time position and orientation of the needle tip was then displayed on previously acquired 3-D CT images which were registered with the five swine. Portal vein puncture was then attempted in all animals. Results: The computer calculated accuracy of the position sensor was on average 3 mm. Four of five portal vein punctures were successful. In the successes, only one or two attempts were necessary and success was achieved in minutes. Conclusion: A real-time position sensor attached to the tip of a Colapinto needle and coupled to previously acquired 3-D CT images may potentially aid in entering the portal vein during the TIPS procedure

  14. Factor Configurations with Governance as Conditions for Low HIV/AIDS Prevalence in HIV/AIDS Recipient Countries: Fuzzy-set Analysis. (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Min; Kang, Minah


    This paper aims to investigate whether good governance of a recipient country is a necessary condition and what combinations of factors including governance factor are sufficient for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in HIV/AIDS aid recipient countries during the period of 2002-2010. For this, Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) was used. Nine potential attributes for a causal configuration for low HIV/AIDS prevalence were identified through a review of previous studies. For each factor, full membership, full non-membership, and crossover point were specified using both author's knowledge and statistical information of the variables. Calibration and conversion to a fuzzy-set score were conducted using Fs/QCA 2.0 and probabilistic tests for necessary and sufficiency were performed by STATA 11. The result suggested that governance is the necessary condition for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in a recipient country. From sufficiency test, two pathways were resulted. The low level of governance can lead to low level of HIV/AIDS prevalence when it is combined with other favorable factors, especially, low economic inequality, high economic development and high health expenditure. However, strengthening governance is a more practical measure to keep low prevalence of HIV/AIDS because it is hard to achieve both economic development and economic quality. This study highlights that a comprehensive policy measure is the key for achieving low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in recipient country.

  15. New Generator Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Roy S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    New generator technology project is driven by the need to be able to remotely deploy generator technology where it is needed, when it is needed. Both the military and aid programs that provide assistance after disasters could use the ability to deploy energy generation that fits the needs of the situation. Currently, pre-specified generators are deployed, sometime more than half way around the world to provide electricity. Through our Phase-I to Phase III DARPA grant, we will provide a mechanism where a 3d print station and raw materials could be shipped to a deployment site and remotely deployed personnel. These remote personnel can collaborate with engineers at a home location where 3d print plans can be optimized for the remote purpose. The plans can then be sent electronically to the remote location for printing, much like NASA sent the plans for a socket wrench to the International Space Station for printing in . If multiple generators need to be deployed at different remote locations, within miles of each other the printer rig can be moved to print the generators where they are needed. 3d printing is growing in the field of manufacturing. 3d printing has matured to the point where many types of materials are now available for many types of manufacturing. Both magnetic and electrically conductive material materials have recently been developed which can now lead to 3d printing of engines and generators. Our project will provide a successful printer rig that can be remotely deployed, to print a generator design in the field as well as provide a process for deploying the printed generator as well. This Systems Engineering Management Plan(SEMP) will provide the planning required for a Phase I DARPA grant that may also include goals for Phase II and Phase II grants. The SEMP provides a proposed project schedule, references, system engineering processes, specialty engineering system deployment and product support sections. Each section will state how our company

  16. First aid in the air. (United States)

    Donaldson, E; Pearn, J


    First aid is commonly required during commercial aircraft flights, especially during international flights. An intimidating and sometimes threatening array of in-flight medical emergencies challenge the doctor, flight attendants and other passengers in such medical emergencies. Cramped conditions, difficulties of access to the victim, lack of privacy, cultural and language differences and noise and vibration all compound to increase the difficulties of the normal first aid drills which are required in the management of in-cabin emergencies. Doctors who fly as passengers are liable to be called upon to render first aid in the air. We provide an analysis of the types of medical emergencies encountered during commercial air travel. We have reviewed all consecutive in-flight medical incident reports for QANTAS international flights for 1993. All incidents requiring the attention of a doctor were included. A total of 454 significant medical incidents occurred. These included, in rank order, syncope (35%), angina and cardiac emergencies (23%), gastrointestinal conditions (13%), respiratory tract infections and asthma (9%) and anxiety and panic reactions warranting medical intervention (5%). Syncope, the management of gastrointestinal symptoms and problems of angina comprise over half (58%) of the presenting symptoms which confront a fellow traveller who may coincidentally be a medical practitioner. Problems of anxiety, sleeplessness, airport bustle, immobility, barotrauma, alcohol abuse and mild hypoxia are discussed in the context of precipitating factors which may trigger an in-flight emergency. Psychological problems are very common and challenge the first aider, whether or not he or she is medically trained. We emphasize the necessity for doctors and nurses to be trained in first aid, as a distinct profession in its own right and a series of drills and skills which are distinctive from those of surgery-based health care. The 5% annual increase in air

  17. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle


    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib......). The causative pathogen was identified as H influenzae serotype f (Hif), and was successfully treated with ceftriaxone. An immunological evaluation revealed transient low levels of immunoglobulins but no apparent immunodeficiency was found 2 years after the clinical insult....

  18. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans


    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...

  19. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection. (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit


    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  20. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus. (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor


    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev


    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  2. Fulminant Pneumococcal Pericarditis in a Previously Healthy Patient. (United States)

    Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M


    Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Monitoring and aid to diagnosis of French PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jousellin, A.; Trenty, A.; Benas, J.C.; Renault, Y.; Busquet, J.L.; Mouhamed, B.


    In order to improvise safety and availability in its nuclear power plants, EDF has designed a new generation of monitoring systems integrated into a workstation for monitoring and aid to diagnosis (PSAD). These systems perform on-line monitoring of the main power plant components and PSAD stations provide homogeneous aid to diagnosis which enable plant personnel to pinpoint the mechanical behavior of plant equipments. The objective of PSAD is to provide them with high-efficiency and user-friendly tools which can considerably free them from routine tasks. The first version of the prototype is working on a French plant at Tricastin. This version includes the software host structure and two monitoring functions: the reactor coolant pumps and the turbo-generator monitoring functions. Internal Structures Monitoring (ISM) and Loose Parts Detection function (LPD) are under development and should be integrated into PSAD prototype in 1996. (authors)

  4. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.


    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  5. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  6. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels


    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  7. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray


    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  8. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian


    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  9. Efforts to promote vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean section. (United States)

    Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio


    The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. CADRIGS--computer aided design reliability interactive graphics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwik, R.J.; Polizzi, L.M.; Sticco, S.; Gerrard, P.B.; Yeater, M.L.; Hockenbury, R.W.; Phillips, M.A.


    An integrated reliability analysis program combining graphic representation of fault trees, automated data base loadings and reference, and automated construction of reliability code input files was developed. The functional specifications for CADRIGS, the computer aided design reliability interactive graphics system, are presented. Previously developed fault tree segments used in auxiliary feedwater system safety analysis were constructed on CADRIGS and, when combined, yielded results identical to those resulting from manual input to the same reliability codes

  11. Steam-Generator Integrity Program/Steam-Generator Group Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Steam Generator Integrity Program (SGIP) is a comprehensive effort addressing issues of nondestructive test (NDT) reliability, inservice inspection (ISI) requirements, and tube plugging criteria for PWR steam generators. In addition, the program has interactive research tasks relating primary side decontamination, secondary side cleaning, and proposed repair techniques to nondestructive inspectability and primary system integrity. The program has acquired a service degraded PWR steam generator for research purposes. This past year a research facility, the Steam Generator Examination Facility (SGEF), specifically designed for nondestructive and destructive examination tasks of the SGIP was completed. The Surry generator previously transported to the Hanford Reservation was then inserted into the SGEF. Nondestructive characterization of the generator from both primary and secondary sides has been initiated. Decontamination of the channelhead cold leg side was conducted. Radioactive field maps were established in the steam generator, at the generator surface and in the SGEF

  12. Vicious Circle of Perceived Stigma, Enacted Stigma and Depressive Symptoms among Children affected by HIV/AIDS in China


    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang


    Previous research has found a deleterious impact of stigma on the mental health of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of stigma and children’s mental health. This study explores the longitudinal reciprocal effects of depressive symptoms and stigma, specifically enacted stigma and perceived stigma, among children affected by HIV/AIDS aged 6 to 12. Longitudinal data were collected from 272 children orphaned by AIDS and 249 children of HIV-positive...

  13. Task Lists for Health Occupations. Radiologic Aide. Activity Aide. Optometric Assistant. Physical Therapy Aide. Education for Employment Task Lists. (United States)

    Lathrop, Janice

    These task lists contain employability skills and tasks for the following health occupations: radiologic aide, activity aide, physical therapy aide, and optometric assistant. The duties and tasks found in these lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs. Employability skills…

  14. Contributions on Computer Aided Manufacturing of Drill-Jig Bushings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru


    Full Text Available The paper presents the steps for computer aided manufacturing (CAMof the bushings technological class parts: design of the part in CADsoftware; generation of the parametrical link with MSExcel files; extract of the useful information for the technological design (mass, volume, surfaces; setting of the CNC lathe and necessary tools; programming of the CNC code for manufacturing. Given the large variety of the bushingsshapes and dimensions, the application focused on the jig bushings used in drilling processes.

  15. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    This work focuses on the development of a computer-aided modeling framework. The framework is a knowledge-based system that is built on a generic modeling language and structured on workflows for different modeling tasks. The overall objective is to support model developers and users to generate ....... The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene...

  16. Computer aided design and development of mixed-propeller pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaoyal, B.C.


    This paper deals with the design principle of mixed propeller hydraulic aided by CADD software developed by author for generation of the hydraulic profile of the mixed propeller and diffuser geometry. The design methodology for plotting the vane profile of mixed propeller pump has been discussed in detail with special reference to conformal transformation in cylindrical as well as conical plane. (author). 10 refs., 11 figs

  17. Urinary tract infections in hospital pediatrics: many previous antibiotherapy and antibiotics resistance, including fluoroquinolones. (United States)

    Garraffo, A; Marguet, C; Checoury, A; Boyer, S; Gardrat, A; Houivet, E; Caron, F


    We studied antibiotic resistance in pediatric UTIs and we evaluated the impact of antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months, very little French data being available for this population. We conducted a multicenter prospective study including children consulting for, or admitted in 2 hospitals. Prior antibiotic exposure was documented from their health record. One hundred and ten patients (73 girls), 11 days to 12 years of age, were included in 10 months. Ninety-six percent presented with pyelonephritis, associated to uropathy for 25%. Escherichia coli was predominant (78%), followed by Proteus spp. and Enterococcus spp. The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli was high and close to that reported for adults with complicated UTIs: amoxicillin 60%, amoxicillin-clavulanate 35%, cefotaxim 5%, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole 26%, nalidixic acid 9%, ciprofloxacin 7%, gentamycin 1%, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin 0%. The antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months involved 62 children (56%) most frequently with β-lactams (89%) for a respiratory tract infection (56%). A clear relationship between exposure and resistance was observed for amoxicillin (71% vs. 46%), first generation (65% vs. 46%) and third generation (9% vs. 3%) cephalosporins, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36% vs. 15%). However, antibiotic exposure could not account alone for the results, as suggested by the 7% of ciprofloxacin resistance, observed without any identified previous treatment. Bacterial species and antibiotic resistance level in children are similar to those reported for adults. Antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months increases the risk of resistance but other factors are involved (previous antibiotic therapies and fecal-oral or mother-to-child transmission). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions. (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P


    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  19. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.


    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  20. Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy in a patient with previous esophagectomy. (United States)

    de la Torre, R A; Scott, J S; Unger, S W


    Establishment of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy via direct jejunal puncture was accomplished in a 45-year-old woman five years after a partial esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The patient had recurrence of the cancer at the anastomotic site with subsequent inability to eat, necessitating a feeding tube for prolonged enteral nutrition. Although percutaneous puncture of the jejunum has been previously described, it has been limited to patients who had undergone partial or complete gastrectomies with Bilroth II anastomoses. This case report of direct endoscopic jejunal tube placement in a patient after esophagectomy further establishes this procedure as a viable alternative to surgically placed feeding tubes in patients with altered gastric anatomy.