WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous factor analyses

  1. Conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of development ICT, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries setting out the previous new theoretical model and preliminary findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Smyrnova-Trybulska, Eugenia; Morze, Natalia; Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper, prepared by an international team of authors focuses on the conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of ICT development, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries, setting out the previous and new theoretical model and preliminary

  2. Paternity after vasectomy with two previous semen analyses without spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Lucon, Marcos; Lucon, Antonio Marmo; Pasqualoto, Fabio Firmbach; Srougi, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: The risk of paternity after vasectomy is rare but still exists. Overall failure to achieve sterility after vasectomy occurs in 0.2 to 5.3% of patients due to technical failure or recanalization. The objective of this report was to describe a rare but notable case of proven paternity in which the semen analyses had not given evidence of spermatozoa. CASE REPORT: A 44-year-old vasectomized man whose semen analyses had shown azoospermia became a father four years after sterilization. Bl...

  3. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2016-07-26

    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a

  4. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  5. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  6. Exercise and sleep: a systematic review of previous meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi Sharpe

    2017-02-01

    Conduct a systematic review of previous meta-analyses on exercise and sleep outcomes in adults and a meta-analysis of studies nested within these meta-analyses. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled exercise interventions were included by searching nine electronic databases and cross-referencing. Dual-selection and data abstraction were conducted. Methodological quality of meta-analyses was assessed using AMSTAR and quality of evidence using GRADE. Random-effects models were used to pool results from the individual studies included in each meta-analysis. Three meta-analyses representing 950 adults were included. Methodological quality ranged from 36% to 64% while quality of evidence was very low to low. Statistically significant improvements (P ≤ 0.05) were observed for the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), overall sleep quality, global score, subjective sleep, and sleep latency. The number-needed-to-treat (NNT) and percentile improvements ranged from 4 to 7 and from 18.1 to 26.5, respectively. When overall sleep quality results from individual studies nested within different meta-analyses were pooled, statistically significant standardized mean difference (SMD) improvements were observed (-0.50, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.28). The NNT and percentile improvement were 7 and 19, respectively. Exercise improves selected sleep outcomes in adults. To increase public health reach, a large, well-designed, and more inclusive meta-analysis is needed. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  8. Nocturnal Wakefulness as a Previously Unrecognized Risk Factor for Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlis, Michael L; Grandner, Michael A; Brown, Gregory K; Basner, Mathias; Chakravorty, Subhajit; Morales, Knashawn H; Gehrman, Philip R; Chaudhary, Ninad S; Thase, Michael E; Dinges, David F

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem and the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. The identification of modifiable risk factors is essential for reducing the prevalence of suicide. Recently, it has been shown that insomnia and nightmares significantly increase the risk for suicidal ideation, attempted suicide, and death by suicide. While both forms of sleep disturbance may independently confer risk, and potentially be modifiable risk factors, it is also possible that simply being awake at night represents a specific vulnerability for suicide. The present analysis evaluates the frequency of completed suicide per hour while taking into account the percentage of individuals awake at each hour. Archival analyses were conducted estimating the time of fatal injury using the National Violent Death Reporting System for 2003-2010 and the proportion of the American population awake per hour across the 24-hour day using the American Time Use Survey. The mean ± SD incident rate from 06:00-23:59 was 2.2% ± 0.7%, while the mean ± SD incident rate from 00:00-05:59 was 10.3% ± 4.9%. The maximum incident rate was from 02:00-02:59 (16.3%). Hour-by-hour observed values differed from those that would be expected by chance (P < .001), and when 6-hour blocks were examined, the observed frequency at night was 3.6 times higher than would be expected by chance (P < .001). Being awake at night confers greater risk for suicide than being awake at other times of the day, suggesting that disturbances of sleep or circadian neurobiology may potentiate suicide risk. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Summary of the analyses for recovery factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionIn order to determine the hydrocarbon potential of oil reservoirs within the U.S. sedimentary basins for which the carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) process has been considered suitable, the CO2 Prophet model was chosen by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to be the primary source for estimating recovery-factor values for individual reservoirs. The choice was made because of the model’s reliability and the ease with which it can be used to assess a large number of reservoirs. The other two approaches—the empirical decline curve analysis (DCA) method and a review of published literature on CO2-EOR projects—were deployed to verify the results of the CO2 Prophet model. This chapter discusses the results from CO2 Prophet (chapter B, by Emil D. Attanasi, this report) and compares them with results from decline curve analysis (chapter C, by Hossein Jahediesfanjani) and those reported in the literature for selected reservoirs with adequate data for analyses (chapter D, by Ricardo A. Olea).To estimate the technically recoverable hydrocarbon potential for oil reservoirs where CO2-EOR has been applied, two of the three approaches—CO2 Prophet modeling and DCA—do not include analysis of economic factors, while the third approach—review of published literature—implicitly includes economics. For selected reservoirs, DCA has provided estimates of the technically recoverable hydrocarbon volumes, which, in combination with calculated amounts of original oil in place (OOIP), helped establish incremental CO2-EOR recovery factors for individual reservoirs.The review of published technical papers and reports has provided substantial information on recovery factors for 70 CO2-EOR projects that are either commercially profitable or classified as pilot tests. When comparing the results, it is important to bear in mind the differences and limitations of these three approaches.

  10. Factors influencing return-to-work after cerebrovascular disease: the importance of previous cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina-Romero, Carlos; Ruilope, Luis Miguel; Sánchez-Chaparro, Miguel Angel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Cabrera-Sierra, Martha; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Ruiz-Moraga, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva

    2015-09-01

    The role of prior cardiovascular risk (CVR) in the multifactorial process of returning to work after a cerebrovascular event has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyse the association between previous CVR level, cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and return-to-work (RTW) following cerebrovascular disease. This was a prospective observational study. We analysed a cohort of 348 patients who had experienced an episode of cerebrovascular disease-related work absence. These individuals were selected from the ICARIA study (Ibermutuamur CArdiovascular RIsk Assessment). Global CVR was assessed using the SCORE system. We investigated the association between demographics, work-related variables, CVRFs and RTW following a cerebrovascular event. We found that a total of 254 individuals (73.0%; 95% CI: 68.3-77.7) returned to work after cerebrovascular disease. Also, we observed a median loss of 12 working years due to disability. Moreover, adjusting for potential confounders revealed that low CVR level and the absence of the following CVRFs was associated with a higher likelihood of RTW: low vs moderate-to-high CVR level (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.42-4.57), no hypertension before stroke (OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.11-3.41), non-smoker status (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.30-3.93) and no previous diabetes (OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.26-4.79). Low CVR, along with the absence of several CVRFs, can be used to predict RTW rates following cerebrovascular events. Therefore, controlling hypertension, tobacco consumption and diabetes might contribute to the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation and/or secondary/tertiary prevention programs for cerebrovascular disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  11. Cross-culturally recurrent personality factors : Analyses of three factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B.; Peabody, D

    This study proceeds from an earlier one that examined the 'Big Five' factors (Peabody & De Raad, 2002). That study considered the substantive nature of five factors from six European psycholexical studies. The results supported Big Five Factor III (Conscientiousness), but Factors I (Extraversion)

  12. Predictive factors for the development of diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P.; Kühl, C.; Bertelsen, Aksel

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of diabetes in women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify predictive factors for development of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Two to 11 years post partum, glucose tolerance was investigated in 241...... women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and 57 women without previous gestational diabetes mellitus (control group). RESULTS: Diabetes developed in 42 (17.4%) women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (3.7% insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 13.7% non......-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Diabetes did not develop in any of the controls. Predictive factors for diabetes development were fasting glucose level at diagnosis (high glucose, high risk), preterm delivery, and an oral glucose tolerance test result that showed diabetes 2 months post partum. In a subgroup...

  13. Is Previous Tubal Ligation a Risk Factor for Hysterectomy because of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding?

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    Sanam Moradan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Post tubal ligation syndrome (PTLS is a term used to describe a variety of post tubal ligation side effects or symptoms. These include increased menstrual bleeding and hysterectomy. Whether or not post tubal syndrome is a real entity, it has been a subject of controversy in the medical literature for decades. Numerous studies have reported conflicting conclusions about these symptoms. In this study the incidence of hysterectomy for bleeding disorders among sterilized women was compared with the incidence of hysterectomy for bleeding disorders among non-sterilized female population of the same age.Methods: This study was carried out on 160 women, 38-52 years, who underwent hysterectomy in Amir University Hospital, Semnan, Iran, from September 2008 to September 2011. After gathering of data from medical records, in this study, the incidence of hysterectomy for bleeding disorders among sterilized women was compared with the incidence of hysterectomy for bleeding disorders among nonsterilized female population for the same age.Results: The mean age of the study group was 44/4±5/7 and the mean age of the control group was 45/2±5/3, (p=0.424.The mean parity of the study group was 3/8±1/8 and the mean parity of the control group was 3/5±1/4, (p=0.220. So, in regard to age and parity, two groups were matched. Hysterectomies were performed for 160 cases and abnormal uterine bleeding was the cause of hysterectomy in 67 cases. Among 67 cases, 19 cases (37.3% had previous tubal sterilization + hysterectomy (study group and 48 cases (44% were not undergoing tubal sterilization but had hysterectomy for abnormal bleeding causes (control group. Statistical analyses showed that there were not significant differences between two groups, (RR=0.85; 95% CI: 0.56-1.28; p=0.418.Conclusion: The result of this study showed that previous tubal sterilization is not a risk factor for undergoing hysterectomy because of abnormal uterine bleeding.

  14. Association of Aortic Valve Sclerosis with Previous Coronary Artery Disease and Risk Factors

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    Filipe Carvalho Marmelo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aortic valve sclerosis (AVS is characterized by increased thickness, calcification and stiffness of the aortic leaflets without fusion of the commissures. Several studies show an association between AVS and presence of coronary artery disease. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between presence of AVS with occurrence of previous coronary artery disease and classical risk factors. Methods: The sample was composed of 2,493 individuals who underwent transthoracic echocardiography between August 2011 and December 2012. The mean age of the cohort was 67.5 ± 15.9 years, and 50.7% were female. Results: The most frequent clinical indication for Doppler echocardiography was the presence of stroke (28.8%, and the most common risk factor was hypertension (60.8%. The most prevalent pathological findings on Doppler echocardiography were mitral valve sclerosis (37.1% and AVS (36.7%. There was a statistically significant association between AVS with hypertension (p < 0.001, myocardial infarction (p = 0.007, diabetes (p = 0.006 and compromised left ventricular systolic function (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Patients with AVS have higher prevalences of hypertension, stroke, hypercholesterolemia, myocardial infarction, diabetes and compromised left ventricular systolic function when compared with patients without AVS. We conclude that there is an association between presence of AVS with previous coronary artery disease and classical risk factors.

  15. The Importance of Business Model Factors for Cloud Computing Adoption: Role of Previous Experiences

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    Bogataj Habjan Kristina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Bringing several opportunities for more effective and efficient IT governance and service exploitation, cloud computing is expected to impact the European and global economies significantly. Market data show that despite many advantages and promised benefits the adoption of cloud computing is not as fast and widespread as foreseen. This situation shows the need for further exploration of the potentials of cloud computing and its implementation on the market. The purpose of this research was to identify individual business model factors with the highest impact on cloud computing adoption. In addition, the aim was to identify the differences in opinion regarding the importance of business model factors on cloud computing adoption according to companies’ previous experiences with cloud computing services.

  16. Previously identified patellar tendinopathy risk factors differ between elite and sub-elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, I; Steele, J R; Munro, B J; Brown, N A T

    2015-06-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is the most common knee injury incurred in volleyball, with its prevalence in elite athletes more than three times that of their sub-elite counterparts. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patellar tendinopathy risk factors differed between elite and sub-elite male volleyball players. Nine elite and nine sub-elite male volleyball players performed a lateral stop-jump block movement. Maximum vertical jump, training history, muscle extensibility and strength, three-dimensional landing kinematics (250 Hz), along with lower limb neuromuscular activation patterns (1500 Hz), and patellar tendon loading were collected during each trial. Multivariate analyses of variance (P volleyball players. Interventions designed to reduce landing frequency and improve quadriceps extensibility are recommended to reduce patellar tendinopathy prevalence in volleyball players. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Factor analyses of a social support scale using two methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; Wang, Mingjiong; Simoni, Jane M; Chen, Wei-ti; Cheng, Joy; Zhao, Hongxin

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation and comparison of the factor structure of the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) using both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with two samples of people living with HIV/AIDS in China. Secondary analyses were conducted with data from two comparable samples of 320 people living with HIV/AIDS from the same hospital using the same inclusion criteria. The first sample of 120 was collected in 2006, and the second sample of 200 was collected in 2012. For each sample, CFA was first performed on the original four-factor structure to check model fit, followed by EFA to explore other factor structures and a subsequent CFA for model fit statistics to be compared to the original four-factor CFA. In both samples, CFA on the originally hypothesized four-factor structure yielded an acceptable model fit. The EFA yielded a two-factor solution in both samples, with different items included in each factor for the two samples. Comparison of CFA on the a priori four-factor structure and the new two-factor structure in both samples indicated that both factor structures were of acceptable model fit, with the four-factor model performing slightly better than the two-factor model. Factor structure of the MOS-SSS is method-dependent, with CFA supporting a four-factor structure, while EFA yielded a two-factor structure in two separate samples. We need to be careful in selecting the analytic method when applying the MOS-SSS to various samples and choose the factor structure that best fits the theoretical model.

  18. Previous Preterm Birth and Current Maternal Complications as a Risk Factor of Subsequent Stillbirth

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    Boubakari Ibrahimou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the association between previous preterm birth and the risk of stillbirth. Methods. This population-based retrospective cohort study analyzed live births and stillbirth records in Missouri (1989–1997. The main outcome of interest was stillbirth occurrence while the exposures were prior preterm birth. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed using logistic regression. Results. Women who had a previous preterm birth have 63% increased odds of stillbirth in singleton pregnancies and 75% increased odds in twins as compared to those who did not have a preterm birth in a prior pregnancy (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.41–1.88 and AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.20–2.56, respectively. The most significant risk factor for stillbirth in singleton pregnancies was uterine bleeding (AOR = 5.89, 95% CI = 5.13–6.76. In twin pregnancies, it was the condition hydramnios/oligohydramnios (AOR = 4.72, 95% CI = 3.70–6.02. Eclampsia was associated with a heightened risk of stillbirth in singletons (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.41–4.12, but not in twins (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.13–7.00. Black mothers were more likely than white to experience stillbirth (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.99–2.22 for singletons and AOR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.27–1.79 for twins. Conclusion. Stillbirth is a vital public health issue and its etiology is not well understood. Previous history of preterm birth was found to be associated with future stillbirth. Targeted early medical and obstetric care and interventions among women with preterm birth history may potentially reduce the likelihood of stillbirth.

  19. Insight into the Stigma of Suicide Loss Survivors: Factor Analyses of Family Stereotypes, Prejudices, and Discriminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Sheehan, Lindsay; Al-Khouja, Maya A; Lewy, Stanley; Major, Deborah R; Mead, Jessica; Redmon, Megghun; Rubey, Charles T; Weber, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    Families of individuals who die by suicide report public stigma that threatens their well-being. This study used a community-based participatory (CBPR) approach to describe a factor structure for the family stigma of suicide. Candidate items (n = 82) from a previous qualitative study were presented in an online survey format. Members of the public (n = 232) indicated how much they thought items represented public views and behaviors towards family members who lost a loved one to suicide. Factor analyses revealed two factors for stereotypes (dysfunctional, blameworthy), one factor for prejudice (fear and distrust), and three factors for discrimination (exclusion, secrecy, and avoidance).

  20. History of psychosis and previous episodes as potential explanatory factors for neurocognitive impairment in first-treatment bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmo, Christine; Lagerberg, Trine Vik; Aminoff, Sofie R; Hellvin, Tone; Kvitland, Levi R; Simonsen, Carmen; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Ueland, Torill

    2016-03-01

    Explanatory factors for the observed neurocognitive impairment in early-stage bipolar I disorder (BD-I) have received little attention. The current study investigated neurocognitive functioning in first-treatment (FT) BD-I compared to FT schizophrenia (SCZ), and healthy controls (HCs), and the effect of history of psychosis and previous episodes in the two clinical groups. A total of 202 FT patients with BD-I (n = 101) and SCZ spectrum disorder (n = 101), in addition to HCs (n = 101), were included. A comprehensive neurocognitive test battery was used to assess verbal learning and memory, executive functioning, processing speed, and attention and working memory. Neurocognitive functioning and the effect of history of psychosis and number of previous episodes were analyzed using separate multivariate analyses of variance and correlation analysis. FT patients with BD-I performed intermediately between FT SCZ spectrum patients and HCs on all measures. Compared to HCs, FT BD-I showed impaired functioning across all neurocognitive domains. No differences in neurocognitive functioning were observed in psychotic versus nonpsychotic FT patients with BD-I. With the exception of an association between number of manic episodes and two measures of executive function in FT BD-I, no associations were found between number of episodes and neurocognitive performance. Neurocognitive impairments were present in FT BD-I, and were not explained by history of psychosis or number of previous psychotic or depressive episodes. There were indications that executive function could be associated with number of previous manic episodes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Complementary Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the French WISC-V: Analyses Based on the Standardization Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerf, Thierry; Canivez, Gary L

    2017-12-28

    Interpretation of the French Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (French WISC-V; Wechsler, 2016a) is based on a 5-factor model including Verbal Comprehension (VC), Visual Spatial (VS), Fluid Reasoning (FR), Working Memory (WM), and Processing Speed (PS). Evidence for the French WISC-V factorial structure was established exclusively through confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). However, as recommended by Carroll (1995); Reise (2012), and Brown (2015), factorial structure should derive from both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and CFA. The first goal of this study was to examine the factorial structure of the French WISC-V using EFA. The 15 French WISC-V primary and secondary subtest scaled scores intercorrelation matrix was used and factor extraction criteria suggested from 1 to 4 factors. To disentangle the contribution of first- and second-order factors, the Schmid and Leiman (1957) orthogonalization transformation (SLT) was applied. Overall, no EFA evidence for 5 factors was found. Results indicated that the g factor accounted for about 67% of the common variance and that the contributions of the first-order factors were weak (3.6 to 11.9%). CFA was used to test numerous alternative models. Results indicated that bifactor models produced better fit to these data than higher-order models. Consistent with previous studies, findings suggested dominance of the general intelligence factor and that users should thus emphasize the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) when interpreting the French WISC-V. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Skin barrier and contact allergy: Genetic risk factor analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross-Hansen, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    Background Contact allergy is frequent in the general population and arises from prolonged or repeated skin contact with chemical substances. The environmental risk factor is obvious, yet some studies report on associations between genetic variance and an increased risk of developing contact...... by extracting epidermal proteins from human surgical waste samples and stratum corneum scrapings followed by binding studies using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Results As suggested by Kaplan-Meier event history analyses, FLG null mutations lowered the age of onset of nickel dermatitis, when ear...

  3. Design factors analyses of second-loop PRHRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hongyan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the operating characteristics of a second-loop Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS, the transient thermal analysis code RELAP5 is used to build simulation models of the main coolant system and second-loop PRHRS. Transient calculations and comparative analyses under station blackout accident and one-side feed water line break accident conditions are conducted for three critical design factors of the second-loop PRHRS:design capacity, emergency makeup tank and isolation valve opening speed. The impacts of the discussed design factors on the operating characteristics of the second-loop PRHRS are summarized based on calculations and analyses. The analysis results indicate that the system safety and cooling rate should be taken into consideration in designing PRHRS's capacity,and water injection from emergency makeup tank to steam generator can provide advantage to system cooling in the event of accident,and system startup performance can be improved by reducing the opening speed of isolation valve. The results can provide references for the design of the second-loop PRHRS in nuclear power plants.

  4. Evolutionary relationships of the Critically Endangered frog Ericabatrachus baleensis Largen, 1991 with notes on incorporating previously unsampled taxa into large-scale phylogenetic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The phylogenetic relationships of many taxa remain poorly known because of a lack of appropriate data and/or analyses. Despite substantial recent advances, amphibian phylogeny remains poorly resolved in many instances. The phylogenetic relationships of the Ethiopian endemic monotypic genus Ericabatrachus has been addressed thus far only with phenotypic data and remains contentious. Results We obtained fresh samples of the now rare and Critically Endangered Ericabatrachus baleensis and generated DNA sequences for two mitochondrial and four nuclear genes. Analyses of these new data using de novo and constrained-tree phylogenetic reconstructions strongly support a close relationship between Ericabatrachus and Petropedetes, and allow us to reject previously proposed alternative hypotheses of a close relationship with cacosternines or Phrynobatrachus. Conclusions We discuss the implications of our results for the taxonomy, biogeography and conservation of E. baleensis, and suggest a two-tiered approach to the inclusion and analyses of new data in order to assess the phylogenetic relationships of previously unsampled taxa. Such approaches will be important in the future given the increasing availability of relevant mega-alignments and potential framework phylogenies. PMID:24612655

  5. Risk factors and outcome for colistin-resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis bacteraemia in patients without previous colistin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-C; Lee, Y-T; Yang, Y-S; Chen, C-T; Chiu, C-H; Yin, T; Kuo, S-C; Chen, T-L; Lin, J-C; Wang, F-D; Fung, C-P; Chang, F-Y

    2015-08-01

    The clinical characteristics of patients with colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bacteraemia have been documented, but those of patients with bacteraemia caused by other Acinetobacter species remain unknown. Previous exposure to colistin has been shown to be associated with the emergence of colistin resistance, but may be not the only predisposing factor. In the current study, we highlight the risk and outcome of patients without previous exposure to colistin who acquired colistin-resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis (ColRAN) bacteraemia. This 11-year single-centre retrospective study analysed 58 patients with ColRAN bacteraemia and 213 patients with colistin-susceptible A. nosocomialis (ColSAN) bacteraemia. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined with an agar dilution method. The clonal relationship of ColRAN isolates was determined with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A conjugation mating-out assay was conducted to delineate the potential transfer of colistin resistance genes. Multivariable analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors for ColRAN bacteraemia. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was independently associated with ColRAN bacteraemia (OR 3.04; 95% CI 1.45-6.37; p 0.003). Patients with ColRAN bacteraemia had higher APACHE II scores, but the two groups showed no significant differences in 14-day mortality (10.3% vs. 10.3%) or 28-day mortality (15.5% vs. 15.0%). ColRAN isolates had greater resistance than ColSAN isolates to all antimicrobial agents except for ciprofloxacin (0% vs. 6.6%). There were 16 different ColRAN pulsotypes, and two major clones were found. Colistin resistance did not transfer to colistin-susceptible A. baumannii or A. nosocomialis. These results show that COPD is an independent risk factor for acquisition of ColRAN bacteraemia. The mortality rates were similar between patients with ColRAN and ColSAN bacteraemia. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

  6. Factors influencing long-term adherence to two previously implemented hospital guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, A. M.; Storm-Versloot, M. N.; Mank, A. P. M.; Ubbink, D. T.; Vermeulen, H.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Goossens, A.

    2010-01-01

    After successful implementation, adherence to hospital guidelines should be sustained. Long-term adherence to two hospital guidelines was audited. The overall aim was to explore factors accounting for their long-term adherence or non-adherence. A fluid balance guideline (FBG) and body temperature

  7. 613 cases of splenic rupture without risk factors or previously diagnosed disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey-Bassler F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rupture of the spleen in the absence of trauma or previously diagnosed disease is largely ignored in the emergency literature and is often not documented as such in journals from other fields. We have conducted a systematic review of the literature to highlight the surprisingly frequent occurrence of this phenomenon and to document the diversity of diseases that can present in this fashion. Methods Systematic review of English and French language publications catalogued in Pubmed, Embase and CINAHL between 1950 and 2011. Results We found 613 cases of splenic rupture meeting the criteria above, 327 of which occurred as the presenting complaint of an underlying disease and 112 of which occurred following a medical procedure. Rupture appeared to occur spontaneously in histologically normal (but not necessarily normal size spleens in 35 cases and after minor trauma in 23 cases. Medications were implicated in 47 cases, a splenic or adjacent anatomical abnormality in 31 cases and pregnancy or its complications in 38 cases. The most common associated diseases were infectious (n = 143, haematologic (n = 84 and non-haematologic neoplasms (n = 48. Amyloidosis (n = 24, internal trauma such as cough or vomiting (n = 17 and rheumatologic diseases (n = 10 are less frequently reported. Colonoscopy (n = 87 was the procedure reported most frequently as a cause of rupture. The anatomic abnormalities associated with rupture include splenic cysts (n = 6, infarction (n = 6 and hamartomata (n = 5. Medications associated with rupture include anticoagulants (n = 21, thrombolytics (n = 13 and recombinant G-CSF (n = 10. Other causes or associations reported very infrequently include other endoscopy, pulmonary, cardiac or abdominal surgery, hysterectomy, peliosis, empyema, remote pancreato-renal transplant, thrombosed splenic vein, hemangiomata, pancreatic pseudocysts, splenic artery aneurysm

  8. Association Between Previous Injury and Risk Factors for Future Injury in Preprofessional Ballet and Contemporary Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Sarah J; Palacios-Derflingher, Luz; Shi, Qian; Whittaker, Jackie L; Emery, Carolyn A

    2017-10-20

    To determine the prevalence of self-reported 1-year injury history and examine its association with preparticipation evaluation components aimed at predicting future injury risk (PPE-IP) among preprofessional ballet and contemporary dancers. Cross-sectional study. Preprofessional ballet school, university contemporary dance program. Full-time preprofessional ballet and contemporary dancers. Preparticipation evaluation consisted of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28, body mass index, total bone mineral density, ankle range of motion, active standing turnout, lumbopelvic control, unipedal dynamic balance, and Y-Balance test. Self-reported 1-year history of dance-related medical attention and/or time-loss injury. A total of 155 ballet [n = 90, 80 females, median age 15 years (range 11-19)] and contemporary [n = 65, 63 females, median age 20 years (range 17-30)] dancers participated. Forty-six percent (95% confidence interval (CI), 38.4-54.6) reported a 1-year injury history. Self-reported injury history was not associated with any PPE-IP, however, an influence of age and psychological coping skills on the relationship between 1-year injury history and PPE-IP was identified. Multivariable analyses revealed that prevalence of 1-year injury history did not differ by age [referent group 18 years: OR 0.69 (95% CI, 0.30-1.56)], or level of psychological coping skills [OR 1.35 (95% CI, 0.61-2.94)]. The prevalence of self-reported 1-year injury history among preprofessional ballet and contemporary dancers is high. Although measures of PPE-IP did not differ based on injury history, it is important that age and psychological coping skills are considered in future dance injury prevention and prediction research. Level 3 evidence.

  9. [Analyses prognostic factors relevant to sudden sensorineural hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Xiao, Shuifang; Zeng, Zhengang; Zhen, Zhen; Zhang, Xuexi; Lin, Feng; Dong, Mingmin; Lu, Wei; Qin, Zhaobing; Zuo, Bin; Bai, Xianfeng

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the prognostic factors relevant to sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The internationally accepted standardized clinical research methods, unified design, and unified program were adopted to conduct the prospective clinical multi-center study. The sudden deafness patients between 18 to 65 years old, with the course of this disorder less than two weeks, and without any medical treatments were collected, and then, divided into four types according to the hearing curve: type A, acute sensorineural hearing loss in low tone frequencies; type B, acute sensorineural hearing loss in high tone frequencies; type C, acute sensorineural hearing loss in all frequencies; and type D, total deafness. The factors, in terms of age, gender, type of initial audiogram, time delay before the first visit, and severity of hearing loss, were included in the analyses. A total of 1 024 cases with single side sudden deafness were collected in the study from 33 hospitals in China from August 2007 to October 2011, inclusive of for 492 males (48.05%) and 532 females (51.95%). The average age was (41.2 ± 12.8) years old. There were 553 cases (54.00%) in left ear, and 471 cases (46.00%) in right ear. The curative effects of different types were shown as follows: the type in low tone frequencies had the highest rate of 90.73%, the type in all frequencies was 82.59%; the type of total deafness was 70.29%; and the type in high tone frequencies had the lowest rate of 65.96%. It had significant difference of the effective rate between different types (χ(2) = 231.58, P = 0.000). Age, time delay before first visit, and severity of initial hearing loss were significantly correlated with hearing improvement. Initial audiogram of SSNHL might predict hearing recovery. The young in age and a short time delay before starting treatment are positive prognostic factors for hearing recovery in SSNHL. The initial severity of hearing loss is negative prognostic factor of hearing recovery.

  10. Factors influencing long-term adherence to two previously implemented hospital guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knops, A M; Storm-Versloot, M N; Mank, A P M; Ubbink, D T; Vermeulen, H; Bossuyt, P M M; Goossens, A

    2010-10-01

    After successful implementation, adherence to hospital guidelines should be sustained. Long-term adherence to two hospital guidelines was audited. The overall aim was to explore factors accounting for their long-term adherence or non-adherence. A fluid balance guideline (FBG) and body temperature guideline (BTG) were developed and implemented in our hospital in 2000. Long-term adherence was determined retrospectively based on data from patient files. Focus groups were launched to explore nurses' perceptions of barriers and facilitators regarding long-term adherence. The predominant themes from the nurses' focus groups were posed to clinicians in questionnaires. Nurses involved in the FBG (overall adherence 100%) stated that adherence has immediate advantages in terms of safety and a gain in time. Nurses and oncologists acted unanimously which was thought to enhance adherence. On the other hand, opinions differed on the BTG within the nursing teams and medical staff (overall adherence 50%). Although the guideline discourages routine postoperative body temperature measurements, temperature should be measured according to the guideline in a considerable number of cases due to changes in patient characteristics since the year 2000. Therefore, adherence was judged to be rather complex. To secure adherence to hospital guidelines after their successful implementation, guidelines should preferably be comprehensive in terms of being applicable to the majority of the patients in that particular setting and to the most common clinical situations. All healthcare professionals involved should be aware of its immediate benefits for themselves or to their patients.

  11. Factors influencing incidental representation of previously unknown conservation features in marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Tom C L; Grech, Alana M; Pressey, Robert L

    2016-02-01

    Spatially explicit information on species distributions for conservation planning is invariably incomplete; therefore, the use of surrogates is required to represent broad-scale patterns of biodiversity. Despite significant interest in the effectiveness of surrogates for predicting spatial distributions of biodiversity, few researchers have explored questions involving the ability of surrogates to incidentally represent unknown features of conservation interest. We used the Great Barrier Reef marine reserve network to examine factors affecting incidental representation of conservation features that were unknown at the time the reserve network was established. We used spatially explicit information on the distribution of 39 seabed habitats and biological assemblages and the conservation planning software Marxan to examine how incidental representation was affected by the spatial characteristics of the features; the conservation objectives (the minimum proportion of each feature included in no-take areas); the spatial configuration of no-take areas; and the opportunity cost of conservation. Cost was closely and inversely correlated to incidental representation. However, incidental representation was achieved, even in a region with only coarse-scale environmental data, by adopting a precautionary approach that explicitly considered the potential for unknown features. Our results indicate that incidental representation is enhanced by partitioning selection units along biophysical gradients to account for unknown within-feature variability and ensuring that no-take areas are well distributed throughout the region; by setting high conservation objectives that (in this case >33%) maximize the chances of capturing unknown features incidentally; and by carefully considering the designation of cost to planning units when using decision-support tools for reserve design. The lessons learned from incidental representation in the Great Barrier Reef have implications for

  12. Liver growth factor treatment reverses emphysema previously established in a cigarette smoke exposure mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; Girón-Martínez, Alvaro; Terrón-Expósito, Raúl; Díaz-Gil, Juan J; González-Mangado, Nicolás; Peces-Barba, Germán

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disease largely associated with cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) and characterized by pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations, including systemic inflammation. Liver growth factor (LGF) is an albumin-bilirubin complex with demonstrated antifibrotic, antioxidant, and antihypertensive actions even at extrahepatic sites. We aimed to determine whether short LGF treatment (1.7 μg/mouse ip; 2 times, 2 wk), once the lung damage was established through the chronic CSE, contributes to improvement of the regeneration of damaged lung tissue, reducing systemic inflammation. We studied AKR/J mice, divided into three groups: control (air-exposed), CSE (chronic CSE), and CSE + LGF (LGF-treated CSE mice). We assessed pulmonary function, morphometric data, and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers to test the LGF regenerative capacity in this system. Our results revealed that the lungs of the CSE animals showed pulmonary emphysema and inflammation, characterized by increased lung compliance, enlargement of alveolar airspaces, systemic inflammation (circulating leukocytes and serum TNF-α level), and in vivo lung matrix metalloproteinase activity. LGF treatment was able to reverse all these parameters, decreasing total cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and T-lymphocyte infiltration in peripheral blood observed in emphysematous mice and reversing the decrease in monocytes observed in chronic CSE mice, and tends to reduce the neutrophil population and serum TNF-α level. In conclusion, LGF treatment normalizes the physiological and morphological parameters and levels of various systemic inflammatory biomarkers in a chronic CSE AKR/J model, which may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for subjects with stable COPD. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. [Analyses of the factors relevant to revision tympanomastoid surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Fan, Zhaomin; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Chen, Dong; Wang, Haibo

    2016-05-01

    To analyze factors relevant to revisional tympanomastoid surgery for chronic otitis media(COM). The clinical data of 159 patients (159 ears), who exhibited either wet ear or relapsed after the initial operation, and were subjected to revisional tympanomastoid surgery, were retrospectively analyzed in this study. Of those 159 consecutive patients, 85 were males and 74 were females, aged 11-64 years, with a median age of 36 years old. The situations in terms of intra-operative findings, surgical procedures, change dressing post-operation, dry ear time, and the improvement of aural ability during the second operation, were recorded and analyzed. The second surgery found that, of those 159 patients underwent the re-operation, 67 presented with cholesteatoma and 92 had no cholesteatoma. In addition, the inadequate skeletonization and insufficient opening for mastoid cavity accounted for 70.4% (112/159) of all previous operations, the external auditory canal stenosis for 98.7% (157/159), the high facial ridge leading to insufficient drainage for 61.0% (97/159), the lesion in tympanic ostium of Eustachian tube for 34.6% (55/159), the insufficient drainage due to inappropriate post-operating dressing for 5.0% (8/159), the postauricular incision for 30.8% (49/159), and the endaural incision for 69.2% (110/159). As for the re-operation of the canal wall down mastoidectomy, tympanoplasty plus plastic repairing of cavity of concha were performed in 94 cases, the modified Bondy plus plastic repairing of cavity of concha in four cases, the radical mastoidectomy plus plastic repairing of cavity of concha in 59 cases, and the simple cleaning for mastoid cavity in two cases. Since one to two weeks after the revisional operations, the post-operating dressing was performed with aid of microscopy once a week on average. The average dry ear time ranged from 2 to 6 weeks (median=3 weeks). During a period of 6-93 months for the follow-up, all patients presented with dry ears. The

  14. The prevalence and the risk factors of testosterone deficiency in newly diagnosed and previously known type 2 diabetic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chen-Hsun; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Wu, Chia-Chang; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Liu, Shih-Ping

    2015-02-01

    While the epidemiology of testosterone deficiency has been well described in men with previously known type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), it was less reported in those with untreated, newly diagnosed T2DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the risk factors of testosterone deficiency of men with newly diagnosed T2DM. The cross-sectional study included 105 men (mean age: 61.2 ± 6.8 years) with previously known T2DM and another 81 (57.8 ± 8.8 years) with newly diagnosed T2DM. All received health checkup and sex hormone measurement at our institute in 2009. We calculated the prevalence and explored the risk factors of low total (testosterone in men with newly diagnosed and previously known T2DM. Men with previously known T2DM were older and had higher diastolic pressure and greater fasting glucose. There was no significant difference in total (358.0 [155.0] ng/dL vs. 363.0 [154.0] ng/dL, P=0.68) and free (7.2 [2.5] ng/dL vs. 7.4 [2.4]ng/dL, P=0.84) testosterone and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) (27.3 [22.3]nmol/L vs. 28.7 [14.9]nmol/L, P=0.46). The prevalence of low total and free testosterone was 28.4% and 21.0%, respectively, in men with newly diagnosed T2DM, and was 26.7% and 19.0% in those with previously known T2DM. In men with previously known T2DM, better glycemic control (HbA1c testosterone and a lower risk of low total testosterone. Men with newly diagnosed and previously known T2DM shared similar risk factors of low total testosterone, including high HbA1c (≥ 7%), low SHBG (obesity, hyperuricemia, hypertriglycemia, and metabolic syndrome. Elevated prostate-specific antigen was a protective factor of low total testosterone. However, none of these factors was associated with low free testosterone. The prevalence and the risk factors of testosterone deficiency are similar between newly diagnosed and previously known type 2 diabetic men. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. Calibrating partial factors for Danish railway embankments using probabilistic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Lodahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available High costs are connected with upgrading railway embankments throughout Denmark using the partial factors for geotechnical design calibrated for general application. One way to reduce the costs is reliability-based calibration of the partial factors to a reasonable safety level taking into account the specific design situations and uncertainties relevant to railway embankments. A reliability-based design has been investigated, resulting in an optimal partial factor for the considered subsoil. With a stochastic soil model to simulate the undrained shear strength of soft soil deposits, the partial factor is calibrated using asymptotic sampling for the reliability assessment. The calibration shows that the partial factor can be reduced significantly compared to the value specified in the Danish National Annex to DS/EN 1997-1 (2007, Eurocode 7.

  16. Genetic, molecular and functional analyses of complement factor I deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, S.C.; Trouw, L.A.; Renault, N.

    2009-01-01

    Complete deficiency of complement inhibitor factor I (FI) results in secondary complement deficiency due to uncontrolled spontaneous alternative pathway activation leading to susceptibility to infections. Current genetic examination of two patients with near complete FI deficiency and three patie...

  17. Analyses of possible risk factors for subacromial impingement syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin; Kapkird, Anucha

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between various risk factors, including sleeping position, and impingement syndrome. Impingement syndrome is the most common cause of shoulder problems. The pathogenesis of this problem is still debated these days.

  18. Parametric and factor analyses of dynamic scintigraphic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surova, H.; Samal, M.; Karny, M.

    1986-01-01

    Processing dynamic examinations in nuclear medicine is done as a rule with regard to the regions of interest and dynamic curves or by means of parametric images. The disadvantage of both methods is the processing of the summation of all processes in overlapping anatomical structures. This disadvantage is eliminated by processing using factor analysis. A different approach from those used formerly makes it possible to use information relating to both time and space, as well as direct quantification of the results in imp./pix./sec. (author)

  19. The NF-kB like factor DIF has weaker effects on Drosophila melanogaster immune defenses than previously thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourg, Eric

    2011-08-01

    The Toll pathway of Drosophila melanogaster, when activated by the Beauveria bassiana fungus, directs the expression of the drosomycin and metchnikowin antimicrobial peptide genes by inducing the translocation into the nucleus of the DIF transcription factor. Accordingly, DIF mutants have been reported to have a lower resistance to fungi than control flies. However, as the longevity of non-infected DIF flies has not been measured in previous studies, it could be that survival times after infection are constrained by a low longevity. In the present study, DIF flies reared in conditions similar to those used in these previous studies had much lower survival time after infection than the control flies, but the longevity of non-infected DIF flies was also very low. Using rearing conditions controlling larval crowding, age of parents and mating status of experimental flies increased longevity of non-infected flies and survival time after infection in both strains. However, DIF flies had a similar survival time after infection as control ones or a slightly lower one, which shows that the effect of DIF is weaker than previously thought.

  20. Skin barrier and contact allergy: Genetic risk factor analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross-Hansen, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    piercing status was regarded. Nickel patch test readings indicated that proportionally more mutation carriers than wild types had stronger reactions. Epidermally derived filaggrin binds nickel. The GST gene polymorphisms did not associate with contact allergy among adult Danes. The CLDN1 polymorphisms rs......Background Contact allergy is frequent in the general population and arises from prolonged or repeated skin contact with chemical substances. The environmental risk factor is obvious, yet some studies report on associations between genetic variance and an increased risk of developing contact...... allergy. Objectives To evaluate the effect of specific gene polymorphisms on the risk of developing contact allergy by a candidate gene approach. These included polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferase genes (GSTM1, -T1 and -P1 variants), the claudin-1 gene (CLDN1), and the filaggrin gene (FLG...

  1. Individual-level factors associated with variation in mycobacterial-specific immune response: Gender and previous BCG vaccination status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sophie J; Knight, Gwenan M; Fielding, Katherine; Scriba, Thomas J; Pathan, Ansar A; McShane, Helen; Fletcher, Helen; White, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    A more effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine is needed to eliminate TB disease. Many new vaccine candidates enhance the immunogenicity of the existing vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Understanding BCG induced immune variation is key to developing a new vaccine. We aimed to establish if individual-level covariates were associated with cell-mediated immune response (interferon gamma (IFN-γ)) at vaccine trial enrolment (baseline) in a long-term retrospective analysis (LTR) and after BCG vaccination in a short-term prospective analysis (STP). Four covariates were analysed: gender, country, BCG vaccination history and monocyte/lymphocyte cell count ratio. Univariable and multivariable linear regression were conducted on IFN-γ response at baseline for LTR, and area under the curve (AUC), 24 week and peak IFN-γ response for STP. Previous BCG vaccination was strongly associated with higher IFN-γ response at baseline (LTR analysis) (p-values response (p-value = 0.1). BCG revaccination was strongly associated with a larger response increase than primary-vaccination (AUC & peak p-values 0.1). This analysis suggests that previous BCG vaccination and gender are associated with durable IFN-γ responses. Vaccine trials may need to stratify by BCG vaccination history and gender. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Previous treatment, sputum-smear nonconversion, and suburban living: The risk factors of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shariff, Noorsuzana; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Kamaludin, Fadzilah

    2016-03-01

    The number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients is increasing each year in many countries all around the globe. Malaysia has no exception in facing this burdensome health problem. We aimed to investigate the factors that contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among Malaysian tuberculosis patients. An unmatched case-control study was conducted among tuberculosis patients who received antituberculosis treatments from April 2013 until April 2014. Cases are those diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis patients clinically, radiologically, and/or bacteriologically, and who were confirmed to be resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin through drug-sensitivity testing. On the other hand, pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were sensitive to all first-line antituberculosis drugs and were treated during the same time period served as controls. A total of 150 tuberculosis patients were studied, of which the susceptible cases were 120. Factors found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are being Indian or Chinese (odds ratio 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.04-9.68; and odds ratio 6.23, 95% confidence interval 2.24-17.35, respectively), unmarried (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.09-6.09), living in suburban areas (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.08-6.19), are noncompliant (odds ratio 4.50, 95% confidence interval 1.71-11.82), were treated previously (odds ratio 8.91, 95% confidence interval 3.66-21.67), and showed positive sputum smears at the 2nd (odds ratio 7.00, 95% confidence interval 2.46-19.89) and 6th months of treatment (odds ratio 17.96, 95% confidence interval 3.51-91.99). Living in suburban areas, positive sputum smears in the 2nd month of treatment, and was treated previously are factors that independently contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Those with positive smears in the second month of treatment, have a history of previous

  3. Patterns and predictive factors of long-lasting insecticidal net usage in a previously high malaria endemic area in Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Caroline E; Premaratne, Risintha G; Jayanetti, S Ravindra; Fernando, S Deepika

    2015-09-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have been widely distributed in Sri Lanka for malaria control. Their effectiveness depends on proper utilisation and maintenance at the household level. A cross-sectional study was performed to examine the patterns and predictive factors of LLIN maintenance and use in Anuradhapura district. Data was collected and analysed from 530 LLIN-owning households, selected by a multi-stage cluster sampling technique. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with proper maintenance at the household level. Hierarchical linear modelling identified factors associated with LLIN use the previous night. Almost 75% (377/504) of households had used all their LLINs the previous night, while 82.9% (418/504) had used at least one. Only 3.2% (15/474) were maintaining the LLIN in such a way as to maximise its insecticidal efficacy. Six variables were significantly associated (peffects. Two variables were significantly associated with proper maintenance: increasing level of education and taking safety precautions while washing. Results suggest LLIN practices could improve in settings of low malaria transmission if distribution programmes took into account recipient preferences, promoted LLIN use over plain nets, and emphasised the techniques and significance of proper net maintenance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Prevalence of Depression and Associated Factors in Non-institutionalized Older Adults With a Previous History of Falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-García, Begoña; Antón-Solanas, Isabel; Moreno-González, Sergio; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Juárez-Vela, Raúl

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to estimate the prevalence of depression and associated factors in people aged 65 or older with a history of falling in the last 12months. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed involving a random sample of 213 participants from two social centers for older adults in the city of Zaragoza (Spain). The mean age of the participants was 77.3years (SD±7.0). Our findings reveal a prevalence of depression of 28.2% in the study sample, with older adults who were at a high risk of falling being more susceptible to developing depression. In conclusion, one in three elderly people who were at risk of suffering a fall in the 12months prior to data collection had symptoms of depression. This is in agreement with the results from previous studies, which confirm that there is a high prevalence of depression in elderly patients with a previous history of falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. State Guidelines for Mental Retardation and Intellectual Disabilities: A Re-visitation of Previous Analyses in Light of Changes in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polloway, Edward A.; Patton, James R.; Smith, J. David; Lubin, Jacqueline; Antoine, Karian

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) (Luckasson et al., 2002) revised their manual on mental retardation. It also extended the changes that had been made in the previous (1992) manual to further promote an alternative approach to definition and classification in the field. The study reported here sought to determine the…

  6. [Incidence and clinical risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Vigo, P; Álvarez-Silvares, E; Alves-Pérez M T; Domínguez-Sánchez, J; González-González, A

    2016-04-01

    Gestational diabetes is considered a variant of diabetes mellitus as they share a common pathophysiological basis: insulin resistance in target and insufficient secretion of it by pancreatic p-cell bodies. Pregnancy is a unique physiological situation provides an opportunity to identify future risk of diabetes mellitus. To determine the long-term incidence of diabetes mellitus in women who have previously been diagnosed with gestational diabetes and identifying clinical risk factors for developing the same. nested case-control cohort study. 671 patients between 1996 and 2009 were diagnosed with gestational diabetes were selected. The incidence of diabetes mellitus was estimated and 2 subgroups were formed: Group A or cases: women who develop diabetes mellitus after diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Group B or control: random sample of 71 women with a history of gestational diabetes in the follow-up period remained normoglycemic. Both groups were studied up to 18 years postpartum. By studying Kaplan Meier survival of the influence of different gestational variables it was obtained in the later development of diabetes mellitus with time parameter and COX models for categorical variables were applied. Significant variables were studied by multivariate Cox analysis. In all analyzes the Hazard ratio was calculated with confidence intervals at 95%. The incidence of diabetes mellitus was 10.3% in patients with a history of gestational diabetes. They were identified as risk factors in the index pregnancy to later development of diabetes mellitus: greater than 35 and younger than 27 years maternal age, BMI greater than 30 kg/m2, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, insulin therapy, poor metabolic control and more than a complicated pregnancy with gestational diabetes. Clinical factors have been identified in the pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes that determine a higher probability of progression to diabetes mellitus in the medium and long term.

  7. Molecular and mathematical modeling analyses of inter-island transmission of rabies into a previously rabies-free island in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohma, Kentaro; Saito, Mariko; Demetria, Catalino S; Manalo, Daria L; Quiambao, Beatriz P; Kamigaki, Taro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Rabies is endemic in the Philippines and dog bites are a major cause of rabies cases in humans. The rabies control program has not been successful in eliminating rabies because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Therefore, more effective and feasible strategies for rabies control are urgently required in the country. To control rabies, it is very important to know if inter-island transmission can occur because rabies can become endemic once the virus is introduced in areas that previously had no reported cases. Our molecular epidemiological study suggests that inter-island transmission events can occur; therefore, we further investigated these inter-island transmission using phylogenetic and modeling approaches. We investigate inter-island transmission between Luzon and Tablas Islands in the Philippines. Phylogenetic analysis and mathematical modeling demonstrate that there was a time lag of several months to a year from rabies introduction to initial case detection, indicating the difficulties in recognizing the initial rabies introductory event. There had been no rabies cases reported in Tablas Island; however, transmission chain was sustained on this island after the introduction of rabies virus because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Across the islands, a rabies control program should include control of inter-island dog transportation and rabies vaccination to avoid viral introduction from the outside and to break transmission chains after viral introduction. However, this program has not yet been completely implemented and transmission chains following inter-island virus transmission are still observed. Local government units try to control dog transport; however, it should be more strictly controlled, and a continuous rabies control program should be implemented to prevent rabies spread even in rabies-free areas. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Systematic Review of Studies Using the Brief COPE: Religious Coping in Factor Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian U. Krägeloh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Religion is generally recognized as a major resource for dealing with stressful events, but its relationship with secular coping strategies continues to be debated. The present article provides a systematic review of the way in which analyses of the sub-scale turning to religion of the widely used Brief COPE [1] instrument are presented in peer-reviewed research articles, in order to investigate how the wealth of data published using this instrument can inform how religious coping relates to other coping strategies. Of the 212 identified articles that included turning to religion in their analyses, 80 combined sub-scale scores to form higher-order coping factors, 38 of which based on exploratory factor analyses of their own datasets. When factor analyses had used individual items as indicators, religious coping was more likely to load together with maladaptive coping strategies, and more likely with adaptive coping strategies when analyses were conducted at sub-scale level. To a large extent, the variation in the results from exploratory factor analyses appears to be due to the diverse and often inappropriate factor analytic techniques used to determine the factor structure of the Brief COPE instrument. Reports from factor analyses of the Brief COPE therefore have very little value when trying to make general conclusions about the role of religious coping in relation to secular coping methods.

  9. Knowledge of stroke risk factors among primary care patients with previous stroke or TIA: a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strender Lars-Erik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivers of stroke or transient ischaemic attacks (TIA are at risk of new vascular events. Our objective was to study primary health care patients with stroke/TIA regarding their knowledge about risk factors for having a new event of stroke/TIA, possible associations between patient characteristics and patients' knowledge about risk factors, and patients' knowledge about their preventive treatment for stroke/TIA. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 240 patients with stroke/TIA diagnoses, and 182 patients (76% responded. We asked 13 questions about diseases/conditions and lifestyle factors known to be risk factors and four questions regarding other diseases/conditions ("distractors". The patients were also asked whether they considered each disease/condition to be one of their own. Additional questions concerned the patients' social and functional status and their drug use. The t-test was used for continuous variables, chi-square test for categorical variables, and a regression model with variables influencing patient knowledge was created. Results Hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were identified as risk factors by nearly 90% of patients, and atrial fibrillation and diabetes by less than 50%. Few patients considered the distractors as stroke/TIA risk factors (3-6%. Patients with a family history of cardiovascular disease, and patients diagnosed with carotid stenosis, atrial fibrillation or diabetes, knew these were stroke/TIA risk factors to a greater extent than patients without these conditions. Atrial fibrillation or a family history of cardiovascular disease was associated with better knowledge about risk factors, and higher age, cerebral haemorrhage and living alone with poorer knowledge. Only 56% of those taking anticoagulant drugs considered this as intended for prevention, while 48% of those taking platelet aggregation inhibitors thought this was for prevention. Conclusions Knowledge about hypertension

  10. A cross-sectional survey assessing factors associated with reading cancer screening information: previous screening behaviour, demographics and decision-making style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanouni, Alex; Renzi, Cristina; Waller, Jo

    2017-04-18

    There is broad agreement that cancer screening invitees should know the risks and benefits of testing before deciding whether to participate. In organised screening programmes, a primary method of relaying this information is via leaflets provided at the time of invitation. Little is known about why individuals do not engage with this information. This study assessed factors associated with reading information leaflets provided by the three cancer screening programmes in England. A cross-sectional survey asked screening-eligible members of the general population in England about the following predictor variables: uptake of previous screening invitations, demographic characteristics, and 'decision-making styles' (i.e. the extent to which participants tended to make decisions in a way that was avoidant, rational, intuitive, spontaneous, or dependent). The primary outcome measures were the amount of the leaflet that participants reported having read at their most recent invitation, for any of the three programmes for which they were eligible. Associations between these outcomes and predictor variables were assessed using binary or ordinal logistic regression. After exclusions, data from 275, 309, and 556 participants were analysed in relation to the breast, cervical, and bowel screening programmes, respectively. Notable relationships included associations between regularity of screening uptake and reading (more of) the information leaflets for all programmes (e.g. odds ratio: 0.16 for participants who never/very rarely attended breast screening vs. those who always attended previously; p = .009). Higher rational decision-making scores were associated with reading more of the cervical and bowel screening leaflets (OR: 1.13, p screening uptake may also increase subsequent engagement with information. Future research could investigate how to improve engagement at initial invitations. There may also be scope to reduce barriers to accessing non-English information and

  11. Prognostic factors for the success of endometrial ablation in the treatment of menorrhagia with special reference to previous cesarean section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Jos A. H.; Penninx, Josien P. M.; Mol, Ben Willem; Bongers, Marlies Y.

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether, among other prognostic factors, a history of Cesarean section is associated with endometrial ablation failure in the treatment of menorrhagia. Study design We compared women who had failed ablation to women who had successful ablation for menorrhagia in a case-control study.

  12. Psychosocial Factors Related to Lateral and Medial Epicondylitis: Results from Pooled Study Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiese, Matthew S.; Hegmann, Kurt T.; Kapellusch, Jay; Merryweather, Andrew; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Tang, Ruoliang; Garg, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal is to assess the relationships between psychosocial factors and both medial and lateral epicondylitis after adjustment for personal and job physical exposures. Methods 1824 participants were included in pooled analyses. 10 psychosocial factors were assessed. Results 121 (6.6%) and 34 (1.9%) participants have lateral and medial epicondylitis respectively. Nine psychosocial factors assessed had significant trends or associations with lateral epicondylitis, the largest of which was between physical exhaustion after work and lateral epicondylitis with and odds ratio of 7.04 (95% CI=2.02-24.51). Eight psychosocial factors had significant trends or relationships with medial epicondylitis, with the largest being between mental exhaustion after work with an odds ratio of 6.51 (95% CI=1.57-27.04). Conclusion The breadth and strength of these associations after adjustment for confounding factors demonstrate meaningful relationships that need to be further investigated in prospective analyses. PMID:27206118

  13. A quantitative method to analyse an open answer questionnaire: A case study about the Boltzmann Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, Onofrio Rosario; Di Paola, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative method to analyse an openended questionnaire. Student responses to a specially designed written questionnaire are quantitatively analysed by not hierarchical clustering called k-means method. Through this we can characterise behaviour students with respect their expertise to formulate explanations for phenomena or processes and/or use a given model in the different context. The physics topic is about the Boltzmann Factor, which allows the students to have a unifying view of different phenomena in different contexts.

  14. The structure of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): two meta-analytic factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnambs, Timo; Staufenbiel, Thomas

    2018-01-30

    The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) is a popular measure of psychological distress. Despite its widespread use, an ongoing controversy pertains to its internal structure. Although the GHQ-12 was originally constructed to capture a unitary construct, empirical studies identified different factor structures. Therefore, this study examined the dimensionality of the GHQ-12 in two independent meta-analyses. The first meta-analysis used summary data published in 38 primary studies (total N = 76,473). Meta-analytic exploratory factor analyses identified two factors formed by negatively and positively worded items. The second meta-analysis included individual responses of 410,640 participants from 84 independent samples. Meta-analytic confirmatory factor analyses corroborated the two-dimensional structure of the GHQ-12. However, bifactor modelling showed that most of the variance was explained by a general factor. Therefore, subscale scores reflected rather limited unique variance. Overall, the two meta-analyses demonstrated that the GHQ-12 is essentially unidimensional. It is not recommended to use and interpret subscale scores because they primarily reflect general mental health rather than distinct constructs.

  15. Air Force Officer Qualifying Test Form T: Initial Item-, Test-, Factor-, and Composite-Level Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Air Force Officer Qualifying Test, Form T1 AFOQT T2 Air Force Officer Qualifying Test, Form T2 AGFI Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index AI Air Force...Qualifying Test Electrical Maze subtest g General mental ability factor GFI Goodness of Fit Index GLS Generalized Least Squares GS Air Force...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0093 AIR FORCE OFFICER QUALIFYING TEST FORM T: INITIAL ITEM-, TEST-, FACTOR-, AND COMPOSITE-LEVEL ANALYSES

  16. IMPROVING CONTROL ROOM DESIGN AND OPERATIONS BASED ON HUMAN FACTORS ANALYSES OR HOW MUCH HUMAN FACTORS UPGRADE IS ENOUGH ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIGGINS,J.C.; OHARA,J.M.; ALMEIDA,P.

    2002-09-19

    THE JOSE CABRERA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IS A ONE LOOP WESTINGHOUSE PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR. IN THE CONTROL ROOM, THE DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS USED BY OPERATORS FOR THE EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES ARE DISTRIBUTED ON FRONT AND BACK PANELS. THIS CONFIGURATION CONTRIBUTED TO RISK IN THE PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT WHERE IMPORTANT OPERATOR ACTIONS ARE REQUIRED. THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF THE DESIGN ON CREW PERFORMANCE AND PLANT SAFETY AND TO DEVELOP DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS.FIVE POTENTIAL EFFECTS WERE IDENTIFIED. THEN NUREG-0711 [1], PROGRAMMATIC, HUMAN FACTORS, ANALYSES WERE CONDUCTED TO SYSTEMATICALLY EVALUATE THE CR-LA YOUT TO DETERMINE IF THERE WAS EVIDENCE OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS. THESE ANALYSES INCLUDED OPERATING EXPERIENCE REVIEW, PSA REVIEW, TASK ANALYSES, AND WALKTHROUGH SIMULATIONS. BASED ON THE RESULTS OF THESE ANALYSES, A VARIETY OF CONTROL ROOM MODIFICATIONS WERE IDENTIFIED. FROM THE ALTERNATIVES, A SELECTION WAS MADE THAT PROVIDED A REASONABLEBALANCE BE TWEEN PERFORMANCE, RISK AND ECONOMICS, AND MODIFICATIONS WERE MADE TO THE PLANT.

  17. Factor VIII brand and the incidence of factor VIII inhibitors in previously untreated UK children with severe hemophilia A, 2000-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Benedict P.; Chalmers, Elizabeth A.; Hart, Daniel P.; Liesner, Ri; Rangarajan, Savita; Talks, Katherine; Williams, Michael; Hay, Charles R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) brand on inhibitor development was investigated in all 407 severe hemophilia A previously untreated patients born in the United Kingdom (UK) between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2011. Eighty-eight (22%) had been in the RODIN study. Information was extracted from the National Haemophilia Database. Because exposure days (EDs) were not known for some patients, time from first treatment was used as a surrogate for rFVIII exposure. An inhibitor developed in 118 (29%) patients, 60 high and 58 low titer, after a median (interquartile range) of 7.8 (3.3-13.5) months from first exposure and 16 (9-30) EDs. Of 128 patients treated with Kogenate Bayer/Helixate NexGen, 45 (35.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 27.4-43.8) developed an inhibitor compared with 42/172 (24.4%, 95% CI 18.6% to 31.4%) with Advate (P = .04). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) for Kogenate Bayer/Helixate NexGen compared with Advate was 2.14 (1.12-4.10) (P = .02) for high titer and 1.75 (1.11-2.76) (P = .02) for all inhibitors. When excluding UK-RODIN patients, the adjusted HR (95% CI) for high-titer inhibitors was 2.00 (0.93-4.34) (P = .08). ReFacto AF was associated with a higher incidence of all, but not high-titer, inhibitors than Advate. These results will help inform debate around the relative immunogenicity and use of rFVIII brands. PMID:25339360

  18. Factor VIII brand and the incidence of factor VIII inhibitors in previously untreated UK children with severe hemophilia A, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Peter W; Palmer, Benedict P; Chalmers, Elizabeth A; Hart, Daniel P; Liesner, Ri; Rangarajan, Savita; Talks, Katherine; Williams, Michael; Hay, Charles R M

    2014-11-27

    The effect of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) brand on inhibitor development was investigated in all 407 severe hemophilia A previously untreated patients born in the United Kingdom (UK) between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2011. Eighty-eight (22%) had been in the RODIN study. Information was extracted from the National Haemophilia Database. Because exposure days (EDs) were not known for some patients, time from first treatment was used as a surrogate for rFVIII exposure. An inhibitor developed in 118 (29%) patients, 60 high and 58 low titer, after a median (interquartile range) of 7.8 (3.3-13.5) months from first exposure and 16 (9-30) EDs. Of 128 patients treated with Kogenate Bayer/Helixate NexGen, 45 (35.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 27.4-43.8) developed an inhibitor compared with 42/172 (24.4%, 95% CI 18.6% to 31.4%) with Advate (P = .04). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) for Kogenate Bayer/Helixate NexGen compared with Advate was 2.14 (1.12-4.10) (P = .02) for high titer and 1.75 (1.11-2.76) (P = .02) for all inhibitors. When excluding UK-RODIN patients, the adjusted HR (95% CI) for high-titer inhibitors was 2.00 (0.93-4.34) (P = .08). ReFacto AF was associated with a higher incidence of all, but not high-titer, inhibitors than Advate. These results will help inform debate around the relative immunogenicity and use of rFVIII brands. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  20. A cross-sectional survey assessing factors associated with reading cancer screening information: previous screening behaviour, demographics and decision-making style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ghanouni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is broad agreement that cancer screening invitees should know the risks and benefits of testing before deciding whether to participate. In organised screening programmes, a primary method of relaying this information is via leaflets provided at the time of invitation. Little is known about why individuals do not engage with this information. This study assessed factors associated with reading information leaflets provided by the three cancer screening programmes in England. Methods A cross-sectional survey asked screening-eligible members of the general population in England about the following predictor variables: uptake of previous screening invitations, demographic characteristics, and ‘decision-making styles’ (i.e. the extent to which participants tended to make decisions in a way that was avoidant, rational, intuitive, spontaneous, or dependent. The primary outcome measures were the amount of the leaflet that participants reported having read at their most recent invitation, for any of the three programmes for which they were eligible. Associations between these outcomes and predictor variables were assessed using binary or ordinal logistic regression. Results After exclusions, data from 275, 309, and 556 participants were analysed in relation to the breast, cervical, and bowel screening programmes, respectively. Notable relationships included associations between regularity of screening uptake and reading (more of the information leaflets for all programmes (e.g. odds ratio: 0.16 for participants who never/very rarely attended breast screening vs. those who always attended previously; p = .009. Higher rational decision-making scores were associated with reading more of the cervical and bowel screening leaflets (OR: 1.13, p < .0005 and OR: 1.11, p = .045, respectively. Information engagement was also higher for White British participants compared with other ethnic groups for breast (OR: 3.28, p = .008

  1. Round Robin Analyses on Stress Intensity Factors of Inner Surface Cracks in Welded Stainless Steel Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gi Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels (ASSs are widely used for nuclear pipes as they exhibit a good combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, high tensile residual stresses may occur in ASS welds because postweld heat treatment is not generally conducted in order to avoid sensitization, which causes a stress corrosion crack. In this study, round robin analyses on stress intensity factors (SIFs were carried out to examine the appropriateness of structural integrity assessment methods for ASS pipe welds with two types of circumferential cracks. Typical stress profiles were generated from finite element analyses by considering residual stresses and normal operating conditions. Then, SIFs of cracked ASS pipes were determined by analytical equations represented in fitness-for-service assessment codes as well as reference finite element analyses. The discrepancies of estimated SIFs among round robin participants were confirmed due to different assessment procedures and relevant considerations, as well as the mistakes of participants. The effects of uncertainty factors on SIFs were deducted from sensitivity analyses and, based on the similarity and conservatism compared with detailed finite element analysis results, the R6 code, taking into account the applied internal pressure and combination of stress components, was recommended as the optimum procedure for SIF estimation.

  2. Uveal Melanoma Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayman, Taylor; Bostan, Cristina; Logan, Patrick; Burnier, Miguel N

    2017-08-01

    There is currently no clinical risk-assessment tool allowing identification of patients at risk for developing uveal melanoma (UM) who might benefit from regular screening. As a first step toward the elaboration of such a tool, we systematically reviewed UM risk factors already established by meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently screened Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science from their respective inception dates until July 2016 using a combination of keywords and MeSH terms. Eligible studies were meta-analyses or systematic reviews providing pooled odds ratios (ORs) of risk factors for UM development or sufficient information to calculate them. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews tool. Four meta-analyses with a mean methodological quality score of 65.9% (min: 54.5%; max: 72.7%) were included. The following significant risk factors were identified: atypical cutaneous nevi (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.10-7.26), welding (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.20-3.51), occupational cooking (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.33-2.46), fair skin color (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.31-2.47), light eye color (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.31-2.34), common cutaneous nevi (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.27-2.39), propensity to sunburn (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.29-2.09), iris nevi (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.03-2.27), and cutaneous freckles (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.09-1.49). Non-significant factors included outdoor leisure activity, occupational sunlight exposure, latitude of birth, and hair color. Moderate quality of evidence determined nine significant risk factors for developing UM. Knowledge of these variables will assist researchers in the elaboration of a formal risk-assessment tool allowing clinicians to estimate susceptibility to the disease and necessity of regular screening.

  3. Molecular and biochemical analyses of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) B, PDGFRA, and KIT receptors in chordomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Elena; Miselli, Francesca; Negri, Tiziana; Lagonigro, M Stefania; Staurengo, Samantha; Dagrada, Gian Paolo; Stacchiotti, Silvia; Pastore, Elisa; Gronchi, Alessandro; Perrone, Federica; Carbone, Antonino; Pierotti, Marco A; Casali, Paolo G; Pilotti, Silvana

    2006-12-01

    We have previously shown the presence of an activated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor (PDGFR) B and its ligand PDGFB in a limited number of patients with clinical and radiological responses to imatinib mesylate treatment. This article describes the results of comprehensive molecular/biochemical analyses of the three receptors targeted by the drug (PDGFRB, PDGFRA, and KIT) in a series of 31 chordoma patients. The presence and activation status of PDGFRB, PDGFRA, and KIT receptors were investigated by means of immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses complemented by immunohistochemistry, their expression level was analyzed by means of real-time PCR, and the occurrence of activating point mutations was investigated by means of cDNA sequencing. The PDGFB, PDGFA, and stem cell factor cognate ligands were investigated by reverse transcription-PCR, and gene status was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The results show that PDGFRB was highly expressed and phosphorylated, whereas PDGFRA and KIT were less expressed but phosphorylated and thus activated. These findings, together with the absence of gain-of-function mutations and the presence of the cognate ligands, strongly support the hypothesis that the activation mechanism is the autocrine/paracrine loop. No role seems to be played by gene amplification. In the light of our findings, the clinical benefit observed in chordoma patients treated with imatinib seems to be attributable to the switching off of all three receptors.

  4. ObStruct: A Method to Objectively Analyse Factors Driving Population Structure Using Bayesian Ancestry Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayevskiy, Velimir; Klaere, Steffen; Knight, Sarah; Goddard, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin) correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses. PMID:24416362

  5. ObStruct: a method to objectively analyse factors driving population structure using Bayesian ancestry profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimir Gayevskiy

    Full Text Available Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses.

  6. Inequality of obesity and socioeconomic factors in Iran: a systematic review and meta- analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Peykari, Niloofar; Qorbani, Mostafa; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and demographic factors, such as education, occupation, place of residence, gender, age, and marital status have been reported to be associated with obesity. We conducted a systematic review to summarize evidences on associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity/overweight in Iranian population. We systematically searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Iran-medex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We refined data for associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity/overweight by sex, age, province, and year. There were no limitations for time and languages. Based on our search strategy we found 151 records; of them 139 were from international databases and the remaining 12 were obtained from national databases. After removing duplicates, via the refining steps, only 119 articles were found related to our study domains. Extracted results were attributed to 146596 person/data from included studies. Increased ages, low educational levels, being married, residence in urban area, as well as female sex were clearly associated with obesity. RESULTS could be useful for better health policy and more planned studies in this field. These also could be used for future complementary analyses.

  7. French previously untreated patients with severe hemophilia A after exposure to recombinant factor VIII : incidence of inhibitor and evaluation of immune tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, C; Laurian, Y; Satre, E P; Borel Derlon, A; Chambost, H; Moreau, P; Goudemand, J; Parquet, A; Peynet, J; Vicariot, M; Beurrier, P; Claeyssens, S; Durin, A; Faradji, A; Fressinaud, E; Gaillard, S; Guérin, V; Guérois, C; Pernod, G; Pouzol, P; Schved, J F; Gazengel, C

    1998-11-01

    Fifty French previously untreated patients with severe hemophilia A (factor VIII brand of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII), were evaluated for inhibitor development, assessment of risk factors and outcome of immune tolerance regimen. The median period on study was 32 months (range 9-74) since the first injection of rFVIII. Fourteen patients (28%) developed an inhibitor, four of whom (8%) with a high titer (> or = 10 BU). All inhibitor patients but one continued to receive rFVIII either for on-demand treatment or for immune tolerance regimen (ITR). Among these patients, inhibitor was transient in 2 (4%), became undetectable in 6 and was still present in 6. The prevalence of inhibitor was 12%. Presence of intron 22 inversion was found to be a risk factor for inhibitor development. Immune tolerance was difficult to achieve in our series despite a follow-up period of 16 to 30 months: immune tolerance was complete in only one out of the 3 patients undergoing low dose ITR and in one out of the 5 patients with high dose ITR.

  8. Phylogeny, Functional Annotation, and Protein Interaction Network Analyses of the Xenopus tropicalis Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyi Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The previous survey identified 70 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH proteins, but it was proved to be incomplete, and the functional information and regulatory networks of frog bHLH transcription factors were not fully known. Therefore, we conducted an updated genome-wide survey in the Xenopus tropicalis genome project databases and identified 105 bHLH sequences. Among the retrieved 105 sequences, phylogenetic analyses revealed that 103 bHLH proteins belonged to 43 families or subfamilies with 46, 26, 11, 3, 15, and 4 members in the corresponding supergroups. Next, gene ontology (GO enrichment analyses showed 65 significant GO annotations of biological processes and molecular functions and KEGG pathways counted in frequency. To explore the functional pathways, regulatory gene networks, and/or related gene groups coding for Xenopus tropicalis bHLH proteins, the identified bHLH genes were put into the databases KOBAS and STRING to get the signaling information of pathways and protein interaction networks according to available public databases and known protein interactions. From the genome annotation and pathway analysis using KOBAS, we identified 16 pathways in the Xenopus tropicalis genome. From the STRING interaction analysis, 68 hub proteins were identified, and many hub proteins created a tight network or a functional module within the protein families.

  9. Risk Factor Analyses for the Return of Spontaneous Circulation in the Asphyxiation Cardiac Arrest Porcine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Jun Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Animal models of asphyxiation cardiac arrest (ACA are frequently used in basic research to mirror the clinical course of cardiac arrest (CA. The rates of the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC in ACA animal models are lower than those from studies that have utilized ventricular fibrillation (VF animal models. The purpose of this study was to characterize the factors associated with the ROSC in the ACA porcine model. Methods: Forty-eight healthy miniature pigs underwent endotracheal tube clamping to induce CA. Once induced, CA was maintained untreated for a period of 8 min. Two minutes following the initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, defibrillation was attempted until ROSC was achieved or the animal died. To assess the factors associated with ROSC in this CA model, logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze gender, the time of preparation, the amplitude spectrum area (AMSA from the beginning of CPR and the pH at the beginning of CPR. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the predictive value of AMSA for ROSC. Results: ROSC was only 52.1% successful in this ACA porcine model. The multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that ROSC significantly depended on the time of preparation, AMSA at the beginning of CPR and pH at the beginning of CPR. The area under the ROC curve in for AMSA at the beginning of CPR was 0.878 successful in predicting ROSC (95% confidence intervals: 0.773∼0.983, and the optimum cut-off value was 15.62 (specificity 95.7% and sensitivity 80.0%. Conclusions: The time of preparation, AMSA and the pH at the beginning of CPR were associated with ROSC in this ACA porcine model. AMSA also predicted the likelihood of ROSC in this ACA animal model.

  10. Univariate and multivariate analyses of preoperative factors influencing symptomatic outcomes of transoral fundoplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Reginald C W; Fox, Mark A; Barnes, William E; Mavrelis, Peter G; Sewell, Robert W; Carter, Bart J; Ihde, Glenn M; Trad, Karim S; Dargis, David; Hoddinott, Kevin M; Freeman, Katherine D; Gunsberger, Tanja; Hausmann, Mark G; Gill, Brian DaCosta; Wilson, Erik

    2014-10-01

    Preoperative factors predicting symptomatic improvement after transoral fundoplication (TF) in chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients with persistent symptoms on proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) therapy have not been elucidated fully. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on data from 158 consecutive patients who underwent TF with the EsophyX device between January 2010 and June 2012 in 14 community centers. Variables included age, gender, body mass index, GERD duration, PPIs therapy duration, presence of hiatal hernia, esophagitis, Hill grade, quality of life scores (QOL) on PPIs, % total time pH symptoms. Additionally, 78% (124/158) of patients suffered from atypical symptoms. Six percent (10/158) with recurrent GERD symptoms refractory to PPI therapy underwent revisional procedure (9 laparoscopic Nissen, 1 TF). Median follow-up was 22 (range 10-43) months. For patients with typical symptoms, univariate analyses revealed 4 preoperative factors predictive of successful outcomes: age ≥ 50 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-4.8, p = 0.014], GERD Health-related Quality of Life score (GERD-HRQL) ≥ 15 on PPIs (OR = 6.0, CI = 1.2-29.4, p = 0.026, Reflux Symptom Index score > 13 on PPIs (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.1-5.2, p = 0.027), and Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptom Score ≥ 18 on PPIs (OR = 2.6, CI = 1.2-5.8, p = 0.018). Age and GERD-HRQL score remained significant predictors by multivariate analysis. For patients with atypical symptoms, only GERD-HRQL score ≥ 15 on PPIs (OR = 9.9, CI = 0.9-4.6, p = 0.036) was associated with successful outcomes. Elevated preoperative QOL scores on PPIs and age ≥ 50 were most closely associated with successful outcome of TF in patients with persistent symptoms despite medical therapy.

  11. Interactions between risk factors in the prediction of onset of eating disorders: Exploratory hypothesis generating analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Desjardins, Christopher D

    2018-06-01

    Because no study has tested for interactions between risk factors in the prediction of future onset of each eating disorder, this exploratory study addressed this lacuna to generate hypotheses to be tested in future confirmatory studies. Data from three prevention trials that targeted young women at high risk for eating disorders due to body dissatisfaction (N = 1271; M age 18.5, SD 4.2) and collected diagnostic interview data over 3-year follow-up were combined to permit sufficient power to predict onset of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD) using classification tree analyses, an analytic technique uniquely suited to detecting interactions. Low BMI was the most potent predictor of AN onset, and body dissatisfaction amplified this relation. Overeating was the most potent predictor of BN onset, and positive expectancies for thinness and body dissatisfaction amplified this relation. Body dissatisfaction was the most potent predictor of BED onset, and overeating, low dieting, and thin-ideal internalization amplified this relation. Dieting was the most potent predictor of PD onset, and negative affect and positive expectancies for thinness amplified this relation. Results provided evidence of amplifying interactions between risk factors suggestive of cumulative risk processes that were distinct for each disorder; future confirmatory studies should test the interactive hypotheses generated by these analyses. If hypotheses are confirmed, results may allow interventionists to target ultra high-risk subpopulations with more intensive prevention programs that are uniquely tailored for each eating disorder, potentially improving the yield of prevention efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Heritable patterns of tooth decay in the permanent dentition: principal components and factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xiaojing; Tcuenco, Karen T; Weeks, Daniel E; DeSensi, Rebecca S; Polk, Deborah E; Wendell, Steve; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W; Marazita, Mary L

    2012-03-09

    Dental caries is the result of a complex interplay among environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors, with distinct patterns of decay likely due to specific etiologies. Therefore, global measures of decay, such as the DMFS index, may not be optimal for identifying risk factors that manifest as specific decay patterns, especially if the risk factors such as genetic susceptibility loci have small individual effects. We used two methods to extract patterns of decay from surface-level caries data in order to generate novel phenotypes with which to explore the genetic regulation of caries. The 128 tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition were scored as carious or not by intra-oral examination for 1,068 participants aged 18 to 75 years from 664 biological families. Principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), two methods of identifying underlying patterns without a priori surface classifications, were applied to our data. The three strongest caries patterns identified by PCA recaptured variation represented by DMFS index (correlation, r = 0.97), pit and fissure surface caries (r = 0.95), and smooth surface caries (r = 0.89). However, together, these three patterns explained only 37% of the variability in the data, indicating that a priori caries measures are insufficient for fully quantifying caries variation. In comparison, the first pattern identified by FA was strongly correlated with pit and fissure surface caries (r = 0.81), but other identified patterns, including a second pattern representing caries of the maxillary incisors, were not representative of any previously defined caries indices. Some patterns identified by PCA and FA were heritable (h(2) = 30-65%, p = 0.043-0.006), whereas other patterns were not, indicating both genetic and non-genetic etiologies of individual decay patterns. This study demonstrates the use of decay patterns as novel phenotypes to assist in understanding the multifactorial nature of dental caries.

  13. Analyse of the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism in the patients with dyspnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yanxia; Su Jian; Wang Bingsheng; Wu Songhong; Dai Ruiting; Cao Caixia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with dyspnea and to explore the predisposing causes and its early clinical manifestations. Methods: Retrospective analysis was done in 461 patients with dyspnea performed 99 Tc m -macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion imaging and 99 Tc m -DTPA ventilation imaging or 99 Tc m -MAA perfusion imaging and chest X-ray examination. Among them, 48 cases without apparent disease were considered as control group, whereas the remaining patients with other underlying illnesses as patients group. PEMS statistics software package was used for estimation of prevalence rate, χ 2 test and PE risk factor analysis. Results: There were 251 PE patients among 461 patients, the prevalence rate [ (π)=95% confidence interval (CI) ] was: lower extremity thrombosis and varicosity (80.79-95.47 ), post cesarean section (55.64-87.12), lower extremity bone surgery or fracture (52.76-87.27 ), cancer operation (52.19-78.19), atrial fibrillation or heart failure (53.30-74.88), obesity (23.14-50.20), post abdominal surgery (20.23-59.43), diabetes (19.12-63.95), chronic bronchitis (1.80-23.06), normal control group (3.47-22.66). Except chronic bronchitis, PE prevalence rate between patients group and control group had significant difference (P 99 Tc m -MAA and DTPA lung imaging should be done as early as possible. (authors)

  14. Effect of Nasal Continuous Positive Pressure on the Nostrils of Patients with Sleep Apnea Syndrome and no Previous Nasal Pathology. Predictive Factors for Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Francina; Cisternas, Ariel; Montserrat, Josep Maria; Àvila, Manuel; Torres-López, Marta; Iranzo, Alex; Berenguer, Joan; Vilaseca, Isabel

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the nostrils of patients with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome and its impact on quality of life, and to identify predictive factors for compliance. Longitudinal prospective study. Thirty-six consecutive patients evaluated before and 2 months after CPAP using the following variables: clinical (eye, nose and throat [ENT] symptoms, Epworth test, anxiety/depression scales, general and rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life); anatomical (ENT examination, computed tomography); functional (auditive and Eustachian tube function, nasal flow, mucociliary transport); biological (nasal cytology); and polisomnographics. The sample was divided into compliers (≥4h/d) and non-compliers (Nasal dryness (P=.000), increased neutrophils in nasal cytology (P=.000), and deteriorating ciliary function were evidenced, particularly in compliers. No significant differences were observed in the other variables. Baseline sleepiness was the only factor predictive of compliance. CPAP in patients without previous nasal pathology leads to an improvement in a series of clinical parameters and causes rhinitis and airway dryness. Some ENT variables worsened in compliers. Sleepiness was the only prognostic factor for poor tolerance. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Vulnerability factors for disaster-induced child post-traumatic stress disorder: the case for low family resilience and previous mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Brett M; Cobham, Vanessa E; Berry, Helen; Stallman, Helen M

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether parent report of family resilience predicted children's disaster-induced post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general emotional symptoms, independent of a broad range of variables including event-related factors, previous child mental illness and social connectedness. A total of 568 children (mean age = 10.2 years, SD = 1.3) who attended public primary schools, were screened 3 months after Cyclone Larry devastated the Innisfail region of North Queensland. Measures included parent report on the Family Resilience Measure and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)-emotional subscale and child report on the PTSD Reaction Index, measures of event exposure and social connectedness. Sixty-four students (11.3%) were in the severe-very severe PTSD category and 53 families (28.6%) scored in the poor family resilience range. A lower family resilience score was associated with child emotional problems on the SDQ and longer duration of previous child mental health difficulties, but not disaster-induced child PTSD or child threat perception on either bivariate analysis, or as a main or moderator variable on multivariate analysis (main effect: adjusted odds ratio (OR(adj)) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.13-2.44). Similarly, previous mental illness was not a significant predictor of child PTSD in the multivariate model (OR(adj) = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.16-3.61). In this post-disaster sample children with existing mental health problems and those of low-resilience families were not at elevated risk of PTSD. The possibility that the aetiological model of disaster-induced child PTSD may differ from usual child and adolescent conceptualizations is discussed.

  16. Comparison of time until elective intestinal resection regarding previous anti-tumor necrosis factor exposure: a Brazilian study on patients with Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gustavo Kotze

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF agents seems to reduce surgical rates and delay surgical procedures in prospective trials and population-based studies in the management of Crohn's disease (CD. This study aimed to identify whether preoperative anti-TNF agents influence the time from diagnosis to surgery. Methods: An observational retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients with CD submitted to intestinal resections due to complications or medical therapy failure in a period of 7 years. The patients were allocated into 2 groups according to their previous exposure to anti-TNF agents in the preoperative period. Epidemiological aspects regarding age at diagnosis, smoking, perianal disease, and preoperative conventional therapy were considered. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to outline possible differences between the groups regarding the time to surgery. Results: A total of 123 patients were included (71 and 52 with and without previous exposure to biologics, respectively. The overall time to surgery was 108±6.9 months (maximum, 276 months. The survival estimation revealed no difference in the mean time to intestinal resection between the groups (99.78±10.62 months in the patients without and 114.01±9.07 months in those with previous anti-TNF use (log-rank P=0.35. There was no significant difference in the time to surgery regarding perianal CD (P=0.49, smoking (P=0.63, preoperative azathioprine (P=0.073 and steroid use (P=0.58. Conclusions: The time from diagnosis to surgery was not influenced by the preoperative use of anti-TNF therapy in this cohort of patients.

  17. Post hoc analyses of the impact of previous medication on the efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghill DR

    2014-10-01

    =317; LDX, -18.6 [-21.5, -15.7]; OROS- MPH, -13.0 [-15.9, -10.2] and treatment-naïve individuals (n=147; LDX, -15.1 [-19.4, -10.9]; OROS-MPH, -12.7 [-16.8, -8.5] or patients previously treated with any ADHD medication (n=170; LDX, -21.5 [-25.5, -17.6]; OROS-MPH, -14.2 [-18.1, -10.3]. In addition, similar proportions of patients receiving active treatment were categorized as improved based on CGI-I score (CGI-I of 1 or 2 in the overall study population and among treatment-naïve individuals or patients previously treated with any ADHD medication. Conclusion: In these post hoc analyses, the response to LDX treatment, and to the reference treatment OROS-MPH, was similar to that observed for the overall study population in subgroups of patients categorized according to whether or not they had previously received ADHD medication. Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, methylphenidate, central nervous system stimulants

  18. Code conforming determination of cumulative usage factors for general elastic-plastic finite element analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, Juergen; Goetz, Andreas; Hilpert, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The procedures of fatigue analyses of several relevant nuclear and conventional design codes (ASME, KTA, EN, AD) for power plant components differentiate between an elastic, simplified elastic-plastic and elastic-plastic fatigue check. As a rule, operational load levels will exclude the purely elastic fatigue check. The application of the code procedure of the simplified elastic-plastic fatigue check is common practice. Nevertheless, resulting cumulative usage factors may be overly conservative mainly due to high code based plastification penalty factors Ke. As a consequence, the more complex and still code conforming general elastic-plastic fatigue analysis methodology based on non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) is applied for fatigue design as an alternative. The requirements of the FEA and the material law to be applied have to be clarified in a first step. Current design codes only give rough guidelines on these relevant items. While the procedure for the simplified elastic-plastic fatigue analysis and the associated code passages are based on stress related cycle counting and the determination of pseudo elastic equivalent stress ranges, an adaptation to elastic-plastic strains and strain ranges is required for the elastic-plastic fatigue check. The associated requirements are explained in detail in the paper. If the established and implemented evaluation mechanism (cycle counting according to the peak and valley respectively the rainflow method, calculation of stress ranges from arbitrary load-time histories and determination of cumulative usage factors based on all load events) is to be retained, a conversion of elastic-plastic strains and strain ranges into pseudo elastic stress ranges is required. The algorithm to be applied is described in the paper. It has to be implemented in the sense of an extended post processing operation of FEA e.g. by APDL scripts in ANSYS registered . Variations of principal stress (strain) directions during the loading

  19. Concept of ground facilities and the analyses of the factors for cost estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Choi, H. J.; Choi, J. W.; Kim, S. K.; Cho, D. K

    2007-09-15

    The geologic disposal of spent fuels generated from the nuclear power plants is the only way to protect the human beings and the surrounding environments present and future. The direct disposal of the spent fuels from the nuclear power plants is considered, and a Korean Reference HLW disposal System(KRS) suitable for our representative geological conditions have been developed. In this study, the concept of the spent fuel encapsulation process as a key of the above ground facilities for deep geological disposal was established. To do this, the design requirements, such as the functions and the spent fuel accumulations, were reviewed. Also, the design principles and the bases were established. Based on the requirements and the bases, the encapsulation process of the spent fuel from receiving spent fuel of nuclear power plants to transferring canister into the underground repository was established. Simulation for the above-ground facility in graphic circumstances through KRS design concept and disposal scenarios for spent nuclear fuel showed that an appropriate process was performed based on facility design concept and required for more improvement on construction facility by actual demonstration test. And, based on the concept of the above ground facilities for the Korean Reference HLW disposal System, the analyses of the factors for the cost estimation was carried out.

  20. Identification and expression analyses of MYB and WRKY transcription factor genes in Papaver somniferum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeshpour, Tayebeh; Nayebi, Shadi; Rashidi Monfared, Sajad; Moieni, Ahmad; Karimzadeh, Ghasem

    2015-10-01

    Papaver somniferum L. is an herbaceous, annual and diploid plant that is important from pharmacological and strategic point of view. The cDNA clones of two putative MYB and WRKY genes were isolated (GeneBank accession numbers KP411870 and KP203854, respectively) from this plant, via the nested-PCR method, and characterized. The MYB transcription factor (TF) comprises 342 amino acids, and exhibits the structural features of the R2R3MYB protein family. The WRKY TF, a 326 amino acid-long polypeptide, falls structurally into the group II of WRKY protein family. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses indicate the presence of these TFs in all organs of P. somniferum L. and Papaver bracteatum L. Highest expression levels of these two TFs were observed in the leaf tissues of P. somniferum L. while in P. bracteatum L. the espression levels were highest in the root tissues. Promoter analysis of the 10 co-expressed gene clustered involved in noscapine biosynthesis pathway in P. somniferum L. suggested that not only these 10 genes are co-expressed, but also share common regulatory motifs and TFs including MYB and WRKY TFs, and that may explain their common regulation.

  1. Logistic regression and multiple classification analyses to explore risk factors of under-5 mortality in bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmik, K.R.; Islam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Logistic regression (LR) analysis is the most common statistical methodology to find out the determinants of childhood mortality. However, the significant predictors cannot be ranked according to their influence on the response variable. Multiple classification (MC) analysis can be applied to identify the significant predictors with a priority index which helps to rank the predictors. The main objective of the study is to find the socio-demographic determinants of childhood mortality at neonatal, post-neonatal, and post-infant period by fitting LR model as well as to rank those through MC analysis. The study is conducted using the data of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 where birth and death information of children were collected from their mothers. Three dichotomous response variables are constructed from children age at death to fit the LR and MC models. Socio-economic and demographic variables significantly associated with the response variables separately are considered in LR and MC analyses. Both the LR and MC models identified the same significant predictors for specific childhood mortality. For both the neonatal and child mortality, biological factors of children, regional settings, and parents socio-economic status are found as 1st, 2nd, and 3rd significant groups of predictors respectively. Mother education and household environment are detected as major significant predictors of post-neonatal mortality. This study shows that MC analysis with or without LR analysis can be applied to detect determinants with rank which help the policy makers taking initiatives on a priority basis. (author)

  2. Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of the Apple Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao eZhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs play essential roles in the regulatory networks controlling many developmental processes in plants. Members of the basic leucine (Leu zipper (bZIP TF family, which is unique to eukaryotes, are involved in regulating diverse processes, including flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling and defense responses to pathogens. The bZIP proteins have a characteristic bZIP domain composed of a DNA-binding basic region and a Leu zipper dimerization region. In this study, we identified 112 apple (Malus domestica Borkh bZIP TF-encoding genes, termed MdbZIP genes. Synteny analysis indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events, as well as whole genome duplication, have contributed to the expansion of the apple bZIP family. The family could be divided into 11 groups based on structural features of the encoded proteins, as well as on the phylogenetic relationship of the apple bZIP proteins to those of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtbZIP genes. Synteny analysis revealed that several paired MdbZIP genes and AtbZIP gene homologs were located in syntenic genomic regions. Furthermore, expression analyses of group A MdbZIP genes showed distinct expression levels in ten different organs. Moreover, changes in these expression profiles in response to abiotic stress conditions and various hormone treatments identified MdbZIP genes that were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as to different phytohormones.

  3. Structural and Kinetic Analyses of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Active Site Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crichlow, G.; Lubetsky, J; Leng, L; Bucala, R; Lolis, E

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a secreted protein expressed in numerous cell types that counters the antiinflammatory effects of glucocorticoids and has been implicated in sepsis, cancer, and certain autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, the structure of MIF contains a catalytic site resembling the tautomerase/isomerase sites of microbial enzymes. While bona fide physiological substrates remain unknown, model substrates have been identified. Selected compounds that bind in the tautomerase active site also inhibit biological functions of MIF. It had previously been shown that the acetaminophen metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), covalently binds to the active site of MIF. In this study, kinetic data indicate that NAPQI inhibits MIF both covalently and noncovalently. The structure of MIF cocrystallized with NAPQI reveals that the NAPQI has undergone a chemical alteration forming an acetaminophen dimer (bi-APAP) and binds noncovalently to MIF at the mouth of the active site. We also find that the commonly used protease inhibitor, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), forms a covalent complex with MIF and inhibits the tautomerase activity. Crystallographic analysis reveals the formation of a stable, novel covalent bond for PMSF between the catalytic nitrogen of the N-terminal proline and the sulfur of PMSF with complete, well-defined electron density in all three active sites of the MIF homotrimer. Conclusions are drawn from the structures of these two MIF-inhibitor complexes regarding the design of novel compounds that may provide more potent reversible and irreversible inhibition of MIF.

  4. Speeding cis-trans regulation discovery by phylogenomic analyses coupled with screenings of an arrayed library of Arabidopsis transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Castrillo

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation is an important mechanism underlying gene expression and has played a crucial role in evolution. The number, position and interactions between cis-elements and transcription factors (TFs determine the expression pattern of a gene. To identify functionally relevant cis-elements in gene promoters, a phylogenetic shadowing approach with a lipase gene (LIP1 was used. As a proof of concept, in silico analyses of several Brassicaceae LIP1 promoters identified a highly conserved sequence (LIP1 element that is sufficient to drive strong expression of a reporter gene in planta. A collection of ca. 1,200 Arabidopsis thaliana TF open reading frames (ORFs was arrayed in a 96-well format (RR library and a convenient mating based yeast one hybrid (Y1H screening procedure was established. We constructed an episomal plasmid (pTUY1H to clone the LIP1 element and used it as bait for Y1H screenings. A novel interaction with an HD-ZIP (AtML1 TF was identified and abolished by a 2 bp mutation in the LIP1 element. A role of this interaction in transcriptional regulation was confirmed in planta. In addition, we validated our strategy by reproducing the previously reported interaction between a MYB-CC (PHR1 TF, a central regulator of phosphate starvation responses, with a conserved promoter fragment (IPS1 element containing its cognate binding sequence. Finally, we established that the LIP1 and IPS1 elements were differentially bound by HD-ZIP and MYB-CC family members in agreement with their genetic redundancy in planta. In conclusion, combining in silico analyses of orthologous gene promoters with Y1H screening of the RR library represents a powerful approach to decipher cis- and trans-regulatory codes.

  5. Factors Influencing Choices for Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Previously Unscreened African and Caucasian Americans: Findings from a Triangulation Mixed Methods Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Mack T.; Creswell, John W.; Jimbo, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    We investigated factors that influence choice of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test and assessed the most- and least-preferred options among fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and double contrast barium enema among adults with varied race, gender, and geographic region demographics. Mixed methods data collection consisted of 10 focus group interviews and a survey of the 93 focus group participants. Participants were ≥50 years of age and reported not having been screened for colorectal cancer in the last ten years. Analyses examined differences by race, gender, and geographic location. Participants had modest knowledge about CRC and there were fewer correct answers to knowledge questions by African Americans. Participants recognized value of early detection, and identified health symptoms and their doctor's recommendation as influential for obtaining CRC screening. They chose colonoscopy and FOBT as the most preferred tests, while barium enema was least preferred. The analysis revealed intra-group variations in preference, though there were no significant differences by race, gender, or location. Openness of discussing this sensitive topic, lack of knowledge about colorectal cancer and screening costs, and diversity of preferences expressed within study groups suggest the importance of patient-physician dialogue about colorectal cancer screening options. New approaches to promoting colorectal cancer screening need to explore methods to facilitate patients establishing and expressing preferences among the screening options. PMID:19082695

  6. Evaluation of bentonite alteration due to interactions with iron. Sensitivity analyses to identify the important factors for the bentonite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Wilson, James; Sato, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Performance assessment of geological disposal systems for high-level radioactive waste requires a consideration of long-term systems behaviour. It is possible that the alteration of swelling clay present in bentonite buffers might have an impact on buffer functions. In the present study, iron (as a candidate overpack material)-bentonite (I-B) interactions were evaluated as the main buffer alteration scenario. Existing knowledge on alteration of bentonite during I-B interactions was first reviewed, then the evaluation methodology was developed considering modeling techniques previously used overseas. A conceptual model for smectite alteration during I-B interactions was produced. The following reactions and processes were selected: 1) release of Fe 2+ due to overpack corrosion; 2) diffusion of Fe 2+ in compacted bentonite; 3) sorption of Fe 2+ on smectite edge and ion exchange in interlayers; 4) dissolution of primary phases and formation of alteration products. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the most important factors for the alteration of bentonite by I-B interactions. (author)

  7. Short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypercholesterolemia: analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwisch, James E; Malaspina, Dolores; Babiss, Lindsay A; Opler, Mark G; Posner, Kelly; Shen, Sa; Turner, J Blake; Zammit, Gary K; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2010-07-01

    To explore the relationship between sleep duration in adolescence and hypercholesterolemia in young adulthood. Experimental sleep restriction has been shown to significantly increase total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels in women. Short sleep duration has been found in cross sectional studies to be associated with higher total cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol levels. Sleep deprivation could increase the risk for hypercholesterolemia by increasing appetite and dietary consumption of saturated fats, decreasing motivation to engage in regular physical activity, and increasing stress and resultant catecholamine induced lipolysis. No previous published population studies have examined the longitudinal relationship between sleep duration and high cholesterol. Multivariate longitudinal analyses stratified by sex of the ADD Health using logistic regression. United States nationally representative, school-based, probability-based sample. Adolescents (n = 14,257) in grades 7 to 12 at baseline (1994-95) and ages 18 to 26 at follow-up (2001-02). Among females, each additional hour of sleep was associated with a significantly decreased odds of being diagnosed with high cholesterol in young adulthood (OR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.96) after controlling for covariates. Additional sleep was associated with decreased, yet not statistically significant, odds ratios for hypercholesterolemia in males (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.79-1.05). Short sleep durations in adolescent women could be a significant risk factor for high cholesterol. Interventions that lengthen sleep could potentially serve as treatments and as primary preventative measures for hypercholesterolemia.

  8. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  9. Effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention program targeting personality risk factors: Results of interaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Jeroen; Goossens, Ferry; Conrod, Patricia; Engels, Rutger; Wiers, Reinout W; Kleinjan, Marloes

    2017-08-01

    To explore whether specific groups of adolescents (i.e., scoring high on personality risk traits, having a lower education level, or being male) benefit more from the Preventure intervention with regard to curbing their drinking behaviour. A clustered randomized controlled trial, with participants randomly assigned to a 2-session coping skills intervention or a control no-intervention condition. Fifteen secondary schools throughout The Netherlands; 7 schools in the intervention and 8 schools in the control condition. 699 adolescents aged 13-15; 343 allocated to the intervention and 356 to the control condition; with drinking experience and elevated scores in either negative thinking, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity or sensation seeking. Differential effectiveness of the Preventure program was examined for the personality traits group, education level and gender on past-month binge drinking (main outcome), binge frequency, alcohol use, alcohol frequency and problem drinking, at 12months post-intervention. Preventure is a selective school-based alcohol prevention programme targeting personality risk factors. The comparator was a no-intervention control. Intervention effects were moderated by the personality traits group and by education level. More specifically, significant intervention effects were found on reducing alcohol use within the anxiety sensitivity group (OR=2.14, CI=1.40, 3.29) and reducing binge drinking (OR=1.76, CI=1.38, 2.24) and binge drinking frequency (β=0.24, p=0.04) within the sensation seeking group at 12months post-intervention. Also, lower educated young adolescents reduced binge drinking (OR=1.47, CI=1.14, 1.88), binge drinking frequency (β=0.25, p=0.04), alcohol use (OR=1.32, CI=1.06, 1.65) and alcohol use frequency (β=0.47, p=0.01), but not those in the higher education group. Post hoc latent-growth analyses revealed significant effects on the development of binge drinking (β=-0.19, p=0.02) and binge drinking frequency (β=-0.10, p=0

  10. Arrhythmias and sudden death among older children and young adults following tetralogy of Fallot repair in the current era: are previously reported risk factors still applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Swati; Kovach, Julie; Singh, Harinder; Karpawich, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    Young adult patients (pts) with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) remain at risk for arrhythmias (Ar) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Based on past studies with earlier pt subsets, Ar/SCD events were associated with right ventricular (RV) systolic pressures >60 mm Hg, outflow tract gradients >20 mm Hg, and QRS duration >180 ms. However, there are limited recent studies to evaluate these risk factors in the current patient generation. Patients with TOF followed over the past 50 years were grouped by presence of any arrhythmias (group 1), absence of arrhythmias (group 2), and presence of SCD or significant ventricular arrhythmias (group 3) and correlated with current pt age, gender, age at repair, repair types, echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, electrocardiogram/Holter, hemodynamics, and electrophysiology findings. Of 109 pts, 52 were male aged 17-58 years. Of these, 59 (54%) had Ar, two of whom had SCD. These 59 pts were chronologically older at the time of analysis, with repair at an older age and wider QRS duration (78-240, mean 158 ms) when compared with those without Ar. However, there was no correlation with surgical era, surgical repair, gender, RV pressure >60 mm Hg, right ventricular outflow tract gradient >20 mm Hg, or RV end-diastolic volume on CMRI. Ar/SCD risk continues to correlate with repair age and advancing pt age. QRS duration is longer in these patients but at a shorter interval (mean 158 ms) and less RV pressure (mean 43 mm Hg) than previously reported. In the current TOF patient generation, neither surgical era, type of repair, RV outflow gradient nor RV volume correlate with Ar/SCD. Electrophysiologic testing to verify and identify arrhythmias remains clinically effective. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Development of a Body Image Concern Scale using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in Chinese university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He W

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wenxin He, Qiming Zheng, Yutian Ji, Chanchan Shen, Qisha Zhu, Wei Wang Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: The body dysmorphic disorder is prevalent in general population and in psychiatric, dermatological, and plastic-surgery patients, but there lacks a structure-validated, comprehensive self-report measure of body image concerns, which is established through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Methods: We have composed a 34-item matrix targeting the body image concerns and trialed it in 328 male and 365 female Chinese university students. Answers to the matrix dealt with treatments including exploratory factor analyses, reserve of qualified items, and confirmatory factor analyses of latent structures. Results: Six latent factors, namely the Social Avoidance, Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, Perceived Distress/Discrimination, Defect Hiding, and Embarrassment in Public, were identified. The factors and their respective items have composed a 24-item questionnaire named as the Body Image Concern Scale. Each factor earned a satisfactory internal reliability, and the intercorrelations between these factors were in a median level. Women scored significantly higher than men did on the Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, and Defect Hiding. Conclusion: The Body Image Concern Scale has displayed its structure validation and gender preponderance in Chinese university students. Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder, body image, factor analysis, questionnaire development

  12. Systematic assessment of environmental risk factors for bipolar disorder: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Köhler, Cristiano A; Evangelou, Evangelos; León-Caballero, Jordi; Solmi, Marco; Stubbs, Brendon; Belbasis, Lazaros; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Kessing, Lars V; Berk, Michael; Vieta, Eduard; Carvalho, André F

    2017-03-01

    The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is likely to involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. In our study, we aimed to perform a systematic search of environmental risk factors for BD. In addition, we assessed possible hints of bias in this literature, and identified risk factors supported by high epidemiological credibility. We searched the Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycInfo databases up to 7 October 2016 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that assessed associations between putative environmental risk factors and BD. For each meta-analysis, we estimated its summary effect size by means of both random- and fixed-effects models, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), the 95% prediction interval, and heterogeneity. Evidence of small-study effects and excess of significance bias was also assessed. Sixteen publications met the inclusion criteria (seven meta-analyses and nine qualitative systematic reviews). Fifty-one unique environmental risk factors for BD were evaluated. Six meta-analyses investigated associations with a risk factor for BD. Only irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) emerged as a risk factor for BD supported by convincing evidence (k=6; odds ratio [OR]=2.48; 95% CI=2.35-2.61; P<.001), and childhood adversity was supported by highly suggestive evidence. Asthma and obesity were risk factors for BD supported by suggestive evidence, and seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii and a history of head injury were supported by weak evidence. Notwithstanding that several environmental risk factors for BD were identified, few meta-analyses of observational studies were available. Therefore, further well-designed and adequately powered studies are necessary to map the environmental risk factors for BD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Development of a Body Image Concern Scale using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in Chinese university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenxin; Zheng, Qiming; Ji, Yutian; Shen, Chanchan; Zhu, Qisha; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background The body dysmorphic disorder is prevalent in general population and in psychiatric, dermatological, and plastic-surgery patients, but there lacks a structure-validated, comprehensive self-report measure of body image concerns, which is established through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Methods We have composed a 34-item matrix targeting the body image concerns and trialed it in 328 male and 365 female Chinese university students. Answers to the matrix dealt with treatments including exploratory factor analyses, reserve of qualified items, and confirmatory factor analyses of latent structures. Results Six latent factors, namely the Social Avoidance, Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, Perceived Distress/Discrimination, Defect Hiding, and Embarrassment in Public, were identified. The factors and their respective items have composed a 24-item questionnaire named as the Body Image Concern Scale. Each factor earned a satisfactory internal reliability, and the intercorrelations between these factors were in a median level. Women scored significantly higher than men did on the Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, and Defect Hiding. Conclusion The Body Image Concern Scale has displayed its structure validation and gender preponderance in Chinese university students. PMID:28603420

  14. Development of a Body Image Concern Scale using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenxin; Zheng, Qiming; Ji, Yutian; Shen, Chanchan; Zhu, Qisha; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The body dysmorphic disorder is prevalent in general population and in psychiatric, dermatological, and plastic-surgery patients, but there lacks a structure-validated, comprehensive self-report measure of body image concerns, which is established through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. We have composed a 34-item matrix targeting the body image concerns and trialed it in 328 male and 365 female Chinese university students. Answers to the matrix dealt with treatments including exploratory factor analyses, reserve of qualified items, and confirmatory factor analyses of latent structures. Six latent factors, namely the Social Avoidance, Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, Perceived Distress/Discrimination, Defect Hiding, and Embarrassment in Public, were identified. The factors and their respective items have composed a 24-item questionnaire named as the Body Image Concern Scale. Each factor earned a satisfactory internal reliability, and the intercorrelations between these factors were in a median level. Women scored significantly higher than men did on the Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, and Defect Hiding. The Body Image Concern Scale has displayed its structure validation and gender preponderance in Chinese university students.

  15. Clinical evaluation of recombinant factor VIII preparation (Kogenate) in previously treated patients with hemophilia A: descriptive meta-analysis of post-marketing study data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, A; Fukutake, K; Takamatsu, J; Shirahata, A

    2006-08-01

    The safety and efficacy of Kogenate, a recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) preparation for the treatment of bleeding episodes, were studied in a 123-patient meta-analysis population of previously treated patients (PTPs), including 15 enrolled in the registration Phase III trial (PTP-I group), 93 from the post-marketing special investigation (PTP-II group), and 15 from short-term special investigations in surgery or tooth extraction (SI group). These patients (82 severe, 31 moderate, 9 mild, and 1 unknown), aged 11 months to 72 years, were enrolled in 28 centers in Japan. Blood samples taken at the baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after the introduction of Kogenate were evaluated for FVIII inhibitor antibodies, antibodies formed against trace proteins derived from the rFVIII production process, and for general changes in laboratory test results. Mean exposure to Kogenate was 1103 days in PTP-I, 86 days in PTP-II, 27 days in patients in surgery, and 2 days in patients with tooth extraction. Assessment of FVIII inhibitor activity was conducted in 115 of the 123 patients by means of the Bethesda assay. Twelve patients were found to have a low titer of FVIII inhibitor (0.5-3.0 BU/mL) prior to any administration of Kogenate, and 103 were inhibitor-negative at the baseline. Among this latter group, 3 patients (2.9%) tested inhibitor-positive, with titers ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 BU/mL, with 4 patients below 1.0 BU/mL. One patient in the 11 PTPs investigated (PTP-I) developed antibodies against baby hamster kidney protein and mouse immunoglobulin G, but these findings were transient and asymptomatic. Hemostasis was achieved (markedly effective or effective) in 3666 of the 3855 bleeding episodes (95.1%) observed in 108 patients. Only 1 infusion was necessary in 3790 (98.3%) of these episodes. These data indicate that Kogenate is safe and very effective for the treatment of bleeding in PTPs with hemophilia A.

  16. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; JA Perez-Cueto, Federico; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through...... factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health sector. Whether or not a particular factor contributes to future success depends on the specific context of use, the combination of factors...... and the environment. Consideration of the specific applicability of the success factors identified in this study during the design of marketing activities could benefit public sector food and health-related campaigns....

  17. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of Delirium Symptoms in a Sample of Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Patience; Huang, Ting-Ying; Simoni-Wastila, Linda; Harrington, Donna

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the latent constructs of delirium symptoms among nursing home (NH) residents in the United States. Cross-sectional NH assessment data (Minimum Data Set 2.0) from the 2009 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey were used. Data from two independent, randomly selected subsamples of residents ≥65 years were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). There were 367 and 366 individuals in the EFA and CFA, respectively. Assessment of multiple model fit statistics in CFA indicated that the two-factor structure provided better fit for the data than a one-factor solution. The two factors represented cognitive and behavioral latent constructs as suggested by the related literature. A correlation of .72 between these constructs suggested moderate discriminant validity. This finding emphasizes the importance of health care providers to be attentive to both cognitive and behavioral symptoms when diagnosing, treating, and managing delirium.

  18. Who will volunteer? Analysing individual and structural factors of volunteering in Swiss sports clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Torsten; Nagel, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the conditions influencing volunteering in sports clubs. It focuses not only on individual characteristics of volunteers but also on the corresponding structural conditions of sports clubs. It proposes a model of voluntary work in sports clubs based on economic behaviour theory. The influences of both the individual and context levels on the decision to engage in voluntary work are estimated in different multilevel models. Results of these multilevel analyses indicate that volunteering is not just an outcome of individual characteristics such as lower workloads, higher income, children belonging to the sports club, longer club memberships, or a strong commitment to the club. It is also influenced by club-specific structural conditions; volunteering is more probable in rural sports clubs whereas growth-oriented goals in clubs have a destabilising effect.

  19. Environmental risk factors of pregnancy outcomes: a summary of recent meta-analyses of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Dadvand, Payam; Grellier, James; Martinez, David; Vrijheid, Martine

    2013-01-15

    Various epidemiological studies have suggested associations between environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Some studies have tempted to combine information from various epidemiological studies using meta-analysis. We aimed to describe the methodologies used in these recent meta-analyses of environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, we aimed to report their main findings. We conducted a bibliographic search with relevant search terms. We obtained and evaluated 16 recent meta-analyses. The number of studies included in each reported meta-analysis varied greatly, with the largest number of studies available for environmental tobacco smoke. Only a small number of the studies reported having followed meta-analysis guidelines or having used a quality rating system. Generally they tested for heterogeneity and publication bias. Publication bias did not occur frequently.The meta-analyses found statistically significant negative associations between environmental tobacco smoke and stillbirth, birth weight and any congenital anomalies; PM2.5 and preterm birth; outdoor air pollution and some congenital anomalies; indoor air pollution from solid fuel use and stillbirth and birth weight; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) exposure and birth weight; disinfection by-products in water and stillbirth, small for gestational age and some congenital anomalies; occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents and some congenital anomalies; and agent orange and some congenital anomalies. The number of meta-analyses of environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes is small and they vary in methodology. They reported statistically significant associations between environmental exposures such as environmental tobacco smoke, air pollution and chemicals and pregnancy outcomes.

  20. Environmental risk factors of pregnancy outcomes: a summary of recent meta-analyses of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieuwenhuijsen Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various epidemiological studies have suggested associations between environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Some studies have tempted to combine information from various epidemiological studies using meta-analysis. We aimed to describe the methodologies used in these recent meta-analyses of environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, we aimed to report their main findings. Methods We conducted a bibliographic search with relevant search terms. We obtained and evaluated 16 recent meta-analyses. Results The number of studies included in each reported meta-analysis varied greatly, with the largest number of studies available for environmental tobacco smoke. Only a small number of the studies reported having followed meta-analysis guidelines or having used a quality rating system. Generally they tested for heterogeneity and publication bias. Publication bias did not occur frequently. The meta-analyses found statistically significant negative associations between environmental tobacco smoke and stillbirth, birth weight and any congenital anomalies; PM2.5 and preterm birth; outdoor air pollution and some congenital anomalies; indoor air pollution from solid fuel use and stillbirth and birth weight; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB exposure and birth weight; disinfection by-products in water and stillbirth, small for gestational age and some congenital anomalies; occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents and some congenital anomalies; and agent orange and some congenital anomalies. Conclusions The number of meta-analyses of environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes is small and they vary in methodology. They reported statistically significant associations between environmental exposures such as environmental tobacco smoke, air pollution and chemicals and pregnancy outcomes.

  1. Multiple analyses of factors related to complications in endoscopic sinus surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Wei Chou

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: Overall, the results of our study showed that the ESS complication rate was 7.8%, with risk factors including advanced Lund–Mackay scores (19–24, odds ratio 10.4 and inexperienced surgeon. It was also noted that ESS with a microdebrider had no impact on complication rates, although the presence of a mesenteric type of anterior ethmoid artery proved to be a protective factor.

  2. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Results Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. Conclusions The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health

  3. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Verbeke, Wim; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2012-02-21

    Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health sector. Whether or not a particular

  4. Building-related symptoms among U.S. office workers and risks factors for moisture and contamination: Preliminary analyses of U.S. EPA BASE Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Cozen, Myrna

    2002-09-01

    The authors assessed relationships between health symptoms in office workers and risk factors related to moisture and contamination, using data collected from a representative sample of U.S. office buildings in the U.S. EPA BASE study. Methods: Analyses assessed associations between three types of weekly, workrelated symptoms-lower respiratory, mucous membrane, and neurologic-and risk factors for moisture or contamination in these office buildings. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the strength of associations for these risk factors as odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for personal-level potential confounding variables related to demographics, health, job, and workspace. A number of risk factors were associated (e.g., 95% confidence limits excluded 1.0) significantly with small to moderate increases in one or more symptom outcomes. Significantly elevated ORs for mucous membrane symptoms were associated with the following risk factors: presence of humidification system in good condition versus none (OR = 1.4); air handler inspection annually versus daily (OR = 1.6); current water damage in the building (OR = 1.2); and less than daily vacuuming in study space (OR = 1.2). Significantly elevated ORs for lower respiratory symptoms were associated with: air handler inspection annually versus daily (OR = 2.0); air handler inspection less than daily but at least semi-annually (OR=1.6); less than daily cleaning of offices (1.7); and less than daily vacuuming of the study space (OR = 1.4). Only two statistically significant risk factors for neurologic symptoms were identified: presence of any humidification system versus none (OR = 1.3); and less than daily vacuuming of the study space (OR = 1.3). Dirty cooling coils, dirty or poorly draining drain pans, and standing water near outdoor air intakes, evaluated by inspection, were not identified as risk factors in these analyses, despite predictions based on previous findings elsewhere, except that very

  5. Factor analyses of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: a Bayesian structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Ted Chun Tat; Ho, Rainbow Tin Hung

    2013-12-01

    The latent structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) has caused inconsistent results in the literature. The HADS is frequently analyzed via maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis (ML-CFA). However, the overly restrictive assumption of exact zero cross-loadings and residual correlations in ML-CFA can lead to poor model fits and distorted factor structures. This study applied Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) to evaluate the latent structure of the HADS. Three a priori models, the two-factor, three-factor, and bifactor models, were investigated in a Chinese community sample (N = 312) and clinical sample (N = 198) using ML-CFA and BSEM. BSEM specified approximate zero cross-loadings and residual correlations through the use of zero-mean, small-variance informative priors. The model comparison was based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Using ML-CFA, none of the three models provided an adequate fit for either sample. The BSEM two-factor model with approximate zero cross-loadings and residual correlations fitted both samples well with the lowest BIC of the three models and displayed a simple and parsimonious factor-loading pattern. The study demonstrated that the two-factor structure fitted the HADS well, suggesting its usefulness in assessing the symptoms of anxiety and depression in clinical practice. BSEM is a sophisticated and flexible statistical technique that better reflects substantive theories and locates the source of model misfit. Future use of BSEM is recommended to evaluate the latent structure of other psychological instruments.

  6. Non-genetic risk factors for cutaneous melanoma and keratinocyte skin cancers: An umbrella review of meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbasis, Lazaros; Stefanaki, Irene; Stratigos, Alexander J; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2016-12-01

    Skin cancers have a complex disease mechanism, involving both genetic and non-genetic risk factors. Numerous meta-analyses have been published claiming statistically significant associations between non-genetic risk factors and skin cancers without applying a thorough methodological assessment. The present study maps the literature on the non-genetic risk factors of skin cancers, assesses the presence of statistical biases and identifies the associations with robust evidence. We searched PubMed up to January 20, 2016 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that examined associations between non-genetic factors and skin cancers. For each meta-analysis, we estimated the summary effect size by random-effects and fixed-effects models, the 95% confidence interval and the 95% prediction interval. We also assessed the between-study heterogeneity (I 2 metric), evidence for small-study effects and excess significance bias. Forty-four eligible papers were identified and included a total of 85 associations. Twenty-one associations were significant at Pmelanoma, skin type, sunburns, premalignant skin lesions, common and atypical nevi for melanoma) presented high level of credibility. The majority of meta-analyses on non-genetic risk factors for skin cancers suffered from large between-study heterogeneity and small-study effects or excess significance bias. The associations with convincing and highly suggestive evidence were mainly focused on skin photosensitivity and phenotypic characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Are semantic and phonological fluency based on the same or distinct sets of cognitive processes? Insights from factor analyses in healthy adults and stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Charlotte S M; Schumacher, Lena V; Römer, Pia; Leonhart, Rainer; Beume, Lena; Martin, Markus; Dressing, Andrea; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P

    2017-05-01

    Verbal fluency for semantic categories and phonological letters is frequently applied to studies of language and executive functions. Despite its popularity, it is still debated whether measures of semantic and phonological fluency reflect the same or distinct sets of cognitive processes. Word generation in the two task variants is believed to involve different types of search processes. Findings from the lesion and neuroimaging literature further suggest a stronger reliance of phonological and semantic fluency on frontal and temporal brain areas, respectively. This evidence for differential cognitive and neural contributions is, however, strongly challenged by findings from factor analyses, which have consistently yielded only one explanatory factor. As all previous factor-analytical approaches were based on very small item sets, this apparent discrepancy may be due to methodological limitations. In this study, we therefore applied a German version of the verbal fluency task with 8 semantic (i.e. categories) and 8 phonological items (i.e. letters). An exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation in N=69 healthy young adults indeed revealed a two-factor solution with markedly different loadings for semantic and phonological items. This pattern was corroborated by a confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of N=174 stroke patients. As results from both samples also revealed a substantial portion of common variance between the semantic and phonological factor, the present data further demonstrate that semantic and phonological verbal fluency are based on clearly distinct but also on shared sets of cognitive processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors affecting patterns of tooth decay in the permanent dentition: principal components and factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Polk, Deborah E; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xiaojing; Cuenco, Karen T; Weeks, Daniel E; DeSensi, Rebecca S; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W; Marazita, Mary L

    2013-08-01

    Dental caries of the permanent dentition is a multifactorial disease resulting from the complex interplay of endogenous and environmental risk factors. The disease is not easily quantitated due to the innumerable possible combinations of carious lesions across individual tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition. Global measures of decay, such as the DMFS index (which was developed for surveillance applications), may not be optimal for studying the epidemiology of dental caries because they ignore the distinct patterns of decay across the dentition. We hypothesize that specific risk factors may manifest their effects on specific tooth surfaces leading to patterns of decay that can be identified and studied. In this study, we utilized two statistical methods of extracting patterns of decay from surface-level caries data to create novel phenotypes with which to study the risk factors affecting dental caries. Intra-oral dental examinations were performed on 1068 participants aged 18-75 years to assess dental caries. The 128 tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition were scored as carious or not and used as input for principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), two methods of identifying underlying patterns without a priori knowledge of the patterns. Demographic (age, sex, birth year, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment), anthropometric (height, body mass index, waist circumference), endogenous (saliva flow), and environmental (tooth brushing frequency, home water source, and home water fluoride) risk factors were tested for association with the caries patterns identified by PCA and FA, as well as DMFS, for comparison. The ten strongest patterns (i.e. those that explain the most variation in the data set) extracted by PCA and FA were considered. The three strongest patterns identified by PCA reflected (i) global extent of decay (i.e. comparable to DMFS index), (ii) pit and fissure surface caries and (iii) smooth surface caries, respectively. The

  9. Statistical Analyses of Scatterplots to Identify Important Factors in Large-Scale Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Helton, J.C.

    1999-04-01

    The robustness of procedures for identifying patterns in scatterplots generated in Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses is investigated. These procedures are based on attempts to detect increasingly complex patterns in the scatterplots under consideration and involve the identification of (1) linear relationships with correlation coefficients, (2) monotonic relationships with rank correlation coefficients, (3) trends in central tendency as defined by means, medians and the Kruskal-Wallis statistic, (4) trends in variability as defined by variances and interquartile ranges, and (5) deviations from randomness as defined by the chi-square statistic. The following two topics related to the robustness of these procedures are considered for a sequence of example analyses with a large model for two-phase fluid flow: the presence of Type I and Type II errors, and the stability of results obtained with independent Latin hypercube samples. Observations from analysis include: (1) Type I errors are unavoidable, (2) Type II errors can occur when inappropriate analysis procedures are used, (3) physical explanations should always be sought for why statistical procedures identify variables as being important, and (4) the identification of important variables tends to be stable for independent Latin hypercube samples.

  10. FEM based soil stress and strain analyses aimed at plant growth factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barneveld, A.

    2000-01-01

    During vehicular traffic on agricultural soils, the soil is subjected to a loading process which finally results into a change of micro-factors, such as the amount and distribution of water, solid parts or bounds, not arising from the soil water, between these solid parts in the soil.

  11. Comparative Factor Analyses of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, John K.; Cunningham, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) as measures of androgyny. Results showed that femininty (Concern for Others) and masculinity (Dominance) accounted for most of the variance, but for PAQ, clusters of male- and female-valued items (i.e., Extroversion and Insecurity) formed subsidiary factors.…

  12. Efficacy and tolerability of a single-pill combination of telmisartan 80 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg according to age, gender, race, hypertension severity, and previous antihypertensive use: planned analyses of a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu D

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dingliang Zhu,1 Harold Bays,2 Pingjin Gao,1 Michaela Mattheus,3 Birgit Voelker,3 Luis M Ruilope4 1Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center Inc, Louisville, KY, USA; 3Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Ingelheim, Germany; 4Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain Background: The purpose of this work was to describe the efficacy and safety of a telmisartan 80 mg + hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (T80/H25 single-pill combination therapy in patients with moderate-severe hypertension (mean seated trough cuff systolic blood pressure [BP] ≥ 160 mmHg and diastolic BP ≥ 100 mmHg in specific patient subpopulations. Methods: This was a planned analysis of a double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group trial that demonstrated the superiority of a single-pill combination of T80/H25 versus T80 monotherapy in terms of systolic BP change from baseline to week 7. Subpopulations included older (aged ≥ 65 years versus younger, gender, race, hypertension severity, and prior antihypertensive therapy. Endpoints were change from baseline in mean seated trough cuff systolic and diastolic BP, proportion of patients achieving their BP goal (systolic/diastolic BP 30 mmHg and >40 mmHg. Results: Across all subgroups, the T80/H25 single-pill combination provided consistently greater systolic and diastolic BP reductions than T80 and more patients had systolic BP reductions of >30 mmHg. In the T80 and T80/H25 groups, BP control was achieved in 34.1% and 48.8% of men, 35.5% and 62.7% of women, 34.5% and 56.6% of Asians, 22.6% and 38.6% of blacks, 36.7% and 57.8% of whites, 36.9% and 57.5% of patients < 65 years, 29.3% and 49.3% ≥65 years, 44.2% and 66.2% of those with grade 2 hypertension, 20.4% and 39.4% of those with grade 3 hypertension, 38.9% and 53.2% of previously untreated patients, 38.1% and 62.5% of patients previously treated with one antihypertensive, and 29.7% and 48.9% of patients

  13. Clinical significance of previously cryptic copy number alterations and loss of heterozygosity in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome determined using combined array comparative genomic hybridization plus single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Jin Ok; Seo, Eul Ju; Lee, Seong Wook; Suh, Jin Kyung; Im, Ho Joon; Seo, Jong Jin

    2014-07-01

    The combined array comparative genomic hybridization plus single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray (CGH+SNP microarray) platform can simultaneously detect copy number alterations (CNA) and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Eighteen children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n=15) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (n=3) were studied using CGH+SNP microarray to evaluate the clinical significance of submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations. CGH+SNP microarray revealed CNAs at 14 regions in 9 patients, while metaphase cytogenetic (MC) analysis detected CNAs in 11 regions in 8 patients. Using CGH+SNP microarray, LOHs>10 Mb involving terminal regions or the whole chromosome were detected in 3 of 18 patients (17%). CGH+SNP microarray revealed cryptic LOHs with or without CNAs in 3 of 5 patients with normal karyotypes. CGH+SNP microarray detected additional cryptic CNAs (n=2) and LOHs (n=5) in 6 of 13 patients with abnormal MC. In total, 9 patients demonstrated additional aberrations, including CNAs (n=3) and/or LOHs (n=8). Three of 15 patients with AML and terminal LOH>10 Mb demonstrated a significantly inferior relapse-free survival rate (P=0.041). This study demonstrates that CGH+SNP microarray can simultaneously detect previously cryptic CNAs and LOH, which may demonstrate prognostic implications.

  14. A model for analysing factors which may influence quality management procedures in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin MAICAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In all universities, the Office for Quality Assurance defines the procedure for assessing the performance of the teaching staff, with a view to establishing students’ perception as regards the teachers’ activity from the point of view of the quality of the teaching process, of the relationship with the students and of the assistance provided for learning. The present paper aims at creating a combined model for evaluation, based on Data Mining statistical methods: starting from the findings revealed by the evaluations teachers performed to students, using the cluster analysis and the discriminant analysis, we identified the subjects which produced significant differences between students’ grades, subjects which were subsequently subjected to an evaluation by students. The results of these analyses allowed the formulation of certain measures for enhancing the quality of the evaluation process.

  15. The Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale: Confirmatory Factor Analyses With a National Sample of Victim Advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benuto, Lorraine T; Yang, Yueran; Ahrendt, Andrew; Cummings, Caroline

    2018-03-01

    Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is a pattern of psychological symptoms that approximates the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and occurs in professionals who are exposed to individuals who have experienced trauma. While victim advocates are frontline health professionals who are trained to support victims of crime and interpersonal violence and are at risk for developing STS, they have been largely neglected in the extant literature on STS. The STS Scale (STSS) is a 17-item self-report questionnaire utilized to assess frequency of symptoms of intrusion, avoidance, and arousal, specifically related to providing services to victims of trauma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the STSS with a sample of victim advocates ( N = 135) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results indicated that both a single-factor model and three-factor model were equivalent. This study represents a first attempt to validate a measure of STS among victim advocates, a unique and understudied population who are at risk for developing STS given their work with individuals who have experienced interpersonal violence. Establishing effective, easy to administer, and efficient measures of STS is important given that this population encounters secondary trauma on a regular basis in the context of their job. While additional theoretical work regarding the construct of STS is needed, the STSS did demonstrate high reliability with this population and thus can be used as part of the assessment of STS among victim advocates.

  16. Prevalence of hyperlipidemia in Shanxi Province, China and application of Bayesian networks to analyse its related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinhua; Ren, Zeping; Li, Wenhan; Wei, Zhen; Rao, Huaxiang; Ren, Hao; Zhang, Zhuang; Song, Weimei; He, Yuling; Li, Chenglian; Yang, Xiaojuan; Chen, LiMin; Qiu, Lixia

    2018-02-28

    This study aimed to obtain the prevalence of hyperlipidemia and its related factors in Shanxi Province, China using multivariate logistic regression analysis and tabu search-based Bayesian networks (BNs). A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was adopted to obtain samples among the general population aged 18 years or above. The prevalence of hyperlipidemia in Shanxi Province was 42.6%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that gender, age, region, occupation, vegetable intake level, physical activity, body mass index, central obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus are associated with hyperlipidemia. BNs were used to find connections between those related factors and hyperlipidemia, which were established by a complex network structure. The results showed that BNs can not only be used to find out the correlative factors of hyperlipidemia but also to analyse how these factors affect hyperlipidemia and their interrelationships, which is consistent with practical theory, is superior to logistic regression and has better application prospects.

  17. The affect and arousal scales: psychometric properties of the Dutch version and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; Decuyper, Mieke

    2010-06-01

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Affect and Arousal Scales (AFARS) were inspected in a combined clinical and population sample (N = 1,215). The validity of the tripartite structure and the relations between Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH) were investigated for boys and girls, younger (8-11 years) and older (12-14 years) children, and for children with high versus low levels of emotional/behavioral problems separately. Results demonstrated an adequate fit of the tripartite structure in each of the subgroups. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated parameter equivalence across sex, age, and psychopathology status. Furthermore, the assumption of invariant error variances of the indicator variables was tenable across sex, age, and psychopathology status. Invariant variances and covariances of the latent constructs (i.e., the tripartite factors) were supported across sex and psychopathology status but not across age. Finally, adequate item and scale properties and good convergent and moderate divergent validity of the Dutch AFARS subscales were demonstrated, except for the divergent validity of the PH subscale.

  18. Analyses of the risk factors toward the prevalence of obesity at senior high school children in manado

    OpenAIRE

    A. Arsunan, Arsin

    2007-01-01

    Disampaikan pada kegiatan "The 39th Conference of Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health" di Wako-city, Saitama, Japan pada tanggal 22-25 November 2007 ANALYSES OF THE RISK FACTORS TOWARD THE PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AT SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN IN MANADO Arsunan Arsin 1 , Gregory H.Tobing2, Ida M.Leida1 1 Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar (Indonesia), 2Epidemiology, District Health Office, Manado (Indonesia) Obesity is a major co...

  19. ANALISIS FAKTOR PENGHAMBAT EKSPOR BAGI UKM Small and Medium Enterprise’s Export Barrier Factor Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia Ivada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this research are to analyze Small and Medium Enterprises’ export barriers in Solo Raya (Surakarta, Boyolali, Sukoharjo, Karanganyar, Wonogiri, Sragen, Klaten and to prove that all indicators which are knowledge barriers, resources barriers, procedurs barriers and exogenous barrier support export barriers as its construct. This research provides a measurement tool for the next export barriers research as well This study combines questioner’s statements  that were developed by researchers from  previous studies in European countries and export obstacle expressions suggested by Indonesian’s expert. Using Small and Medium Enterprises in Solo Raya region as its respondent sample, and we can collect 400 respondent of SME.  There was no such researches in Indonesia before, thus this is the first study using export barrier’s questioner. That’s why Structural Equation Modelling (SEM is used to provide all construct variables and their indicators become acceptable as a measurement tool for this kind of research. When the researcher run the data using SEM, it showed that construct variables can  support the model. In other words, the model does fit the datas. Except for the exogenous barriers that don’t have significant influence to other two barrier which are resources and procedures.

  20. Analyses of factors affecting nickel ferrite nanoparticles synthesis in ultrasound-assisted aqueous solution ball milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhuang; Chen, Zhen-hua; Chen, Ding; Kang, Zhi-tao

    2015-01-01

    Ball milling experiments were conducted with and without ultrasound wave assistance in deionized water using NiCO3·2Ni(OH)2·4H2O as raw materials. In the reaction process of NiFe2O4 prepared by ultrasound-assisted aqueous solution ball milling, some influencing factors including raw materials, ultrasonic frequency, ball to powder ratio and liquid level were changed. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, fluorescence measurements and electroconductivity detections. The results indicate that more hydroxyl radicals and ions can be generated under the coupling effect of ultrasonic and ball milling. The fluorescence measurements and electroconductivity detections also reflect the reaction speed, allowing for optimal parameters to be determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Systematic review and meta-analyses of risk factors for childhood overweight identifiable during infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Stephen Franklin; Redsell, Sarah A; Swift, Judy A; Yang, Min; Glazebrook, Cristine P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine risk factors for childhood overweight that can be identified during the first year of life to facilitate early identification and targeted intervention. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Search strategy Electronic database search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and CAB Abstracts. Eligibility criteria Prospective observational studies following up children from birth for at least 2 years. Results Thirty prospective studies were identified. Significant and strong independent associations with childhood overweight were identified for maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, high infant birth weight and rapid weight gain during the first year of life. Meta-analysis comparing breastfed with non-breastfed infants found a 15% decrease (95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; I2=73.3%; n=10) in the odds of childhood overweight. For children of mothers smoking during pregnancy there was a 47% increase (95% CI 1.26 to 1.73; I2=47.5%; n=7) in the odds of childhood overweight. There was some evidence associating early introduction of solid foods and childhood overweight. There was conflicting evidence for duration of breastfeeding, socioeconomic status at birth, parity and maternal marital status at birth. No association with childhood overweight was found for maternal age or education at birth, maternal depression or infant ethnicity. There was inconclusive evidence for delivery type, gestational weight gain, maternal postpartum weight loss and ‘fussy’ infant temperament due to the limited number of studies. Conclusions Several risk factors for both overweight and obesity in childhood are identifiable during infancy. Future research needs to focus on whether it is clinically feasible for healthcare professionals to identify infants at greatest risk. PMID:23109090

  2. Factors Influencing Choices for Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Previously Unscreened African and Caucasian Americans: Findings from a Triangulation Mixed Methods Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffin, Mack T.; Creswell, John W.; Jimbo, Masahito; Fetters, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated factors that influence choice of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test and assessed the most- and least-preferred options among fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and double contrast barium enema among adults with varied race, gender, and geographic region demographics. Mixed methods data collection consisted of 10 focus group interviews and a survey of the 93 focus group participants. Participants were ≥50 years of age and reported not ha...

  3. Performance study of Ke factors in simplified elastic plastic fatigue analyses with emphasis on thermal cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Hermann; Rudolph, Juergen; Ziegler, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    As code-based fully elastic plastic code conforming fatigue analyses are still time consuming, simplified elastic plastic analysis is often applied. This procedure is known to be overly conservative for some conditions due to the applied plastification (penalty) factor K e . As a consequence, less conservative fully elastic plastic fatigue analyses based on non-linear finite element analyses (FEA) or simplified elastic plastic analysis based on more realistic K e factors have to be used for fatigue design. The demand for more realistic K e factors is covered as a requirement of practical fatigue analysis. Different code-based K e procedures are reviewed in this paper with special regard to performance under thermal cyclic loading conditions. Other approximation formulae such as those by Neuber, Seeger/Beste or Kuehnapfel are not evaluated in this context because of their applicability to mechanical loading excluding thermal cyclic loading conditions typical for power plant operation. Besides the current code-based K e corrections, the ASME Code Case N-779 (e.g. Adam's proposal) and its modification in ASME Section VIII is considered. Comparison of elastic plastic results and results from the Rules for Nuclear Facility Components and Rules for Pressure Vessels reveals a considerable overestimation of usage factor in the case of ASME III and KTA 3201.2 for the examined examples. Usage factors according to RCC-M, Adams (ASME Code Case N-779), ASME VIII (alternative) and EN 13445-3 are essentially comparable and less conservative for these examples. The K v correction as well as the applied yield criterion (Tresca or von Mises) essentially influence the quality of the more advanced plasticity corrections (e.g. ASME Code Case N-779 and RCC-M). Hence, new proposals are based on a refined K v correction.

  4. Factors governing the metal coordination number in metal complexes from Cambridge Structural Database analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudev, Minko; Wang, Jonathan; Dudev, Todor; Lim, Carmay

    2006-02-02

    The metal coordination number (CN) is a key determinant of the structure and properties of metal complexes. It also plays an important role in metal selectivity in certain metalloproteins. Despite its central role, the preferred CN for several metal cations remains ambiguous, and the factors determining the metal CN are not fully understood. Here, we evaluate how the CN depends on (1) the metal's size, charge, and charge-accepting ability for a given set of ligands, and (2) the ligand's size, charge, charge-donating ability, and denticity for a given metal by analyzing the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) structures of metal ions in the periodic table. The results show that for a given ligand type, the metal's size seems to affect its CN more than its charge, especially if the ligand is neutral, whereas, for a given metal type, the ligand's charge and charge-donating ability appear to affect the metal CN more than the ligand's size. Interestingly, all 98 metal cations surveyed could adopt more than than one CN, and most of them show an apparent preference toward even rather than odd CNs. Furthermore, as compared to the preferred metal CNs observed in the CSD, those in protein binding sites generally remain the same. This implies that the protein matrix (excluding amino acid residues in the metal's first and second coordination shell) does not impose severe geometrical restrictions on the bound metal cation.

  5. The change in motivating factors influencing commencement, adherence and retention to a supervised resistance training programme in previously sedentary post-menopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Janet Erica; Christie, Candice Jo-Anne

    2015-03-12

    Understanding motivators for exercise participation in post-menopausal women may impact retention to exercise programmes and inform intervention trial designs. The purpose of this investigation was to assess self-reported motivational factors influencing adherence and retention to a 24-week progressive resistance training programme. Post-menopausal females (n = 34) were passively recruited to undertake a 24-week progressive resistance training protocol, in small-group sessions, on three non-consecutive days of the week. Attendance was recorded by the researcher. Qualitative reports were sourced from the sample for four phases of the study: pre-study (prior to week 1), recruitment (week 1), during study (weeks 2 - 24), and post-intervention (beyond week 24). Responses were categorised according to ten descriptors: specific health index improvement, education, flexibility of time, social contact, conscience (loyalty to the researcher), wellness, weight management, organisation parameters (pertaining to the study programme) and enjoyment of the exercises. Of the initial sample, 76.5% (n = 26) met the specified ≥80% attendance criterion. The primary findings were that motivation to volunteer for the study was driven by a perceived need for a structured exercise programme (50% of respondents). A commitment to the researcher was the primary motivator for continued adherence to the study for 50% of participants. Social contact with other participants was cited by 60% of the sample as the primary reason for adherence for the full duration of 24 weeks. A desire to maintain the "wellness" derived from the programme was cited by 60% as a reason for continuing an exercise routine post-study. This study identified that routine and supervision initially attract women to exercise programmes, while social cohesion of the group setting contributes to retention over time. Understanding the changing nature of motivating factors may contribute to better overall adherence

  6. Factors associated with vaginal birth after previous cesarean section in Brazilian women Factores relacionados con el parto vaginal en mujeres brasileñas con cesárea anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guilherme Cecatti

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with a vaginal second delivery in women who had one previous cesarean section. METHODS: A nested case-control study was carried out as a secondary data analysis of an original retrospective, population-based cohort study of women who delivered their first child during 1985 in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, and who were interviewed 10 years later in 1995. The study population consisted of 1 352 women who had their first delivery by cesarean section and who had also had at least one subsequent delivery. The group of cases (150 women, around 11% of the sample consisted of women who had a vaginal second delivery, and the control group was made up of 1 202 women who had a cesarean section at second delivery. For each possible associated factor we calculated the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. For ordered categorical variables the c² test for trend was used. Unconditional multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio for each associated factor. RESULTS: The factors significantly associated with vaginal delivery were monthly family income below 5-fold the Brazilian minimum monthly wage, reliance on the Brazilian national health system for healthcare, low maternal age, and first cesarean section indicated because of fetal breech or transverse presentation, or twin pregnancy. Among those women who also had a cesarean section at their second delivery, only 11% had undergone a trial of labor. CONCLUSIONS: The main determining factors for a vaginal second delivery in women with a previous cesarean section were unfavorable social and economic factors.OBJETIVO: Determinar qué factores se asocian con el parto vaginal en mujeres que han tenido una cesárea. MÉTODOS: Un estudio anidado de casos y testigos se llevó a cabo en forma de un análisis de datos secundarios procedentes de un estudio de cohorte -original, retrospectivo y de carácter poblacional- en mujeres

  7. Cesárea prévia como fator de risco para o descolamento prematuro da placenta Previous cesarean section as a risk factor for abruptio placentae

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    Fábio Roberto Cabar

    2004-10-01

    relationship between previous cesarean section and abruptio placentae. METHODS: a retrospective study reviewed 6495 deliveries between April 2001 and January 2004. The adopted inclusion criteria were: clinical diagnosis of abruptio placentae confirmed by placental examination after delivery, single pregnancy, birth weight >500 g, gestational age >22 weeks and no history of abdominal trauma. Five controls were selected for each abruptio placentae case and were matched for the following parameters: parity, gestational age ( 30 weeks, maternal arterial hypertension during pregnancy, presence of nonobstetrical uterine scar, premature rupture of membranes and polyhydramnios. Statistical analysis of continuous variables was perfomed by Student's t test. Statistical significance of the comparisons of categorical variables was evaluated by the chi2 test or by the Fisher exact test. p values <0.05 were considered to be significant. RESULTS: thirty-four cases of abruptio placentae were included (incidence 0.52%. The control group included 170 cases that fulfilled the matching criteria. The incidence of previous cesarean section in the abruptio placentae group was 26.5% (9 cases and in the control group it was 21.2% (36 cases. No significant difference was found between the groups (p=0.65, OR=1.34, CI 95%=0.53-3.34. CONCLUSION: the present study was not able to demonstrate association between abruptio placentae and previous cesarean section.

  8. Factors Influencing Clinical Follow-Up for Individuals with a Personal History of Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer and Previous Uninformative BRCA1 and BRCA2 Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwell, Sarah E; He, Hua; Knapke, Sara; Lewis, Jaime; Sisson, Rebecca; Hopper, Jennifer

    2018-03-17

    Genetic testing for inherited cancer risk has recently improved through the advent of multi-gene panels and the addition of deletion and duplication analysis of the BRCA genes. The primary aim of this study was to determine which factors influence the intent of individuals with a personal history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and negative or uncertain BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing to return to a hereditary cancer program for additional genetic risk assessment, counseling, and testing. Surveys were sent to 1197 individuals and 257 were returned. Of those participants who were planning to return to clinic, most cited having family members who could benefit from the test result as the primary motivation to return. Many participants who were not planning to return to clinic cited the cost of testing as a barrier to return. Cost of testing and concerns about insurance coverage were the most commonly cited barriers for the group of participants who were undecided about returning to clinic. Results from this study may be used to guide re-contact efforts by clinicians to increase patient uptake to return to clinic for up-to-date genetic risk assessment, counseling, and testing.

  9. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  10. Environmental risk factors for autism: an evidence-based review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Velthorst, Eva; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    According to recent evidence, up to 40-50% of variance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) liability might be determined by environmental factors. In the present paper, we conducted a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of environmental risk factors for ASD. We assessed each review for quality of evidence and provided a brief overview of putative mechanisms of environmental risk factors for ASD. Current evidence suggests that several environmental factors including vaccination, maternal smoking, thimerosal exposure, and most likely assisted reproductive technologies are unrelated to risk of ASD. On the contrary, advanced parental age is associated with higher risk of ASD. Birth complications that are associated with trauma or ischemia and hypoxia have also shown strong links to ASD, whereas other pregnancy-related factors such as maternal obesity, maternal diabetes, and caesarian section have shown a less strong (but significant) association with risk of ASD. The reviews on nutritional elements have been inconclusive about the detrimental effects of deficiency in folic acid and omega 3, but vitamin D seems to be deficient in patients with ASD. The studies on toxic elements have been largely limited by their design, but there is enough evidence for the association between some heavy metals (most important inorganic mercury and lead) and ASD that warrants further investigation. Mechanisms of the association between environmental factors and ASD are debated but might include non-causative association (including confounding), gene-related effect, oxidative stress, inflammation, hypoxia/ischemia, endocrine disruption, neurotransmitter alterations, and interference with signaling pathways. Compared to genetic studies of ASD, studies of environmental risk factors are in their infancy and have significant methodological limitations. Future studies of ASD risk factors would benefit from a developmental psychopathology approach, prospective design, precise exposure

  11. The influence of physical factors on kelp and sea urchin distribution in previously and still grazed areas in the NE Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Rinde

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of kelp (Laminaria hyperborea and sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in the NE Atlantic are highly related to physical factors and to temporal changes in temperature. On a large scale, we identified borders for kelp recovery and sea urchin persistence along the north-south gradient. Sea urchin persistence was also related to the coast-ocean gradient. The southern border corresponds to summer temperatures exceeding about 10°C, a threshold value known to be critical for sea urchin recruitment and development. The outer border along the coast-ocean gradient is related to temperature, wave exposure and salinity. On a finer scale, kelp recovery occurs mainly at ridges in outer, wave exposed, saline and warm areas whereas sea urchins still dominate in inner, shallow and cold areas, particularly in areas with optimal current speed for sea urchin foraging. In contrast to other studies in Europe, we here show a positive influence of climate change to presence of a long-lived climax canopy-forming kelp. The extent of the coast-ocean gradient varies within the study area, and is especially wide in the southern part where the presence of islands and skerries increases the area of the shallow coastal zone. This creates a large area with intermediate physical conditions for the two species and a mosaic of kelp and sea urchin dominated patches. The statistical models (GAM and BRT show high performance and indicate recovery of kelp in 45-60% of the study area. The study shows the value of combining a traditional (GAM and a more complex (BRT modeling approach to gain insight into complex spatial patterns of species or habitats. The results, methods and approaches are of general ecological relevance regardless of ecosystems and species, although they are particularly relevant for understanding and exploring the corresponding changes between algae and grazers in different coastal areas.

  12. The influence of physical factors on kelp and sea urchin distribution in previously and still grazed areas in the NE Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinde, Eli; Christie, Hartvig; Fagerli, Camilla W; Bekkby, Trine; Gundersen, Hege; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus; Hjermann, Dag Ø

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) and sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) in the NE Atlantic are highly related to physical factors and to temporal changes in temperature. On a large scale, we identified borders for kelp recovery and sea urchin persistence along the north-south gradient. Sea urchin persistence was also related to the coast-ocean gradient. The southern border corresponds to summer temperatures exceeding about 10°C, a threshold value known to be critical for sea urchin recruitment and development. The outer border along the coast-ocean gradient is related to temperature, wave exposure and salinity. On a finer scale, kelp recovery occurs mainly at ridges in outer, wave exposed, saline and warm areas whereas sea urchins still dominate in inner, shallow and cold areas, particularly in areas with optimal current speed for sea urchin foraging. In contrast to other studies in Europe, we here show a positive influence of climate change to presence of a long-lived climax canopy-forming kelp. The extent of the coast-ocean gradient varies within the study area, and is especially wide in the southern part where the presence of islands and skerries increases the area of the shallow coastal zone. This creates a large area with intermediate physical conditions for the two species and a mosaic of kelp and sea urchin dominated patches. The statistical models (GAM and BRT) show high performance and indicate recovery of kelp in 45-60% of the study area. The study shows the value of combining a traditional (GAM) and a more complex (BRT) modeling approach to gain insight into complex spatial patterns of species or habitats. The results, methods and approaches are of general ecological relevance regardless of ecosystems and species, although they are particularly relevant for understanding and exploring the corresponding changes between algae and grazers in different coastal areas.

  13. Analysing factors related to slipping, stumbling, and falling accidents at work: Application of data mining methods to Finnish occupational accidents and diseases statistics database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenonen, Noora

    2013-03-01

    The utilisation of data mining methods has become common in many fields. In occupational accident analysis, however, these methods are still rarely exploited. This study applies methods of data mining (decision tree and association rules) to the Finnish national occupational accidents and diseases statistics database to analyse factors related to slipping, stumbling, and falling (SSF) accidents at work from 2006 to 2007. SSF accidents at work constitute a large proportion (22%) of all accidents at work in Finland. In addition, they are more likely to result in longer periods of incapacity for work than other workplace accidents. The most important factor influencing whether or not an accident at work is related to SSF is the specific physical activity of movement. In addition, the risk of SSF accidents at work seems to depend on the occupation and the age of the worker. The results were in line with previous research. Hence the application of data mining methods was considered successful. The results did not reveal anything unexpected though. Nevertheless, because of the capability to illustrate a large dataset and relationships between variables easily, data mining methods were seen as a useful supplementary method in analysing occupational accident data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. The analyses of risk factors for COPD in the Li ethnic group in Hainan, People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yipeng; Xu, Junxu; Yao, Jinjian; Chen, Yu; He, Ping; Ouyang, Yanhong; Niu, Huan; Tian, Zhongjie; Sun, Pei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Li population in Hainan province, People’s Republic of China. Methods Li people above 40 years of age from Hainan were chosen by stratified random cluster sampling between 2012 and 2014. All participants were interviewed with a home-visiting questionnaire, and spirometry was performed on all eligible participants. Patients with airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]/forced vital capacity [FVC] solar energy), ventilated kitchen, heating methods, air pollution, recurrent respiratory infections, family history of respiratory diseases, cough incentives, and allergies of COPD and non-COPD subjects was analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to identify correlated risk factors for COPD. Results Out of the 5,463 Li participants, a total of 277 COPD cases were identified by spirometry, and 307 healthy subjects were randomly selected as controls. Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that older people (65 years and above), low body mass index (BMI), biomass smoke, 11–20 and >20 cigarettes/day, smoking for 40 years or more, second-hand smoking, recurrent respiratory infections, and induced cough were risk factors for COPD, whereas high BMI, high education level, and presence of ventilated kitchen were protective factors. Subsequent multivariate logistic regression model further demonstrated that aging, low BMI, biomass smoke, >20 cigarettes/day, and recurrent respiratory tract infections were high-risk factors for COPD in the Li population. Conclusion The incidence of COPD has a strong correlation with age, BMI, biomass smoke, >20 cigarettes/day, and recurrent respiratory infections, suggesting they were high-risk factors for COPD in Li population. PMID:26664107

  15. The analyses of risk factors for COPD in the Li ethnic group in Hainan, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yipeng; Xu, Junxu; Yao, Jinjian; Chen, Yu; He, Ping; Ouyang, Yanhong; Niu, Huan; Tian, Zhongjie; Sun, Pei

    2015-01-01

    To study the risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Li population in Hainan province, People's Republic of China. Li people above 40 years of age from Hainan were chosen by stratified random cluster sampling between 2012 and 2014. All participants were interviewed with a home-visiting questionnaire, and spirometry was performed on all eligible participants. Patients with airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]/forced vital capacity [FVC] solar energy), ventilated kitchen, heating methods, air pollution, recurrent respiratory infections, family history of respiratory diseases, cough incentives, and allergies of COPD and non-COPD subjects was analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to identify correlated risk factors for COPD. Out of the 5,463 Li participants, a total of 277 COPD cases were identified by spirometry, and 307 healthy subjects were randomly selected as controls. Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that older people (65 years and above), low body mass index (BMI), biomass smoke, 11-20 and >20 cigarettes/day, smoking for 40 years or more, second-hand smoking, recurrent respiratory infections, and induced cough were risk factors for COPD, whereas high BMI, high education level, and presence of ventilated kitchen were protective factors. Subsequent multivariate logistic regression model further demonstrated that aging, low BMI, biomass smoke, >20 cigarettes/day, and recurrent respiratory tract infections were high-risk factors for COPD in the Li population. The incidence of COPD has a strong correlation with age, BMI, biomass smoke, >20 cigarettes/day, and recurrent respiratory infections, suggesting they were high-risk factors for COPD in Li population.

  16. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of

  17. Analyses of Helsinki 2012 European Athletics Championships injury and illness surveillance to discuss elite athletes risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Depiesse, Frédéric; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2014-09-01

    To further analyze newly incurred injuries and illnesses (I&Is) during Athletics International Championships to discuss risk factors. Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. The 2012 European Athletics (EA) Championships in Helsinki, Finland. National team and local organizing committee physicians and physiotherapists and 1342 registered athletes. Incidence and characteristics of new injuries and illnesses. Ninety-three percent of athletes were covered by medical teams, with a response rate of 91%. One hundred thirty-three injuries were reported (incidence of 98.4 injuries per 1000 registered athletes). Sixty-two injuries (47%) resulted in time loss from sport. The most common diagnosis was hamstring strain (11.4% of injuries and 21% of time-loss injuries). Injury risk was higher in males and increased with age. The highest incidences of injuries were found in combined events and middle- and long-distance events. Twenty-seven illnesses were reported (4.0 illnesses per 1000 athlete days). The most common diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (33.3%) and gastroenteritis/diarrhea (25.9%). During outdoor EA Championships, injury and illness incidences were slightly lower and injury characteristics were comparable with those during outdoor World Athletics Championships. During elite athletics Championships, gender (male), age (older than 30 years), finals, and some events (combined events and middle- and long-distance races) seem to be injury risk factors. Illness risk factors remain unclear. As in previous recommendations, preventive interventions should focus on overuse injuries, hamstring strains, and adequate rehabilitation of previous injuries, decreasing risk of infectious diseases transmission, appropriate event scheduling, sports clothes, and heat acclimatization.

  18. Analysing the causes of chronic cough: relation to diesel exhaust, ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and other environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Ulrich

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution remains a leading cause of many respiratory diseases including chronic cough. Although episodes of incidental, dramatic air pollution are relatively rare, current levels of exposure of pollutants in industrialized and developing countries such as total articles, diesel exhaust particles and common cigarette smoke may be responsible for the development of chronic cough both in children and adults. The present study analyses the effects of common environmental factors as potential causes of chronic cough. Different PubMed-based researches were performed that related the term cough to various environmental factors. There is some evidence that chronic inhalation of diesel can lead to the development of cough. For long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2, children were found to exhibit increased incidences of chronic cough and decreased lung function parameters. Although a number of studies did not show that outdoor pollution directly causes the development of asthma, they have demonstrated that high levels pollutants and their interaction with sunlight produce ozone (O3 and that repeated exposure to it can lead to chronic cough. In summary, next to the well-known air pollutants which also include particulate matter and sulphur dioxide, a number of other indoor and outdoor pollutants have been demonstrated to cause chronic cough and therefore, environmental factors have to be taken into account as potential initiators of both adult and pediatric chronic cough.

  19. Subtype specific risk factor analyses for sporadic human salmonellosis: a case-case comparison in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehm, D; Dreesman, J; Rabsch, W; Fruth, A; Pulz, M; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A

    2013-07-01

    With the intention to deepen the knowledge of the vertical transmission of particular subtypes of Salmonella enterica from "the stable to the table" a case1-case2 analysis in Lower Saxony, Germany, was conducted. The data collection was based on standardised telephone interviews with 1741 Salmonella case persons. Single-factor-analyses revealed statistically significant associations between S. Typhimurium infections and animal keeping (odds ratio (OR): 1.4; 95%-Confidence-interval (CI): 1.2-1.7), especially rodents (OR 1.5; CI 1.2-2.1), and with consumption of meat (OR 1.9; CI 1.3-2.8), raw ground pork (OR 3.0; CI 2.1-4.2) and uncooked pork sausage (OR 2.1; CI 1.6-2.9). The S. Typhimurium phage type DT 104 was associated most with consumption of uncooked pork sausage (OR 3.6; CI 1.3-8.5). Multiple logistic regression analyses confirmed the associations between S. Typhimurium infection and consumption of raw ground pork and with animal contact. The results circumstantiate the assumption of raw pork products still being a relevant source for S. Typhimurium infections in Germany. Therefore, it is recommended to intensify efforts to reduce salmonella infections caused by raw pork products. S. Enteritidis infection was associated statistically significantly with travelling abroad (OR 2.1; CI 1.6-3.3), consumption of raw tomatoes (OR 1.8; CI 1.5-2.1), dried herbs (OR 2.1; CI 1.0-1.8), and undercooked eggs (OR 1.3; CI 1.1-1.6) compared with other serovars. These results were confirmed in multiple logistic regression analyses, as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcriptome analyses identify five transcription factors differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of post- versus prepubertal Brahman heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, M R S; Nguyen, L T; Weller, M M D C A; Cánovas, A; Islas-Trejo, A; Porto-Neto, L R; Reverter, A; Lehnert, S A; Boe-Hansen, G B; Thomas, M G; Medrano, J F; Moore, S S

    2016-09-01

    Puberty onset is a developmental process influenced by genetic determinants, environment, and nutrition. Mutations and regulatory gene networks constitute the molecular basis for the genetic determinants of puberty onset. The emerging knowledge of these genetic determinants presents opportunities for innovation in the breeding of early pubertal cattle. This paper presents new data on hypothalamic gene expression related to puberty in (Brahman) in age- and weight-matched heifers. Six postpubertal heifers were compared with 6 prepubertal heifers using whole-genome RNA sequencing methodology for quantification of global gene expression in the hypothalamus. Five transcription factors (TF) with potential regulatory roles in the hypothalamus were identified in this experiment: , , , , and . These TF genes were significantly differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of postpubertal versus prepubertal heifers and were also identified as significant according to the applied regulatory impact factor metric ( cancer and developmental processes. Mutations in were associated with puberty in humans. Mutations in these TF, together with other genetic determinants previously discovered, could be used in genomic selection to predict the genetic merit of cattle (i.e., the likelihood of the offspring presenting earlier than average puberty for Brahman). Knowledge of key mutations involved in genetic traits is an advantage for genomic prediction because it can increase its accuracy.

  1. Platelet function analyser (PFA-100) results and von Willebrand factor deficiency: a 16-year 'real-world' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardillon, L; Ternisien, C; Fouassier, M; Sigaud, M; Lefrançois, A; Pacault, M; Ribeyrol, O; Fressinaud, E; Boisseau, P; Trossaërt, M

    2015-09-01

    The platelet function analyser (PFA-100) is a biological tool designed to explore primary haemostasis. This system has thus been widely demonstrated as reliable in detecting von Willebrand factor (VWF) deficiency. However, most studies were based on patients benefitting from regular medical care and accurate diagnosis, and it would seem probable that the results were somewhat optimistic, and do not reflect its performances in 'real-world' situations. We have chosen to study the reliability of PFA-100 for screening VWF ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo) deficiency. We retrospectively analysed the results (n = 6431) of 4027 patients referred to our centre between October 1997 and June 2013 and in whom PFA-Epi, PFA-ADP, and VWF:RCo activity had been evaluated. We studied the influence of blood group on the results and the performances of each method in a subgroup of 213 patients with genetically confirmed von Willebrand disease. We have shown that the PFA-100 system, in our experience, constitutes an excellent screening test for detecting VWF:RCo deficiency, whatever the clinical situation, in 'real-world' conditions. The negative predictive value (NPV), the positive predictive value, the sensitivity and the specificity were respectively: 0.98, 0.51, 0.98 and 0.40. When values adjusted for blood group are used, NPV and sensitivity are inferior to those using normal values which have not been adjusted for blood group. We have shown the PFA-100 method to be more efficient in screening for VWF deficiency than the VWF:RCo technique. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Incidence rates and risk factor analyses for owner reported vomiting and diarrhoea in Labrador Retrievers - findings from the Dogslife Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Carys A; Bronsvoort, B Mark de C; Handel, Ian G; Querry, Damon; Rose, Erica; Summers, Kim M; Clements, Dylan N

    2017-05-01

    owners because it highlights the wealth of gastrointestinal illnesses in dogs that are dealt with by owners but never seen by veterinarians. The risk factor analyses make use of owner-reported demographic information, highlighting the differences between vomiting and diarrhoea. The analyses give rise to the possibility that the presence of other pets in households may affect rates of illness and indicate new avenues for investigations of these distinct, and oft-suffered conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Human Factors Risk Analyses of a Doffing Protocol for Ebola-Level Personal Protective Equipment: Mapping Errors to Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Joel M; Durso, Francis T; Ferguson, Ashley N; Gipson, Christina L; Casanova, Lisa; Erukunuakpor, Kimberly; Kraft, Colleen S; Walsh, Victoria L; Zimring, Craig; DuBose, Jennifer; Jacob, Jesse T

    2018-03-05

    Doffing protocols for personal protective equipment (PPE) are critical for keeping healthcare workers (HCWs) safe during care of patients with Ebola virus disease. We assessed the relationship between errors and self-contamination during doffing. Eleven HCWs experienced with doffing Ebola-level PPE participated in simulations in which HCWs donned PPE marked with surrogate viruses (ɸ6 and MS2), completed a clinical task, and were assessed for contamination after doffing. Simulations were video recorded, and a failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analyses were performed to identify errors during doffing, quantify their risk (risk index), and predict contamination data. Fifty-one types of errors were identified, many having the potential to spread contamination. Hand hygiene and removing the powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) hood had the highest total risk indexes (111 and 70, respectively) and number of types of errors (9 and 13, respectively). ɸ6 was detected on 10% of scrubs and the fault tree predicted a 10.4% contamination rate, likely occurring when the PAPR hood inadvertently contacted scrubs during removal. MS2 was detected on 10% of hands, 20% of scrubs, and 70% of inner gloves and the predicted rates were 7.3%, 19.4%, 73.4%, respectively. Fault trees for MS2 and ɸ6 contamination suggested similar pathways. Ebola-level PPE can both protect and put HCWs at risk for self-contamination throughout the doffing process, even among experienced HCWs doffing with a trained observer. Human factors methodologies can identify error-prone steps, delineate the relationship between errors and self-contamination, and suggest remediation strategies.

  4. Item Response Theory Modeling and Categorical Regression Analyses of the Five-Factor Model Rating Form: A Study on Italian Community-Dwelling Adolescent Participants and Adult Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Widiger, Thomas A; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Somma, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    To extend the evidence on the reliability and construct validity of the Five-Factor Model Rating Form (FFMRF) in its self-report version, two independent samples of Italian participants, which were composed of 510 adolescent high school students and 457 community-dwelling adults, respectively, were administered the FFMRF in its Italian translation. Adolescent participants were also administered the Italian translation of the Borderline Personality Features Scale for Children-11 (BPFSC-11), whereas adult participants were administered the Italian translation of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM). Cronbach α values were consistent with previous findings; in both samples, average interitem r values indicated acceptable internal consistency for all FFMRF scales. A multidimensional graded item response theory model indicated that the majority of FFMRF items had adequate discrimination parameters; information indices supported the reliability of the FFMRF scales. Both categorical (i.e., item-level) and scale-level regression analyses suggested that the FFMRF scores may predict a nonnegligible amount of variance in the BPFSC-11 total score in adolescent participants, and in the TriPM scale scores in adult participants.

  5. Studies of the Ala/Val98 polymorphism of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha gene and the relationship to beta-cell function during an OGTT in glucose-tolerant women with and without previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, J; Damm, P; Ek, J

    2004-01-01

    In pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) an increased demand for insulin is not met due to beta-cell dysfunction. An Ala/Val polymorphism at codon 98 of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha) gene has been associated with decreased serum insulin and C......-peptide responses during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in glucose-tolerant subjects. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the influence of the polymorphism on the serum insulin and C-peptide responses to an OGTT in glucose-tolerant women with and without previous GDM and to investigate...

  6. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldon, Lauren

    (NHES) reference case studies to (1) introduce sustainability metrics, such as life cycle assessment, (2) demonstrate the methods behind exergy and exergoeconomic analyses, (3) provide an economic analysis of the potential for SMR development from first-of-a-kind (FOAK) to nth-of-a-kind (NOAK), thereby illustrating possible cost reductions and deployment flexibility for SMRs over large conventional nuclear reactors, (4) assess the competitive potential for incorporation of storage and hydrogen production in NHES and in regulated and deregulated electricity markets, (5) compare an SMR-hydrogen production plant to a natural gas steam methane reforming plant using the SEF, and (6) identify and review the social considerations which would support future nuclear development domestically and abroad, such as public and political/regulatory needs and challenges. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) for the SMR (300 MWth)-wind (60 MWe)-high temperature steam electrolysis (200 tons Hydrogen per day) system was calculated as approximately 874 g CO2-equivalent as part of the life cycle assessment. This is 92.6% less than the GWP estimated for steam methane reforming production of hydrogen by Spath and Mann. The unit exergetic and exergoeconomic costs were determined for each flow within the NHES system as part of the exergy/exergoeconomic cost analyses. The unit exergetic cost is lower for components yielding more meaningful work like the one exiting the SMR with a unit exergetic cost of 1.075 MW/MW. In comparison, the flow exiting the turbine has a very high unit exergetic cost of 15.31, as most of the useful work was already removed through the turning of the generator/compressor shaft. In a similar manner, the high unit exergoeconomic cost of 12.45/MW*sec is observed for the return flow to the reactors, because there is very little exergy present. The first and second law efficiencies and the exergoeconomic factors were also determined over several cases. For the first or base SMR

  7. Statistical analyses of scatterplots to identify important factors in large-scale simulations, 1: Review and comparison of techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Helton, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Procedures for identifying patterns in scatterplots generated in Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses are described and illustrated. These procedures attempt to detect increasingly complex patterns in scatterplots and involve the identification of (i) linear relationships with correlation coefficients, (ii) monotonic relationships with rank correlation coefficients, (iii) trends in central tendency as defined by means, medians and the Kruskal-Wallis statistic, (iv) trends in variability as defined by variances and interquartile ranges, and (v) deviations from randomness as defined by the chi-square statistic. A sequence of example analyses with a large model for two-phase fluid flow illustrates how the individual procedures can differ in the variables that they identify as having effects on particular model outcomes. The example analyses indicate that the use of a sequence of procedures is a good analysis strategy and provides some assurance that an important effect is not overlooked

  8. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Supporting analyses of human-system interfaces, procedures and practices, training and organizational practices and policies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L. [Pacific Science & Engineering Group, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    A human factors project on the use of nuclear by-product material to treat cancer using remotely operated afterloaders was undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the project was to identify factors that contribute to human error in the system for remote afterloading brachytherapy (RAB). This report documents the findings from the second, third, fourth, and fifth phases of the project, which involved detailed analyses of four major aspects of the RAB system linked to human error: human-system interfaces; procedures and practices; training practices and policies; and organizational practices and policies, respectively. Findings based on these analyses provided factual and conceptual support for the final phase of this project, which identified factors leading to human error in RAB. The impact of those factors on RAB performance was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance, and alternative approaches for resolving safety significant problems were identified and evaluated.

  9. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Supporting analyses of human-system interfaces, procedures and practices, training and organizational practices and policies. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L.

    1995-07-01

    A human factors project on the use of nuclear by-product material to treat cancer using remotely operated afterloaders was undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the project was to identify factors that contribute to human error in the system for remote afterloading brachytherapy (RAB). This report documents the findings from the second, third, fourth, and fifth phases of the project, which involved detailed analyses of four major aspects of the RAB system linked to human error: human-system interfaces; procedures and practices; training practices and policies; and organizational practices and policies, respectively. Findings based on these analyses provided factual and conceptual support for the final phase of this project, which identified factors leading to human error in RAB. The impact of those factors on RAB performance was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance, and alternative approaches for resolving safety significant problems were identified and evaluated

  10. Tissue Factor As a Predictor of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Malignancy : Biomarker Analyses of the CATCH Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khorana, Alok A.; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Meyer, Guy; Bauersachs, Rupert; Janas, Mette S.; Jarner, Mikala F.; Lee, Agnes Y. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Circulating tissue factor (TF) has been studied as a biomarker for predicting initial, but not recurrent, venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer, a setting in which predictors are incompletely understood. We evaluated the association of TF, clinical risk factors, and other biomarkers

  11. Conifer R2R3-MYB transcription factors: sequence analyses and gene expression in wood-forming tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grima-Pettenati Jacqueline

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several members of the R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors act as regulators of lignin and phenylpropanoid metabolism during wood formation in angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. The angiosperm Arabidopsis has over one hundred R2R3-MYBs genes; however, only a few members of this family have been discovered in gymnosperms. Results We isolated and characterised full-length cDNAs encoding R2R3-MYB genes from the gymnosperms white spruce, Picea glauca (13 sequences, and loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. (five sequences. Sequence similarities and phylogenetic analyses placed the spruce and pine sequences in diverse subgroups of the large R2R3-MYB family, although several of the sequences clustered closely together. We searched the highly variable C-terminal region of diverse plant MYBs for conserved amino acid sequences and identified 20 motifs in the spruce MYBs, nine of which have not previously been reported and three of which are specific to conifers. The number and length of the introns in spruce MYB genes varied significantly, but their positions were well conserved relative to angiosperm MYB genes. Quantitative RTPCR of MYB genes transcript abundance in root and stem tissues revealed diverse expression patterns; three MYB genes were preferentially expressed in secondary xylem, whereas others were preferentially expressed in phloem or were ubiquitous. The MYB genes expressed in xylem, and three others, were up-regulated in the compression wood of leaning trees within 76 hours of induction. Conclusion Our survey of 18 conifer R2R3-MYB genes clearly showed a gene family structure similar to that of Arabidopsis. Three of the sequences are likely to play a role in lignin metabolism and/or wood formation in gymnosperm trees, including a close homolog of the loblolly pine PtMYB4, shown to regulate lignin biosynthesis in transgenic tobacco.

  12. Identification of a GCC transcription factor responding to fruit colour change events in citrus through the transcriptomic analyses of two mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercós Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background External ripening in Citrus fruits is morphologically characterized by a colour shift from green to orange due to the degradation of chlorophylls and the accumulation of carotenoid pigments. Although numerous genes coding for enzymes involved in such biochemical pathways have been identified, the molecular control of this process has been scarcely studied. In this work we used the Citrus clementina mutants 39B3 and 39E7, showing delayed colour break, to isolate genes potentially related to the regulation of peel ripening and its physiological or biochemical effects. Results Pigment analyses revealed different profiles of carotenoid and chlorophyll modification in 39B3 and 39E7 mutants. Flavedo from 39B3 fruits showed an overall delay in carotenoid accumulation and chlorophyll degradation, while the flavedo of 39E7 was devoid of the apocarotenoid β-citraurin among other carotenoid alterations. A Citrus microarray containing about 20,000 cDNA fragments was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed during colour change in the flavedo of 39B3 and 39E7 mutants respect to the parental variety. The results highlighted 73 and 90 genes that were respectively up- and down-regulated in both mutants. CcGCC1 gene, coding for a GCC type transcriptional factor, was found to be down-regulated. CcGCC1 expression was strongly induced at the onset of colour change in the flavedo of parental clementine fruit. Moreover, treatment of fruits with gibberellins, a retardant of external ripening, delayed both colour break and CcGCC1 overexpression. Conclusions In this work, the citrus fruit ripening mutants 39B3 and 39E7 have been characterized at the phenotypic, biochemical and transcriptomic level. A defective synthesis of the apocarotenoid β-citraurin has been proposed to cause the yellowish colour of fully ripe 39E7 flavedo. The analyses of the mutant transcriptomes revealed that colour change during peel ripening was strongly

  13. Factor analyses for the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire for working and nonworking patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soer, Remko; Vroomen, Patrick; Stewart, Roy; Coppes, Maarten; Stegeman, Patrick; Dijkstra, Pieter; Reneman, Michiel

    2017-04-01

    The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire (ÖMPQ) has good psychometric properties to predict return to work in patients with acute low back pain. Although it is used in patients with chronic back pain and nonworkers, there is no evidence on the factor structure of the ÖMPQ in these populations. This is deemed an important prerequisite for future prediction studies. This study aimed to analyze the factor structure of the ÖMPQ in working and nonworking patients with chronic back pain. This is a cross-sectional study in a university-based spine center. The patient sample consists two cohorts of working and nonworking adult patients (>18 years) with specific and nonspecific chronic back pain. The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed in working (N=557) and nonworking (N=266) patients for three, four, five, and six factors identified in literature. A goodness of fit index was calculated by a chi-square. Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) was calculated, and the number of factors identified was based on RMSEA values 0.90 are considered to indicate acceptable fit. In working patients, a five-factor solution had the best fit (RMSEA0.90), but substantial adaptations should be made to get proper fit (removal of the work-related items). In nonworking patients, a four-factor analysis had the best fit (RMSEAback pain. Substantial adaptations should be made to obtain a factor structure with acceptable fit. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A systematic review and meta-Analyses show that carbapenem use and medical devices are the leading risk factors for carbapenem- resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Voor (Anne); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); E.M.E.H. Lesaffre (Emmanuel); M.C. Vos (Margreet)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractA systematic review and meta-Analyses were performed to identify the risk factors associated with carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to identify sources and reservoirs for the pathogen. A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases from 1 January 1987 until 27 January

  15. "`They brought in the horrible key ring thing!" Analysing the Usability of Two-Factor Authentication in UK Online Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Krol, Kat; Philippou, Eleni; De Cristofaro, Emiliano; Sasse, M. Angela

    2015-01-01

    To prevent password breaches and guessing attacks, banks increasingly turn to two-factor authentication (2FA), requiring users to present at least one more factor, such as a one-time password generated by a hardware token or received via SMS, besides a password. We can expect some solutions -- especially those adding a token -- to create extra work for users, but little research has investigated usability, user acceptance, and perceived security of deployed 2FA. This paper presents an in-dept...

  16. Intervenção Coronariana Percutânea prévia como fator de risco para Revascularização Miocárdica Previous percutaneous coronary intervention as risk factor for coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Ferreira Lisboa

    2012-07-01

    chronic coronary artery disease. Consequently, more patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG have history of coronary stent. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the impact of previous PCI on in-hospital mortality after CABG in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. METHODS: Between May/2007 and June/2009, 1099 consecutive patients underwent CABG on cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients with no PCI (n=938, 85.3% were compared with patients with previous PCI (n=161, 14.6%. Logistic regression models and propensity score matching analysis were used to assess the risk-adjusted impact of previous PCI on in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Both groups were similar, except for the fact that patients with previous PCI were more likely to have unstable angina (16.1% x 9.9%, P=0.019. In-hospital mortality after CABG was higher in patients with previous PCI (9.3% x 5.1%, P=0.034 and it was comparable with EuroSCORE and 2000 Bernstein-Parsonnet risk score. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, previous PCI emerged as an independent predictor of postoperative in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02-3.68, P=0.044 as strong as diabetes (odds ratio 1.86, 95% CI 1.07-3.24, P=0.028. After computed propensity score matching based on preoperative risk factors, in-hospital mortality remained higher among patients with previous PCI (odds ratio 3.46, 95% CI 1.10-10.93, P=0.034. CONCLUSIONS: Previous PCI in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease is an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality after CABG.This fact must be considered when PCI is indicated as initial alternative in patients with more severe coronary artery disease. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2012; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0

  17. Pedestrian road traffic injuries in urban Peruvian children and adolescents: case control analyses of personal and environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Donroe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Child pedestrian road traffic injuries (RTIs are an important cause of death and disability in poorer nations, however RTI prevention strategies in those countries largely draw upon studies conducted in wealthier countries. This research investigated personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs relevant to an urban, developing world setting.This is a case control study of personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs in San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Perú. The analysis of personal risk factors included 100 cases of serious pedestrian RTIs and 200 age and gender matched controls. Demographic, socioeconomic, and injury data were collected. The environmental risk factor study evaluated vehicle and pedestrian movement and infrastructure at the sites in which 40 of the above case RTIs occurred and 80 control sites.After adjustment, factors associated with increased risk of child pedestrian RTIs included high vehicle volume (OR 7.88, 95%CI 1.97-31.52, absent lane demarcations (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.65-26.26, high vehicle speed (OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.55-18.54, high street vendor density (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.01-1.55, and more children living in the home (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.00-1.56. Protective factors included more hours/day spent in school (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.33-0.82 and years of family residence in the same home (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99.Reducing traffic volumes and speeds, limiting the number of street vendors on a given stretch of road, and improving lane demarcation should be evaluated as components of child pedestrian RTI interventions in poorer countries.

  18. Expression profiling and Ingenuity biological function analyses of interleukin-6- versus nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriades-Schmutz Beatrice

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major goal of the study was to compare the genetic programs utilized by the neuropoietic cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and the neurotrophin (NT Nerve Growth Factor (NGF for neuronal differentiation. Results The designer cytokine Hyper-IL-6 in which IL-6 is covalently linked to its soluble receptor s-IL-6R as well as NGF were used to stimulate PC12 cells for 24 hours. Changes in gene expression levels were monitored using Affymetrix GeneChip technology. We found different expression for 130 genes in IL-6- and 102 genes in NGF-treated PC12 cells as compared to unstimulated controls. The gene set shared by both stimuli comprises only 16 genes. A key step is upregulation of growth factors and functionally related external molecules known to play important roles in neuronal differentiation. In particular, IL-6 enhances gene expression of regenerating islet-derived 3 alpha (REG3A; 1084-fold, regenerating islet-derived 3 beta (REG3B/PAPI; 672-fold, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15; 80-fold, platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFA; 69-fold, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH; 30-fold, adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP; 20-fold and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF; 5-fold. NGF recruits GDF15 (131-fold, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1; 101-fold and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; 89-fold. Both stimuli activate growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43 indicating that PC12 cells undergo substantial neuronal differentiation. Moreover, IL-6 activates the transcription factors retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA; 20-fold and early growth response 1 (Egr1/Zif268; 3-fold known to play key roles in neuronal differentiation. Ingenuity biological function analysis revealed that completely different repertoires of molecules are recruited to exert the same biological functions in neuronal differentiation. Major sub-categories include cellular growth and differentiation, cell migration, chemotaxis, cell

  19. Statistical analyses of scatterplots to identify important factors in large-scale simulations, 2: robustness of techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Helton, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The robustness of procedures for identifying patterns in scatterplots generated in Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses is investigated. These procedures are based on attempts to detect increasingly complex patterns in the scatterplots under consideration and involve the identification of (i) linear relationships with correlation coefficients, (ii) monotonic relationships with rank correlation coefficients, (iii) trends in central tendency as defined by means, medians and the Kruskal-Wallis statistic, (iv) trends in variability as defined by variances and interquartile ranges, and (v) deviations from randomness as defined by the chi-square statistic. The following two topics related to the robustness of these procedures are considered for a sequence of example analyses with a large model for two-phase fluid flow: the presence of Type I and Type II errors, and the stability of results obtained with independent Latin hypercube samples. Observations from analysis include: (i) Type I errors are unavoidable, (ii) Type II errors can occur when inappropriate analysis procedures are used, (iii) physical explanations should always be sought for why statistical procedures identify variables as being important, and (iv) the identification of important variables tends to be stable for independent Latin hypercube samples

  20. A study on the improvement of plant efficiency by analysing the factors that affect the vacuum of main condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. W.

    2000-01-01

    There are several ways to improve the efficiency of a power plant. Form among several ways, there is the way that can be attained by maximizing the turbine work by decreasing saturated pressure of main condenser. On the basis of Yonggwang nuclear power plant No.3 and No.4, it is intended to increase the efficiency of power plant through vacuum control by HEI analysis measure in the factors that affect a vacuum of main condenser. The result will contribute to decide optimum operating time of circulating pump complying with the decrease or increase of sea water temperature for the saving of electric power consumption in unit, to predict a pressure increase of condenser in response to respective circulating water temperature when circulating water box is blocked and solve the subsequent load control quantity and present standard vacuum corresponding to the respective variable factors that affect a vacuum of main condenser. It is also formulated a plan to improve reliability for the systems and the factors that affect a vacuum, and to manage the vacuum by using check list of the factors

  1. [Prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner abuse in female users of public health services in Mexico: a comparative analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Valdez-Santiagob, Rosario; Barroso-Quiab, Abigail; Híjar, Martha; Rojas, Rosalba; Del Río-Zolezzi, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the evolution of the prevalence in intimate partner violence during the years 2003 and 2006 in Mexico, identifying factors associated with its severity, comparing our results with findings from 2003. Data from the Encuesta Nacional de Violencia contra las Mujeres (ENVIM 2006) was used; it has urban-rural national representation of female users of Mexican public health services. A total of 22,318 women above 14 years of age were interviewed. A multinomial logistic regression model was adjusted. The dependent variable was the Index of Intimate Partner Abuse. Intimate partner abuse increased 17% in comparison to the year 2003. Women's personal history of childhood abuse (ORA= 5.12, 95% CI4.15-6.30) and rape (ORA = 3.5, 95% CI = 2.66-4.62) were the most important women's factors that were found associated with severe violence. Male partner's daily alcohol consumption increased eleven fold the possibility of severe violence; higher disagreement with traditional female gender roles and higher education of both partners were protective factors. Factors associated with violence and their severities were consistent with findings reported in 2003. Intimate partner violence is a highly prevalent social problem which requires comprehensive strategies supporting empowerment of women through higher education, early detection and care of those battered, as well as structured interventions to prevent violence in future generations.

  2. Dissociations between Featural versus Conjunction-based Texture Processing in Infancy: Analyses of Three Potential Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Evelin; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2001-01-01

    Examined three possible explanations for findings that infants detect textural discrepancies based on individual features more readily than on feature conjunctions. Found that none of the proposed factors could explain 5.5-month-olds' superior processing of featural over conjunction-based textural discrepancies. Findings suggest that in infancy,…

  3. Risk Factors Analyses for Seizure Recurrence in Different Periods After Refractory Epilepsy Surgery: A Prospective Single-Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueyou; Xu, Jianguo; Mao, Ke; Wang, Mengmeng; Ren, Peng; Lei, Ding; Fang, Yuan; Chen, Wenjing; Mao, Boyong; Zhou, Dong; Li, Jinmei; Hong, Zhen; Yan, Bo; An, Dongmei; Liu, Ling; Chen, Jiani; Luo, Rong; Zhou, Hui; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Heng

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the potential risk factors associated with seizure recurrence in different periods after epilepsy surgery. A total of 303 patients with refractory epilepsy after epilepsy surgery were included. The Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were performed to calculate the comparison of survival curves between groups and identify the risk factors associated with seizure recurrence in different periods after surgery. The significant predictors of seizure recurrence were determined, including duration of epilepsy (P = 0.018), seizure types (P = 0.009), magnetic resonance imaging findings (P = 0.007), intracranial electroencephalographic recordings (P = 0.002), sides of epileptogenic zone (P = 0.025), and types of surgery (P = 0.002). Moreover, the significant predictors of seizure recurrence within 12 months after surgery were also included, such as gender (P = 0.007), duration of epilepsy (P = 0.013), intracranial electroencephalographic recordings (P = 0.003), and types of surgery (P 36 months after surgery. We reconfirmed the well-known risk factors associated with seizure recurrence and also identified the controversial variables. In addition, we found that the risk factors associated with seizure recurrence were different in different periods after epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative genomic and functional analyses: unearthing the diversity and specificity of nematicidal factors in Pseudomonas putida strain 1A00316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Jing, Xueping; Peng, Wen-Lei; Nie, Qiyu; Zhai, Yile; Shao, Zongze; Zheng, Longyu; Cai, Minmin; Li, Guangyu; Zuo, Huaiyu; Zhang, Zhitao; Wang, Rui-Ru; Huang, Dian; Cheng, Wanli; Yu, Ziniu; Chen, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Jibin

    2016-01-01

    We isolated Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) strain 1A00316 from Antarctica. This bacterium has a high efficiency against Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita) in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. The complete genome of P. putida 1A00316 was sequenced using PacBio single molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. A comparative genomic analysis of 16 Pseudomonas strains revealed that although P. putida 1A00316 belonged to P. putida, it was phenotypically more similar to nematicidal Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) strains. We characterized the diversity and specificity of nematicidal factors in P. putida 1A00316 with comparative genomics and functional analysis, and found that P. putida 1A00316 has diverse nematicidal factors including protein alkaline metalloproteinase AprA and two secondary metabolites, hydrogen cyanide and cyclo-(l-isoleucyl-l-proline). We show for the first time that cyclo-(l-isoleucyl-l-proline) exhibit nematicidal activity in P. putida. Interestingly, our study had not detected common nematicidal factors such as 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) and pyrrolnitrin in P. putida 1A00316. The results of the present study reveal the diversity and specificity of nematicidal factors in P. putida strain 1A00316. PMID:27384076

  5. SNP analyses of growth factor genes EGF, TGFβ-1, and HGF reveal haplotypic association of EGF with autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Takao; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Kazuo; Thanseem, Ismail; Anitha, Ayyappan; Suda, Shiro; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Hattori, Eiji; Toyota, Tomoko; Miyachi, Taishi; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Kawai, Masayoshi; Sekine, Yoshimoto; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Sugihara, Gen-ichi; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Takei, Nori; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Mori, Norio

    2007-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed in early childhood. Growth factors have been found to play a key role in the cellular differentiation and proliferation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is detected in several regions of the developing and adult brain, where, it enhances the differentiation, maturation, and survival of a variety of neurons. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) isoforms play an important role in neuronal survival, and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to exhibit neurotrophic activity. We examined the association of EGF, TGFβ1, and HGF genes with autism, in a trio association study, using DNA samples from families recruited to the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange; 252 trios with a male offspring scored for autism were selected for the study. Transmission disequilibrium test revealed significant haplotypic association of EGF with autism. No significant SNP or haplotypic associations were observed for TGFβ1 or HGF. Given the role of EGF in brain and neuronal development, we suggest a possible role of EGF in the pathogenesis of autism

  6. Rational stress limits and load factors for finite element analyses in pipeline applications part I - Linear elastic stress limit development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Bisen [Stress Engineering Services, Inc. (United States)], email: Bisen.Lin@stress.com; Biel, Richard C. [Stress Engineering Services, Inc. (United States)], email: Richard.Biel@stress.com

    2010-07-01

    In the oil and gas sector, steel pipelines are the principal means used for transportation and distribution. The ASME B31 Codes provide the design margin based on the maximum principal stress theory of failure. The aim of this paper is to present the calculation of rational stress limit based on the von Mises equivalent stress for pipelines under internal pressure. Hand calculations along with finite element model analyses with the ABAQUS software were carried out for buckle arrestors and for an ASME Class 900 flange, both of which are used in an offshore natural gas pipeline. This paper provided an analytical method to determine von Mises equivalent stress limit and the stress limit value obtained has the same design margin as the ASME Codes. This method can be used to perform a finite element analysis to determine the structural integrity of a pipeline and its components; however this method does not replace any provision of ASME B31.8.

  7. Construct validation of health-relevant personality traits: interpersonal circumplex and five-factor model analyses of the Aggression Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, L C; Smith, T W

    1998-01-01

    The general literature on personality traits as risk factors for physical illness--as well as the specific literature on health consequences of anger, hostility, and aggressive behavior--often suffers from incomplete or inconsistent construct validation of personality measures. This study illustrates the utility of two conceptual tools in this regard--the five-factor model and the interpersonal circumplex. The similarities and differences among anger, hostility, verbal aggressiveness, and physical aggressiveness as measured by the Buss and Perry (1992) Aggression Questionnaire were identified. Results support the interpretation of anger and hostility as primarily reflecting neurotic hostility and antagonistic hostility to a lesser extent. In contrast, verbal and physical aggressiveness can he seen as primarily reflecting antagonistic hostility, and to a lesser extent neurotic hostility. Further, verbal aggressiveness was associated with hostile dominance, whereas hostility was associated with hostile submissiveness. These findings identify potentially important distinctions among these related constructs and illustrate the potential integrative value of standard validation procedures.

  8. Bioinformatics Analyses of the Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify the expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and to explore its potential correlation with the progression of NSCLC.Gene expression profile GSE39345 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Twenty healthy controls and 32 NSCLC samples before chemotherapy were analyzed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs. Then pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed and protein-protein interaction networks were constructed. Particularly, VEGF genes and the VEGF signaling pathway were analyzed. The sub-network was constructed followed by functional enrichment analysis.Total 1666 up-regulated and 1542 down-regulated DEGs were identified. The down-regulated DEGs were mainly enriched in the pathways associated with cancer. VEGFA and VEGFB were found to be the initiating factor of VEGF signaling pathway. In addition, in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, VEGFA and VEGFB associated sub-network, kinase insert domain receptor (KDR, fibronectin 1 (FN1, transforming growth factor beta induced (TGFBI and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA were found to interact with at least two of the three hub genes. The DEGs in this sub-network were mainly enriched in Gene Ontology terms related to cell proliferation.EGFR, KDR, FN1, TGFBI and PCNA may interact with VEGFA to play important roles in NSCLC tumorigenesis. These genes and corresponding proteins may have the potential to be used as the targets for either diagnosis or treatment of patients with NSCLC.

  9. Modeling the potential risk factors of bovine viral diarrhea prevalence in Egypt using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV disease in cattle and buffaloes in Egypt, to model the potential risk factors associated with the disease using logistic regression (LR models, and to fit the best predictive model for the current data. Materials and Methods: A total of 740 blood samples were collected within November 2012-March 2013 from animals aged between 6 months and 3 years. The potential risk factors studied were species, age, sex, and herd location. All serum samples were examined with indirect ELIZA test for antibody detection. Data were analyzed with different statistical approaches such as Chi-square test, odds ratios (OR, univariable, and multivariable LR models. Results: Results revealed a non-significant association between being seropositive with BVDV and all risk factors, except for species of animal. Seroprevalence percentages were 40% and 23% for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. OR for all categories were close to one with the highest OR for cattle relative to buffaloes, which was 2.237. Likelihood ratio tests showed a significant drop of the -2LL from univariable LR to multivariable LR models. Conclusion: There was an evidence of high seroprevalence of BVDV among cattle as compared with buffaloes with the possibility of infection in different age groups of animals. In addition, multivariable LR model was proved to provide more information for association and prediction purposes relative to univariable LR models and Chi-square tests if we have more than one predictor.

  10. Epidemiologic Analyses of Risk Factors for Bone Loss and Recovery Related to Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean; Amin, Shreyasee

    2010-01-01

    AIM 1: To investigate the risk of microgravity exposure on long-term changes in bone health and fracture risk. compare data from crew members ("observed") with what would be "expected" from Rochester Bone Health Study. AIM 2: To provide a summary of current evidence available on potential risk factors for bone loss, recovery & fracture following long-duration space flight. integrative review of all data pre, in-, and post-flight across disciplines (cardiovascular, nutrition, muscle, etc.) and their relation to bone loss and recovery

  11. Network, cluster and risk factor analyses for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome using data from swine sites participating in a disease control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, A G; Friendship, R; Carpenter, J; Hand, K; Poljak, Z

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe networks of Ontario swine sites and their service providers (including trucking, feed, semen, gilt and boar companies); to categorize swine sites into clusters based on site-level centrality measures, and to investigate risk factors for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) using information gathered from the above-mentioned analyses. All 816 sites included in the current study were enrolled in the PRRS area regional control and elimination projects in Ontario. Demographics, biosecurity and network data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and PRRS status was determined on the basis of available diagnostic tests and assessment by site veterinarians. Two-mode networks were transformed into one-mode dichotomized networks. Cluster and risk factor analyses were conducted separately for breeding and growing pig sites. In addition to the clusters obtained from cluster analyses, other explanatory variables of interest included: production type, type of animal flow, use of a shower facility, and number of neighboring swine sites within 3km. Unadjusted univariable analyses were followed by two types of adjusted models (adjusted for production systems): a generalizing estimation equation model (GEE) and a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Results showed that the gilt network was the most fragmented network, followed by the boar and truck networks. Considering all networks simultaneously, approximately 94% of all swine sites were indirectly connected. Unadjusted risk factor analyses showed significant associations between almost all predictors of interest and PRRS positivity, but these disappeared once production system was taken into consideration. Finally, the vast majority of the variation on PRRS status was explained by production system according to GLMM, which shows the highly correlated nature of the data, and raises the point that interventions at this level could potentially have high

  12. Biochemical, structural and molecular dynamics analyses of the potential virulence factor RipA from Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Torres

    Full Text Available Human diseases are attributed in part to the ability of pathogens to evade the eukaryotic immune systems. A subset of these pathogens has developed mechanisms to survive in human macrophages. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of the bubonic plague, is a predominately extracellular pathogen with the ability to survive and replicate intracellularly. A previous study has shown that a novel rip (required for intracellular proliferation operon (ripA, ripB and ripC is essential for replication and survival of Y. pestis in postactivated macrophages, by playing a role in lowering macrophage-produced nitric oxide (NO levels. A bioinformatics analysis indicates that the rip operon is conserved among a distally related subset of macrophage-residing pathogens, including Burkholderia and Salmonella species, and suggests that this previously uncharacterized pathway is also required for intracellular survival of these pathogens. The focus of this study is ripA, which encodes for a protein highly homologous to 4-hydroxybutyrate-CoA transferase; however, biochemical analysis suggests that RipA functions as a butyryl-CoA transferase. The 1.9 Å X-ray crystal structure reveals that RipA belongs to the class of Family I CoA transferases and exhibits a unique tetrameric state. Molecular dynamics simulations are consistent with RipA tetramer formation and suggest a possible gating mechanism for CoA binding mediated by Val227. Together, our structural characterization and molecular dynamic simulations offer insights into acyl-CoA specificity within the active site binding pocket, and support biochemical results that RipA is a butyryl-CoA transferase. We hypothesize that the end product of the rip operon is butyrate, a known anti-inflammatory, which has been shown to lower NO levels in macrophages. Thus, the results of this molecular study of Y. pestis RipA provide a structural platform for rational inhibitor design, which may lead to a greater understanding of the

  13. Indoor Environmental Risk Factors for Occupant Symptoms in 100U.S. Office Buildings: Summary of Three Analyses from the EPA BASEStudy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Cozen, M.; Brightman, H.S.; Apte,M.; Erdmann, C.A.; Brunner, G.; Girman, J.R.

    2006-02-01

    This paper summarizes three analyses of data on building-related environmental factors and occupant symptoms collected from 100 representative large U.S. office buildings. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we found increased occupant symptoms associated with a number of building-related factors, including lower ventilation rates even at the current guideline levels, lack of scheduled cleaning for air-conditioning drain pans and cooling coils, poor condition of cooling coils, poorly maintained humidification systems, and lower outdoor air intake height. Some expected relationships were not found, and several findings were opposite of expected. Although requiring replication, these findings suggest preventive actions to reduce occupant symptoms in office buildings.

  14. Multiple independent analyses reveal only transcription factors as an enriched functional class associated with microRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croft, Laurence J; Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars J

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Transcription factors (TFs) have long been known to be principally activators of transcription in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The growing awareness of the ubiquity of microRNAs (miRNAs) as suppressive regulators in eukaryotes, suggests the possibility of a mutual, preferential......RNA targets, appear not to select for real miRNA targets to any degree. Our manually validated text-mining results also suggests that miRNAs may be activated by more TFs than other classes of genes, as 7% of miRNA:TF co-occurrences in the literature were TFs activating miRNAs. This was confirmed when thirdly......, we found enrichment for predicted, conserved TF binding sites in miRNA and TF genes compared to other gene classes. CONCLUSIONS: We see enrichment of connections between miRNAs and TFs using several independent methods, suggestive of a network of mutual activating and suppressive regulation. We have...

  15. Fatores Associados à Realização de Cesárea em Primíparas com uma Cesárea Anterior Factors Associated with Cesarean Section in Primipara Women with One Previous Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guilherme Cecatti

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a via de parto em um grupo de gestantes primíparas de baixa renda com uma cesárea anterior e os fatores associados à repetição da cesárea no segundo parto. Pacientes e Métodos: realizou-se um estudo caso-controle com 356 gestantes atendidas de janeiro de 1993 a janeiro de 1996 na Maternidade do CAISM/UNICAMP. Constituíram os casos as 153 gestantes que tiveram o segundo parto por cesárea, e os controles, as 203 que tiveram o segundo parto vaginal. Para a análise utilizaram-se médias, desvio padrão, teste t de Student, teste de Mann-Whitney, chi² e "odds ratio" (OR e IC 95% para cada possível fator associado à realização de cesárea no segundo parto. Resultados: a via do segundo parto foi vaginal em 57% das vezes. Dentre as diversas variáveis estudadas, as que mostraram estar significativamente associadas à realização de cesárea no segundo parto foram: maior idade materna (para mulheres com 35 anos ou mais, OR = 16,4, antecedente de abortamento (OR = 2,09, indução do trabalho de parto (OR = 3,83, rotura prematura de membranas (OR = 2 ,83, a não-realização de analgesia durante o período de dilatação (OR = 5,3, o diagnóstico de algum sinal de vitalidade fetal alterada (OR = 2,7 e a ocorrência do parto à tarde (OR = 1,92. Conclusões: os resultados indicam que os fatores associados à repetição de cesárea em mulheres com uma cicatriz de cesárea nesta população são predominantemente médicos, mas há a possibilidade de se proporem intervenções dirigidas a diminuir o índice de repetição de cesáreas.Purpose: to evaluate the route of delivery in a group of low-income primipara pregnant women with a previous cesarean section, and the factors associated with the repetition of the cesarean section on the second delivery. Patients and Methods: it was a case-control study including 356 women who were assisted at the Maternity of CAISM/UNICAMP during the period between January 1993 and January

  16. Quantitative DNA methylation analyses reveal stage dependent DNA methylation and association to clinico-pathological factors in breast tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klajic, Jovana; Tost, Jörg; Kristensen, Vessela N; Fleischer, Thomas; Dejeux, Emelyne; Edvardsen, Hege; Warnberg, Fredrik; Bukholm, Ida; Lønning, Per Eystein; Solvang, Hiroko; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation of regulatory genes has frequently been found in human breast cancers and correlated to clinical outcome. In the present study we investigate stage specific changes in the DNA methylation patterns in order to identify valuable markers to understand how these changes affect breast cancer progression. Quantitative DNA methylation analyses of 12 candidate genes ABCB1, BRCCA1, CDKN2A, ESR1, GSTP1, IGF2, MGMT, HMLH1, PPP2R2B, PTEN, RASSF1A and FOXC1 was performed by pyrosequencing a series of 238 breast cancer tissue samples from DCIS to invasive tumors stage I to IV. Significant differences in methylation levels between the DCIS and invasive stage II tumors were observed for six genes RASSF1A, CDKN2A, MGMT, ABCB1, GSTP1 and FOXC1. RASSF1A, ABCB1 and GSTP1 showed significantly higher methylation levels in late stage compared to the early stage breast carcinoma. Z-score analysis revealed significantly lower methylation levels in DCIS and stage I tumors compared with stage II, III and IV tumors. Methylation levels of PTEN, PPP2R2B, FOXC1, ABCB1 and BRCA1 were lower in tumors harboring TP53 mutations then in tumors with wild type TP53. Z-score analysis showed that TP53 mutated tumors had significantly lower overall methylation levels compared to tumors with wild type TP53. Methylation levels of RASSF1A, PPP2R2B, GSTP1 and FOXC1 were higher in ER positive vs. ER negative tumors and methylation levels of PTEN and CDKN2A were higher in HER2 positive vs. HER2 negative tumors. Z-score analysis also showed that HER2 positive tumors had significantly higher z-scores of methylation compared to the HER2 negative tumors. Univariate survival analysis identifies methylation status of PPP2R2B as significant predictor of overall survival and breast cancer specific survival. In the present study we report that the level of aberrant DNA methylation is higher in late stage compared with early stage of invasive breast cancers and DCIS for genes mentioned above

  17. RNAseq Analyses Identify Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Inflammation as a Major Abnormality in ALS Spinal Cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Brohawn

    Full Text Available ALS is a rapidly progressive, devastating neurodegenerative illness of adults that produces disabling weakness and spasticity arising from death of lower and upper motor neurons. No meaningful therapies exist to slow ALS progression, and molecular insights into pathogenesis and progression are sorely needed. In that context, we used high-depth, next generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq, Illumina to define gene network abnormalities in RNA samples depleted of rRNA and isolated from cervical spinal cord sections of 7 ALS and 8 CTL samples. We aligned >50 million 2X150 bp paired-end sequences/sample to the hg19 human genome and applied three different algorithms (Cuffdiff2, DEseq2, EdgeR for identification of differentially expressed genes (DEG's. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA identified inflammatory processes as significantly elevated in our ALS samples, with tumor necrosis factor (TNF found to be a major pathway regulator (IPA and TNFα-induced protein 2 (TNFAIP2 as a major network "hub" gene (WGCNA. Using the oPOSSUM algorithm, we analyzed transcription factors (TF controlling expression of the nine DEG/hub genes in the ALS samples and identified TF's involved in inflammation (NFkB, REL, NFkB1 and macrophage function (NR1H2::RXRA heterodimer. Transient expression in human iPSC-derived motor neurons of TNFAIP2 (also a DEG identified by all three algorithms reduced cell viability and induced caspase 3/7 activation. Using high-density RNAseq, multiple algorithms for DEG identification, and an unsupervised gene co-expression network approach, we identified significant elevation of inflammatory processes in ALS spinal cord with TNF as a major regulatory molecule. Overexpression of the DEG TNFAIP2 in human motor neurons, the population most vulnerable to die in ALS, increased cell death and caspase 3/7 activation. We propose that therapies targeted to reduce inflammatory TNFα signaling may be

  18. Analyses of patterns-of-failure and prognostic factors according to radiation fields in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Lorraine; Guillerm, Sophie; Menard, Jean; Hennequin, Christophe; Quero, Laurent [Saint Louis Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Paris (France); Amorin, Sandy; Brice, Pauline [Saint Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Hematooncology Department, Paris (France)

    2017-02-15

    Doses and volumes of radiation therapy (RT) for early stages of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have been reduced over the last 30 years. Combined modality therapy (CMT) is currently the standard treatment for most patients with early-stage HL. The aim of this study was to analyze the site of relapse after RT according to the extent of radiation fields. Between 1987 and 2011, 427 patients were treated at our institution with RT ± chemotherapy for stage-I/II HL. Among these, 65 patients who experienced a relapse were retrospectively analyzed. Most patients had nodular sclerosis histology (86 %) and stage-II disease (75.9 %). Bulky disease was present in 21 % and 56 % of patients belonged to the unfavorable risk group according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)/The Lymphoma Study Association (LYSA) definitions. CMT was delivered to 91 % of patients. All patients received RT with doses ranging from 20 to 45 Gy (mean = 34 ± 5.3 Gy). The involved-field RT technique was used in 59 % of patients. The mean time between diagnosis and relapse was 4.2 years (range 0.3-24.5). Out-of-field relapses were suffered by 53 % of patients. Relapses occurred more frequently at out-of-field sites in patients with a favorable disease status, whereas in-field relapses were associated with bulky mediastinal disease. Relapses occurred later for favorable compared with the unfavorable risk group (3.5 vs. 2.9 years, p = 0.5). From multivariate analyses, neither RT dose nor RT field size were predictive for an in-field relapse (p = 0.25 and p = 0.8, respectively), only bulky disease was predictive (p = 0.018). In patients with bulky disease, RT dose and RT field size were not predictive for an in-field relapse. In this subgroup of patients, chemotherapy should be intensified. We confirmed the bad prognosis of early relapses. (orig.) [German] Waehrend der letzten 30 Jahre wurden die Strahlentherapie-(RT-)Dosis und die RT-Volumina fuer die Behandlung der Fruehstadien

  19. Psychometric evaluation of the Oswestry Disability Index in patients with chronic low back pain: factor and Mokken analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Pang; Fu, Tsai-Sheng; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hung, Ching-I

    2017-10-03

    Disputes exist regarding the psychometric properties of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The present study was to examine the reliability, validity, and dimensionality of a Chinese version of the ODI version 2.1 in a sample of 225 adult orthopedic outpatients with chronic low back pain [mean age (SD): 40.7 (11.4) years]. We conducted reliability analysis, exploratory bifactor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and Mokken scale analysis of the ODI. To validate the ODI, we used the Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) and visual analog scale (VAS). The reliability, and discriminant and construct validities of the ODI was good. The fit statistics of the unidimensional model of the ODI were inadequate. The ODI was a weak Mokken scale (H s  = 0.31). The ODI was a reliable and valid scale suitable for measurement of disability in patients with low back pain. But the ODI seemed to be multidimensional that was against the use of the raw score of the ODI as a measurement of disability.

  20. Analyses of a satiety factor NUCB2/nesfatin-1; gene expressions and modulation by different dietary components in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Satoshi; Kimura, Tomoko; Kurishima, Miyuki; Mimura, Kana; Saeki, Kaori; Miki, Yohei; Oda, Hitomi; Mori, Akihiro; Momota, Yutaka; Azakami, Daigo; Ishioka, Katsumi

    2016-03-01

    Nesfatin-1 is an anorexic peptide derived from a precursor, nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2), which is distributed in various organs, coexists with ghrelin in the gastric X/A-like cells and closely relates to an appetite control in rodents and humans. Nesfatin-1 may be a significant factor addressing the satiety also in veterinary medicine, however, there are few reports about nesfatin-1 in dogs. In the present study, we detected canine NUCB2/nesfatin-1 mRNA in various tissues, especially abundant in pancreas, gastrointestinal tracts, testis and cerebellum. We examined circulating nesfatin-1 concentrations and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 mRNA expressions in upper gastrointestinal tracts (gastric corpus, pyloric antrum and duodenum) in dogs fed on different types of diets. Plasma nesfatin-1 concentrations in the dogs were approximately 4 ng/ml and they did not change after feeding through the study, however, NUCB2/nesfatin-1 mRNA expressions in pyloric antrum were 1.84-fold higher in the dogs fed on a High fiber/High protein diet (Pdogs fed on a High fat/Low protein diet (Pdogs fed on a Low fat/High carbohydrate diet (not significant) comparing to those on a control diet. It was concluded that High fiber/High protein and High fat/Low protein diets increased NUCB2/nesfatin-1 production in canine gastrointestinal tracts. These results may set the stage for further investigations of canine NUCB2/nesfatin-1, which may relate to satiety effects in dogs.

  1. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  2. Multiple independent analyses reveal only transcription factors as an enriched functional class associated with microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croft Larry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors (TFs have long been known to be principally activators of transcription in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The growing awareness of the ubiquity of microRNAs (miRNAs as suppressive regulators in eukaryotes, suggests the possibility of a mutual, preferential, self-regulatory connectivity between miRNAs and TFs. Here we investigate the connectivity from TFs and miRNAs to other genes and each other using text mining, TF promoter binding site and 6 different miRNA binding site prediction methods. Results In the first approach text mining of PubMed abstracts reveal statistically significant associations between miRNAs and both TFs and signal transduction gene classes. Secondly, prediction of miRNA targets in human and mouse 3’UTRs show enrichment only for TFs but not consistently across prediction methods for signal transduction or other gene classes. Furthermore, a random sample of 986 TarBase entries was scored for experimental evidence by manual inspection of the original papers, and enrichment for TFs was observed to increase with score. Low-scoring TarBase entries, where experimental evidence is anticorrelated miRNA:mRNA expression with predicted miRNA targets, appear not to select for real miRNA targets to any degree. Our manually validated text-mining results also suggests that miRNAs may be activated by more TFs than other classes of genes, as 7% of miRNA:TF co-occurrences in the literature were TFs activating miRNAs. This was confirmed when thirdly, we found enrichment for predicted, conserved TF binding sites in miRNA and TF genes compared to other gene classes. Conclusions We see enrichment of connections between miRNAs and TFs using several independent methods, suggestive of a network of mutual activating and suppressive regulation. We have also built regulatory networks (containing 2- and 3-loop motifs for mouse and human using predicted miRNA and TF binding sites and we have developed a web server

  3. Genetic and non-genetic risk factors for pre-eclampsia: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakou, Konstantinos; Evangelou, Evangelos; Papatheodorou, Stefania I

    2017-11-16

    To summarize evidence from the literature on the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, assess the presence of statistical biases and identify associations with robust evidence. We searched PubMed and ISI Web of Science from inception to October, 2016, to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies examining associations between genetic and non-genetic risk factors for preeclampsia. For each meta-analysis we estimated the summary effect size by random-effects and fixed-effects models, the 95% confidence interval and the 95% prediction interval. We estimated the between-study heterogeneity expressed by I 2 (considering above 75% as very large), evidence of small-study effects (large studies had significantly more conservative results than smaller studies and evidence of excess significance bias (too many studies with statistically significant results). Fifty-seven eligible papers were identified providing data on 130 associations including 1466 primary studies, covering a very wide range of risk factors: co-morbid diseases, genetic factors, exposure to environmental agents and a range of biomarkers. Sixty-five (50%) associations had nominally statistically significant findings at P1000 cases, 95% prediction intervals excluding the null, not suggestive of large heterogeneity (I 2 0.10), or excess of significance (P>0.05). Across the statistically significant genetic risk factors (Pfactors (serum iron level, PAPP-A, chronic kidney disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, mental stress, bacterial & viral infections, cigarette smoking, oocyte donation vs assisted reproductive technology, obese vs normal weight women, severe obese vs normal weight women and primiparity) presented highly suggestive evidence for preeclampsia. A large proportion of meta-analyses of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for preeclampsia have caveats, which threaten their validity. Oocyte donation vs normal conception and PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism (recessive model

  4. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  5. Analyses of the influencing factors of soil microbial functional gene diversity in tropical rainforest based on GeoChip 5.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Xu, Han; Li, Yide; Deng, Ye; Li, Diqiang; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-09-01

    To examine soil microbial functional gene diversity and causative factors in tropical rainforests, we used a microarray-based metagenomic tool named GeoChip 5.0 to profile it. We found that high microbial functional gene diversity and different soil microbial metabolic potential for biogeochemical processes were considered to exist in tropical rainforest. Soil available nitrogen was the most associated with soil microbial functional gene structure. Here, we mainly describe the experiment design, the data processing, and soil biogeochemical analyses attached to the study in details, which could be published on BMC microbiology Journal in 2015, whose raw data have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE69171).

  6. Global collaborative networks on meta-analyses of randomized trials published in high impact factor medical journals: a social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Alonso-Arroyo, Adolfo; Hutton, Brian; Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael; Moher, David

    2014-01-29

    Research collaboration contributes to the advancement of knowledge by exploiting the results of scientific efforts more efficiently, but the global patterns of collaboration on meta-analysis are unknown. The purpose of this research was to describe and characterize the global collaborative patterns in meta-analyses of randomized trials published in high impact factor medical journals over the past three decades. This was a cross-sectional, social network analysis. We searched PubMed for relevant meta-analyses of randomized trials published up to December 2012. We selected meta-analyses (including at least randomized trials as primary evidence source) published in the top seven high impact factor general medical journals (according to Journal Citation Reports 2011): The New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, the BMJ, JAMA, Annals of Internal Medicine, Archives of Internal Medicine (now renamed JAMA Internal Medicine), and PLoS Medicine. Opinion articles, conceptual papers, narrative reviews, reviews without meta-analysis, reviews of reviews, and other study designs were excluded. Overall, we included 736 meta-analyses, in which 3,178 authors, 891 institutions, and 51 countries participated. The BMJ was the journal that published the greatest number of articles (39%), followed by The Lancet (18%), JAMA (15%) and the Archives of Internal Medicine (15%). The USA, the UK, and Canada headed the absolute global productivity ranking in number of papers. The 64 authors and the 39 institutions with the highest publication rates were identified. We also found 82 clusters of authors (one group with 55 members and one group with 54 members) and 19 clusters of institutions (one major group with 76 members). The most prolific authors were mainly affiliated with the University of Oxford (UK), McMaster University (Canada), and the University of Bern (Switzerland). Our analysis identified networks of authors, institutions and countries publishing meta-analyses of randomized

  7. Specific binding of 125I-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin to gonadal tissue: comparison of limited-point saturation analyses to Scatchard analyses for determining binding capacities and factors affecting estimates of binding capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, L.J.; Ireland, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare gonadotropin binding capacity calculated from limited-point saturation analyses to those obtained from Scatchard analyses, and to test the effects of membrane purity and source of gonadotropin receptors on determining the maximum percentage of radioiodinated hormone bound to receptors (maximum bindability). One- to four-point saturation analyses gave results comparable to results by Scatchard analyses when examining relative binding capacities of receptors. Crude testicular homogenates had lower estimates of maximum bindability of 125 I-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin than more purified gonadotropin receptor preparations. Under similar preparation techniques, some gonadotropin receptor sources exhibited low maximum bindability

  8. The differential impact of scientific quality, bibliometric factors, and social media activity on the influence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses about psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Juan; Aguilar-Luque, Macarena; Gómez-Garcia, Francisco; Alcalde Mellado, Patricia; Gay-Mimbrera, Jesus; Carmona-Fernandez, Pedro J; Maestre-López, Beatriz; Sanz-Cabanillas, Juan Luís; Hernández Romero, José Luís; González-Padilla, Marcelino; Vélez García-Nieto, Antonio; Isla-Tejera, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly using on line social networks to promote their work. Some authors have suggested that measuring social media activity can predict the impact of a primary study (i.e., whether or not an article will be highly cited). However, the influence of variables such as scientific quality, research disclosures, and journal characteristics on systematic reviews and meta-analyses has not yet been assessed. The present study aims to describe the effect of complex interactions between bibliometric factors and social media activity on the impact of systematic reviews and meta-analyses about psoriasis (PROSPERO 2016: CRD42016053181). Methodological quality was assessed using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Altmetrics, which consider Twitter, Facebook, and Google+ mention counts as well as Mendeley and SCOPUS readers, and corresponding article citation counts from Google Scholar were obtained for each article. Metadata and journal-related bibliometric indices were also obtained. One-hundred and sixty-four reviews with available altmetrics information were included in the final multifactorial analysis, which showed that social media and impact factor have less effect than Mendeley and SCOPUS readers on the number of cites that appear in Google Scholar. Although a journal's impact factor predicted the number of tweets (OR, 1.202; 95% CI, 1.087-1.049), the years of publication and the number of Mendeley readers predicted the number of citations in Google Scholar (OR, 1.033; 95% CI, 1.018-1.329). Finally, methodological quality was related neither with bibliometric influence nor social media activity for systematic reviews. In conclusion, there seems to be a lack of connectivity between scientific quality, social media activity, and article usage, thus predicting scientific success based on these variables may be inappropriate in the particular case of systematic reviews.

  9. Analyses of the influencing factors of soil microbial functional gene diversity in tropical rainforest based on GeoChip 5.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine soil microbial functional gene diversity and causative factors in tropical rainforests, we used a microarray-based metagenomic tool named GeoChip 5.0 to profile it. We found that high microbial functional gene diversity and different soil microbial metabolic potential for biogeochemical processes were considered to exist in tropical rainforest. Soil available nitrogen was the most associated with soil microbial functional gene structure. Here, we mainly describe the experiment design, the data processing, and soil biogeochemical analyses attached to the study in details, which could be published on BMC microbiology Journal in 2015, whose raw data have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE69171.

  10. Resting frontal EEG asymmetry in children: meta-analyses of the effects of psychosocial risk factors and associations with internalizing and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Mikko J; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Alink, Lenneke R A; Huffmeijer, Renske; Biro, Szilvia; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2014-09-01

    Asymmetry of frontal cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) activity in children is influenced by the social environment and considered a marker of vulnerability to emotional and behavioral problems. To determine the reliability of these associations, we used meta-analysis to test whether variation in resting frontal EEG asymmetry is consistently associated with (a) having experienced psychosocial risk (e.g., parental depression or maltreatment) and (b) internalizing and externalizing behavior outcomes in children ranging from newborns to adolescents. Three meta-analyses including 38 studies (N = 2,523) and 50 pertinent effect sizes were carried out. The studies included in the analyses reported associations between frontal EEG asymmetry and psychosocial risk (k = 20; predominantly studies with maternal depression as the risk factor) as well as internalizing (k = 20) and externalizing (k = 10) behavior outcomes. Psychosocial risk was significantly associated with greater relative right frontal asymmetry, with an effect size of d = .36 (p < .01), the effects being stronger in girls. A non-significant relation was observed between right frontal asymmetry and internalizing symptoms (d = .19, p = .08), whereas no association between left frontal asymmetry and externalizing symptoms was observed (d = .04, p = .79). Greater relative right frontal asymmetry appears to be a fairly consistent marker of the presence of familial stressors in children but the power of frontal asymmetry to directly predict emotional and behavioral problems is modest. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Analysing temporal variability of particulate matter and possible contributing factors over Mahabaleshwar, a high-altitude station in Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leena, P. P.; Vijayakumar, K.; Anilkumar, V.; Pandithurai, G.

    2017-11-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) plays a vital role on climate change as well as human health. In the present study, temporal variability associated with mass concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0 were analysed using ground observations from Mahabaleswar (1348 m AMSL, 17.56 0N, 73.4 0E), a high-altitude station in the Western Ghats, India from June 2012 to May 2013. Concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0 showed strong diurnal, monthly, seasonal and weekday-weekend trends. The seasonal variation of PM1.0 and PM2.5 has showed highest concentrations during winter season compared to monsoon and pre-monsoon, but in the case of PM10 it showed highest concentrations in pre-monsoon season. Similarly, slightly higher PM concentrations were observed during weekends compared to weekdays. In addition, possible contributing factors to this temporal variability has been analysed based on the variation of secondary pollutants such as NO2, SO2, CO and O3 and long range transport of dust.

  12. Socioeconomic position, lifestyle factors and age at natural menopause: a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies across six continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenaker, Danielle AJM; Jackson, Caroline A; Rowlands, Jemma V; Mishra, Gita D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age at natural menopause (ANM) is considered a marker of biological ageing and is increasingly recognized as a sentinel for chronic disease risk in later life. Socioeconomic position (SEP) and lifestyle factors are thought to be associated with ANM. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to determine the overall mean ANM, and the effect of SEP and lifestyle factors on ANM by calculating the weighted mean difference (WMD) and pooling adjusted hazard ratios. We explored heterogeneity using meta-regression and also included unpublished findings from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Results: We identified 46 studies across 24 countries. Mean ANM was 48.8 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 48.3, 49.2], with between-study heterogeneity partly explained by geographical region. ANM was lowest among African, Latin American, Asian and Middle Eastern countries and highest in Europe and Australia, followed by the USA. Education was associated with later ANM (WMD middle vs low education 0.30, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.51; high vs low education 0.64, 95% CI 0.26, 1.02). A similar dose-response relationship was also observed for occupation. Smoking was associated with a 1-year reduction of ANM (WMD: -0.91, 95% CI: –1.34, –0.48). Being overweight and moderate/high physical activity were modestly associated with later ANM, but findings were less conclusive. Conclusions: ANM varies across populations, partly due to differences across geographical regions. SEP and some lifestyle factors are associated with ANM, but further research is needed to examine the impact of the associations between risk factors and ANM on future health outcomes. PMID:24771324

  13. Factor analyses of the Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS) and the Risk-Rescue Rating Scale (RRRS): toward the identification of homogeneous subgroups of suicidal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misson, Hélène; Mathieu, Flavie; Jollant, Fabrice; Yon, Liova; Guillaume, Sébastien; Parmentier, Claire; Raust, Aurélie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Slama, Frédéric; Leboyer, Marion; Bellivier, Frank; Courtet, Philippe

    2010-02-01

    Suicidal behavior is a heterogeneous entity, determined by multiple factors. This heterogeneity has major implications for clinical management of patients and identification of risk factors. Our study aims at identifying homogeneous subgroups of patients with suicidal behavior. We used two validated questionnaires to assess the intent (Suicidal Intent Scale, SIS) and lethality (Risk-Rescue Rating Scale, RRRS) of the most severe suicide attempt in a sample of 608 patients recruited consecutively. We first explored the factorial structure of the two scales, using a principal component analysis, and then tested the relationship between sub-scores identified and subtypes of suicide attempts (violent, serious overdose) using a backward logistic regression. A four-factor structure was retained for the SIS (conception, preparation, precautions and communication). The RRRS, for which a factorial structure has not been previously published, had a three-factor structure (medical damage, implementation and rescue conditions). This structure was valid, stable and clinically relevant. Serious suicide attempts were characterized by less communication and more precautions against discovery, whereas violent attempts were associated with higher risk acts. Neither violent nor serious attempts were characterized by more planning. The SIS and RRRS were assessed retrospectively, and so could have been influenced by recall bias. Finally, censoring bias may have affected our results. The characterization of suicidal behaviors using SIS and RRRS sub-scores constitutes a first step toward the identification of homogeneous subgroups of suicide attempters. Prospective studies are needed to test the predictive value of these sub-scores for subsequent suicidal acts. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The analyses of risk factors for COPD in the Li ethnic group in Hainan, People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding YP

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yipeng Ding,1,* Junxu Xu,2,* Jinjian Yao,1 Yu Chen,2 Ping He,1 Yanhong Ouyang,1 Huan Niu,1 Zhongjie Tian,1 Pei Sun1 1Department of Emergency, People’s Hospital of Hainan Province, 2Department of Respiratory, The Third People’s Hospital of Haikou, Haikou, Hainan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To study the risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Li population in Hainan province, People’s Republic of China.Methods: Li people above 40 years of age from Hainan were chosen by stratified random cluster sampling between 2012 and 2014. All participants were interviewed with a home-visiting questionnaire, and spirometry was performed on all eligible participants. Patients with airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]/forced vital capacity [FVC] <0.70 were further examined by postbronchodilator spirometry, and those with a postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.70 was diagnosed with COPD. The information of physical condition and history, smoking intensity, smoking duration, second-hand smoking, education, job category, monthly household income, working years, residential environment, primary fuel for cooking and heating (biomass fuel including wood, crop residues, dung, and charcoal, or modern fuel such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, electricity, and solar energy, ventilated kitchen, heating methods, air pollution, recurrent respiratory infections, family history of respiratory diseases, cough incentives, and allergies of COPD and non-COPD subjects was analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to identify correlated risk factors for COPD.Results: Out of the 5,463 Li participants, a total of 277 COPD cases were identified by spirometry, and 307 healthy subjects were randomly selected as controls. Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that older people (65 years and above, low body mass index (BMI, biomass smoke

  15. Evaluation of clinical and biological prognostic factors in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients after previous treatment with rituximab and chemotherapy: results of the PRO-R-IPI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizo, Carlos; Rodríguez, Anny Jaramillo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Díaz, Francisco Javier; González-Barca, Eva; de Oña, Raquel; Grande, Carlos; Sancho, Juan Manuel; García-Álvarez, María Flor; Sánchez-González, Blanca; Peñalver, Francisco Javier; Cannata, Jimena; Espeso, Manuel; Requena, María José; Gardella, Santiago; Durán, Soledad; González, Ana Pilar; Alfonso, Ana; Caballero, María Dolores

    2015-07-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous entity, showing a highly variable outcome. In patients with DLBCL relapsed/refractory to first-line treatment with rituximab the usefulness of the revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI) as a prognostic tool remains unexplored. Some biological parameters (B-cell lymphoma 6 [Bcl-6], Bcl-2, p53, and multiple myeloma 1 [MUM1]) and blood populations (lymphocyte and monocyte counts) have been described as International Prognostic Index-independent prognostic factors. The objective was to evaluate the R-IPI to predict the outcome of DLBCL patients at the time of relapse after a front-line treatment with chemotherapy and rituximab and to establish in this population the relationship between biological parameters and outcome. We included patients with refractory/relapsed DLBCL after first-line treatment with rituximab-containing regimens; patients must have already finished a rescue treatment also including rituximab. Immunohistochemical assessment of Bcl-2, Bcl-6, p53, and MUM1 expression were undertaken in available biopsies. R-IPI factors were identified from the clinical data at diagnosis and at relapse. Response was assessed using National Cancer Institute-sponsored Working Group guidelines. R-IPI prognosis at relapse was not significantly associated with overall response rate (ORR) after Rituximab-chemotherapy rescue therapy. None of the immunohistochemical parameters analyzed correlated with rescue therapy results. In contrast, patients with absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ≥ 1 × 10(9)/L at relapse were more likely to respond than patients with ALC IPI score calculated at relapse could not predict the ORR to second-line treatment. Lymphopenia is a simple and useful predictor for outcome in relapsed/refractory DLBCL and the only prognostic factor that in our hands could predict the overall response to a second-line treatment with rituximab and chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. Analyses of potential factors affecting survival of juvenile salmonids volitionally passing through turbines at McNary and John Day Dams, Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John; Hansel, Hal; Perry, Russell; Hockersmith, Eric; Sandford, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This report describes analyses of data from radio- or acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids passing through hydro-dam turbines to determine factors affecting fish survival. The data were collected during a series of studies designed to estimate passage and survival probabilities at McNary (2002-09) and John Day (2002-03) Dams on the Columbia River during controlled experiments of structures or operations at spillways. Relatively few tagged fish passed turbines in any single study, but sample sizes generally were adequate for our analyses when data were combined from studies using common methods over a series of years. We used information-theoretic methods to evaluate biological, operational, and group covariates by creating models fitting linear (all covariates) or curvilinear (operational covariates only) functions to the data. Biological covariates included tag burden, weight, and water temperature; operational covariates included spill percentage, total discharge, hydraulic head, and turbine unit discharge; and group covariates included year, treatment, and photoperiod. Several interactions between the variables also were considered. Support of covariates by the data was assessed by comparing the Akaike Information Criterion of competing models. The analyses were conducted because there was a lack of information about factors affecting survival of fish passing turbines volitionally and the data were available from past studies. The depth of acclimation, tag size relative to fish size (tag burden), turbine unit discharge, and area of entry into the turbine intake have been shown to affect turbine passage survival of juvenile salmonids in other studies. This study indicates that turbine passage survival of the study fish was primarily affected by biological covariates rather than operational covariates. A negative effect of tag burden was strongly supported in data from yearling Chinook salmon at John Day and McNary dams, but not for subyearling Chinook salmon or

  17. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3–Analyses of the S249C Mutation and Protein Expression in Primary Cervical Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Dai

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 seems to play an inhibitory role in bone development, as activating mutations in the gene underlie disorders such as achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia. Findings from multiple myeloma (MM indicate that FGFR3 also can act as an oncogene, and mutation of codon 249 in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 gene was recently detected in 3/12 primary cervical carcinomas. We have analysed 91 cervical carcinomas for this specific S249C mutation using amplification created restriction site methodology (ACRS, and detected no mutations. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 73 of the tumours. Reduced protein staining was seen in 43 (58.8% samples. Six of the tumours (8.2% revealed increased protein staining compared with normal cervical tissue. These patients had a better prognosis than those with reduced or normal levels, although not statistically significant. This report weakens the hypothesis of FGFR3 as an oncogene of importance in cervical carcinomas.

  18. Assessing public speaking fear with the short form of the Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker scale: confirmatory factor analyses among a French-speaking community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Alexandre; Ceschi, Grazia; Valentiner, David P; Dethier, Vincent; Philippot, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS), one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear. A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively. Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522), the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361). The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.

  19. Principal factor and hierarchical cluster analyses for the performance assessment of an urban wastewater treatment plant in the Southeast of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayo, Javier; López-Castellanos, Joaquín

    2016-07-01

    Process performance and operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are carried out to ensure their compliance with legislative requirements imposed by European Union. Because a high amount of variables are daily measured, a coherent and structured approach of such a system is required to understand its inherent behavior and performance efficiency. In this sense, both principal factor analysis (PFA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) are multivariate techniques that have been widely applied to extract and structure information for different purposes. In this paper, both statistical tools are applied in an urban WWTP situated in the Southeast of Spain, a zone with special characteristics related to the geochemical background composition of water and an important use of fertilizers. Four main factors were extracted in association with nutrients, the ionic component, the organic load to the WWTP, and the efficiency of the whole process. HCA allowed distinguish between influent and effluent parameters, although a deeper examination resulted in a dendrogram with groupings similar to those previously reported for PFA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationship between physical activity and the living environment: a multi-level analyses focusing on changes over time in environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Droomers, Mariël; van Oers, Hans A M; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-03-01

    There is limited evidence on the causality of previously observed associations between neighborhood characteristics and physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether individual-level PA was associated with changes in fear of crime, social cohesion, green spaces, parking facilities, social disorder, and physical disorder that occurred over the past 3 years. In general, in neighborhoods where residents had more favorable perceptions of the environment in 2006, residents were more likely to be physically active in 2009. In addition, improvements between 2006 and 2009 with respect to perceived social cohesion, green spaces, social disorder, and physical disorder were associated with increased odds of being active in 2009. For both the levels in 2006 and trends in the period 2006-2009, the associations were somewhat stronger among women than among men, but associations did not vary by age or length of residence. For several environmental factors, we observed that not only the levels at a certain point in time, but also recent improvements over time were related to PA. These results provide new support for a causal relationship between these environmental factors and PA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing public speaking fear with the short form of the Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker scale: confirmatory factor analyses among a French-speaking community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeren A

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Heeren,1,2 Grazia Ceschi,3 David P Valentiner,4 Vincent Dethier,1 Pierre Philippot11Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 2National Fund for Scientific Research, Brussels, Belgium; 3Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USABackground: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS, one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear.Methods: A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively.Results: Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86 was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361.Conclusion: The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.Keywords: social phobia, public speaking, confirmatory

  2. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  3. Description of OPRA: A Danish database designed for the analyses of risk factors associated with 30-day hospital readmission of people aged 65+ years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mona K; Nielsen, Gunnar L; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Rasmussen, Ole S; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2017-08-01

    To describe the construction of the Older Person at Risk Assessment (OPRA) database, the ability to link this database with existing data sources obtained from Danish nationwide population-based registries and to discuss its research potential for the analyses of risk factors associated with 30-day hospital readmission. We reviewed Danish nationwide registries to obtain information on demographic and social determinants as well as information on health and health care use in a population of hospitalised older people. The sample included all people aged 65+ years discharged from Danish public hospitals in the period from 1 January 2007 to 30 September 2010. We used personal identifiers to link and integrate the data from all events of interest with the outcome measures in the OPRA database. The database contained records of the patients, admissions and variables of interest. The cohort included 1,267,752 admissions for 479,854 unique people. The rate of 30-day all-cause acute readmission was 18.9% ( n=239,077) and the overall 30-day mortality was 5.0% ( n=63,116). The OPRA database provides the possibility of linking data on health and life events in a population of people moving into retirement and ageing. Construction of the database makes it possible to outline individual life and health trajectories over time, transcending organisational boundaries within health care systems. The OPRA database is multi-component and multi-disciplinary in orientation and has been prepared to be used in a wide range of subgroup analyses, including different outcome measures and statistical methods.

  4. Is a Previously or Currently Reduced Testosterone Level in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus a Risk Factor for the Development of Coronary Artery Disease? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng

    2018-04-04

    We aimed to systematically investigate the association between testosterone level and cardiovascular risk in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by comparing male T2DM patients with low testosterone levels to male T2DM patients with normal testosterone levels at baseline in terms of the number of cases of coronary artery disease (CAD). Online databases were carefully searched for studies relating to testosterone, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular risk by using the search terms 'testosterone,' 'diabetes mellitus,' and 'coronary artery/cardiovascular disease.' The only endpoint in this analysis was CAD/atherosclerosis/coronary plaque/major adverse coronary event prior to or following testosterone reduction at baseline. The analytical parameters used in this analysis were the risk ratio (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI), as obtained using the RevMan 5.3 software. 3467 male patients with T2DM (1079 patients with a low testosterone level versus 2388 patients with a normal testosterone level) were included. The results of this analysis showed that when a random effects model was used, a higher risk of CAD/cardiovascular disease was observed in diabetic patients with a low testosterone level than in those with a normal testosterone level (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.94-1.63; P = 0.13). However, the difference in risk was not statistically significant. Similarly, with a fixed effects model, a low testosterone level was associated with a higher CAD/cardiovascular risk of disease (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.98-1.34; P = 0.08); in this case, the difference in risk between the T2DM patients with low and normal testosterone levels approached statistical significance. A previously or currently reduced testosterone level was not found to be statistically significantly associated with a high risk of CAD/cardiovascular disease in male patients with T2DM. However, the difference in risk between the T2DM patients with low and normal testosterone levels was observed

  5. Analyses of PWR spent fuel composition using SCALE and SWAT code systems to find correction factors for criticality safety applications adopting burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Sung; Suyama, Kenya; Mochizuki, Hiroki; Okuno, Hiroshi; Nomura, Yasushi

    2001-01-01

    The isotopic composition calculations were performed for 26 spent fuel samples from the Obrigheim PWR reactor and 55 spent fuel samples from 7 PWR reactors using the SAS2H module of the SCALE4.4 code system with 27, 44 and 238 group cross-section libraries and the SWAT code system with the 107 group cross-section library. For the analyses of samples from the Obrigheim PWR reactor, geometrical models were constructed for each of SCALE4.4/SAS2H and SWAT. For the analyses of samples from 7 PWR reactors, the geometrical model already adopted in the SCALE/SAS2H was directly converted to the model of SWAT. The four kinds of calculation results were compared with the measured data. For convenience, the ratio of the measured to calculated values was used as a parameter. When the ratio is less than unity, the calculation overestimates the measurement, and the ratio becomes closer to unity, they have a better agreement. For many important nuclides for burnup credit criticality safety evaluation, the four methods applied in this study showed good coincidence with measurements in general. More precise observations showed, however: (1) Less unity ratios were found for Pu-239 and -241 for selected 16 samples out of the 26 samples from the Obrigheim reactor (10 samples were deselected because their burnups were measured with Cs-137 non-destructive method, less reliable than Nd-148 method the rest 16 samples were measured with); (2) Larger than unity ratios were found for Am-241 and Cm-242 for both the 16 and 55 samples; (3) Larger than unity ratios were found for Sm-149 for the 55 samples; (4) SWAT was generally accompanied by larger ratios than those of SAS2H with some exceptions. Based on the measured-to-calculated ratios for 71 samples of a combined set in which 16 selected samples and 55 samples were included, the correction factors that should be multiplied to the calculated isotopic compositions were generated for a conservative estimate of the neutron multiplication factor

  6. Associations between retinol-binding protein 4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in recently postmenopausal women: cross-sectional analyses from the KEEPS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Gary

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The published literature regarding the relationships between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis is conflicting, likely due, in part, to limitations of frequently used RBP4 assays. Prior large studies have not utilized the gold-standard western blot analysis of RBP4 levels. Methods Full-length serum RBP4 levels were measured by western blot in 709 postmenopausal women screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Cross-sectional analyses related RBP4 levels to cardiometabolic risk factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT, and coronary artery calcification (CAC. Results The mean age of women was 52.9 (± 2.6 years, and the median RBP4 level was 49.0 (interquartile range 36.9-61.5 μg/mL. Higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with higher triglycerides (age, race, and smoking-adjusted partial Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.10; P = 0.01, but were unrelated to blood pressure, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, and CIMT levels (all partial Spearman correlation coefficients ≤0.06, P > 0.05. Results suggested a curvilinear association between RBP4 levels and CAC, with women in the bottom and upper quartiles of RBP4 having higher odds of CAC (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.10 [1.07-4.09], 2.00 [1.02-3.92], 1.64 [0.82-3.27] for the 1st, 3rd, and 4th RBP4 quartiles vs. the 2nd quartile. However, a squared RBP4 term in regression modeling was non-significant (P = 0.10. Conclusions In these healthy, recently postmenopausal women, higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with elevations in triglycerides and with CAC, but not with other risk factors or CIMT. These data using the gold standard of RBP4 methodology only weakly support the possibility that perturbations in RBP4 homeostasis may be an additional risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT

  7. A multi-group confirmatory factor analyses of the LupusPRO between southern California and Filipino samples of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoddin, D R; Olmstead, R; Cost, C; Jolly, M; Ayeroff, J; Racaza, G; Sumner, L A; Ormseth, S; Weisman, M; Nicassio, P M

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) leads to a range of biopsychosocial health outcomes through an unpredictable and complex disease path. The LupusPRO is a comprehensive, self-report measure developed specifically for populations with SLE, which assesses both health-related quality of life and non-health related quality of life. Given its increasingly widespread use, additional research is needed to evaluate the psychometric integrity of the LupusPRO across diverse populations. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of the LupusPRO in two divergent patient samples and the model fit between both samples. Methods Two diverse samples with SLE included 136 patients from an ethnically-diverse, urban region in southern California and 100 from an ethnically-homogenous, rural region in Manila, Philippines. All patients met the ACR classification criteria for SLE. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFAs) were conducted in each sample separately and combined to provide evidence of the factorial integrity of the 12 subscales in the LupusPRO. Results Demographic analyses indicated significant differences in age, disease activity and duration, education, income, insurance, and medication use between groups. Results of the separate CFAs indicated moderate fit to the data for the hypothesized 12-factor model for both the Manila and southern California groups, respectively [χ 2 (794) = 1283.32, p < 0.001, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.793; χ 2 (794) =1398.44, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.858]. When the factor structures of the LupusPRO in the southern California and Manila groups were constrained to be equal between the two groups, findings revealed that the factor structures of measured variables fit the two groups reasonably well [χ 2  (1697) = 2950.413, df = 1697, p < 0.000; CFI = 0.811]. After removing seven constraints and eight correlations suggested by the Lagrange multiplier test, the model fit improved

  8. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  9. Factores socioacadémicos, estilo de aprendizaje, nivel intelectual y su relación con el rendimiento académico previo de médicos internos de pregrado Socioacademic factors, style of learning, intellectual level and their relationship with the previous academic yield of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Padierna-Luna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El aprendizaje es una actividad compleja, en la que intervienen factores individuales, sociales-culturales y académicos. Objetivo. Describir factores socioacadémicos, estilos de aprendizaje, nivel intelectual y su relación con el rendimiento académico previo (promedio de los médicos internos de pregrado (MIP. Sujetos y métodos. Se realizó una encuesta transversal analítica a MIP aplicando tres cuestionarios: datos socioacadémicos, cuestionario CHAEA (estilos de aprendizaje y test de Raven para adultos (nivel intelectual. La muestra incluyó 174 alumnos procedentes de nueve universidades, tres privadas (n = 43; 24,7% y seis públicas (n = 131; 75,29%. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y regresión múltiple para establecer asociaciones entre variables. Resultados y conclusiones. Predominó el género femenino, con el 59,2% (n = 103, frente al masculino, con el 40,8% (n = 71. El promedio de edad fue de 23,63 años, con un rango de 21 a 33. No hubo diferencias significativas de género en el rendimiento previo (8,21 frente a 8,25. Se midió la relación entre los factores socioacadémicos, estilos de aprendizaje y nivel intelectual con el rendimiento académico, con un intervalo de confianza del 95%. De los datos socioacadémicos, sólo la edad se relaciona inversamente con el rendimiento, con r = 0,2 y p Introduction. The learning is a complex activity, in that takes part individual factors, social and academic factors, among others. Aim. To describe socioacademic factors, styles of learning (SL, intellectual level (IL and its relation with previous academic yield (academic average of the Pre-degree interns (PDI. Subjects and methods. A cross-sectional and analytic survey to PDI was applied with three questionnaires: socioacademic data, adult questionnaire CHAEA (SL and test Raven (IL. The sample included 174 students coming from nine universities, three private (n = 43; 24.7% and six public (n = 131; 75.29%. It was used

  10. Insights into the efficacy of golimumab plus methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who discontinued prior anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy: post-hoc analyses from the GO-AFTER study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Matteson, Eric L.; Landewé, Robert; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Xu, Stephen; Zhou, Yiying; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and previous tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF) inhibitor use. Patients (n=461) previously receiving ≥1 TNF inhibitor were randomised to subcutaneous injections of placebo, golimumab 50 mg or golimumab 100 mg q4 weeks. Primary endpoint

  11. Insights into the phylogeny of Northern Hemisphere Armillaria: Neighbor-net and Bayesian analyses of translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfenstein, Ned B; Stewart, Jane E; Ota, Yuko; Hanna, John W; Richardson, Bryce A; Ross-Davis, Amy L; Elías-Román, Rubén D; Korhonen, Kari; Keča, Nenad; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Alvarado-Rosales, Dionicio; Solheim, Halvor; Brazee, Nicholas J; Łakomy, Piotr; Cleary, Michelle R; Hasegawa, Eri; Kikuchi, Taisei; Garza-Ocañas, Fortunato; Tsopelas, Panaghiotis; Rigling, Daniel; Prospero, Simone; Tsykun, Tetyana; Bérubé, Jean A; Stefani, Franck O P; Jafarpour, Saeideh; Antonín, Vladimír; Tomšovský, Michal; McDonald, Geral I; Woodward, Stephen; Kim, Mee-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Armillaria possesses several intriguing characteristics that have inspired wide interest in understanding phylogenetic relationships within and among species of this genus. Nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence-based analyses of Armillaria provide only limited information for phylogenetic studies among widely divergent taxa. More recent studies have shown that translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) sequences are highly informative for phylogenetic analysis of Armillaria species within diverse global regions. This study used Neighbor-net and coalescence-based Bayesian analyses to examine phylogenetic relationships of newly determined and existing tef1 sequences derived from diverse Armillaria species from across the Northern Hemisphere, with Southern Hemisphere Armillaria species included for reference. Based on the Bayesian analysis of tef1 sequences, Armillaria species from the Northern Hemisphere are generally contained within the following four superclades, which are named according to the specific epithet of the most frequently cited species within the superclade: (i) Socialis/Tabescens (exannulate) superclade including Eurasian A. ectypa, North American A. socialis (A. tabescens), and Eurasian A. socialis (A. tabescens) clades; (ii) Mellea superclade including undescribed annulate North American Armillaria sp. (Mexico) and four separate clades of A. mellea (Europe and Iran, eastern Asia, and two groups from North America); (iii) Gallica superclade including Armillaria Nag E (Japan), multiple clades of A. gallica (Asia and Europe), A. calvescens (eastern North America), A. cepistipes (North America), A. altimontana (western USA), A. nabsnona (North America and Japan), and at least two A. gallica clades (North America); and (iv) Solidipes/Ostoyae superclade including two A. solidipes/ostoyae clades (North America), A. gemina (eastern USA), A. solidipes/ostoyae (Eurasia), A. cepistipes (Europe and Japan), A. sinapina (North America and Japan), and A. borealis

  12. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  13. Evaluation of impact factors on PM2.5 based on long-term chemical components analyses in the megacity Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Schleicher, Nina; Cen, Kuang; Liu, Xiuli; Yu, Yang; Zibat, Volker; Dietze, Volker; Fricker, Mathieu; Kaminski, Uwe; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Norra, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Nine years of sampling and analyses of fine particles (PM2.5) were performed in Beijing from 2005 to 2013. Twenty-seven chemical elements and black carbon (BC) in PM2.5 were analyzed in order to study chemical characteristics and temporal distribution of Beijing aerosols. Principle component analysis defined different types of elemental sources, based on which, the influences of a variety of anthropogenic activities including governmental intervention measures and natural sources on air quality were evaluated. For the first time, Ga is used as a tracer element for heating activities mainly using coal in Beijing, due to its correlation with BC and coal combustion, as well as its concentration variation between the heating- and non-heating periods. The traffic restrictions effectively reduced emissions of relevant heavy metals such as As, Cd, Sn and Sb. The expected long-term effectiveness of the steel smelters relocation was not observed due to the nearby relocation with increased capacity. Firework display during every Chinese spring festival season and special events such as the Olympic Games resulted in several times higher concentrations of K, Sr and Ba than other days and thus they were proposed as tracers for firework display. The impacts of all these factors were quantified and evaluated. Sand dust or dust storms induced higher concentrations of geogenic elements in PM2.5 compared to non-dust days. Sustainable mitigation measures, such as traffic restrictions, are necessary to be continued and improved to obtain more "blue sky" days in the future. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Self-reported previous knee injury and low knee function increase knee injury risk in adolescent female football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K

    2015-01-01

    as independent variables in the risk factor analyses. The study showed that self-reported previous knee injury significantly increased the risk of time-loss knee injury [relative risk (RR): 3.65, 95% confidence (CI) 1.73-7.68; P 

  15. Metanálisis: Relación entre factores psicosociales en el trabajo y absentismo laboral Meta-analyses: Relation between psychosocial factors in the work and labour absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Mª Molina Aragonés

    2010-09-01

    era relevante para ser incluidos. Control: El gráfico Forest (Fig. 2 muestra el resultado del metanálisis: el riesgo relativo de sufrir un episodio de absentismo es estadísticamente significativo, con un valor de 1,36 (CI: 1,02-1,82 (Tabla 2. Demanda: El riesgo de sufrir un episodio de absentismo no es valorable, con un valor de 1,01 (IC: 0,91-1,11. (Tabla 3. Si bien la demanda, como dimensión propia de estos factores psicosociales, no parece una variable relacionada o que influencie el absentismo laboral, el control si que se encuentra asociado a este, de manera reiterada y consistente.Introduction: In accordance with the model of demand-control, the overhead labour demand, the low control on itself and in a very special way the combination of both, it would suppose an important risk for health. The balance between demand and control depends, just as this model, on the organization of the work and not on the individual characteristics of each person, although, of course, the influence of the working psychosocial environment can be, and in fact is, moderated by the characteristics of the individual answer. Objectives: The study's objective was to analyse in a systematic way those studies that related the effects over absenteeism that the psychosocial factors have constituted in the enterprises, using as a main element of assessment, the model of demand-control of Karasek, and to make a meta-analyses to evaluated the relation between both of them. Methods: There were identified publications from the electronics data bases Medline (2004 to July 2009, Embase (2004 to March 2009, PsycInfo (2004 to July 2009 and in the Bookshop Cochrane (2004 to July 2009, without restrictions motivated by language. The keyboards used were absenteeism, sickness absence, psychosocial, occupational and combinations of them that were chosen initially by its inclusion on the meta-analyses. Additionally the appointments mentioned were reviewed in the selected originals to detect some other

  16. Treatment factors influencing survival in pancreatic carcinoma; Der Einfluss der Therapie auf das Ueberleben von Patienten mit Pankreaskarzinom. Eine Analyse von Einzelfaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warszawski, N.; Warszawski, A.; Schneider, B.M.; Roettinger, E.M. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Radiologie 2 (Strahlentherapie); Link, K.H.; Gansauge, F. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Allgemeinchirurgie; Lutz, M.P. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Innere Medizin 1

    1999-07-01

    Purpose: To identify the impact of treatment factors on overall survival in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Patients and methods: We performed a follow-up study on 38 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas treated from 1984 to 1998. 18/38 patients were resected. Irradiated volume included the primary tumor (or tumor bed) and regional lymph nodes. Thirty-seven patients received in addition chemotherapy consisting of mitoxantrone, 5-fluorouracil and cis-platin, either i.v. (14/38) or i.a. (23/38). The influence of treatment related factors on the overall survival was tested. Biologically effective dose was calculated by the linear-quadratic model ({alpha}/{beta}=25 Gy) and by losing 0.85 Gy per day starting accelerated repopulation at day 28. Results: Treatment factors influencing overall survival were resection (p=0.02), overall treatment time (p=0.03) and biologically effective dose (p<0.002). Total dose and kind of chemotherapy had no significant influence. Treatment volume had a negative correlation (r=-0.5, p=0.06) with overall survival, without any correlation between tumor size, tumor stage, and treatment volume. In multivariate analysis only biologically effective dose remained significant (p=0.02). Conclusions: Among with surgery, biologically effective dose strongly influences overall survival in patients treated for pancreatic carcinoma. Treatment volume should be kept as small as possible and all efforts should be made to avoid treatments splits in radiation therapy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Behandlungsfaktoren zu identifizieren, die einen Einfluss auf das Ueberleben von Patienten mit Pankreaskarzinom haben. Patienten und Methode: In einer nichtrandomisierten Studie wurden 38 Patienten ausgewertet, die von 1984 bis 1998 wegen eines Adenokarzinoms des Pankreas behandelt worden waren. Bei 18/38 Patienten war eine Resektion vorgenommen worden. Das Bestrahlungsvolumen beinhaltete den Primaertumor bzw. das Tumorbett und die regionaeren Lymphknoten

  17. C-reactive protein as a risk factor for coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analyses for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David I; Fu, Rongwei; Freeman, Michele; Rogers, Kevin; Helfand, Mark

    2009-10-06

    C-reactive protein (CRP) may help to refine global risk assessment for coronary heart disease (CHD), particularly among persons who are at intermediate risk on the basis of traditional risk factors alone. To assist the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) in determining whether CRP should be incorporated into guidelines for CHD risk assessment. MEDLINE search of English-language articles (1966 to November 2007), supplemented by reference lists of reviews, pertinent studies, editorials, and Web sites and by expert suggestions. Prospective cohort, case-cohort, and nested case-control studies relevant to the independent predictive ability of CRP when used in intermediate-risk persons. Included studies were reviewed according to predefined criteria, and the quality of each study was rated. The validity of the body of evidence and the net benefit or harm of using CRP for CHD risk assessment were evaluated. The combined magnitude of effect was determined by meta-analysis. The body of evidence is of good quality, consistency, and applicability. For good studies that adjusted for all Framingham risk variables, the summary estimate of relative risk for incident CHD was 1.58 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.83) for CRP levels greater than 3.0 mg/L compared with levels less than 1.0 mg/L. Analyses from 4 large cohorts were consistent in finding evidence that including CRP improves risk stratification among initially intermediate-risk persons. C-reactive protein has desirable test characteristics, and good data exist on the prevalence of elevated CRP levels in intermediate-risk persons. Limited evidence links changes in CRP level to primary prevention of CHD events. Study methods for measuring Framingham risk variables and other covariates varied. Ethnic and racial minority populations were poorly represented in most studies, limiting generalizability. Few studies directly assessed the effect of CRP on risk reclassification in intermediate-risk persons. Strong evidence indicates

  18. Comparative phenotypic and functional analyses of the effects of autologous plasma and recombinant human macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) on porcine monocyte to macrophage differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzoni, Giulia; Bonelli, Piero; Graham, Simon Paul; Anfossi, Antonio Giovanni; Dei Giudici, Silvia; Pilo, Giovannantonio; Pittau, Marco; Nicolussi, Paola; Oggiano, Annalisa

    2017-05-01

    Porcine monocyte-derived macrophages (moMΦ) have been employed as a model cell in numerous studies of the porcine immune system. However, the lack of a standardized method for moMΦ differentiation hampers the comparison of results coming from the use of different laboratory protocols. In this study we compared the use of varying concentrations of autologous plasma (10, 20 and 30% v/v) or recombinant human macrophage-colony stimulating factor (hM-CSF; 50, 100, and 200ng/ml) to differentiate porcine monocytes into macrophages. Changes in cell morphology and surface marker expression were assessed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Macrophage differentiation was evaluated by analysing TNF-α response to LPS stimulation and determining cytokine secretion patterns under both basal conditions and after classical and alternative activation. The effects of the differentiation methods on metabolic activity and susceptibility to infection with the myelotropic African swine fever virus (ASFV) were also evaluated. Monocytes cultured using the different culture conditions tested augmented in dimension and cellular complexity, but increasing porcine plasma concentrations resulted in a dose dependent enhancement in granularity and a marked pleomorphism. As expected, CD163, MHC class II DR and CD203a expression were up-regulated in both hM-CSF (M-CSF-moMΦ) and autologous plasma cultured macrophages (AP-moMΦ), although a lower percentage of CD163 + cells were found following differentiation with high percentages of porcine plasma. We observed enhanced number of viable cells using high concentration of hM-CSF compared to porcine plasma, suggesting a proliferative effect. Irrespective of differentiation conditions, monocyte differentiation into macrophages resulted in an increased susceptibility to ASFV and yielded larger amounts of LPS-induced TNF-α. AP-moMΦ showed a higher basal release of IL-1RA compared to those cultured with hM-CSF and displayed a reduced ability

  19. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  20. Investigating the effect of previous treatments on wheat biomass over multiple spatial frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, A. E.; Castellanos, M. T.; Cartagena, M. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Lark, R. M.

    2010-09-01

    In this study we use the maximum overlap discrete packet transform (MODWPT) to investigate residual effects on wheat biomass of fertigation treatments applied to a previous crop. The wheat crop covered nine subplots from a previous experiment on melon response to fertigation. Each subplot had previously received a different level of applied nitrogen. Many factors affect wheat biomass, causing it to vary at different spatial frequencies. We hypothesize that these will include residual effects from fertilizer application (at relatively low spatial frequencies) and the local influence of individual plants from the previous melon crop (at high frequency). To test this hypothesis we use the MODWPT to identify the dominant spatial frequencies of wheat biomass variation, and analyse the relationship to both the previous fertilizer application and the location of individual melon plants in the previous crop. The MODWPT is particularly appropriate for this because it allows us first to identify the key spatial frequencies in the wheat biomass objectively and to analyse them, and their relationship to hypothesized driving factors without any assumptions of uniformity (stationarity) of wheat-biomass variation. The results showed that the applied nitrogen dominated the wheat biomass response, and that there was a noticeable component of wheat-biomass variation at the spatial frequency that corresponds to the melon cropping. We expected wheat biomass to be negatively correlated with the position of melons in the previous crop, due to uptake of the applied nitrogen. The MODWPT, which allows us to detect changes in correlation between variables at different frequencies, showed that such a relationship was found across part of the experiment but not uniformly.

  1. Subgroup analyses of maraviroc in previously treated R5 HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Nelson, Mark; Lazzarin, Adriano; Konourina, Irina; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Lampiris, Harry; Hirschel, Bernard; Tebas, Pablo; Raffi, François; Trottier, Benoit; Bellos, Nicholaos; Saag, Michael; Cooper, David A.; Westby, Mike; Tawadrous, Margaret; Sullivan, John F.; Ridgway, Caroline; Dunne, Michael W.; Felstead, Steve; Mayer, Howard; van der Ryst, Elna; Angel, Jonathan; Conway, Brian; Gough, Kevin A.; Lalonde, Richard G.; Laplante, Francois; Leblanc, Roger P.; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Rachlis, Anita R.; Romanowski, Barbara; Rosser, Stuart J.; Rubinstein, Ethan; Shafran, Stephen David; Smaill, Fiona; Tremblay, Cecile; Trottier, Sylvie; Tsoukas, Christos; Walmsley, Sharon Lynn; Voskanian, Alen; Akil, Bisher; Arduino, Roberto Claudio; Asmuth, David; Beatty, George William; Becker, Stephen Lawrence; Bellos, Nicholaos C.; Blue, Sky Robert; Bolan, Robert Key; Brand, John D.; Burnazian, George Ghazaros; Burnside, Alfred F.; Campbell, Thomas B.; Campo, Rafael E.; Casey, Kathleen King; Cimoch, Paul Joseph; Cohen, Calvin J.; Coodley, Gregg Oscar; Corales, Roberto B.; DeJesus, Edwin; Diaz, Leslie E.; Drusano, George L.; Ernst, Jerome A.; Feinberg, Judith E.; Feldman, Lawrence Edward; Fine, Steven M.; Flamm, Jason Andrew; Follansbee, Stephen Eliot; Fralich, Todd Allen; Gallant, Emanuel; Godofsky, Eliot Warren; Green, Gary; Greiger-Zanlungo, Paula Rosa; Gripshover, Barbara Marie; Groger, Richard K.; Gulick, Roy; Hardy, William David; Hassler, Shawn K.; Haubrich, Richard Harold; Hauptman, Stephen P.; Henry, David Holden; Henry, William Keith; Hernandez, Jose Norberto; Hicks, Charles Byron; Horberg, Michael Alan; Jemsek, Joseph G.; Kelly, Allan Rowan; Kinder, Clifford A.; Klein, Daniel Benjamin; Kogelman, Laura; Lalezari, Jacob Paul; LaMarca, Anthony; Lampiris, Harry William; Leibowitz, Matthew; Leider, Jason Mark; Lennox, Jeffrey Lloyd; Liporace, Ralph; Martin, Harold Luther; Martinez-Bejar, Lucia M.; Martorell, Claudia; McGowan, Joseph P.; Mildvan, Donna; Miles, Steven; Mitsuyasu, Ronald Takeshi; Morales-Ramirez, Javier Osvaldo; Morris, Anne B.; Mounzer, Karam Chucri; Myers, Robert Anderson; Nadler, Jeffrey P.; Pearce, Daniel; Pierone, Gerald; Rashbaum, Bruce Stephen; Ravishankar, Jayashree; Redfield, Robert Ray; Reichman, Richard Craig; Robbins, William Jay; Roberts, Stockton Edward; Rodriguez, Jorge E.; Sathasivam, Kunthavi; Sax, Paul Edward; Schwartz, Lawrence E.; Segal-Maurer, Sorana; Sension, Michael Grant; Sepulveda-Arzola, Gladys E.; Skolnik, Paul Richard; Sloan, Louis Marshall; Smith, Robert P.; Sosman, James Michael; Stapleton, Jack Thomas; Steigbigel, Roy; Steinhart, Corklin R.; Sweet, Donna Elaine; Swindells, Susan; Thompson, Melanie Ann; Sisneros, Silver; Towner, William James; Gordon, Peter; Hawkins, Trevor N.; Wheeler, David Allen; Williams, Sally; Wilcox, Dean; Williams, Steven; Wills, Todd Stephen; Wohlfeiler, Michael Bruce; Wright, David; Xavier, Angela; Yangco, Bienvenido Gamulo; Zingman, Barry Stephen; Zorrilla, Carmen D.; Allworth, Anthony M.; Bloch, Mark T.; Bodsworth, Neil J.; Chuah, John; Cooper, David; Doong, Nicholas; Dwyer, Dominic; Gold, Julian; Hoy, Jennifer Frances; Moore, Richard J.; Roth, Norman J.; Workman, Cassy; Clumeck, Nathan; Dellot, Patricia; Goffard, Jean Christophe; Moutschen, Michel; Vandercam, Bernard C.; Vogelaers, Dirk; Bentata, Michele; Cotte, Laurent; Delfraissy, Jean-Francois; Durant, Jacques; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Hocqueloux, Laurent; Landman, Roland; Lafeuillade, Alain; Martin, Isabelle Poizot; Molina, Jean-Michel; Pialoux, Gilles; Piketty, Christophe; Raffi, Francois; Reynes, Jacques; Verdon, Renaud; Arasteh, Keikawus; Bogner, Johannes Richard; Brockmeyer, Norbert H.; Esser, Stefan; Goebel, Frank-Detlef; Harrer, Thomas; Kern, Peter; Knechten, Heribert; van Lunzen, Jan; Mueller, Markus; Mutz, Antonius; Oette, Mark; Plettenberg, Andreas; Rockstroh, Juergen; Rump, Jorg-Andres; Schmidt, Reinhold E.; Schneider, Lothar; Schuster, Dieter; Staszewski, Schlomo; Stellbrink, Hans-Juergen; Trein, Andreas; Weitner, Lutwinus; Aiuti, Fernando; Bassetti, Dante; Di Biagio, Antonio; Caramello, Pietro; Carosi, Giampiero; Esposito, Roberto; Leoncini, Francesco; Manconi, Paolo Emilio; Mazzotta, Francesco; Montella, Francesco; Raise, Enzo; Vullo, Vicenzo; Hoepelman, Ilja Mohandas; Perenboom, Rosalinde Maria; Prins, J. M.; Richter, Clemens; van der Ende, Marchina Elisabeth; Beniowski, Marek; Boron-Kaczmarska, Anna; Flisiak, Robert; Halota, Waldemar; Horban, Andrzej; Mach, Tomasz; Smiatacz, Tomasz; Lozano de Leon, Fernando; Viciana Fernandez, Pompeyo; Rubio Garcia, Rafael; Gatell Artigas, Jose Josep; Gonzalez Garcia, Juan Julian; Gutierrez, Felix; Gonzalez Lahoz, Juan; Iribarren Loyarte, Jose; Moreno, Santiago; Pulido Ortega, Federico; Domingo Pedrol, Pere; Rivero, Antonio; Clotet, Bonaventura; Sarria, Cristina; Gisslen, Magnus; Flamholc, Leo; Karlsson, Anders; Battegay, Manuel; Bernasconi, Enos; Cavassini, Matthias; Drechsler, Henning; Opravil, Milos; Vernazza, Pietro; Easterbrook, Philippa Jane; Fisher, Martin; Hay, Philip; Johnson, Margaret A.; Leen, Clifford L.; Nelson, Mark R.; Ong, Edmund; Weber, Jonathan N.; White, David J.; Wilkins, Edmund; Wiselka, Martin; Alvarez-Jacinto, Ana Maria; Antoniskis, Diana; Atkinson, Barbara A.; Berger, Daniel S.; Blick, Gary; Brenna, Robert Owen; Burack, Jeffrey Howard; Church, L. W. Preston; Clay, Patrick G.; Cook, Paul Peniston; Creticos, Catherine Maria; Daly, Patrick William; Feleke, Getachew; File, Thomas Mc Donald; Galpin, Jeffrey Eliot; Green, Stephen Lloyd; Haas, Frances Fae; Hanna, Barbara J.; Hsiao, Chiu-Bin; Hsu, Ricky K.; Jones, Robert S.; Kadlecik, Peter; Kalayjian, Robert Charles; Keller, Robert H.; Kerkar, Shubha; Koirala, Janak; Lai, Leon Liang-Yu; Lalla-Reddy, Sujata; Macarthur, Rodger David; Malanoski, Gregory John; Markowitz, Norman Peter; McLeroth, Patrick L.; McMeeking, Alexander A.; Miljkovic, Goran; Montana, John Buscemi; Nixon, Daniel Edward; Norris, Dorece G.; Penico, Jesse Pullen; Perez-Limonte, Leonel; Posorske, Lynette H.; Prelutsky, David James; Riddell, James; Rodwick, Barry Michael; Ruane, Peter Jerome; Sampson, James; Santiago, Steven; Seinfeld, Amy; Sharp, Victoria Lee; Shebib, Zaher; Tanner, Mark Leslie; Timpone, Joseph G.; Wade, Barbara H.; Wallach, Frances; Weinberg, Winkler; Zurawski, Christine

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted subanalyses of the combined results of the Maraviroc versus Optimized Therapy in Viremic Antiretroviral Treatment-Experienced Patients (MOTIVATE) 1 and MOTIVATE 2 studies to better characterize the efficacy and safety of maraviroc in key subgroups of patients. METHODS: We

  2. A FORTRAN 77 Program and User's Guide for the Statistical Analyses of Scatterplots to Identify Important Factors in Large-Scale Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon C.; Shortencarier, Maichael J.

    1999-08-01

    A description and user's guide are given for a computer program, PATTRN, developed at Sandia National Laboratories for use in sensitivity analyses of complex models. This program is intended for use in the analysis of input-output relationships in Monte Carlo analyses when the input has been selected using random or Latin hypercube sampling. Procedures incorporated into the program are based upon attempts to detect increasingly complex patterns in scatterplots and involve the detection of linear relationships, monotonic relationships, trends in measures of central tendency, trends in measures of variability, and deviations from randomness. The program was designed to be easy to use and portable.

  3. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  4. Caring for children with intellectual disabilities part 2: Detailed analyses of factors involved in respite workers' reported assessment and care decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genik, Lara M; McMurtry, C Meghan; Breau, Lynn M

    2017-04-01

    Respite workers (RW) commonly care for children with intellectual disabilities (ID), and pain is common for these children. Little is known about factors which inform RW pain assessment and management-related decisions. To describe/determine the following in response to a series of pain-related scenarios (e.g., headache, falling): (1) factors considered important by RW when assessing children with ID's pain; (2) whether children's verbal ability impacts pain assessment factors considered; (3) RW assessment and management approach. Fifty-six RW (18-67 years, M age =33.37, 46 female). In an online survey, participants read and responded to six vignettes manipulating child verbal ability (verbal, nonverbal) and pain source. The factors most frequently considered when assessing pain were child behavior (range: 20-57.4%), and history (e.g., pain, general; 3.7-38.9%). Factors did not vary by child's verbal ability. RW indicated varied assessment and management-related actions (range: 1-11) for each scenario. Findings suggest: a) factors informing pain assessment did not depend on whether or not the child was verbal and b) a degree of flexibility in RW response to pain across situations. While these findings are encouraging, ensuring RW have adequate pain assessment and management knowledge specific to children with ID is critical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative and mixed analyses to identify factors that affect cervical cancer screening uptake among lesbian and bisexual women and transgender men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael J; Mueller, Martina; Eliason, Michele J; Stuart, Gail; Nemeth, Lynne S

    2016-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure the prevalence of, and identify factors associated with, cervical cancer screening among a sample of lesbian, bisexual and queer women, and transgender men. Past research has found that lesbian, bisexual and queer women underuse cervical screening service. Because deficient screening remains the most significant risk factor for cervical cancer, it is essential to understand the differences between routine and nonroutine screeners. A convergent-parallel mixed methods design. A convenience sample of 21- to 65-year-old lesbian and bisexual women and transgender men were recruited in the USA from August-December 2014. Quantitative data were collected via a 48-item Internet questionnaire (N = 226), and qualitative data were collected through in-depth telephone interviews (N = 20) and open-ended questions on the Internet questionnaire. Seventy-three per cent of the sample was routine cervical screeners. The results showed that a constellation of factors influence the use of cervical cancer screening among lesbian, bisexual and queer women. Some of those factors overlap with the general female population, whereas others are specific to the lesbian, bisexual or queer identity. Routine screeners reported feeling more welcome in the health care setting, while nonroutine screeners reported more discrimination related to their sexual orientation and gender expression. Routine screeners were also more likely to 'out' to their provider. The quantitative and qualitative factors were also compared and contrasted. Many of the factors identified in this study to influence cervical cancer screening relate to the health care environment and to interactions between the patient and provider. Nurses should be involved with creating welcoming environments for lesbian, bisexual and queer women and their partners. Moreover, nurses play a large role in patient education and should promote self-care behaviours among lesbian women and transgender

  6. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  7. Transcript analyses of stromal cell derived factors (SDFs): SDF-2, SDF-4 and SDF-5 reveal a different pattern of expression and prognostic association in human breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, H.; Escudero-Esparza, Astrid; Douglas-Jones, A.; Mansel, Robert Edward; Jiang, Wen G.

    2009-01-01

    Stromal derived factors, SDFs, are a loosely defined group of molecules that may be generated by stromal cells. Two of the stromal derived factors, SDF-1 and SDF-4 belong to the chemokine family. Other SDFs, such as SDF-2 and SDF-5 are not well defined and their biological functions are less known. Although SDF-1 and its receptor have been strongly indicated in the progression of various cancers including breast cancer, little is known with regard to the role of other SDFs in malignant condit...

  8. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: New openings to the MADS World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parenicova, L.; Folter, de S.; Kieffer, M.; Horner, D.S.; Favalli, C.; Busscher, J.; Cook, H.E.; Ingram, R.M.; Kater, M.M.; Davies, B.; Angenent, G.C.; Colombo, L.

    2003-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factors are key regulators of several plant development processes. Analysis of the complete Arabidopsis genome sequence revealed 107 genes encoding MADS-box proteins, of which 84re of unknown function. Here, we provide a complete overview of this family, describing the gene

  9. The structure of post-traumatic stress symptoms in survivors of war: confirmatory factor analyses of the Impact of Event Scale—Revised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Böhme, H.F.; Ajdukovic, D.; Bogic, M.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Popovski, M.; Schützwohl, M.; Stangier, U.; Priebe, S.

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed at establishing the factor structure of the Impact of Event Scale—Revised (IES-R) in survivors of war. A total sample of 4167 participants with potentially traumatic experiences during the war in Ex-Yugoslavia was split into three samples: two independent samples of people who stayed

  10. Semi-quantitative and simulation analyses of effects of {gamma} rays on determination of calibration factors of PET scanners with point-like {sup 22}Na sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Tomoyuki [School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, 1-15-1, Kitasato, Minamiku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-0373 (Japan); Sato, Yasushi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8568 (Japan); Oda, Keiichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1, Nakamachi, Itabashi, Tokyo, 173-0022 (Japan); Wada, Yasuhiro [RIKEN Center for Molecular Imaging Science, 6-7-3, Minamimachi, Minatoshima, Chuo, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0047 (Japan); Murayama, Hideo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Yamada, Takahiro, E-mail: hasegawa@kitasato-u.ac.jp [Japan Radioisotope Association, 2-28-45, Komagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8941 (Japan)

    2011-09-21

    The uncertainty of radioactivity concentrations measured with positron emission tomography (PET) scanners ultimately depends on the uncertainty of the calibration factors. A new practical calibration scheme using point-like {sup 22}Na radioactive sources has been developed. The purpose of this study is to theoretically investigate the effects of the associated 1.275 MeV {gamma} rays on the calibration factors. The physical processes affecting the coincidence data were categorized in order to derive approximate semi-quantitative formulae. Assuming the design parameters of some typical commercial PET scanners, the effects of the {gamma} rays as relative deviations in the calibration factors were evaluated by semi-quantitative formulae and a Monte Carlo simulation. The relative deviations in the calibration factors were less than 4%, depending on the details of the PET scanners. The event losses due to rejecting multiple coincidence events of scattered {gamma} rays had the strongest effect. The results from the semi-quantitative formulae and the Monte Carlo simulation were consistent and were useful in understanding the underlying mechanisms. The deviations are considered small enough to correct on the basis of precise Monte Carlo simulation. This study thus offers an important theoretical basis for the validity of the calibration method using point-like {sup 22}Na radioactive sources.

  11. Analysing changes in land cover in relation to environmental factors in the districts of Znojmo and Třebíč (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Brovkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the influence of selected environmental factors on the dynamic changes in the landscape in the Czech Republic: 1 to detect land use changes between 1986–2013 along altitudinal gradients in two neighbouring Czech districts (Třebič and Znojmo, 2 to test if there is a relationship between the spatial distribution of the main changes and selected environmental factors, 3 to identify differences in the sizes of agricultural fields between 1953 and 2013, and whether they are associated with changes in agricultural land use. Satellite Landsat TM/ETM scenes for 1986, 1994, 2002 and 2013 were used to define land cover categories (arable land, grassland, coniferous forest, deciduous forest, mixed forest, urban areas and inland water. The association between the distribution of changes in land-cover with environmental factors such as gradient, aspect, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI, less-favoured areas (LFA, main soil units and climate zones was determined. Only a limited proportion of landscape changes were dependent on environmental factors in the study area. Over the period 1994–2013 there was a decrease in arable land and increase in grassland, mainly in the LFA zone. Slope of the terrain was a dominating factor in landscape changes. The association with TWI values was most significant in permanent arable land and in grassland in transition to arable land. There was an increasing trend in the annual average temperature and sum of solar radiation in both the districts, Třebič and Znojmo. A change from small fields (1953 to large fields (2013 was recorded in the study area. Distribution of field sizes was different in LULC classes for different climatic zones and the main soil units.

  12. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  13. Waist circumference measures: cutoff analyses to detect obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in a Southeast Brazilian middle-aged men population--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alessandro; Cocate, Paula G; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Bressan, Josefina; de Silva, Mateus Freitas; Rodrigues, Joel Alves; Natali, Antônio José

    2014-09-01

    Low-cost practical and reliable tools to evaluated obesity-related cardiometabolic diseases are of clinical practice and public heath relevance worldwide. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine the anatomical point of waist circumference that best identify overweight, obesity and central obesity in Southeast Brazilian middle-aged men and to test the relationships of its cutoff points with metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin resistance (IR) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Three hundred men [age: 51 (47-54)] underwent anthropometric, body composition, clinical, sociodemographic and blood plasma biochemical evaluations. The umbilical line circumference (WCUL) was the best predictor for overweight (total body fat ≥ 20%; cutoff point: 88.8 cm), obesity (total body fat ≥ 25%; cutoff point: 93.4 cm) and central obesity (abdominal area fat ≥ 34.6%; cutoff point: 95.6 cm) as measured by dual beam X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects with WCUL ≥ 88.8 cm or ≥ 93.4 cm showed significantly higher values for MetS, IR and cardiometabolic risk factors (i.e. glucose and lipid profiles, blood pressure). The occurrence of WCUL ≥ 88.8 cm was positively associated (p obesity prevalence by 19.3% while that of WCUL ≥ 93.4 cm was associated with the prevalence of MetS, IR and cardiometabolic risk factors. WCUL measure seems to be the best predictor for overweight, obesity and central obesity in urban residents Southeast Brazilian middle-aged men; and the WCUL cutoff point (88.8 cm) is significantly associated with MetS, IR and cardiometabolic risk factors in the studied population.

  14. Of cattle, sand flies and men: a systematic review of risk factor analyses for South Asian visceral leishmaniasis and implications for elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryn Bern

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies performed over the past decade have identified fairly consistent epidemiological patterns of risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis (VL in the Indian subcontinent.To inform the current regional VL elimination effort and identify key gaps in knowledge, we performed a systematic review of the literature, with a special emphasis on data regarding the role of cattle because primary risk factor studies have yielded apparently contradictory results. Because humans form the sole infection reservoir, clustering of kala-azar cases is a prominent epidemiological feature, both at the household level and on a larger scale. Subclinical infection also tends to show clustering around kala-azar cases. Within villages, areas become saturated over a period of several years; kala-azar incidence then decreases while neighboring areas see increases. More recently, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL cases have followed kala-azar peaks. Mud walls, palpable dampness in houses, and peri-domestic vegetation may increase infection risk through enhanced density and prolonged survival of the sand fly vector. Bed net use, sleeping on a cot and indoor residual spraying are generally associated with decreased risk. Poor micronutrient status increases the risk of progression to kala-azar. The presence of cattle is associated with increased risk in some studies and decreased risk in others, reflecting the complexity of the effect of bovines on sand fly abundance, aggregation, feeding behavior and leishmanial infection rates. Poverty is an overarching theme, interacting with individual risk factors on multiple levels.Carefully designed demonstration projects, taking into account the complex web of interconnected risk factors, are needed to provide direct proof of principle for elimination and to identify the most effective maintenance activities to prevent a rapid resurgence when interventions are scaled back. More effective, short-course treatment regimens for

  15. Of cattle, sand flies and men: a systematic review of risk factor analyses for South Asian visceral leishmaniasis and implications for elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Caryn; Courtenay, Orin; Alvar, Jorge

    2010-02-09

    Studies performed over the past decade have identified fairly consistent epidemiological patterns of risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. To inform the current regional VL elimination effort and identify key gaps in knowledge, we performed a systematic review of the literature, with a special emphasis on data regarding the role of cattle because primary risk factor studies have yielded apparently contradictory results. Because humans form the sole infection reservoir, clustering of kala-azar cases is a prominent epidemiological feature, both at the household level and on a larger scale. Subclinical infection also tends to show clustering around kala-azar cases. Within villages, areas become saturated over a period of several years; kala-azar incidence then decreases while neighboring areas see increases. More recently, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases have followed kala-azar peaks. Mud walls, palpable dampness in houses, and peri-domestic vegetation may increase infection risk through enhanced density and prolonged survival of the sand fly vector. Bed net use, sleeping on a cot and indoor residual spraying are generally associated with decreased risk. Poor micronutrient status increases the risk of progression to kala-azar. The presence of cattle is associated with increased risk in some studies and decreased risk in others, reflecting the complexity of the effect of bovines on sand fly abundance, aggregation, feeding behavior and leishmanial infection rates. Poverty is an overarching theme, interacting with individual risk factors on multiple levels. Carefully designed demonstration projects, taking into account the complex web of interconnected risk factors, are needed to provide direct proof of principle for elimination and to identify the most effective maintenance activities to prevent a rapid resurgence when interventions are scaled back. More effective, short-course treatment regimens for PKDL are urgently

  16. Identifying individual risk factors and documenting the pattern of heat-related illness through analyses of hospitalization and patterns of household cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Schmeltz

    Full Text Available As climate change increases the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events researchers and public health officials must work towards understanding the causes and outcomes of heat-related morbidity and mortality. While there have been many studies on both heat-related illness (HRI, there are fewer on heat-related morbidity than on heat-related mortality.To identify individual and environmental risk factors for hospitalizations and document patterns of household cooling.We performed a pooled cross-sectional analysis of secondary U.S. data, the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Risk ratios were calculated from multivariable models to identify risk factors for hospitalizations. Hierarchical modeling was also employed to identify relationships between individual and hospital level predictors of hospitalizations. Patterns of air conditioning use were analyzed among the vulnerable populations identified.Hospitalizations due to HRI increased over the study period compared to all other hospitalizations. Populations at elevated risk for HRI hospitalization were blacks, males and all age groups above the age of 40. Those living in zip-codes in the lowest income quartile and the uninsured were also at an increased risk. Hospitalizations for HRI in rural and small urban clusters were elevated, compared to urban areas.Risk factors for HRI include age greater than 40, male gender and hospitalization in rural areas or small urban clusters. Our analysis also revealed an increasing pattern of HRI hospitalizations over time and decreased association between common comorbidities and heat illnesses which may be indicative of underreporting.

  17. [The approaches to factors which cause medication error--from the analyses of many near-miss cases related to intravenous medication which nurses experienced].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, H

    2001-03-01

    Given the complexity of the intravenous medication process, systematic thinking is essential to reduce medication errors. Two thousand eight hundred cases of 'Hiyari-Hatto' were analyzed. Eight important factors which cause intravenous medication error were clarified as a result. In the following I summarize the systematic approach for each factor. 1. Failed communication of information: illegible handwritten orders, and inaccurate verbal orders and copying cause medication error. Rules must be established to prevent miscommunication. 2. Error-prone design of the hardware: Look-alike packaging and labeling of drugs and the poor design of infusion pumps cause errors. The human-hardware interface should be improved by error-resistant design by manufacturers. 3. Patient names similar to simultaneously operating surgical procedures and interventions: This factor causes patient misidentification. Automated identification devices should be introduced into health care settings. 4. Interruption in the middle of tasks: The efficient assignment of medical work and business work should be made. 5. Inaccurate mixing procedure and insufficient mixing space: Mixing procedures must be standardized and the layout of the working space must be examined. 6. Time pressure: Mismatch between workload and manpower should be improved by reconsidering the work to be done. 7. Lack of information about high alert medications: The pharmacist should play a greater role in the medication process overall. 8. Poor knowledge and skill of recent graduates: Training methods and tools to prevent medication errors must be developed.

  18. Provider risk factors for medication administration error alerts: analyses of a large-scale closed-loop medication administration system using RFID and barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yeonsoo; Yoon, Dukyong; Ahn, Eun Kyoung; Hwang, Hee; Park, Rae Woong

    2016-12-01

    To determine the risk factors and rate of medication administration error (MAE) alerts by analyzing large-scale medication administration data and related error logs automatically recorded in a closed-loop medication administration system using radio-frequency identification and barcodes. The subject hospital adopted a closed-loop medication administration system. All medication administrations in the general wards were automatically recorded in real-time using radio-frequency identification, barcodes, and hand-held point-of-care devices. MAE alert logs recorded during a full 1 year of 2012. We evaluated risk factors for MAE alerts including administration time, order type, medication route, the number of medication doses administered, and factors associated with nurse practices by logistic regression analysis. A total of 2 874 539 medication dose records from 30 232 patients (882.6 patient-years) were included in 2012. We identified 35 082 MAE alerts (1.22% of total medication doses). The MAE alerts were significantly related to administration at non-standard time [odds ratio (OR) 1.559, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.515-1.604], emergency order (OR 1.527, 95%CI 1.464-1.594), and the number of medication doses administered (OR 0.993, 95%CI 0.992-0.993). Medication route, nurse's employment duration, and working schedule were also significantly related. The MAE alert rate was 1.22% over the 1-year observation period in the hospital examined in this study. The MAE alerts were significantly related to administration time, order type, medication route, the number of medication doses administered, nurse's employment duration, and working schedule. The real-time closed-loop medication administration system contributed to improving patient safety by preventing potential MAEs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  20. Energy management as a factor of success. International comparative analysis of energy management systems standards; Energiemanagement als Erfolgsfaktor. International vergleichende Analyse von Energiemanagementnormen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlenborn, Walter; Knopf, Jutta; Richter, Ina [adelphi research, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    This report outlines the current state of standardised energy management systems (EnMSs) worldwide whose aim is to promote energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The core intention of the study is to identify the potential of EnMSs for German energy efficiency policy. The study examines the experiences of countries that can be defined as front runners in this context, such as the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Ireland and the USA. Further input was taken from recently completed, and still ongoing, development processes of national standards. Data were generated from an intensive literature review as well as interviews with experts. Central to the analysis are questions of characteristics as well as the effectiveness of national energy management standards. In addition, political frameworks (i.e. voluntary agreements), financial tools (i.e. subsidies) and other measures of assistance (i.e. capacity building) supporting the implementation of an EnMS were analysed. The study concludes with a comparison of findings from the country-by-country analysis and provides recommendations for the effective implementation of EnMS in Germany. As part of the entire project adelphi produced a manual on the use of EN 16001 which has been published by BMU/UBA. (orig.)

  1. Fast and Efficient Cloning of Cis-Regulatory Sequences for High-Throughput Yeast One-Hybrid Analyses of Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Zsolt; Przybyla-Toscano, Jonathan; Tissot, Nicolas; Lepiniec, Loïc; Dubos, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assay has been proven to be a powerful technique to characterize in vivo the interaction between a given transcription factor (TF), or its DNA-binding domain (DBD), and target DNA sequences. Comprehensive characterization of TF/DBD and DNA interactions should allow designing synthetic promoters that would undoubtedly be valuable for biotechnological approaches. Here, we use the ligation-independent cloning system (LIC) in order to enhance the cloning efficiency of DNA motifs into the pHISi Y1H vector. LIC overcomes important limitations of traditional cloning technologies, since any DNA fragment can be cloned into LIC compatible vectors without using restriction endonucleases, ligation, or in vitro recombination.

  2. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  3. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  4. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  5. Analysing risk factors of co-occurrence of schistosomiasis haematobium and hookworm using bivariate regression models: Case study of Chikwawa, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce B.W. Phiri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections constitute a major public health problem in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. In areas where prevalence of geo-helminths and schistosomes is high, co-infection with multiple parasite species is common, resulting in disproportionately elevated burden compared with single infections. Determining risk factors of co-infection intensity is important for better design of targeted interventions. In this paper, we examined risk factors of hookworm and S. haematobium co-infection intensity, in Chikwawa district, southern Malawi in 2005, using bivariate count models. Results show that hookworm and S. haematobium infections were much localised with small proportion of individuals harbouring more parasites especially among school-aged children. The risk of co-intensity with both hookworm and S. haematobium was high for all ages, although this diminished with increasing age, increased with fishing (hookworm: coefficient. = 12.29; 95% CI = 11.50–13.09; S. haematobium: 0.040; 95% CI = 0.0037, 3.832. Both infections were abundant in those with primary education (hookworm: coef. = 0.072; 95% CI = 0.056, 0.401 and S. haematobium: coef. = 0.286; 95% CI = 0.034, 0.538. However, much lower risk was observed for those who were farmers (hookworm: coef. = −0.349, 95% CI = −0.547,−0.150; S. haematobium: coef. −0.239, 95% CI = −0.406, −0.072. In conclusion, our findings suggest that efforts to control helminths infection should be co-integrated and health promotion campaigns should be aimed at school-going children and adults who are in constant contact with water.

  6. [Regulatory factors for images of the elderly among elementary school students assessed through secular trend analyses by frequency of inter-exchange with "REPRINTS" senior volunteers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Naoki; Nishi, Mariko; Lee, Sangyoon; Ohba, Hiromi; Yoshida, Hiroto; Sakuma, Naoko; Fukaya, Taro; Kousa, Youko; Inoue, Kazuko; Amano, Hidenori; Uchida, Hayato; Kakuno, Fumihiko; Shinkai, Shoji

    2007-09-01

    We have launched a new intervention study, called "REPRINTS" (Research of productivity by intergenerational sympathy) in which senior volunteers aged 60 years and over engage in reading picture books to school children, regularly visiting public elementary schools since 2004. The purpose of this study was to clarify characteristics of images of older people held by elementary school children and factors associated with such images, as well as to examine changes in images through intervention by "REPRINTS" senior volunteers (volunteers) for the initial one year period. Four to six volunteers as a group visited A elementary school in a suburb Kawasaki city (470 students) twice a week to read picture books. The baseline survey was conducted one month after launching the volunteer activity. First and second follow-up surveys were conducted at 6 month intervals after the baseline survey. Grade, gender, short version of emotional-like image scale of older adults assessed by the SD (Semantic Differential) method (6 items in the subscale for "evaluation" and 4 items in the subscale for "potency/activity"), experience of living with grandparents, experience of interchange with older people, frequency of interchange with volunteers and the social desirability scale for children. Related variables for a higher score in the subscale for "evaluation" included lower grade and abundant experience of interchange with older people such as grandparents. Those for "potency/ activity" included lower grade, male gender, and a higher social desirability scale for children in the multiple logistic regression model. Students were divided into two groups in terms of frequency of interchange with volunteers (low and high-frequency groups) through three surveys. In the subscale for "evaluation", the general linear model demonstrated a significant interaction between the group and number of surveys adjusted for confounding factors. Although emotional images of older people significantly

  7. Predicting fruit consumption: the role of habits, previous behavior and mediation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein; Eggers, Sander M; Lechner, Lilian; van Osch, Liesbeth; van Stralen, Maartje M

    2014-07-18

    This study assessed the role of habits and previous behavior in predicting fruit consumption as well as their additional predictive contribution besides socio-demographic and motivational factors. In the literature, habits are proposed as a stable construct that needs to be controlled for in longitudinal analyses that predict behavior. The aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence for the inclusion of either previous behavior or habits. A random sample of 806 Dutch adults (>18 years) was invited by an online survey panel of a private research company to participate in an online study on fruit consumption. A longitudinal design (N = 574) was used with assessments at baseline and after one (T2) and two months (T3). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the differential value of habit and previous behavior in the prediction of fruit consumption. Eighty percent of habit strength could be explained by habit strength one month earlier, and 64% of fruit consumption could be explained by fruit consumption one month earlier. Regression analyses revealed that the model with motivational constructs explained 41% of the behavioral variance at T2 and 38% at T3. The addition of previous behavior and habit increased the explained variance up to 66% at T2 and to 59% at T3. Inclusion of these factors resulted in non-significant contributions of the motivational constructs. Furthermore, our findings showed that the effect of habit strength on future behavior was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior. Both habit and previous behavior are important as predictors of future behavior, and as educational objectives for behavior change programs. Our results revealed less stability for the constructs over time than expected. Habit strength was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior and our results do not strongly suggest a need for the inclusion of both constructs. Future research needs to assess the conditions that determine direct

  8. Analysing the Structural Effect of Point Mutations of Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1 on Lu/BCAM Adhesion Glycoprotein Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre G. de Brevern

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1 was identified in 1983 as a protein toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. Since then, numerous studies have investigated its particularities. For instance, it is associated with the single chain AB-toxin family, and can be divided into different functional and structural domains, e.g., catalytic and transmembrane domain and interaction sites. A few years ago, the identification of the Lutheran (Lu adhesion glycoprotein/basal cell adhesion molecule (BCAM as a cellular receptor for CNF1 provided new insights into the adhesion process of CNF1. Very recently, the Ig-like domain 2 of Lu/BCAM was confirmed as the main interaction site using protein-protein interaction and competition studies with various different mutants. Here, I present in silico approaches that precisely explain the impact of these mutations, leading to a better explanation of these experimental studies. These results can be used in the development of future antitoxin strategies.

  9. Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Nicotine Sensitization in Rats Neonatally Treated with Quinpirole: Analyses of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Implications towards Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Russell W; Schlitt, Marjorie A; Owens, Alex S; DePreter, Caitlynn C; Cummins, Elizabeth D; Kirby, Seth L; Gill, W Drew; Burgess, Katherine C

    2018-01-01

    The current study analyzed the effects of environmental enrichment versus isolation housing on the behavioral sensitization to nicotine in the neonatal quinpirole (NQ; dopamine D2-like agonist) model of dopamine D2 receptor supersensitivity, a rodent model of schizophrenia. NQ treatment in rats increases dopamine D2 receptor sensitivity throughout the animal's lifetime, consistent with schizophrenia. Animals were administered NQ (1 mg/kg) or saline (NS) from postnatal day (P)1 to P21, weaned, and immediately placed into enriched housing or isolated in wire cages throughout the experiment. Rats were behaviorally sensitized to nicotine (0.5 mg/kg base) or saline every consecutive day from P38 to P45, and brain tissue was harvested at P46. Results revealed that neither housing condition reduced nicotine sensitization in NQ rats, whereas enrichment reduced sensitization to nicotine in NS-treated animals. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) was analyzed for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a neurotrophin important in dopamine plasticity. Results were complex, and revealed that NAcc GDNF was increased in animals given nicotine, regardless of housing condition. Further, enrichment increased GDNF in NQ rats regardless of adolescent drug treatment and in NS-treated rats given nicotine, but did not increase GDNF in NS-treated controls compared to the isolated housing condition. This study demonstrates that environmental experience has a prominent impact on the behavioral and the neural plasticity NAcc response to nicotine in adolescence. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  11. Possible role of diet in cancer: systematic review and multiple meta-analyses of dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Bella, Francesca; Godos, Justyna; Sciacca, Salvatore; Del Rio, Daniele; Ray, Sumantra; Galvano, Fabio; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2017-06-01

    Evidence of an association between dietary patterns derived a posteriori and risk of cancer has not been reviewed comprehensively. The aim of this review was to investigate the relation between a posteriori-derived dietary patterns, grouped as healthy or unhealthy, and cancer risk. The relation between cancer risk and background characteristics associated with adherence to dietary patterns was also examined. PubMed and Embase electronic databases were searched. A total of 93 studies including over 85 000 cases, 100 000 controls, and 2 000 000 exposed individuals were selected. Data were extracted from each identified study using a standardized form by two independent authors. The most convincing evidence (significant results from prospective cohort studies) supported an association between healthy dietary patterns and decreased risk of colon and breast cancer, especially in postmenopausal, hormone receptor-negative women, and an association between unhealthy dietary patterns and increased risk of colon cancer. Limited evidence of a relation between an unhealthy dietary pattern and risk of upper aerodigestive tract, pancreatic, ovarian, endometrial, and prostatic cancers relied only on case-control studies. Unhealthy dietary patterns were associated with higher body mass index and energy intake, while healthy patterns were associated with higher education, physical activity, and less smoking. Potential differences across geographical regions require further evaluation. The results suggest a potential role of diet in certain cancers, but the evidence is not conclusive and may be driven or mediated by lifestyle factors. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Sebacinales Everywhere: Previously Overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, M.; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, S.; Riess, K.; Martos, F.; Krause, C.; Oberwinkler, F.; Bauer, R.; Redecker, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2011), s. 1-7 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Sebacinales * endophytes * mycorrhiza Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  13. Previous infection and the risk of ischaemic stroke in Italy: the IN2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, D; Vidale, S; Aguglia, U; Bassi, P; Cavallini, A; Galati, F; Guidetti, D; Marcello, N; Micieli, G; Pracucci, G; Rasura, M; Siniscalchi, A; Sterzi, R; Toni, D; Inzitari, D

    2015-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in new risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Acute and chronic infections could contribute to different aetiological mechanisms of atherosclerosis that lead to cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that previous infections and Chlamydia pneumoniae in particular increase the risk of ischaemic stroke in the population. This was a prospective case-control study involving 11 Italian stroke units. Controls were age- and sex-matched with cases, represented by patients admitted to hospital for acute ischaemic stroke. For each participant classical vascular risk factors and previous inflammatory and infectious events up to 1 month before were registered. Blood samples were collected to analyse inflammatory markers and titres of antibodies against C. pneumoniae. A total of 1002 participants were included (mean age 69 years) with 749 ischaemic stroke patients. Infections occurred within 1 month previously in 12% of the entire sample with a higher prevalence in the case group (14.4% vs. 3.9%). At multivariate analysis of the seropositivity of IgA antibodies against C. pneumoniae increased the risk of stroke significantly (relative risk 2.121; 95% confidence interval 1.255-3.584) and an early previous infection (up to 7 days before the event) contributed to a rise in probability of acute cerebral ischaemia (relative risk 3.692; 95% confidence interval 1.134-6.875). Early previous infections and persistent chronic infection of C. pneumoniae could contribute to increase the risk of ischaemic stroke significantly, in the elderly especially. © 2014 EAN.

  14. Association between obstetric complications & previous pregnancy outcomes with current pregnancy outcomes in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepti; Goli, Srinivas; Parsuraman, Sulabha

    2014-01-01

    A substantial proportion of pregnant women in India are at the risk of serious obstetric complications and reliable information on obstetric morbidity is scanty, particularly in socio-economically disadvantaged society. We studied the association between the obstetric complications in women in their current pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in previous pregnancies in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data from District Level Household Survey (2007-2008) were used for empirical assessment. Bivariate, trivariate and Cox proportional hazard regression model analyses were applied to examine the effect of obstetric complications and previous pregnancy outcome on current pregnancy outcome among currently married women (age group 15-49 yr) in Uttar Pradesh, India. The results of this study showed that the obstetric complications in the current pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in previous pregnancies were associated with the outcome of the current pregnancy. Cox proportional hazard regression model estimates revealed that the hazard ratio of having stillbirths were significantly higher among women with any obstetric complications compared to women with no obstetric complications. The adverse pregnancy outcome in a previous pregnancy was the largest risk factor for likelihood of developing similar type of adverse pregnancy outcome in the current pregnancy. The findings provided key insights for health policy interventions in terms of prevention of obstetric complications to avoid the adverse pregnancy outcome in women.

  15. Mitigating high ‘equity capital’ risk exposure to ‘small cap’ sector in India: analysing ‘key factors of success’ for ‘Institutional Investors’ whilst Investing in small cap sector in India

    OpenAIRE

    Narang, Anish

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the subject of mitigating high ‘Equity Capital’ Risk Exposure to ‘Small Cap’ Sector in India. Institutional investors in India are prone to be risk averse when it comes to investing in the small cap sector in India as they find the companies risky and volatile. This paper will help analyse ‘Key Factors of success’ for ‘Institutional Investors’ whilst investing in Small Cap sector in India as some of these Indian small cap stocks offer handsome returns despite economic do...

  16. Local recurrence risk after previous salvage mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, M; Iwase, T; Okumura, Y; Yoshida, A; Masuda, N; Nakatsukasa, K; Shien, T; Tanaka, S; Komoike, Y; Taguchi, T; Arima, N; Nishimura, R; Inaji, H; Ishitobi, M

    2016-07-01

    Breast-conserving surgery is a standard treatment for early breast cancer. For ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving surgery, salvage mastectomy is the current standard surgical procedure. However, it is not rare for patients with IBTR who have received salvage mastectomy to develop local recurrence. In this study, we examined the risk factors of local recurrence after salvage mastectomy for IBTR. A total of 118 consecutive patients who had histologically confirmed IBTR without distant metastases and underwent salvage mastectomy without irradiation for IBTR between 1989 and 2008 were included from eight institutions in Japan. The risk factors of local recurrence were assessed. The median follow-up period from salvage mastectomy for IBTR was 4.6 years. Patients with pN2 or higher on diagnosis of the primary tumor showed significantly poorer local recurrence-free survival than those with pN0 or pN1 at primary tumor (p mastectomy for IBTR. Further research and validation studies are needed. (UMIN-CTR number UMIN000008136). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Sensitivity analyses of underground drift temperature, stresses, and safety factors to variation in the rock mass properties of tuff for a nuclear waste repository located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehgartner, B.L.

    1987-05-01

    Preliminary two-dimensional thermal and thermal/mechanical sensitivity analyses of the design of the horizontal emplacement drift were performed for times out to 100 years after waste emplacement. The purpose of the analyses is to provide insight into the relative importance of the thermal and thermal/mechanical properties that impact the stability of the emplacement drift-specifically, heat capacity, conductivity, thermal expansion, insitu thermal gradient, insitu stress, joint cohesion and friction angle, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, rock friction angle, rock compressive and tensile strength. This will help prioritize future characterization and analysis activities prior to development. The model input properties were varied over the expected range of their values and the corresponding effect on the temperature, stresses, and safety factors of the rock mass surrounding the drift were recorded. First, the properties were varied individually to determine the independent effects on drift performance. Second, select properties were varied simultaneously to assess joint effects and estimate the probability of undesired drift performance. The results represent a first attempt to estimate the variability of the properties and their effects on the drift. Other sources of variability that can affect drift design are not considered, hence the results are considered preliminary. As site characterization proceeds, the enhanced understanding of property variability will lead to updating the results and conclusions of this report. 15 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs

  19. Risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among term and preterm infants born small-for-gestational-age: secondary analyses of the WHO Multi-Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ota

    Full Text Available Small for gestational age (SGA is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. We aim to estimate the association between the birth of SGA infants and the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia in 359 health facilities in 2010-11.We analysed facility-based, cross-sectional data from the WHO Multi-country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for facilities and countries to estimate the risk factors for SGA infants using country-specific birthweight reference standards in preterm and term delivery, and SGA's association with adverse perinatal outcomes. We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age (AGA infants categorized by preterm and term delivery.A total of 295,829 singleton infants delivered were analysed. The overall prevalence of SGA was highest in Cambodia (18.8%, Nepal (17.9%, the Occupied Palestinian Territory (16.1%, and Japan (16.0%, while the lowest was observed in Afghanistan (4.8%, Uganda (6.6% and Thailand (9.7%. The risk of preterm SGA infants was significantly higher among nulliparous mothers and mothers with chronic hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.55-3.28 compared with AGA infants. Higher risks of term SGA were observed among sociodemographic factors and women with preeclampsia/eclampsia, anaemia and other medical conditions. Multiparity (> = 3 (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.92 was a protective factor for term SGA. The risk of perinatal mortality was significantly higher in preterm SGA deliveries in low to high HDI countries.Preterm SGA is associated with medical conditions related to preeclampsia, but not with sociodemographic status. Term SGA is associated with sociodemographic status and various medical conditions.

  20. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  1. HLA region excluded by linkage analyses of early onset periodontitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.; Wang, S.; Lopez, N.

    1994-09-01

    Previous studies suggested that HLA genes may influence susceptibility to early-onset periodontitis (EOP). Segregation analyses indicate that EOP may be due to a single major gene. We conducted linkage analyses to assess possible HLA effects on EOP. Fifty families with two or more close relatives affected by EOP were ascertained in Virginia and Chile. A microsatellite polymorphism within the HLA region (at the tumor necrosis factor beta locus) was typed using PCR. Linkage analyses used a donimant model most strongly supported by previous studies. Assuming locus homogeneity, our results exclude a susceptibility gene within 10 cM on either side of our marker locus. This encompasses all of the HLA region. Analyses assuming alternative models gave qualitatively similar results. Allowing for locus heterogeneity, our data still provide no support for HLA-region involvement. However, our data do not statistically exclude (LOD <-2.0) hypotheses of disease-locus heterogeneity, including models where up to half of our families could contain an EOP disease gene located in the HLA region. This is due to the limited power of even our relatively large collection of families and the inherent difficulties of mapping genes for disorders that have complex and heterogeneous etiologies. Additional statistical analyses, recruitment of families, and typing of flanking DNA markers are planned to more conclusively address these issues with respect to the HLA region and other candidate locations in the human genome. Additional results for markers covering most of the human genome will also be presented.

  2. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P

    1996-06-01

    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  3. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  4. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  5. A prova de trabalho e a via de parto em primíparas com uma cesárea anterior Factors associated with mode of delivery among primipara women with one previous cesarean section and undergoing a trial of labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Pereira Matias

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados à cesárea em mulheres com um único parto anterior por cesárea e submetidas à prova de trabalho de parto. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal retrospectivo, incluindo 1746 mulheres com uma cesárea anterior submetidas à prova de trabalho de parto no segundo parto ocorrendo entre 1986 e 1998. Foram excluídos os casos com atual gestação múltipla e/ou com malformações fetais incompatíveis com a vida. Elas foram divididas pelo tipo de parto atual em dois grupos: cesárea (n=731 e parto vaginal após cesárea (PVAC, n=1015. A análise estatística para a identificação de fatores associados ao tipo de parto foi feita por meio do cálculo da razão de prevalência (RP e IC 95%, sendo feito também o ajuste por idade, excluindo-se os casos com informações ignoradas em cada análise. RESULTADOS: A taxa total de parto vaginal após cesárea foi de 58,1%. Os fatores significativamente associados com parto por cesárea foram: maior idade materna, maior altura uterina (RP 1,5; IC 95% 1,19-1,88, rotura prematura de membranas (1,3; 1,08-1,54, líquido amniótico não claro (1,22; 1,04-1,43 ou com quantidade alterada (1,32; 1,01-1,73, alteração dos batimentos cardíacos fetais (1,96; 1,68-2,28, apresentação não cefálica (2,03; 1,54-2,66, indução do parto (1,74; 1,42-2,11 e ausência de analgesia (2,57; 2,11-3,11. CONCLUSÃO: Os fatores associados ao parto por cesárea foram a maior idade, apresentação não-cefálica, rotura prematura de membranas, fetos grandes, necessidade de indução do trabalho de parto, e sinais de comprometimento da vitalidade fetal.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with cesarean section in women with only one previous delivery by cesarean section and undergoing a trial of labor. METHODS: A retrospective cross sectional study was performed from 1986 to 1998 including a total of 1746 women with one prior cesarean section and delivering after a trial of labor

  6. Delay discounting of different commodities II: confirmatory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Terrell, Heather K

    2011-01-01

    Delay discounting occurs when individuals are increasingly willing to accept less than the full amount of something to receive it immediately as the delay to the full amount increases. Previous research has reported different "domains" of commodities, with discounting in one domain not being informative about discounting in another. In the present study, 283 participants completed a delay-discounting task with 1 of 2 sets of 5 commodities identical to those used in previous research (Weatherly, Terrell, & Derenne, 2010). Confirmatory factor analyses determined that the observed discounting conformed to previously reported domains. Also replicated was finding that discounting differs both as a function of commodity and how the commodity is framed. These results provide strong support for the idea that temporal decisions made about certain consequences may not necessarily be informative about how an individual will make decisions about other consequences. Also, the framing of the decision can significantly influence observed levels of discounting, potentially clouding interpretation.

  7. The relationship between body composition and femoral neck osteoporosis or osteopenia in adults with previous poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Tseng, Sung-Hui; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lai, Chien-Hung; Hsiao, Wen-Tien; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2015-04-01

    Articles in the literature describing the association between body composition and osteoporosis in subjects with poliomyelitis are scarce. To assess the relationship between body composition and femoral neck osteoporosis or osteopenia in adults with previous polio. After excluding postmenopausal women, 44 polio (mean age ± standard deviation, 46.1 ± 3.3 years) and 44 able-bodied control volunteers (47.0 ± 4.0 years) participated in the study. Each participant's femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD) and whole body composition were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. With local reference BMD values of normal young adults installed in the instrument, we obtained T-score values that depended on each FNBMD value. A T-score value of ≤-1.0 indicated decreased T-score, including osteoporosis (T-score ≤ -2.5) and osteopenia (-1.0 to -2.5). This study conducted logistic regression analyses to find factors associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia. Based on the FNBMD T-score values, 60.0% of middle-aged men with polio had osteoporosis. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, total lean tissue mass (Adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.74 [0.56-0.99], P < 0.05) and male gender (947.16 [6.02-148,926.16], P < 0.01) were important factors associated with decreased T-score in polio group. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is a common medical problem for middle-aged men with polio. Reduced total lean tissue mass seems to be one of the important factors associated with osteoporosis or osteopenia among subjects with polio. Further research for a clinical tool to assess lean tissue mass for subjects with polio is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sample preparation in foodomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinović, Tamara; Šrajer Gajdošik, Martina; Josić, Djuro

    2018-04-16

    Representative sampling and adequate sample preparation are key factors for successful performance of further steps in foodomic analyses, as well as for correct data interpretation. Incorrect sampling and improper sample preparation can be sources of severe bias in foodomic analyses. It is well known that both wrong sampling and sample treatment cannot be corrected anymore. These, in the past frequently neglected facts, are now taken into consideration, and the progress in sampling and sample preparation in foodomics is reviewed here. We report the use of highly sophisticated instruments for both high-performance and high-throughput analyses, as well as miniaturization and the use of laboratory robotics in metabolomics, proteomics, peptidomics and genomics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  10. Continuous and split-course radiotherapy in locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Analyses of local control, distant metastases, crude survival, early and late morbidity and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    From 1974 to 1984, 442 consecutive patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix were referred for combined intracavitary (IRT) and external radiotherapy (ERT). Dose prescriptions were performed based on the points A and B of the Manchester system. From 1978 the treatment strategy was changed from continuous (CRT) to split course radiotherapy (SCRT) with a higher total dose to point B, a lower dose to point A from the IRT, and a longer total treatment time (TTT). The purpose of the present thesis is: To evaluate local tumour control, distant metastases, survival and complications in the rectosigmoid and bladder in relation to treatment strategy (continuous and split course radiotherapy). To evaluate prognostic factors and importance of treatment strategy for local control, distant metastases, and survival by uni- and multivariate analyses. To develop a classification system (AADK, Aarhus, Denmark) for the recording of early and late radiation complications allowing and estimation of the importance of latency when reporting late radiotherapeutic morbidity and a rescoring of complication grade, and to compare results from AADK with those from the French-Italian glossary recording the maximal damage. To evaluate early and late radiotherapeutic morbidity and the importance of latency by comparing frequencies and actuarial estimates of late complications, to estimate the combined late organ morbidity and the probability of being alive, cured and without serious complications. (EG) (61 refs.)

  11. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  12. Organizational factors in Korean NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, D. J.; Kim, Y. I.; Jeong, C. H.; Kim, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Organizational factors are referred to as the factors that influence the achievement of a goal of an organization. Latent problems of an organization could contribute to causing human errors in such stages as design, operation and maintenance, and furthermore, leading to an severe accident. In order to evaluate an organization from the safety viewpoint, it is necessary to identify the organizational factors in a systematic fashion. In this paper, some efforts to identify the organizational factors in Korean NPPs are presented. The study was performed in the following steps: 1) Reviewing the definitions and range of the organizational factors used by the previous 13 researches, 2) Structuring the organizational factors by screening and collating factors, 3) Analysing the organizational factors that is considered to have contributed to the trip events based on the trip report of Korean NPPs, 4) Suggesting a more reliable taxonomy of organizational factors for event analysis by applying the Onion Structure Model to the selected factors

  13. Periodic safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouffon, A.; Zermizoglou, R.

    1990-12-01

    The IAEA Safety Guide 50-SG-S8 devoted to 'Safety Aspects of Foundations of Nuclear Power Plants' indicates that operator of a NPP should establish a program for inspection of safe operation during construction, start-up and service life of the plant for obtaining data needed for estimating the life time of structures and components. At the same time the program should ensure that the safety margins are appropriate. Periodic safety analysis are an important part of the safety inspection program. Periodic safety reports is a method for testing the whole system or a part of the safety system following the precise criteria. Periodic safety analyses are not meant for qualification of the plant components. Separate analyses are devoted to: start-up, qualification of components and materials, and aging. All these analyses are described in this presentation. The last chapter describes the experience obtained for PWR-900 and PWR-1300 units from 1986-1989

  14. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...... and finally data analysis based on the ISO approach. The device was calibrated and tested on commercially available laser systems. It showed good reproducibility. It was the target to be able to measure CW lasers with a power up to 200 W, focused down to spot diameters in the range of 10µm. In order...

  15. The Relationship between Prisoners' Educational Motives and Previous Incarceration, Sentence Length, and Sentence Served

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Beate Buanes; Manger, Terje

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine Norwegian prisoners' educational motives, and how previous incarceration, sentence length, and sentence served influence such motives. Three motive categories emerged: future planning (Factor 1), social reasons and escapism (Factor 2), and competence building (Factor 3). Among prisoners who participated in…

  16. The prevalence of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors at different ages among 150 000 men and women living in Mexico City: cross-sectional analyses of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peto Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most of the global burden from chronic diseases, and especially vascular diseases, is now borne by low and middle-income countries, few large-scale epidemiological studies of chronic diseases in such countries have been performed. Methods From 1998–2004, 52 584 men and 106 962 women aged ≥35 years were visited in their homes in Mexico City. Self reported diagnoses of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors were ascertained and physical measurements taken. Age- and sex-specific prevalences and means were analysed. Results After about age 50 years, diabetes was extremely common – for example, 23.8% of men and 26.9% of women aged 65–74 reported a diagnosis. By comparison, ischaemic heart disease was reported by 4.8% of men and 3.0% of women aged 65–74, a history of stroke by 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively, and a history of cancer by 1.3% and 2.1%. Cancer history was generally more common among women than men – the excess being largest in middle-age, due to breast and cervical cancer. At older ages, the gap narrowed because of an increasing prevalence of prostate cancer. 51% of men and 25% of women aged 35–54 smoked cigarettes, while 29% of men and 41% of women aged 35–54 were obese (i.e. BMI ≥30 kg/m2. The prevalence of treated hypertension or measured blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg increased about 50% more steeply with age among women than men, to 66% of women and 58% of men aged 65–74. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent but daily alcohol drinking was relatively uncommon. Conclusion Diabetes, obesity and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent among adults living in Mexico City. Long-term follow-up of this and other cohorts will establish the relevance of such factors to the major causes of death and disability in Mexico.

  17. The prevalence of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors at different ages among 150 000 men and women living in Mexico City: cross-sectional analyses of a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Emberson, Jonathan; Alegre-Díaz, Jesús; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Collins, Rory; Peto, Richard; Whitlock, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Background While most of the global burden from chronic diseases, and especially vascular diseases, is now borne by low and middle-income countries, few large-scale epidemiological studies of chronic diseases in such countries have been performed. Methods From 1998–2004, 52 584 men and 106 962 women aged ≥35 years were visited in their homes in Mexico City. Self reported diagnoses of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors were ascertained and physical measurements taken. Age- and sex-specific prevalences and means were analysed. Results After about age 50 years, diabetes was extremely common – for example, 23.8% of men and 26.9% of women aged 65–74 reported a diagnosis. By comparison, ischaemic heart disease was reported by 4.8% of men and 3.0% of women aged 65–74, a history of stroke by 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively, and a history of cancer by 1.3% and 2.1%. Cancer history was generally more common among women than men – the excess being largest in middle-age, due to breast and cervical cancer. At older ages, the gap narrowed because of an increasing prevalence of prostate cancer. 51% of men and 25% of women aged 35–54 smoked cigarettes, while 29% of men and 41% of women aged 35–54 were obese (i.e. BMI ≥30 kg/m2). The prevalence of treated hypertension or measured blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg increased about 50% more steeply with age among women than men, to 66% of women and 58% of men aged 65–74. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent but daily alcohol drinking was relatively uncommon. Conclusion Diabetes, obesity and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent among adults living in Mexico City. Long-term follow-up of this and other cohorts will establish the relevance of such factors to the major causes of death and disability in Mexico. PMID:19134207

  18. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: analysing the contextual and social network factors influencing the use of sustainability indicators in a health system--a comparative study in Nepal and Somaliland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Karl; Palmer, Jennifer; Palanchowke, Raju; Boggs, Dorothy; Jama, Ali; Girois, Susan

    2014-08-26

    Health systems strengthening is becoming a key component of development agendas for low-income countries worldwide. Systems thinking emphasizes the role of diverse stakeholders in designing solutions to system problems, including sustainability. The objective of this paper is to compare the definition and use of sustainability indicators developed through the Sustainability Analysis Process in two rehabilitation sectors, one in Nepal and one in Somaliland, and analyse the contextual factors (including the characteristics of system stakeholder networks) influencing the use of sustainability data. Using the Sustainability Analysis Process, participants collectively clarified the boundaries of their respective systems, defined sustainability, and identified sustainability indicators. Baseline indicator data was gathered, where possible, and then researched again 2 years later. As part of the exercise, system stakeholder networks were mapped at baseline and at the 2-year follow-up. We compared stakeholder networks and interrelationships with baseline and 2-year progress toward self-defined sustainability goals. Using in-depth interviews and observations, additional contextual factors affecting the use of sustainability data were identified. Differences in the selection of sustainability indicators selected by local stakeholders from Nepal and Somaliland reflected differences in the governance and structure of the present rehabilitation system. At 2 years, differences in the structure of social networks were more marked. In Nepal, the system stakeholder network had become more dense and decentralized. Financial support by an international organization facilitated advancement toward self-identified sustainability goals. In Somaliland, the small, centralised stakeholder network suffered a critical rupture between the system's two main information brokers due to competing priorities and withdrawal of international support to one of these. Progress toward self

  19. Contesting Citizenship: Comparative Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Squires, Judith

    2007-01-01

    importance of particularized experiences and multiple ineequality agendas). These developments shape the way citizenship is both practiced and analysed. Mapping neat citizenship modles onto distinct nation-states and evaluating these in relation to formal equality is no longer an adequate approach....... Comparative citizenship analyses need to be considered in relation to multipleinequalities and their intersections and to multiple governance and trans-national organisinf. This, in turn, suggests that comparative citizenship analysis needs to consider new spaces in which struggles for equal citizenship occur...

  20. Understanding Human Error Based on Automated Analyses

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a report on a continuing study of automated analyses of experiential textual reports to gain insight into the causal factors of human errors in aviation...

  1. Dialogisk kommunikationsteoretisk analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Louise Jane

    2018-01-01

    analysemetode, der er blevet udviklet inden for dialogisk kommunikationsforskning - The Integrated Framework for Analysing Dialogic Knowledge Production and Communication (IFADIA). IFADIA-metoden bygger på en kombination af Bakhtins dialogteori og Foucaults teori om magt/viden og diskurs. Metoden er beregnet...

  2. Probabilistic safety analyses (PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The guide shows how the probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) are used in the design, construction and operation of light water reactor plants in order for their part to ensure that the safety of the plant is good enough in all plant operational states

  3. Meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Maria A.; Luyten, Johannes W.; Scheerens, Jaap; Sleegers, P.J.C.; Scheerens, J

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter results of a research synthesis and quantitative meta-analyses of three facets of time effects in education are presented, namely time at school during regular lesson hours, homework, and extended learning time. The number of studies for these three facets of time that could be used

  4. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    . Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set...

  5. Wavelet Analyses and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeianu, Cristian C.; Landau, Rubin H.; Paez, Manuel J.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown how a modern extension of Fourier analysis known as wavelet analysis is applied to signals containing multiscale information. First, a continuous wavelet transform is used to analyse the spectrum of a nonstationary signal (one whose form changes in time). The spectral analysis of such a signal gives the strength of the signal in each…

  6. Filmstil - teori og analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    Filmstil påvirker på afgørende vis vores oplevelse af film. Men filmstil, måden, de levende billeder organiserer fortællingen på fylder noget mindre end filmens handling, når vi taler om film. Filmstil - teori og analyse er en rigt eksemplificeret præsentation, kritik og videreudvikling af...

  7. Risico-analyse brandstofpontons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijt de Haag P; Post J; LSO

    2001-01-01

    Voor het bepalen van de risico's van brandstofpontons in een jachthaven is een generieke risico-analyse uitgevoerd. Er is een referentiesysteem gedefinieerd, bestaande uit een betonnen brandstofponton met een relatief grote inhoud en doorzet. Aangenomen is dat de ponton gelegen is in een

  8. Downscaling Pest Risk analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriticos, Darren J.; Brunel, Sarah; Ota, Noboru; Fried, Guillaume; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Panetta, F.D.; Prasad, T.V.R.; Shabbir, Asad; Yaacoby, Tuvia

    2015-01-01

    Pest Risk Assessments (PRAs) routinely employ climatic niche models to identify endangered areas. Typically, these models consider only climatic factors, ignoring the 'Swiss Cheese' nature of species ranges due to the interplay of climatic and habitat factors. As part of a PRA conducted for the

  9. Iatrogenic lower urinary tract injury at the time of pelvic reconstructive surgery: does previous pelvic surgery increase the risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguan, Docile; Northington, Gina; Chinthakanan, Orawee; Hudson, Catherine; Karp, Deborah

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a history of previous pelvic surgery is associated with lower urinary tract (LUT) injury at the time of pelvic reconstructive surgery (PRS). A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing pelvic reconstructive surgery from 2006 to 2011 was performed. Patients were divided into two groups: those with previous pelvic surgery and those without previous pelvic surgery. A sample size analysis was performed to determine the number needed to detect at least a 3-fold difference in the rate of LUT injury. Demographic, historical, clinical, intraoperative, and postoperative data were analyzed. Associations between LUT injury and demographics, previous pelvic surgery, or other clinical risk factors were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. 685 women were included in the analysis: 514 (74.9%) with and 171 (25.1%) without prior pelvic surgery. The overall rate of LUT injury was 6%. Of the injuries, 3.2% were cystotomies, and 1.9% were ureteral obstructions. Previous pelvic surgery did not significantly affect the rate of LUT injury (OR 0.76, 95%CI 0.38-1.54). A diagnosis of prolapse, concurrent hysterectomy, anterior repair, and apical repair were significantly associated with LUT injury. After controlling for age and race, a diagnosis of prolapse remained significantly associated with LUT injury (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.11-14.75). Prior pelvic surgery does not affect the rate of LUT injury in pelvic reconstructive surgery. The diagnosis of prolapse is a risk factor for LUT injury in women undergoing pelvic reconstructive surgery.

  10. Effect of previous induced abortions on postabortion contraception selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors driving the biogeochemical budget of the Amazon River and its statistical modelling Facteurs denext term contrôle du bilan biogéochimique previous termdenext term l'Amazone et modélisation statistique associée

    OpenAIRE

    Bustillo , Vincent; Victoria , Reynaldo Luiz; Sousa De Moura , Jose Mauro; De Castro Victoria , Daniel; Toledo , Andrade; Collicchio , Erich

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The seasonal and interannual fluctuations of the biogeochemical budget (solutes, suspended matter, isotopes) of the Amazon River basin were analyzed, with a special focus on 44 physicochemical parameters monitored over the period 1982-1984 during the Carbon in the AMazon River Experiment (CAMREX) project. The relevant factors driving this variability were identified and sorted through the implementation of a statistical-regressive model coupled to variance analysis. Ba...

  12. Characteristics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC pulmonary disease in previously treated lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Meier

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: MAC pulmonary disease in previously treated lung cancer can occur without apparent risk factors for this NTM infection. Symptomatic improvement with MAC antimicrobial therapy appears to be lower than expected but comorbidities might influence outcomes in this patient population.

  13. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  14. Possible future HERA analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiser, Achim

    2015-12-01

    A variety of possible future analyses of HERA data in the context of the HERA data preservation programme is collected, motivated, and commented. The focus is placed on possible future analyses of the existing ep collider data and their physics scope. Comparisons to the original scope of the HERA pro- gramme are made, and cross references to topics also covered by other participants of the workshop are given. This includes topics on QCD, proton structure, diffraction, jets, hadronic final states, heavy flavours, electroweak physics, and the application of related theory and phenomenology topics like NNLO QCD calculations, low-x related models, nonperturbative QCD aspects, and electroweak radiative corrections. Synergies with other collider programmes are also addressed. In summary, the range of physics topics which can still be uniquely covered using the existing data is very broad and of considerable physics interest, often matching the interest of results from colliders currently in operation. Due to well-established data and MC sets, calibrations, and analysis procedures the manpower and expertise needed for a particular analysis is often very much smaller than that needed for an ongoing experiment. Since centrally funded manpower to carry out such analyses is not available any longer, this contribution not only targets experienced self-funded experimentalists, but also theorists and master-level students who might wish to carry out such an analysis.

  15. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  16. National Rates of Uterine Rupture are not Associated with Rates of Previous Caesarean Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte B.; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Jakobsson, Maija

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous caesarean delivery and intended mode of delivery after caesarean are well-known individual risk factors for uterine rupture. We examined if different national rates of uterine rupture are associated with differences in national rates of previous caesarean delivery and intende...

  17. HGCal Simulation Analyses for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Sarah Marie

    2015-01-01

    This summer, I approached the topic of fast-timing detection of photons from Higgs decays via simulation analyses, working under the supervision of Dr. Adolf Bornheim of the California Institute of Technology. My specific project focused on simulating the high granularity calorimeter for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. CMS detects particles using calorimeters. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECal) is arranged cylindrically to form a barrel section and two “endcaps.” Previously, both the barrel and endcap have employed lead tungstate crystal detectors, known as the “shashlik” design. The crystal detectors, however, rapidly degrade from exposure to radiation. This effect is most pronounced in the endcaps. To avoid the high expense of frequently replacing degraded detectors, it was recently decided to eliminate the endcap crystals in favor of an arrangement of silicon detectors known as the “High Granularity Calorimeter” (HGCal), while leaving the barrel detector technology unchanged. T...

  18. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  19. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  20. AMS analyses at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    The major use of ANTARES is Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) with 14 C being the most commonly analysed radioisotope - presently about 35 % of the available beam time on ANTARES is used for 14 C measurements. The accelerator measurements are supported by, and dependent on, a strong sample preparation section. The ANTARES AMS facility supports a wide range of investigations into fields such as global climate change, ice cores, oceanography, dendrochronology, anthropology, and classical and Australian archaeology. Described here are some examples of the ways in which AMS has been applied to support research into the archaeology, prehistory and culture of this continent's indigenous Aboriginal peoples. (author)

  1. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  2. Proteins analysed as virtual knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Keith; Taylor, Alexander J.; Dennis, Mark R.

    2017-02-01

    Long, flexible physical filaments are naturally tangled and knotted, from macroscopic string down to long-chain molecules. The existence of knotting in a filament naturally affects its configuration and properties, and may be very stable or disappear rapidly under manipulation and interaction. Knotting has been previously identified in protein backbone chains, for which these mechanical constraints are of fundamental importance to their molecular functionality, despite their being open curves in which the knots are not mathematically well defined; knotting can only be identified by closing the termini of the chain somehow. We introduce a new method for resolving knotting in open curves using virtual knots, which are a wider class of topological objects that do not require a classical closure and so naturally capture the topological ambiguity inherent in open curves. We describe the results of analysing proteins in the Protein Data Bank by this new scheme, recovering and extending previous knotting results, and identifying topological interest in some new cases. The statistics of virtual knots in protein chains are compared with those of open random walks and Hamiltonian subchains on cubic lattices, identifying a regime of open curves in which the virtual knotting description is likely to be important.

  3. Analyses of Sickness Absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, S.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sickness absence is an empirical phenomenon of all time. Generally, it has a medical cause. However, other factors also appear to have an impact on the actual rate of sickness absence, such as the institutional setting, the business cycle and the economic structure. Many questions on the different

  4. Uncertainty Analyses and Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin Coppersmith

    2001-01-01

    The DOE identified a variety of uncertainties, arising from different sources, during its assessment of the performance of a potential geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site. In general, the number and detail of process models developed for the Yucca Mountain site, and the complex coupling among those models, make the direct incorporation of all uncertainties difficult. The DOE has addressed these issues in a number of ways using an approach to uncertainties that is focused on producing a defensible evaluation of the performance of a potential repository. The treatment of uncertainties oriented toward defensible assessments has led to analyses and models with so-called ''conservative'' assumptions and parameter bounds, where conservative implies lower performance than might be demonstrated with a more realistic representation. The varying maturity of the analyses and models, and uneven level of data availability, result in total system level analyses with a mix of realistic and conservative estimates (for both probabilistic representations and single values). That is, some inputs have realistically represented uncertainties, and others are conservatively estimated or bounded. However, this approach is consistent with the ''reasonable assurance'' approach to compliance demonstration, which was called for in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) proposed 10 CFR Part 63 regulation (64 FR 8640 [DIRS 101680]). A risk analysis that includes conservatism in the inputs will result in conservative risk estimates. Therefore, the approach taken for the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) provides a reasonable representation of processes and conservatism for purposes of site recommendation. However, mixing unknown degrees of conservatism in models and parameter representations reduces the transparency of the analysis and makes the development of coherent and consistent probability statements about projected repository

  5. Uncertainty in Operational Atmospheric Analyses and Re-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langland, R.; Maue, R. N.

    2016-12-01

    This talk will describe uncertainty in atmospheric analyses of wind and temperature produced by operational forecast models and in re-analysis products. Because the "true" atmospheric state cannot be precisely quantified, there is necessarily error in every atmospheric analysis, and this error can be estimated by computing differences ( variance and bias) between analysis products produced at various centers (e.g., ECMWF, NCEP, U.S Navy, etc.) that use independent data assimilation procedures, somewhat different sets of atmospheric observations and forecast models with different resolutions, dynamical equations, and physical parameterizations. These estimates of analysis uncertainty provide a useful proxy to actual analysis error. For this study, we use a unique multi-year and multi-model data archive developed at NRL-Monterey. It will be shown that current uncertainty in atmospheric analyses is closely correlated with the geographic distribution of assimilated in-situ atmospheric observations, especially those provided by high-accuracy radiosonde and commercial aircraft observations. The lowest atmospheric analysis uncertainty is found over North America, Europe and Eastern Asia, which have the largest numbers of radiosonde and commercial aircraft observations. Analysis uncertainty is substantially larger (by factors of two to three times) in most of the Southern hemisphere, the North Pacific ocean, and under-developed nations of Africa and South America where there are few radiosonde or commercial aircraft data. It appears that in regions where atmospheric analyses depend primarily on satellite radiance observations, analysis uncertainty of both temperature and wind remains relatively high compared to values found over North America and Europe.

  6. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  7. A simple beam analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarchand, G.

    1977-01-01

    (ee'p) experiments allow to measure the missing energy distribution as well as the momentum distribution of the extracted proton in the nucleus versus the missing energy. Such experiments are presently conducted on SACLAY's A.L.S. 300 Linac. Electrons and protons are respectively analysed by two spectrometers and detected in their focal planes. Counting rates are usually low and include time coincidences and accidentals. Signal-to-noise ratio is dependent on the physics of the experiment and the resolution of the coincidence, therefore it is mandatory to get a beam current distribution as flat as possible. Using new technologies has allowed to monitor in real time the behavior of the beam pulse and determine when the duty cycle can be considered as being good with respect to a numerical basis

  8. Analyse af elbilers forbrug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Torp, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Denne rapport undersøger GPS og CAN bus datagrundlaget opsamlet ved kørsel med elbiler og analysere på elbilers forbrug. Analyserne er baseret på godt 133 millioner GPS og CAN bus målinger opsamlet fra 164 elbiler (Citroen C-Zero, Mitsubishi iMiev og Peugeot Ion) i kalenderåret 2012....... For datagrundlaget kan det konstateres, at der er behov for væsentlige, men simple opstramninger for fremadrettet at gøre det nemmere at anvende GPS/CAN bus data fra elbiler i andre analyser. Brugen af elbiler er sammenlignet med brændstofbiler og konklusionen er, at elbiler generelt kører 10-15 km/t langsommere på...

  9. Analyse de "La banlieue"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Morais

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. Préambule - Conditions de réalisation de la présente analyse Un groupe d'étudiants de master 1 de FLE de l'université Paris 3 (donc des étudiants en didactique des langues se destinant à l'enseignement du FLE a observé le produit au cours d'un module sur les TIC (Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication et la didactique des langues. Une discussion s'est ensuite engagée sur le forum d'une plate-forme de formation à distance à partir de quelques questions posées par l'enseigna...

  10. Network class superposition analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A B Pearson

    Full Text Available Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30 for the yeast cell cycle process, considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses.

  11. Tubal anastomosis after previous sterilization: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seeters, Jacoba A H; Chua, Su Jen; Mol, Ben W J; Koks, Carolien A M

    2017-05-01

    Female sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods. A small number of women, however, opt for reversal of sterilization procedures after they experience regret. Procedures can be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, with or without robotic assistance. Another commonly utilized alternative is IVF. The choice between surgery and IVF is often influenced by reimbursement politics for that particular geographic location. We evaluated the fertility outcomes of different surgical methods available for the reversal of female sterilization, compared these to IVF and assessed the prognostic factors for success. Two search strategies were employed. Firstly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies presenting fertility outcomes of sterilization reversal up to July 2016. Data on the following outcomes were collected: pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, cost of the procedure and operative time. Eligible study designs included prospective or retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and case series. No age restriction was applied. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from tubal infertility from any other reason (e.g. infection, endometriosis and adhesions from previous surgery) and studies including sterilization reversal procedures were then evaluated: female age, BMI and duration and method of sterilization. Secondly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies that compared reversal of sterilization to IVF and evaluated them for pregnancy outcomes and cost effectiveness. We included 37 studies that investigated a total of 10 689 women. No randomized controlled trials were found. Most studies were retrospective cohort studies of a moderate quality. The pooled pregnancy rate after sterilization reversal was 42-69%, with heterogeneity seen from the different methods utilized. The reported ectopic pregnancy rate was 4-8%. The only prognostic factor affecting the

  12. Changes in association between previous therapeutic abortion and preterm birth in Scotland, 1980 to 2008: a historical cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Oliver-Williams

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that therapeutic termination of pregnancy (abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent preterm birth. However, the literature is inconsistent, and methods of abortion have changed dramatically over the last 30 years. We hypothesized that the association between previous abortion and the risk of preterm first birth changed in Scotland between 1 January 1980 and 31 December 2008.We studied linked Scottish national databases of births and perinatal deaths. We analysed the risk of preterm birth in relation to the number of previous abortions in 732,719 first births (≥24 wk, adjusting for maternal characteristics. The risk (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] of preterm birth was modelled using logistic regression, and associations were expressed for a one-unit increase in the number of previous abortions. Previous abortion was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (1.12 [1.09-1.16]. When analysed by year of delivery, the association was strongest in 1980-1983 (1.32 [1.21-1.43], progressively declined between 1984 and 1999, and was no longer apparent in 2000-2003 (0.98 [0.91-1.05] or 2004-2008 (1.02 [0.95-1.09]. A statistical test for interaction between previous abortion and year was highly statistically significant (p<0.001. Analysis of data for abortions among nulliparous women in Scotland 1992-2008 demonstrated that the proportion that were surgical without use of cervical pre-treatment decreased from 31% to 0.4%, and that the proportion of medical abortions increased from 18% to 68%.Previous abortion was a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth in Scotland in the 1980s and 1990s, but the association progressively weakened and disappeared altogether by 2000. These changes were paralleled by increasing use of medical abortion and cervical pre-treatment prior to surgical abortion. Although it is plausible that the two trends were related, we could not test this directly as the data on

  13. Seismic fragility analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Marin

    2000-01-01

    In the last two decades there is increasing number of probabilistic seismic risk assessments performed. The basic ideas of the procedure for performing a Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of critical structures (NUREG/CR-2300, 1983) could be used also for normal industrial and residential buildings, dams or other structures. The general formulation of the risk assessment procedure applied in this investigation is presented in Franzini, et al., 1984. The probability of failure of a structure for an expected lifetime (for example 50 years) can be obtained from the annual frequency of failure, β E determined by the relation: β E ∫[d[β(x)]/dx]P(flx)dx. β(x) is the annual frequency of exceedance of load level x (for example, the variable x may be peak ground acceleration), P(fI x) is the conditional probability of structure failure at a given seismic load level x. The problem leads to the assessment of the seismic hazard β(x) and the fragility P(fl x). The seismic hazard curves are obtained by the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. The fragility curves are obtained after the response of the structure is defined as probabilistic and its capacity and the associated uncertainties are assessed. Finally the fragility curves are combined with the seismic loading to estimate the frequency of failure for each critical scenario. The frequency of failure due to seismic event is presented by the scenario with the highest frequency. The tools usually applied for probabilistic safety analyses of critical structures could relatively easily be adopted to ordinary structures. The key problems are the seismic hazard definitions and the fragility analyses. The fragility could be derived either based on scaling procedures or on the base of generation. Both approaches have been presented in the paper. After the seismic risk (in terms of failure probability) is assessed there are several approaches for risk reduction. Generally the methods could be classified in two groups. The

  14. Website-analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    eller blindgyder, når han/hun besøger sitet. Studier i design og analyse af de visuelle og æstetiske aspekter i planlægning og brug af websites har imidlertid kun i et begrænset omfang været under reflektorisk behandling. Det er baggrunden for dette kapitel, som indleder med en gennemgang af æstetikkens......Websitet er i stigende grad det foretrukne medie inden for informationssøgning,virksomhedspræsentation, e-handel, underholdning, undervisning og social kontakt. I takt med denne voksende mangfoldighed af kommunikationsaktiviteter på nettet, er der kommet mere fokus på at optimere design og...... planlægning af de funktionelle og indholdsmæssige aspekter ved websites. Der findes en stor mængde teori- og metodebøger, som har specialiseret sig i de tekniske problemstillinger i forbindelse med interaktion og navigation, samt det sproglige indhold på websites. Den danske HCI (Human Computer Interaction...

  15. A channel profile analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbur, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    It is well understood that due to the wide band noise present in a nuclear analog-to-digital converter, events at the boundaries of adjacent channels are shared. It is a difficult and laborious process to exactly find out the shape of the channels at the boundaries. A simple scheme has been developed for the direct display of channel shape of any type of ADC on a cathode ray oscilliscope display. This has been accomplished by sequentially incrementing the reference voltage of a precision pulse generator by a fraction of a channel and storing ADC data in alternative memory locations of a multichannel pulse height analyser. Alternative channels are needed due to the sharing at the boundaries of channels. In the flat region of the profile alternate memory locations are channels with zero counts and channels with the full scale counts. At the boundaries all memory locations will have counts. The shape of this is a direct display of the channel boundaries. (orig.)

  16. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  17. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  18. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  19. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  20. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  1. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  2. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  3. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  4. Reproductive outcomes in adolescents who had a previous birth or an induced abortion compared to adolescents' first pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzlaff Paul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, attention has been focused on subsequent pregnancies among teenage mothers. Previous studies that compared the reproductive outcomes of teenage nulliparae and multiparae often did not consider the adolescents' reproductive histories. Thus, the authors compared the risks for adverse reproductive outcomes of adolescent nulliparae to teenagers who either have had an induced abortion or a previous birth. Methods In this retrospective cohort study we used perinatal data prospectively collected by obstetricians and midwives from 1990–1999 (participation rate 87–98% of all hospitals in Lower Saxony, Germany. From the 9742 eligible births among adolescents, women with multiple births, >1 previous pregnancies, or a previous spontaneous miscarriage were deleted and 8857 women Results In bivariate logistic regression analyses, compared to nulliparous teenagers, adolescents with a previous birth had higher risks for perinatal [OR = 2.08, CI = 1.11,3.89] and neonatal [OR = 4.31, CI = 1.77,10.52] mortality and adolescents with a previous abortion had higher risks for stillbirths [OR = 3.31, CI = 1.01,10.88] and preterm births [OR = 2.21, CI = 1.07,4.58]. After adjusting for maternal nationality, partner status, smoking, prenatal care and pre-pregnancy BMI, adolescents with a previous birth were at higher risk for perinatal [OR = 2.35, CI = 1.14,4.86] and neonatal mortality [OR = 4.70, CI = 1.60,13.81] and adolescents with a previous abortion had a higher risk for very low birthweight infants [OR = 2.74, CI = 1.06,7.09] than nulliparous teenagers. Conclusion The results suggest that teenagers who give birth twice as adolescents have worse outcomes in their second pregnancy compared to those teenagers who are giving birth for the first time. The prevention of the second pregnancy during adolescence is an important public health objective and should be addressed by health care providers who attend the first birth or the abortion

  5. Activation of human factor V by factor Xa and thrombin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monkovic, D.D.; Tracy, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    The activation of human factor V by factor Xa and thrombin was studied by functional assessment of cofactor activity and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polycarylamide gel electrophoresis followed by either autoradiography of 125 I-labeled factor V activation products or Western blot analyses of unlabeled factor V activation products. Cofactor activity was measured by the ability of the factor V/Va peptides to support the activation of prothrombin. The factor Xa catalyzed cleavage of factor V was observed to be time, phospholipid, and calcium ion dependent, yielding a cofactor with activity equal to that of thrombin-activated factor V (factor Va). The cleavage pattern differed markedly from the one observed in the bovine system. The factor Xa activated factor V subunits expressing cofactor activity were isolated and found to consist of peptides of M r 220,000 and 105,000. Although thrombin cleaved the M r 220,000 peptide to yield peptides previously shown to be products of thrombin activation, cofactor activity did not increase. N-Terminal sequence analysis confirmed that both factor Xa and thrombin cleave factor V at the same bond to generate the M r 220,000 peptide. The factor Xa dependent functional assessment of 125 I-labeled factor V coupled with densitometric analyses of the cleavage products indicated that the cofactor activity of factor Xa activated factor V closely paralleled the appearance of the M r 220,000 peptide. The data indicate that factor Xa is as efficient an enzyme toward factor V as thrombin

  6. Factoring the human into safety: translating research into practice. Executive summary for Vol.1 - Benchmarking (RR 059/2002); Vol. 2 - Accident analyses (RR 060/2002): Vol.3 - Crew resource management (RR 061/2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mearns, K.; Whitaker, S. (and others)

    2003-07-01

    This Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) executive summary encompasses the summaries of three workpackages on factoring the human into safety and translating research into practice entitled 'Benchmarking human and organisational factors in offshore safety' (Vol 1), 'The development and evaluation of human factors accident and near miss reporting form for the offshore industry' (Vol 2), and 'Crew resource management training for offshore operations' (Vol 3). The project objectives were to develop practical programmes for the offshore oil and gas industries leading to a continued improvement in safety management, enhancement of the safety culture within the industry, and an improvement in the understanding of human organisation factors in safety.

  7. Methodological challenges in carbohydrate analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Hall

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates can provide up to 80% of the dry matter in animal diets, yet their specific evaluation for research and diet formulation is only now becoming a focus in the animal sciences. Partitioning of dietary carbohydrates for nutritional purposes should reflect differences in digestion and fermentation characteristics and effects on animal performance. Key challenges to designating nutritionally important carbohydrate fractions include classifying the carbohydrates in terms of nutritional characteristics, and selecting analytical methods that describe the desired fraction. The relative lack of information on digestion characteristics of various carbohydrates and their interactions with other fractions in diets means that fractions will not soon be perfectly established. Developing a system of carbohydrate analysis that could be used across animal species could enhance the utility of analyses and amount of data we can obtain on dietary effects of carbohydrates. Based on quantities present in diets and apparent effects on animal performance, some nutritionally important classes of carbohydrates that may be valuable to measure include sugars, starch, fructans, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber. Essential to selection of methods for these fractions is agreement on precisely what carbohydrates should be included in each. Each of these fractions has analyses that could potentially be used to measure them, but most of the available methods have weaknesses that must be evaluated to see if they are fatal and the assay is unusable, or if the assay still may be made workable. Factors we must consider as we seek to analyze carbohydrates to describe diets: Does the assay accurately measure the desired fraction? Is the assay for research, regulatory, or field use (affects considerations of acceptable costs and throughput? What are acceptable accuracy and variability of measures? Is the assay robust (enhances accuracy of values? For some carbohydrates, we

  8. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  9. Molecular ecological network analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Ye

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Results Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs through Random Matrix Theory (RMT-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16 S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological

  10. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  11. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  12. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  13. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  14. Thrombosis in thrombocythemic Ph- myeloproliferations is associated with higher platelet count prior to the event: results of analyses of prothrombotic risk factors from a registry of patients treated with anagrelide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jiří; Ovesná, Petra; Černá, Olga; Kissová, Jarmila; Maaloufová Soukupová, Jacqueline; Brychtová, Yvona; Doubek, Michael; Červinek, Libor; Cmunt, Eduard; Dulíček, Petr; Campr, Vít; Křen, Leoš; Penka, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Controversies still exist regarding definition of the thrombotic risks in Ph- (BCR/ABL1-) myeloproliferative disorders with thrombocythemia (MPD-T). Platelet counts at diagnosis are currently not taken as a risk factor of thrombosis. In our cohort of 1179 patients with MPD-T, prospectively registered for anagrelide treatment, we found that the median platelet count prior to the thrombotic event was significantly higher than at time points without any ensuing thrombosis (453 vs. 400 × 10(9)/L, P 65 yr, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, elevated triglyceride and homocysteine levels predicted arterial events only. For venous events, the specific thrombophilic risk factors (factor V 'Leiden' and others), antiphospholipid antibodies, and elevated factor VIII levels played a major role. During anagrelide treatment (± aspirin), we documented a decrease in both venous (6.7-fold) and arterial events (1.8-fold), while bleeding (mostly minor events) increased twofold compared to history. Our results suggest that keeping platelet counts at low levels may be a meaningful therapeutic measure to prevent thrombosis, although their counts at diagnosis lack any prognostic value. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Haematology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Functional analyses of lupulin gland-specific regulatory factors from WD40, bHLH and Myb families of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) show formation of crucial complexes activating chs_H1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Jaroslav; Patzak, J.; Kocábek, Tomáš; Füssy, Zoltán; Stehlík, Jan; Orctová, Lidmila; Duraisamy, Ganesh Selvaraj

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2011), s. 151-155 ISSN 1613-2041 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/08/0740; GA MZe QH81052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : lupulin metabolome * Humulus lupulus L. * protein complexes * transcription factors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of previous or active Hepatitis B infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and HIV spread in the same manner, but HBV is more infectious than HIV-1. Active HBV requires modification of HIV-1 therapy and is associated with increased risk for sexual transmission of HBV. Objective: To determine the prevalence and knowledge of HBV among HIV-1 discordant ...

  17. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  18. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  19. Effect of previous abdominal surgery on outcomes following laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Junji; Tanaka, Keitaro; Kondo, Keisaku; Asai, Keiko; Kayano, Hajime; Masubuchi, Shinsuke; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2013-03-01

    The impact of previous abdominal surgeries on the need for conversion to open surgery and on short-term outcomes during/after laparoscopic colectomy was retrospectively investigated. This retrospective cohort study was conducted from December 1996 through December 2009. This study was conducted at Osaka Medical College Hospital. A total of 1701 consecutive patients who had undergone laparoscopic resection of the colon and rectum were classified as not having previous abdominal surgery (n = 1121) or as having previous abdominal surgery (n = 580). Short-term outcomes were recorded, and risk factors for conversion to open surgery were analyzed. There were no significant differences in operative time, blood loss, number of lymph nodes removed, or conversion rate between the groups. The rate of inadvertent enterotomy was significantly higher in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group (0.9% versus 0.1%; p = 0.03), and the postoperative recovery time was significantly longer in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group. Ileus was more frequent in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group (3.8% versus 2.1%; p = 0.04). Significant risk factors for conversion to open surgery were T stage ≥3 (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.89-3.75), median incision (OR, 4.34; 95% CI, 1.23-9.41), upper median incision (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.29-5.42), lower median incision (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.09-3.12), and transverse colectomy (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.29-2.41). The incidence of successfully completed laparoscopic colectomy after previous abdominal surgery remains high, and the short-term outcomes are acceptable.

  20. Analysis on Population Level Reveals Trappability of Wild Rodents Is Determined by Previous Trap Occupant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J Brouard

    Full Text Available Live trapping is central to the study of small mammals. Thus, any bias needs to be understood and accounted for in subsequent analyses to ensure accurate population estimates. One rarely considered bias is the behavioural response of individuals to the trap, in particular the olfactory cues left behind by previous occupants (PO. We used a data set of 8,115 trap nights spanning 17 separate trapping sessions between August 2002 and November 2013 in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK to examine if the decision to enter a trap was affected by the PO, if this was detectable in traditional Capture-Mark-Recapture trapping data (i.e., individuals not uniquely marked, and if it was possible for this effect to bias the population estimates obtained. Data were collected on Apodemus sylvaticus, Myodes glareolus, and Microtus agrestis. Three Generalised Linear Models revealed a significant tendency for the three species to enter traps with same-species PO. With, for example, A. sylvaticus 9.1 times more likely to enter a same species PO trap compared to one that contained a M. agrestis in the grassland during the nocturnal period. Simulation highlighted that, when all other factors are equal, the species with the highest PO effect will have the highest capture rate and therefore return more accurate population estimates. Despite the large dataset, certain species-, sex-, and/ or age-combinations were under-represented, and thus no effects of any additional individual-specific characteristics could be evaluated. Uniquely marking individuals would allow for the PO effect to be disentangled from other biases such as trap-shyness and spatial heterogeneity, but may not be possible in all cases and will depend on the aims of the study and the resources available.

  1. Analysis Fukushima 11032011 -- Extended analysis of the Fukushima accident on 11 March 2011 under special consideration of human and organisational factors; Analyse Fukushima 11032011 -- Vertiefende Analyse des Unfalls in Fukushima am 11. Maerz 2011 unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der menschlichen und organisatorischen Faktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    After the reactor accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi on 11 March 2011, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) launched an extended analysis of the accident with the following goals: a) a comprehensive understanding of the accident unrolling and of the contributing factors; b) the identification of resulting short-, mean- and long-term requirements for the operators of Swiss nuclear power plants; c) considerations on the own surveillance activity; d) the verification of the reports delivered by the Swiss plant operators, who have to check their own plant after each incident declared as of INES 2 level or higher, whichever the location in the whole world. Undoubtedly, the design of the nuclear power plants at Fukushima Dai-ichi was inappropriate in what regards the tsunami induced by the earthquake, and that this was a key factor that led to the accident. The questions here are rather how it came to this clear design insufficiency and why the accident developed in the way it did. According to ENSI, answers to these questions require both technical as well as human and organisational considerations. ENSI had no direct access to information sources and, therefore, had to check the reliability of information obtained from public sources, especially from authorities, plant operators, expert organisations and, last but not least, media reports. The understanding gained in this way should enable a better evaluation of the situation in Switzerland and lead to the definition of the most urgent measures to be implemented. Since the principal cause of the Fukushima accident is a failure in the plant design, it is necessary to critically reconsider the design of the Swiss reactors to make sure that no such mistake has been done here. Another question is why this evident design failure was not identified earlier in the course of the decades of operation, and why no improvement has been made. In this context, human and organisational factors seem to play an important

  2. Multivariate differential analyses of adolescents' experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aggression is reasoned to be dependent on aspects such as self-concept, moral reasoning, communication, frustration tolerance and family relationships. To analyse the data from questionnaires of 101 families (95 adolescents, 95 mothers and 91 fathers) Cronbach Alpha, various consecutive first and second order factor ...

  3. Nuclear thermal rocket clustering: 1, A summary of previous work and relevant issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buksa, J.J.; Houts, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    A general review of the technical merits of nuclear thermal rocket clustering is presented. A summary of previous analyses performed during the Rover program is presented and used to assess clustering in the context of projected Space Exploration Initiative missions. A number of technical issues are discussed including cluster reliability, engine-out operation, neutronic coupling, shutdown core power generation, shutdown reactivity requirements, reactor kinetics, and radiation shielding. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  5. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  6. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  7. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  8. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  9. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  10. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  11. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  12. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  13. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  14. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  15. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  16. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  17. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  18. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  19. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  20. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  1. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  2. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  3. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  4. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  5. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  6. Analysis of previous perceptual and motor experience in breaststroke kick learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Bettina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the variables that influence motor learning is the learner’s previous experience, which may provide perceptual and motor elements to be transferred to a novel motor skill. For swimming skills, several motor experiences may prove effective. Purpose. The aim was to analyse the influence of previous experience in playing in water, swimming lessons, and music or dance lessons on learning the breaststroke kick. Methods. The study involved 39 Physical Education students possessing basic swimming skills, but not the breaststroke, who performed 400 acquisition trials followed by 50 retention and 50 transfer trials, during which stroke index as well as rhythmic and spatial configuration indices were mapped, and answered a yes/no questionnaire regarding previous experience. Data were analysed by ANOVA (p = 0.05 and the effect size (Cohen’s d ≥0.8 indicating large effect size. Results. The whole sample improved their stroke index and spatial configuration index, but not their rhythmic configuration index. Although differences between groups were not significant, two types of experience showed large practical effects on learning: childhood water playing experience only showed major practically relevant positive effects, and no experience in any of the three fields hampered the learning process. Conclusions. The results point towards diverse impact of previous experience regarding rhythmic activities, swimming lessons, and especially with playing in water during childhood, on learning the breaststroke kick.

  7. Previous experience of family violence and intimate partner violence in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bernarda Ludermir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. METHODS A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18–49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. RESULTS Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89–3.63 and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01–2.13, sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68–6.38 and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 – 2.12. The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43–3.02 and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07–2.47, who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86–8.27, and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57–16.45. CONCLUSIONS Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help

  8. Previous experience of family violence and intimate partner violence in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de; Valongueiro, Sandra Alves; Muniz, Maria Luísa Corrêa; Silva, Elisabete Pereira

    2017-01-01

    To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89-3.63) and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01-2.13), sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68-6.38) and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 - 2.12). The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43-3.02) and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07-2.47), who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86-8.27), and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57-16.45). Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help policymakers and health service managers to develop intervention strategies.

  9. The Influence Of Child Survival And Health Of The Previous Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the relationship between child survival and health of the previous child factors and birth spacing practices among couples. A total of 200 couples, men and women, drawn randomly from different professions in Ibadan constituted the sample for the study. The two instruments used were ...

  10. Predicting fruit consumption: the role of habits, previous behavior and mediation effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H.; Eggers, S.M.; Lechner, L.; van Osch, L.; van Stralen, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the role of habits and previous behavior in predicting fruit consumption as well as their additional predictive contribution besides socio-demographic and motivational factors. In the literature, habits are proposed as a stable construct that needs to be controlled

  11. An analysis of 97 previously diagnosed de novo adult acute erythroid leukemia patients following the 2016 revision to World Health Organization classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shaowei; Jiang, Erlie; Wei, Hui; Lin, Dong; Zhang, Guangji; Wei, Shuning; Zhou, Chunlin; Liu, Kaiqi; Wang, Ying; Liu, Bingcheng; Liu, Yuntao; Gong, Benfa; Gong, Xiaoyuan; Feng, Sizhou; Mi, Yingchang; Han, Mingzhe; Wang, Jianxiang

    2017-08-09

    The incidence of acute erythroid leukemia subtype (AEL) is rare, accounting for 5% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and the outcome is dismal. However, in 2016 revision to the WHO classification, the subcategory of AEL has been removed. Myeloblasts are redefined as the percentage of total marrow cells, not non-erythroid cells. Therefore, the previously diagnosed AEL cases are currently diagnosed as AML or myelodyspalstic syndrome (MDS) according to new criteria. We respectively reviewed cases of 97 de novo previously diagnosed AEL and all the patients were diagnosed as AML or MDS according to the new classification scheme, and then the clinical characteristics of these two subtypes were compared. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS software version 18.0. The median age was 37 years-old, the two-thirds of previous AEL cases were diagnosed as MDS, and there was no obvious difference between two subtypes except for male/female ratio and age. Cytogenetic, rather than MDS/AML subtypes, can better represent the prognostic factor of previously diagnosed AEL patients. When the cytogenetic risk of patients belonged to MRC intermediate category and age were below 40 years-old in previous AEL cases, the patients who received induction chemotherapy without transplantation had a similar survival compared with the patients who underwent transplantation (3-year OS: 67.2% vs 68.5%). Cytogenetic, rather than MDS/AML subtypes, can better represent the prognostic factor of previously diagnosed AEL patients. Transplantation was a better choice for those whose cytogenetic category was unfavorable.

  12. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  13. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  14. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  15. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  16. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  17. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  18. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D

    1989-05-01

    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  19. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  20. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  1. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  2. Extreme fire events are related to previous-year surface moisture conditions in permafrost-underlain larch forests of Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forkel, Matthias; Beer, Christian; Thonicke, Kirsten; Cramer, Wolfgang; Bartalev, Sergey; Schmullius, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Wildfires are a natural and important element in the functioning of boreal forests. However, in some years, fires with extreme spread and severity occur. Such severe fires can degrade the forest, affect human values, emit huge amounts of carbon and aerosols and alter the land surface albedo. Usually, wind, slope and dry air conditions have been recognized as factors determining fire spread. Here we identify surface moisture as an additional important driving factor for the evolution of extreme fire events in the Baikal region. An area of 127 000 km 2 burned in this region in 2003, a large part of it in regions underlain by permafrost. Analyses of satellite data for 2002–2009 indicate that previous-summer surface moisture is a better predictor for burned area than precipitation anomalies or fire weather indices for larch forests with continuous permafrost. Our analysis advances the understanding of complex interactions between the atmosphere, vegetation and soil, and how coupled mechanisms can lead to extreme events. These findings emphasize the importance of a mechanistic coupling of soil thermodynamics, hydrology, vegetation functioning, and fire activity in Earth system models for projecting climate change impacts over the next century. (letter)

  3. Risk and developmental heterogeneity in previously institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tottenham, Nim

    2012-08-01

    This article presents an overview of the developmental outcomes of children adopted from institutional care. The author describes how institutional care is a risk factor for typical human development and describes the areas of development, both behavioral and neurobiological, that are most vulnerable to this risk. Also described is variation in outcome and resilience, where some children thrive despite exposure to adverse rearing conditions. The author concludes with an emphasis on heterogeneity in outcome, describing how the risk associated with institutional care is not a deterministic factor but rather an influential one. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Influencing Goal Attainment in Patients with Post-Stroke Upper Limb Spasticity Following Treatment with Botulinum Toxin A in Real-Life Clinical Practice: Sub-Analyses from the Upper Limb International Spasticity (ULIS-II Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Fheodoroff

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this post-hoc analysis of the ULIS-II study, we investigated factors influencing person-centred goal setting and achievement following botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A treatment in 456 adults with post-stroke upper limb spasticity (ULS. Patients with primary goals categorised as passive function had greater motor impairment (p < 0.001, contractures (soft tissue shortening [STS] (p = 0.006 and spasticity (p = 0.02 than those setting other goal types. Patients with goals categorised as active function had less motor impairment (0.0001, contracture (p < 0.0001, spasticity (p < 0.001 and shorter time since stroke (p = 0.001. Patients setting goals for pain were older (p = 0.01 with more contractures (p = 0.008. The proportion of patients achieving their primary goal was not impacted by timing of first-ever BoNT-A injection (medium-term (≤1 year vs. longer-term (>1 year post-stroke (80.0% vs. 79.2% or presence or absence of severe contractures (76.7% vs. 80.6%, although goal types differed. Earlier BoNT-A intervention was associated with greater achievement of active function goals. Severe contractures impacted negatively on goal achievement except in pain and passive function. Goal setting by patients with ULS is influenced by impairment severity, age and time since stroke. Our findings resonate with clinical experience and may assist patients and clinicians in selecting realistic, achievable goals for treatment.

  5. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: stelios.Kyriacou@gmail.co [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  6. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib......). The causative pathogen was identified as H influenzae serotype f (Hif), and was successfully treated with ceftriaxone. An immunological evaluation revealed transient low levels of immunoglobulins but no apparent immunodeficiency was found 2 years after the clinical insult....

  7. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...

  8. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  9. Fulminant Pneumococcal Pericarditis in a Previously Healthy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M

    2017-04-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Previous Gastrectomy on the Performance of Postoperative Colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Choi, Jeongmin; Kim, Tae Han; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Im, Jong Pil; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Sang Gyun; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Kim, Joo Sung; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a prior gastrectomy on the difficulty of subsequent colonoscopy, and to identify the surgical factors related to difficult colonoscopies. Materials and Methods Patients with a prior gastrectomy who had undergone a colonoscopy between 2011 and 2014 (n=482) were matched (1:6) to patients with no history of gastrectomy (n=2,892). Cecal insertion time, intubation failure, and bowel clearance score were compared between the gastrectomy and control groups, as was a newly generated comprehensive parameter for a difficult/incomplete colonoscopy (cecal intubation failure, cecal insertion time >12.9 minutes, or very poor bowel preparation scale). Surgical factors including surgical approach, extent of gastrectomy, extent of lymph node dissection, and reconstruction type, were analyzed to identify risk factors for colonoscopy performance. Results A history of gastrectomy was associated with prolonged cecal insertion time (8.7±6.4 vs. 9.7±6.5 minutes; P=0.002), an increased intubation failure rate (0.1% vs. 1.9%; P<0.001), and a poor bowel preparation rate (24.7 vs. 29.0; P=0.047). Age and total gastrectomy (vs. partial gastrectomy) were found to be independent risk factors for increased insertion time, which slowly increased throughout the postoperative duration (0.35 min/yr). Total gastrectomy was the only independent risk factor for the comprehensive parameter of difficult/incomplete colonoscopy. Conclusions History of gastrectomy is related to difficult/incomplete colonoscopy performance, especially in cases of total gastrectomy. In any case, it may be that a pre-operative colonoscopy is desirable in selected patients scheduled for gastrectomy; however, it should be performed by an expert endoscopist each time. PMID:27752394

  11. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  12. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  13. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  14. Efforts to promote vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Tobacco smoking and gastric cancer: meta-analyses of published data versus pooled analyses of individual participant data (StoP Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Ana; Morais, Samantha; Rota, Matteo; Pelucchi, Claudio; Bertuccio, Paola; Bonzi, Rossella; Galeone, Carlotta; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Hu, Jinfu; Johnson, Kenneth C; Yu, Guo-Pei; Palli, Domenico; Ferraroni, Monica; Muscat, Joshua; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ye, Weimin; Song, Huan; Zaridze, David; Maximovitch, Dmitry; Aragonés, Nuria; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Vioque, Jesus; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola; Bellavia, Andrea; Håkansson, Niclas; Mu, Lina; Pastorino, Roberta; Kurtz, Robert C; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Lagiou, Areti; Lagiou, Pagona; Boffetta, Paolo; Boccia, Stefania; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo; Peleteiro, Bárbara; Lunet, Nuno

    2018-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the main risk factors for gastric cancer, but the magnitude of the association estimated by conventional systematic reviews and meta-analyses might be inaccurate, due to heterogeneous reporting of data and publication bias. We aimed to quantify the combined impact of publication-related biases, and heterogeneity in data analysis or presentation, in the summary estimates obtained from conventional meta-analyses. We compared results from individual participant data pooled-analyses, including the studies in the Stomach Cancer Pooling (StoP) Project, with conventional meta-analyses carried out using only data available in previously published reports from the same studies. From the 23 studies in the StoP Project, 20 had published reports with information on smoking and gastric cancer, but only six had specific data for gastric cardia cancer and seven had data on the daily number of cigarettes smoked. Compared to the results obtained with the StoP database, conventional meta-analyses overvalued the relation between ever smoking (summary odds ratios ranging from 7% higher for all studies to 22% higher for the risk of gastric cardia cancer) and yielded less precise summary estimates (SE ≤2.4 times higher). Additionally, funnel plot asymmetry and corresponding hypotheses tests were suggestive of publication bias. Conventional meta-analyses and individual participant data pooled-analyses reached similar conclusions on the direction of the association between smoking and gastric cancer. However, published data tended to overestimate the magnitude of the effects, possibly due to publication biases and limited the analyses by different levels of exposure or cancer subtypes.

  16. Do emotional intelligence and previous caring experience influence student nurse performance? A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhouse, Rosie; Snowden, Austyn; Young, Jenny; Carver, Fiona; Carver, Hannah; Brown, Norrie

    2016-08-01

    Reports of poor nursing care have focused attention on values based selection of candidates onto nursing programmes. Values based selection lacks clarity and valid measures. Previous caring experience might lead to better care. Emotional intelligence (EI) might be associated with performance, is conceptualised and measurable. To examine the impact of 1) previous caring experience, 2) emotional intelligence 3) social connection scores on performance and retention in a cohort of first year nursing and midwifery students in Scotland. A longitudinal, quasi experimental design. Adult and mental health nursing, and midwifery programmes in a Scottish University. Adult, mental health and midwifery students (n=598) completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-short form and Schutte's Emotional Intelligence Scale on entry to their programmes at a Scottish University, alongside demographic and previous caring experience data. Social connection was calculated from a subset of questions identified within the TEIQue-SF in a prior factor and Rasch analysis. Student performance was calculated as the mean mark across the year. Withdrawal data were gathered. 598 students completed baseline measures. 315 students declared previous caring experience, 277 not. An independent-samples t-test identified that those without previous caring experience scored higher on performance (57.33±11.38) than those with previous caring experience (54.87±11.19), a statistically significant difference of 2.47 (95% CI, 0.54 to 4.38), t(533)=2.52, p=.012. Emotional intelligence scores were not associated with performance. Social connection scores for those withdrawing (mean rank=249) and those remaining (mean rank=304.75) were statistically significantly different, U=15,300, z=-2.61, p$_amp_$lt;0.009. Previous caring experience led to worse performance in this cohort. Emotional intelligence was not a useful indicator of performance. Lower scores on the social connection factor were associated

  17. Prevalent musculoskeletal pain as a correlate of previous exposure to torture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorte Reff; Montgomery, Edith; Bojholm, S

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To research possible associations between previous exposure to specific torture techniques and prevalent pain in the head and face, back, and feet. METHODS: 221 refugees, 193 males and 28 females, previously exposed to torture in their home country, were subject to a clinical interview...... was general abuse of the whole body (OR 5.64, 95% CI 1.93-16.45). CONCLUSION: In spite of many factors being potentially co-responsible for prevalent pain, years after the torture took place it presents itself as strongly associated with specific loci of pain, with generalized effects, and with somatizing....

  18. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-05-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116). This choice was used as a proxy for vocational interest. In addition, all graduate-entry applicants for academic year 2015-2016 (n = 213) were included to examine the effect of previous academic experience on performance. We used MANCOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons tests for applicant performance on a six-scenario SJT. The MANCOVA analyses showed that for all scenarios, the independent variables were significantly related to performance (Pillai's Trace: 0.02-0.47, p performance on three scenarios (p performance on two scenarios (p performance, as was previous academic experience. Gender and age were related to performance on SJT scenarios in different settings. Especially the first effect might be helpful in selecting appropriate candidates for areas of health care in which more professionals are needed.

  19. Multiple Imputation for Network Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, Robert; Huisman, Mark; Steglich, Christian; Snijders, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Missing data on network ties is a fundamental problem for network analyses. The biases induced by missing edge data, even when missing completely at random (MCAR), are widely acknowledged and problematic for network analyses (Kossinets, 2006; Huisman & Steglich, 2008; Huisman, 2009). Although

  20. Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy in a patient with previous esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, R A; Scott, J S; Unger, S W

    1991-04-01

    Establishment of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy via direct jejunal puncture was accomplished in a 45-year-old woman five years after a partial esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The patient had recurrence of the cancer at the anastomotic site with subsequent inability to eat, necessitating a feeding tube for prolonged enteral nutrition. Although percutaneous puncture of the jejunum has been previously described, it has been limited to patients who had undergone partial or complete gastrectomies with Bilroth II anastomoses. This case report of direct endoscopic jejunal tube placement in a patient after esophagectomy further establishes this procedure as a viable alternative to surgically placed feeding tubes in patients with altered gastric anatomy.

  1. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  2. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  3. The Construct Validity of Scores on the Ways of Coping Questionnaire: Confirmatory Analysis of Alternative Factor Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey R.; O'Neill, Regina M.

    1998-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate alternative factor structures, based on previous exploratory factor analyses and coping dimensions derived from the theory of R. Lazarus, for the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (S. Folkman and R. Lazarus, 1988). Results from responses of 654 college graduates provide little support for the factor…

  4. Survival after early-stage breast cancer of women previously treated for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis Frederik Palm; Johansen, Christoffer; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this nationwide, register-based cohort study was to determine whether women treated for depression before primary early-stage breast cancer are at increased risk for receiving treatment that is not in accordance with national guidelines and for poorer survival. Material...... and Methods We identified 45,325 women with early breast cancer diagnosed in Denmark from 1998 to 2011. Of these, 744 women (2%) had had a previous hospital contact (as an inpatient or outpatient) for depression and another 6,068 (13%) had been treated with antidepressants. Associations between previous...... treatment of depression and risk of receiving nonguideline treatment of breast cancer were assessed in multivariable logistic regression analyses. We compared the overall survival, breast cancer-specific survival, and risk of death by suicide of women who were and were not treated for depression before...

  5. Visual and anatomical outcomes of macular epiretinal membrane peeling after previous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Christina Y; Gregori, Ninel Z; Moysidis, Stavros N; Shi, Wei; Smiddy, William E; Flynn, Harry W

    2015-01-01

    To report outcomes and prognostic factors after epiretinal membrane peeling in patients with previous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair. A consecutive case series. Best-corrected visual acuity and optical coherence tomography characteristics were analyzed before and after epiretinal membrane surgery. Fifty-three eyes were analyzed. Best-corrected visual acuity improved by a mean of 10 letters at 1 month (N = 45; P = 0.001), 15 at 3 months (N = 42; P detachment repair resulted in significant improvements in visual acuity and optical coherence tomography thickness, even in eyes with previous macula-involving rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Better preoperative visual acuity and intact outer retinal layers by optical coherence tomography were the main prognostic factors for visual outcomes.

  6. Central diabetes insipidus: a previously unreported side effect of temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faje, Alexander T; Nachtigall, Lisa; Wexler, Deborah; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Makimura, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent primarily used to treat tumors of the central nervous system. We describe 2 patients with apparent TMZ-induced central diabetes insipidus. Using our institution's Research Patient Database Registry, we identified 3 additional potential cases of TMZ-induced diabetes insipidus among a group of 1545 patients treated with TMZ. A 53-year-old male with an oligoastrocytoma and a 38-year-old male with an oligodendroglioma each developed symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria approximately 2 months after the initiation of TMZ. Laboratory analyses demonstrated hypernatremia and urinary concentrating defects, consistent with the presence of diabetes insipidus, and the patients were successfully treated with desmopressin acetate. Desmopressin acetate was withdrawn after the discontinuation of TMZ, and diabetes insipidus did not recur. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary and hypothalamus was unremarkable apart from the absence of a posterior pituitary bright spot in both of the cases. Anterior pituitary function tests were normal in both cases. Using the Research Patient Database Registry database, we identified the 2 index cases and 3 additional potential cases of diabetes insipidus for an estimated prevalence of 0.3% (5 cases of diabetes insipidus per 1545 patients prescribed TMZ). Central diabetes insipidus is a rare but reversible side effect of treatment with TMZ.

  7. Has Previous Abuse of Flunitrazepam Been Replaced by Clonazepam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Middelkoop, Gerrit; Mørland, Jørg; Gjerde, Hallvard

    2015-01-01

    For many years, flunitrazepam was the benzodiazepine of choice among users of illegal drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate to which extent clonazepam use has increased in this population, and whether this was related to increased prescription or because of illegal availability. We used data from three sources to study the changes in the use of clonazepam: (1) Presence and concentrations of clonazepam and flunitrazepam in blood samples collected from Norwegian drugged drivers; (2) Sales numbers (legal market) for clonazepam, extracted from the Norwegian prescription database (NorPD), and (3) Specific seizures (illegal market) for clonazepam in Norway. In 2004, 13.0% of the analysed blood samples from drugged drivers contained clonazepam, whereas this proportion had increased to 27.7% in 2013. In the same period, the frequency of flunitrazepam in drugged drivers decreased from 16.6% in 2004 to 3.2% in 2013. The number of clonazepam prescriptions decreased, while the number of seized tablets containing clonazepam increased considerably from 2004 to 2013. For the last 10 years, a significant increase in the illegal use of clonazepam has been seen, now replacing flunitrazepam as the most used illegal benzodiazepine in Norway.

  8. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  9. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  10. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  11. New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.

    2004-01-01

    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture. PMID:15294811

  12. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  13. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  14. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  15. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  16. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  17. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  18. Is previous hyperthyroidism associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillevang-Johansen, Mads; Petersen, Inge; Christensen, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hyperthyroidism has been suggested to adversely affect cognitive function. However, this association could also be caused by genetic and environmental factors affecting both the development of hyperthyroidism and cognitive functioning. By investigating twin pairs discordant...... for hyperthyroidism, this potential confounding can be minimized. The aim of the study was to examine if hyperthyroidism is associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction. DESIGN: Twin case-control study. PATIENTS: Twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism were identified by record-linkage between The Danish...... National Patient Registry and 3036 twin pairs from The Danish Twin Registry, who had participated in nationwide surveys on health conditions. MEASUREMENTS: Among other investigations, survey participants had carried out cognitive tests including a Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and six separate cognitive...

  19. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR SALTSTONE DISPOSAL UNIT COLUMN DEGRADATION ANALYSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.

    2014-10-28

    PORFLOW related analyses supporting a Sensitivity Analysis for Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) column degradation were performed. Previous analyses, Flach and Taylor 2014, used a model in which the SDU columns degraded in a piecewise manner from the top and bottom simultaneously. The current analyses employs a model in which all pieces of the column degrade at the same time. Information was extracted from the analyses which may be useful in determining the distribution of Tc-99 in the various SDUs throughout time and in determining flow balances for the SDUs.

  20. Genetic, molecular and functional analyses of complement factor I deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, S.C.; Trouw, L.A.; Renault, N.

    2009-01-01

    could be expressed, in vitro, but was not functional because it lacks the serine protease domain. Furthermore, this truncated FI was not detected in serum of the patient. Structural investigations using molecular modeling were performed to predict the potential impact the mutations have on FI structure....... This is the first study that investigates, at the functional level, the consequences of molecular defects identified in patients with full FI deficiency Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1...

  1. ANALYSING FACTORS INFLUENCING ENERGY INTENSITY OF INDIAN CEMENT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hena Oak

    2018-01-01

    India is a fast growing economy, with a considerable dependence on energy resources. Energy resources mainly comprise of fossil fuels that are highly emission intensive. In order to move towards sustainable development, it is important to reduce emissions. Since a sizable amount of emissions gets generated from the use of energy resources, it is essential to use energy more efficiently and reduce energy intensity. In India the industrial sector is the biggest consumer of energy and hence ener...

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor analyses in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Lindebjerg, Jan; Nielsen, Jens Nederby

    2006-01-01

    EGFR immunohistochemistry (IHC) status is not a reliable predictive marker for response to EGFR-targeted therapies. The present study compares the EGFR status at DNA, RNA and protein level. Blood samples, corresponding normal colon and colorectal cancer tissue were collected from 199 colorectal...... cancer (CRC) patients. EGFR status was evaluated by FISH analysis, real-time RT-PCR, ELISA and IHC. A polymorphism in the EGFR promoter was evaluated by PCR analysis. The EGFR levels by different methods were mutually compared. Seventy-eight percent of primary tumours and corresponding lymph nodes had...

  3. Association between previous splenectomy and gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs: 453 cases (2004-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Angela J; Bentley, Adrienne M; Brown, Dorothy C

    2013-05-15

    To evaluate the association between previous splenectomy and gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in dogs. Multi-institutional retrospective case-control study. Animals-151 dogs treated surgically for GDV and 302 control dogs with no history of GDV. Computerized records of dogs evaluated via exploratory laparotomy or abdominal ultrasonography were searched, and dogs with GDV and dogs without GDV (control dogs) were identified. Two control dogs were matched with respect to age, body weight, sex, neuter status, and breed to each dog with GDV. Data were collected on the presence or absence of the spleen for both dogs with GDV and control dogs. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of previous splenectomy with GDV. 6 (4%) dogs in the GDV group and 3 (1%) dogs in the control group had a history of previous splenectomy. The odds of GDV in dogs with a history of previous splenectomy in this population of dogs were 5.3 times those of dogs without a history of previous splenectomy (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 26.8). For the patients in the present study, there was an increased odds of GDV in dogs with a history of splenectomy. Prophylactic gastropexy may be considered in dogs undergoing a splenectomy, particularly if other risk factors for GDV are present.

  4. Serratia liquefaciens Infection of a Previously Excluded Popliteal Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coelho

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs are rare in the general population, but they account for nearly 70% of peripheral arterial aneurysms. There are several possible surgical approaches including exclusion of the aneurysm and bypass grafting, or endoaneurysmorrhaphy and interposition of a prosthetic conduit. The outcomes following the first approach are favorable, but persistent blood flow in the aneurysm sac has been documented in up to one third of patients in the early post-operative setting. Complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms include aneurysm enlargement, local compression symptoms, and sac rupture. Notably infection of a previously excluded and bypassed PAA is rare. This is the third reported case of PAA infection after exclusion and bypass grafting and the first due to Serratia liquefaciens. Methods: Relevant medical data were collected from the hospital database. Results: This case report describes a 54 year old male patient, diagnosed with acute limb ischaemia due to a thrombosed PAA, submitted to emergency surgery with exclusion and venous bypass. A below the knee amputation was necessary 3 months later. Patient follow-up was lost until 7 years following surgical repair, when he was diagnosed with aneurysm sac infection with skin fistulisation. He had recently been diagnosed with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis Child–Pugh Class B. The patient was successfully treated by aneurysm resection, soft tissue debridement and systemic antibiotics. Conclusion: PAA infection is a rare complication after exclusion and bypass procedures but should be considered in any patient with evidence of local or systemic infection. When a PAA infection is diagnosed, aneurysmectomy, local debridement, and intravenous antibiotic therapy are recommended. The “gold standard” method of PAA repair remains controversial. PAA excision or endoaneurysmorrhaphy avoids complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms, but is associated with

  5. Human stool contains a previously unrecognized diversity of novel astroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoyan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astrovirus MLB1 and astrovirus VA1, were identified in diarrhea patients. In this study, we used consensus astrovirus primers targeting the RNA polymerase to define the diversity of astroviruses present in pediatric patients with diarrhea on two continents. From 416 stool specimens comprising two different cohorts from Vellore, India, 35 samples were positive. These positive samples were analyzed further by either sequencing of the ~400 bp amplicon generated by the consensus PCR or by performing additional RT-PCR specific for individual astroviruses. 19 samples contained the classic human astrovirus serotypes 1-8 while 7 samples were positive for the recently described astrovirus MLB1. Strikingly, from samples that were positive in the consensus PCR screen but negative in the specific PCR assays, five samples contained sequences that were highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Sequence analysis suggested that three novel astroviruses, tentatively named astroviruses VA2, MLB2 and VA3, were present in these five patient specimens (AstV-VA2 in 2 patients, AstV-MLB2 in 2 patients and AstV-VA3 in one patient. Using the same RT-PCR screening strategy, 13 samples out of 466 tested stool specimens collected in St. Louis, USA were positive. Nine samples were positive for the classic human astroviruses. One sample was positive for AstV-VA2, and 3 samples were positive for AstV-MLB2 demonstrating that these two viruses are globally widespread. Collectively, these findings underscore the tremendous diversity of astroviruses present in fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Given that a significant fraction of diarrhea etiologies is currently unknown, it is plausible that these or other yet unrecognized astroviruses may be

  6. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  7. Deciding on the mode of birth after a previous caesarean section - An online survey investigating women's preferences in Western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzon, Magali; Gross, Mechthild M; Karch, André; Grylka-Baeschlin, Susanne

    2017-07-01

    promoting vaginal births after caesarean section (VBAC) for eligible women and increasing rates of successful VBACs are the best strategies to reduce the number of repeat caesarean sections (CS). Knowledge of factors that are associated with women's decision-making around mode of birth after CS is important when developing strategies to promote VBAC. This study assessed which factors are associated with women's preferences for VBAC versus elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS) in a new pregnancy after one previous caesarean in Switzerland. cross-sectional web-survey. Western Switzerland. French-speaking women living in Western Switzerland, with one previous CS who gave birth subsequently to a child after a complication-free pregnancy were eligible to participate in the survey. Of 393 women who started the survey in November/December 2014, 349 were included: 227 who planned a VBAC and 122 who planned an ERCS at term. univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted to describe and compare women who had planned a VBAC with women who had planned an ERCS in a pregnancy following a CS. Logistic regression modelling was used to investigate predictors that were associated with a preference for a VBAC at term. Analyses were performed with SPSS 22 and Stata 13. of the women planning a VBAC, 62.6% VBAC gave birth vaginally. Predictors which were significantly associated with increased odds of women choosing a VBAC: duration since previous birth in years (OR=1.11 95% CI [1.03-1.20], p=0.010), having had midwifery care during pregnancy (OR=2.09, 95% CI [1.08-4.05], p=0.029), being advised by their healthcare provider to attempt a VBAC (OR=4.20, 95% CI [1.75-10.09], p=0.001), preference for VBAC during the third trimester of their pregnancy (OR=3.98, 95% CI [1.77-8.93], p=0.001), and wishing to let the child choose the moment of birth (OR=1.46, 95% CI[1.22-1.74], p<0.001). The importance of safety for the mother decreased the odds of women preferring a VBAC (OR=0.74, 95

  8. Emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis: computed tomography features and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin J

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jianmin Jin,1 Shuling Li,2 Wenling Yu,2 Xiaofang Liu,1 Yongchang Sun1,3 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 2Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB is a risk factor for COPD, but the clinical characteristics and the chest imaging features (emphysema and bronchiectasis of COPD with previous PTB have not been studied well.Methods: The presence, distribution, and severity of emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with and without previous PTB were evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT and compared. Demographic data, respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sputum culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also compared between patients with and without previous PTB.Results: A total of 231 COPD patients (82.2% ex- or current smokers, 67.5% male were consecutively enrolled. Patients with previous PTB (45.0% had more severe (p=0.045 and longer history (p=0.008 of dyspnea, more exacerbations in the previous year (p=0.011, and more positive culture of P. aeruginosa (p=0.001, compared with those without PTB. Patients with previous PTB showed a higher prevalence of bronchiectasis (p<0.001, which was more significant in lungs with tuberculosis (TB lesions, and a higher percentage of more severe bronchiectasis (Bhalla score ≥2, p=0.031, compared with those without previous PTB. The overall prevalence of emphysema was not different between patients with and without previous PTB, but in those with previous PTB, a higher number of subjects with middle (p=0.001 and lower (p=0.019 lobe emphysema, higher severity score (p=0.028, higher prevalence of panlobular emphysema (p=0.013, and more extensive centrilobular emphysema (p=0.039 were observed. Notably, in patients with

  9. Subsequent pregnancies in women with previous gestational syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebmuller, Marjorie Garlow; Fiori, Humberto Holmer; Lago, Eleonor Gastal

    2015-09-01

    This study included data on syphilis-positive pregnant women seen for delivery or miscarriage, between 1997 and 2004, in Sao Lucas Hospital, Porto Alegre, RS. Their subsequent obstetric outcomes were studied, until December 2011, to see if the disease recurred. From 450 pregnant women with positive syphilis serology, seen from 1997 to 2004, 166 had at least one more obstetric attendance until December 2011, with 266 new obstetric outcomes. Congenital syphilis (CS) was demonstrated in 81.9% of the initial pregnancies and in 68.4% of the subsequent ones. The main causes of CS in subsequent pregnancies were a negative VDRL that turned positive at delivery, and undocumented treatment. VDRL titers were higher than 1:4 in 50.4% of the initial and 13.3% of the subsequent pregnancies (p syphilis in a preceding pregnancy. No or inadequate prenatal care was the main risk factor for CS, both in initial and in subsequent pregnancies. These data suggest that non-infected neonates could have been defined as CS cases because of insufficient information about the mother's history.

  10. Uncertainty quantification approaches for advanced reactor analyses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, L. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-24

    The original approach to nuclear reactor design or safety analyses was to make very conservative modeling assumptions so as to ensure meeting the required safety margins. Traditional regulation, as established by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission required conservatisms which have subsequently been shown to be excessive. The commission has therefore moved away from excessively conservative evaluations and has determined best-estimate calculations to be an acceptable alternative to conservative models, provided the best-estimate results are accompanied by an uncertainty evaluation which can demonstrate that, when a set of analysis cases which statistically account for uncertainties of all types are generated, there is a 95% probability that at least 95% of the cases meet the safety margins. To date, nearly all published work addressing uncertainty evaluations of nuclear power plant calculations has focused on light water reactors and on large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) analyses. However, there is nothing in the uncertainty evaluation methodologies that is limited to a specific type of reactor or to specific types of plant scenarios. These same methodologies can be equally well applied to analyses for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and to liquid metal reactors, and they can be applied to steady-state calculations, operational transients, or severe accident scenarios. This report reviews and compares both statistical and deterministic uncertainty evaluation approaches. Recommendations are given for selection of an uncertainty methodology and for considerations to be factored into the process of evaluating uncertainties for advanced reactor best-estimate analyses.

  11. An extensible analysable system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    Analysing real-world systems for vulnerabilities with respect to security and safety threats is a difficult undertaking, not least due to a lack of availability of formalisations for those systems. While both formalisations and analyses can be found for artificial systems such as software......, this does not hold for real physical systems. Approaches such as threat modelling try to target the formalisation of the real-world domain, but still are far from the rigid techniques available in security research. Many currently available approaches to assurance of critical infrastructure security...... are based on (quite successful) ad-hoc techniques. We believe they can be significantly improved beyond the state-of-the-art by pairing them with static analyses techniques. In this paper we present an approach to both formalising those real-world systems, as well as providing an underlying semantics, which...

  12. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L. A.; Gilbert, Tom; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of ancient DNA is playing an increasingly important role in conservation genetic, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as it allows incorporating extinct species into DNA sequence trees and adds time depth to population genetics studies. For many years, these types of DNA...... analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well...

  13. Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Teacher My Class Inventory-Short Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares, Elizabeth; Mariani, Melissa; Sink, Christopher A.; Colvin, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Researchers analyzed data from elementary teachers (N = 233) to further establish the psychometric soundness of the Teacher My Class Inventory-Short Form. Supporting previous psychometric research, confirmatory factor analyses findings supported the factorial validity of the hypothesized five-factor solution. Internal reliability estimates were…

  14. High perfomance liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolin, Branko; Imamović, Belma; Medanhodzić-Vuk, Saira; Sober, Miroslav

    2004-05-01

    In testing the pre-sale procedure the marketing of drugs and their control in the last ten years, high performance liquid chromatography replaced numerous spectroscopic methods and gas chromatography in the quantitative and qualitative analysis. In the first period of HPLC application it was thought that it would become a complementary method of gas chromatography, however, today it has nearly completely replaced gas chromatography in pharmaceutical analysis. The application of the liquid mobile phase with the possibility of transformation of mobilized polarity during chromatography and all other modifications of mobile phase depending upon the characteristics of substance which are being tested, is a great advantage in the process of separation in comparison to other methods. The greater choice of stationary phase is the next factor which enables realization of good separation. The separation line is connected to specific and sensitive detector systems, spectrafluorimeter, diode detector, electrochemical detector as other hyphernated systems HPLC-MS and HPLC-NMR, are the basic elements on which is based such wide and effective application of the HPLC method. The purpose high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of any drugs is to confirm the identity of a drug and provide quantitative results and also to monitor the progress of the therapy of a disease.1) Measuring presented on the Fig. 1. is chromatogram obtained for the plasma of depressed patients 12 h before oral administration of dexamethasone. It may also be used to further our understanding of the normal and disease process in the human body trough biomedical and therapeutically research during investigation before of the drugs registration. The analyses of drugs and metabolites in biological fluids, particularly plasma, serum or urine is one of the most demanding but one of the most common uses of high performance of liquid chromatography. Blood, plasma or serum contains numerous endogenous

  15. Repeat coronary angiography with previously normal arteries: a futile exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Rebecca; Parviz, Yasir; Iqbal, Javaid; Heppenstall, James; Teare, Dawn; Gunn, Julian

    2015-02-15

    Up to 20% of coronary angiograms reveal normal arteries. How long they stay normal is poorly understood. This study investigated the fate of normal coronary arteries and determined the rate of development of coronary artery disease. We interrogated the angiographic archive of the South Yorkshire Cardiothoracic Centre between 2004 and 2013 to identify patients with truly normal coronary arteries who underwent repeat coronary angiography more than 1 year later. Follow up angiograms were scored for the severity and extent of CAD (graded per segment as 0%, 1-50%, >50%). Risk factors for the development of coronary artery disease were documented. Univariate predictors of disease development were identified and entered into a logistic regression model to identify independent predictors. Out of over 25,000 angiographic procedures in the archives we found 6068 patients reported to have normal coronary arteries. Of these, 162 patients had also undergone subsequent repeat coronary angiography. Of these, 97 had truly normal (smooth) coronary arteries at baseline and had undergone repeat angiography >1 year later. At a median 51 months, 87 continued to have normal arteries, and all the remaining 10 had mild disease only (average 37% stenosis in an average 1.2 segments). No patients developed any significant (>50% stenosis) disease. Advanced age, time between angiograms, and smoking status were identified as independent predictors of development of CAD. Truly normal coronary arteries do not progress to significant disease within a time frame of 4 years. Repeat coronary angiography within that period is probably not indicated. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Assessment of Effective Factor of Hydrogen Diffusion Equation Using FE Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae

    2010-01-01

    The coupled model with hydrogen transport and elasto-plasticity behavior was introduced. In this paper, the effective factor of the hydrogen diffusion equation has been described. To assess the effective factor, finite element (FE) analyses including hydrogen transport and mechanical loading for boundary layer specimens with low-strength steel properties are carried out. The results of the FE analyses are compared with those from previous studies conducted by Taha and Sofronis (2001)

  17. The Analysis of Factors that Influence Female Impulse Buying During Online Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Chien-Ju

    2008-01-01

    Impulse buying is seen as unplanned and unintended in-store behaviour. This study examines the factors triggering female online impulse buying behaviour by conducting a quantitative online questionnaire. Basing on previous literature, five factors including environmental stimuli, promotions and advertising, product-related factors, situational factors and customer impulse buying tendencies are analysed in this research. In addition, demographic data are also collected in this research. Accord...

  18. Treatment response with mepolizumab in severe eosinophilic asthma patients with previous omalizumab treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, A; Bourdin, A; Prazma, C M; Albers, F C; Price, R G; Yancey, S W; Ortega, H

    2016-09-01

    We performed post hoc analyses to evaluate the effect of humanized monoclonal antibody mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma previously treated with omalizumab. Data were collected from two randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled studies: MENSA (NCT01691521: 32-week treatment phase) and SIRIUS (NCT01691508: 24-week treatment phase). Active treatment was 75 mg intravenous mepolizumab (MENSA) or 100 mg subcutaneous mepolizumab (MENSA, SIRIUS). Patients had evidence of eosinophilic inflammation ≥150 cells/μl (at screening) or ≥300 cells/μl (during the previous year). Primary outcomes were the rate of exacerbations (MENSA) and the percentage reduction in oral corticosteroid (OCS) dose (SIRIUS). Other outcomes included lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s and morning peak expiratory flow), Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-5), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores, and safety. Overall, 576 patients were included from MENSA and 135 from SIRIUS, with 13% and 33% previously receiving omalizumab, respectively. In MENSA, mepolizumab reduced the rate of exacerbations by 57% (prior omalizumab) and 47% (no prior omalizumab) vs placebo. In SIRIUS, reductions in OCS use were comparable regardless of prior omalizumab use. Despite reducing chronic OCS use, mepolizumab also resulted in similar reductions in exacerbation rate relative to placebo in both subgroups. Asthma control and quality of life improved with mepolizumab vs placebo in both studies independent of prior omalizumab use, as shown by ACQ-5 and SGRQ scores. Adverse events were also comparable irrespective of prior omalizumab use. These post hoc analyses indicate that patients with severe eosinophilic asthma respond positively to mepolizumab regardless of prior use of omalizumab. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Participation in physical activity: perceptions of women with a previous history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graco, Marnie; Garrard, Jan; Jasper, Andrea E

    2009-04-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Regular physical activity plays an important role in preventing T2DM. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of physical activity among women with previous GDM, in the context of preventing T2DM. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women with previous GDM who had not been diagnosed with T2DM. Data were analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Women perceived diet to be significantly more important for the prevention of T2DM than physical activity. They underestimated the role of physical activity in preventing diabetes, which may have resulted from the lack of information they received following their pregnancy. Women consistently placed the needs of their families before their own, despite acknowledging their future health risks. The most commonly cited constraints on physical activity participation were lack of time, partner support, and appropriate childcare. They identified a need for 'family-friendly' community-based physical activity programs for mothers, more accessible childcare, and more information about the role of physical activity in diabetes prevention. Awareness of the role of physical activity for the prevention of diabetes was low. Physical activity promotion for women with previous GDM needs to be shaped around the opportunities and constraints identified by this population group.

  20. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  1. Analysing and Comparing Encodability Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Peters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Encodings or the proof of their absence are the main way to compare process calculi. To analyse the quality of encodings and to rule out trivial or meaningless encodings, they are augmented with quality criteria. There exists a bunch of different criteria and different variants of criteria in order to reason in different settings. This leads to incomparable results. Moreover it is not always clear whether the criteria used to obtain a result in a particular setting do indeed fit to this setting. We show how to formally reason about and compare encodability criteria by mapping them on requirements on a relation between source and target terms that is induced by the encoding function. In particular we analyse the common criteria full abstraction, operational correspondence, divergence reflection, success sensitiveness, and respect of barbs; e.g. we analyse the exact nature of the simulation relation (coupled simulation versus bisimulation that is induced by different variants of operational correspondence. This way we reduce the problem of analysing or comparing encodability criteria to the better understood problem of comparing relations on processes.

  2. Descriptive Analyses of Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2003-01-01

    Forord Produktanalyse og teknologianalyse kan gennmføres med et bredt socio-teknisk sigte med henblik på at forstå kulturelle, sociologiske, designmæssige, forretningsmæssige og mange andre forhold. Et delområde heri er systemisk analyse og beskrivelse af produkter og systemer. Nærværende kompend...

  3. Millifluidic droplet analyser for microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baraban, L.; Bertholle, F.; Salverda, M.L.M.; Bremond, N.; Panizza, P.; Baudry, J.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.; Bibette, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel millifluidic droplet analyser (MDA) for precisely monitoring the dynamics of microbial populations over multiple generations in numerous (=103) aqueous emulsion droplets (100 nL). As a first application, we measure the growth rate of a bacterial strain and determine the minimal

  4. Double-balloon catheter for induction of labour in women with a previous cesarean section, could it be the best choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bonrostro Torralba, Carlos; Tejero Cabrejas, Eva Lucía; Marti Gamboa, Sabina; Lapresta Moros, María; Campillos Maza, Jose Manuel; Castán Mateo, Sergio

    2017-05-01

    We analysed the efficacy and safety of double-balloon catheter for cervical ripening in women with a previous cesarean section and which were the most important variables associated with an increased risk of repeated cesarean delivery. We designed an observational retrospective study of 418 women with unfavourable cervices (Bishop Score cesarean delivery, and induction of labour with a double-balloon catheter. Baseline maternal data and perinatal outcomes were recorded for a descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analysis. A p value cesarean section were dystocia in the previous pregnancy (OR 1.744; CI 95% 1.066-2.846), the absence of previous vaginal delivery (OR 2.590; CI 95% 1.066-6.290), suspected fetal macrosomia (OR 2.410; CI 95% 0.959-6.054), and duration of oxytocin induction period (OR 1.005; CI 95% 1.004-1.006). The area under the curve was 0.789 (p cesarean delivery and unfavourable cervix. In our study, most women could have a vaginal delivery in spite of their risk factors for cesarean delivery. A multivariate model based on some clinical variables has moderate predictive value for intrapartum cesarean section.

  5. BWR core melt progression phenomena: Experimental analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the BWR Core Melt in Progression Phenomena Program, experimental results concerning severe fuel damage and core melt progression in BWR core geometry are used to evaluate existing models of the governing phenomena. These include control blade eutectic liquefaction and the subsequent relocation and attack on the channel box structure; oxidation heating and hydrogen generation; Zircaloy melting and relocation; and the continuing oxidation of zirconium with metallic blockage formation. Integral data have been obtained from the BWR DF-4 experiment in the ACRR and from BWR tests in the German CORA exreactor fuel-damage test facility. Additional integral data will be obtained from new CORA BWR test, the full-length FLHT-6 BWR test in the NRU test reactor, and the new program of exreactor experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on metallic melt relocation and blockage formation. an essential part of this activity is interpretation and use of the results of the BWR tests. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed experiment-specific models for analysis of the BWR experiments; to date, these models have permitted far more precise analyses of the conditions in these experiments than has previously been available. These analyses have provided a basis for more accurate interpretation of the phenomena that the experiments are intended to investigate. The results of posttest analyses of BWR experiments are discussed and significant findings from these analyses are explained. The ORNL control blade/canister models with materials interaction, relocation and blockage models are currently being implemented in SCDAP/RELAP5 as an optional structural component

  6. Important biological information uncovered in previously unaligned reads from chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments (ChIP-Seq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Wilberforce Zachary; Mejia-Guerra, Maria Katherine; Yilmaz, Alper; Pareja-Tobes, Pablo; Li, Wei; Doseff, Andrea I.; Grotewold, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the architecture of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) relies on chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) methods that provide genome-wide transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). ChIP-Seq furnishes millions of short reads that, after alignment, describe the genome-wide binding sites of a particular TF. However, in all organisms investigated an average of 40% of reads fail to align to the corresponding genome, with some datasets having as much as 80% of reads failing to align. We describe here the provenance of previously unaligned reads in ChIP-Seq experiments from animals and plants. We show that a substantial portion corresponds to sequences of bacterial and metazoan origin, irrespective of the ChIP-Seq chromatin source. Unforeseen was the finding that 30%–40% of unaligned reads were actually alignable. To validate these observations, we investigated the characteristics of the previously unaligned reads corresponding to TAL1, a human TF involved in lineage specification of hemopoietic cells. We show that, while unmapped ChIP-Seq read datasets contain foreign DNA sequences, additional TFBSs can be identified from the previously unaligned ChIP-Seq reads. Our results indicate that the re-evaluation of previously unaligned reads from ChIP-Seq experiments will significantly contribute to TF target identification and determination of emerging properties of GRNs. PMID:25727450

  7. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon Ho; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jang, Hak C

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is characterized by underlying maternal defects in the β-cell response to insulin during pregnancy. Women with a previous history of GDM have a greater than 7-fold higher risk of developing postpartum diabetes compared with women without GDM. Various risk factors for postpartum diabetes have been identified, including maternal age, glucose levels in pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy and postpartum body mass index, dietary patterns, physical activity, and breastfeeding. Genetic studies revealed that GDM shares common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. A number of lifestyle interventional trials that aimed to ameliorate modifiable risk factors, including diet, exercise, and breastfeeding, succeeded in reducing the incidence of postpartum diabetes, weight retention, and other obesity-related morbidities. The present review summarizes the findings of previous studies on the incidence and risk factors of postpartum diabetes and discusses recent lifestyle interventional trials that attempted to prevent postpartum diabetes.

  8. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon Ho; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jang, Hak C.

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is characterized by underlying maternal defects in the β-cell response to insulin during pregnancy. Women with a previous history of GDM have a greater than 7-fold higher risk of developing postpartum diabetes compared with women without GDM. Various risk factors for postpartum diabetes have been identified, including maternal age, glucose levels in pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy and postpartum body mass index, dietary patterns, physical activity, and breastfeeding. Genetic studies revealed that GDM shares common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. A number of lifestyle interventional trials that aimed to ameliorate modifiable risk factors, including diet, exercise, and breastfeeding, succeeded in reducing the incidence of postpartum diabetes, weight retention, and other obesity-related morbidities. The present review summarizes the findings of previous studies on the incidence and risk factors of postpartum diabetes and discusses recent lifestyle interventional trials that attempted to prevent postpartum diabetes. PMID:28049284

  9. Workload analyse of assembling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  10. Spatial Analyses of Harappan Urban Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Teramura

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Harappan Civilization occupies a unique place among the early civilizations of the world with its well planned urban settlements, advanced handicraft and technology, religious and trade activities. Using a Geographical Information Systems (GIS, this study presents spatial analyses that locate urban settlements on a digital elevation model (DEM according to the three phases of early, mature and late. Understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of Harappan sites and the change in some factors, such as topographic features, river passages or sea level changes, will lead to an understanding of the dynamism of this civilization. It will also afford a glimpse of the factors behind the formation, development, and decline of the Harappan Civilization.

  11. Safety analyses of surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspach, W.; Baran, A.; Dorst, H.J.; Eifert, B.; Gruen, M.; Behrendt, V.; Berkhan, W.; Dincklage, R.D. v.; Doehler, J.; Bruecher, H.

    1981-01-01

    The investigations were carried out using the example of the Gorleben waste disposal center and the planning documents established for this center. The safety analyses refer to the transport of spent fuel elements, the water-cooled interin storage and the reprocessing stage. Regarding the risk analysis of the technical systems the dynamics of the courses of incidents can be better taken into account by doing a methodical development. (DG) [de

  12. Technical center for transportation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of an information search/retrieval/research activity of Sandia Laboratories which provides technical environmental information which may be used in transportation risk analyses, environmental impact statements, development of design and test criteria for packaging of energy materials, and transportation mode research studies. General activities described are: (1) history of center development; (2) environmental information storage/retrieval system; (3) information searches; (4) data needs identification; and (5) field data acquisition system and applications

  13. Methodology of cost benefit analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrik, M.; Babic, P.

    2000-10-01

    The report addresses financial aspects of proposed investments and other steps which are intended to contribute to nuclear safety. The aim is to provide introductory insight into the procedures and potential of cost-benefit analyses as a routine guide when making decisions on costly provisions as one of the tools to assess whether a particular provision is reasonable. The topic is applied to the nuclear power sector. (P.A.)

  14. Providing traceability for neuroimaging analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Habib, Irfan; Munir, Kamran; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran

    2013-09-01

    With the increasingly digital nature of biomedical data and as the complexity of analyses in medical research increases, the need for accurate information capture, traceability and accessibility has become crucial to medical researchers in the pursuance of their research goals. Grid- or Cloud-based technologies, often based on so-called Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), are increasingly being seen as viable solutions for managing distributed data and algorithms in the bio-medical domain. For neuroscientific analyses, especially those centred on complex image analysis, traceability of processes and datasets is essential but up to now this has not been captured in a manner that facilitates collaborative study. Few examples exist, of deployed medical systems based on Grids that provide the traceability of research data needed to facilitate complex analyses and none have been evaluated in practice. Over the past decade, we have been working with mammographers, paediatricians and neuroscientists in three generations of projects to provide the data management and provenance services now required for 21st century medical research. This paper outlines the finding of a requirements study and a resulting system architecture for the production of services to support neuroscientific studies of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. The paper proposes a software infrastructure and services that provide the foundation for such support. It introduces the use of the CRISTAL software to provide provenance management as one of a number of services delivered on a SOA, deployed to manage neuroimaging projects that have been studying biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In the neuGRID and N4U projects a Provenance Service has been delivered that captures and reconstructs the workflow information needed to facilitate researchers in conducting neuroimaging analyses. The software enables neuroscientists to track the evolution of workflows and datasets. It also tracks the outcomes of

  15. Is Cup Positioning Challenged in Hips Previously Treated With Periacetabular Osteotomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartig-Andreasen, Charlotte; Stilling, Maiken; Søballe, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    After periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), some patients develop osteoarthritis with need of a total hip arthroplasty (THA). We evaluated the outcome of THA following PAO and explored factors associated with inferior cup position and increased polyethylene wear. Follow-up were performed 4 to 10years...... after THA in 34 patients (38 hips) with previous PAO. Computer analysis evaluated cup position and wear rates. No patient had dislocations or revision surgery. Median scores were: Harris hip 96, Oxford hip 38 and WOMAC 78. Mean cup anteversion and abduction angles were 22(o) (range 7°-43°) and 45...

  16. Analysing the Cenozoic depositional record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goledowski, Bartosz; Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    between the global climate record (oxygen isotopes) and lithology variations on the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the eastern North Sea. Due to the strongly limited time resolution of low temperature thermochronology, the Cenozoic sedimentary record potentially provides the most detailed history...... models. The matrix mass deposition history will be compared with the paleoclimate record (e.g. oxygen isotope curves) to see if the previously observed correlation in the eastern North Sea can be extended to other ages and locations.  ...

  17. Urinary tract infections in hospital pediatrics: many previous antibiotherapy and antibiotics resistance, including fluoroquinolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffo, A; Marguet, C; Checoury, A; Boyer, S; Gardrat, A; Houivet, E; Caron, F

    2014-02-01

    We studied antibiotic resistance in pediatric UTIs and we evaluated the impact of antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months, very little French data being available for this population. We conducted a multicenter prospective study including children consulting for, or admitted in 2 hospitals. Prior antibiotic exposure was documented from their health record. One hundred and ten patients (73 girls), 11 days to 12 years of age, were included in 10 months. Ninety-six percent presented with pyelonephritis, associated to uropathy for 25%. Escherichia coli was predominant (78%), followed by Proteus spp. and Enterococcus spp. The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli was high and close to that reported for adults with complicated UTIs: amoxicillin 60%, amoxicillin-clavulanate 35%, cefotaxim 5%, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole 26%, nalidixic acid 9%, ciprofloxacin 7%, gentamycin 1%, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin 0%. The antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months involved 62 children (56%) most frequently with β-lactams (89%) for a respiratory tract infection (56%). A clear relationship between exposure and resistance was observed for amoxicillin (71% vs. 46%), first generation (65% vs. 46%) and third generation (9% vs. 3%) cephalosporins, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36% vs. 15%). However, antibiotic exposure could not account alone for the results, as suggested by the 7% of ciprofloxacin resistance, observed without any identified previous treatment. Bacterial species and antibiotic resistance level in children are similar to those reported for adults. Antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months increases the risk of resistance but other factors are involved (previous antibiotic therapies and fecal-oral or mother-to-child transmission). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Change in knee flexor torque after fatiguing exercise identifies previous hamstring injury in football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, C; Ma'ayah, F; Blazevich, A J

    2018-03-01

    Muscular fatigue and interlimb strength asymmetry are factors known to influence hamstring injury risk; however, limb-specific exacerbation of knee flexor (hamstrings) torque production after fatiguing exercise has previously been ignored. To investigate changes in muscular force production before and after sport-specific (repeated-sprint) and non-specific (knee extension-flexion) fatiguing exercise, and explore the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic endurance (ie, muscle-specific) and single-leg vertical jump (ie, whole limb) tests to identify previous hamstring injury. Twenty Western Australia State League footballers with previous unilateral hamstring injury and 20 players without participated. Peak concentric knee extensor and flexor (180°∙s -1 ) torques were assessed throughout an isokinetic endurance test, which was then repeated alongside a single-leg vertical jump test before and after maximal repeated-sprint exercise. Greater reductions in isokinetic knee flexor torque (-16%) and the concentric hamstring:quadriceps peak torque ratio (-15%) were observed after repeated-sprint running only in the injured (kicking) leg and only in the previously injured subjects. Changes in (1) peak knee flexor torque after repeated-sprint exercise, and (2) the decline in knee flexor torque during the isokinetic endurance test measured after repeated-sprint exercise, correctly identified the injured legs (N = 20) within the cohort (N = 80) with 100% specificity and sensitivity. Decreases in peak knee flexor torque and the knee flexor torque during an isokinetic endurance test after repeated-sprint exercise identified previous hamstring injury with 100% accuracy. Changes in knee flexor torque, but not SLVJ, should be tested to determine its prospective ability to predict hamstring injury in competitive football players. © 2017 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Risk of Uterine Rupture in Labour Induction of Women With Previous Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurdoglu Zehra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the increased number of labour inductions in women with previous cesarean section, the risk of uterine rupture leading to maternal and fetal mortality is also increasing. In this manuscript, we aimed to review the risk of uterine rupture in labour induction of women with prior cesarean section. Materials and Methods: Data from 48 reports belonging to the years 1994 through 2015, obtained via a search on various internet sources by the words "labour induction", "previous cesarean", "uterine scar", "uterine rupture" were used to characterize the risk factors, methods and complications of labour induction in women with previous cesarean section. Results: The success of labour induction after a previous cesarean section is related to a history of prior vaginal delivery, the indication of prior cesarean delivery, age, body mass index and ethnicity. The risk of uterine rupture is lower with mechanical dilatators compared to prostaglandins when they are used for cervical ripening. Oxytocin is associated with an increased risk of uterine rupture in such women but induction and augmentation of labor is an option for all women undergoing a trial of labor after cesarean section. Although some guidelines discourage the use of prostaglandin E1, some others support the use of prostaglandin E1 or E2 for induction of labor in rare situations provided that the women be informed of the higher risk of uterine rupture. Conclusions: Previous uterine surgery is the most common underlying reason for an increased risk of uterine rupture in subsequent trial of labour. When indicated, before considering a labour induction in these patients, a risk assessment should be performed based on various parameters. For prediction of uterine rupture, lower uterine segment may be measured by ultrasonography. Individually selected methods for labour induction should be discussed with the patients since they are mostly associated with increased risk of uterine

  20. Analysing Medieval Urban Space; a methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlous L. Craane MA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article has been written in reaction to recent developments in medieval history and archaeology, to study not only the buildings in a town but also the spaces that hold them together. It discusses a more objective and interdisciplinary approach for analysing urban morphology and use of space. It proposes a 'new' methodology by combining town plan analysis and space syntax. This methodology was trialled on the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands. By comparing the results of this 'new' methodology with the results of previous, more conventional, research, this article shows that space syntax can be applied successfully to medieval urban contexts. It does this by demonstrating a strong correlation between medieval economic spaces and the most integrated spaces, just as is found in the study of modern urban environments. It thus provides a strong basis for the use of this technique in future research of medieval urban environments.

  1. Recommendations for Conducting Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Analyses for Students with Disabilities Based on Previous DIF Studies. Research Report. ETS RR-11-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzick, Heather; Stone, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to help ensure that strategies for differential item functioning (DIF) detection for students with disabilities are appropriate and lead to meaningful results. We surveyed existing DIF studies for students with disabilities and describe them in terms of study design, statistical approach, sample characteristics, and…

  2. Impact of sophisticated fog spray models on accident analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblyer, S.P.; Owzarski, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    The N-Reactor confinement system release dose to the public in a postulated accident is reduced by washing the confinement atmosphere with fog sprays. This allows a low pressure release of confinement atmosphere containing fission products through filters and out an elevated stack. The current accident analysis required revision of the CORRAL code and other codes such as CONTEMPT to properly model the N Reactor confinement into a system of multiple fog-sprayed compartments. In revising these codes, more sophisticated models for the fog sprays and iodine plateout were incorporated to remove some of the conservatism of steam condensing rate, fission product washout and iodine plateout than used in previous studies. The CORRAL code, which was used to describe the transport and deposition of airborne fission products in LWR containment systems for the Rasmussen Study, was revised to describe fog spray removal of molecular iodine (I 2 ) and particulates in multiple compartments for sprays having individual characteristics of on-off times, flow rates, fall heights, and drop sizes in changing containment atmospheres. During postulated accidents, the code determined the fission product removal rates internally rather than from input decontamination factors. A discussion is given of how the calculated plateout and washout rates vary with time throughout the analysis. The results of the accident analyses indicated that more credit could be given to fission product washout and plateout. An important finding was that the release of fission products to the atmosphere and adsorption of fission products on the filters were significantly lower than previous studies had indicated

  3. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain: Findings From 19 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    2018-01-01

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations according to timing of events during the life course, and according to gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (N = 52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of 16 mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the occurrence and age of onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Survival analyses estimated the associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent back/neck pain onset. All mental disorders were positively associated with back/neck pain in bivariate analyses; most (12 of 16) remained so after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Early-onset disorders were stronger predictors of pain; when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, this remained the case for depression/dysthymia. No gender differences were observed. In conclusion, individuals with mental disorder, beyond depression and anxiety, are at higher risk of developing subsequent back/neck pain, stressing the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and highlight the need of assessing back/neck pain in mental health clinical settings. Previous mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition are positively associated with subsequent back/neck pain onset, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Earlier-onset mental disorders are stronger predictors of subsequent pain onset, compared with later-onset disorders

  4. Multitrait-Multimethod Analyses of Two Self-Concept Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Smith, Ian D.

    1982-01-01

    The multidimensionality of self-concept and the use of factor analysis in the development of self-concept instruments are supported in multitrait-multimethod analyses of the Sears and Coopersmith instruments. Convergent validity and discriminate validity of subscales in factor analysis and multitrait-multimethod analysis of longitudinal data are…

  5. Computational analyses of synergism in small molecular network motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellular functions and responses to stimuli are controlled by complex regulatory networks that comprise a large diversity of molecular components and their interactions. However, achieving an intuitive understanding of the dynamical properties and responses to stimuli of these networks is hampered by their large scale and complexity. To address this issue, analyses of regulatory networks often focus on reduced models that depict distinct, reoccurring connectivity patterns referred to as motifs. Previous modeling studies have begun to characterize the dynamics of small motifs, and to describe ways in which variations in parameters affect their responses to stimuli. The present study investigates how variations in pairs of parameters affect responses in a series of ten common network motifs, identifying concurrent variations that act synergistically (or antagonistically to alter the responses of the motifs to stimuli. Synergism (or antagonism was quantified using degrees of nonlinear blending and additive synergism. Simulations identified concurrent variations that maximized synergism, and examined the ways in which it was affected by stimulus protocols and the architecture of a motif. Only a subset of architectures exhibited synergism following paired changes in parameters. The approach was then applied to a model describing interlocked feedback loops governing the synthesis of the CREB1 and CREB2 transcription factors. The effects of motifs on synergism for this biologically realistic model were consistent with those for the abstract models of single motifs. These results have implications for the rational design of combination drug therapies with the potential for synergistic interactions.

  6. Intramedullary cervical spinal cord abscess by viridans group Streptococcus secondary to infective endocarditis and facilitated by previous local radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; López-Medrano, Francisco; García-Montero, María; Hornedo-Muguiro, Javier; Aguado, Jose-María

    2009-01-01

    The risk factors, microbial patterns, and prognosis of intramedullary abscess have varied with time. The development of an intramedullary abscess of the spinal cord (IASC) constitutes an exceptional complication of infective endocarditis (IE) in the post-antibiotic era. We present a case of cervical IASC by viridans group Streptococcus in a patient with mitral valve IE. We hypothesize that previous cervical radiotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma favoured the occurrence of this uncommon entity. This physiopathologic mechanism has not been previously reported.

  7. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... (previously Precision Helicopters, LLC); Robinson Air Crane, Inc.; San Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins... (Previously Hawkins & Powers Aviation); S.M. &T. Aircraft (Previously Us Helicopter Inc., UNC Helicopters, Inc...

  8. Effects of early intervention on EEG power and coherence in previously institutionalized children in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter J; Reeb, Bethany C; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    Two groups of Romanian children were compared on spectral power and coherence in the electroencephalogram (EEG) in early childhood. One group consisted of previously institutionalized children who had been randomly assigned to a foster care intervention at a mean age of 23 months. The second group had been randomized to remain in institutional care. Because of a policy of noninterference, a number of these children also experienced placement into alternative family care environments. There were minimal group differences between the foster care and institutionalized groups in EEG power and coherence across all measured frequency bands at 42 months of age. However, age at foster care placement within the foster care group was correlated with certain measures of EEG power and coherence. Earlier age at foster care placement was associated with increased alpha power and decreased short-distance EEG coherence. Further analyses separating age at placement from duration of intervention suggest that this effect may be more robust for EEG coherence than EEG band power. Supplementary analyses examined whether the EEG measures mediated changes in intellectual abilities within the foster care children, but no clear evidence of mediation was observed.

  9. Theorising and Analysing Academic Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Allmer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to contextualise universities historically within capitalism and to analyse academic labour and the deployment of digital media theoretically and critically. It argues that the post-war expansion of the university can be considered as medium and outcome of informational capitalism and as a dialectical development of social achievement and advanced commodification. The article strives to identify the class position of academic workers, introduces the distinction between academic work and labour, discusses the connection between academic, information and cultural work, and suggests a broad definition of university labour. It presents a theoretical model of working conditions that helps to systematically analyse the academic labour process and to provide an overview of working conditions at universities. The paper furthermore argues for the need to consider the development of education technologies as a dialectics of continuity and discontinuity, discusses the changing nature of the forces and relations of production, and the impact on the working conditions of academics in the digital university. Based on Erik Olin Wright’s inclusive approach of social transformation, the article concludes with the need to bring together anarchist, social democratic and revolutionary strategies for establishing a socialist university in a commons-based information society.

  10. Incorporating nonlinearity into mediation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafl, George J; Knafl, Kathleen A; Grey, Margaret; Dixon, Jane; Deatrick, Janet A; Gallo, Agatha M

    2017-03-21

    Mediation is an important issue considered in the behavioral, medical, and social sciences. It addresses situations where the effect of a predictor variable X on an outcome variable Y is explained to some extent by an intervening, mediator variable M. Methods for addressing mediation have been available for some time. While these methods continue to undergo refinement, the relationships underlying mediation are commonly treated as linear in the outcome Y, the predictor X, and the mediator M. These relationships, however, can be nonlinear. Methods are needed for assessing when mediation relationships can be treated as linear and for estimating them when they are nonlinear. Existing adaptive regression methods based on fractional polynomials are extended here to address nonlinearity in mediation relationships, but assuming those relationships are monotonic as would be consistent with theories about directionality of such relationships. Example monotonic mediation analyses are provided assessing linear and monotonic mediation of the effect of family functioning (X) on a child's adaptation (Y) to a chronic condition by the difficulty (M) for the family in managing the child's condition. Example moderated monotonic mediation and simulation analyses are also presented. Adaptive methods provide an effective way to incorporate possibly nonlinear monotonicity into mediation relationships.

  11. Incorporating nonlinearity into mediation analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Knafl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mediation is an important issue considered in the behavioral, medical, and social sciences. It addresses situations where the effect of a predictor variable X on an outcome variable Y is explained to some extent by an intervening, mediator variable M. Methods for addressing mediation have been available for some time. While these methods continue to undergo refinement, the relationships underlying mediation are commonly treated as linear in the outcome Y, the predictor X, and the mediator M. These relationships, however, can be nonlinear. Methods are needed for assessing when mediation relationships can be treated as linear and for estimating them when they are nonlinear. Methods Existing adaptive regression methods based on fractional polynomials are extended here to address nonlinearity in mediation relationships, but assuming those relationships are monotonic as would be consistent with theories about directionality of such relationships. Results Example monotonic mediation analyses are provided assessing linear and monotonic mediation of the effect of family functioning (X on a child’s adaptation (Y to a chronic condition by the difficulty (M for the family in managing the child's condition. Example moderated monotonic mediation and simulation analyses are also presented. Conclusions Adaptive methods provide an effective way to incorporate possibly nonlinear monotonicity into mediation relationships.

  12. In vivo dentate nucleus MRI relaxometry correlates with previous administration of Gadolinium-based contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedeschi, Enrico; Canna, Antonietta; Cocozza, Sirio; Russo, Carmela; Angelini, Valentina; Brunetti, Arturo [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Neuroradiology, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Palma, Giuseppe; Quarantelli, Mario [National Research Council, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Borrelli, Pasquale; Salvatore, Marco [IRCCS SDN, Naples (Italy); Lanzillo, Roberta; Postiglione, Emanuela; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate changes in T1 and T2* relaxometry of dentate nuclei (DN) with respect to the number of previous administrations of Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA). In 74 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients with variable disease duration (9.8±6.8 years) and severity (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores:3.1±0.9), the DN R1 (1/T1) and R2* (1/T2*) relaxation rates were measured using two unenhanced 3D Dual-Echo spoiled Gradient-Echo sequences with different flip angles. Correlations of the number of previous GBCA administrations with DN R1 and R2* relaxation rates were tested, including gender and age effect, in a multivariate regression analysis. The DN R1 (normalized by brainstem) significantly correlated with the number of GBCA administrations (p<0.001), maintaining the same significance even when including MS-related factors. Instead, the DN R2* values correlated only with age (p=0.003), and not with GBCA administrations (p=0.67). In a subgroup of 35 patients for whom the administered GBCA subtype was known, the effect of GBCA on DN R1 appeared mainly related to linear GBCA. In RR-MS patients, the number of previous GBCA administrations correlates with R1 relaxation rates of DN, while R2* values remain unaffected, suggesting that T1-shortening in these patients is related to the amount of Gadolinium given. (orig.)

  13. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes de; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Ciccotti; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years), and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire) of parents (during childhood and adolescence) and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents). The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (pparents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR=6.67 [CI=1.94-22.79]) more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. Methods: The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years, and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire of parents (during childhood and adolescence and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents. Results: The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p < 0.001. The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR = 6.67 [CI = 1.94-22.79] more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. Conclusions: The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors.

  15. Dietary self-efficacy predicts AHEI diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, Erin Poe; Narayan, K M Venkat; Reilly, Carolyn M; Foster, Jennifer; McCullough, Marjorie; Ziegler, Thomas R; Guo, Ying; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of intrapersonal influences of diet quality as defined by the Health Belief Model constructs in women with recent histories of gestational diabetes. A descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional design was used to analyze relationships between diet quality and intrapersonal variables, including perceptions of threat of type 2 diabetes mellitus development, benefits and barriers of healthy eating, and dietary self-efficacy, in a convenience sample of 75 community-dwelling women (55% minority; mean age, 35.5 years; SD, 5.5 years) with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Diet quality was defined by the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). Multiple regression was used to identify predictors of AHEI diet quality. Women had moderate AHEI diet quality (mean score, 47.6; SD, 14.3). Only higher levels of education and self-efficacy significantly predicted better AHEI diet quality, controlling for other contributing variables. There is a significant opportunity to improve diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Improving self-efficacy may be an important component to include in nutrition interventions. In addition to identifying other important individual components, future studies of diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus are needed to investigate the scope of influence beyond the individual to potential family, social, and environmental factors. © 2014 The Author(s).

  16. Is the high mortality risk in sentenced offenders independent of previous imprisonment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelsberg, Ellen; Laake, Petter

    2010-04-01

    The mortality in prisoners is high. However, our knowledge about the mortality in convicted offenders, irrespective of incarceration history, is limited. Our aim was to investigate possible predictors for over-all and cause specific mortality in a nation-wide study of convicted offenders with and without previous imprisonment. This case-control study drew random samples of deceased and living offenders (N = 1,112) from four complete cohorts of convicted offenders, two male (born 1967 and 1977, respectively), and two female (born 1967-70 and 1977-80, respectively). All criminal records were systematized and information about date and cause of death was collected on those deceased. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that age at first court conviction (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.84-0.93), drug related crimes (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.23-3.22), and crime diversity (1.51, 95% CI = 1.07-2.13) were significant predictors of premature death in males. In females, age at first court conviction (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.88-0.97), drug related crimes (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.37-3.69) and belonging to the oldest cohort (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.35-3.26) were significant predictors of premature death. Age at first court conviction remained a significant predictor for death in all cause specific multivariable mortality analyses. In addition, having committed drug related crimes and high crime diversity were strong predictors for substance related deaths. Males did more often die in accidents or commit suicide. Somatic deaths were most often encountered in the oldest cohort. Incarceration did not remain a significant predictor for premature death in any of the multivariable analyses. Measures intended to prevent premature death in convicted offenders should target wider populations than hitherto acknowledged.

  17. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  18. Manufacturing of Nanostructured Rings from Previously ECAE-Processed AA5083 Alloy by Isothermal Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Luis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of a functional hollow mechanical element or ring of the AA5083 alloy previously equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE processed, which presents a submicrometric microstructure, is dealt with. For this purpose, the design of two isothermal forging dies (preform and final shape is carried out using the design of experiments (DOE methodology. Moreover, after manufacturing the dies and carrying out tests so as to achieve real rings, the mechanical properties of these rings are analysed as well as their microstructure. Furthermore, a comparison between the different forged rings is made from ECAE-processed material subjected to different heat treatments, previous to the forging stage. On the other hand, the ring forging process is modelled through the use of finite element simulation in order to improve the die design and to study the force required for the isothermal forging, the damage value, and the strain the material predeformed by ECAE has undergone. With this present research work, it is intended to improve the knowledge about the mechanical properties of nanostructured material and the applicability of this material to industrial processes that allow the manufacturing of functional parts.

  19. Impacts of Current and Previous Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes for Biofuel Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, S.; Parton, W.; Adler, P.; Ogle, S.; West, T.

    2008-12-01

    Biofuel cropping systems are both a source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHG). Fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and transport, farm machinery operation, and processing of biomass into fuel all lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but the largest GHG sources for biofuel systems are often soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and loss of organic carbon as a result of land use change. However, improved land management can increase soil carbon levels and decrease N2O emissions, thus complementing the CO2 sink from displaced fossil fuel combustion. Previously cropped land, grazed land, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land is being converted to biofuel cropping. We report results for the central US because most of the land used for biofuel cropping is in the central region of the country (corn/soy belt). The primary tool for this analysis is the DAYCENT ecosystem model. The ability of the model to simulate soil GHG fluxes and crop yields is demonstrated and results from simulations of different land management scenarios are presented. Our analyses suggest that conversion of CRP or grazed land to corn ethanol cropping under conventional management leads to a net source of GHG, but that converting these lands to perennial cellulosic biofuel cropping results in a GHG sink. Previously cropped land converted to corn ethanol under conventional management is a small GHG sink, but improved management and conversion to cellulosic based crops can greatly increase this sink strength.

  20. Attitudes about hypnosis: factor analyzing the VSABTH-C with an American sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joseph P; Houts, Carrie R; Capafons, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors factor-analyzed responses from 1,141 American undergraduate students to the Valencia Scale of Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Hypnosis-Client Version. They obtained an 8-factor solution accounting for 66% of the total variance in responses. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated acceptable fit of their model and those reported earlier by Carvalho et al. (2007) and Capafons, Mendoza, et al. (2008) using Portuguese and international samples, respectively. Unlike previous factor analyses of the scale, the authors obtained an independent clusters solution. Distinctions between the authors' model and those reported previously are discussed.

  1. Component Analyses Using Single-Subject Experimental Designs: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Horner, John; Sturmey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A component analysis is a systematic assessment of 2 or more independent variables or components that comprise a treatment package. Component analyses are important for the analysis of behavior; however, previous research provides only cursory descriptions of the topic. Therefore, in this review the definition of "component analysis" is discussed,…

  2. Scripts for TRUMP data analyses. Part II (HLA-related data): statistical analyses specific for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Junya

    2016-01-01

    The Transplant Registry Unified Management Program (TRUMP) made it possible for members of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (JSHCT) to analyze large sets of national registry data on autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, as the processes used to collect transplantation information are complex and differed over time, the background of these processes should be understood when using TRUMP data. Previously, information on the HLA locus of patients and donors had been collected using a questionnaire-based free-description method, resulting in some input errors. To correct minor but significant errors and provide accurate HLA matching data, the use of a Stata or EZR/R script offered by the JSHCT is strongly recommended when analyzing HLA data in the TRUMP dataset. The HLA mismatch direction, mismatch counting method, and different impacts of HLA mismatches by stem cell source are other important factors in the analysis of HLA data. Additionally, researchers should understand the statistical analyses specific for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, such as competing risk, landmark analysis, and time-dependent analysis, to correctly analyze transplant data. The data center of the JSHCT can be contacted if statistical assistance is required.

  3. Thyroplasty in the previously irradiated neck: A case series and short-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James R; Orbelo, Diana M; Noel, Daniel B; Pittelko, Rebecca L; Maragos, Nicolas E; Ekbom, Dale C

    2016-08-01

    External beam radiation to the neck is widely considered a contraindication for thyroplasty due to concern for infection and implant extrusion. We present a case series of our experience regarding thyroplasty performed in a previously radiated field. Retrospective case study at a tertiary academic referral center. Using the institution's clinical notes search tool, records from 1999 through 2014 documenting thyroplasty and radiation were identified and reviewed. Patients who received external beam radiation to the operative field prior to thyroplasty were included. Data including duration of radiation, timing and specifics of thyroplasty, postoperative complications, risk factors, clinical voice outcomes, and length of follow-up were collected. Fourteen patients met criteria for the study. Of all thyroplasty performed, 11 were Silastic implants, two were Gore-Tex implants, six had concurrent arytenoid adduction, and one was a midline type II thyroplasty. In terms of risk factors for postoperative complications, two were diabetic, none were active smokers, and one had a splenectomy. All patients were given postoperative antibiotics. The median duration of follow-up after surgery was 14.2 months. No patients were found to have postoperative complications. Pre- and postoperative voice data were assessed. Overall, there was improvement in voice outcomes. Thyroplasty may be an option for patients who have previously undergone external beam radiation. Short-term and intermediate outcomes in our patients showed no postoperative complications, and generally voice or dysphagia improved. Careful selection is still warranted when considering thyroplasty in a previously irradiated neck, and long-term outcomes need further study. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:1849-1853, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Survival of dental implants placed in sites of previously failed implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrcanovic, Bruno R; Kisch, Jenö; Albrektsson, Tomas; Wennerberg, Ann

    2017-11-01

    To assess the survival of dental implants placed in sites of previously failed implants and to explore the possible factors that might affect the outcome of this reimplantation procedure. Patients that had failed dental implants, which were replaced with the same implant type at the same site, were included. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the patients and implants; survival analysis was also performed. The effect of systemic, environmental, and local factors on the survival of the reoperated implants was evaluated. 175 of 10,096 implants in 98 patients were replaced by another implant at the same location (159, 14, and 2 implants at second, third, and fourth surgeries, respectively). Newly replaced implants were generally of similar diameter but of shorter length compared to the previously placed fixtures. A statistically significant greater percentage of lost implants were placed in sites with low bone quantity. There was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.032) in the survival rates between implants that were inserted for the first time (94%) and implants that replaced the ones lost (73%). There was a statistically higher failure rate of the reoperated implants for patients taking antidepressants and antithrombotic agents. Dental implants replacing failed implants had lower survival rates than the rates reported for the previous attempts of implant placement. It is suggested that a site-specific negative effect may possibly be associated with this phenomenon, as well as the intake of antidepressants and antithrombotic agents. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Influence of previous breast surgery in sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Prior, V; Díaz-Expósito, R; Casáns Tormo, I

    The aim of this study was to review the feasibility of selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with previous surgery for breast cancer, as well as to examine the factors that may interfere with sentinel node detection. A retrospective review was performed on 91 patients with breast cancer and previous breast surgery, and who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy. Patients were divided into two groups according to their previous treatment: aesthetic breast surgery in 30 patients (group I) and breast-conserving surgery in 61 (group II). Lymphoscintigraphy was performed after an intra-tumour injection in 21 cases and a peri-areolar injection in 70 cases. An analysis was made of lymphatic drainage patterns and overall sentinel node detection according to clinical, pathological and surgical variables. The overall detection of the sentinel lymph node in the lymphoscintigraphy was 92.3%, with 7.7% of extra-axillary drainages. The identification rate was similar after aesthetic breast surgery (93.3%) and breast-conserving surgery (91.8%). Sentinel lymph nodes were found in the contralateral axilla in two patients (2.2%), and they were included in the histopathology study. The non-identification rate in the lymphoscintigraphy was 7.7%. There was a significantly higher non-detection rate in the highest histological grade tumours (28.6% grade III, 4.5% grade I and 3.6% grade II). Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with previous breast surgery is feasible and deserves further studies to assess the influence of different aspects in sentinel node detection in this clinical scenario. A high histological grade was significantly associated with a lower detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. Medication abortion failure in women with and without previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlendorf, Christine E; Fox, Edith E; Ali, Rose F; Anderson, Nora C; Reed, Reiley D; Lichtenberg, E Steve

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the association between previous cesarean delivery and medication abortion failure and the association between parity and failure. Data were abstracted from 2035 consecutive charts of women who underwent medication abortion in 2011. All women were at 63 days gestation or less and received mifepristone 200mg orally and misoprostol 800 mcg buccally. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the relationship between failure, defined as requiring either curettage or additional medication, and prior cesarean delivery. We also examined the relationship between failure and parity. Follow-up was available on 1609 (79%) patients. Overall, 4.5% of patients experienced failure. Neither cesarean delivery nor parity was associated with failure; 6.5% of women with prior cesarean delivery experienced failure, compared to 3.7% of nulliparous women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83-3.87]. With regard to parity, 4.7% of women with two or more previous births experienced failure, compared to 3.7% of nulliparous women (aOR, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.54-2.14). We did not find significant associations between prior cesarean delivery and failure or parity and failure. A previous study of patients who had received a less effective regimen reported significant associations between cesarean delivery and failure and parity and failure. While our results do not rule out the possibility of modest associations due to our limited statistical power, they are reassuring relative to previous findings. Our results suggest that if there are differences in women's odds of medication abortion failure by obstetric history, such differences are unlikely to be large. Providers and patients may factor this information into decision making about methods of pregnancy termination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project

  8. Hydrogen Analyses in the EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worapittayaporn, S.; Eyink, J.; Movahed, M.

    2008-01-01

    In severe accidents with core melting large amounts of hydrogen may be released into the containment. The EPR provides a combustible gas control system to prevent hydrogen combustion modes with the potential to challenge the containment integrity due to excessive pressure and temperature loads. This paper outlines the approach for the verification of the effectiveness and efficiency of this system. Specifically, the justification is a multi-step approach. It involves the deployment of integral codes, lumped parameter containment codes and CFD codes and the use of the sigma criterion, which provides the link to the broad experimental data base for flame acceleration (FA) and deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). The procedure is illustrated with an example. The performed analyses show that hydrogen combustion at any time does not lead to pressure or temperature loads that threaten the containment integrity of the EPR. (authors)