Sample records for previous experiments conducted

  1. Conducting interactive experiments online. (United States)

    Arechar, Antonio A; Gächter, Simon; Molleman, Lucas


    Online labor markets provide new opportunities for behavioral research, but conducting economic experiments online raises important methodological challenges. This particularly holds for interactive designs. In this paper, we provide a methodological discussion of the similarities and differences between interactive experiments conducted in the laboratory and online. To this end, we conduct a repeated public goods experiment with and without punishment using samples from the laboratory and the online platform Amazon Mechanical Turk. We chose to replicate this experiment because it is long and logistically complex. It therefore provides a good case study for discussing the methodological and practical challenges of online interactive experimentation. We find that basic behavioral patterns of cooperation and punishment in the laboratory are replicable online. The most important challenge of online interactive experiments is participant dropout. We discuss measures for reducing dropout and show that, for our case study, dropouts are exogenous to the experiment. We conclude that data quality for interactive experiments via the Internet is adequate and reliable, making online interactive experimentation a potentially valuable complement to laboratory studies.

  2. Previous Experience a Model of Practice UNAE


    Ruiz, Ormary Barberi; Pesántez Palacios, María Dolores


    The statements presented in this article represents a preliminary version of the proposed model of pre-professional practices (PPP) of the National University of Education (UNAE) of Ecuador, an urgent institutional necessity is revealed in the descriptive analyzes conducted from technical support - administrative (reports, interviews, testimonials), pedagogical foundations of UNAE (curricular directionality, transverse axes in practice, career plan, approach and diagnostic examination as subj...

  3. Supporting planning and conducting experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Riesen, Siswa; Gijlers, Aaltje H.; Anjewierden, Anjo Allert; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Looi, Chee-Kit; Polman, Joseph; Cress, Ulrike; Reimann, Peter


    In inquiry learning learners design and conduct experiments. Learners experience difficulties with the involved processes and need guidance to design useful experiments. To guide students in this we created a configurable experiment design tool that is usable in multiple domains. The tool was tested

  4. Culture experiments on conductive polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi


    Fibroblast L929 and myoblast C2C12 cells of the mouse connective tissue origin were sown on the surface of conductive polymer films (polypyrrole, PPy and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT) in the cell culture medium, and the proliferative process of these cells was observed. Without changing the form, fibroblast L929 and myoblast C2C12 cells were observed to proliferate almost similarly to the cell which cultured on a dish on the market and to maintain compatibility. In other word, it has been understood these two kinds of conductive polymers used in this study, the PEDOT films maintain the secretion function of the cell cultured on the surface of these polymers. Therefore, the PPy- and the PEDOT-coated electrode suggested the possibility usable as a nerve stimulation electrode with biocompatibility, because these polymers were effective to culture the cell.

  5. Specific Previous Experience Affects Perception of Harmony and Meter (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.


    Prior knowledge shapes our experiences, but which prior knowledge shapes which experiences? This question is addressed in the domain of music perception. Three experiments were used to determine whether listeners activate specific musical memories during music listening. Each experiment provided listeners with one of two musical contexts that was…

  6. Experiments were conducted under uniform flow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Experiments were conducted under uniform flow: Experiments were conducted under uniform flow: Bed slopes: S = 0.13, 0.30, 0.38%. Sediments used: d50 = 0.95, 2.6, 4.1 mm. Experimental conditions were independent of relative submergence: Sh (= d50/h) < 0.1 ...

  7. Simulatedin vivoElectrophysiology Experiments Provide Previously Inaccessible Insights into Visual Physiology. (United States)

    Quiroga, Maria; Price, Nicholas SC


    Lecture content and practical laboratory classes are ideally complementary. However, the types of experiments that have led to our detailed understanding of sensory neuroscience are often not amenable to classroom experimentation as they require expensive equipment, time-consuming surgeries, specialized experimental techniques, and the use of animals. While sometimes feasible in small group teaching, these experiments are not suitable for large cohorts of students. Previous attempts to expose students to sensory neuroscience experiments include: the use of electrophysiology preparations in invertebrates, data-driven simulations that do not replicate the experience of conducting an experiment, or simply observing an experiment in a research laboratory. We developed an online simulation of a visual neuroscience experiment in which extracellular recordings are made from a motion sensitive neuron. Students have control over stimulation parameters (direction and contrast) and can see and hear the action potential responses to stimuli as they are presented. The simulation provides an intuitive way for students to gain insight into neurophysiology, including experimental design, data collection and data analysis. Our simulation allows large cohorts of students to cost-effectively "experience" the results of animal research without ethical concerns, to be exposed to realistic data variability, and to develop their understanding of how sensory neuroscience experiments are conducted.

  8. Microsecond-conduction-time POS experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, B.V.; Boller, J.R.; Commisso, R.J.; Grossman, J.M.; Kellogg, J.C.; Ottinger, P.F.; Cooperstein, G.; Goodrich, P.J.; Hinshelwood, D.D.


    Experiments have been performed to improve tHe understanding of the μs-conduction-time plasma opening switch (POS). Measurements with a He-Ne laser interferometer show that the line-integrated plasma density reaches a peak value during conduction, then decreases to a relatively small value before opening begins. During opening, the density is low over a large fraction of the electrode gap, but is relatively high at both electrodes, indicating that opening actually occurs in the middle of the electrode gap. The dependence of conduction current and conduction time on density and other POS parameters (radius, length, and current waveform) indicate that conduction is controlled by hydrodynamic displacement and distortion of the plasma, resulting in a low density region where opening occurs, possibly by erosion. Experiments with electron-beam diode loads have been performed for a variety of load and POS configurations. Assuming the POS gap at peak power equals the radial extent of the electron orbits, the calculated switch gap is about 2-3 mm over a wide range of load impedances, conduction currents, and center conductor radii. Increased load power requires increasing the (effective) gap size. Fluid and PIC codes may be suitable to simulate the conduction and opening phases, respectively, and a combined fluid/particle model could indicate promising methods for increasing the output power using a POS

  9. Impact of Previous Pharmacy Work Experience on Pharmacy School Academic Performance (United States)

    Mar, Ellena; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R.; Knapp, Katherine


    Objectives To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). Methods The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. Results No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Conclusions Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses. PMID:20498735

  10. Hydraulic conductivity in sugar cane cultivated in soils previous vin aza application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musso, M.; Pereira, S.; Fajardo, L.


    This work analyzes the hydraulic conductivity in soil clay loams developed in Libertad formation in Bella Union where grows sugar cane with vinaza. In the agricultural activities are used different chemical additives such as organic and inorganic fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides, which interact with the biotic (roots, soil microbiology) and abiotic (clay, soil solution, etc.) elements

  11. Cell biology experiments conducted in space (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.


    A review of cell biology experiments conducted during the first two decades of space flight is provided. References are tabulated for work done with six types of living test system: isolated viruses, bacteriophage-host, bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, protozoans, and small groups of cells (such as hamster cell tissue and fertilized frog eggs). The general results of studies involving the survival of cells in space, the effect of space flight on growing cultures, the biological effects of multicharged high-energy particles, and the effects of space flight on the genetic apparatus of microorganisms are summarized. It is concluded that cell systems remain sufficiently stable during space flight to permit experimentation with models requiring a fixed cell line during the space shuttle era.

  12. Reciprocity, culture and human cooperation: previous insights and a new cross-cultural experiment. (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt


    Understanding the proximate and ultimate sources of human cooperation is a fundamental issue in all behavioural sciences. In this paper, we review the experimental evidence on how people solve cooperation problems. Existing studies show without doubt that direct and indirect reciprocity are important determinants of successful cooperation. We also discuss the insights from a large literature on the role of peer punishment in sustaining cooperation. The experiments demonstrate that many people are 'strong reciprocators' who are willing to cooperate and punish others even if there are no gains from future cooperation or any other reputational gains. We document this in new one-shot experiments, which we conducted in four cities in Russia and Switzerland. Our cross-cultural approach allows us furthermore to investigate how the cultural background influences strong reciprocity. Our results show that culture has a strong influence on positive and in especially strong negative reciprocity. In particular, we find large cross-cultural differences in 'antisocial punishment' of pro-social cooperators. Further cross-cultural research and experiments involving different socio-demographic groups document that the antisocial punishment is much more widespread than previously assumed. Understanding antisocial punishment is an important task for future research because antisocial punishment is a strong inhibitor of cooperation.

  13. Analysis of previous perceptual and motor experience in breaststroke kick learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Bettina


    Full Text Available One of the variables that influence motor learning is the learner’s previous experience, which may provide perceptual and motor elements to be transferred to a novel motor skill. For swimming skills, several motor experiences may prove effective. Purpose. The aim was to analyse the influence of previous experience in playing in water, swimming lessons, and music or dance lessons on learning the breaststroke kick. Methods. The study involved 39 Physical Education students possessing basic swimming skills, but not the breaststroke, who performed 400 acquisition trials followed by 50 retention and 50 transfer trials, during which stroke index as well as rhythmic and spatial configuration indices were mapped, and answered a yes/no questionnaire regarding previous experience. Data were analysed by ANOVA (p = 0.05 and the effect size (Cohen’s d ≥0.8 indicating large effect size. Results. The whole sample improved their stroke index and spatial configuration index, but not their rhythmic configuration index. Although differences between groups were not significant, two types of experience showed large practical effects on learning: childhood water playing experience only showed major practically relevant positive effects, and no experience in any of the three fields hampered the learning process. Conclusions. The results point towards diverse impact of previous experience regarding rhythmic activities, swimming lessons, and especially with playing in water during childhood, on learning the breaststroke kick.

  14. Do emotional intelligence and previous caring experience influence student nurse performance? A comparative analysis. (United States)

    Stenhouse, Rosie; Snowden, Austyn; Young, Jenny; Carver, Fiona; Carver, Hannah; Brown, Norrie


    Reports of poor nursing care have focused attention on values based selection of candidates onto nursing programmes. Values based selection lacks clarity and valid measures. Previous caring experience might lead to better care. Emotional intelligence (EI) might be associated with performance, is conceptualised and measurable. To examine the impact of 1) previous caring experience, 2) emotional intelligence 3) social connection scores on performance and retention in a cohort of first year nursing and midwifery students in Scotland. A longitudinal, quasi experimental design. Adult and mental health nursing, and midwifery programmes in a Scottish University. Adult, mental health and midwifery students (n=598) completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-short form and Schutte's Emotional Intelligence Scale on entry to their programmes at a Scottish University, alongside demographic and previous caring experience data. Social connection was calculated from a subset of questions identified within the TEIQue-SF in a prior factor and Rasch analysis. Student performance was calculated as the mean mark across the year. Withdrawal data were gathered. 598 students completed baseline measures. 315 students declared previous caring experience, 277 not. An independent-samples t-test identified that those without previous caring experience scored higher on performance (57.33±11.38) than those with previous caring experience (54.87±11.19), a statistically significant difference of 2.47 (95% CI, 0.54 to 4.38), t(533)=2.52, p=.012. Emotional intelligence scores were not associated with performance. Social connection scores for those withdrawing (mean rank=249) and those remaining (mean rank=304.75) were statistically significantly different, U=15,300, z=-2.61, p$_amp_$lt;0.009. Previous caring experience led to worse performance in this cohort. Emotional intelligence was not a useful indicator of performance. Lower scores on the social connection factor were associated

  15. Long- term effects of previous experience determine nutrient discrimination abilities in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Kathrin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foraging behaviour is an essential ecological process linking different trophic levels. A central assumption of foraging theory is that food selection maximises the fitness of the consumer. It remains unknown, however, whether animals use innate or learned behaviour to discriminate food rewards. While many studies demonstrated that previous experience is a strong determinant of complex food choices such as diet mixing, the response to simple nutritional stimuli, such as sugar concentrations, is often believed to be innate. Results Here we show that previous experience determines the ability to track changes in sugar composition in same-aged individuals of a short-lived migratory songbird, the garden warbler (Sylvia borin. Although birds received identical foods for seven months prior to the experiment, wild-caught birds achieved higher sugar intake rates than hand-raised birds when confronted with alternative, differently coloured, novel food types. Hand-raised and wild birds did not differ in their initial colour selection or overall food intake, but wild birds were quicker to adjust food choice to varying sugar intake. Conclusion Over a period of at least seven months, broader previous experience translates into a higher plasticity of food choice leading to higher nutrient intake. Our results thus highlight the need to address previous long-term experience in foraging experiments. Furthermore, they show that hand-raised animals are often poor surrogates for testing the foraging behaviour of wild animals.

  16. Antimonene: Experiments and theory of surface conductivity (United States)

    Palacios, Juan Jose; Ares, Pablo; Pakdel, Sahar; Paz, Wendel; Zamora, Felix; Gomez-Herrero, Julio

    Very recently antimony has been demonstrated to be amenable to standard exfoliation procedures opening the possibility of studying the electronic properties of isolated few-layers flakes of this material, a.k.a. antimonene. Antimony is a topological semimetal, meaning that its electronic structure presents spin-split helical states (or Dirac cones) on the surface, but it is still trivially metallic in bulk. Antimonene, on the other hand, may present a much reduced electronic bulk contribution for a small number of layers. A novel technique to make electrical contacts on the surface of individual thin flakes (5-10 monolayers) has allowed us to measure the (surface) conductivity of these in ambient conditions. Our measurements show a high conductivity in the range of 1 - 2e2 / h , which we attribute to the surface Dirac electrons. We have also carried out theoretical work to address the origin of this value, in particular, the importance of scattering between the Dirac electrons and the bulk bands. Our calculations are based on density functional theory for the electronic structure and Kubo formalism for the conductivity, the latter considering random disorder and the presence of water. Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad, Grant FIS2016-80434-P.

  17. Conductance of Ion Channels - Theory vs. Experiment (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael; Mijajlovic, Milan


    Transmembrane ion channels mediate a number of essential physiological processes in a cell ranging from regulating osmotic pressure to transmission of neural signals. Kinetics and selectivity of ion transport is of critical importance to a cell and, not surprisingly, it is a subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies. In this presentation we will analyze in detail computer simulations of two simple channels from fungi - antiamoebin and trichotoxin. Each of these channels is made of an alpha-helical bundle of small, nongenomically synthesized peptides containing a number of rare amino acids and exhibits strong antimicrobial activity. We will focus on calculating ionic conductance defined as the ratio of ionic current through the channel to applied voltage. From molecular dynamics simulations, conductance can be calculated in at least two ways, each involving different approximations. Specifically, the current, given as the number of charges transferred through the channel per unit of time, can be obtained from the number of events in which ions cross the channel during the simulation. This method works well for large currents (high conductance values and/or applied voltages). If the number of crossing events is small, reliable estimates of current are difficult to achieve. Alternatively, conductance can be estimated assuming that ion transport can be well approximated as diffusion in the external potential given by the free energy profile. Then, the current can be calculated by solving the one-dimensional diffusion equation in this external potential and applied voltage (the generalized Nernst-Planck equation). To do so three ingredients are needed: the free energy profile, the position-dependent diffusion coefficient and the diffusive flux of ions into the channel. All these quantities can be obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. An important advantage of this method is that it can be used equally well to estimating large and small currents

  18. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; Trigt, van Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree

  19. Impact of Vocational Interests, Previous Academic Experience, Gender and Age on Situational Judgement Test Performance (United States)

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; van Trigt, Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke


    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the…

  20. Stress and blood donation: effects of music and previous donation experience. (United States)

    Ferguson, E; Singh, A P; Cunningham-Snell, N


    Making a blood donation, especially for first-time donors, can be a stressful experience. These feelings of stress may inhibit donors from returning. This paper applies stress theory to this particular problem. The effects of a stress management intervention (the provision of music) and previous donor experience were examined in relation to pre- and post-donation mood, environmental appraisals and coping behaviour. Results indicated that the provision of music had detrimental effects on environmental appraisals for those who have donated up to two times previously, but beneficial effects for those who had donated three times before. These effects were, to an extent, moderated by coping processes but not perceived control. It is recommended that the provision of music is not used as a stress management technique in the context of blood donation.

  1. Important biological information uncovered in previously unaligned reads from chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments (ChIP-Seq) (United States)

    Ouma, Wilberforce Zachary; Mejia-Guerra, Maria Katherine; Yilmaz, Alper; Pareja-Tobes, Pablo; Li, Wei; Doseff, Andrea I.; Grotewold, Erich


    Establishing the architecture of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) relies on chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) methods that provide genome-wide transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). ChIP-Seq furnishes millions of short reads that, after alignment, describe the genome-wide binding sites of a particular TF. However, in all organisms investigated an average of 40% of reads fail to align to the corresponding genome, with some datasets having as much as 80% of reads failing to align. We describe here the provenance of previously unaligned reads in ChIP-Seq experiments from animals and plants. We show that a substantial portion corresponds to sequences of bacterial and metazoan origin, irrespective of the ChIP-Seq chromatin source. Unforeseen was the finding that 30%–40% of unaligned reads were actually alignable. To validate these observations, we investigated the characteristics of the previously unaligned reads corresponding to TAL1, a human TF involved in lineage specification of hemopoietic cells. We show that, while unmapped ChIP-Seq read datasets contain foreign DNA sequences, additional TFBSs can be identified from the previously unaligned ChIP-Seq reads. Our results indicate that the re-evaluation of previously unaligned reads from ChIP-Seq experiments will significantly contribute to TF target identification and determination of emerging properties of GRNs. PMID:25727450

  2. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance. (United States)

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke


    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116). This choice was used as a proxy for vocational interest. In addition, all graduate-entry applicants for academic year 2015-2016 (n = 213) were included to examine the effect of previous academic experience on performance. We used MANCOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons tests for applicant performance on a six-scenario SJT. The MANCOVA analyses showed that for all scenarios, the independent variables were significantly related to performance (Pillai's Trace: 0.02-0.47, p performance on three scenarios (p performance on two scenarios (p performance, as was previous academic experience. Gender and age were related to performance on SJT scenarios in different settings. Especially the first effect might be helpful in selecting appropriate candidates for areas of health care in which more professionals are needed.

  3. "My math and me": Nursing students' previous experiences in learning mathematics. (United States)

    Røykenes, Kari


    In this paper, 11 narratives about former experiences in learning of mathematics written by nursing students are thematically analyzed. Most students had a positive relationship with the subject in primary school, when they found mathematics fun and were able to master the subject. For some, a change occurred in the transition to lower secondary school. The reasons for this change was found in the subject (increased difficulty), the teachers (movement of teachers, numerous substitute teachers), the class environment and size (many pupils, noise), and the student him- or herself (silent and anonymous pupil). This change was also found in the transition from lower to higher secondary school. By contrast, some students had experienced changes that were positive, and their mathematics teacher was a significant factor in this positive change. The paper emphasizes the importance of previous experiences in learning mathematics to nursing students when learning about drug calculation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Differences between previously married and never married 'gay' men: family background, childhood experiences and current attitudes. (United States)

    Higgins, Daryl J


    Despite a large body of literature on the development of sexual orientation, little is known about why some gay men have been (or remain) married to a woman. In the current study, a self-selected sample of 43 never married gay men ('never married') and 26 gay men who were married to a woman ('previously married') completed a self-report questionnaire. Hypotheses were based on five possible explanations for gay men's marriages: (a) differences in sexual orientation (i.e., bisexuality); (b) internalized homophobia; (c) religious intolerance; (d) confusion created because of childhood/adolescent sexual experiences; and/or (e) poor psychological adjustment. Previously married described their families' religious beliefs as more fundamentalist than never married. No differences were found between married' and never married' ratings of their sexual orientation and identity, and levels of homophobia and self-depreciation. Family adaptability and family cohesion and the degree to which respondents reported having experienced child maltreatment did not distinguish between previously married and never married. The results highlight how little is understood of the reasons why gay men marry, and the need to develop an adequate theoretical model.

  5. Experiments on microsecond conduction time plasma opening switch mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rix, W.; Coleman, M.; Miller, A.R.; Parks, D.; Robertson, K.; Thompson, J.; Waisman, E.; Wilson, A.


    The authors describe a series of experiments carried out on ACE 2 and ACE 4 to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the conduction and opening phases on plasma opening switches in a radial geometry with conduction times on the order of a microsecond. The results indicate both conduction and opening physics are similar to that observed on lower current systems in a coaxial geometry

  6. The relationship of previous training and experience of journal peer reviewers to subsequent review quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Callaham


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peer review is considered crucial to the selection and publication of quality science, but very little is known about the previous experiences and training that might identify high-quality peer reviewers. The reviewer selection processes of most journals, and thus the qualifications of their reviewers, are ill defined. More objective selection of peer reviewers might improve the journal peer review process and thus the quality of published science. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 306 experienced reviewers (71% of all those associated with a specialty journal completed a survey of past training and experiences postulated to improve peer review skills. Reviewers performed 2,856 reviews of 1,484 separate manuscripts during a four-year study period, all prospectively rated on a standardized quality scale by editors. Multivariable analysis revealed that most variables, including academic rank, formal training in critical appraisal or statistics, or status as principal investigator of a grant, failed to predict performance of higher-quality reviews. The only significant predictors of quality were working in a university-operated hospital versus other teaching environment and relative youth (under ten years of experience after finishing training. Being on an editorial board and doing formal grant (study section review were each predictors for only one of our two comparisons. However, the predictive power of all variables was weak. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that there are no easily identifiable types of formal training or experience that predict reviewer performance. Skill in scientific peer review may be as ill defined and hard to impart as is "common sense." Without a better understanding of those skills, it seems unlikely journals and editors will be successful in systematically improving their selection of reviewers. This inability to predict performance makes it imperative that all but the smallest journals implement routine review ratings

  7. The Importance of Business Model Factors for Cloud Computing Adoption: Role of Previous Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogataj Habjan Kristina


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Bringing several opportunities for more effective and efficient IT governance and service exploitation, cloud computing is expected to impact the European and global economies significantly. Market data show that despite many advantages and promised benefits the adoption of cloud computing is not as fast and widespread as foreseen. This situation shows the need for further exploration of the potentials of cloud computing and its implementation on the market. The purpose of this research was to identify individual business model factors with the highest impact on cloud computing adoption. In addition, the aim was to identify the differences in opinion regarding the importance of business model factors on cloud computing adoption according to companies’ previous experiences with cloud computing services.

  8. Sexual Liberalism-Conservatism: the effect of human values, gender, and previous sexual experience. (United States)

    Guerra, Valeschka M; Gouveia, Valdiney V; Sousa, Deliane M; Lima, Tiago J; Freires, Leogildo A


    Despite theoretical associations, there is a lack of empirical studies on the axiological basis of sexual liberalism-conservatism. Two studies demonstrated important associations between these constructs for young adults. In Study 1, participants were 353 undergraduate students with a mean age of 20.13 (SD = 1.84), who completed the Sexual Liberalism-Conservatism Scale and the Basic Values Survey. In Study 2, participants were 269 undergraduate students, with a mean age of 20.3 (SD = 1.82), who completed a social desirability scale in addition to Study 1 instruments. Results showed how values can predict sexual liberalism-conservatism after controlling for social desirability. Attitudes towards one's own sexual behavior were more conservative whereas attitudes towards other's sexual behavior were more liberal. Gender was not a significant predictor of sexual attitudes whereas previous sexual experience showed a significant association to this construct. In general, results corroborated previous findings, showing that participants with a tendency to present socially desirable answers also tended to present themselves as sexually conservative.

  9. Decomposing experience-driven attention: opposite attentional effects of previously predictive cues (United States)

    Lin, Zhicheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Sheng


    A central function of the brain is to track the dynamic statistical regularities in the environment—such as what predicts what over time. How does this statistical learning process alter sensory and attentional processes? Drawing upon animal conditioning and predictive coding, we developed a learning procedure that revealed two distinct components through which prior learning-experience controls attention. During learning, a visual search task was used in which the target randomly appeared at one of several locations but always inside an encloser of a particular color—the learned color served to direct attention to the target location. During test, the color no longer predicted the target location. When the same search task was used in the subsequent test, we found that the learned color continued to attract attention despite the behavior being counterproductive for the task and despite the presence of a completely predictive cue. However, when tested with a flanker task that had minimal location uncertainty—the target was at the fixation surrounded by a distractor—participants were better at ignoring distractors in the learned color than other colors. Evidently, previously predictive cues capture attention in the same search task but can be better suppressed in a flanker task. These results demonstrate opposing components—capture and inhibition—in experience-driven attention, with their manifestations crucially dependent on task context. We conclude that associative learning enhances context-sensitive top-down modulation while reduces bottom-up sensory drive and facilitates suppression, supporting a learning-based predictive coding account. PMID:27068051

  10. Do previous sports experiences influence the effect of an enrichment programme in basketball skills? (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Mateus, Nuno; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno


    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an enrichment programme in motor, technical and tactical basketball skills, when accounting for the age of youth sport specialisation. Seventy-six college students (age: M = 20.4, SD = 1.9) were allocated according to three different paths: (i) non-structured (n = 14), (ii) early specialisation (n = 34), and (iii) late specialisation (n = 28), according to information previously provided by the participants about the quantity and type of sporting activities performed throughout their sporting careers. Then, the participants of each path were randomly distributed across control and experimental groups. Variables under study included agility, technical skills circuit, as well as tactical actions performed in a 4-on-4 full-court basketball game. The results indicated improvements in the early and late specialisation paths namely in the experimental training groups. However, the late specialisation path revealed larger benefits, in contrast with the non-structured path, which showed less sensitivity to the enrichment programme, mostly sustained in physical literacy and differential learning. Higher improvements were observed in agility, and also in reducing the number of unsuccessful actions performed during the game. Overall, this study provided evidence of how early sports experiences affect basketball skill acquisition and contribute to adapt to new contexts with motor and technical-tactical challenges. In addition, a path supported by late specialisation might present several advantages in sport performance achievement.

  11. TU-CD-BRD-01: Making Incident Learning Practical and Useful: Challenges and Previous Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzell, G.


    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiences to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample time set

  12. An experiment in heat conduction using hollow cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortuno, M; Marquez, A; Gallego, S; Neipp, C; Belendez, A, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, IngenierIa de Sistemas y TeorIa de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)


    An experimental apparatus was designed and built to allow students to carry out heat conduction experiments in hollow cylinders made of different materials, as well as to determine the thermal conductivity of these materials. The evolution of the temperature difference between the inner and outer walls of the cylinder as a function of time is analysed, and when the process reaches the steady state regime the thermal conductivity can be easily calculated. Several materials such as wood, plastic and metals are considered and the values of their thermal conductivities, obtained experimentally, are compared with those given in the reference list.

  13. Previous experience of family violence and intimate partner violence in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bernarda Ludermir


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. METHODS A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18–49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. RESULTS Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89–3.63 and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01–2.13, sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68–6.38 and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 – 2.12. The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43–3.02 and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07–2.47, who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86–8.27, and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57–16.45. CONCLUSIONS Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help

  14. Previous experience of family violence and intimate partner violence in pregnancy. (United States)

    Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de; Valongueiro, Sandra Alves; Muniz, Maria Luísa Corrêa; Silva, Elisabete Pereira


    To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89-3.63) and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01-2.13), sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68-6.38) and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 - 2.12). The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43-3.02) and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07-2.47), who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86-8.27), and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57-16.45). Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help policymakers and health service managers to develop intervention strategies.

  15. The Impact of an International Cultural Experience on Previously Held Stereotypes by American Student Nurses. (United States)

    Heuer, Loretta; Bengiamin, Marlene; Downey, Vicki Wessman


    Examined stereotypes held by U.S. student nurses before and after participating in an educational experience in Russia. The experience was intended to prepare them to be effective nurses in multicultural health care settings. Data from student interviews indicated that the experience changed students' stereotyped attitudes about Russian culture…

  16. Previous Experiences with Epilepsy and Effectiveness of Information to Change Public Perception of Epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, Jan M.; Seydel, E.R.; Wiegman, O.


    Differences with regard to the effectiveness of health information and attitude change are suggested between people with direct, behavioral experiences with a health topic and people with indirect, nonbehavioral experiences. The effects of three different methods of health education about epilepsy,

  17. Conducting real-time multiplayer experiments on the web. (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert X D


    Group behavior experiments require potentially large numbers of participants to interact in real time with perfect information about one another. In this paper, we address the methodological challenge of developing and conducting such experiments on the web, thereby broadening access to online labor markets as well as allowing for participation through mobile devices. In particular, we combine a set of recent web development technologies, including Node.js with the module, HTML5 canvas, and jQuery, to provide a secure platform for pedagogical demonstrations and scalable, unsupervised experiment administration. Template code is provided for an example real-time behavioral game theory experiment which automatically pairs participants into dyads and places them into a virtual world. In total, this treatment is intended to allow those with a background in non-web-based programming to modify the template, which handles the technical server-client networking details, for their own experiments.

  18. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de


    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs

  19. The Role of Previous Experience and Attitudes toward Statistics in Statistics Assessment Outcomes among Undergraduate Psychology Students (United States)

    Dempster, Martin; McCorry, Noleen K.


    Previous research has demonstrated that students' cognitions about statistics are related to their performance in statistics assessments. The purpose of this research is to examine the nature of the relationships between undergraduate psychology students' previous experiences of maths, statistics and computing; their attitudes toward statistics;…

  20. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer: single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocvirk Janja


    Full Text Available Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC is mainly a disease of elderly, however, geriatric population is underrepresented in clinical trials. Patient registries represent a tool to assess and follow treatment outcomes in this patient population. The aim of the study was with the help of the patients’ register to determine the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients who had previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer.

  1. The Impact of Previous Online Course Experience RN Students' Perceptions of Quality (United States)

    Hixon, Emily; Barczyk, Casimir; Ralston-Berg, Penny; Buckenmeyer, Janet


    The purpose of this paper is to explore whether experienced online students (who have completed seven or more online courses) perceive the quality of their courses differently than novice online students (who have completed three or fewer online courses) or students with an intermediate level of online course experience (those who have completed…

  2. Is the ability to perform transurethral resection of the prostate influenced by the surgeon's previous experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cury


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of the urologist's experience on the surgical results and complications of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate without the use of a video camera were randomly allocated into three groups according to the urologist's experience: a urologist having done 25 transurethral resections of the prostate (Group I - 24 patients; a urologist having done 50 transurethral resections of the prostate (Group II - 24 patients; a senior urologist with vast transurethral resection of the prostate experience (Group III - 19 patients. The following were recorded: the weight of resected tissue, the duration of the resection procedure, the volume of irrigation used, the amount of irrigation absorbed and the hemoglobin and sodium levels in the serum during the procedure. RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups in the amount of irrigation fluid used per operation, the amount of irrigation fluid absorbed or hematocrit and hemoglobin variation during the procedure. The weight of resected tissue per minute was approximately four times higher in group III than in groups I and II. The mean absorbed irrigation fluid was similar between the groups, with no statistical difference between them (p=0.24. Four patients (6% presented with TUR syndrome, without a significant difference between the groups. CONCLUSION: The senior urologist was capable of resecting four times more tissue per time unit than the more inexperienced surgeons. Therefore, a surgeon's experience may be important to reduce the risk of secondary TURP due to recurring adenomas or adenomas that were incompletely resected. However, the incidence of complications was the same between the three groups.

  3. Experiments on thermal conductivity in buffer materials for geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, T.; Yano, T.; Wakamatsu, H.; Matsushima, E.


    Engineered barriers for geologic disposal for HLW are planned to consist of canister, overpack and buffer elements. One of important physical characteristics of buffer materials is determining temperature profiles within the near field in a repository. Buffer materials require high thermal conductivity to disperse radiogenic heat away to the host rock. As the buffer materials, compacted blocks of the mixture of sodium bentonite and sand have been the most promising candidate in some countries, e.g. Sweden, Switzerland and Japan. The authors have been carrying out a series of thermal dispersion experiments to evaluate thermal conductivity of bentonite/quartz sand blocks. In this study, the following two factors considered to affect thermal properties of the near field were examined: effective thermal conductivities of buffer materials, and heat transfer characteristics of the gap between overpack and buffer materials

  4. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods]. (United States)

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Płowaś-Goral, Małgorzata; Nogalski, Adam


    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  5. The role of previous experience and attitudes toward statistics in statistics assessment outcomes among undergraduate psychology students


    Dempster, Martin; McCorry, Noleen


    Previous research has demonstrated that students’ cognitions about statistics are related to their performance in statistics assessments. The purpose of this research is to examine the nature of the relationships between undergraduate psychology students’ previous experiences of maths, statistics and computing; their attitudes toward statistics; and assessment on a statistics course. Of the variables examined, the strongest predictor of assessment outcome was students’ attitude about their in...

  6. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer: single center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocvirk, Janja; Moltara, Maja Ebert; Mesti, Tanja; Boc, Marko; Rebersek, Martina; Volk, Neva; Benedik, Jernej; Hlebanja, Zvezdana


    Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is mainly a disease of elderly, however, geriatric population is underrepresented in clinical trials. Patient registries represent a tool to assess and follow treatment outcomes in this patient population. The aim of the study was with the help of the patients’ register to determine the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients who had previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. The registry of patients with mCRC was designed to prospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy as well as selection of patients in routine clinical practice. Patient baseline clinical characteristics, pre-specified bevacizumab-related adverse events, and efficacy data were collected, evaluated and compared according to the age categories. Between January 2008 and December 2010, 210 patients with mCRC (median age 63, male 61.4%) started bevacizumab-containing therapy in the 1 st line setting. Majority of the 210 patients received irinotecan-based chemotherapy (68%) as 1 st line treatment and 105 patients (50%) received bevacizumab maintenance therapy. Elderly (≥ 70 years) patients presented 22.9% of all patients and they had worse performance status (PS 1/2, 62.4%) than patients in < 70 years group (PS 1/2, 35.8%). Difference in disease control rate was mainly due to inability to assess response in elderly group (64.6% in elderly and 77.8% in < 70 years group, p = 0.066). The median progression free survival was 10.2 (95% CI, 6.7–16.2) and 11.3 (95% CI, 10.2–12.6) months in elderly and < 70 years group, respectively (p = 0.58). The median overall survival was 18.5 (95% CI, 12.4–28.9) and 27.4 (95% CI, 22.7–31.9) months for elderly and < 70 years group, respectively (p = 0.03). Three-year survival rate was 26% and 37.6% in elderly vs. < 70 years group (p = 0.03). Overall rates of bevacizumab-related adverse events were similar in both groups: proteinuria 21

  7. Conducting Family Nursing in Heart Failure outpatient clinics: Nurses experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte

    Aim: This study aimed to explore what was documented during structured Family Nursing (FN) conversations with patients diagnosed with Heart Failure and their families, and to gain knowledge about the nurses’ experiences conducting FN. Background: Patients with HF face many challenges, and so do...... their families. Research has shown that families want to be involved in the caring and treatment of their loved ones. The FN intervention based on The Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Model could improve patient and family outcome. Methods: Data consisted of 34 case reports with documentation from...... throughout the FN intervention and a Focus group interview with 6 nurses who were conducting the conversations. Content analyses of all text material dealt with both manifest and latent content, and were analyzed through a deductive and inductive process. Results: Enabling bonding emerged as the overall...

  8. The relationship between emotional intelligence, previous caring experience and successful completion of a pre-registration nursing/midwifery degree. (United States)

    Snowden, Austyn; Stenhouse, Rosie; Duers, Lorraine; Marshall, Sarah; Carver, Fiona; Brown, Norrie; Young, Jenny


    To examine the relationship between baseline emotional intelligence and prior caring experience with completion of pre-registration nurse and midwifery education. Selection and retention of nursing students is a global challenge. Emotional intelligence is well-conceptualized, measurable and an intuitive prerequisite to nursing values and so might be a useful selection criterion. Previous caring experience may also be associated with successful completion of nurse training. Prospective longitudinal study. Self-report trait and ability emotional intelligence scores were obtained from 876 student nurses from two Scottish Universities before they began training in 2013. Data on previous caring experience were recorded. Relationships between these metrics and successful completion of the course were calculated in SPSS version 23. Nurses completing their programme scored significantly higher on trait emotional intelligence than those that did not complete their programme. Nurses completing their programme also scored significantly higher on social connection scores than those that did not. There was no relationship between "ability" emotional intelligence and completion. Previous caring experience was not statistically significantly related to completion. Students with higher baseline trait emotional intelligence scores were statistically more likely to complete training than those with lower scores. This relationship also held using "Social connection" scores. At best, previous caring experience made no difference to students' chances of completing training. Caution is urged when interpreting these results because the headline findings mask considerable heterogeneity. Neither previous caring experience or global emotional intelligence measures should be used in isolation to recruit nurses. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates' Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation (United States)

    Koo Moon, Hyoung; Kwon Choi, Byoung; Shik Jung, Jae


    Although various antecedents of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment have been addressed, previous international experience, predeparture cross-cultural training, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have been most frequently examined. However, there are few attempts that explore the effects of these antecedents simultaneously or consider the possible…

  10. Pain related to mandibular block injections and its relationship with anxiety and previous experiences with dental anesthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, A.; Lindeboom, J.A.; de Jongh, A.; Tuk, J.G.; Hoogstraten, J.


    Objective. Anesthetic injections should reassure patients with the prospect of painless treatment, but for some patients it is the main source of their fear. We investigated pain resulting from mandibular block injections in relation to anxiety and previous experience with receiving injections.

  11. The Effect of Previous Co-Worker Experience on the Survival of Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of previous co-worker experience on the survival of knowledge intensive start-ups. For the empirical analysis I use the Danish Integrated Database of Labor Market Research (IDA). This longitudinal employer-employee database allows me to identify co-worker...... experience among all members of the firm. In addition, I will make a distinction between ordinary start-ups and entrepreneurial spin-offs. The results show that previous co-worker experience has a positive effect on new firm survival. This effect appears to be valid predominantly for ordinary start-ups than...

  12. The relationship between emotional intelligence, previous caring experience and mindfulness in student nurses and midwives: a cross sectional analysis. (United States)

    Snowden, Austyn; Stenhouse, Rosie; Young, Jenny; Carver, Hannah; Carver, Fiona; Brown, Norrie


    Emotional Intelligence (EI), previous caring experience and mindfulness training may have a positive impact on nurse education. More evidence is needed to support the use of these variables in nurse recruitment and retention. To explore the relationship between EI, gender, age, programme of study, previous caring experience and mindfulness training. Cross sectional element of longitudinal study. 938year one nursing, midwifery and computing students at two Scottish Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) who entered their programme in September 2013. Participants completed a measure of 'trait' EI: Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue-SF); and 'ability' EI: Schutte's et al. (1998) Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS). Demographics, previous caring experience and previous training in mindfulness were recorded. Relationships between variables were tested using non-parametric tests. Emotional intelligence increased with age on both measures of EI [TEIQ-SF H(5)=15.157 p=0.001; SEIS H(5)=11.388, p=0.044]. Females (n=786) scored higher than males (n=149) on both measures [TEIQ-SF, U=44,931, z=-4.509, pintelligence. Mindfulness training was associated with higher 'ability' emotional intelligence. Implications for recruitment, retention and further research are explored. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants. (United States)

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S


    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  14. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko


    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance...... on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis...... of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key ‘‘lessons learned’’ from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches...

  15. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience. (United States)

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo


    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8-27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs.

  16. A 20-year experience with liver transplantation for polycystic liver disease: does previous palliative surgical intervention affect outcomes? (United States)

    Baber, John T; Hiatt, Jonathan R; Busuttil, Ronald W; Agopian, Vatche G


    Although it is the only curative treatment for polycystic liver disease (PLD), orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has been reserved for severely symptomatic, malnourished, or refractory patients who are not candidates for palliative disease-directed interventions (DDI). Data on the effect of previous DDIs on post-transplant morbidity and mortality are scarce. We analyzed the outcomes after OLT for PLD recipients, and determined the effects of previous palliative surgical intervention on post-transplantation morbidity and mortality. We performed a retrospective analysis of factors affecting perioperative outcomes after OLT for PLD between 1992 and 2013, including comparisons of recipients with previous major open DDIs (Open DDI, n = 12) with recipients with minimally invasive or no previous DDIs (minimal DDI, n = 16). Over the 20-year period, 28 recipients underwent OLT for PLD, with overall 30-day, 1-, and 5-year graft and patient survivals of 96%, 89%, 75%, and 96%, 93%, 79%, respectively. Compared with the minimal DDI group, open DDI recipients accounted for all 5 deaths, had inferior 90-day and 1- and 5-year survivals (83%, 83%, and 48% vs 100%, 100%, 100%; p = 0.009), and greater intraoperative (42% vs 0%; p = 0.003), total (58% vs 19%; p = 0.031), and Clavien grade IV or greater (50% vs 6%; p = 0.007) postoperative complications, more unplanned reoperations (50% vs 13%; p = 0.003), and longer total hospital (27 days vs 17 days; p = 0.035) and ICU (10 days vs 4 days; p = 0.045) stays. In one of the largest single-institution experiences of OLT for PLD, we report excellent long-term graft and patient survival. Previous open DDIs are associated with increased risks of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Improved identification of PLD patients bound for OLT may mitigate perioperative complications and potentially improve post-transplantation outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Does Previous Experience of Floods Stimulate the Adoption of Coping Strategies? Evidence from Cross Sectional Surveys in Nigeria and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A. Boamah


    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, hydro-meteorological related disasters, such as floods, account for the majority of the total number of natural disasters. Over the past century, floods have affected 38 million people, claimed several lives and caused substantial economic losses in the region. The goal of this paper is to examine how personality disposition, social network, and socio-demographic factors mitigate the complex relationship between stressful life experiences of floods and ocean surges and the adoption of coping strategies among coastal communities in Nigeria and Tanzania. Generalized linear models (GLM were fitted to cross-sectional survey data on 1003 and 1253 individuals in three contiguous coastal areas in Nigeria and Tanzania, respectively. Marked differences in the type of coping strategies were observed across the two countries. In Tanzania, the zero-order relationships between adoption of coping strategies and age, employment and income disappeared at the multivariate level. Only experience of floods in the past year and social network resources were significant predictors of participants’ adoption of coping strategies, unlike in Nigeria, where a plethora of factors such as experience of ocean surges in the past one year, personality disposition, age, education, experience of flood in the past one year, ethnicity, income, housing quality and employment status were still statistically significant at the multivariate level. Our findings suggest that influence of previous experience on adoption of coping strategies is spatially ubiquitous. Consequently, context-specific policies aimed at encouraging the adoption of flood-related coping strategies in vulnerable locations should be designed based on local needs and orientation.

  18. How to Conduct Clinical Qualitative Research on the Patient's Experience (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.


    From a perspective of patient-centered healthcare, exploring patients' (a) preconceptions, (b) treatment experiences, (c) quality of life, (d) satisfaction, (e) illness understandings, and (f) design are all critical components in improving primary health care and research. Utilizing qualitative approaches to discover patients' experiences can…

  19. Data collection of fusion neutronics benchmark experiment conducted at FNS/JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Konno, Chikara; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Oyama, Yukio; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Fusion neutronics benchmark experimental data have been continued at the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) facility in JAERI. This report compiles unpublished results of the in-situ measurement experiments conducted by the end of 1996. Experimental data of neutron spectra in entire energy range, dosimetry reaction rates, gamma-ray spectrum and gamma-ray heating rates are acquired for five materials of beryllium, vanadium, iron, copper and tungsten. These experimental data along with data previously reported are effective for validating cross section data stored in evaluated nuclear data files such as JENDL. (author)

  20. The Impact of Previous Action on Bargaining—An Experiment on the Emergence of Preferences for Fairness Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Neumann


    Full Text Available The communication of participants to identify an acceptable bargaining outcome in the Nash bargaining game is all about fairness norms. Participants introduce fairness norms which yield a better outcome for themselves in order to convince the other participant of their bargaining proposal. Typically, these fairness norms are in line with theoretical predictions, which support a wide variety of different but fair outcomes the participants can choose from. In this experiment, we play two treatments of the Nash bargaining game: in one treatment, the participants play a dictator game prior to bargaining, and in the other treatment they do not. We find that participants who have not played the dictator game intensively discuss the outcome of the game and come to solutions closer to the equal split of the pie the longer they chat. This effect vanishes as soon as the participants have previous experience from a dictator game: instead of chatting, they establish the fairness norm introduced in the dictator game. Remarkably, if the dictator is unfair in the dictator game, he also gets a higher share of the pie in the Nash bargaining game.

  1. Using Phenomenology to Conduct Environmental Education Research: Experience and Issues (United States)

    Nazir, Joanne


    Recently, I applied a phenomenological methodology to study environmental education at an outdoor education center. In this article, I reflect on my experience of doing phenomenological research to highlight issues researchers may want to consider in using this type of methodology. The main premise of the article is that phenomenology, with its…

  2. Influence of Previous Crop on Durum Wheat Yield and Yield Stability in a Long-term Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Stellacci


    Full Text Available Long-term experiments are leading indicators of sustainability and serve as an early warning system to detect problems that may compromise future productivity. So the stability of yield is an important parameter to be considered when judging the value of a cropping system relative to others. In a long-term rotation experiment set up in 1972 the influence of different crop sequences on the yields and on yield stability of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. was studied. The complete field experiment is a split-split plot in a randomized complete block design with two replications; the whole experiment considers three crop sequences: 1 three-year crop rotation: sugar-beet, wheat + catch crop, wheat; 2 one-year crop rotation: wheat + catch crop; 3 wheat continuous crop; the split treatments are two different crop residue managements; the split-split plot treatments are 18 different fertilization formulas. Each phase of every crop rotation occurred every year. In this paper only one crop residue management and only one fertilization treatment have been analized. Wheat crops in different rotations are coded as follows: F1: wheat after sugar-beet in three-year crop rotation; F2: wheat after wheat in three-year crop rotation; Fc+i: wheat in wheat + catch crop rotation; Fc: continuous wheat. The following two variables were analysed: grain yield and hectolitre weight. Repeated measures analyses of variance and stability analyses have been perfomed for the two variables. The stability analysis was conducted using: three variance methods, namely the coefficient of variability of Francis and Kannenberg, the ecovalence index of Wricke and the stability variance index of Shukla; the regression method of Eberhart and Russell; a method, proposed by Piepho, that computes the probability of one system outperforming another system. It has turned out that each of the stability methods used has enriched of information the simple variance analysis. The Piepho

  3. Mini-columns for Conducting Breakthrough Experiments. Design and Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ware, Stuart Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Experiments with moderately and strongly sorbing radionuclides (i.e., U, Cs, Am) have shown that sorption between experimental solutions and traditional column materials must be accounted for to accurately determine stationary phase or porous media sorption properties (i.e., sorption site density, sorption site reaction rate coefficients, and partition coefficients or Kd values). This report details the materials and construction of mini-columns for use in breakthrough columns to allow for accurate measurement and modeling of sorption parameters. Material selection, construction techniques, wet packing of columns, tubing connections, and lessons learned are addressed.

  4. Nano wire conductance experiments above and below the reservoirs Curie temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa-Kraemer, J. L.; Briones, F. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Serena, P. A. [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)


    The transport properties of Ni nano wires are studied using a Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) under clean high vacuum conditions. A basically flat nano wire conductance histogram is found independently of the magnetic state of the electrodes. This agrees with our previous studies in air but disagrees with recently published results. The possible origin of these discrepancies, together with additional experiments trying to discern the existence of a spin-dependent conductance in ferromagnetic nano wires, are presented. [Spanish] Las propiedades de transporte de nanoalambres de Ni son estudiadas usando un microscopio de efecto tunel bajo condiciones limpias de alto vacio. Se encuentra un histograma esencialmente plano independiente del estado magnetico de los electrodos. Esto concuerda con nuestros estudios previos en aire pero contrasta con resultados publicados recientemente. Se presentara una discusion sobre el posible origen experimental de estas discrepancias, con el fin de discernir sobre la existencia de una conductancia dependiente del espin en nanoalambres ferromagneticos.

  5. Conducting organizational safety reviews - requirements, methods and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland); Rollenhagen, C. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, (Sweden); Kahlbom, U. [RiskPilot (Sweden)


    Organizational safety reviews are part of the safety management process of power plants. They are typically performed after major reorganizations, significant incidents or according to specified review programs. Organizational reviews can also be a part of a benchmarking between organizations that aims to improve work practices. Thus, they are important instruments in proactive safety management and safety culture. Most methods that have been used for organizational reviews are based more on practical considerations than a sound scientific theory of how various organizational or technical issues influence safety. Review practices and methods also vary considerably. The objective of this research is to promote understanding on approaches used in organizational safety reviews as well as to initiate discussion on criteria and methods of organizational assessment. The research identified a set of issues that need to be taken into account when planning and conducting organizational safety reviews. Examples of the issues are definition of appropriate criteria for evaluation, the expertise needed in the assessment and the organizational motivation for conducting the assessment. The study indicates that organizational safety assessments involve plenty of issues and situations where choices have to be made regarding what is considered valid information and a balance has to be struck between focus on various organizational phenomena. It is very important that these choices are based on a sound theoretical framework and that these choices can later be evaluated together with the assessment findings. The research concludes that at its best, the organizational safety reviews can be utilised as a source of information concerning the changing vulnerabilities and the actual safety performance of the organization. In order to do this, certain basic organizational phenomena and assessment issues have to be acknowledged and considered. The research concludes with recommendations on

  6. Conducting organizational safety reviews - requirements, methods and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B.; Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U.


    Organizational safety reviews are part of the safety management process of power plants. They are typically performed after major reorganizations, significant incidents or according to specified review programs. Organizational reviews can also be a part of a benchmarking between organizations that aims to improve work practices. Thus, they are important instruments in proactive safety management and safety culture. Most methods that have been used for organizational reviews are based more on practical considerations than a sound scientific theory of how various organizational or technical issues influence safety. Review practices and methods also vary considerably. The objective of this research is to promote understanding on approaches used in organizational safety reviews as well as to initiate discussion on criteria and methods of organizational assessment. The research identified a set of issues that need to be taken into account when planning and conducting organizational safety reviews. Examples of the issues are definition of appropriate criteria for evaluation, the expertise needed in the assessment and the organizational motivation for conducting the assessment. The study indicates that organizational safety assessments involve plenty of issues and situations where choices have to be made regarding what is considered valid information and a balance has to be struck between focus on various organizational phenomena. It is very important that these choices are based on a sound theoretical framework and that these choices can later be evaluated together with the assessment findings. The research concludes that at its best, the organizational safety reviews can be utilised as a source of information concerning the changing vulnerabilities and the actual safety performance of the organization. In order to do this, certain basic organizational phenomena and assessment issues have to be acknowledged and considered. The research concludes with recommendations on

  7. Recent experiences and problems in conducting pressure vessel surveillance examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.S.


    Each of the commercial power reactors in the U.S.A. has a pressure vessel surveillance program. The purpose of the programs is to monitor the effects of radiation on the mechanical properties on the steel pressure vessels. A program for a given reactor includes a series of irradiation capsules containing neutron dosimeters and mechanical property specimens. The capsules are periodically removed during the life of the reactor and evaluated. The surveillance capsule examinations conducted to date have been valuable in assessing the effects of radiation on pressure vessels. However, a number of problems have been observed in the course of capsule examinations which potentially could reduce the maximum value of the data obtained. These problems are related to specimen design and preparation, capsule design and preparation, capsule installation and removal, capsule disassembly, specimen testing and evaluation, program documentation, and quality assurance. Examples of problems encountered in the preceding areas are presented in the present paper, and recommendations are made for minimization or prevention of these problems in future programs. Included in the recommendations is that appropriate ASTM standards, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code sections, and NRC regulations provide the appropriate framework for prevention of problems

  8. Complex adjustments of photosynthetic potentials and internal diffusion conductance to current and previous light availabilities and leaf age in Mediterranean evergreen species Quercus ilex. (United States)

    Niinemets, Ulo; Cescatti, Alessandro; Rodeghiero, Mirco; Tosens, Tiina


    mass (g(m)M) was negatively associated with light in current-year leaves. Greater photosynthetic potentials and moderate changes in diffusion conductance resulted in greater internal diffusion limitations of photosynthesis in higher light. Both area- and mass-based g(m) decreased with increasing leaf age. The decrease in diffusion conductance was larger than changes in photosynthetic potentials, leading to larger CO2 drawdown from leaf internal air space to chloroplasts (delta(c)) in older leaves. The increases in diffusion limitations in older leaves and at higher light scaled with age- and light-dependent increases in MA and D(F). Overall, our study demonstrates a large potential of foliage photosynthetic acclimation to changes in leaf light environment, but also highlights enhanced structural diffusion limitations in older leaves that result from leaf structural acclimation to previous rather than to current light environment and accumulation of structural compounds with leaf age.

  9. Conducting Closed Habitation Experiments: Experience from the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Henninger, Donald L.


    The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate increasingly longer duration operation of integrated, closed-loop life support systems that employed biological and physicochemical techniques for water recycling, waste processing, air revitalization, thermal control, and food production. An analog environment for long-duration human space travel, the conditions of isolation and confinement also enabled studies of human factors, medical sciences (both physiology and psychology) and crew training. Four tests were conducted, Phases I, II, IIa and III, with durations of 15, 30, 60 and 91 days, respectively. The first phase focused on biological air regeneration, using wheat to generate enough oxygen for one experimental subject. The systems demonstrated in the later phases were increasingly complex and interdependent, and provided life support for four crew members. The tests were conducted using two human-rated, atmospherically-closed test chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) and the Integrated Life Support Systems Test Facility (ILSSTF). Systems included test articles (the life support hardware under evaluation), human accommodations (living quarters, kitchen, exercise equipment, etc.) and facility systems (emergency matrix system, power, cooling, etc.). The test team was managed by a lead engineer and a test director, and included test article engineers responsible for specific systems, subsystems or test articles, test conductors, facility engineers, chamber operators and engineering technicians, medical and safety officers, and science experimenters. A crew selection committee, comprised of psychologists, engineers and managers involved in the test, evaluated male and female volunteers who applied to be test subjects. Selection was based on the skills mix anticipated for each particular test, and utilized

  10. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko; Christensen, Frans; Baun, Anders; Olsen, Stig I.


    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key “lessons learned” from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: “LC-based RA” (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and “RA-complemented LCA” (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

  11. The Impact of Previous Schooling Experiences on a Quaker High School's Graduating Students' College Entrance Exam Scores, Parents' Expectations, and College Acceptance Outcomes (United States)

    Galusha, Debbie K.


    The purpose of the study is to determine the impact of previous private, public, home, or international schooling experiences on a Quaker high school's graduating students' college entrance composite exam scores, parents' expectations, and college attendance outcomes. The study's results suggest that regardless of previous private, public, home,…

  12. Ipilimumab in the real world: the UK expanded access programme experience in previously treated advanced melanoma patients. (United States)

    Ahmad, Saif S; Qian, Wendi; Ellis, Sarah; Mason, Elaine; Khattak, Muhammad A; Gupta, Avinash; Shaw, Heather; Quinton, Amy; Kovarikova, Jarmila; Thillai, Kiruthikah; Rao, Ankit; Board, Ruth; Nobes, Jenny; Dalgleish, Angus; Grumett, Simon; Maraveyas, Anthony; Danson, Sarah; Talbot, Toby; Harries, Mark; Marples, Maria; Plummer, Ruth; Kumar, Satish; Nathan, Paul; Middleton, Mark R; Larkin, James; Lorigan, Paul; Wheater, Matthew; Ottensmeier, Christian H; Corrie, Pippa G


    Before licensing, ipilimumab was first made available to previously treated advanced melanoma patients through an expanded access programme (EAP) across Europe. We interrogated data from UK EAP patients to inform future clinical practice. Clinicians registered in the UK EAP provided anonymized patient data using a prespecified variable fields datasheet. Data collected were baseline patient characteristics, treatment delivered, toxicity, response, progression-free survival and overall survival (OS). Data were received for 193 previously treated metastatic melanoma patients, whose primary sites were cutaneous (82%), uveal (8%), mucosal (2%), acral (3%) or unknown (5%). At baseline, 88% of patients had a performance status (PS) of 0-1 and 20% had brain metastases. Of the patients, 53% received all four planned cycles of ipilimumab; the most common reason for stopping early was disease progression, including death from melanoma. Toxicity was recorded for 171 patients, 30% of whom experienced an adverse event of grade 3 or higher, the most common being diarrhoea (13%) and fatigue (9%). At a median follow-up of 23 months, the median progression-free survival and OS were 2.8 and 6.1 months, respectively; the 1-year and 2-year OS rates were 31 and 14.8%, respectively. The 2-year OS was significantly lower for patients with poorer PS (P<0.0001), low albumin concentrations (P<0.0001), the presence of brain metastases (P=0.007) and lactate dehydrogenase levels more than two times the upper limit of normal (P<0.0001) at baseline. These baseline characteristics are negative predictors of benefit from ipilimumab and should be taken into consideration before prescription.

  13. The Impact of Previous Athletic Experience on Current Physical Fitness in Former Collegiate Athletes and Noncollegiate Athletes. (United States)

    Simon, Janet E; Docherty, Carrie L

    Physical activity performed at moderate intensity is associated with reduced risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and some types of cancers. However, vigorous physical activity during participation in college athletics may increase the risk of injury, which might limit future physical activity levels. To evaluate differences in current physical fitness levels between former Division I athletes and noncollegiate athletes. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. The sample was recruited from a large midwestern university alumni database and consisted of 2 cohorts: (1) former Division I athletes (n = 100; mean age, 53.1 ± 7.4 years) and (2) nonathletes who were active in college (n = 100; age, 51.4 ± 7.3 years). Individuals answered a demographics questionnaire and completed a physical fitness assessment consisting of 7 measures: percent body fat, 1-mile walk, sit-to-stand test, push-up, half sit-up test, sit and reach test, and back scratch test. Performance was significantly worse for former Division I athletes compared with nonathletes for percent body fat (mean difference, 7.58%; F (1, 198) = 59.91; P sit-to-stand test (mean difference, 4.3 repetitions; F (1, 198) = 6.59; P = 0.01), and push-up test (mean difference, 8.9 repetitions; F (1, 198) = 7.35; P = 0.01). Former Division I athletes may be limited because of previous injury, inhibiting their ability to stay active later in life. It is imperative that clinicians, coaches, and strength and conditioning specialists understand the possible future repercussions from competing at the Division I level.

  14. psiTurk: An open-source framework for conducting replicable behavioral experiments online. (United States)

    Gureckis, Todd M; Martin, Jay; McDonnell, John; Rich, Alexander S; Markant, Doug; Coenen, Anna; Halpern, David; Hamrick, Jessica B; Chan, Patricia


    Online data collection has begun to revolutionize the behavioral sciences. However, conducting carefully controlled behavioral experiments online introduces a number of new of technical and scientific challenges. The project described in this paper, psiTurk, is an open-source platform which helps researchers develop experiment designs which can be conducted over the Internet. The tool primarily interfaces with Amazon's Mechanical Turk, a popular crowd-sourcing labor market. This paper describes the basic architecture of the system and introduces new users to the overall goals. psiTurk aims to reduce the technical hurdles for researchers developing online experiments while improving the transparency and collaborative nature of the behavioral sciences.

  15. Educational experiment for students using natural radioactivity. 2. Practical example of radiochemical experiment conducted at Tottori University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Mariko; Esaka, Takao; Kamata, Masahiro


    This paper presents a practical example of educational experiment conducted at Tottori University, whose theme is to separate 214 Bi(+ 214 Pb) from superphosphate of lime or the soil sampled at Ningyo-Touge mountain pass. The results of this experiment are quantitative enough for educational purpose, although the amount of radioactivity is so small that it is free from any regulation in Japan. (author)

  16. MREIT conductivity imaging based on the local harmonic Bz algorithm: Animal experiments (United States)

    Jeon, Kiwan; Lee, Chang-Ock; Woo, Eung Je; Kim, Hyung Joong; Seo, Jin Keun


    From numerous numerical and phantom experiments, MREIT conductivity imaging based on harmonic Bz algorithm shows that it could be yet another useful medical imaging modality. However, in animal experiments, the conventional harmonic Bz algorithm gives poor results near boundaries of problematic regions such as bones, lungs, and gas-filled stomach, and the subject boundary where electrodes are not attached. Since the amount of injected current is low enough for the safety for in vivo animal, the measured Bz data is defected by severe noise. In order to handle such problems, we use the recently developed local harmonic Bz algorithm to obtain conductivity images in our ROI(region of interest) without concerning the defected regions. Furthermore we adopt a denoising algorithm that preserves the ramp structure of Bz data, which informs of the location and size of anomaly. Incorporating these efficient techniques, we provide the conductivity imaging of post-mortem and in vivo animal experiments with high spatial resolution.

  17. [Shomatsu Yokoyama, a physiologist who refused to conduct experiments on living human bodies]. (United States)

    Suenaga, Keiko


    This article introduces the life of Shomatsu Yokoyama (1913-1992), a physiologist and military doctor, to the reader. During the Sino-Japanese war, Yokoyama disobeyed orders given by his superior officer to conduct inhumane medical experiments on humans. Not only in Unit 731, but also in other units, many military doctors were involved in medical crimes against residents of the areas invaded by the Japanese Army. Inhumane living-body experiments and vivisections were widely conducted at that time. There were, however, a small number of researchers who did not follow the orders to perform human-body experiments. Highlighting the life of such a rare researcher for the purpose of ascertaining the reason for his noncompliance with the order will provide us with insights on medical ethics. When Yokoyama was a student, his teacher, Professor Rinya Kawamura, informed him that he had been requested by the army to conduct special experiments. The remuneration for conducting such experiments was over 10 times more than the research fund allocated to the professor. Kawamura declined the request on the grounds that accepting it was against humanity. Kawamura warned Yokoyama that he might face the same situation in the future and asked Yokoyama to mark his words. Yokoyama was called to Ko-1855 Unit in 1944 and ordered to carry out living-body experiments by his superior officer. He disregarded the order, remembering Kawamura's words. As a result, he was dispatched to the dangerous frontlines. This article explores why Yokoyama was able to disobey the order to conduct inhumane experiments while shedding light on his personal background and his relationship with Rinya Kawamura. This article chronicles the life of one medical researcher who followed the dictates of his conscience during and after the war.

  18. Assessment of the Relationship between Recurrent High-risk Pregnancy and Mothers’ Previous Experience of Having an Infant Admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Hantoosh Zadeh


    Full Text Available Background & aim:  High-risk pregnancies increase the risk of Intensive Care Unit (ICU and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU admission in mothers and their newborns. In this study, we aimed to identify the association between the recurrence of high-risk pregnancy and mothers’ previous experience of having an infant admitted to NICU. Methods:We performed a cohort, retrospective study to compare subsequent pregnancy outcomes among 232 control subjects and 200 female cases with a previous experience of having a newborn requiring NICU admission due to intrauterine growth retardation, preeclampsia, preterm birth, premature rupture of membranes, and asphyxia. The information about the prevalence of subsequent high-risk pregnancies was gathered via phone calls. Results: As the results indicated, heparin, progesterone, and aspirin were more frequently administered in the case group during subsequent pregnancies, compared to the control group (P

  19. Permeable barrier materials for strontium immobilization: Unsaturated flow apparatus determination of hydraulic conductivity -- Column sorption experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, T.E.; Conca, J.


    Selected materials were tested to emulate a permeable barrier and to examine the (1) capture efficiency of these materials relating to the immobilization of strontium-90 and hexavalent chromium (Cr 6+ ) in Hanford Site groundwater; and (2) hydraulic conductivity of the barrier material relative to the surrounding area. The emplacement method investigated was a permeable reactive barrier to treat contaminated groundwater as it passes through the barrier. The hydraulic conductivity function was measured for each material, and retardation column experiments were performed for each material. Measurements determining the hydraulic conductivity at unsaturated through saturated water content were executed using the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus

  20. A two-parameter nondiffusive heat conduction model for data analysis in pump-probe experiments (United States)

    Ma, Yanbao


    Nondiffusive heat transfer has attracted intensive research interests in last 50 years because of its importance in fundamental physics and engineering applications. It has unique features that cannot be described by the Fourier law. However, current studies of nondiffusive heat transfer still focus on studying the effective thermal conductivity within the framework of the Fourier law due to a lack of a well-accepted replacement. Here, we show that nondiffusive heat conduction can be characterized by two inherent material properties: a diffusive thermal conductivity and a ballistic transport length. We also present a two-parameter heat conduction model and demonstrate its validity in different pump-probe experiments. This model not only offers new insights of nondiffusive heat conduction but also opens up new avenues for the studies of nondiffusive heat transfer outside the framework of the Fourier law.

  1. Estimation of Knudsen diffusion coefficients from tracer experiments conducted with a binary gas system and a porous medium. (United States)

    Hibi, Yoshihiko; Kashihara, Ayumi


    A previous study has reported that Knudsen diffusion coefficients obtained by tracer experiments conducted with a binary gas system and a porous medium are consistently smaller than those obtained by permeability experiments conducted with a single-gas system and a porous medium. To date, however, that study is the only one in which tracer experiments have been conducted with a binary gas system. Therefore, to confirm this difference in Knudsen diffusion coefficients, we used a method we had developed previously to conduct tracer experiments with a binary carbon dioxide-nitrogen gas system and five porous media with permeability coefficients ranging from 10 -13 to 10 -11  m 2 . The results showed that the Knudsen diffusion coefficient of N 2 (D N2 ) (cm 2 /s) was related to the effective permeability coefficient k e (m 2 ) as D N2  = 7.39 × 10 7 k e 0.767 . Thus, the Knudsen diffusion coefficients of N 2 obtained by our tracer experiments were consistently 1/27 of those obtained by permeability experiments conducted with many porous media and air by other researchers. By using an inversion simulation to fit the advection-diffusion equation to the distribution of concentrations at observation points calculated by mathematically solving the equation, we confirmed that the method used to obtain the Knudsen diffusion coefficient in this study yielded accurate values. Moreover, because the Knudsen diffusion coefficient did not differ when columns with two different lengths, 900 and 1500 mm, were used, this column property did not influence the flow of gas in the column. The equation of the dusty gas model already includes obstruction factors for Knudsen diffusion and molecular diffusion, which relate to medium heterogeneity and tortuosity and depend only on the structure of the porous medium. Furthermore, there is no need to take account of any additional correction factor for molecular diffusion except the obstruction factor because molecular diffusion is

  2. Conducting Design Experiments to Support Teachers' Learning: A Reflection from the Field (United States)

    Cobb, Paul; Zhao, Qing; Dean, Chrystal


    This article focuses on 3 conceptual challenges that we sought to address while conducting a design experiment in which we supported the learning of a group of middle school mathematics teachers. These challenges involved (a) situating teachers' activity in the institutional setting of the schools and district in which they worked, (b) developing…

  3. Conducting Action Research in Kenyan Primary Schools: A Narrative of Lived Experiences (United States)

    Otienoh, Ruth


    This paper is a narrative of my personal experiences of conducting action research in Kenyan primary schools. It highlights the opportunities, successes, challenges and dilemmas I encountered during the process: from the school hunting period, to the carrying out of the actual research in two schools, with four teachers. This study reveals that…

  4. Using Conductivity Measurements to Determine the Identities and Concentrations of Unknown Acids: An Inquiry Laboratory Experiment (United States)

    Smith, K. Christopher; Garza, Ariana


    This paper describes a student designed experiment using titrations involving conductivity measurements to identify unknown acids as being either HCl or H[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4], and to determine the concentrations of the acids, thereby improving the utility of standard acid-base titrations. Using an inquiry context, students gain experience…

  5. How astronauts would conduct a seismic experiment on the planet Mars (United States)

    Pletser, V.; Lognonne, P.; Dehant, V.

    During the Summer 2001 Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (M.A.R.S.) campaign in Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada, the crew of the second rotation conducted a geophysics experiment aiming at assessing the feasibility of an active seismology method to detect subsurface water on Mars. A crew of three deployed a line of 24 sensors. Reflected and refracted signals produced by mini-quakes generated by a sledge hammer were recorded by a seismograph. The experiment was conducted three times, once in a dry run and twice during simulated Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on the edge of the Haughton crater, allowing a three dimensional characterization of the subsurface ground to a depth of several hundred meters. Data were recorded for later detailed processing. A third EVA attempt inside the crater had to be aborted because of the poor weather and terrain conditions. Despite this failed attempt, a large amount of results were collected. Several operational lessons were learned from conducting this experiment under simulated EVA conditions. This paper presents the experiment and the methodology used, reviews the experiment performance and summarizes the results obtained and the operational lessons learned.

  6. Patient's anxiety and fear of anesthesia: effect of gender, age, education, and previous experience of anesthesia. A survey of 400 patients. (United States)

    Mavridou, Paraskevi; Dimitriou, Varvara; Manataki, Adamantia; Arnaoutoglou, Elena; Papadopoulos, Georgios


    Patients express high anxiety preoperatively, because of fears related to anesthesia and its implications. The purpose of this survey was to gain insight into these fears and to study whether they are affected by patients' sex, age, education, or previous experience of anesthesia. Questionnaires with fixed questions were distributed to consenting, consecutive surgical patients before the pre-anesthetic visit. The questionnaires included patients' demographics and questions related to their fears about anesthesia. Four-hundred questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Eighty-one percent of patients experience preoperative anxiety. The main sources of their anxiety were fear of postoperative pain (84 %), of not waking up after surgery (64.8 %), of being nauseous or vomiting (60.2 %), and of drains and needles (59.5 %). Patients are less concerned about being paralyzed because of anesthesia (33.5 %) or of revealing personal issues (18.8 %). Gender seems to affect patients fears, with women being more afraid (85.3 vs. 75.6 % of men, p = 0.014). The effects of patients' age, level of education, and previous experience of anesthesia are minor, except for individual questions. Sixty-three percent of our patients (mostly women 67.4 vs. 57.4 % of men, p = 0.039) talk about these fears with their relatives, although a vast majority of 95.5 % would prefer to talk with the anesthesiologist and be reassured by him. All patients, mostly women, express fears about anesthesia; this fear leads to preoperative anxiety. Slight differences are observed for some individual questions among patients of different sex, education level, and previous experience of anesthesia.

  7. Interpretation of injection-withdrawal tracer experiments conducted between two wells in a large single fracture. (United States)

    Novakowski, K S; Bickerton, G; Lapcevic, P


    Tracer experiments conducted using a flow field established by injecting water into one borehole and withdrawing water from another are often used to establish connections and investigate dispersion in fractured rock. As a result of uncertainty in the uniqueness of existing models used for interpretation, this method has not been widely used to investigate more general transport processes including matrix diffusion or advective solute exchange between mobile and immobile zones of fluid. To explore the utility of the injection-withdrawal method as a general investigative tool and with the intent to resolve the transport processes in a discrete fracture, two tracer experiments were conducted using the injection-withdrawal configuration. The experiments were conducted in a fracture which has a large aperture (>500 microm) and horizontally pervades a dolostone formation. One experiment was conducted in the direction of the hydraulic gradient and the other in the direction opposite to the natural gradient. Two tracers having significantly different values of the free-water diffusion coefficient were used. To interpret the experiments, a hybrid numerical-analytical model was developed which accounts for the arcuate shape of the flow field, advection-dispersion in the fracture, diffusion into the matrix adjacent to the fracture, and the presence of natural flow in the fracture. The model was verified by comparison to a fully analytical solution and to a well-known finite-element model. Interpretation of the tracer experiments showed that when only one tracer, advection-dispersion, and matrix diffusion are considered, non-unique results were obtained. However, by using multiple tracers and by accounting for the presence of natural flow in the fracture, unique interpretations were obtained in which a single value of matrix porosity was estimated from the results of both experiments. The estimate of porosity agrees well with independent measurements of porosity obtained from

  8. Explaining infant feeding: The role of previous personal and vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and breastfeeding outcomes. (United States)

    Bartle, Naomi C; Harvey, Kate


    Breastfeeding confers important health benefits to both infants and their mothers, but rates are low in the United Kingdom and other developed countries despite widespread promotion. This study examined the relationships between personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding, self-efficacy, the theory of planned behaviour variables of attitudes and subjective norm, and the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks post-natally. A prospective questionnaire study of both first-time mothers (n = 77) and experienced breastfeeders (n = 72) recruited at an antenatal clinic in South East England. Participants completed a questionnaire at 32 weeks pregnant assessing personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding (breastfeeding, formula-feeding, and maternal grandmother's experience of breastfeeding), perceived control, self-efficacy, intentions, attitudes (to breastfeeding and formula-feeding), and subjective norm. Infant feeding behaviour was recorded at 6-8 weeks post-natally. Multiple linear regression modelled the influence of vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy (but not perceived control) and modelled the influence of attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and past experience on intentions to breastfeed. Logistic regression modelled the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks. Previous experience (particularly personal experience of breastfeeding) explained a significant amount of variance in attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy. Intentions to breastfeed were predicted by subjective norm and attitude to formula-feeding and, in experienced mothers, self-efficacy. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks was predicted by intentions and vicarious experience of formula-feeding. Vicarious experience, particularly of formula-feeding, has been shown to influence the behaviour of first-time and experienced mothers both directly and indirectly via attitudes and subjective norm. Interventions that reduce exposure to formula

  9. Numerical experiment of thermal conductivity in two-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahzad, Aamir, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education (MOE), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Department of Physics, Government College University Faisalabad (GCUF), Allama Iqbal Road, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); He, Mao-Gang, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education (MOE), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)


    A newly improved homogenous nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation (HNEMDS) method, proposed by the Evans, has been used to compute the thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma liquids (SCCDPLs), for the first time. The effects of equilibrium external field strength along with different system sizes and plasma states (Γ, κ) on the thermal conductivity of SCCDPLs have been calculated using an enhanced HNEMDS method. A simple analytical temperature representation of Yukawa 2D thermal conductivity with appropriate normalized frequencies (plasma and Einstein) has also been calculated. The new HNEMDS algorithm shows that the present method provides more accurate results with fast convergence and small size effects over a wide range of plasma states. The presented thermal conductivity obtained from HNEMDS method is found to be in very good agreement with that obtained through the previously known numerical simulations and experimental results for 2D Yukawa liquids (SCCDPLs) and with the three-dimensional nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) and equilibrium MDS calculations. It is shown that the HNEMDS algorithm is a powerful tool, making the calculations very efficient and can be used to predict the thermal conductivity in 2D Yukawa liquid systems.

  10. Barriers to Conducting Supervised Agricultural Experiences as Perceived by Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joey Blackburn


    Full Text Available The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess preservice agriculture teachers’ perceptions of the importance of Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE and their views on barriers to conducting SAE. A census of the sophomore-level agricultural education course at Oklahoma State University was conducted to measure perceptions at the beginning and end of the course. This study was framed upon Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior. Results indicated that preservice teachers perceived SAE was an important component of agricultural education and important at the secondary school they attended. The greatest barrier to conducting SAE was their lack of familiarity with newer SAE categories. This was true at both the beginning and end of the course. It is recommended that preservice teachers receive instruction on and experiences in all types of SAE. This would increase the likelihood of preservice teachers perceiving they have control over this barrier regarding SAE implementation. This cohort of preservice teachers should be surveyed over time to determine change in their perceptions of barriers to SAE implementation as they progress in the agricultural education program and through their careers. Further, the views of in-service teachers should also be assessed to determine if perceived barriers differ with professional experience.

  11. Scaling of material properties for Yucca Mountain: literature review and numerical experiments on saturated hydraulic conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, S.A.; Rautman, C.A.


    A review of pertinent literature reveals techniques which may be practical for upscaling saturated hydraulic conductivity at Yucca Mountain: geometric mean, spatial averaging, inverse numerical modeling, renormalization, and a perturbation technique. Isotropic realizations of log hydraulic conductivity exhibiting various spatial correlation lengths are scaled from the point values to five discrete scales through these techniques. For the variances in log 10 saturated hydraulic conductivity examined here, geometric mean, numerical inverse and renormalization adequately reproduce point scale fluxes across the modeled domains. Fastest particle velocities and dispersion measured on the point scale are not reproduced by the upscaled fields. Additional numerical experiments examine the utility of power law averaging on a geostatistical realization of a cross-section similar to the cross-sections that will be used in the 1995 groundwater travel time calculations. A literature review on scaling techniques for thermal and mechanical properties is included. 153 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Sea experiments of the Underway Conductivity-Temperature-Depth prototype made in China (United States)

    Song, Xiangzhou; Li, Hui; Lin, Xiaopei; Chen, Xueen; Guo, Xinshun; Tian, Jiwei


    A new instrument for upper ocean survey, namely the UCTD (Underway Conductivity-Temperature-Depth), which combines some of the advantages of other underway instruments, is introduced in this paper. The Introduction section presents a description of the construction and function of the UCTD, and the experiments conducted in the South China Sea on board the R/V Dong Fang Hong 2 in July 2007 and August 2008. The UCTD system, with pressure and temperature sensors in the probe, is conveniently portable, cost-effective and environment-friendly. It is hopefully suitable for future cruises. An intercomparison based on regressing with the experiment temperature data from both SeaBird plus911 CTD and the UCTD showed that the standard deviation is 0.88°C and the correlation coefficient is 0.96, achieving the goals set for the current oceanography uses. In the hydrodynamic experiments, the descending velocities and depths were calculated for different ship speeds. A pulling test was designed with a tensiometer to measure the magnitude of the pull. The maximal tension of the line was found to be 66.2 kg, which is far lower than the bearing limit of the Hollow Spectra line. Finally, some improvement suggestions are put forward for future experiments and production.

  13. Sand box experiments with bioclogging of porous media: Hydraulic conductivity reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Dorte; Engesgaard, Peter


    Tracer experiments during clogging and de-clogging experiments in a 2D sand box were via an image analysis used to establish a data set on the relation between changes in hydraulic conductivity (K) and relative porosity (β). Clogging appears to create a finger-like tracer transport, which could...... be caused by an initial heterogeneous distribution of biomass in the sand box. De-clogging occurs at a slower rate possibly due to the presence of inert biomass that is not affected by the starvation conditions by sudden removal of the substrate source. The tracer front was observed to get disturbed closer...... and closer to the substrate source during the experiments suggesting that the zone of clogging moved upstream. Three clogging models, K(β), from the literature were tested for their ability to describe the temporal changes in clogging at the scale of the sand box; the model of Clement et al. (1996...

  14. Disposition of transuranic residues from plutonium isentropic compression experiment (Pu-ice) conducted at Z machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Kapil K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; French, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Humphrey, Betty J [WESTON SOLUTIONS INC.; Gluth, Jeffry [SNL


    In 1992, the U.S. Congress passed legislation to discontinue above- and below-ground testing of nuclear weapons. Because of this, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must rely on laboratory experiments and computer-based calculations to verify the reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile. The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Z machine was developed by the DOE to support its science-based approach to stockpile stewardship. SNL/NM researchers also use the Z machine to test radiation effects on various materials in experiments designed to mimic nuclear explosions. Numerous components, parts, and materials have been tested. These experiments use a variety of radionuclides; however, plutonium (Pu) isotopes with greater than ninety-eight percent enrichment are the primary radionuclides used in the experiments designed for stockpile stewardship. In May 2006, SNL/NM received authority that the Z Machine Isentropic Compression Experiments could commence. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) provided the plutonium targets and loaded the target assemblies, which were fabricated by SNL/NM. LANL shipped the loaded assemblies to SNL/NM for Z machine experiments. Three experiments were conducted from May through July 2006. The residues from each experiment, which weighed up to 913 pounds, were metallic and packaged into a respective 55-gallon drum each. Based on a memorandum of understanding between the two laboratories, LANL provides the plutonium samples and the respective radio-isotopic information. SNL/NM conducts the experiments and provides temporary storage for the drums until shipment to LANL for final waste certification for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. This paper presents a comprehensive approach for documenting generator knowledge for characterization of waste in cooperation with scientists at the two laboratories and addresses a variety of topics such as material control and accountability

  15. Low frequency complex dielectric (conductivity) response of dilute clay suspensions: Modeling and experiments. (United States)

    Hou, Chang-Yu; Feng, Ling; Seleznev, Nikita; Freed, Denise E


    In this work, we establish an effective medium model to describe the low-frequency complex dielectric (conductivity) dispersion of dilute clay suspensions. We use previously obtained low-frequency polarization coefficients for a charged oblate spheroidal particle immersed in an electrolyte as the building block for the Maxwell Garnett mixing formula to model the dilute clay suspension. The complex conductivity phase dispersion exhibits a near-resonance peak when the clay grains have a narrow size distribution. The peak frequency is associated with the size distribution as well as the shape of clay grains and is often referred to as the characteristic frequency. In contrast, if the size of the clay grains has a broad distribution, the phase peak is broadened and can disappear into the background of the canonical phase response of the brine. To benchmark our model, the low-frequency dispersion of the complex conductivity of dilute clay suspensions is measured using a four-point impedance measurement, which can be reliably calibrated in the frequency range between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz. By using a minimal number of fitting parameters when reliable information is available as input for the model and carefully examining the issue of potential over-fitting, we found that our model can be used to fit the measured dispersion of the complex conductivity with reasonable parameters. The good match between the modeled and experimental complex conductivity dispersion allows us to argue that our simplified model captures the essential physics for describing the low-frequency dispersion of the complex conductivity of dilute clay suspensions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Equilibrium and transient conductivity for gadolinium-doped ceria under large perturbations: I. Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricote, Sandrine; Zhu, Huayang; Coors, W. Grover


    (97% O2, 3% H2O) and vice versa reveal great asymmetries in relaxation times. Virtually instantaneous relaxations are observed in the first case, while the oxidizing-to-reducing relaxations take as long as 0.5h. This paper reports conductivity relaxations with over 20 orders of magnitude in the gas......-phase oxygen partial pressure. Models and experiments are used to show that the observed asymmetries cannot be explained by electrode defects or two-dimensional end effects. The companion paper develops a Nernst–Planck–Poisson model to assist the quantitative interpretation of the measurements reported...

  17. Soil Science self-learning based on the design and conduction of experiments (United States)

    Jordán, A.; Bárcenas-Moreno, G.; Zavala, L. M.


    This paper presents an experience for introducing the methodology of project-based learning (PBL) in the area of Soil Science in the University of Sevilla (Spain). Currently, teachers try to enhance practical experience of university students in a complementary manner to theoretical knowledge. However, many times this is a difficult process. Practice is an important part of personal work in the vast majority of subjects that degree students receive, since the implementation of the EHEA. In most cases, these experiences are presented as partial small experiments or projects, assigned to the area-specific knowledge agenda. Certain sciences, such as Soil Science, however, require synthesis and integration capabilities of previous knowledge. It is therefore necessary to develop practical programs that address the student not only to the performance of laboratory determinations, but to the formulation of hypotheses, experimental design and problem solving, whether in groups or individually, situated in a wide context and allowing students to make connections with other areas of knowledge. This project involves the development of teamwork experiments, for the study real cases and problems and making decisions in the field of Soil Science. The results of the experimental work were publicly exposed as posters and oral presentations and were discussed during a mini-congress open to students and a general audience. The open and dynamic nature of the project substantially improves student motivation, which adds value to our project. Due to the multidisciplinary character of Soil Science it is relatively easy to propose projects of some complexity, and therefore, provides good conditions for introducing the PBL methodology. The teacher's role is also important and is not limited to observe or qualify the students, but it is a catalyst for learning. It is important that teacher give the leadership of the process and make the students themselves feel the protagonists of the

  18. How to conduct a workshop on medical writing: Tips, advice and experience sharing. (United States)

    Rathore, Farooq Azam; Mansoor, Sahibzada Nasir


    Medical writing has become an essential skill for anybody in academia and engaged in teaching. Workshops on medical writing are an effective way to teach the essential skills of medical writing to students and faculty members. There is a huge demand for these workshops all around the globe. Usually there is no curriculum of medical writing for the undergraduates or dedicated structured training sessions for the faculty members. One of the authors won an Author AID grant to conduct a series of workshops on medical writing. Eight workshops were conducted in three months, benefitting more than 200 students and faculty staff. We share our experience of holding this successful series of workshops with the aim that it might serve as a guide for researchers and faculty members who are eager to share and transfer their skills and knowledge. We also offer lessons learnt during this educational activity, tips to improve the quality and delivery of the content with limited resources and maximizing the impact. Experienced medical writers need to conduct these workshops to transfer their skills and to facilitate their colleagues and students to become better medical writers. Planning, rehearsal, motivation, resource management, good team work, audience analysis and feedback can make a workshop successful. Well prepared workshop content delivered in an interactive way with a variety of activities makes the workshop an engaging and interesting educational activity.

  19. Clinical experiences in conducting empirically supported treatments for generalized anxiety disorder. (United States)

    Szkodny, Lauren E; Newman, Michelle G; Goldfried, Marvin R


    Knowledge of the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) predominantly derives from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, there may be unique or complex issues encountered in practice, but not necessarily in the context of a controlled clinical trial. Therefore, launching a systematic dialogue between researcher and practicing clinician can be instrumental in augmenting evidence-based therapies through identification of variables that promote and interfere with clinical effectiveness. Through an initiative sponsored by the American Psychological Association's Divisions 12 (Society for Clinical Psychology) and 29 (Psychotherapy), this study aimed to examine clinical experiences conducting CBT for GAD. The participants were 260 psychotherapists who completed an online survey on assessment and therapeutic intervention utilization and their experience of factors that limit successful GAD treatment and symptom reduction. The majority of respondents reported 20 years or less experience using ESTs for GAD, typically treating clients in outpatient clinics, treatment centers, and private practice. Some of the most commonly used interventions address clients' maladaptive cognitions and elevated anxiety and muscle tension typical of GAD. Approximately one half of respondents reported incorporating integrative techniques into treatment. Factors perceived as limiting effective GAD treatment included severity and chronicity of GAD, presence of comorbid conditions, stressful home and work environments, client motivation and resistance to treatment, and issues encountered when executing therapy techniques. This study provides researchers with clinically derived directions for future empirical investigation into enhancing efficacy of GAD treatment. © 2013.

  20. Prescription of oral anticoagulation for patients with atrial fibrillation and previous hospitalization in a cardiology department. Experience in actual practice in a tertiary hospital. (United States)

    Fabregat-Andrés, Ó; Cubillos-Arango, A; Chacón-Hernández, N; Montagud, V; Morell, S; Fácila, L


    Atrial fibrillation is the main reason for oral anticoagulation in our community. New oral anticoagulants (NOACs) overcome the disadvantages of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), although there are scarce data on its use in our community. The aim of our study was to assess the use of NOACs and anticoagulation control using VKA as measured by the time within the therapeutic range (TTR) in an actual clinical scenario. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of 816 patients admitted to cardiology over a period of 3 years, with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation and anticoagulant treatment at discharge. We assessed the percentage of patients prescribed NOACs and the TTR with VKA. We compared safety and efficacy events during the 15-month follow-up among the patients prescribed NOAC, those prescribed VKA with a good TTR and those with a poor TTR. The percentage of patients prescribed NOAC was 7.6%. Serial INR measurements found that 71.3% of patients had a poor TTR. Although the groups were not comparable, a higher incidence of the combined event was observed in those treated with VKA and a poor TTR compared with those prescribed NOAC (p=.01). For patients with a previous hospitalization in cardiology in a tertiary hospital and a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, the rate of NOAC prescription is low, and the TTR with VKA was poor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous Measurement of Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat in a Single TDTR Experiment (United States)

    Sun, Fangyuan; Wang, Xinwei; Yang, Ming; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Hang; Tang, Dawei


    Time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) technique is a powerful thermal property measurement method, especially for nano-structures and material interfaces. Thermal properties can be obtained by fitting TDTR experimental data with a proper thermal transport model. In a single TDTR experiment, thermal properties with different sensitivity trends can be extracted simultaneously. However, thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity usually have similar trends in sensitivity for most materials; it is difficult to measure them simultaneously. In this work, we present a two-step data fitting method to measure the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity simultaneously from a set of TDTR experimental data at single modulation frequency. This method takes full advantage of the information carried by both amplitude and phase signals; it is a more convenient and effective solution compared with the frequency-domain thermoreflectance method. The relative error is lower than 5 % for most cases. A silicon wafer sample was measured by TDTR method to verify the two-step fitting method.

  2. The Importance of Conducting Life Sciences Experiments on the Deep Space Gateway Platform (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S.


    Over the last several decades important information has been gathered by conducting life science experiments on the Space Shuttle and on the International Space Station. It is now time to leverage that scientific knowledge, as well as aspects of the hardware that have been developed to support the biological model systems, to NASA's next frontier - the Deep Space Gateway. In order to facilitate long duration deep space exploration for humans, it is critical for NASA to understand the effects of long duration, low dose, deep space radiation on biological systems. While carefully controlled ground experiments on Earth-based radiation facilities have provided valuable preliminary information, we still have a significant knowledge gap on the biological responses of organisms to chronic low doses of the highly ionizing particles encountered beyond low Earth orbit. Furthermore, the combined effects of altered gravity and radiation have the potential to cause greater biological changes than either of these parameters alone. Therefore a thorough investigation of the biological effects of a cis-lunar environment will facilitate long term human exploration of deep space.

  3. NASA's Rodent Research Project: Validation of Capabilities for Conducting Long Duration Experiments in Space (United States)

    Choi, Sungshin Y.; Cole, Nicolas; Reyes, America; Lai, San-Huei; Klotz, Rebecca; Beegle, Janet E.; Wigley, Cecilia L.; Pletcher, David; Globus, Ruth K.


    Research using rodents is an essential tool for advancing biomedical research on Earth and in space. Prior rodent experiments on the Shuttle were limited by the short flight duration. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a new platform for conducting rodent experiments under long duration conditions. Rodent Research (RR)-1 was conducted to validate flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities that were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. Twenty C57BL6J adult female mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in a Dragon Capsule (SpaceX-4), then transferred to the ISS for a total time of 21-22 days (10 commercial mice) or 37 days (10 validation mice). Tissues collected on-orbit were either rapidly frozen or preserved in RNAlater at -80C (n2group) until their return to Earth. Remaining carcasses on-orbit were rapidly frozen for dissection post-flight. The three controls groups at Kennedy Space Center consisted of: Basal mice euthanized at the time of launch, Vivarium controls housed in standard cages, and Ground Controls (GC) housed in flight hardware within an environmental chamber. Upon return to Earth, there were no differences in body weights between Flight (FLT) and GC at the end of the 37 days in space. Liver enzyme activity levels of FLT mice and all control mice were similar in magnitude to those of the samples that were processed under optimal conditions in the laboratory. Liver samples dissected on-orbit yielded high quality RNA (RIN8.99+-0.59, n7). Liver samples dissected post-flight from the intact, frozen FLT carcasses yielded RIN of 7.27 +- 0.52 (n6). Additionally, wet weights of various tissues were measured. Adrenal glands and spleen showed no significant differences in FLT compared to GC although thymus and livers weights were significantly greater in FLT compared to GC. Over 3,000 tissue aliquots collected post-flight from the four groups of mice were deposited into the Ames Life Science Data Archives for future Biospecimen

  4. Decision-making under uncertainty: results from an experiment conducted at EGU 2012 (United States)

    Ramos, Maria-Helena; van Andel, Schalk Jan; Pappenberger, Florian


    Do probabilistic forecasts lead to better decisions? At the EGU General Assembly 2012, we conducted a laboratory-style experiment to address this question. Several cases of flood forecasts and a choice of actions to take were presented as part of a game to participants, who acted as decision makers. Participants were prompted to make decisions when forecasts were provided with and without uncertainty information. They had to decide whether to open or not a gate which was the inlet of a retention basin designed to protect a town. The rules were such that: if they decided to open the gate, the retention basin was flooded and the farmers in this basin demanded a compensation for flooding their land; if they decided not to open the gate and a flood occurred on the river, the town was flooded and they had to pay a fine to the town. Participants were encouraged to keep note of their individual decisions in a worksheet. About 100 worksheets were collected at the end of the game and the results of their evaluation are presented here. In general, they show that decisions are based on a combination of what is displayed by the expected (forecast) value and what is given by the uncertainty information. In the absence of uncertainty information, decision makers are compelled towards a more risk-averse attitude. Besides, more money was lost by a large majority of participants when they had to make decisions without uncertainty information. Limitations of the experiment setting are discussed, as well as the importance of the development of training tools to increase effectiveness in the use of probabilistic predictions to support decisions under uncertainty.

  5. Temperature dependence of the cosphi conductance in Josephson tunnel junctions determined from plasma resonance experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, N.F.; Soerensen, O.H.; Mygind, J.


    The microwave response at 9 GHz of Sn-O-Sn tunnel-junction current biased at zero dc voltage has been measured just below the critical temperature T/sub c/ of the Sn films. The temperature dependence of the cosphi conductance is determined from the resonant response at the junction plasma frequency f/sub p/ as the temperature is decreased from T/sub c/. We used three different schemes for observation of the plasma oscillations: (a) second-harmonic generation (excitation at approx. 4.5 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 4.5 GHz); (b) mixing (excitations at approx. 9 and approx. 18 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 9 GHz); (c) parametric half-harmonic oscillation (excitation at approx. 18 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 9 GHz). Measurements were possible in two temperature intervals; 0.994 or = T/T/sub c/ > or = 0.930, with the result that as the temperature was decreased the cosphi amplitude first increased from about zero to positive values and then at lower temperatures decreased approaching -1 at the lowest temperatures of the experiment

  6. [Patient safety culture in hospitals: experiences in planning, organising and conducting a survey among hospital staff]. (United States)

    van Vegten, Amanda; Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Giuliani, Francesca; Manser, Tanja


    This article presents the first hospital-wide survey on patient safety climate, involving all staff (medical and non-medical), in the German-speaking area. Its aim is to share our experiences with planning, organising and conducting this survey. The study was performed at the university hospital in Zurich and had a response rate of 46.8% (2,897 valid questionnaires). The survey instrument ("Patientensicherheitsklimainventar") was based on the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (AHRQ). Primarily it allowed for assessing the current patient safety climate as well as identifying specific areas for improvement and creating a hospital-wide awareness and acceptance for patient safety issues and interventions (e.g., the introduction of a Critical Incident Reporting System [CIRS]). We discuss the basic principles and the feedback concept guiding the organisation of the overall project. Critical to the success of this project were the guaranteed anonymity of the respondents, adequate communication through well-established channels within the organisation and the commitment of the management across all project phases. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Conducting Integrated Objective Structured Clinical Examination: Experiences at KIST Medical College, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rano Mal Piryani


    Full Text Available Background: Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE, an important tool for assessment of clinical skills, introduced more than 4 decades ago. KIST Medical College, a new medical school of Nepal, affiliated to Tribhuvan University Institute of Medicine, has made learning of physical examination skills structured and integrated with greater involvement of different clinical science departments. Students learn physical examination skills in second year MBBS as a part of early clinical exposure. Objective: To share the experiences regarding implementation of integrated OSCE. Materials and Methods: At the end of clinical posting of learning of physical examination skills, assessment was done with OSCE. Fifteen OSCE stations including each of 5 minutes were developed and arranged. Standardized patients and validated checklist were used. OSCE was conducted in novel way. Prior to the OSCE session: Suitable venue was selected, assessors were identified, standardized patients were selected, running order of the stations in circuit was developed, list of equipments/instruments required was prepared, and tasks, checklists, feedback questionnaires were printed. The day before the OSCE session: OSCE stations were inspected and clearly labeled, condition of required equipments/instruments was checked, a pack of the documents for each OSCE station were made available, and signs were displayed at proper places. On the day of the OSCE session: Reliable stop watch and loud manual bell were used, support staffs were placed to direct the candidates, examiners, and standardized patients (SPs, assessors explained SPs, students were briefed, supervisors observed the session, and feedback were taken from students, assessors, and SPs. At the end of the OSCE session: Checklists and feedback questionnaires were collected, token money was paid to SPs, and a contribution of everyone was appreciated. After the OSCE session: Score was compiled and result declared, and

  8. Report on Beryllium Strength Experiments Conducted at the TA-55 40 mm Impact Test Facility, Fiscal Year 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, William Wyatt [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hollowell, Benjamin Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Todd P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Owens, Charles Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Joseph Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A series of experiments is currently in progress at eth 40 mm Impact Test Facility (ITF), located at TA-55, to understand the strength behavior of Beryllium metal at elevated temperature and pressure. In FY 2017, three experiments were conducted as a part of this project.

  9. Use of Intracervical Foley Catheter for Induction of Labour in Cases of Previous Caesarean Section: Experience of a single tertiary centre in Oman. (United States)

    Gonsalves, Hazel; Al-Riyami, Nihal; Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Gowri, Vaidayanathan; Al-Azri, Mohammed; Salahuddin, Ayesha


    This study aimed to evaluate rates of success and perinatal complications of labour induction using an intracervical Foley catheter among women with a previous Caesarean delivery at a tertiary centre in Oman. This retrospective cohort study included 68 pregnant women with a history of a previous Caesarean section who were admitted for induction via Foley catheter between January 2011 and December 2013 to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Patient data were collected from electronic and delivery ward records. Most women were 25-35 years old (76.5%) and 20 women had had one previous vaginal delivery (29.4%). The most common indication for induction of labour was intrauterine growth restriction with oligohydramnios (27.9%). Most women delivered after 40 gestational weeks (48.5%) and there were no neonatal admissions or complications. The majority experienced no complications during the induction period (85.3%), although a few had vaginal bleeding (5.9%), intrapartum fever (4.4%), rupture of the membranes (2.9%) and cord prolapse shortly after insertion of the Foley catheter (1.5%). However, no cases of uterine rupture or scar dehiscence were noted. Overall, the success rate of vaginal birth after a previous Caesarean delivery was 69.1%, with the remaining patients undergoing an emergency Caesarean section (30.9%). The use of a Foley catheter in the induction of labour in women with a previous Caesarean delivery appears a safe option with a good success rate and few maternal and fetal complications.

  10. Biochar-Induced Changes in Soil Hydraulic Conductivity and Dissolved Nutrient Fluxes Constrained by Laboratory Experiments (United States)

    Barnes, Rebecca T.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Liu, Zuolin; Dugan, Brandon


    The addition of charcoal (or biochar) to soil has significant carbon sequestration and agronomic potential, making it important to determine how this potentially large anthropogenic carbon influx will alter ecosystem functions. We used column experiments to quantify how hydrologic and nutrient-retention characteristics of three soil materials differed with biochar amendment. We compared three homogeneous soil materials (sand, organic-rich topsoil, and clay-rich Hapludert) to provide a basic understanding of biochar-soil-water interactions. On average, biochar amendment decreased saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) by 92% in sand and 67% in organic soil, but increased K by 328% in clay-rich soil. The change in K for sand was not predicted by the accompanying physical changes to the soil mixture; the sand-biochar mixture was less dense and more porous than sand without biochar. We propose two hydrologic pathways that are potential drivers for this behavior: one through the interstitial biochar-sand space and a second through pores within the biochar grains themselves. This second pathway adds to the porosity of the soil mixture; however, it likely does not add to the effective soil K due to its tortuosity and smaller pore size. Therefore, the addition of biochar can increase or decrease soil drainage, and suggests that any potential improvement of water delivery to plants is dependent on soil type, biochar amendment rate, and biochar properties. Changes in dissolved carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes also differed; with biochar increasing the C flux from organic-poor sand, decreasing it from organic-rich soils, and retaining small amounts of soil-derived N. The aromaticity of C lost from sand and clay increased, suggesting lost C was biochar-derived; though the loss accounts for only 0.05% of added biochar-C. Thus, the direction and magnitude of hydraulic, C, and N changes associated with biochar amendments are soil type (composition and particle size) dependent

  11. Evaluation of long-term patient satisfaction and experience with the Baha® bone conduction implant. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jacob; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme


    Evaluate long-term patient satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (the Baha®, now referred to by Cochlear as a 'bone conduction implant') in our hospital clinic spanning the eighteen-year period from the inception of our Baha program. The researchers further wished to analyse the various factors leading to patient satisfaction/dissatisfaction with their Baha. We developed a new questionnaire to obtain a comprehensive impression of individual patient practices, general satisfaction, and experiences with their Baha in respect to time spent using Baha, sound quality, annoyance from noise disturbance, ease of communication, cosmetic appearance, and satisfaction with the Baha amongst patient relatives, an aspect not previously investigated. The study design was retrospective and executed as a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed by the authors of this paper. Patients operated on for a Baha at our hospital from 1989 to 2007. The response rate was 92.4%. Eighty-six percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their Baha. Ninety-one percent of respondents could communicate using their Baha in a one-on-one conversational setting. A primary factor leading to dissatisfaction, experienced by 70% of responding patients, was annoyance from wind noise. Baha was found to yield good overall patient satisfaction over the long-term, and it was possible to identify specific factors attributing to satisfaction/dissatisfaction.

  12. Students' Design of Experiments: An Inquiry Module on the Conduction of Heat (United States)

    Hatzikraniotis, E.; Kallery, M.; Molohidis, A.; Psillos, D.


    This article examines secondary students' design of experiments after engagement in an innovative and inquiry-oriented module on heat transfer. The module consists of an integration of hands-on experiments, simulated experiments and microscopic model simulations, includes a structured series of guided investigative tasks and was implemented for a…

  13. Assessing the impact of previous experience, and attitudes towards technology, on levels of engagement in a virtual reality based occupational therapy intervention for spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCaughey, Manus Dr.


    The aim of the current research project was to determine if there were significant differences between patients with higher or lower levels of experience with technology in terms of their level of engagement with virtual reality (VR) in occupational therapy, their future uptake of VR technology in therapy, and their attitudes towards technology. Patients’ experience of technology was also examined in relation to demographic characteristics such as age and education level.\\r\

  14. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de


    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  15. Use of Intracervical Foley Catheter for Induction of Labour in Cases of Previous Caesarean Section; Experience of a single tertiary centre in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Gonsalves


    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate rates of success and perinatal complications of labour induction using an intracervical Foley catheter among women with a previous Caesarean delivery at a tertiary centre in Oman. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 68 pregnant women with a history of a previous Caesarean section who were admitted for induction via Foley catheter between January 2011 and December 2013 to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Patient data were collected from electronic and delivery ward records. Results: Most women were 25–35 years old (76.5% and 20 women had had one previous vaginal delivery (29.4%. The most common indication for induction of labour was intrauterine growth restriction with oligohydramnios (27.9%. Most women delivered after 40 gestational weeks (48.5% and there were no neonatal admissions or complications. The majority experienced no complications during the induction period (85.3%, although a few had vaginal bleeding (5.9%, intrapartum fever (4.4%, rupture of the membranes (2.9% and cord prolapse shortly after insertion of the Foley catheter (1.5%. However, no cases of uterine rupture or scar dehiscence were noted. Overall, the success rate of vaginal birth after a previous Caesarean delivery was 69.1%, with the remaining patients undergoing an emergency Caesarean section (30.9%. Conclusion: The use of a Foley catheter in the induction of labour in women with a previous Caesarean delivery appears a safe option with a good success rate and few maternal and fetal complications.

  16. Thermal conduction effects in spin-lattice relaxation experiments on ytterbium chloride hexahydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra, Jakob; Gerritsma, G.J.; Blokhuis, A.C.


    The anomalous behaviour of the spin-lattice relaxation observed for single crystals of ytterbium chloride hexahydrate at fields stronger than 5 kOe is due to the poor heat transfer in the liquid-helium bath. The thermal conduction effects can be explained by means of a thermal conduction model for

  17. Portable Conduction Velocity Experiments Using Earthworms for the College and High School Neuroscience Teaching Laboratory (United States)

    Shannon, Kyle M.; Gage, Gregory J.; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Marzullo, Timothy C.


    The earthworm is ideal for studying action potential conduction velocity in a classroom setting, as its simple linear anatomy allows easy axon length measurements and the worm's sparse coding allows single action potentials to be easily identified. The earthworm has two giant fiber systems (lateral and medial) with different conduction velocities…

  18. Exploring the Experiences of Faculty-Led Teams in Conducting Action Research (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Amundsen, Cheryl


    Action research has been suggested as a useful way to support university faculty to improve teaching and learning. However, there seems to be little knowledge about how faculty (and those who work with them) experience the process of doing action research. In order to explore team members' in-depth experience about what they learned and how they…

  19. The Lattice and Thermal Radiation Conductivity of Thermal Barrier Coatings: Models and Experiments (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Spuckler, Charles M.


    The lattice and radiation conductivity of ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was evaluated using a laser heat flux approach. A diffusion model has been established to correlate the coating apparent thermal conductivity to the lattice and radiation conductivity. The radiation conductivity component can be expressed as a function of temperature, coating material scattering, and absorption properties. High temperature scattering and absorption of the coating systems can be also derived based on the testing results using the modeling approach. A comparison has been made for the gray and nongray coating models in the plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings. The model prediction is found to have a good agreement with experimental observations.

  20. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs. (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.


    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  1. Experiment and Artificial Neural Network Prediction of Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity for Alumina-Water Nanofluids. (United States)

    Zhao, Ningbo; Li, Zhiming


    To effectively predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of alumina (Al₂O₃)-water nanofluids, an artificial neural network (ANN) approach was investigated in the present study. Firstly, using a two-step method, four Al₂O₃-water nanofluids were prepared respectively by dispersing different volume fractions (1.31%, 2.72%, 4.25%, and 5.92%) of nanoparticles with the average diameter of 30 nm. On this basis, the thermal conductivity and viscosity of the above nanofluids were analyzed experimentally under various temperatures ranging from 296 to 313 K. Then a radial basis function (RBF) neural network was constructed to predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al₂O₃-water nanofluids as a function of nanoparticle volume fraction and temperature. The experimental results showed that both nanoparticle volume fraction and temperature could enhance the thermal conductivity of Al₂O₃-water nanofluids. However, the viscosity only depended strongly on Al₂O₃ nanoparticle volume fraction and was increased slightly by changing temperature. In addition, the comparative analysis revealed that the RBF neural network had an excellent ability to predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al₂O₃-water nanofluids with the mean absolute percent errors of 0.5177% and 0.5618%, respectively. This demonstrated that the ANN provided an effective way to predict the thermophysical properties of nanofluids with limited experimental data.

  2. Effect of Si doping on the thermal conductivity of bulk GaN at elevated temperatures – theory and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Paskov


    Full Text Available The effect of Si doping on the thermal conductivity of bulk GaN was studied both theoretically and experimentally. The thermal conductivity of samples grown by Hydride Phase Vapor Epitaxy (HVPE with Si concentration ranging from 1.6×1016 to 7×1018 cm-3 was measured at room temperature and above using the 3ω method. The room temperature thermal conductivity was found to decrease with increasing Si concentration. The highest value of 245±5 W/m.K measured for the undoped sample was consistent with the previously reported data for free-standing HVPE grown GaN. In all samples, the thermal conductivity decreased with increasing temperature. In our previous study, we found that the slope of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity gradually decreased with increasing Si doping. Additionally, at temperatures above 350 K the thermal conductivity in the highest doped sample (7×1018 cm-3 was higher than that of lower doped samples. In this work, a modified Callaway model adopted for n-type GaN at high temperatures was developed in order to explain such unusual behavior. The experimental data was analyzed with examination of the contributions of all relevant phonon scattering processes. A reasonable match between the measured and theoretically predicted thermal conductivity was obtained. It was found that in n-type GaN with low dislocation densities the phonon-free-electron scattering becomes an important resistive process at higher temperatures. At the highest free electron concentrations, the electronic thermal conductivity was suggested to play a role in addition to the lattice thermal conductivity and compete with the effect of the phonon-point-defect and phonon-free-electron scattering.

  3. Analysis of conductive target influence in plasma jet experiments through helium metastable and electric field measurements (United States)

    Darny, T.; Pouvesle, J.-M.; Puech, V.; Douat, C.; Dozias, S.; Robert, Eric


    The use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets for in vivo treatments implies most of the time plasma interaction with conductive targets. The effect of conductive target contact on the discharge behavior is studied here for a grounded metallic target and compared to the free jet configuration. In this work, realized with a plasma gun, we measured helium metastable HeM (23S1) concentration (by laser absorption spectroscopy) and electric field (EF) longitudinal and radial components (by electro-optic probe). Both diagnostics were temporally and spatially resolved. Mechanisms after ionization front impact on the target surface have been identified. The remnant conductive ionized channel behind the ionization front electrically transiently connects the inner high voltage electrode to the target. Due to impedance mismatching between the ionized channel and the target, a secondary ionization front is initiated and rapidly propagates from the target surface to the inner electrode through this ionized channel. This leads to a greatly enhanced HeM production inside the plasma plume and the capillary. Forward and reverse dynamics occur with further multi reflections of more or less damped ionization fronts between the inner electrode and the target as long as the ionized channel is persisting. This phenomenon is very sensitive to parameters such as target distance and ionized channel conductivity affecting electrical coupling between these two and evidenced using positive or negative voltage polarity and nitrogen admixture. In typical operating conditions for the plasma gun used in this work, it has been found that after the secondary ionization front propagation, when the ionized channel is conductive enough, a glow like discharge occurs with strong conduction current. HeM production and all species excitation, especially reactive ones, are then driven by high voltage pulse evolution. The control of forward and reverse dynamics, impacting on the production of the glow

  4. Sub-Kelvin Thermal Conductivity and Radioactivity of Some Useful Materials in Low Background Cryogenic Experiments (United States)

    Kellaris, N.; Daal, M.; Epland, M.; Pepin, M.; Kamaev, O.; Cushman, P.; Kramer, E.; Sadoulet, B.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Golwala, S.; Runyan, M.


    We present measurements of the thermal conductivity between 0.05 and 1 K, and radioactive contamination levels, for some thermally isolating materials. TIMET Ti 15-3-3-3, Mersen grade 2020 graphite, Vespel SP-1, Vespel SP-22, Vespel SCP-5000, Vespel SCP-5050, Graphlite CFRP, and a Kapton/epoxy composite are all investigated. Thermal conductivities were measured using a single-heater longitudinal heat flow method. Material radioactivity was determined for the materials at a low background counting facility using a high-purity gamma detector and GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Comparison of the Volume Charge Density of Nanofiltration Membranes Obtained from Retention and Conductivity Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, J.; Silva, V.; Pradanos, P.


    A version of the Donnan steric-partitioning pore model with dielectrical exclusion (DSPM-DE) has been used to get information on the pore size and charge density of a commercial membrane, NF45 from FilmTec, from its retention of KCl solutions. The conductivity inside the pores has been measured b...

  6. First clinical experiences with an implantable bone conduction hearing aid at the University of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R. J.; Dreschler, W. A.; Tange, R. A.


    A transcutaneous bone-conduction hearing aid was implanted in 11 patients who were not suitable for transcranial sound amplification. Audiological and surgical selection criteria were followed strictly. One device had to be explanted and minor revision surgery was needed in two cases for skin

  7. Challenges and solutions for conducting research in correctional settings: the U.S. experience. (United States)

    Cislo, Andrew M; Trestman, Robert


    Through the mid-1970s, most new drug clinical trials were conducted in America's jails and prisons. Due to the extensive human rights violations acknowledged at that time, laws were enacted that essentially brought corrections-based research to a halt. The Code of Federal Regulations, 45 CFR 46 subpart C, specifies the limitations upon research with correctional populations that are currently in place. These guidelines both informed the ethical conduct of research and arguably created a significant problem in today's correctional environment - prisoners are under-studied. We know far less about the health and health care needs of people under conditions of incarceration than those in the community. Linked with the extraordinary explosion over the last 20 years in the population of America's jails and prisons and with a disproportionate number of mentally ill inmates, inadequate knowledge currently exists to guide clinical decision-making. Over the last decade, a gradually growing body of work, ethically developed and clinically focused, has been evolving. This article presents the challenges of conducting correctional research in health and healthcare delivery. Legal, ethical, and pragmatic barriers are reviewed. Further, practical solutions that allow meaningful research to be conducted are presented. Such research can create a foundation for developing both public policy and clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experiment and prediction on thermal conductivity of Al2O3/ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We predict that there is a critical value of Al2O3/ZnO nano thin interface thickness based on two assumptions according to an interesting phenomenon, which the thermal conductivity (TC) trend of Al2O3/ZnO nano thin interface is consistent with that of relevant single nano thin interface when the nano thin interface thickness ...

  9. Experiment and prediction on thermal conductivity of Al2O3/ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. We predict that there is a critical value of Al2O3/ZnO nano thin interface thickness based on two assumptions according to an interesting phenomenon, which the thermal conductivity (TC) trend of. Al2O3/ZnO nano thin interface is consistent with that of relevant single nano thin interface when the nano thin interface ...

  10. Experiment data report: Gap Conductance Test Series, Test GC 1-3 postirradiation examination. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, B. A.


    The results of the postirradiation examination of four boiling water reactor type, zircaloy-clad, UO/sub 2/-fueled rods tested as part of the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program are discussed. These rods were employed in Gap Conductance Test GC 1-3 which was conducted to obtain experimental data from which test rod gap conductance values could be determined by both the steady state integral kdT and the power oscillation methods. The postirradiation examination results provided will aid in interpreting and understanding the experimental data obtained during Test GC 1-3 and in evaluating the effect of fuel behavior on the fuel rod thermal response and interpreted gap conductances. Fuel rod fill gas composition and pressure and rod power profiles are discussed. Evidence is presented showing that significant amounts of water had been present in two of the four fuel rods during testing. For the two fuel rods that remained intact during the test, measurements of fuel pellet-to-cladding gap, as well as the surface area of the fuel cracks at several axial locations are presented. A total effective radial gap is calculated and the fuel structure and porosity are analyzed.

  11. Experiment and prediction on thermal conductivity of Al 2 O 3 /ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We predict that there is a critical value of Al2O3/ZnO nano thin interface thickness based on two assumptions according to an interesting phenomenon, which the thermal conductivity (TC) trend of Al2O3/ZnO nano thin interface is consistent with that of relevant single nano thin interface when the nano thin interface thickness ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  13. The Air Force’s Experience with Should-Cost Reviews and Options for Enhancing Its Capability to Conduct Them (United States)


    The Air Force’s Experience with Should-Cost Reviews and Options for Enhancing Its Capability to Conduct Them Michael Boito, Kevin Brancato, John...Mark Wallentine of Warner Robins Air Logistics Center. We thank Blaise Durante , Deputy Assistant Secretary for Contracting, Office of the Assistant

  14. Using Satellite Technology to Increase Professional Communications Among Teachers: a Report of Experiments Conducted by the National Education Association. (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Div. of Instruction and Professional Development.

    The National Education Association (NEA) in conjunction with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Library of Medicine, The Alaska Broadcasting Commission, and the Pacific PEACESAT Network, conducted four satellite experiments designed to improve professional communication among teachers. These programs were the Satellite…

  15. A critique to Akdemir and Oguz : Methodological and statistical issues to consider when conducting educational experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Casper J.; Boevé, Anja J.; Meijer, Rob R.

    Abstract In the paper “Computer-based testing: An alternative for the assessment of Turkish undergraduate students”, Akdemir and Oguz (2008) discuss an experiment to compare student performance in paper-and-pencil tests with computer-based tests, and conclude that students taking computer-based

  16. A Laboratory Experiment, Based on the Maillard Reaction, Conducted as a Project in Introductory Statistics (United States)

    Kravchuk, Olena; Elliott, Antony; Bhandari, Bhesh


    A simple laboratory experiment, based on the Maillard reaction, served as a project in Introductory Statistics for undergraduates in Food Science and Technology. By using the principles of randomization and replication and reflecting on the sources of variation in the experimental data, students reinforced the statistical concepts and techniques…

  17. Explaining Research Utilization Among 4-H Faculty, Staff, and Volunteers: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Learning Goal Orientation, Training, and Previous Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Tillman


    Full Text Available An investigation of factors that facilitate the utilization of research evidence among faculty, staff, and volunteers in the 4-H Youth Development Program is presented in this paper. Participants (N= 368; 86 4-H faculty, 153 staff, and 129 volunteers represented 35 states; structural equation modeling was utilized in the analyses. Results of the path analysis explained 56% of variance in research utilization and 28% in research utilization self-efficacy. Among the factors impacting research utilization, self-efficacy played the most important role. In turn, self-efficacy for research utilization was positively influenced by participants’ learning goal orientation, frequency of 4-H training during the last 12 months, education in research-related areas, and investigative career interests. In addition, 4-H staff who were exposed to research at higher levels reported higher research utilization self-efficacy. The findings reinforce the importance of fostering research utilization self-efficacy among 4-H faculty, staff, and volunteers. Among the suggestions presented are regular 4-H training opportunities and on-going exposure to program evaluation and program improvement experiences.

  18. Influence of previous experience on the preference, food utilization and performance of Ascia monuste orseis wild larvae (Godart) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) for three different hosts. (United States)

    Santana, A F K; Zucoloto, F S


    The exhaustion of food resources which occurs during the ontogenetic growth of Ascia monuste orseis (Godart) results in the dispersion of older larvae to nearby plants in order to complete their development, which might expose these animals to the nutritional variation of the hosts found. This study aimed to verify whether the food ingested in the beginning of the development influences the larvae host preference and whether the shift to a new host can affect the digestion and performance of A. monuste orseis, using two natural hosts: kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and rocket (Eruca sativa), or kale and cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata). Larvae were reared throughout their larval development on a single host or on two different hosts. When a host change was tested, larvae were reared for four instars on a host, and offered the other host plant in the fifth instar. Development time, percentage of pupation and emergence, pupal weight, fecundity and digestive indices were evaluated. The change in feeding preference for kale and for rocket in the fourth instar, when those were the original hosts, respectively, shows that prior experience plays a major role in food preference of immature A. monuste orseis. The shift can be beneficial for larval development, depending on the order of the hosts; in general, larvae fed on kale at the end of the development showed better performance. Our results presented strong evidence of a considerable phenotypic plasticity in A. monuste orseis for host preferences.

  19. Selection of mixed conducting oxides for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane with pulse experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crapanzano, S.D.; Babych, Igor V.; Lefferts, Leonardus


    In this study, propane pulse experiments at 550 °C are used as a method to select suitable oxides for further operation of catalytic dense membrane reactor (CDMR) for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane. Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3−δ (BSCF), La2NiO4+δ (LN) and PrBaCo2O5+δ (PBC) powders were used as

  20. CFD Analysis of a Slug Mixing Experiment Conducted on a VVER-1000 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moretti


    Full Text Available A commercial CFD code was applied, for validation purposes, to the simulation of a slug mixing experiment carried out at OKB “Gidropress” scaled facility in the framework of EC TACIS project R2.02/02: “Development of safety analysis capabilities for VVER-1000 transients involving spatial variations of coolant properties (temperature or boron concentration at core inlet.” Such experimental model reproduces a VVER-1000 nuclear reactor and is aimed at investigating the in-vessel mixing phenomena. The addressed experiment involves the start-up of one of the four reactor coolant pumps (the other three remaining idle, and the presence of a tracer slug on the starting loop, which is thus transported to the reactor pressure vessel where it mixes with the clear water. Such conditions may occur in a boron dilution scenario, hence the relevance of the addressed phenomena for nuclear reactor safety. Both a pretest and a posttest CFD simulations of the mentioned experiment were performed, which differ in the definition of the boundary conditions (based either on nominal quantities or on measured quantities, resp.. The numerical results are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and compared against the measured data in terms of space and time tracer distribution at the core inlet. The improvement of the results due to the optimization of the boundary conditions is evidenced, and a quantification of the simulation accuracy is proposed.

  1. Growth and Morphology of Supercritical Fluids, a Fluid Physics Experiment Conducted on Mir, Complete (United States)

    Wilkinson, R. Allen


    The Growth and Morphology of Supercritical Fluids (GMSF) is an international experiment facilitated by the NASA Glenn Research Center and under the guidance of U.S. principal investor Professor Hegseth of the University of New Orleans and three French coinvestigators: Daniel Beysens, Yves Garrabos, and Carole Chabot. The GMSF experiments were concluded in early 1999 on the Russian space station Mir. The experiments spanned the three science themes of near-critical phase separation rates, interface dynamics in near-critical boiling, and measurement of the spectrum of density fluctuation length scales very close to the critical point. The fluids used were pure CO2 or SF6. Three of the five thermostats used could adjust the sample volume with the scheduled crew time. Such a volume adjustment enabled variable sample densities around the critical density as well as pressure steps (as distinct from the usual temperature steps) applied to the sample. The French-built ALICE II facility was used for these experiments. It allows tightly thermostated (left photograph) samples (right photograph) to be controlled and viewed/measured. Its diagnostics include interferometry, shadowgraph, high-speed pressure measurements, and microscopy. Data were logged on DAT tapes, and PCMCIA cards and were returned to Earth only after the mission was over. The ground-breaking near critical boiling experiment has yielded the most results with a paper published in Physical Review Letters (ref. 1). The boiling work also received press in Science Magazine (ref. 2). This work showed that, in very compressible near-critical two-phase pure fluids, a vapor bubble was induced to temporarily overheat during a rapid heating of the sample wall. The temperature rise in the vapor was 23-percent higher than the rise in the driving container wall. The effect is due to adiabatic compression of the vapor bubble by the rapid expansion of fluid near the boundary during heatup. Thermal diffusivity is low near the

  2. Hydraulic conductivity, porosity and uranium retention of crystalline rock and marl: drill core infiltration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischoff, K.; Wolf, K.; Heimgartner, B.


    The hydraulic conductivity and the dynamic porosity under mechanical stress have been measured on intact or fissure bearing crystalline rock cores from the NAGRA (National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste) drilling programme in the central part of northern Switzerland along with marl cores from Oberbauenstock (Canton of Obwalden). Breakthrough profiles of uranium-233 on four of the crystalline samples have been established and in addition the immobilized activity was registered by α-autoradiography of sliced core samples. For the intact crystalline samples hydraulic conductivities were in the range of 1E-13 to 1E-11 m/s, whereas the marl displayed much smaller values of approx. 1E-15 m/s. The dynamic porosity in the crystalline cores is some 10 to 90 % of the total porosity, falling to 5 % in the marl sample. Calculations of apertures and surfaces of the conducting paths as well as an estimation of the coefficient of surface sorption were made by using the definition of the hydraulic radius and the relation between the overall (measured) retardation and the sorption coefficient, R = 1 + a f K a (assuming a linear sorption isotherm), respectively. All four breakthrough profiles have been used in a separate publication to model radionuclide transport using the radionuclide transport model RANCHMD for two flow geometries. The measured and calculated profiles agree well; the extracted parameters are consistent with values from the literature and independent measurements. Here few parameters (apertures, surface and sorption coefficients) resulting from these calculations are compared with the values derived from the hydraulic radius concept. Alpha-Autoradiographs are shown to be helpful in typifying flow path geometries. (author)

  3. STS-47 MS Davis and MS Jemison conduct LBNP experiment in the SLJ module (United States)


    At the aft end of the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module, STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis (foreground) readies Rack 9 Automatic Blood Pressure System (ABPS) controls as MS Mae C. Jemison, inside the cylindrical fabric lower body negative pressure (LBNP) device, waits for the LBNP experiment to begin. LBNP device is sealed around Jemison's waist. It is attached to the SLJ floor and has a controller that operates a pump to change the pressure inside. Davis will monitor Jemison's pulse rate, blood pressure, and cardiac dimensions and functions.

  4. Practical strategies and perceptions from community pharmacists following their experiences with conducting pharmacy practice research: a qualitative content analysis. (United States)

    De Vera, Mary A; Campbell, Natasha K J; Chhina, Harpreet; Galo, Jessica S; Marra, Carlo


    While prior research identified barriers to conducting research in community pharmacies, there remains a need to better understand facilitators to ensure successful collaborations between academic researchers and pharmacists. Our objective was to determine the experiences and perspectives of community pharmacists who have recently conducted a pharmacy practice-based research study to gain in-depth understanding of challenges as well as facilitators and identify strategies and solutions. We conducted a qualitative study involving one-on-one semi-structured telephone interviews with community pharmacists following the completion of a practice-based research study in their pharmacies. Interview transcripts were analysed using inductive content analysis involving open coding, creating categories and abstraction into final themes. Eleven pharmacists participated in the qualitative interviews. We identified six major themes including: (1) barriers (e.g. time constraints); (2) facilitators (e.g. ideal pharmacy layout); (3) support and resources from academic researchers (e.g. helpfulness of training, easy-to-use study materials); (4) pharmacist-initiated strategies for conducting research (beyond prior suggestions from researchers); (5) suggestions for future pharmacy practice research; and (6) motivation for conducting pharmacy practice research. These findings informed practical strategies targeted at academic researchers and pharmacists, respectively, to facilitate the conduct of research in community pharmacists across various stages of the research process. Our study adds to better understanding of community pharmacists' perspectives on conducting research and identifies practical solutions that can be readily implemented by academic researchers and pharmacists participating in research. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. “... And Gladly Teach”: The American Hospital Association's Experience in Conducting Institutes on Hospital Librarianship (United States)

    Yast, Helen


    As part of its overall educational program, the American Hospital Association has since 1959 conducted three institutes on hospital librarianship to meet the demand for more competent librarians in medical, nursing school, and patients' libraries. The purpose of such institutes is to teach the basic elements of library science to untrained personnel in hospital libraries. Discussed are steps in initiating an institute; factors determining length, date, and place; financing; publicity; choice and responsibility of local advisory committee; program content; qualifications of instructors; characteristics of registrants; materials for distribution; evaluations. Details of the most recent institute are outlined. A summary of problems still facing this type of educational program and suggestions for future improvements conclude the paper. PMID:14119309

  6. Essential Data and Techniques for Conducting Microbial Fuel Cell and other Types of Bioelectrochemical System Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.


    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and other bioelectrochemical systems are new technologies that require expertise in a variety of technical areas, ranging from electrochemistry to biological wastewater treatment. There are certain data and critical information that should be included in every MFC study, such as specific surface area of the electrodes, solution conductivity, and power densities normalized to electrode surface area and volumes. Electrochemical techniques such as linear sweep voltammetry can be used to understand the performance of the MFC, but extremely slow scans are required for these biological systems compared to more traditional fuel cells. In this Minireview, the critical information needed for MFC studies is provided with examples of how results can be better conveyed through a full description of materials, the use of proper controls, and inclusion of a more complete electrochemical analysis. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Development of female medfly attractants to support the sterile insect technique: experiments conducted in Madeira, Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.


    With the availability of genetic sexing strains of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), it is possible to release only sterile males in SIT programs. The availability of a new female medfly attractant can reduce labor costs because program progress can be monitored by trapping females instead of the usual male trapping with its labor intensive identification of sterile and wild males. Three Madeira studies evaluated new female attractants; ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine. One study was carried out in the same area during two different periods of 1996 (8 June to 27 July and 12 October to 30 November). A second study was conducted between 24 May to 05 July, 1997, in two different areas at the same altitude. One area had a wild fly population (sex ratio 1: 1) and the other was in an area where sterile males were released (sex ratio > 9: 1). The third study, conducted from 18 October to 29 November, 1997, compared wild fly captures at low elevations (80 m) with those at high elevations (700 m). The first study showed that the inclusion of the attractant trimethylamine significantly increased the wild female medfly. The percentage of medfly females in the traps with the two and the three attractants (FA-2 and FA-3) was more than 70%. In the second and third studies, the dry traps were more effective than wet traps in capturing wild medfly females. In areas with only wild females, the percentage of females captured was more than 62%. In areas where sterile males were released, the percentage of females captured was between 12% and 19%. In conclusion, the new attractants captured high percentages of females and, when combined with medfly genetic sexing strains, can reduce program costs significantly. (author)

  8. Conducting Science with a CubeSat: The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) (United States)

    Palo, Scott; Li, Xinlin; Gerhardt, David; Blum, Lauren; Schiller, Quintin; Kohnert, Rick


    The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment is a 3-unit (10cm x 10cm x 30cm) CubeSat funded by the National Science Foundation and constructed at the University of Colorado (CU). The CSSWE science instrument, the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile), provides directional differential flux measurements of 0.5 to >3.3 MeV electrons and 9 to 40 MeV protons. Though a collaboration of 60+ multidisciplinary graduate and undergraduate students working with professors and professional engineers, CSSWE was designed, built, tested, and delivered in 3 years. On September 13, 2012, CSSWE was inserted to a 477 x 780 km, 65° orbit as a secondary payload on an Atlas V through the NASA Educational Launch of Nanosatellites (ELaNa) program.The first successful contact with CSSWE was made within a few hours of launch. CSSWE then completed a 20 day system commissioning phase which validated the performance of the communications, power, and attitude control systems. This was immediately followed by an accelerated 24 hour REPTile commissioning period in time for a geomagnetic storm. The high quality, low noise science data return from REPTile is complementary to the NASA Van Allen Probes mission, which launched two weeks prior to CSSWE. On January 5, 2013, CSSWE completed 90 days of on-orbit science operations, achieving the baseline goal for full mission success and has been operating since. An overview of the CSSWE system, on-orbit performance and lessons learned will be presented.

  9. Long conduction time plasma opening switch experiments at Sandia National Labs (United States)

    Savage, M. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Cooper, G. W.; Usher, M. A.


    Sandia National Labs has undertaken an ambitious program to reduce the size and cost of large pulsed power drivers. The program basis is inductive energy storage and Plasma Opening Switches (POS). Inductive energy storage has well known advantages, including increased efficiency and reduced stress on the vacuum interface. The Sandia approach is to retain the reliable and efficient Marx generator and the temporal pulse compression of the water dielectric capacitor. A triggered closing switch, developed at Sandia, transfers the capacitor charge into the energy storage inductor. This approach has several advantages, including relaxed requirements on Marx jitter and inductance, and must faster current risetime in the energy storage inductor. The POS itself is the key to the Sandia program. The switch design uses an auxiliary magnetic field to inject the plasma and hold it in place during conduction. After opening begins, the self magnetic field of the power pulse pushes on the plasma to increase the opened gap. We use magnetic pressure because we desire POS gaps of several cm. Erosion POS devices typically open much less than that. Improved opening allows more efficient energy transfer to loads.

  10. Conducting a user-centered information needs assessment: the Via Christi Libraries' experience. (United States)

    Perley, Cathy M; Gentry, Camillia A; Fleming, A Sue; Sen, Kristin M


    The research sought to provide evidence to support the development of a long-term strategy for the Via Christi Regional Medical Center Libraries. An information needs assessment was conducted in a large medical center serving approximately 5,900 physicians, clinicians, and nonclinical staff in 4 sites in 1 Midwestern city. Quantitative and qualitative data from 1,295 self-reporting surveys, 75 telephone interviews, and 2 focus groups were collected and analyzed to address 2 questions: how could the libraries best serve their patrons, given realistic limitations on time, resources, and personnel, and how could the libraries best help their institution improve patient care and outcomes? Clinicians emphasized the need for "just in time" information accessible at the point of care. Library nonusers emphasized the need to market library services and resources. Both clinical and nonclinical respondents emphasized the need for information services customized to their professional information needs, preferences, and patterns of use. Specific information needs in the organization were identified. The results of this three-part, user-centered information needs assessment were used to develop an evidence-based strategic plan. The findings confirmed the importance of promoting library services in the organization and suggested expanded, collaborative roles for hospital librarians.

  11. The conduct of drug metabolism studies considered good practice (II): in vitro experiments. (United States)

    Jia, Lee; Liu, Xiaodong


    In vitro drug metabolism studies, which are inexpensive and readily carried out, serve as an adequate screening mechanism to characterize drug metabolites, elucidate their pathways, and make suggestions for further in vivo testing. This publication is a sequel to part I in a series and aims at providing a general framework to guide designs and protocols of the in vitro drug metabolism studies considered good practice in an efficient manner such that it would help researchers avoid common pitfalls and misleading results. The in vitro models include hepatic and non-hepatic microsomes, cDNA-expressed recombinant human CYPs expressed in insect cells or human B lymphoblastoid, chemical P450 inhibitors, S9 fraction, hepatocytes and liver slices. Important conditions for conducting the in vitro drug metabolism studies using these models are stated, including relevant concentrations of enzymes, co-factors, inhibitors and test drugs; time of incubation and sampling in order to establish kinetics of reactions; appropriate control settings, buffer selection and method validation. Separate in vitro data should be logically integrated to explain results from animal and human studies and to provide insights into the nature and consequences of in vivo drug metabolism. This article offers technical information and data and addresses scientific rationales and practical skills related to in vitro evaluation of drug metabolism to meet regulatory requirements for drug development.

  12. Operating experience review -- Conduct of operations at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This research examined human error related occurrences, reported in the ORPS database, for the purpose of identifying weaknesses in the implementation of the guidance regarding the Conduct of Operations contained in DOE 5480.19. Specifically, this research examined three separate samples of occurrence reports from Defense Program facilities, which cited human error as a direct or contributing cause. These reports were evaluated using a coding scheme which incorporated the guidelines present in 5480.19, as well as a number of generic human factors concerns. The second chapter of this report summarizes the coding scheme which was used to evaluate the occurrence reports. Since the coding scheme is quite lengthy, only the parts of the scheme needed to make the remainder of the report clear are included in this chapter. Details on the development and content of the coding scheme are reported in Appendices A, B, and C. Chapter 3 presents the analysis of three different data sets. This chapter demonstrates that similar results were obtained across different data sets, collected at different points in time, and coded by different raters. The implications of the results obtained in Chapter 3 are discussed in Chapter 4. This chapter makes a number of suggestions for reducing the problems found in the occurrence reports. Chapter 5 applies the methodology that has been developed in this report to two facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Finally, Chapter 6 reiterates the major findings of this report. Several additional analyses appear in appendices at the end of this report

  13. Comparison of GAP-3 and GAP-4 experiments with conduction freezing calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.


    Experiments GAP-3 and GAP-4 were performed at ANL to investigate the ability of molten fuel to penetrate downward through the narrow channels separating adjacent subassemblies during an LMFBR hypothetical core disruptive accident. Molten fuel-metal mixtures (81% UO 2 , 19% Mo) at an initial temperature of 3470 0 K generated by a thermite reaction were injected downward into 1 m long rectangular test sections (gap thickness = 0.43 cm, channel width = 20.3 cm) initially at 1170 0 K simulating the nominal Clinch River Breeder Reactor intersubassembly gap. In the GAP-3 test, a prolonged reaction time of approx. 15 s resulted in segregation of the metallic Mo and oxidic UO 2 constituents within the reaction vessel prior to injection. Consequently, Mo entered the test section first and froze, forming a complete plug at a penetration distance of 0.18 m. In GAP-4, the reaction time was reduced to approx. 3 s and the constituents remained well mixed upon injection with the result that the leading edge penetration distance increased to 0.35 m. Posttest examination of the cut-open test sections has revealed the existence of stable insulating crusts upon the underlying steel walls with melting and ablation of the walls only very localized

  14. Previous experiences shape adaptive mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, Tim W.; Bleay, Colin


    Existing models of mate choice assume that individuals have perfect knowledge of their own ability to attract a mate and can adjust their preferences accordingly. However, real animals will typically be uncertain of their own attractiveness. A potentially useful source of information on this is the

  15. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak


    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  16. Quantum Mechanics Studies of Fuel Cell Catalysts and Proton Conducting Ceramics with Validation by Experiment (United States)

    Tsai, Ho-Cheng

    /Os core-shell). We found that Pt2ML/Os has the highest activity (compared to pure Pt and to the Pt3Os alloy) because the 0.37 eV barrier decreases to 0.23 eV. To understand what aspects of the core shell structure lead to this improved performance, we considered the effect on ORR of compressing the alloy slab to the dimensions of pure Pt. However this had the same RDS barrier 0.37 eV. Experimental materials characterization proves the core-shell feature of our catalyst. In part II, we used QM calculations to study methane stream reforming on a Ni-alloy catalyst surfaces for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) application. SOFC has wide fuel adaptability but the coking and sulfur poisoning will reduce its stability. We carried out QM calculations on surface segregation and found that the most stable configuration for Ni4Fe has a Fe atom distribution of (0%, 50%, 25%, 25%, 0%) starting at the bottom layer. We calculated that the binding of C atoms on the Ni4Fe surface is 142.9 Kcal/mol, which is about 10 Kcal/mol weaker compared to the pure Ni surface. This result confirms the experimental observation. The reaction energy barriers for CH x decomposition and C binding on various alloy surface, Ni4X (X=Fe, Co, Mn, and Mo), showed Ni4Fe, Ni4Co, and Fe4Mn all have better coking resistance than pure Ni, but that only Ni4Fe and Fe4Mn have (slightly) improved activity compared to pure Ni. In part III, we used QM to examine the proton transport in doped perovskite-ceramics. Here we used a 2x2x2 supercell of perovskite with composition Ba8X 7M1(OH)1O23 where X=Ce or Zr and M=Y, Gd, or Dy. Thus in each case a 4+ X is replace by a 3 + M plus a proton on one O. Here we predicted the barriers for proton diffusion allowing both includes intra-octahedron and inter-octahedra proton transfer. Without any restriction, we only observed the inter-octahedra proton transfer with similar energy barrier as previous computational work but 0.2 eV higher than experimental result for Y doped zirconate

  17. X-ray absorption and reflection as probes of the GaN conduction bands: Theory and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrecht, W.R.L.; Rashkeev, S.N.; Segall, B. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others


    X-ray absorption measurements are a well-known probe of the unoccupied states in a material. The same information can be obtained by using glancing angle X-ray reflectivity. In spite of several existing band structure calculations of the group III nitrides and previous optical studies in UV range, a direct probe of their conduction band densities of states is of interest. The authors performed a joint experimental and theoretical investigation using both of these experimental techniques for wurtzite GaN.

  18. Evaluation of long-term patient satisfaction and experience with the Baha(®) bone conduction implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme


    Objective: Evaluate long-term patient satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (the Baha(R), now referred to by Cochlear as a 'bone conduction implant') in our hospital clinic spanning the eighteen-year period from the inception of our Baha program. The researchers further wished to analyse...... noise disturbance, ease of communication, cosmetic appearance, and satisfaction with the Baha amongst patient relatives, an aspect not previously investigated. Design: The study design was retrospective and executed as a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed by the authors of this paper...

  19. Electrotherapy in the treatment of patients affected by rabies: experiments conducted at the "Maggiore" hospital of Milan in 1865. (United States)

    Marinozzi, Silvia; Gulino, Matteo; Gazzaniga, Valentina


    During the nineteenth century, the scientific context of rabies treatment was weak due to the lack of the literature on specific nosology of the rabies disease, and unspecific and ineffective therapy approaches. Electrotherapy already represented an important therapeutic approach for nervous system diseases, although not specifically for rabies. In the present paper, the authors discuss the use of electrotherapy in the treatment of humans affected by rabies in an experimental study conducted at the Maggiore Hospital of Milan, with the aim of establishing the discovery of a possible specific therapy. By analyzing the printed scientific sources available in the Braidense Library of Milan, the authors describe four experiments conducted on patients of different ages. Symptoms and effects both during and after the electrotherapy are also highlighted. The experiments demonstrated that electricity is not an effective therapy in the treatment of rabies, being rather able to cause serious functional and organic alterations in all the patients. Analyzing the Milanese experiments, the authors reported specific Italian history of a scientific and medical approach to rabies at the end of the 18th century, which led to the promotion of health education, reinforced prevention strategies and opened the way to the vaccination era.

  20. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  1. The training and fieldwork experiences of community health workers conducting population-based, noninvasive screening for CVD in LMIC. (United States)

    Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Denman, Catalina A; Montano, Carlos Mendoza; Gaziano, Thomas A; Levitt, Naomi; Rivera-Andrade, Alvaro; Carrasco, Diana Munguía; Zulu, Jabu; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Puoane, Thandi


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is on the rise in low- and middle-income countries and is proving difficult to combat due to the emphasis on improving outcomes in maternal and child health and infectious diseases against a backdrop of severe human resource and infrastructure constraints. Effective task-sharing from physicians or nurses to community health workers (CHW) to conduct population-based screening for persons at risk has the potential to mitigate the impact of CVD on vulnerable populations. CHW in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa were trained to conduct noninvasive population-based screening for persons at high risk for CVD. This study sought to quantitatively assess the performance of CHW during training and to qualitatively capture their training and fieldwork experiences while conducting noninvasive screening for CVD risk in their communities. Written tests were used to assess CHW's acquisition of content knowledge during training, and focus group discussions were conducted to capture their training and fieldwork experiences. Training was effective at increasing the CHW's content knowledge of CVD, and this knowledge was largely retained up to 6 months after the completion of fieldwork. Common themes that need to be addressed when designing task-sharing with CHW in chronic diseases are identified, including language, respect, and compensation. The importance of having intimate knowledge of the community receiving services from design to implementation is underscored. Effective training for screening for CVD in community settings should have a strong didactic core that is supplemented with culture-specific adaptations in the delivery of instruction. The incorporation of expert and intimate knowledge of the communities themselves is critical, from the design to implementation phases of training. Challenges such as role definition, defining career paths, and providing adequate remuneration must be addressed. Copyright © 2015 World Heart

  2. Soil apparent conductivity measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments: A case study from Western-Thailand (United States)

    Rudolph, Sebastian; Wongleecharoen, Chalermchart; Lark, Richard Murray; Marchant, Ben Paul; Garré, Sarah; Herbst, Michael; Vereecken, Harry; Weihermueller, Lutz


    In agricultural experiments the success or failure of a potential improvement is generally evaluated based on the plant response, using proper experimental designs with sufficient statistical power. Because within-site variability can negatively affect statistical power, improvements in the experimental design can be achieved if this variation is well understood and incorporated into the experimental design, or if some surrogate variable is used as a covariate in the analysis. Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa), measured by electromagnetic induction (EMI) may be one source of this information. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of EMI-derived ECa measurements for planning and analysis of agricultural experiments. ECa and plant height measurements of maize (the response variable) were taken from an agricultural experiment in Western Thailand. A statistical model of these variables was used to simulate experiments with different designs and treatment effects. The simulated data were used to quantify the statistical power when testing three orthogonal contrasts. The following experimental designs were considered: a simple random design (SR), a complete randomized block design (CRB), and a complete randomized block design with spatially adjusted blocks on plot means of ECa (CRBECa). According to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) the smallest effect sizes could be detected using the CRBECa design, which suggests that ECa survey measurements could be used in the planning phase of an experiment to achieve efficiencies by better blocking. Also, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that larger power improvements could be achieved when ECa was used as a covariate in the analysis. We therefore recommend that ECa measurements should be used to describe subsurface variability and to support the statistical analysis of agricultural experiments.

  3. Perspectives, perceptions and experiences in postoperative pain management in developing countries: A focus group study conducted in Rwanda (United States)

    Johnson, Ana P; Mahaffey, Ryan; Egan, Rylan; Twagirumugabe, Theogene; Parlow, Joel L


    BACKGROUND: Access to postoperative acute pain treatment is an important component of perioperative care and is frequently managed by a multidisciplinary team of anesthesiologists, surgeons, pharmacists, technicians and nurses. In some developing countries, treatment modalities are often not performed due to scarce health care resources, knowledge deficiencies and cultural attitudes. OBJECTIVES: In advance of a comprehensive knowledge translation initiative, the present study aimed to determine the perspectives, perceptions and experiences of anesthesia residents regarding postoperative pain management strategies. METHODS: The present study was conducted using a qualitative assessment strategy in a large teaching hospital in Rwanda. During two sessions separated by seven days, a 10-participant semistructured focus group needs analysis was conducted with anesthesia residents at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali (Kigali, Rwanda). Field notes were analyzed using interpretative and descriptive phenomenological approaches. Participants were questioned regarding their perspectives, perceptions and experiences in pain management. RESULTS: The responses from the focus groups were related to five general areas: general patient and medical practice management; knowledge base regarding postoperative pain management; pain evaluation; institutional/system issues related to protocol implementation; and perceptions about resource allocation. Within these areas, challenges (eg, communication among stakeholders and with patients) and opportunities (eg, on-the-job training, use of protocols, routine pain assessment, participation in resource allocation decisions) were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed the prevalent challenges residents perceive in implementing postoperative pain management strategies, and offers practical suggestions to overcoming them, primarily through training and the implementation of practice recommendations. PMID:26448971

  4. Physics holo.lab learning experience: using smartglasses for augmented reality labwork to foster the concepts of heat conduction (United States)

    Strzys, M. P.; Kapp, S.; Thees, M.; Klein, P.; Lukowicz, P.; Knierim, P.; Schmidt, A.; Kuhn, J.


    Fundamental concepts of thermodynamics rely on abstract physical quantities such as energy, heat and entropy, which play an important role in the process of interpreting thermal phenomena and statistical mechanics. However, these quantities are not covered by human visual perception, and since heat sensation is purely qualitative and easy to deceive, an intuitive understanding often is lacking. Today immersive technologies like head-mounted displays of the newest generation, especially HoloLens, allow for high-quality augmented reality learning experiences, which can overcome this gap in human perception by presenting different representations of otherwise invisible quantities directly in the field of view of the user on the experimental apparatus, which simultaneously avoids a split-attention effect. In a mixed reality (MR) scenario as presented in this paper—which we call a holo.lab—human perception can be extended to the thermal regime by presenting false-color representations of the temperature of objects as a virtual augmentation directly on the real object itself in real-time. Direct feedback to experimental actions of the users in the form of different representations allows for immediate comparison to theoretical principles and predictions and therefore is supposed to intensify the theory–experiment interactions and to increase students’ conceptual understanding. We tested this technology for an experiment on thermal conduction of metals in the framework of undergraduate laboratories. A pilot study with treatment and control groups (N = 59) showed a small positive effect of MR on students’ performance measured with a standardized concept test for thermodynamics, pointing to an improvement of the understanding of the underlying physical concepts. These findings indicate that complex experiments could benefit even more from augmentation. This motivates us to enrich further experiments with MR.

  5. Effect of adverse childhood experiences on physical health in adulthood: Results of a study conducted in Baghdad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameel F Al-Shawi


    Full Text Available Background: Studies have revealed a powerful relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and physical and mental health in adulthood. Literature documents the conversion of traumatic emotional experiences in childhood into organic disease later in life. Objective: The aim was to estimate the effect of childhood experiences on the physical health of adults in Baghdad city. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to January 2014. The study sample was drawn from Baghdad city. Multistage sampling techniques were used in choosing 13 primary health care centers and eight colleges of three universities in Baghdad. In addition, teachers of seven primary schools and two secondary schools were chosen by a convenient method. Childhood experiences were measured by applying a modified standardized ACEs-International Questionnaire form and with questions for bonding to family and parental monitoring. Physical health assessment was measured by a modified questionnaire derived from Health Appraisal Questionnaire of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The questionnaire includes questions on cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, tumor, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Results: Logistic regression model showed that a higher level of bonding to family (fourth quartile is expected to reduce the risk of chronic physical diseases by almost the half (odds ratio = 0.57 and exposure to a high level of household dysfunction and abuse (fourth quartile is expected to increase the risk of chronic physical diseases by 81%. Conclusion: Childhood experiences play a major role in the determination of health outcomes in adulthood, and early prevention of ACEs. Encouraging strong family bonding can promote physical health in later life.

  6. Reward: commentary. Temporal discounting in conduct disorder: toward an experience-adaptation hypothesis of the role of psychosocial insecurity. (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S


    Young people with conduct disorder often experience histories of psychosocial adversity and socioeconomic insecurity. For these individuals, real-world future outcomes are not only delayed in their delivery but also highly uncertain. Under such circumstances, accentuated time preference (extreme favoring of the present over the future) is a rational response to the everyday reality of social and economic transactions. Building on this observation, the author sets out the hypothesis that the exaggerated temporal discounting displayed by individuals with conduct disorder reported by White et al. (2014) is an adaptation to chronic exposure to psychosocial insecurity during development. The author postulates that this adaptation leads to (a) a decision-making bias whereby delay and uncertainty are coded as inseparable characteristics of choice outcomes and/or (b) reprogramming of the brain networks regulating intertemporal decision making. Future research could explore the putative role of environmental exposures to adversity in the development of exaggerated temporal discounting in conduct disorder as well as the mediating role of putative cognitive and neurobiological adaptations.

  7. Understanding the POW experience: stress research and the implementation of the 1955 U.S. Armed Forces Code of Conduct. (United States)

    Genter, Robert


    Facing accusations about weak military discipline following the supposedly poor behavior of American soldiers held captive during the Korean War, President Dwight Eisenhower instituted a Code of Conduct for the Armed Services in 1955. In response, military leaders hired numerous social and behavioral scientists to investigate the nature of the prisoner-of-war (POW) experience. These researchers not only challenged official government accounts of POW activities but opened up a new field of study-stress research. They also changed military training policy, which soon focused more on stress inoculation training, and, in so doing, helped lead the shift in psychology away from behaviorism to ego and cognitive psychology. In this sense, my article ties shifts within the social and behavioral sciences in the 1950s to the military history of the early Cold War, a connection generally missing from most accounts of this period. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of long-term patient satisfaction and experience with the Baha(®) bone conduction implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme


    Objective: Evaluate long-term patient satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (the Baha(R), now referred to by Cochlear as a 'bone conduction implant') in our hospital clinic spanning the eighteen-year period from the inception of our Baha program. The researchers further wished to analyse...... the various factors leading to patient satisfaction/dissatisfaction with their Baha. We developed a new questionnaire to obtain a comprehensive impression of individual patient practices, general satisfaction, and experiences with their Baha in respect to time spent using Baha, sound quality, annoyance from....... A primary factor leading to dissatisfaction, experienced by 70% of responding patients, was annoyance from wind noise. Conclusions: Baha was found to yield good overall patient satisfaction over the long-term, and it was possible to identify specific factors attributing to satisfaction/dissatisfaction....

  9. Experiences in conducting multiple community-based HIV prevention trials among women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moodley Jothi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa, with its scientific capacity, good infrastructure and high HIV incidence rates, is ideally positioned to conduct large-scale HIV prevention trials. The HIV Prevention Research Unit of the South African Medical Research Council conducted four phase III and one phase IIb trials of women-initiated HIV prevention options in KwaZulu-Natal between 2003 and 2009. A total of 7046 women participated, with HIV prevalence between 25% and 45% and HIV incidence ranging from 4.5-9.1% per year. Unfortunately none of the interventions tested had any impact on reducing the risk of HIV acquisition; however, extremely valuable experience was gained, lessons learned and capacity built, while the communities gained associated benefits. Experience Our experience in conducting these trials ranged from setting up community partnerships to developing clinical research sites and dissemination of trial results. Community engagement included setting up community-based research sites with approval from both political and traditional leaders, and developing community advisory groups to assist with the research process. Community-wide education on HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention, treatment and care was provided to over 90 000 individuals. Myths and misconceptions were addressed through methods such as anonymous suggestion boxes in clinic waiting areas and intensive education and counselling. Attempts were made to involve male partners to foster support and facilitate recruitment of women. Peer educator programmes were initiated to provide ongoing education and also to facilitate recruitment of women to the trials. Recruitment strategies such as door-to-door recruitment and community group meetings were initiated. Over 90% of women enrolled were retained. Community benefits from the trial included education on HIV prevention, treatment and care and provision of ancillary care (such as Pap smears, reproductive health care and

  10. Does the soil's effective hydraulic conductivity adapt in order to obey the Maximum Entropy Production principle? A lab experiment (United States)

    Westhoff, Martijn; Zehe, Erwin; Erpicum, Sébastien; Archambeau, Pierre; Pirotton, Michel; Dewals, Benjamin


    The Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle is a conjecture assuming that a medium is organized in such a way that maximum power is subtracted from a gradient driving a flux (with power being a flux times its driving gradient). This maximum power is also known as the Carnot limit. It has already been shown that the atmosphere operates close to this Carnot limit when it comes to heat transport from the Equator to the poles, or vertically, from the surface to the atmospheric boundary layer. To reach this state close to the Carnot limit, the effective thermal conductivity of the atmosphere is adapted by the creation of convection cells (e.g. wind). The aim of this study is to test if the soil's effective hydraulic conductivity also adapts itself in such a way that it operates close to the Carnot limit. The big difference between atmosphere and soil is the way of adaptation of its resistance. The soil's hydraulic conductivity is either changed by weathering processes, which is a very slow process, or by creation of preferential flow paths. In this study the latter process is simulated in a lab experiment, where we focus on the preferential flow paths created by piping. Piping is the process of backwards erosion of sand particles subject to a large pressure gradient. Since this is a relatively fast process, it is suitable for being tested in the lab. In the lab setup a horizontal sand bed connects two reservoirs that both drain freely at a level high enough to keep the sand bed always saturated. By adding water to only one reservoir, a horizontal pressure gradient is maintained. If the flow resistance is small, a large gradient develops, leading to the effect of piping. When pipes are being formed, the effective flow resistance decreases; the flow through the sand bed increases and the pressure gradient decreases. At a certain point, the flow velocity is small enough to stop the pipes from growing any further. In this steady state, the effective flow resistance of

  11. Design and conduct of early-phase radiotherapy trials with targeted therapeutics: lessons from the PRAVO experience. (United States)

    Ree, Anne Hansen; Hollywood, Donal


    New strategies to facilitate the improvement of physical and integrated biological optimization of high-precision treatment protocols are an important priority for modern radiation oncology. From a clinical perspective, as knowledge accumulates from molecular radiobiology, there is a complex and exciting opportunity to investigate novel approaches to rational patient treatment stratification based on actionable tumor targets, together with the appropriate design of next-generation early-phase radiotherapy trials utilizing targeted therapeutics, to formally evaluate relevant clinical and biomarker endpoints. A unique aspect in the development pathway of systemic agents with presumed radiosensitizing activity will also be the need for special attention on patient eligibility and the rigorous definition of radiation dose-volume relationships and potential dose-limiting toxicities. Based on recent experience from systematically investigating histone deacetylase inhibitors as radiosensitizing agents, from initial studies in preclinical tumor models through the conduct of a phase I clinical study to evaluate tumor activity of the targeted agent as well as patient safety and tumor response to the combined treatment modality, this communication will summarize principles relating to early clinical evaluation of combining radiotherapy and targeted therapeutics. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. A National Report to Share the Experiences and Lessons Learned in the Implementation of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: The Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, Alan M.; Palattao, Maria V.B.; Seguis, Julietta E.; Leonin, Teofilo V. Jr.; Rosa, Alumanda M. dela


    This national report aims to present the Philippines’ experiences and lessons learned by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in the implementation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) “Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources”. The successes and difficulties experienced by the Institute following its commitment to the Code of conduct are presented

  13. Towards improved estimation of the unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity in the near saturated range by a fully automated, pressure controlled unit gradient experiment. (United States)

    Werisch, Stefan; Müller, Marius


    Determination of soil hydraulic properties has always been an important part of soil physical research and model applications. While several experiments are available to measure the water retention of soil samples, the determination of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is often more complicated, bound to strong assumption and time consuming. Although, the application of unit gradient experiments is recommended since the middle of the last century, as one method towards a (assumption free) direct measurement of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, data from unit gradient experiments is seldom to never reported in literature. We developed and build a fully automated, pressure controlled, unit gradient experiment, which allows a precise determination of the unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity K(h) and water retention VWC(h), especially in the highly dynamic near saturated range. The measurement apparatus applies the concept of hanging water columns and imposes the required soil water pressure by dual porous plates. This concepts allows the simultaneous and direct measurement of water retention and hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, this approach results in a technically less demanding experiment than related flux controlled experiments, and virtually any flux can be measured. Thus, both soil properties can be measured in mm resolution, for wetting and drying processes, between saturation and field capacity for all soil types. Our results show, that it is important to establish separate measurements of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in the near saturated range, as the shape of the retention function and hydraulic conductivity curve do not necessarily match. Consequently, the prediction of the hydraulic conductivity curve from measurements of the water retention behavior in combination with a value for the saturated hydraulic conductivity can be misleading. Thus, separate parameterizations of the individual functions might be necessary and are

  14. Guidelines for conducting rapid participatory appraisals of community health needs in developing countries: experience from Tulikup, Bali. (United States)

    Pepall, E; James, R W; Earnest, J


    The use of rapid participatory appraisal (RPA) methodology to assess community health needs in developing countries is widely supported. Despite this, there are few recently published practical guidelines or recommendations advising researchers on how best to plan, implement and communicate such an activity. Having recently conducted a successful RPA of community health and social needs in the traditional rural village of Tulikup, Bali, the authors discuss lessons to be learned and suggest practical guidelines for others wishing to conduct similar community focused RPAs.

  15. Exploring the 'follow-through experience': a statewide survey of midwifery students and academics conducted in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    McLachlan, Helen L; Newton, Michelle; Nightingale, Helen; Morrow, Jane; Kruger, Gina


    Follow-through experiences (which enable midwifery students to experience continuity of care with individual women through pregnancy, labour and birth and the postnatal period) are a component of midwifery education programmes in Australia and the United Kingdom. Current accreditation standards in Australia require midwifery students to have a total of 20 continuity of care experiences with an average of 20 hours per woman over the duration of their course. There has been limited research regarding students' and academics' experiences of follow-through experiences; and there has been debate regarding the appropriate number of follow-through experiences in midwifery curricula. This study aimed to explore the follow-through experience from the perspective of midwifery students and academics in Victoria, Australia. cross-sectional design using a web-based survey. Victoria, Australia. Students (n=401) and academics (n=35) from all seven universities in Victoria that offer accredited midwifery programmes including the Bachelor of Midwifery, Bachelor of Nursing/Bachelor of Midwifery double degree, Postgraduate Diploma of Midwifery and Masters of Midwifery (entry to practice). Students and academics were in agreement that continuity of care is important to women. They considered the follow-through experience to be a unique and valuable learning opportunity and agreed that follow-through experiences should be included in midwifery education programmes. However, students and academics raised major concerns about the impact of follow-through experiences on students' capacity to meet university course requirements (such as missing lectures/tutorials and clinical placements), and spending extensive periods of time on-call both within and outside the university semester. Students and academics also reported concerns about the impact of follow-through experiences on students' personal lives, including paid employment and family responsibilities (such as childcare or caring for

  16. The influence of types of war experiences on conduct problems in war-affected youth in Northern Ugandan: Findings from the WAYS study. (United States)

    Amone-P Olak, Kennedy; Ovuga, Emilio


    Exposure to war is associated with poor psychosocial outcomes. Yet the effects of different types of war events on various psychosocial outcomes such as conduct problems remain unknown. This study aims to assess whether various war events differ in predicting conduct problems. Using data from an on-going longitudinal research project, the WAYS study, the current article examined the relationship between specific war events and conduct problems in war-affected youth in Northern Uganda (N=539, baseline age=22.39; SD=2.03, range 18-25). Regression analyses were conducted to relate each type of war experience to conduct problems. War categories of "witnessing violence", "deaths", "threat to loved ones" and "sexual abuse" were associated with reporting conduct problems. Multivariable models yielded independent effects of ''witnessing violence'' (β=0.09, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.18) and ''Sexual abuse'' (β=0.09, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.19) on conduct problems while "duration in captivity" independently and negatively predicted conduct problems (β=-0.14, 95% CI: -0.23, -0.06). Types of war events vary in predicting conduct problems and should be considered when designing interventions to alleviate negative consequences of exposure to war. Moreover, longer duration in captivity appear to protect war-affected youth from conduct problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Daly:Juvenile blue king crab cannibalism experiment conducted in the Kodiak Lab in 2014 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is part of a laboratory experiment, which evaluated how varying prey densities (year-0 blue king crabs) and habitat type (shell and sand) affect the...

  18. "Their Stories Have Changed My Life": Clinicians' Reflections on Their Experience with and Their Motivation to Conduct Asylum Evaluations. (United States)

    Mishori, Ranit; Hannaford, Alisse; Mujawar, Imran; Ferdowsian, Hope; Kureshi, Sarah


    Many clinicians perform asylum evaluations yet no studies describe the motivation to perform them or their perceived rewards. The number of asylum seekers in the US is increasing and more clinicians are needed as evaluators. A survey to an asylum evaluators' network asked participants to qualitatively reflect on their experience and motivation. Answers were analyzed for themes and sentiment. Respondents cited commitment to humanistic and moral values, noted personal and family experiences, having skills, expertise, and career interests as drivers. They found the experience very rewarding personally and professionally, and in their perceived benefit to asylees. Negative sentiment was less frequent and centered on emotions related to client narratives. Process-oriented frustrations were also noted. This is the first published study describing clinicians' motivation and experience with asylum evaluations. It may illuminate clinicians' drive to volunteer, and serve as a resource for organizations for recruitment and education.

  19. Exploring midwifery students' views and experiences of caseload midwifery: A cross-sectional survey conducted in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Dawson, Kate; Newton, Michelle; Forster, Della; McLachlan, Helen


    in Australia, models of maternity care that offer women continuity of care with a known midwife have been promoted. Little is known about the intentions of the future midwifery workforce to work in such models. This study aimed to explore midwifery students' views and experiences of caseload midwifery and their work intentions in relation to the caseload model following graduation. cross-sectional survey. Victoria, Australia. 129 midwifery students representing all midwifery course pathways (Post Graduate Diploma, Bachelor of Midwifery, Bachelor of Nursing/Bachelor of Midwifery) in Victoria. midwifery students from all course pathways considered that continuity of care is important to women and indicated that exposure to continuity models during their course was very positive. Two-thirds of the students (67%) considered that the continuity experiences made them want to work in a caseload model; only 5% reported that their experiences had discouraged them from continuity of care work in the future. Most wanted a period of consolidation to gain experience as a midwife prior to commencing in the caseload model. Perceived barriers to caseload work were being on-call, and challenges in regard to work/life balance and family commitments. midwifery students in this study were very positive about caseload midwifery and most would consider working in caseload after a period of consolidation. Continuity of care experiences during students' midwifery education programmes appeared to provide students with insight and understanding of continuity of care for both women and midwives. Further research should explore what factors influence students' future midwifery work, whether or not their plans are fulfilled, and whether or not the caseload midwifery workforce can be sustained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiofrequency ablation lesion detection using MR-based electrical conductivity imaging: a feasibility study of ex vivo liver experiments. (United States)

    Chauhan, Munish; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je


    The aim of this study was to show the potential of magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) conductivity imaging in terms of its capability to detect ablated lesions and differentiate tissue conditions in liver radiofrequency (RF) ablation. RF ablation procedures were performed in bovine livers using a LeVeen RF needle electrode. Ablation lesions were created using a power-controlled mode at 30, 50, and 70 W for 1, 3, and 5 min of exposure time, respectively. After the ablation, the liver was cut into several blocks including the ablated lesion, and positioned inside a phantom filled with agarose gel. Electrodes were attached on the side of the phantom and it was placed inside the MRI bore. For MREIT imaging, multi-spin-echo pulse sequence was used to obtain the magnetic flux density data according to the injection currents. The conductivity of ablation lesions was significantly changed with the increase of exposure time (pKW W, significant differences between the coagulation necrosis and hyperaemic rim were observed for more than 5 min and 3 min, respectively (pMW W, all cases showed significant differences except 3 min (pMW < 0.01). The positive correlation between the exposure time and tissue conductivity was observed in both two ablation areas (pSC < 0.01, Spearman correlation). This ex vivo feasibility study demonstrates that current MREIT conductivity imaging can detect liver RF ablation lesions without using any contrast media or additional MR scan.

  1. Trials and tribulations of conducting interventional studies in urban slums of a developing country: Experiences from Kolkata, India. (United States)

    Mahapatra, Tanmay; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Pal, Debottam; Saha, Jayanta; Lopez, AnnaLena; Ali, Mohammad; Bannerjee, Barnali; Manna, Byomkesh; Sur, Dipika; Bhattacharya, Sujit; Kanungo, Suman


    Experimental studies involving human subjects provide most internally valid evidences in epidemiological research due to their robust methodology. While conducting population-based interventional studies, to achieve external validity, inclusion of information from vulnerable groups like urban slum-dwellers of the developing world, in the epidemiological estimates is of paramount importance. The challenges faced while conducting 2 consecutive large-scale, community-based vaccine trials in urban slums of Kolkata, India are presented in this article. Interventions in these communities often get constrained by issues pertaining to human rights and benefits, socio-cultural factors, political environment, methodological shortcomings in addition to the challenges in ensuring community participation. While conducting these trials although we intermittently faced obstacles, by virtue of having a long term and robust surveillance system and developing a trusted relationship between the researchers, community leaders and residents we were able to come up with a commendable community participation which culminated into the success of the interventions. Bridging the gap between research and field operations by incorporating knowledge gathered from interventional studies and making strategies to improve health conditions of these informal settlers is a major unfulfilled agenda. We believe the lessons learnt during our research will help researchers while developing efficient interventions in similar setting.

  2. Design of experiment evaluation of sputtered thin film platinum surface metallization on alumina substrate for implantable conductive structures. (United States)

    Kiele, P; Cvancara, P; Mueller, M; Stieglitz, T


    Reliability and reproducibility of implants and their fabrication are highly depending on the assembly and packaging procedures. Individual fabrication skills like soldering introduce inaccuracies and should be avoided as much as possible. Screen printing is often utilized for the metallization of ceramics. Using platinum/gold (Pt/Au) paste liquidus diffusion leads to a low adhesion strength of the Pt/Au pads after soldering. As an alternative, sputtering of thin film surface metallization was investigated. However, this alternative comes with a huge amount of different layer and parameter setups. In order to keep the amount of experiments and data acquisition in a reasonable magnitude, the Design of Experiment (DoE) evaluation displays a powerful tool. We found an optimal layer setup that maximizes the adhesion strength of the layer, while simultaneously minimizing the sheet resistance and removing the dependency of soldering time.

  3. CATHARE 2 analysis of the small break LOCA experiment SP-SB-03, conducted in SPES facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, P.


    SPES integral test facility is a scale model of a commercial three-loop PWR plant, making the simulation of a wide range of accident scenarios possible. A Small Break Loss of Coolant test was carried out in this facility in 1991 to serve as a counterpart of tests conducted on BETHSY (France), LSTF (Japan) and LOBI (EC) facilities. A post-test analysis of this test, performed with CATHARE 2 code was realized by ENEA in the framework of the co-operation ENEA-CEA on advanced reactors. This paper presents a survey of the results of the post-test calculation. (author). 5 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses. (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.


    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  5. Partnerships for the design, conduct, and analysis of effectiveness, and implementation research: experiences of the prevention science and methodology group. (United States)

    Brown, C Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J; Pantin, Hilda M; Gallo, Carlos G; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J; McManus, John W


    What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted.

  6. Partnerships for the Design, Conduct, and Analysis of Effectiveness, and Implementation Research: Experiences of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group (United States)

    Brown, C. Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O.; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L.; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W.; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J.; Pantin, Hilda M.; Gallo, Carlos G.; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J.; McManus, John W.


    What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted. PMID:22160786

  7. Comparisons of Mixed-Phase Icing Cloud Simulations with Experiments Conducted at the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory (United States)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; Struk, Peter M.; Tsao, Jen-Ching


    This paper builds on previous work that compares numerical simulations of mixed-phase icing clouds with experimental data. The model couples the thermal interaction between ice particles and water droplets of the icing cloud with the flowing air of an icing wind tunnel for simulation of NASA Glenn Research Centers (GRC) Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL). Measurements were taken during the Fundamentals of Ice Crystal Icing Physics Tests at the PSL tunnel in March 2016. The tests simulated ice-crystal and mixed-phase icing that relate to ice accretions within turbofan engines. Experimentally measured air temperature, humidity, total water content, liquid and ice water content, as well as cloud particle size, are compared with model predictions. The model showed good trend agreement with experimentally measured values, but often over-predicted aero-thermodynamic changes. This discrepancy is likely attributed to radial variations that this one-dimensional model does not address. One of the key findings of this work is that greater aero-thermodynamic changes occur when humidity conditions are low. In addition a range of mixed-phase clouds can be achieved by varying only the tunnel humidity conditions, but the range of humidities to generate a mixed-phase cloud becomes smaller when clouds are composed of smaller particles. In general, the model predicted melt fraction well, in particular with clouds composed of larger particle sizes.

  8. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Mittie K.


    The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of

  9. Challenges in conducting multicenter, multicultural, and multilingual trials: a view from the literature and real-life experience reports. (United States)

    Hanson, Beate; De Faoite, Diarmuid


    A trend toward international multicenter clinical trials in the medical device industry is helping to increase recruitment figures and to improve the generalizability of results, among other factors. However, working globally creates its own unique set of problems, which are rarely discussed in the literature. This article considers these issues from multicenter, multicultural, and multilingual perspectives. A multicenter study implies a replication of work to coordinate research sites that are working under different regulations. Standardizing elements of the clinical trial is essential for proper comparison of results. Multicultural differences manifest themselves in different forms in international clinical research. However, the impact of culture on a study's success is a real issue, particularly when patient-reported outcomes form part of the trial. A trial that is conducted globally obviously requires the use of local language material, but this element is fraught with the possibility of mistranslation and misunderstanding. In this article, we also examine the composition of a research team and how to keep everyone involved in a global clinical trial both informed and enthused about a trial that may last several years. Examples from our own clinical investigations are reported throughout this article.

  10. Bridging the qualitative-quantitative divide: Experiences from conducting a mixed methods evaluation in the RUCAS programme. (United States)

    Makrakis, Vassilios; Kostoulas-Makrakis, Nelly


    Quantitative and qualitative approaches to planning and evaluation in education for sustainable development have often been treated by practitioners from a single research paradigm. This paper discusses the utility of mixed method evaluation designs which integrate qualitative and quantitative data through a sequential transformative process. Sequential mixed method data collection strategies involve collecting data in an iterative process whereby data collected in one phase contribute to data collected in the next. This is done through examples from a programme addressing the 'Reorientation of University Curricula to Address Sustainability (RUCAS): A European Commission Tempus-funded Programme'. It is argued that the two approaches are complementary and that there are significant gains from combining both. Using methods from both research paradigms does not, however, mean that the inherent differences among epistemologies and methodologies should be neglected. Based on this experience, it is recommended that using a sequential transformative mixed method evaluation can produce more robust results than could be accomplished using a single approach in programme planning and evaluation focussed on education for sustainable development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Training teacher students to use history and epistemology tools: theory and practice on the basis of experiments conducted at Montpellier University.


    Hausberger, Thomas


    International audience; The new context of masterization of initial teacher education led in France to the development of history and epistemology courses on a larger scale, in interrelation with didactics of mathematics. We report on this phenomenon and especially on an experiment conducted at Montpellier University that aimed at training teacher students how to use history and epistemology tools. This is overall an opportunity to discuss the interrelations of epistemology and didactics, in ...

  12. Experiences from a pilot study on how to conduct a qualitative multi-country research project regarding use of antibiotics in Southeast Europe. (United States)

    Kaae, Susanne; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Jakupi, Arianit; Raka, Denis; Gürpinar, Emre Umut; Alkan, Ali; Hoxha, Iris; Malaj, Admir; Cantarero, Lourdes Arevalo


    In 2014, a qualitative multi-country research project was launched to study the reasons behind the high use of antibiotics in regions of Southeast Europe by using previously untrained national interviewers (who were engaged in other antibiotic microbial resistance-related investigations) to conduct qualitative interviews with local patients, physicians and pharmacists. Little knowledge exists about how to implement qualitative multi-country research collaborations involving previously untrained local data collectors. The aim of this paper was therefore to contribute to the knowledge regarding how to conduct these types of research projects by evaluating a pilot study of the project. Local data collectors conducted the study according to a developed protocol and evaluated the study with the responsible researcher-team from University of Copenhagen. The pilot study focused on 'local ownership', 'research quality' and 'feasibility' with regard to successful implementation and evaluation. The evaluation was achieved by interpreting 'Skype' and 'face to face' meetings and email correspondence by applying 'critical common sense'. Local data collectors achieved a sense of joint ownership. Overall, the protocol worked well. Several minor challenges pertaining to research quality and feasibility were identified, in particular obtaining narratives when conducting interviews and recruiting patients for the study. Furthermore, local data collectors found it difficult to allocate sufficient time to the project. Solutions were discussed and added to the protocol. Despite the challenges, it was possible to achieve an acceptable scientific level of research when conducting qualitative multi-country research collaboration under the given circumstances. Specific recommendations to achieve this are provided by the authors.

  13. Numerical experiments on thermal convection of highly compressible fluids with variable viscosity and thermal conductivity: Implications for mantle convection of super-Earths (United States)

    Kameyama, Masanori; Yamamoto, Mayumi


    We conduct a series of numerical experiments of thermal convection of highly compressible fluids in a two-dimensional rectangular box, in order to study the mantle convection on super-Earths. The thermal conductivity and viscosity are assumed to exponentially depend on depth and temperature, respectively, while the variations in thermodynamic properties (thermal expansivity and reference density) with depth are taken to be relevant for the super-Earths with 10 times the Earth's. From our experiments we identified a distinct regime of convecting flow patterns induced by the interplay between the adiabatic temperature change and the spatial variations in viscosity and thermal conductivity. That is, for the cases with strong temperature-dependent viscosity and depth-dependent thermal conductivity, a "deep stratosphere" of stable thermal stratification is formed at the base of the mantle, in addition to thick stagnant lids at their top surfaces. In the "deep stratosphere", the fluid motion is insignificant particularly in the vertical direction in spite of smallest viscosity owing to its strong dependence on temperature. Our finding may further imply that some of super-Earths which are lacking in mobile tectonic plates on their top surfaces may have "deep stratospheres" at the base of their mantles.

  14. NASA's Rodent Research Project: Validation of Flight Hardware, Operations and Science Capabilities for Conducting Long Duration Experiments in Space (United States)

    Choi, S. Y.; Beegle, J. E.; Wigley, C. L.; Pletcher, D.; Globus, R. K.


    Research using rodents is an essential tool for advancing biomedical research on Earth and in space. Rodent Research (RR)-1 was conducted to validate flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities that were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. Twenty C57BL/6J adult female mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in a Dragon Capsule (SpaceX-4), then transferred to the ISS for a total time of 21-22 days (10 commercial mice) or 37 (10 validation mice). Tissues collected on-orbit were either rapidly frozen or preserved in RNA later at less than or equal to -80 C (n=2/group) until their return to Earth. Remaining carcasses were rapidly frozen for dissection post-flight. The three controls groups at Kennedy Space Center consisted of: Basal mice euthanized at the time of launch, Vivarium controls, housed in standard cages, and Ground Controls (GC), housed in flight hardware within an environmental chamber. FLT mice appeared more physically active on-orbit than GC, and behavior analysis are in progress. Upon return to Earth, there were no differences in body weights between FLT and GC at the end of the 37 days in space. RNA was of high quality (RIN greater than 8.5). Liver enzyme activity levels of FLT mice and all control mice were similar in magnitude to those of the samples that were optimally processed in the laboratory. Liver samples collected from the intact frozen FLT carcasses had RNA RIN of 7.27 +/- 0.52, which was lower than that of the samples processed on-orbit, but similar to those obtained from the control group intact carcasses. Nonetheless, the RNA samples from the intact carcasses were acceptable for the most demanding transcriptomic analyses. Adrenal glands, thymus and spleen (organs associated with stress response) showed no significant difference in weights between FLT and GC. Enzymatic activity was also not significantly different. Over 3,000 tissues collected from the four groups of mice have become available for the Biospecimen Sharing

  15. Experience and results of material science research conducted on spent fuel assemblies from the BN-350 fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimkin, O.; Gusev, M.; Turubarova, L.G.; Tsai, K.V.; Yarovchuk, A.V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)


    Full text of publication follows: The BN-350 fast reactor was commissioned in 1973, ran successfully for many years and is now in the decommission stage. Its unique operational parameters (low temperature of sodium at the input, wide range of damage rates, etc. ) allowed the investigation of a number of new radiation effects on both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic steels. The latter class of steel was extensively employed as wrappers for fuel assemblies. Much of the accumulated experience in BN-350 is relevant to development of fusion devices. Results are presented on post-operational research of steels 12Cr18Ni10Ti, 08Cr16Ni11Mo3, and 12Cr13Mo2BFR, all serving as hexagonal shrouds of fuel assemblies. Structural materials in the active core zone operated at temperatures of 280-430 deg. C, and were irradiated the range of 0.25-83 dpa with damage rates of 10{sup -9} - 10{sup -6} dpa/s). Investigations of irradiated hexagonal shroud materials were performed with using traditional techniques of transmission and scanning electron microscopy, metallography, mechanical tests, hydrostatic weighing, magnetometry, etc. Additionally, new techniques have been developed and employed with great success on these highly irradiated materials, such as optical computer extensometry, and magnetization cartography. Typical results to be covered in this presentation are: a) In 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel irradiated at a low dose rate of 0.12 x 10{sup -8} dpa/s voids were found at 281 deg. C after only 0.65 dpa, demonstrating once again the acceleration of swelling at low dpa rates observed in other steels. b) Data on helium release during annealing of highly irradiated sample are presented. c) Differences in deformation-induced hardening between the shroud's corners and faces leads to post-irradiation differences in swelling and mechanical properties. d) During room temperature mechanical tests of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel at {approx}56 dpa at 350 deg. C it was found that ductility lost at

  16. Three-year experience with the Sophono in children with congenital conductive unilateral hearing loss: tolerability, audiometry, and sound localization compared to a bone-anchored hearing aid. (United States)

    Nelissen, Rik C; Agterberg, Martijn J H; Hol, Myrthe K S; Snik, Ad F M


    Bone conduction devices (BCDs) are advocated as an amplification option for patients with congenital conductive unilateral hearing loss (UHL), while other treatment options could also be considered. The current study compared a transcutaneous BCD (Sophono) with a percutaneous BCD (bone-anchored hearing aid, BAHA) in 12 children with congenital conductive UHL. Tolerability, audiometry, and sound localization abilities with both types of BCD were studied retrospectively. The mean follow-up was 3.6 years for the Sophono users (n = 6) and 4.7 years for the BAHA users (n = 6). In each group, two patients had stopped using their BCD. Tolerability was favorable for the Sophono. Aided thresholds with the Sophono were unsatisfactory, as they did not reach under a mean pure tone average of 30 dB HL. Sound localization generally improved with both the Sophono and the BAHA, although localization abilities did not reach the level of normal hearing children. These findings, together with previously reported outcomes, are important to take into account when counseling patients and their caretakers. The selection of a suitable amplification option should always be made deliberately and on individual basis for each patient in this diverse group of children with congenital conductive UHL.

  17. The nature of science and technology for pre-service chemistry teacher: A case of techno-chemistry experiment "From Stannum Metalicum to conductive glass" (United States)

    Mudzakir, A.; Widhiyanti, T.; Hernani, Arifin, M.; Lestari, A. N.; Jauhariansyah, S.


    The study was conducted to address the problems related to low Indonesian students' scientific literacy as revealed in the PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) since 2000-2015. Science teachers (e.g. chemistry teacher) must recognize the nature of science (NOS) to assist their students in preparing an explanation of a phenomenon scientifically correctly. Teachers also need to understand critically about nature of technology (NOT) and it relationship with science as well as society. To integrate those two kinds of knowledge (NOS and NOT), we can conduct a techno-science activity, which integrate the technology to science course in pre-service teacher education program, so that they can improve their knowledge about nature of science and technology (NOST) and pedagogical content knowledge related to NOST. The purpose of this study was to construct an inquiry based laboratory activity worksheet for making conductive glass so that the pre-service teacher could explain how the structure of the semiconductor Fluor doped Tin Oxide (SnO2.F) affect their performance. This study we conducted, described how to design a pre-service chemistry teacher education course that can improve recognizing view of NOST by using a framework called model of educational reconstruction (MER). The scientific activities in the course were guided inquiry based techno-chemistry experiments involving "From Stannum Metallicum to Conductive Glass". Conductive glasses are interesting subject research for several reason. The application of this technology could be found on solar cell, OLED, and display panel. The doped Tin dioxide has been deposited on glass substrate using the spray pyrolysis technique at 400-550°C substrate temperature, 4-5 times, 20 cm gap between glass and sprayer and 450 angle to form a thin film which will act as electrical contact. The resistivity is about 0.5 - 15Ω. The product resulted on this study was rated by several expert to find if the worksheet could

  18. The Kovdor-2015 experiment: study of the parameters of a conductive layer of dilatancy-diffusion nature (DD Layer) in the Archaean crystalline basement of the Baltic Shield (United States)

    Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Velikhov, E. P.; Shevtsov, A. N.; Kolobov, V. V.; Kolesnikov, V. E.; Skorokhodov, A. A.; Korotkova, T. G.; Ivonin, V. V.; Ryazantsev, P. A.; Birulya, M. A.


    This paper addresses the Kovdor-2015 Experiment involving frequency electromagnetic soundings of the Archaean basement of the Earth's crust in the southwestern part of the Kola Peninsula. Eleven soundings were carried out using two transmitting arrangements, 85 km apart. Each arrangement consisted of two mutually orthogonal grounded electric dipoles of 1.5 km long. The distances between the source and the receiver were 25 and 50 km. Interpretation of the results took into account the influence of displacement currents and static distortions. It is found that there is an intermediate conductive layer of the dilatancy-diffusion nature (DD layer) with a longitudinal conductivity of about one siemens at depths ranging from 1.5-2 to 5-7 km. The results are interpreted in the terms of geodynamics.

  19. [New conduction disturbances and pacemaker indications after CoreValve® transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Incidence and follow up in a single center experience]. (United States)

    Aversa, Eliana; Muratore, Claudio A; Nemesio, M Laura; Tentori, Maria Cristina; Payaslian, Miguel


    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is currently reserved for patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis and high surgical risk. One major limiting factor related to TAVI procedural complications is conduction abnormalities and the need for permanent pacemaker implantation. Evaluate the incidence of new conduction disturbances and pacemaker indications in patients with TAVI CoreValve® prosthesis (Medtronic Inc. Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States). We included 28 patients, mean age 80 years. ECG parameters were evaluated previous and after implantation. All patients were monitorized during TAVI. Follow up Holter monitoring was performed at one, 6 and 12 months after the procedure and we also evaluated telemetry of implanted pacemaker. In previous ECG we found 7 patients had right bundle branch block and 7 patients had left bundle brunch block (LBBB). The post implant ECG showed 7 new LBBB: 3 during valvuloplasty and 4 on the end of it. Six patients required pacemaker implantation for permanent or paroxysmal complete AV block (CAVB). At one year follow up, 3 patients with LBBB during valvuloplasty had a normal ECG, one still had LBBB and one an asymptomatic CAVB found in Holter monitoring. Conduction abnormalities are frequent after CoreValve® aortic valve prosthesis implantation. The incidence of new LBBB was 25%. CAVB during or post TAVI require PM implantation. New LBBB may need a closer follow up because in a 3% of the cases it may progress to CAVB. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. "We actually care and we want to make the parks better": A qualitative study of youth experiences and perceptions after conducting park audits. (United States)

    Gallerani, David G; Besenyi, Gina M; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A; Kaczynski, Andrew T


    This study explored youths' experiences and perceptions about community engagement as a result of participating in a community-based data collection project using paper and mobile technology park environmental audit tools. In July 2014, youth (ages 11-18, n=50) were recruited to participate in nine focus groups after auditing two parks each using paper, electronic, or both versions of the Community Park Audit Tool in Greenville County, SC. The focus groups explored the youths' experiences participating in the project, changes as a result of participation, suggested uses of park audit data collected, and who should use the tools. Four themes emerged related to youths' project participation experiences: two positive (fun and new experiences) and two negative (uncomfortable/unsafe and travel issues). Changes described as a result of participating in the project fell into four themes: increased awareness, motivation for further action, physical activity benefits, and no change. Additionally, youth had numerous suggestions for utilizing the data collected that were coded into six themes: maintenance & aesthetics, feature/amenity addition, online park information, park rating/review system, fundraising, and organizing community projects. Finally, six themes emerged regarding who the youth felt could use the tools: frequent park visitors, community groups/organizations, parks and recreation professionals, adults, youth, and everyone. This study revealed a wealth of information about youth experiences conducting park audits for community health promotion. Understanding youth attitudes and preferences can help advance youth empowerment and civic engagement efforts to promote individual and community health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section]. (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir


    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  2. Conduct disorder (United States)

    ... this page: // Conduct disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Conduct disorder is a set of ongoing emotional and behavioral ...

  3. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would exhibit electronic conductivity, their conductivities (of compressed pellets) were indeed measured by others, and were found to be .... Polyaniline. Polyphenylene. Polypheny lene- vinylene. Table 1. G!NeRAl I ARTICl! structure. Maximum conductivity Stem Stability. Processability. ~. 1.5 x 105. Reacts with Film not n air.

  4. Books average previous decade of economic misery. (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios


    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  5. The Influence of Previous Strategy Use on Individuals' Subsequent Strategy Choice: Findings from a Numerosity Judgement Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viki Schillemans


    Full Text Available We conducted two experiments to test whether individuals' strategy choices in a numerosity judgement task are affected by the strategy that was used on the previous trials. Both experiments demonstrated that a previously used strategy indeed influences individuals' strategy choices. Individuals were more inclined to reuse the strategy that they had used on the previous trials. However, this study also demonstrated that this influence is limited to those items that do not have a strong association with a specific strategy. Possible underlying mechanisms for the observed effect are discussed.

  6. Exploring China’s Farmer-Level Water-Saving Mechanisms: Analysis of an Experiment Conducted in Taocheng District, Hebei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicheng Chen


    Full Text Available Two types of farmer-level mechanisms have been traditionally adopted to increase agricultural water use efficiency in northern China: pricing mechanisms and tradable water rights systems. However, the reluctance of policymakers to exacerbate farmers’ burdens has rendered pricing mechanisms politically infeasible, while tradable water rights systems involve prohibitively high transaction costs in rural China. An experiment conducted in 2005 in the Taocheng District of Hebei Province created a new kind of water-saving mechanism that involves a number of institutional innovations, including “flexible total management”, “collect then refund” and “collect and subsidize, then refund”. This paper evaluates the district’s water-saving mechanisms based on efficiency, equity and operability criteria. The results of the analysis demonstrate that the “collect then refund” mechanism can more effectively enhance water use efficiency and reduce farmers’ burdens than water pricing instruments, tradable water rights systems and flexible total management. Adequate infrastructure and trusted institutions are identified as necessary prerequisites for the successful implementation of the new water-saving mechanism. We believe the new mechanism has great potential to be scaled up.

  7. "Should I prioritize medical problem solving or attentive listening?": the dilemmas and challenges that medical students experience when learning to conduct consultations. (United States)

    Aper, Leen; Veldhuijzen, Wemke; Dornan, Tim; van de Ridder, Monica; Koole, Sebastiaan; Derese, Anselme; Reniers, Jan


    Communication skills can be trained alongside clinical reasoning, history taking or clinical examination skills. This is advocated as a solution to the low transfer of communication skills. Still, students have to integrate the knowledge/skills acquired during different curriculum parts in patient consultations at some point. How do medical students experience these integrated consultations within a simulated environment and in real practice when dealing with responsibility? Six focus groups were conducted with (pre-)/clerkship students. Students were motivated to practice integrated consultations with simulated patients and felt like 'real physicians'. However, their focus on medical problem solving drew attention away from improving their communication skills. Responsibility for real patients triggered students' identity development. This identity formation guided the development of an own consultation style, a process that was hampered by conflicting demands of role models. Practicing complete consultations results in the dilemma of prioritizing medical problem solving above attention for patient communication. Integrated consultation training advances this dilemma to the pre-clerkship period. During clerkships this dilemma is heightened because real patients trigger empathy and responsibility, which invites students to define their role as doctor. When training integrated consultations, educators should pay attention to students' learning priorities and support the development of students' professional identity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A range of postmortem assault experiments conducted on a variety of denture labels used for the purpose of identification of edentulous individuals. (United States)

    Richmond, Raymond; Pretty, Iain A


    Forensic organizations worldwide have recommended that dental prostheses should be labeled with at least the patient's name and preferably with further unique identifiers such as social security number, etc. The practice of denture marking has been conducted over many years and several denture marking systems have been reported in the dental literature. However, very little is known about the resilience of such systems to conditions experienced in the majority of post- and perimortem assaults. The purpose of this investigation therefore, was to expose a selection of 10 denture labels to a series of hostile environments. Results of the study indicate that the majority of the denture labeling systems appear capable of withstanding a range of common, and not so common postmortem assaults. With regard to thermal insult, however, most performed badly with the exception of a label constructed from stainless steel orthodontic band. However, another label in the form of an electronic RFID-tag performed above expectations in the majority of experiments. Furthermore, its cosmetic appearance has proven most popular with many patients.

  9. Conduct Disorder (United States)

    ... do not receive early and comprehensive treatment . Without treatment, many youngsters with conduct disorder are unable to adapt to the demands of ... break laws or behave in an antisocial manner. Treatment of children with conduct disorder can be complex and challenging. Treatment can be ...

  10. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev


    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  11. Mediterranean fruit fly female attractant studies in support of the sterile insect technique: trapping experiments conducted on the island of Chios, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyannos, B.I.; Papadopoulos, N.T.; Kouloussis, N.A.


    This paper contains information on a four-year research programme co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The main objective of the programme was to develop a trapping system for females of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), for practical use in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs and to design and evaluate a trap to obtain eggs from wild female medflies in order to estimate sterility induction in the field population. The experiments were conducted from July to September 1994-1997 on the island of Chios, Greece, in citrus orchards with low to medium medfly populations. Different trap types and several trap treatments consisting of sex and food based attractants were tested, following a standard coordinated experimental protocol. The most extensively tested were three food based 'female' attractants (FA-3), namely ammonium acetate (AA), 1,4 diaminobutane (putrescine) and trimethylamine, all formulated in dispensers lasting one month. These attractants were evaluated in combinations of two (AA + putrescine, termed FA-2) or three (FA-3) dispensers in various traps, including dry (provided with DDVP) or wet (provided with water and 0.01% surfactant) plastic International Pheromone's McPhail traps (IPMT). Among the various traps and treatments tested, the most effective for medfly capture was the wet IPMT, baited with FA-3 attractants. This treatment captured predominantly females and was relatively selective for medflies. In dry IPMT traps, the FA-3 were as effective as the standard 300 ml aqueous solution of 9% of the protein NuLure and 3% borax, but much more medfly selective. Dry IPMT traps were also more selective than wet ones. FA-3 baited wet Tephri traps (a Spanish modification of the McPhail trap), performed somewhat poorer than IPMT traps. Other dry trap types tested were not effective. Additional experiments showed that certain insecticide formulations used in dry traps may have a repellent

  12. Banning traditional birth attendants from conducting deliveries: experiences and effects of the ban in a rural district of Kazungula in Zambia. (United States)

    Cheelo, Chilala; Nzala, Selestine; Zulu, Joseph M


    In 2010 the government of the republic of Zambia stopped training traditional birth attendants and forbade them from conducting home deliveries as they were viewed as contributing to maternal mortality. This study explored positive and negative maternal health related experiences and effects of the ban in a rural district of Kazungula. This was a phenomenological study and data were collected through focus group discussions as well as in-depth interviews with trained traditional birth attendants (tTBAs) and key informant interviews with six female traditional leaders that were selected one from each of the six zones. All 22 trained tTBAs from three clinic catchment areas were included in the study. Content analysis was used to analyse the data after coding it using NVIVO 8 software. Home deliveries have continued despite the community and tTBAs being aware of the ban. The ban has had both negative and positive effects on the community. Positive effects include early detection and management of pregnancy complications, enhanced HIV/AIDS prevention and better management of post-natal conditions, reduced criticisms of tTBAs from the community in case of birth complications, and quick response at health facilities in case of an emergency. Negatives effects of the ban include increased work load on the part of health workers, high cost for lodging at health facilities and traveling to health facilities, as well as tTBAs feeling neglected, loss of respect and recognition by the community. Countries should design their approach to banning tTBAs differently depending on contextual factors. Further, it is important to consider adopting a step wise approach when implementing the ban as the process of banning tTBAs may trigger several negative effects.

  13. Electrical Conductivity. (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan


    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  14. Seeking help for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): a qualitative study of the enablers and barriers conducted by a researcher with personal experience of OCD. (United States)

    Robinson, Karen J; Rose, Diana; Salkovskis, Paul M


    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) can be hugely disabling. Although very effective psychological treatments exist, many people delay years before seeking help or never seek treatment. There have been clinical observation and short questionnaire studies on why people delay, but little qualitative research exists on this complex subject. The present qualitative study aimed to identify the barriers to seeking treatment and the factors that encourage or push people to seek help for their OCD (positive and negative enablers). A qualitative, exploratory study using in-depth, individual, semi-structured interviews was conducted by a researcher with personal experience of OCD. Seventeen people with OCD, contacted through the charity OCD-UK, were interviewed about the factors that impacted on their decision to seek help or not. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Barriers identified were stigma, 'internal / cognitive' factors, not knowing what their problem was, factors relating to their GP or treatment, and fear of criminalisation. Positive enablers identified were being supported to seek help, information and personal accounts of OCD in the media, and confidence in their GP. Negative enablers were reaching a crisis point and for some participants (whose intrusive thoughts were about harming children) feeling driven to seek treatment because of the nature of the thoughts, that is, seeking help to prevent the 'harm' they feared they were capable of doing. Participants identified a range of barriers and enablers that impacted on their decision to seek help or not. These give important indicators about the likely causes for delayed help seeking in OCD and ways in which people might be encouraged to seek help earlier. People with OCD may face a wide range of barriers to seeking help, including concern about the reaction of health professionals. The level of awareness, kindness, and understanding shown by first-line practitioners can be very important to

  15. Research Experience and Agreement with Selected Ethics Principles from Canada's "Tri-Council Policy Statement--Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans" (United States)

    Fahy, Pat; Spencer, Bob


    An online survey was conducted of students, instructors, and researchers in distance education regarding principles for the ethical treatment of human research subjects. The study used an online questionnaire based on principles drawn from Canada's "Tri-Council Policy Statement, Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans" (TCPS,…

  16. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    backbone (by the process of doping) and make them electrically. Conducting Polymers. From a Laboratory Curiosity to the Market Place. S Ramakrishnan ..... switching occurs between transparent yellow and green in less than. 100ms. Thus, while these materials are yet to achieve the set target. (in terms of their life cycle) ...

  17. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Conducting Polymers - From a Laboratory Curiosity to the Market Place. S Ramakrishnan. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1254-1265. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.


    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  19. Temperature, salinity, conductivity, and other measurements collected in the Northern Ocean as part of the Arctic Experiment in 1994 (NODC Accession 0002728) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Investigation of thermohaline circulation in Nordic Seas, hydrography and pathways of Atlantic water summer Arctic experiments

  20. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section


    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir


    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  1. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Daly: Juvenile red and blue king crab prey preference experiment conducted in the Kodiak Lab in 2014 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is part of a laboratory experiment, which evaluated how varying ratios of prey species (year-0 blue and red king crabs) and habitat type (shell and...

  2. Conductivity Probe (United States)


    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Experiences from a pilot study on how to conduct a qualitative multi-country research project regarding use of antibiotics in Southeast Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Traulsen, Janine Morgall


    BACKGROUND: In 2014, a qualitative multi-country research project was launched to study the reasons behind the high use of antibiotics in regions of Southeast Europe by using previously untrained national interviewers (who were engaged in other antibiotic microbial resistance-related investigatio...

  4. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests. (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P


    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  5. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote


    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  6. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  7. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.


    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  8. Conduct disorders. (United States)

    Buitelaar, Jan K; Smeets, Kirsten C; Herpers, Pierre; Scheepers, Floor; Glennon, Jeffrey; Rommelse, Nanda N J


    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to CD in the light of the forthcoming DSM-5 definition. The diagnostic criteria for CD will remain unchanged in DSM-5, but the introduction of a specifier of CD with a callous-unemotional (CU) presentation is new. Linked to this, we discuss the pros and cons of various other ways to subtype aggression/CD symptoms. Existing guidelines for CD are, with few exceptions, already of a relatively older date and emphasize that clinical assessment should be systematic and comprehensive and based on a multi-informant approach. Non-medical psychosocial interventions are recommended as the first option for the treatment of CD. There is a role for medication in the treatment of comorbid syndromes and/or in case of insufficient response to psychosocial interventions and severe and dangerous aggressive and violent behaviours.

  9. On the determination of the optical constants and radiative heat conductivity from reflection experiments on nuclear fuel materials in the liquid phase up to above 4000 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karow, H.U.


    The report deals with the following questions: 1) Study of the optical constants n sub(lambda)(T), k sub(lambda)(T) and of the radiative heat conductivity K sub(rad)(T) of liquid nuclear fuel in the light of the problems of radiative heat conduction and heat transfer in reactor safety analysis. 2) Study of the optical constants in relation to the questions of the physical structure and chemical bonding character of nuclear fuel materials in the solid and liquid state. 3) Measuring methods for the determination of the optical constants of opaque non-scattering materials at elevated temperatures. 4) High-temperature measuring technique for determining n sub(lambda)(T), k sub(lambda)(T), K sub(rad)(T) of nuclear fuel materials up to above 4000 K from reflection measurements using a special integrating-sphere laser reflectometer. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 HIS

  10. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures. (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael


    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  11. Threats to Validity in the Design and Conduct of Preclinical Efficacy Studies: A Systematic Review of Guidelines for In Vivo Animal Experiments


    Henderson, Valerie C.; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Fergusson, Dean; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Hackam, Dan G.


    Editors' Summary Background The development process for new drugs is lengthy and complex. It begins in the laboratory, where scientists investigate the causes of diseases and identify potential new treatments. Next, promising interventions undergo preclinical research in cells and in animals (in vivo animal experiments) to test whether the intervention has the expected effect and to support the generalization (extension) of this treatment?effect relationship to patients. Drugs that pass these...

  12. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.


    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  13. An analysis of a historical report on experiments in physics conducted by the Dominicans in Grodno in 1793 for the Polish king (in Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wyka


    Full Text Available From June to November 1793 Grodno (now Belarus was the place of the last session of Parliament of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with the participation of king Stanisław August Poniatowski, and it was where the second partition of Poland was approved. In the days free of parliamentary debates, Grodno’s Dominicans prepared a series of physics experiments for the king. The course of the experiments and their subject matter is known from a press release (Pismo Peryodyczne Korrespondenta 2, January 9, 1794, pp. 35–42. It is a type of daily report informing about 18 meetings, each time indicating their subject matter. This report was sufficient to recreate the course and the type of the experiments. Three thematic groups presented by the Dominicans can be distinguished. The first is a presentation of the physics cabinet – the king was visited, among others, the Nooth’s apparatus to produce “carbonated water”, a geological collection and other items used in the later shows. The second series of demonstrations was devoted to issues related to electricity. The idea and nature of lightning was also demonstrated. The third series of presentations concerned the properties of gases. In addition to other demonstrations, the Dominicans prepared an experiment which presented the process of producing water from oxygen and hydrogen. The experiment lasted all day, during which the reagents were measured: the volume of gases that were used and the mass of the water obtained. The report brings a lot of important information, indicating the level of scientific knowledge and the experimental skills of the Dominicans. It is evidence of how modern physics was taught by the Dominicans with the use of appropriate instruments for this purpose. It is also a source of knowledge about school equipment in Poland. Additionally, the report is so far one of the few well-documented public demonstrations prepared for the king. It also confirms the view that the

  14. [The conduct of deaconesses during the NS-dictatorship and the efforts to overcome these experiences. A case study on historical research]. (United States)

    Weber-Reich, Traudel


    The article is an approach to the conduct of nurses organisations and their members during the time of National Socialism as well as the following attempts to come to terms with these events. Both themes are dealt with rarely. The present state of research is outlined. In a case-study, which relies on source material from an archive of a deaconesses mother house and covers the period from 1943 to 1990, central problems are discussed exemplarily. Questions for further research are formulated and methodological problems are discussed. In this connection the special relevance of the analysis of personal files of the nurses is emphasized.

  15. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section. (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y


    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  16. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone


    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  17. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  18. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  19. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy. (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K


    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  20. [The experiments conducted by Japanese on human guinea pigs, and the use of biological weapons during the Sino-Japanese war (1937-1945)]. (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio


    Starting from the end of the nineteenth century, and during the first four decades of the past century, Japan showed considerable military expansion, on the back of a pan-Asiatic and imperialistic ideology, comparable only to those expressed by Wilhelmian and Nazi Germany. This growth led to Japan playing an extremely important role in the Asia-Pacific continent, which unavoidably brought the country onto a collision course with the British Empire and the United States of America. The Japanese general Shiro Ishii, who had undoubted organisational abilities but also a propensity for crimes against mankind, starting from the end of the 1920s and during the subsequent decade, under the suggestion of a military physician, developed a research programme to obtain biological weapons, since he was aware of the lack of raw materials, technology and scientific background in nuclear weapons. This project was taken forward despite Japan's ratification of the Geneva protocol, undersigned by 70 nations, which posed strict limits to the use of both biological and chemical weapons. In actual fact, the protocol allowed these weapons for defensive purposes, and permitted their experimental development. The research programme, developed with the support of the high command of the Japanese army and certainly known by the Emperor (Tenno) Hirohito, had its operative basis from the year 1932 in the satellite state of Manchukuo, but later and paralleling the increased, aggressive behaviour towards China and the English and American colonies during World War II, spread towards other Asian provinces occupied by the Japanese armies, with other operative units. In these dedicated bases, which were true concentration camps, numerous experiments were carried out on human guinea pigs, frequently concluding with vivisection. Among others, experiments of freezing, thirst, hunger, loss of blood, wounding with firearms, and bone fractures, were performed, as well as the inoculation of

  1. Determination of Physical Properties of Carbon Materials by Results of Ablative Experiments Con-ducted in the Jets of Gas Dynamic Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gorsky


    Full Text Available The process of hypersonic vehicles’ movement in the dense layers of the atmosphere is accompanied by the considerable combustion of heat shield, which effects on the aerodynamic, mass-inertial and centering characteristics of the product.For correct calculation of model's movement parameters it is necessary:* Using the theoretical and computation methods for determining ablative characteristics of heat-protective materials;* Taking into account all the basic physical and chemical processes, involved in their ablation, using the above mentioned methods;* Testing these techniques in the wide range of experimental data. This physic-mathematical model of carbon materials (CM aerothermochemical destruction is based on using the following:* Arrhenius equations to calculate carbon kinetic oxidation;* Langmuir-Knudsen formula to calculate the velocity of non-equilibrium carbon’s sublimation;* Carbon erosion law represented as a unique dependence of this process velocity on the gas pressure on the wall.Mathematical description of all major processes included in this formulation of the problem, contains a number of "free" parameters that can be determined only on the basis of comparison of theoretical and experimental data according to total ablation characteristics of these materials.This comparison was performed in the article applicable to the tests conditions of modern CM in the stream of electric arc plant and in combustion products of liquid-propellant rocket engines.As the result, the data of kinetic of carbon oxidation by atomic oxygen at sublimation mode of material ablation were obtained for the first time. Carbon erosion law under high pressure was established for the first time.The new approach to processing of ablation experiments is enunciated. Using this approach allows to turn this experiments for CM from comparative tests into the tests to determine ablation properties of thermal protection. Moreover, it enables us also to use the

  2. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context


    Ruf, Alexander


    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  3. The implementation and evaluation of therapeutic touch in burn patients: an instructive experience of conducting a scientific study within a non-academic nursing setting. (United States)

    Busch, Martine; Visser, Adriaan; Eybrechts, Maggie; van Komen, Rob; Oen, Irma; Olff, Miranda; Dokter, Jan; Boxma, Han


    Evaluation of therapeutic touch (TT) in the nursing of burn patients; post hoc evaluation of the research process in a non-academic nursing setting. 38 burn patients received either TT or nursing presence. On admission, days 2, 5 and 10 of hospitalization, data were collected on anxiety for pain, salivary cortisol, and pain medication. Interviews with nurses were held concerning research in a non-academic setting. Anxiety for pain was more reduced on day 10 in the TT-group. The TT-group was prescribed less morphine on day 1 and 2. On day 2 cortisol level before dressing changes was higher in the TT-group. The situational challenges of this study led to inconsistencies in data collection and a high patient attrition rate, weakening its statistical power. Conducting an effect study within daily nursing practice should not be done with a nursing staff inexperienced in research. Analysis of the remaining data justifies further research on TT for burn patients with pain, anxiety for pain, and cortisol levels as outcomes. Administering and evaluating TT during daily care requires nurses experienced both in TT and research, thus leading to less attrition and missing data, increasing the power of future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermal conductivity of metals (United States)

    Kazem, Sayyed M.


    The objective is to familiarize students with steady and unsteady heat transfer by conduction and with the effect of thermal conductivity upon temperature distribution through a homogeneous substance. The elementary heat conduction experiment presented is designed for associate degree technology students in a simple manner to enhance their intuition and to clarify many confusing concepts such as temperature, thermal energy, thermal conductivity, heat, transient and steady flows. The equipment set is safe, small, portable (10 kg) and relatively cheap (about $1200): the electric hot plate 2 kg (4.4 lb) for $175: the 24 channel selector and Thermocouple Digital Readout (Trendicator) 4.5 kg (10 lb) for about $1000; the three metal specimens (each of 2.5 cm diameter and 11 cm length), base plate and the bucket all about 3 kg (7 lb) for about $25. The experiment may take from 60 to 70 minutes. Although the hot plate surface temperature could be set from 90 to 370 C (maximum of 750 watts) it is a good practice to work with temperatures of 180 to 200 C (about 400 watts). They may experiment in squads of 2, 3 or even 4, or the instructor may demonstrate it for the whole class.

  5. Experience with needle-shaped conductivity sensors for determining parameters in two-phase flows; Erfahrungen mit nadelfoermigen Leitfaehigkeitssonden zur Bestimmung von Parametern in Zweiphasenstroemungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, S.; Hampel, R. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen Zittau/Goerlitz, Zittau (Germany). Inst. fuer Prozesstechnik, Prozessautomatisierung und Messtechnik e.V. (IPM)


    Two variants were developed. A wire grid sensor has two planes with 16 wires of 0.12 mm diameter each. The wires are arranged evenly over the diameter. The spacing between the two planes is 1.5 mm. The pipelines are covered in the corners of some measuring points. A second type was developed especially for the described pressure surge experiments. The `heavy` grid sensor with rod-shaped electrodes is made of stainless steel. The small rods have a lens-shaped crossection, in order to keep the hydraulic resistance and the effect on flow small. Sensors with 8 x 8 measuring points for NW50 and a sensor with 16 x 16 measuring points for NW100 were produced. They are designed for 7 MPa and a maximum of 150oC. The cavitation behind a fast-closing valve was visualised with the sensors, which is situated at the start of an approx. 200 m long pipeline. [Deutsch] Das Messverfahren mit nadelfoermigen Leitfaehigkeitssonden eignet sich zur lokalen Messung des Gasgehaltes, der Gasphasengeschwindigkeit, der Gasblasengroesse und deren statischen Verteilung. Die hohe zeitliche Aufloesung erlaubt die Messung von transienten Vorgaengen in Zweiphasenstroemungen. Mit dem Einsatz von mehreren Leitfaehigkeitssonden ist eine raeumliche Aufloesung moeglich. Als qualitative Groesse ist mit dem Messverfahren die Stroemungsform detektierbar. Auf Grund des invasiven Charakters des Messverfahren sind Einflussgroessen zu beachten bzw. zu beruecksichtigen. In den durchgefuehrten experimentellen Arbeiten wurde die Wirkung der Einflussgroessen auf das Messergebnis naeher untersucht und Verfahren zur Kalibrierung entwickelt. Die Arbeiten sind in den nachstehenden Literaturangaben dokumentiert. (orig.)

  6. Attitudes toward and experiences of gender issues among physician teachers: A survey study conducted at a university teaching hospital in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westman Göran


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender issues are important to address during medical education, however research about the implementation of gender in medical curricula reports that there are obstacles. The aim of this study was to explore physician teachers' attitudes to gender issues. Methods As part of a questionnaire, physician teachers at Umeå University in Sweden were given open-ended questions about explanations for and asked to write examples why they found gender important or not. The 1 469 comments from the 243 respondents (78 women, 165 men were analyzed by way of content analysis. The proportion of comments made by men and women in each category was compared. Results We found three themes in our analysis: Understandings of gender, problems connected with gender and approaches to gender. Gender was associated with differences between women and men regarding behaviour and disease, as well as with inequality of life conditions. Problems connected with gender included: delicate situations involving investigations of intimate body parts or sexual attraction, different expectations on male and female physicians and students, and difficulty fully understanding the experience of people of the opposite sex. The three approaches to gender that appeared in the comments were: 1 avoidance, implying that the importance of gender in professional relationships was recognized but minimized by comparing gender with aspects, such as personality and neutrality; 2 simplification, implying that gender related problems were easy to address, or already solved; and 3 awareness, implying that the respondent was interested in gender issues or had some insights in research about gender. Only a few individuals described gender as an area of competence and knowledge. There were comments from men and women in all categories, but there were differences in the relative weight for some categories. For example, recognizing gender inequities was more pronounced in the comments

  7. Attitudes toward and experiences of gender issues among physician teachers: a survey study conducted at a university teaching hospital in Sweden. (United States)

    Risberg, Gunilla; Johansson, Eva E; Westman, Göran; Hamberg, Katarina


    Gender issues are important to address during medical education, however research about the implementation of gender in medical curricula reports that there are obstacles. The aim of this study was to explore physician teachers' attitudes to gender issues. As part of a questionnaire, physician teachers at Umeå University in Sweden were given open-ended questions about explanations for and asked to write examples why they found gender important or not. The 1 469 comments from the 243 respondents (78 women, 165 men) were analyzed by way of content analysis. The proportion of comments made by men and women in each category was compared. We found three themes in our analysis: Understandings of gender, problems connected with gender and approaches to gender. Gender was associated with differences between women and men regarding behaviour and disease, as well as with inequality of life conditions. Problems connected with gender included: delicate situations involving investigations of intimate body parts or sexual attraction, different expectations on male and female physicians and students, and difficulty fully understanding the experience of people of the opposite sex. The three approaches to gender that appeared in the comments were: 1) avoidance, implying that the importance of gender in professional relationships was recognized but minimized by comparing gender with aspects, such as personality and neutrality; 2) simplification, implying that gender related problems were easy to address, or already solved; and 3) awareness, implying that the respondent was interested in gender issues or had some insights in research about gender. Only a few individuals described gender as an area of competence and knowledge. There were comments from men and women in all categories, but there were differences in the relative weight for some categories. For example, recognizing gender inequities was more pronounced in the comments from women and avoidance more common in comments from

  8. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit. (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D


    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  9. Training residential staff and supervisors to conduct traditional functional analyses. (United States)

    Lambert, Joseph M; Bloom, Sarah E; Clay, Casey J; Kunnavatana, S Shanun; Collins, Shawnee D


    In this study we extended a training outlined by Iwata to behavioral technicians working for a residential service provider for adults with developmental disabilities. Specifically, we trained ten supervisors and four assistants to organize, conduct, collect data for, and interpret the results of traditional functional analyses (FA; Iwata et al.,1994). Performance was initially low and improved across all measures following training. Results extend previous FA training research by including a tangible condition and by demonstrating that individuals with little to no prior experience conducting FAs can be taught all of the skills required to autonomously conduct them in a relatively short period of time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stimuli previously associated with reinforcement mitigate resurgence. (United States)

    Craig, Andrew R; Browning, Kaitlyn O; Shahan, Timothy A


    Resurgence refers to the recurrence of an extinguished target behavior following subsequent suspension of alternative reinforcement. Delivery of reinforcers during extinction of alternative behavior has been shown to mitigate resurgence. The present experiment aimed to determine whether delivering stimuli associated with reinforcers during resurgence testing similarly mitigates resurgence. Three groups of rats pressed target levers for food according to variable-interval 15-s schedules during Phase 1. In Phase 2, lever pressing was extinguished, and an alternative nose-poke response produced alternative reinforcement according to a variable-interval 15-s schedule. Food reinforcement was always associated with illumination of the food aperture and an audible click from the pellet dispenser during Phases 1 and 2. Phase 3 treatments differed between groups. For one group, nose poking continued to produce food and food-correlated stimuli. Both of these consequences were suspended for a second group. Finally, nose poking produced food-correlated stimuli but not food for a third group. Target-lever pressing resurged in the group that received no consequences and in the group that received only food-correlated stimuli for nose poking. Resurgence, however, was smaller for the group that received food-correlated stimuli than for the group that received no consequences for nose poking. Target-lever pressing did not increase between phases in the group that continued to receive food and associated stimuli. Thus, delivery of stimuli associated with food reinforcement after suspension of food reduced but did not eliminate resurgence of extinguished lever pressing. These findings contribute to potential methodologies for preventing relapse of extinguished problem behavior in clinical settings. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children. (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L


    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  12. Thermal conductivity of boron carbides (United States)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.; Gray, P. E.


    Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of boron carbide is necessary to evaluate its potential for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion applications. Measurements have been conducted of the thermal diffusivity of hot-pressed boron carbide BxC samples as a function of composition (x in the range from 4 to 9), temperature (300-1700 K), and temperature cycling. These data, in concert with density and specific-heat data, yield the thermal conductivities of these materials. The results are discussed in terms of a structural model that has been previously advanced to explain the electronic transport data. Some novel mechanisms for thermal conduction are briefly discussed.

  13. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy. (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R


    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  14. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen


    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  15. Do leaders affect ethical conduct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Adda, Giovanna; Darai, Donja; Pavanini, Nicola; Weber, Roberto A.


    We study whether leaders influence the unethical conduct of followers. To avoid selection issues present in natural environments, we use an experiment in which we create simple laboratory firms and assign leadership roles at random. In our first experiment, firms engage in competition and unethical

  16. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict


    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua


    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  17. Day-and-Night Closed-Loop Glucose Control in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Under Free-Living Conditions: Results of a Single-Arm 1-Month Experience Compared With a Previously Reported Feasibility Study of Evening and Night at Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renard, Eric; Farret, Anne; Kropff, Jort; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Messori, Mirko; Place, Jerome; Visentin, Roberto; Calore, Roberta; Toffanin, Chiara; Di Palma, Federico; Lanzola, Giordano; Magni, Paolo; Boscari, Federico; Galasso, Silvia; Avogaro, Angelo; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kovatchev, Boris; del Favero, Simone; Cobelli, Claudio; Magni, Lalo; DeVries, J. Hans


    After testing of a wearable artificial pancreas (AP) during evening and night (E/N-AP) under free-living conditions in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), we investigated AP during day and night (D/N-AP) for 1 month. Twenty adult patients with T1D who completed a previous randomized crossover study

  18. Anistropically varying conductivity in irreversible electroporation simulations. (United States)

    Labarbera, Nicholas; Drapaca, Corina


    One recent area of cancer research is irreversible electroporation (IRE). Irreversible electroporation is a minimally invasive procedure where needle electrodes are inserted into the body to ablate tumor cells with electricity. The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model that incorporates a tissue's conductivity increasing more in the direction of the electrical field as this has been shown to occur in experiments. It was necessary to mathematically derive a valid form of the conductivity tensor such that it is dependent on the electrical field direction and can be easily implemented into numerical software. The derivation of a conductivity tensor that can take arbitrary functions for the conductivity in the directions tangent and normal to the electrical field is the main contribution of this paper. Numerical simulations were performed for isotropic-varying and anisotropic-varying conductivities to evaluate the importance of including the electrical field's direction in the formulation for conductivity. By starting from previously published experimental results, this paper derived a general formulation for an anistropic-varying tensor for implementation into irreversible electroporation modeling software. The anistropic-varying tensor formulation allows the conductivity to take into consideration both electrical field direction and magnitude, as opposed to previous published works that only took into account electrical field magnitude. The anisotropic formulation predicts roughly a five percent decrease in ablation size for the monopolar simulation and approximately a ten percent decrease in ablation size for the bipolar simulations. This is a positive result as previously reported results found the isotropic formulation to overpredict ablation size for both monopolar and bipolar simulations. Furthermore, it was also reported that the isotropic formulation overpredicts the ablation size more for the bipolar case than the monopolar case. Thus, our

  19. Influence of O-2 and N-2 on the conductivity of carbon nanotube networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowbray, Duncan; Morgan, C.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer


    We have performed experiments on single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks and compared with density-functional theory (DFT) calculations to identify the microscopic origin of the observed sensitivity of the network conductivity to physisorbed O-2 and N-2. Previous DFT calculations of the trans......We have performed experiments on single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks and compared with density-functional theory (DFT) calculations to identify the microscopic origin of the observed sensitivity of the network conductivity to physisorbed O-2 and N-2. Previous DFT calculations...

  20. Radiative thermal conduction fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, K.J.; Balbus, S.A.; Fristrom, C.C.


    The discovery of the O VI interstellar absorption lines in our Galaxy by the Copernicus observatory was a turning point in our understanding of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). It implied the presence of widespread hot (approx. 10 to the 6th power K) gas in disk galaxies. The detection of highly ionized species in quasi-stellar objects' absorption spectra may be the first indirect observation of this hot phase in external disk galaxies. Previous efforts to understand extensive O VI absorption line data from our Galaxy were not very successful in locating the regions where this absorption originates. The location at interfaces between evaporating ISM clouds and hot gas was favored, but recent studies of steady-state conduction fronts in spherical clouds by Ballet, Arnaud, and Rothenflug (1986) and Bohringer and Hartquist (1987) rejected evaporative fronts as the absorption sites. Researchers report here on time-dependent nonequilibrium calculations of planar conductive fronts whose properties match well with observations, and suggest reasons for the difference between the researchers' results and the above. They included magnetic fields in additional models, not reported here, and the conclusions are not affected by their presence

  1. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.


    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev


    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  3. Multidimensional Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten


    Analytical theory of multidimensional heat conduction. General heat conduction equation in three dimensions. Steay state, analytical solutions. The Laplace equation. Method of separation of variables. Principle of superposition. Shape factors. Transient, multidimensional heat conduction....

  4. Effect of previous induced abortions on postabortion contraception selection. (United States)

    Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha


    The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer? (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans


    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  6. Real-World Experiences with the Combination Treatment of Ledipasvir plus Sofosbuvir for 12 Weeks in HCV Genotype 1-Infected Japanese Patients: Achievement of a Sustained Virological Response in Previous Users of Peginterferon plus Ribavirin with HCV NS3/4A Inhibitors. (United States)

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Arai, Makoto; Ooka, Yoshihiko; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Saito, Tomoko; Haga, Yuki; Takahashi, Koji; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Tawada, Akinobu; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Imazeki, Fumio; Kato, Naoya; Yokosuka, Osamu


    The aim of this study was to characterize the treatment response and serious adverse events of ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir therapies in Japanese patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 (GT1). This retrospective study analyzed 240 Japanese HCV GT1 patients treated for 12 weeks with 90 mg of ledipasvir plus 400 mg of sofosbuvir daily. Sustained virological response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) was achieved in 236 of 240 (98.3%) patients. Among treatment-naïve patients, SVR12 was achieved in 136 of 138 (98.6%) patients, and among treatment-experienced patients, SVR12 was achieved in 100 of 102 (98.0%) patients. In patients previously treated with peginterferon plus ribavirin with various HCV NS3/4A inhibitors, 100% SVR rates (25/25) were achieved. Two relapsers had HCV NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs), but no HCV NS5B-S282 was observed after they relapsed. We experienced two patients with cardiac events during treatment. In conclusion, combination of ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir for 12 weeks is a potential therapy for HCV GT1 patients. Caution is needed for HCV NS5A RAVs, which were selected by HCV NS5A inhibitors and cardiac adverse events.

  7. High thermal conductivity of diamond (United States)

    Stephan, Patrick M.


    The objectives of this educational exercise were to demonstrate the high rate of heat flow from a synthetic diamond coupon and to compare it to a commonly used thermal conductor, such as copper. The principles of heat transfer by conduction and convection may also be demonstrated. A list of equipment and supplies and the procedure for the experiment are presented.

  8. Simultaneous Rheoelectric Measurements of Strongly Conductive Complex Fluids (United States)

    Helal, Ahmed; Divoux, Thibaut; McKinley, Gareth H.


    We introduce an modular fixture designed for stress-controlled rheometers to perform simultaneous rheological and electrical measurements on strongly conductive complex fluids under shear. By means of a nontoxic liquid metal at room temperature, the electrical connection to the rotating shaft is completed with minimal additional mechanical friction, allowing for simultaneous stress measurements at values as low as 1 Pa. Motivated by applications such as flow batteries, we use the capabilities of this design to perform an extensive set of rheoelectric experiments on gels formulated from attractive carbon-black particles, at concentrations ranging from 4 to 15 wt %. First, experiments on gels at rest prepared with different shear histories show a robust power-law scaling between the elastic modulus G0' and the conductivity σ0 of the gels—i.e., G0'˜σ0α, with α =1.65 ±0.04 , regardless of the gel concentration. Second, we report conductivity measurements performed simultaneously with creep experiments. Changes in conductivity in the early stage of the experiments, also known as the Andrade-creep regime, reveal for the first time that plastic events take place in the bulk, while the shear rate γ ˙ decreases as a weak power law of time. The subsequent evolution of the conductivity and the shear rate allows us to propose a local yielding scenario that is in agreement with previous velocimetry measurements. Finally, to establish a set of benchmark data, we determine the constitutive rheological and electrical behavior of carbon-black gels. Corrections first introduced for mechanical measurements regarding shear inhomogeneity and wall slip are carefully extended to electrical measurements to accurately distinguish between bulk and surface contributions to the conductivity. As an illustrative example, we examine the constitutive rheoelectric properties of five different grades of carbon-black gels and we demonstrate the relevance of this rheoelectric apparatus as a

  9. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.


    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  10. Re-Encountering Individuals Who Previously Engaged in Joint Gaze Modulates Subsequent Gaze Cueing (United States)

    Dalmaso, Mario; Edwards, S. Gareth; Bayliss, Andrew P.


    We assessed the extent to which previous experience of joint gaze with people (i.e., looking toward the same object) modulates later gaze cueing of attention elicited by those individuals. Participants in Experiments 1 and 2a/b first completed a saccade/antisaccade task while a to-be-ignored face either looked at, or away from, the participants'…

  11. Currents, pressure, temperature, conductivity, salinity, and attenuation data collected from moorings during the Lydonia Canyon Dynamics Experiment deployed from platforms OCEANUS, LULU, and WHITEFOOT from October 24, 1980 to November 11, 1982 (NCEI Accession 0054154) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A major field experiment to determine the importance of submarine canyons in sediment transport along and across the continental margin. The experiment included...

  12. Thermal Conductivity of Foam Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    as thermal insulating material in building and chemical industry. The large volume of gas (porosity 90 – 95%) is the main reason of the low thermal conductivity of the foam glass. If gases with lower thermal conductivity compared to air are entrapped in the glass melt, the derived foam glass will contain...... only closed pores and its overall thermal conductivity will be much lower than that of the foam glass with open pores. In this work we have prepared foam glass using different types of recycled glasses and different kinds of foaming agents. This enabled the formation of foam glasses having gas cells...... with different gas compositions. The foam glasses were characterised concerning densities, open/closed porosity and crystallinity. We find out, through analytical calculations and experiments, how the thermal conductivity of foam glass depends on density, glass composition and gas composition. Certain glass...

  13. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  14. Complex conductivity of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.


    The complex conductivity of soil remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hyrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including 4 peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hertz...... to 45 kHz. The soil samples are saturated with 6 different NaCl brines with conductivities (0.031, 0.53, 1.15, 5.7, 14.7, and 22 S m-1, NaCl, 25°C) in order to determine their intrinsic formation factor and surface conductivity. This dataset is used to test the predictions of the dynamic Stern...... polarization model of porous media in terms of relationship between the quadrature conductivity and the surface conductivity. We also investigate the relationship between the normalized chargeability (the difference of in phase conductivity between two frequencies) and the quadrature conductivity...

  15. Cardiac conduction system (United States)

    The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the ... contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle of ...

  16. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald


    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  17. Conducting polymer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.


    Full Text Available Conducting polymers represent a very interesting group of polymer materials Investigation of the synthesis, structure and properties of these materials has been the subject of considerable research efforts in the last twenty years. A short presentating of newer results obtained by investigating of the synthesis, structure and properties of two basic groups of conducting polymers: a conducting polymers the conductivity of which is the result of their molecular structure, and b conducting polymer composites (EPC, is given in this paper. The applications and future development of this group of polymer materials is also discussed.

  18. Understanding customer experience. (United States)

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre


    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention.

  19. Patch tests in children: a review of 13 years of experience in comparison with previous data. (United States)

    Milingou, Maria; Tagka, Anna; Armenaka, Melina; Kimpouri, Konstantina; Kouimintzis, Dimitris; Katsarou, Alexandra


    The true prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children remains unknown. Our aim was to compare the results of patch tests in children with suspected ACD between two different periods of time and identify possible changes in emerging allergens. We compared contact allergens, gender, age distribution, and personal history of atopic dermatitis (AD), in correlation with the positivity of patch tests, between two equal periods of time (232 children tested during 1980-1993, period A, and 255 children during 1994-2007, period B) in the same region and in the same institution. Patch test positivity was 47.8% in period A, and 60% in period B (p = 0.083). The most common allergens in period A were: nickel sulfate (16.3%), cobalt chloride (8.6%), fragrance mix (7.3%), potassium dichromate (4.3%), and thimerosal only (1.7%). In period B, the allergen distribution was as follows: nickel sulfate (21.56%), thimerosal (18.03%), cobalt chloride (12.9%), potassium dichromate (9.4%), and fragrance mix (4.7%). Girls were more likely to have a positive patch test compared with boys, with reactions in 53% of girls and 39% of boys in period A (p = 0.003), and 61% of girls and 58% of boys in period B (p = 0.691). Twenty-nine per cent of patients with positive results had a personal history of AD in period A and 44% in period B (p = 0.015). Differences in the positivity of allergens between different time periods reflect changes in habits, of allergens exposure or preventive measures.

  20. A Latin Functionalist Dictionary as a Self-Learning Language Device: Previous Experiences to Digitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Manuel Márquez


    Full Text Available The application of a methodology based on S.C. Dik’s Functionalist Grammar linguistic principles, which is addressed to the teaching of Latin to secondary students, has resulted in a quantitative improvement in students’ acquisition process of knowledge. To do so, we have used a self-learning tool, an ad hoc dictionary, of which the use in different practices has made students understand, at a basic level, the functioning of this language.

  1. Translational Science Project Team Managers: Qualitative Insights and Implications from Current and Previous Postdoctoral Experiences (United States)

    Wooten, Kevin C.; Dann, Sara M.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Kotarba, Joseph A.


    The development of leadership and project management skills is increasingly important to the evolution of translational science and team-based endeavors. Team science is dependent upon individuals at various stages in their careers, inclusive of postdocs. Data from case histories, as well as from interviews with current and former postdocs, and those supervising postdocs, indicate six essential tasks required of project managers in multidisciplinary translational teams, along with eight skill-related themes critical to their success. To optimize the opportunities available and to ensure sequential development of team project management skills, a life cycle model for the development of translational team skills is proposed, ranging from graduate trainees, postdocs, assistant professors, and finally to mature scientists. Specific goals, challenges and project management roles and tasks are recommended for each stage for the life cycle. PMID:25621288

  2. The influence of previous sport experiences in transfer of behaviour patterns among team sports


    Santos, Sara


    The present study aimed to examine how players’ positional data can be used to assess the transfer of behaviour patterns among team sports (basketball, football and rugby) in early specialized and diversified sport careers. Thirty-four college students were divided into early specialization and early diversification groups, according to information provided by a questionnaire designed to obtain detailed information about their sports career. In-game derived variables were calculated based on ...

  3. How Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) weigh geometric cues depends on their previous experience. (United States)

    Reichert, James F; Kelly, Debbie M


    Following passive disorientation, Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) learned to search for a hidden food reward located in one corner of a rectangular-shaped enclosure that contained either identical or distinct features in each corner. Identical features allowed for explicit learning of geometric cues, whereas distinct features allowed for both explicit learning of featural cues and incidental learning of geometric cues. Birds that only learned about geometry incidentally (group Distinct) weighed features greater than geometry when the two cues were placed in conflict. However, birds that received explicit training with geometry, in addition to feature training (groups Distinct-Identical and Identical-Distinct), weighed geometry heavier relative to features. Cue preference by the birds also depended on the order in which learning was experienced; if explicit training with geometry followed that of features (group Distinct-Identical), then both geometry and features were weighed equally, but if explicit training with geometry training preceded that of features (group Identical-Distinct), the birds weighed geometry greater than features. Results suggest both a heightened sensitivity to geometric cues by Clark's nutcrackers relative to other species of birds and an increased sensitivity to any spatial cue (either features or geometry) that has proven both stable and reliable.

  4. Translational Science Project Team Managers: Qualitative Insights and Implications from Current and Previous Postdoctoral Experiences. (United States)

    Wooten, Kevin C; Dann, Sara M; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kotarba, Joseph A


    The development of leadership and project management skills is increasingly important to the evolution of translational science and team-based endeavors. Team science is dependent upon individuals at various stages in their careers, inclusive of postdocs. Data from case histories, as well as from interviews with current and former postdocs, and those supervising postdocs, indicate six essential tasks required of project managers in multidisciplinary translational teams, along with eight skill-related themes critical to their success. To optimize the opportunities available and to ensure sequential development of team project management skills, a life cycle model for the development of translational team skills is proposed, ranging from graduate trainees, postdocs, assistant professors, and finally to mature scientists. Specific goals, challenges and project management roles and tasks are recommended for each stage for the life cycle.

  5. A Latin Functionalist Dictionary as a Self-Learning Language Device: Previous Experiences to Digitalization (United States)

    Márquez, Manuel; Chaves, Beatriz


    The application of a methodology based on S.C. Dik's Functionalist Grammar linguistic principles, which is addressed to the teaching of Latin to secondary students, has resulted in a quantitative improvement in students' acquisition process of knowledge. To do so, we have used a self-learning tool, an ad hoc dictionary, of which the use in…

  6. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission (United States)

    Apollonov, Victor V.


    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of "Impulsar" represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The "Impulsar"—laser jet engine vehicle—propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO2—laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  7. Electrically conductive cellulose composite (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan


    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  8. Graphene Transparent Conductive Electrodes (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As an atomic layer of graphite, graphene has ultrahigh optical transparency and superior electron mobility. We plan to develop graphene transparent conductive...

  9. 360-Degree Iris Burns Following Conductive Keratoplasty. (United States)

    Çakir, Hanefi; Genç, Selim; Güler, Emre


    The authors report a case with multiple iris burns after conductive keratoplasty to correct hyperopia. Case report. A 52-year-old woman with hyperopia had a previous conductive keratoplasty procedure and underwent a conductive keratoplasty re-treatment 6 months later. Postoperatively, she presented with 360-degree iris burns in both eyes that were correlated with the corneal conductive keratoplasty scars. In addition, specular microscopy revealed decreased endothelial cell density for both eyes. This is the first reported case of iris burns associated with conductive keratoplasty. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(11):776-778.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances. (United States)


    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  11. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance. (United States)


    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  12. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  13. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...




  15. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation. (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A


    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  16. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases. (United States)

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H


    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients. (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio


    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  18. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.


    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  19. Currents, temperature, attenuation, and conductivity data collected during the Monterey Canyon Experiment from moorings deployed from platforms ROBERT GORDON SPROUL and NOAA Ship McARTHUR from 1993-08-03 to 1995-05-15 (NODC Accession 0067570) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Monterey Canyon experiment studied the mechanisms that govern the circulation within and the transport of sediment and water through Monterey Submarine Canyon....

  20. Thermal conductivity of hyperstoichiometric SIMFUEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucuta, P.G.; Verrall, R.A.; Matzke, H.


    At extended burnup, reduction in fuel thermal conductivity occurs as fission-gas bubble, solid fission-product (dissolved and precipitated) build-up, and the oxygen-to-uranium ratio (O/U) possible increases. The effects of solid fission products and the deviation from stoichiometry can be investigated using SIMFUEL (SIMulated high-burnup UO 2 FUEL). The reduction in fuel conductivity due to solid fission products was assessed and reported previously. In this paper, thermal conductivity measurements on hyperstoichiometric SIMFUEL and UO 2+x investigating the effect of the excess of oxygen on fuel thermal properties, are reported. The thermal diffusivity, specific heat and density of hyperstorichiometric SIMFUEL and UO 2+x , annealed at the same oxygen potential, were measured to obtain thermal conductivity. The excess of oxygen lowered to the thermal diffusivity, but did not significantly affect the specific heat. The thermal conductivity of UO 2+x (no fission products present) decreases with an increasing O/U ratio; a reduction of 15%, 37% and 56% at 600 deg. C, and 11%, 23% and 33% at 1500 deg. C, was found for O/U ratios of 2.007, 2.035 and 2.084, respectively. For the SIMFUEL annealed at ΔGo 2 = -245 kJ/mol (corresponding to UO 2,007 ), the thermal conductivity was practically unchanged, although for the higher oxygen potentials (ΔGo 2 ≥ -205 kJ/mol) a reduction in thermal conductivity of the same order as in UO 2+x W as measured. For SIMFUEL, annealed in reducing conditions, the fission products lowered thermal conductivity significantly. However, for high oxygen potentials (ΔGo 2 ≥ -205 kJ/mol), the thermal conductivities of UO 2+x and SIMFUEL were found to be approximately equal in the temperature range of 600 to 1500 deg. C. Consequently, excess oxygen is the dominant factor contributing to thermal conductivity degradation at high oxygen potentials. (author). 9 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Conductance eigenchannels in nanocontacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel


    . The conductance as a function of contact elongation exhibits a step structure. For the smallest contact areas of one or a few atom diameters, the conductance is typically quantized, and a specific number of almost open eigenchannels can be ascribed. For larger contact areas the scattering leads to partly open...

  2. Codes of Conduct (United States)

    Million, June


    Most schools have a code of conduct, pledge, or behavioral standards, set by the district or school board with the school community. In this article, the author features some schools that created a new vision of instilling code of conducts to students based on work quality, respect, safety and courtesy. She suggests that communicating the code…

  3. Complex conductivity of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.


    The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz

  4. Conducting polymer hydrogels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav


    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 269-291 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : aerogel * conducting polymers * conductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  5. Conducting Polymeric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren


    are the charge transfer elements are intrinsically conducting polymers, where the electrical conductivity is a result of delocalized electrons along the polymer backbone, with polyaniline, polypyrrole, and PEDOT as prominent examples. Already in 2000 Alan Heeger, Alan MacDiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa were...

  6. Thermal conductivity probe (United States)

    Navickas, J.


    Low-mass probe accurately measures the thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam /and other thermal insulating materials/ while exposed to either hydrogen of helium permeation in temperature ranges from ambient to cryogenic. The thermal conductivity of a specimen is determined from an experimentally determined increase in temperature.

  7. Tubal anastomosis after previous sterilization: a systematic review. (United States)

    van Seeters, Jacoba A H; Chua, Su Jen; Mol, Ben W J; Koks, Carolien A M


    Female sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods. A small number of women, however, opt for reversal of sterilization procedures after they experience regret. Procedures can be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, with or without robotic assistance. Another commonly utilized alternative is IVF. The choice between surgery and IVF is often influenced by reimbursement politics for that particular geographic location. We evaluated the fertility outcomes of different surgical methods available for the reversal of female sterilization, compared these to IVF and assessed the prognostic factors for success. Two search strategies were employed. Firstly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies presenting fertility outcomes of sterilization reversal up to July 2016. Data on the following outcomes were collected: pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, cost of the procedure and operative time. Eligible study designs included prospective or retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and case series. No age restriction was applied. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from tubal infertility from any other reason (e.g. infection, endometriosis and adhesions from previous surgery) and studies including sterilization reversal procedures were then evaluated: female age, BMI and duration and method of sterilization. Secondly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies that compared reversal of sterilization to IVF and evaluated them for pregnancy outcomes and cost effectiveness. We included 37 studies that investigated a total of 10 689 women. No randomized controlled trials were found. Most studies were retrospective cohort studies of a moderate quality. The pooled pregnancy rate after sterilization reversal was 42-69%, with heterogeneity seen from the different methods utilized. The reported ectopic pregnancy rate was 4-8%. The only prognostic factor affecting the

  8. Conductivities from attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmenger, Johanna [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Fernández, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Goulart, Prieslei [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista,R. Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, Bl. II, São Paulo 01140-070, SP (Brazil); Witkowski, Piotr [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany)


    In the context of applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence to condensed matter physics, we compute conductivities for field theory duals of dyonic planar black holes in 3+1-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories at zero temperature. We combine the near-horizon data obtained via Sen’s entropy function formalism with known expressions for conductivities. In this way we express the conductivities in terms of the extremal black hole charges. We apply our approach to three different examples for dilaton theories for which the background geometry is not known explicitly. For a constant scalar potential, the thermoelectric conductivity explicitly scales as α{sub xy}∼N{sup 3/2}, as expected. For the same model, our approach yields a finite result for the heat conductivity κ/T∝N{sup 3/2} even for T→0.

  9. Educational Experiments with the Communications Technology Satellite: A Memo from Evaluators to Planners. (United States)

    Daniel, J. S.; And Others

    A series of educational experiments are being conducted in Canada on the Communications Technology Satellite. The description of these experiments reveals a diversity not previously encountered in educational applications of satellite systems. In evaluating these experiments, the authors adopted Stufflebeam's Context-Input-Process-Product model in…

  10. Cross-Modal Interactions in the Experience of Musical Performances: Physiological Correlates (United States)

    Chapados, Catherine; Levitin, Daniel J.


    This experiment was conducted to investigate cross-modal interactions in the emotional experience of music listeners. Previous research showed that visual information present in a musical performance is rich in expressive content, and moderates the subjective emotional experience of a participant listening and/or observing musical stimuli [Vines,…

  11. Effect of previous abdominal surgery on outcomes following laparoscopic colorectal surgery. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Junji; Tanaka, Keitaro; Kondo, Keisaku; Asai, Keiko; Kayano, Hajime; Masubuchi, Shinsuke; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa


    The impact of previous abdominal surgeries on the need for conversion to open surgery and on short-term outcomes during/after laparoscopic colectomy was retrospectively investigated. This retrospective cohort study was conducted from December 1996 through December 2009. This study was conducted at Osaka Medical College Hospital. A total of 1701 consecutive patients who had undergone laparoscopic resection of the colon and rectum were classified as not having previous abdominal surgery (n = 1121) or as having previous abdominal surgery (n = 580). Short-term outcomes were recorded, and risk factors for conversion to open surgery were analyzed. There were no significant differences in operative time, blood loss, number of lymph nodes removed, or conversion rate between the groups. The rate of inadvertent enterotomy was significantly higher in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group (0.9% versus 0.1%; p = 0.03), and the postoperative recovery time was significantly longer in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group. Ileus was more frequent in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group (3.8% versus 2.1%; p = 0.04). Significant risk factors for conversion to open surgery were T stage ≥3 (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.89-3.75), median incision (OR, 4.34; 95% CI, 1.23-9.41), upper median incision (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.29-5.42), lower median incision (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.09-3.12), and transverse colectomy (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.29-2.41). The incidence of successfully completed laparoscopic colectomy after previous abdominal surgery remains high, and the short-term outcomes are acceptable.

  12. Measurement of thermal conductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.


    The 6-m long, 45-kG, warm-iron superconducting magnets envisioned for the Energy Doubler stage of the Fermilab accelerator require stiff supports with minimized thermal conductances in order to keep the refrigeration power reasonable. The large number of supports involved in the system required a careful study of their heat conduction from the room temperature wall to the intercepting refrigeration at 20 0 K and to the liquid helium. For this purpose the thermal conductance of this support was measured by comparing it with the thermal conductance of a copper strap of known geometry. An association of steady-state thermal analysis and experimental thermal conductivity techniques forms the basis of this method. An important advantage is the automatic simulation of the 20 0 K refrigeration intercept by the copper strap, which simplifies the apparatus considerably. This relative resistance technique, which uses electrical analogy as a guideline, is applicable with no restrictions for materials with temperature-independent thermal conductivity. For other materials the results obtained are functions of the specific temperature interval involved in the measurements. A comprehensive review of the literature on thermal conductivity indicates that this approach has not been used before. A demonstration of its self-consistency is stressed here rather than results obtained for different supports

  13. Determination of electric conductivity and local SAR via B1 mapping. (United States)

    Katscher, Ulrich; Voigt, Tobias; Findeklee, Christian; Vernickel, Peter; Nehrke, Kay; Dössel, Olaf


    The electric conductivity can potentially be used as an additional diagnostic parameter, e.g., in tumor diagnosis. Moreover, the electric conductivity, in connection with the electric field, can be used to estimate the local SAR distribution during MR measurements. In this study, a new approach, called electric properties tomography (EPT) is presented. It derives the patient's electric conductivity, along with the corresponding electric fields, from the spatial sensitivity distributions of the applied RF coils, which are measured via MRI. Corresponding numerical simulations and initial experiments on a standard clinical MRI system underline the principal feasibility of EPT to determine the electric conductivity and the local SAR. In contrast to previous methods to measure the patient's electric properties, EPT does not apply externally mounted electrodes, currents, or RF probes, thus enhancing the practicality of the approach. Furthermore, in contrast to previous methods, EPT circumvents the solution of an inverse problem, which might lead to significantly higher spatial image resolution.

  14. Multivalent ion conducting solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry


    Solid electrolytes possess important characteristics for industrial applications. Only a single ionic species can macroscopically migrate in these solids. This paper described a the new NASICON (M-Zr-Nb-P-O) type system, exhibiting an exceptionally high level of trivalent M3+ ion conductivity on polycrystalline solids. The partial substitution of the smaller higher valent Nb5+ ion for Zr4+ stabilized the NASICON phase and realized the M3+ ion conduction in the NASICON structure. It was concluded that the conductivities of the series are comparable to those of the practically applied solid electrolytes of oxide anion conductors of YSZ and CSZ. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Conducting everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    , they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes across......In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed...

  16. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  17. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  18. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling (United States)


    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.


    As a research health scientist at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, I have been very fortunate to have opportunities to work as a principal investigator for two major environmental health research projects. The first study was conducted in 1983-1996 under a formal U.S.-China ...

  20. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation]. (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao


    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  1. Anionic Conducting Oxide Ceramics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunn, Bruce


    This program has emphasized the interrelationships among synthesis, microstructure and properties for oxygen ion conducting ceramics based on copper-substituted bismuth vanadate (Bi V Cu O ), known as BICUVOX...

  2. Air conducted and body conducted sound produced by own voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard


    When we speak, sound reaches our ears both through the air, from the mouth to ear, and through our body, as vibrations. The ratio between the air borne and body conducted sound has been studied in a pilot experiment where the air borne sound was eliminated by isolating the ear with a large...... attenuation box. The ratio was found to lie between -15 dB to -7 dB, below 1 kHz, comparable with theoretical estimations. This work is part of a broader study of the occlusion effect and the results provide important input data for modelling the sound pressure change between an open and an occluded ear canal....

  3. Previous toothache, dental visits and caries presence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dental pain is an ache or soreness within or around a tooth. It has a wide range of etiology, the commonest being dental caries. Dental pain is one of the main reasons for seeking dental care. Objectives: To assess the relationship between experiences of toothache, dental visits and caries experience among ...

  4. Thermal Conductivity of Methane-Hydrate


    Krivchikov, A. I.; Gorodilov, B. Ya.; Korolyuk, O. A.; Manzhelii, V. G.; Conrad, H.; Press, W.


    The thermal conductivity of the methane hydrate CH4 (5.75 H2O) was measured in the interval 2-140 K using the steady-state technique. The thermal conductivity corresponding to a homogeneous substance was calculated from the measured effective thermal conductivity obtained in the experiment. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity is typical for the thermal conductivity of amorphous solids. It is shown that after separation of the hydrate into ice and methane, at 240 K, the ther...

  5. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh


    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  6. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh


    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  7. Electrically Conductive Epoxy Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Bai


    Full Text Available Conductive adhesives are widely used in electronic packaging applications such as die attachment and solderless interconnections, component repair, display interconnections, and heat dissipation. The effects of film thickness as functions of filler volume fraction, conductive filler size, shape, as well as uncured adhesive matrix viscosity on the electrical conduction behavior of epoxy-based adhesives are presented in this work. For this purpose, epoxy-based adhesives were prepared using conductive fillers of different size, shape, and types, including Ni powder, flakes, and filaments, Ag powder, and Cu powder. The filaments were 20 μm in diameter, and 160 or 260 μm in length. HCl and H3PO4 acid solutions were used to etch and remove the surface oxide layers from the fillers. The plane resistance of filled adhesive films was measured using the four-point method. In all cases of conductive filler addition, the planar resistivity levels for the composite adhesive films increased when the film thickness was reduced. The shape of resistivity-thickness curves was negative exponential decaying type and was modeled using a mathematical relation. The relationships between the conductive film resistivities and the filler volume fractions were also derived mathematically based on the experimental data. Thus, the effects of surface treatment of filler particles, the type, size, shape of fillers, and the uncured epoxy viscosity could be included empirically by using these mathematical relations based on the experimental data. By utilizing the relations we proposed to model thickness-dependent and volume fraction-dependent conduction behaviors separately, we were able to describe the combined and coupled volume fraction-film thickness relationship mathematically based on our experimental data.

  8. Effective Heat Conductivity of Composite Materials with Ball Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Pugachev


    Full Text Available The process of heat conduction can be modeled via random motion of particles of heat energy, although these particles do not physically exist: they are considered as special formal objects. The speed of diffusion of heat particles in each material is proportional to its temperature conductivity coefficient. This mathematical model underlying the method of obtaining the effective heat conductivity coefficient of a composite material described in the previous paper \\Heat conductivity of composite materials with included balls of zero heat conductivity" now is being modified in order to deal with materials with various nonzero heat conductivity and capacity coefficients. Namely, when a particle passes from one material to another one, having smaller heat conductivity, it is reflected from the frontier with a certain probability.As a criterion of heat conductivity, we consider the probability that a heat particle starting on one surface of a composite layer, goes to its other surface in a time shorter than T. For a homogeneous material, this probability is calculated theoretically.For a layer of a composite, we perform a multiple computational experiment modeling heat conduction, and for the desired probability we find the confidence interval, wherefrom we obtain the confidence interval for the effective temperature conductivity coefficient, and, finally, calculate the effective heat conductivity coefficient.We have considered inclusions of materials with heat conductivity and volume heat capacity coefficients differing from those of the matrix in 3 times up or down. Ball inclusions of equal size were situated in a cubic order or chaotically. The ratio of the ball radius to the size of cubes was 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4.In series of 4300 randomly moving particles, in all cases considered, the difference between the effective heat conductivity coefficients and those calculated by other methods does not exceed a statistical error.The developed method makes

  9. Experiences in transferring the techniques for the economical conduction of the Mexico`s vehicular transport; Experiencias de la transferencia de las tecnicas de conduccion economica en el autotransporte en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Osorio, Francisco Javier [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)


    The Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (National Commission for Energy Conservation) developed the training program that through the dictation of pilot courses of technical-economical conduction of auto-motor vehicles is addressed to private enterprises, agencies and governmental institutions. This paper presents the background and the obtained results of the same. This methodology is presented in detail and a description of the courses is also presented as well as its characteristics. The comparative results are annexed of the tests between the conduction normally performed and the technical-economical conduction. The fuel saving obtained varies from 9% to 22.5%. Then, the reasons why the training in the technical- economical conduction results in one of the actions more profitable in fuel saving are explained, but also the difficulties for its implementation are also discussed. A conclusion is offered. [Espanol] La Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) desarrollo el programa de capacitacion que a traves de la imparticion de cursos pilotos de conduccion tecnico- economica de vehiculos automotores, se dirige a las empresas privadas, dependencias e instituciones gubernamentales. En este trabajo se presentan los antecedentes y resultados obtenidos del mismo. Se detalla esta metodologia y se presenta una descripcion de los cursos y sus caracteristicas. Se anexan resultados comparativos de las pruebas entre la conduccion que se realiza normalmente y la conduccion tecnico-economica. Los ahorros de combustible obtenidos van desde 9% hasta 22.5%. Luego, se explican las razones por las que la capacitacion en conduccion tecnico-economica resulta ser una de las acciones mas rentables del ahorro de combustibles, pero tambien se discuten las dificultades para implantarla. Se ofrece una conclusion.

  10. Responsible conduct of research

    CERN Document Server

    Shamoo, Adil E


    Since the early 2000s, the field of Responsible Conduct of Research has become widely recognized as essential to scientific education, investigation, and training. At present, research institutions with public funding are expected to have some minimal training and education in RCR for their graduate students, fellows and trainees. These institutions also are expected to have a system in place for investigating and reporting misconduct in research or violations of regulations in research with human subjects, or in their applications to federal agencies for funding. Public scrutiny of the conduct of scientific researchers remains high. Media reports of misconduct scandals, biased research, violations of human research ethics rules, and moral controversies in research occur on a weekly basis. Since the 2009 publication of the 2nd edition of Shamoo and Resnik's Responsible Conduct of Research, there has been a vast expansion in the information, knowledge, methods, and diagnosis of problems related to RCR and the ...

  11. Natures of Conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sielemann, Rasmus Basse

    Natures of Conduct explores the rationalities, practices and techniques of government processes in the Danish West Indies in the period between the late eighteenth century to the end of Danish colonial rule in 1917. In doing so, it engages Michel Foucault’s concepts of governmentality and the ‘di......Natures of Conduct explores the rationalities, practices and techniques of government processes in the Danish West Indies in the period between the late eighteenth century to the end of Danish colonial rule in 1917. In doing so, it engages Michel Foucault’s concepts of governmentality...

  12. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.


    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  13. Graphene Conductance Uniformity Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter


    We demonstrate a combination of micro four-point probe (M4PP) and non-contact terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements for centimeter scale quantitative mapping of the sheet conductance of large area chemical vapor deposited graphene films. Dual configuration M4PP measurements...... of less than a minute for a 4-in. wafer. The combination of M4PP and THz-TDS conductance measurements, supported by micro Raman spectroscopy and optical imaging, reveals that the film is electrically continuous on the nanoscopic scale with microscopic defects likely originating from the transfer process...

  14. Thermal Conductivity of Metallic Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hin, Celine


    This project has developed a modeling and simulation approaches to predict the thermal conductivity of metallic fuels and their alloys. We focus on two methods. The first method has been developed by the team at the University of Wisconsin Madison. They developed a practical and general modeling approach for thermal conductivity of metals and metal alloys that integrates ab-initio and semi-empirical physics-based models to maximize the strengths of both techniques. The second method has been developed by the team at Virginia Tech. This approach consists of a determining the thermal conductivity using only ab-initio methods without any fitting parameters. Both methods were complementary. The models incorporated both phonon and electron contributions. Good agreement with experimental data over a wide temperature range were found. The models also provided insight into the different physical factors that govern the thermal conductivity under different temperatures. The models were general enough to incorporate more complex effects like additional alloying species, defects, transmutation products and noble gas bubbles to predict the behavior of complex metallic alloys like U-alloy fuel systems under burnup. 3 Introduction Thermal conductivity is an important thermal physical property affecting the performance and efficiency of metallic fuels [1]. Some experimental measurement of thermal conductivity and its correlation with composition and temperature from empirical fitting are available for U, Zr and their alloys with Pu and other minor actinides. However, as reviewed in by Kim, Cho and Sohn [2], due to the difficulty in doing experiments on actinide materials, thermal conductivities of metallic fuels have only been measured at limited alloy compositions and temperatures, some of them even being negative and unphysical. Furthermore, the correlations developed so far are empirical in nature and may not be accurate when used for prediction at conditions far from those

  15. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso


    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  16. High Thermal Conductivity Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Subhash L


    Thermal management has become a ‘hot’ field in recent years due to a need to obtain high performance levels in many devices used in such diverse areas as space science, mainframe and desktop computers, optoelectronics and even Formula One racing cars! Thermal solutions require not just taking care of very high thermal flux, but also ‘hot spots’, where the flux densities can exceed 200 W/cm2. High thermal conductivity materials play an important role in addressing thermal management issues. This volume provides readers a basic understanding of the thermal conduction mechanisms in these materials and discusses how the thermal conductivity may be related to their crystal structures as well as microstructures developed as a result of their processing history. The techniques for accurate measurement of these properties on large as well as small scales have been reviewed. Detailed information on the thermal conductivity of diverse materials including aluminum nitride (AlN), silicon carbide (SiC), diamond, a...

  17. CERN Code of Conduct

    CERN Document Server

    Department, HR


    The Code is intended as a guide in helping us, as CERN contributors, to understand how to conduct ourselves, treat others and expect to be treated. It is based around the five core values of the Organization. We should all become familiar with it and try to incorporate it into our daily life at CERN.

  18. Transient Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten


    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  19. Pressure dependence of conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracewell, B.L.; Hochheimer, H.D.


    The overall objectives of this work were to attempt the following: (1) Measure the pressure dependence of the electrical conductivity of several quasi-one-dimensional, charge-density-wave solids, including measurements along various crystal directions. (2) Measure photocurrents in selected MX solids at ambient and elevated pressures. (3) Measure the resonance Raman spectra for selected MX solids as a function of pressure

  20. Conducting and insulating materials


    Bolotinha, Manuel


    Conducting materials may be classified into three groups: conductors, semiconductors and imperfect insulators. This section will cover only conductors. In general, metals and alloys are conductors of electricity. The most common metals used in electricity are copper, aluminium and their alloys. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  1. Conducting Educational Design Research (United States)

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas


    Educational design research blends scientific investigation with systematic development and implementation of solutions to educational problems. Empirical investigation is conducted in real learning settings--not laboratories--to craft usable and effective solutions. At the same time, the research is carefully structured to produce theoretical…

  2. Conduct Disorder and Comorbidity. (United States)

    Stahl, Nicole D.; Clarizio, Harvey F.


    Provides critical examination of research published during past ten years addressing Conduct Disorder (CD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and internalizing disorders. Concludes comorbidity varies with age, gender, informant, diagnostic criteria, and nature of the sample. Implications of comorbidity…

  3. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mentus, S.; Ciric-Marjanovic, G.; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav


    Roč. 20, č. 24 (2009), 245601/1-245601/10 ISSN 0957-4484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0686; GA AV ČR IAA400500905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymers * polyaniline * carbonization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.137, year: 2009

  4. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 9. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity. Suresh V Vettoor. General Article Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 41-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  5. Identification of multidrug resistance in previously treated tuberculosis patients: a mixed methods study in Cambodia (United States)

    Royce, S; Khann, S; Yadav, RP; Mao, ET; Cattamanchi, A; Sam, S; Handley, MA


    SUMMARY Setting Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug resistance (MDR). In Cambodia, a recent study found that only one-third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results. Objective To quantify the gaps in detecting MDR in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers’ perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions. Design We analyzed case notifications in Cambodia (2004–2012) and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders Results The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces 2010–12, in the context of longer term trends of decreasing relapse and increasing “other” retreatment notifications. Correct classification of patients’ TB treatment history and ensuring specimens from previously-treated patients are collected and reach the laboratory could nearly double the number of detected MDR-TB cases. Identified barriers include patients’ reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty eliciting treatment history, partly due to availability of streptomycin only in hospitals. Facilitators include trained health workers, collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not taking streptomycin, streamlining sputum transportation and promptly reporting results. Conclusion Improved monitoring, supportive supervision, and correctly classifying previously treated patients are essential for improving detection of MDR-TB. PMID:25299861

  6. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery. (United States)

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (Pcesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  7. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance. (United States)


    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  8. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  9. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  10. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  11. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  12. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  13. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  14. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  15. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings. (United States)


    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate. (United States)


    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  17. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  18. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk. (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald


    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant? (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  20. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  1. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  2. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  3. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  4. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped. (United States)


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  5. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry

  6. A New Lagrangian Relaxation Method Considering Previous Hour Scheduling for Unit Commitment Problem (United States)

    Khorasani, H.; Rashidinejad, M.; Purakbari-Kasmaie, M.; Abdollahi, A.


    Generation scheduling is a crucial challenge in power systems especially under new environment of liberalization of electricity industry. A new Lagrangian relaxation method for unit commitment (UC) has been presented for solving generation scheduling problem. This paper focuses on the economical aspect of UC problem, while the previous hour scheduling as a very important issue is studied. In this paper generation scheduling of present hour has been conducted by considering the previous hour scheduling. The impacts of hot/cold start-up cost have been taken in to account in this paper. Case studies and numerical analysis presents significant outcomes while it demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Response of Sorghum bicolor L. to Residual Phosphate on Two Contrasting Soils Previously Planted to Cowpea or Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tola Omolayo Olasunkanmi


    Full Text Available Proper fertilizer nutrient management through adequate utilization of the residual value coupled with healthy crop rotation contributes significantly to sustainable crop production. This study was conducted to evaluate the direct and residual effects of two rock phosphate (RP materials on two contrasting soils previously planted with either the cereal crop or the leguminous crop. The effectiveness of the RP materials as substitute for the conventional P fertilizers was evaluated using single superphosphate as reference at the Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. The experiments were 2 × 2 × 4 factorial in completely randomized design. The test crops in the first cropping performed better on the slightly acidic loamy sand than on the strongly acidic sandy clay loam. Performance of each crop was improved by P supply in the first and second cropping. Single superphosphate proved to be more efficient than the RPs in the first cropping but not as effective as MRP in the second cropping. In the second cropping, sorghum performed better on the soil previously cropped to cowpea while Morocco RP had the highest residual effect among the P-fertilizer sources. It is evident that rock phosphates are better substitutes to the conventional phosphorus fertilizers due to their long term residual effect in soils. The positive effects of healthy rotation of crops as well as the negative effects of low soil pH are also quite obvious.

  8. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity (United States)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    After a Sect. 1.1 devoted to electrical conductivity and a section that deals with magnetic and dielectric losses ( 1.2 ), this chapter explores the theory of thermal conduction in solids. The examined categories of solids are: metals Sect. 1.3.2 , Dielectrics Sects. 1.3.3 and 1.3.4 and Nanocomposites Sect. 1.3.5 . In Sect. 1.3.6 the problem of thermal and electrical contact between materials is considered because contact resistance occurring at conductor joints in magnets or other high power applications can lead to undesirable electrical losses. At low temperature, thermal contact is also critical in the mounting of temperature sensors, where bad contacts can lead to erroneous results, in particular when superconductivity phenomena are involved.

  9. Super ionic conductive glass (United States)

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  10. Transparent Conductive Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objectives of this program between UT-Battelle, LLC (the ''Contractor'') and (Battelle Memorial Institute) (the "Participant") were directed towards achieving significant improvement: in the electrical conductivity and optical/infrared transmission of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based composite materials. These materials will be used in coating applications that range from aircraft canopies to display applications. The goal of the project was to obtain supported mats of SWNTs with sheet conductivities approaching 10 ohms/square combined with high optical transmission (>85% transmission at 550 nm), thereby permitting their application as a replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) in a variety of applications such as flexible displays.

  11. Conducting Polymer Based Nanobiosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Soon Park


    Full Text Available In recent years, conducting polymer (CP nanomaterials have been used in a variety of fields, such as in energy, environmental, and biomedical applications, owing to their outstanding chemical and physical properties compared to conventional metal materials. In particular, nanobiosensors based on CP nanomaterials exhibit excellent performance sensing target molecules. The performance of CP nanobiosensors varies based on their size, shape, conductivity, and morphology, among other characteristics. Therefore, in this review, we provide an overview of the techniques commonly used to fabricate novel CP nanomaterials and their biosensor applications, including aptasensors, field-effect transistor (FET biosensors, human sense mimicking biosensors, and immunoassays. We also discuss prospects for state-of-the-art nanobiosensors using CP nanomaterials by focusing on strategies to overcome the current limitations.

  12. Auroral ionospheric quiet summer time conductances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekke, A.; Hall, C.


    The auroral zone E-region conductivities and conductances have been studied for 7 quiet time summer days. The Hall- and Pedersen conductances are found to follow the solar zenith variations in a rather regular fashion, and empirical formulas for these conductances are obtained. The choice of proper collision frequency models is found to be of great importance when deriving the conductances, and it is argued that some of the different results presented by other authors may be due to different models of the collision frequencies. The Hall- to Pedersen conductance ratios can only be used as an indicator of the energy of the precipitating auroral particles when the contribution from the background solar ionization is subtracted. When this is done this ratio takes much higher values than previously reported

  13. Conductive Polymer Composites


    Pierini, Filippo


    In recent years, nanotechnologies have led to the production of materials with new and sometimes unexpected qualities through the manipulation of nanoscale components. This research aimed primarily to the study of the correlation between hierarchical structures of hybrid organic-inorganic materials such as conductive polymer composites (CPCs). Using a bottom-up methodology, we could synthesize a wide range of inorganic nanometric materials with a high degree of homogeneity and purity, ...

  14. Pregnancy outcome after one previous caesarean section at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal blood pressure and pulse record, and foetal heart sound record are taken every 30 minutes in early first stage of labour and 15 minutes in second stage of ... Data analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 14.0 computer programme. Frequency distribution and measure of location were used to ...

  15. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2. (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda


    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  16. Previous prelabor or intrapartum cesarean delivery and risk of placenta previa. (United States)

    Downes, Katheryne L; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Albert, Paul S; Grantz, Katherine L


    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between previous cesarean delivery and subsequent placenta previa while distinguishing cesarean delivery before the onset of labor from intrapartum cesarean delivery. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of electronic medical records from 20 Utah hospitals (2002-2010) with restriction to the first 2 singleton deliveries of nulliparous women at study entry (n=26,987). First pregnancy delivery mode was classified as (1) vaginal (reference), (2) cesarean delivery before labor onset (prelabor), or (3) cesarean delivery after labor onset (intrapartum). Risk of second delivery previa was estimated by previous delivery mode with the use of logistic regression and was adjusted for maternal age, insurance, smoking, comorbidities, previous pregnancy loss, and history of previa. Most first deliveries were vaginal (82%; n=22,142), followed by intrapartum cesarean delivery (14.6%; n=3931), or prelabor cesarean delivery (3.4%; n=914). Incidence of second delivery previa was 0.29% (n=78) and differed by previous delivery mode: vaginal, 0.24%; prelabor cesarean delivery, 0.98%; intrapartum cesarean delivery, 0.38% (Pdelivery, previous prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with an increased risk of second delivery previa (adjusted odds ratio, 2.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.56). There was no significant association between previous intrapartum cesarean delivery and previa (adjusted odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-2.19). Previous prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with a >2-fold significantly increased risk of previa in the second delivery, although the approximately 20% increased risk of previa that was associated with previous intrapartum cesarean delivery was not significant. Although rare, the increased risk of placenta previa after previous prelabor cesarean delivery may be important when considering nonmedically indicated prelabor cesarean delivery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine


    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.


    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  18. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking


    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET


    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  19. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern


    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  20. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings


    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.


    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  1. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy. (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  2. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby


    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla


    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  3. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings. (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M


    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  4. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.


    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  5. Graduated driver licensing. [previously called: The graduated driving licence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Young novice drivers have a very high risk of being involved in a road crash. In the United States (US), Canada, Australia and New Zealand this problem has been tackled by first letting learner drivers gain driving experience under safe conditions before allowing them to take the driving test. The

  6. Investigating the effect of previous treatments on wheat biomass over multiple spatial frequencies (United States)

    Milne, A. E.; Castellanos, M. T.; Cartagena, M. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Lark, R. M.


    In this study we use the maximum overlap discrete packet transform (MODWPT) to investigate residual effects on wheat biomass of fertigation treatments applied to a previous crop. The wheat crop covered nine subplots from a previous experiment on melon response to fertigation. Each subplot had previously received a different level of applied nitrogen. Many factors affect wheat biomass, causing it to vary at different spatial frequencies. We hypothesize that these will include residual effects from fertilizer application (at relatively low spatial frequencies) and the local influence of individual plants from the previous melon crop (at high frequency). To test this hypothesis we use the MODWPT to identify the dominant spatial frequencies of wheat biomass variation, and analyse the relationship to both the previous fertilizer application and the location of individual melon plants in the previous crop. The MODWPT is particularly appropriate for this because it allows us first to identify the key spatial frequencies in the wheat biomass objectively and to analyse them, and their relationship to hypothesized driving factors without any assumptions of uniformity (stationarity) of wheat-biomass variation. The results showed that the applied nitrogen dominated the wheat biomass response, and that there was a noticeable component of wheat-biomass variation at the spatial frequency that corresponds to the melon cropping. We expected wheat biomass to be negatively correlated with the position of melons in the previous crop, due to uptake of the applied nitrogen. The MODWPT, which allows us to detect changes in correlation between variables at different frequencies, showed that such a relationship was found across part of the experiment but not uniformly.

  7. Thermal contact conductance

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudana, Chakravarti V


    The work covers both theoretical and practical aspects of thermal contact conductance. The theoretical discussion focuses on heat transfer through spots, joints, and surfaces, as well as the role of interstitial materials (both planned and inadvertent). The practical discussion includes formulae and data that can be used in designing heat-transfer equipment for a variety of joints, including special geometries and configurations. All of the material has been updated to reflect the latest advances in the field.

  8. Thermal Conductivity of Soils (United States)


    screen), percent SLeir Clayr ?in Fine Middels Medium cGrov Coarse Grua Gravel Stein Rock U.S. Standard sikt US Standard screen (measure) Best p! i...SPES. VEI,:T kg/m3 Spec. weight kg/m3 TORR R. VEKT Dry density POROSITET Porosity LEDN. EVNE \\V/mK Conductivity W/mI, Tyholt leire TyholtI) clay...8217 TABLE I. B. CRUSHED ROCK MATERIALS. MATERIALE Material KVARTSINNH. % quartz content % SPEC. VEKT kg/m 3 Spec. weight % TORR R. VEKT Dry

  9. Hysteresis in conducting ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Carl S.; Winchell, Stephen D.


    Maxwell's magnetic diffusion equation is solved for conducting ferromagnetic cylinders to predict a magnetic wave velocity, a time delay for flux penetration and an eddy current field, one of five fields in the linear unified field model of hysteresis. Measured Faraday voltages for a thin steel toroid are shown to be proportional to magnetic field step amplitude and decrease exponentially in time due to maximum rather than average permeability. Dynamic permeabilities are a field convolution of quasistatic permeability and the delay function from which we derive and observe square root dependence of coercivity on rate of field change

  10. 'Stuffed' conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Chen, Jun; West, Keld


    Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the pres....... In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Maternal and foetal outcome in term patients with previous one lower segment cesarean section


    Meena Naresh Satia; Kimaya A. Mali; Rakhi Sikarwar


    Background: In modern day obstetric practice we encounter increasing number of patients with history of caesarean section because of rise in primary caesarean due to changing trends in their indications. There is increasing fear and anxiety by obstetricians for managing these cases from medico legal point of view. Present study was done to look at the feto-maternal outcome and for appropriate mode of delivery and overall to conduct the proper management of patients with previous one lower...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Apollonov


    Full Text Available Laser spark obtained by using a conical optics is much more appropriate to form conducting channels in atmosphere. Only two types of lasers are actively considered to be used in forming high-conductivity channels in atmosphere, controlled by laser spark: pulsed sub-microsecond gas and chemical lasers (CO2, DF and short pulse solid-state and UV lasers. Main advantage of short pulse lasers is their ability in forming of super long ionized channels with a characteristic diameter of ~100  µ  in atmosphere along the  beam propagation direction. At estimated electron densities below  10 ⋅ 16 cm–3 in these filaments and laser wavelengths in the range of 0,5–1,0 mm, the plasma barely absorbs laser radiation.  In this case, the length of the track composed of many filaments is determined by the laser intensity and may reach many kilometers at a femtosecond pulse energy of ~100 mJ. However, these lasers could not be used to form high-conductivity long channels in atmosphere. The ohmic resistance of this type a conducting channels turned out to be very high, and the gas in the channels could not be strongly heated (< 1 J. An electric breakdown controlled by radiation of femtosecond solid-state laser was implemented in only at a length of 3 m with a voltage of 2 MV across the discharge gap (670 kV/m.Not so long ago scientific group from P. N. Lebedev has improved that result, the discharge gap – 1 m had been broken under KrF laser irradiation when switching high-voltage (up to 390 kV/m electric discharge by 100-ns UV pulses. Our previous result  –  16 m long conducting channel controlled by a  laser spark at the voltage  –  3 MV  – was obtained more than 20 years ago in Russia and Japan by using pulsed CO2  laser with energy  –  0,5 kJ. An average electric field strength  was < 190 kV/m. It is still too much for efficient applications.

  13. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)


    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  14. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle


    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib......). The causative pathogen was identified as H influenzae serotype f (Hif), and was successfully treated with ceftriaxone. An immunological evaluation revealed transient low levels of immunoglobulins but no apparent immunodeficiency was found 2 years after the clinical insult....

  15. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans


    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...

  16. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection. (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit


    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  17. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus. (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor


    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a

  18. Fulminant Pneumococcal Pericarditis in a Previously Healthy Patient. (United States)

    Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M


    Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High prevalence of genetic variants previously associated with LQT syndrome in new exome data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Lena; Holst, Anders G; Sadjadieh, Golnaz


    Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) has provided important knowledge on this topic. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of previously LQTS-associated variants in ESP (5400 individuals), in order to identify possible false-positive LQTS variants. With this aim, we performed a search for previously...... published LQTS-associated variants in ESP. In addition, a PolyPhen-2 prediction was conducted, and the four most prevalent LQTS-associated variants with significant functional effects present in ESP were genotyped in a second control population. We identified 33 missense variants previously associated...... with LQTS in ESP. These 33 variants affected 173 alleles and this corresponded to a LQTS prevalence of 1:31 in the ESP population. PolyPhen-2 predicted 30% of the 33 variants present in ESP to be benign compared with 13% among LQTS-associated variants not present in ESP (P=0.019). Genotyping of the four...

  20. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.


    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  1. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  2. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels


    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  3. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray


    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  4. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian


    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  5. Efforts to promote vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean section. (United States)

    Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio


    The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Thermal conductivity of GaAs/AlAs superlattices and the puzzle of interfaces. (United States)

    Termentzidis, Konstantinos; Chantrenne, Patrice; Duquesne, Jean-Yves; Saci, Abdelhak


    We present a molecular dynamics investigation of the cross-plane thermal conductivity of superlattices using the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics method. The purpose is to investigate the influence of the interfaces, which is expected to be important in those nanostructures where the superlattice period is smaller than the phonon mean free path. In contrast to previous studies, more realistic interfaces are considered: interfacial roughness is modeled using atomic rectangular islands and interdiffusion is taken into account. It is shown that thermal conductivity is very sensitive to the detailed interfacial shape and to the presence of interdiffusion. This may be relevant to recent experiments.

  7. Universal mesoscopic conductance fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelou, S.N.


    The theory of conductance fluctuations in disordered metallic systems with size large compared to the mean free path of the electron but small compared to localization length is considered. It is demonstrates that fluctuations have an universal character and are due to repulsion between levels and spectral rigidity. The basic fluctuation measures for the energy spectrum in the mesoscopic regime of disordered systems are consistent with the Gaussian random matrix ensemble predictions. Although our disordered electron random matrix ensemble does not belong to the Gaussian ensemble the two ensembles turn out to be essentially similar. The level repulsion and the spectral rigidity found in nuclear spectra should also be observed in the metallic regime of Anderson localization. 7 refs. (orig.)

  8. [Female conduct disorders]. (United States)

    Vloet, Timo D; Großheinrich, Nicola; Konrad, Kerstin; Freitag, Christine; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate


    The last few years have seen much research on girls with conduct disorder (CD). This article summarizes the gender-specific data regarding prevalence, differences with respect to symptomatology (e.g., subtypes of aggression, callous-unemotional (cu)-traits), and it presents data on the autonomic and neuroendocrine stress system as well as genetic, neurocognitive, and neuroimaging data. Differences in the impact of environmental factors on boys and girls for the development of CD are discussed. Taken together, the data indicate that there is great overlap in symptomatology, personality traits, and neurobiological aberrations in girls and boys with CD. Since fewer girls than boys exhibit CD symptomatology, further investigations on CD in girls might help to identify resilience factors that could improve future therapeutic interventions.

  9. Conducting polyamine nanocomposites development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, R.C.; Maciel, T.C.G.L.; Guimaraes, M.J.O.C.; Garcia, M.E.F.


    Polymeric nanocomposites are hybrid materials formed by the combination of inorganic nanoparticles dispersed in a polymeric matrix with, at least, one dimension in the nanometer range. It was used as nanoparticles layered and tubular clay minerals, and its insertion and dispersion were conducted through the in situ polymerization technique. As the polymer matrix, it was utilized a polyamine, which, later, will be inserted in a polyacrylamide gel for the development of a compound that aggregates both main characteristics. The nanocomposites were prepared in different polymerization conditions (temperature, concentration and nanoparticle type) and characterized by XRD and FTIR. It was observed that regarding the polymerization conditions, the temperature had influence on the kind of material obtained and on the reaction speed; the type of nanoparticle affected its interaction with the polymer matrix, predominantly providing the formation of nanocomposites by the intercalation mechanism in the layered clay. (author)

  10. Ion-conducting membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard I.; Sajjad, Syed Dawar; Gao, Yan; Liu, Zengcai; Chen, Qingmei


    An anion-conducting polymeric membrane comprises a terpolymer of styrene, vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x. R.sub.s is a positively charged cyclic amine group. R.sub.x is at least one constituent selected from the group consisting Cl, OH and a reaction product between an OH or Cl and a species other than a simple amine or a cyclic amine. The total weight of the vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x groups is greater than 0.3% of the total weight of the membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  11. Social and physical health of homeless adults previously treated for mental health problems. (United States)

    Gelberg, L; Linn, L S


    A total of 529 homeless adults in Los Angeles County were surveyed to determine the relationship between their previous use of mental health services and their physical health status, utilization of medical services, personal habits affecting health, experience of injury and victimization, and perceived needs. Homeless adults with a previous psychiatric hospitalization were more likely to have experienced serious physical symptoms during the previous month than those who had used only outpatient mental health services or who had never used mental health services. They reported more reasons for not obtaining needed medical care, were more likely to obtained food from garbage cans, and had the least adequate personal hygiene. However, they did not differ from the other groups on most measures of nutrition, social relations, and financial status. The most frequently expressed needs of the homeless were for improved social relations, employment, shelter, and money.

  12. Protein conducting nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsman, Anke; Krueger, Vivien; Bartsch, Philipp; Honigmann, Alf; Wagner, Richard; Schmidt, Oliver; Rao, Sanjana; Meisinger, Christof


    About 50% of the cellular proteins have to be transported into or across cellular membranes. This transport is an essential step in the protein biosynthesis. In eukaryotic cells secretory proteins are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum before they are transported in vesicles to the plasma membrane. Almost all proteins of the endosymbiotic organelles chloroplasts and mitochondria are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and posttranslationally imported. Genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches led to rather detailed knowledge on the composition of the translocon-complexes which catalyze the membrane transport of the preproteins. Comprehensive concepts on the targeting and membrane transport of polypeptides emerged, however little detail on the molecular nature and mechanisms of the protein translocation channels comprising nanopores has been achieved. In this paper we will highlight recent developments of the diverse protein translocation systems and focus particularly on the common biophysical properties and functions of the protein conducting nanopores. We also provide a first analysis of the interaction between the genuine protein conducting nanopore Tom40 SC as well as a mutant Tom40 SC (S 54 →E) containing an additional negative charge at the channel vestibule and one of its native substrates, CoxIV, a mitochondrial targeting peptide. The polypeptide induced a voltage-dependent increase in the frequency of channel closure of Tom40 SC corresponding to a voltage-dependent association rate, which was even more pronounced for the Tom40 SC S54E mutant. The corresponding dwelltime reflecting association/transport of the peptide could be determined with t-bar off ≅1.1 ms for the wildtype, whereas the mutant Tom40 SC S54E displayed a biphasic dwelltime distribution ( t-bar off 1 ≅0.4 ms; t-bar off 2 ≅4.6 ms).

  13. Non-negligible Contributions to Thermal Conductivity From Localized Modes in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide. (United States)

    Lv, Wei; Henry, Asegun


    Thermal conductivity is important for almost all applications involving heat transfer. The theory and modeling of crystalline materials is in some sense a solved problem, where one can now calculate their thermal conductivity from first principles using expressions based on the phonon gas model (PGM). However, modeling of amorphous materials still has many open questions, because the PGM itself becomes questionable when one cannot rigorously define the phonon velocities. In this report, we used our recently developed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA) method to study amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO 2 ). The predicted thermal conductivities exhibit excellent agreement with experiments and anharmonic effects are included in the thermal conductivity calculation for all the modes in a-SiO 2 for the first time. Previously, localized modes (locons) have been thought to have a negligible contribution to thermal conductivity, due to their highly localized nature. However, in a-SiO 2 our results indicate that locons contribute more than 10% to the total thermal conductivity from 400 K to 800 K and they are largely responsible for the increase in thermal conductivity of a-SiO 2 above room temperature. This is an effect that cannot be explained by previous methods and therefore offers new insight into the nature of phonon transport in amorphous/glassy materials.

  14. Fuel thermal conductivity (FTHCON). Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagrman, D.L.


    An improvement of the fuel thermal conductivity subcode is described which is part of the fuel rod behavior modeling task performed at EG and G Idaho, Inc. The original version was published in the Materials Properties (MATPRO) Handbook, Section A-2 (Fuel Thermal Conductivity). The improved version incorporates data which were not included in the previous work and omits some previously used data which are believed to come from cracked specimens. The models for the effect of porosity on thermal conductivity and for the electronic contribution to thermal coductivity have been completely revised in order to place these models on a more mechanistic basis. As a result of modeling improvements the standard error of the model with respect to its data base has been significantly reduced

  15. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions. (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P


    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  16. Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy in a patient with previous esophagectomy. (United States)

    de la Torre, R A; Scott, J S; Unger, S W


    Establishment of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy via direct jejunal puncture was accomplished in a 45-year-old woman five years after a partial esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The patient had recurrence of the cancer at the anastomotic site with subsequent inability to eat, necessitating a feeding tube for prolonged enteral nutrition. Although percutaneous puncture of the jejunum has been previously described, it has been limited to patients who had undergone partial or complete gastrectomies with Bilroth II anastomoses. This case report of direct endoscopic jejunal tube placement in a patient after esophagectomy further establishes this procedure as a viable alternative to surgically placed feeding tubes in patients with altered gastric anatomy.

  17. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients. (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W


    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  18. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR. (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian


    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  19. Reduction of saltwater intrusion by modifying hydraulic conductivity (United States)

    Strack, O. D. L.; Stoeckl, L.; Damm, K.; Houben, G.; Ausk, B. K.; de Lange, W. J.


    We present an approach for reducing saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers by artificially reducing the hydraulic conductivity in the upper part of selected areas by using a precipitate. We apply a previously presented analytical approach to develop formulas useful for the design of artificial barriers. Equations for the location of the tip of the saltwater wedge are presented and verified through a sand-tank experiment. The analysis is capable of computing discharges exactly, but requires the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation to compute points of the interface between flowing fresh and stationary saltwater. We consider a vertical coastline and boundaries in the freshwater zone of either given discharge or given head. We demonstrate in the paper that reduction of the hydraulic conductivity in the upper part of a coastal aquifer will result in a decrease of saltwater intrusion, and present analytic expressions that can be used for design purposes. The previously presented analytical approach can be applied to design systems to reduce saltwater intrusion caused by pumping inland from the zone that contains saline groundwater.

  20. Fabrication of Conductive Polypyrrole Nanofibers by Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqun Cong


    Full Text Available Electrospinning is employed to prepare conductive polypyrrole nanofibers with uniform morphology and good mechanical strength. Soluble PPy was synthesized with NaDEHS as dopant and then applied to electrospinning with or without PEO as carrier. The PEO contents had great influence on the morphology and conductivity of the electrospun material. The results of these experiments will allow us to have a better understanding of PPy electrospun nanofibers and will permit the design of effective electrodes in the BMIs fields.

  1. VBAC Scoring: Successful vaginal delivery in previous one caesarean section in induced labour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, J.F.; Bangash, K.T.; Mahmud, G.


    Objective: To develop a scoring system for the prediction of successful vaginal birth after caesarean section, following induction of labour with intra-vaginal E2 gel (Glandin). Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2010 to August 2011, at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences in Islamabad. Trial of labour in previous one caesarean section, undergoing induction with intra-vaginal E2 gel, was attempted in 100 women. They were scored according to six variables; maternal age; gestation; indications of previous caesarean; history of vaginal birth either before or after the previous caesarean; Bishop score and body mass index. Multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop the scoring system. Results: Of the total, 67 (67%) women delivered vaginally, while 33 (33%) ended in repeat caesarean delivery. Among the subjects, 55 (55%) women had no history of vaginal delivery either before or after previous caesarean section; 15 (15%) had history of vaginal births both before and after the previous caesarean; while 30 (30%) had vaginal delivery only after the previous caesarean section. Rates of successful vaginal birth after caesarean increased from 38% in women having a score of 0-3 to 58% in patients scoring 4-6. Among those having a score of 7-9 and 10-12, the success rates were 71% and 86% respectively. Conclusion: Increasing scores correlated with the increasing probability of vaginal birth after caesarean undergoing induction of labour. The admission VBAC scoring system is useful in counselling women with previous caesarean for the option of induction of labour or repeat caesarean delivery. (author)

  2. Wheat Response to a Soil Previously Irrigated with Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Sardo


    Full Text Available A research was conducted aimed at assessing the response of rainfed, lysimeter-grown wheat to various levels of soil salinity, in terms of dry mass production, inorganic and organic components, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SS activity. One additional scope was the assessment of soil ability to recover from applied salts by means of winter precipitations. The results confirmed the relatively high salt tolerance of wheat, as demonstrated by the mechanisms enacted by plants to contrast salinity at root and leaf level. Some insight was gained in the relationships between salinity and the various inorganic and organic components, as well as with SPS and SS activity. It was demonstrated that in a year with precipitations well below the average values (305 mm vs 500 the leaching action of rain was sufficient to eliminate salts accumulated during summer irrigation with saline water.

  3. GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was the first major international experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). It was conducted over...

  4. Visual working memory supports the inhibition of previously processed information: evidence from preview search. (United States)

    Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Emrich, Stephen M; Ferber, Susanne; Pratt, Jay


    In four experiments we assessed whether visual working memory (VWM) maintains a record of previously processed visual information, allowing old information to be inhibited, and new information to be prioritized. Specifically, we evaluated whether VWM contributes to the inhibition (i.e., visual marking) of previewed distractors in a preview search. We evaluated this proposal by testing three predictions. First, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that preview inhibition is more effective when the number of previewed distractors is below VWM capacity than above; an effect that can only be observed at small preview set sizes (Experiment 2A) and when observers are allowed to move their eyes freely (Experiment 2B). Second, Experiment 3 shows that, when quantified as the number of inhibited distractors, the magnitude of the preview effect is stable across different search difficulties. Third, Experiment 4 demonstrates that individual differences in preview inhibition are correlated with individual differences in VWM capacity. These findings provide converging evidence that VWM supports the inhibition of previewed distractors. More generally, these findings demonstrate how VWM contributes to the efficiency of human visual information processing--VWM prioritizes new information by inhibiting old information from being reselected for attention.

  5. Particle physics experiments 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.


    The paper presents research work carried out in 1986 on 52 elementary particle experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. Most of the experiments were collaborative and involved research groups from different countries. About half of the experiments were conducted at CERN, the remaining experiments employed the accelerators: LAMPT, LEP, PETRA, SLAC, and HERA. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (U.K.)

  6. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke


    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  7. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli


    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  8. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

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    María Aranguren


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  9. New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.


    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture. PMID:15294811

  10. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang


    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  11. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang


    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  12. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan


    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  13. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.


    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  14. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children. (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna


    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  15. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.


    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  16. Universality of ac conduction in disordered solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas


    The striking similarity of ac conduction in quite different disordered solids is discussed in terms of experimental results, modeling, and computer simulations. After giving an overview of experiment, a macroscopic and a microscopic model are reviewed. For both models the normalized ac conductivity...... as a function of a suitably scaled frequency becomes independent of details of the disorder in the extreme disorder limit, i.e., when the local randomly varying mobilities cover many orders of magnitude. The two universal ac conductivities are similar, but not identical; both are examples of unusual non......-power-law universalities. It is argued that ac universality reflects an underlying percolation determining dc as well as ac conductivity in the extreme disorder limit. Three analytical approximations to the universal ac conductivities are presented and compared to computer simulations. Finally, model predictions...

  17. Conducting international nursing research: challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Opollo, Jackline Gloria; Opollo, Diana Alaka; Gray, Jennifer; Spies, Lori


    To describe practical experiences before, during and after gaining entry into research fields in Kenya and Uganda. Planning, conducting and implementing international research can be an arduous task. Novice researchers need practical guides to accessing international fields and mitigating challenges met in the field. The researchers conducted three different studies in two developing nations. This paper reviews challenges encountered when conducting international research. Solutions used to overcome these challenges are discussed. Establishing and maintaining effective partnerships is critical to the success of international research efforts. Researchers must be tactful, flexible and creative when handling methodological, ethical and logistical challenges encountered in settings poor in resources. International research provides opportunities for increasing dedication, building cross-cultural competence and advancing health professional practice globally. This paper contributes to nursing scholarship by highlighting the practical challenges of conducting international research. Illustrations aimed at lending insight and encouraging others to expand their dedication to conducting international research are offered.

  18. Kapitza conductance of solid - liquid helium interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, A.F.G.


    In this article, the author describes the acoustic-mismatch model and the deficiencies of this model in describing and predicting the conductance behavior of solid-liquid helium interfaces. By reviewing the experimental data, the author finds that the conductivity of these interfaces exceeds that which is predicted by the Kapitza effect. The classical channel of conductance, as expressed in Khalatnikov's calculation of the transmission coefficient, works at temperatures 4F .05 K. A background channel that functions in parallell to the classical channel conducts phonons at greater temperatures. The author reviews the values of the transmission coefficients as found in a variety of experiments and describes the variation between the behavior of the classical and the background channels, particularly in the area of frequency conservation. The bulk of the reviewed data points out the flaws in using the Kapitza effect as an explanation of high conductivity in these interfaces and the author looks for new explanations in the future

  19. Diagnosis of Beta-thalassaemia major in previously transfused patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Rehman, Z.; Karamat, K.A.


    Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of blood transfusion(s) on the haematological picture of beta-thalassaemia major. Results: Out of the 280 patients 109 (39%) had received one or more blood transfusions (cases). The remaining 171 patients who did not receive any transfusion served as controls. The mean MCV, MCH and Hb-F in cases were significantly higher than in the controls (p 4 transfusions (17%) (p=0.016). In the occasionally transfused patients Hb-F level was directly related to the time since last transfusion. In 44/109 (40%) transfused patients (Hb-F>30%) the diagnosis of thalassaemia was not difficult. In 54/109 (50%) patients (Hb-:5-30%) the diagnosis was aided by parent's study, while PCR for thalassaemia mutation was required in 11/109 (10%) patients (Hb-F <5%). Conclusion: In most transfused patients of thalassaemia major MCV and MCH were significantly higher while Hb-F was lower than in the un-transfused patients. There was a linear correlation between Hb-F level and time since last transfusion in the occasionally transfused patients. However, the reduction in Hb-F level was more marked and sustained in multipally transfused patients. Parent's study and PCR are useful aids in establishing the correct diagnosis in these patients. (author)

  20. Pituitary-adrenocortical adjustments to transport stress in horses with previous different handling and transport conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fazio


    Full Text Available Aim: The changes of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis response to a long distance transportation results in increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels. The purpose of the study was to quantify the level of short-term road transport stress on circulating ACTH and cortisol concentrations, related to the effect of previous handling and transport experience of horses. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 56 healthy horses after short-term road transport of 30 km. The horses were divided into four groups, Groups A, B, C, and D, with respect to the handling quality: Good (Groups A and B, bad (Group D, and minimal handling (Group C conditions. According to the previous transport, experience horses were divided as follows: Horses of Groups A and D had been experienced long-distance transportation before; horses of Groups B and C had been limited experience of transportation. Results: One-way RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of transport on ACTH changes in Groups B and C and on cortisol changes in both Groups A and B. Groups A and B showed lower baseline ACTH and cortisol values than Groups C and D; Groups A and B showed lower post-transport ACTH values than Groups C and D. Groups A, B, and C showed lower post-transport cortisol values than Group D. Only Groups A and B horses have shown an adequate capacity of stress response to transportation. Conclusion: The previous transport experience and quality of handling could influence the HPA axis physiological responses of horses after short-term road transport.

  1. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity? (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D


    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  2. Serratia liquefaciens Infection of a Previously Excluded Popliteal Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coelho

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs are rare in the general population, but they account for nearly 70% of peripheral arterial aneurysms. There are several possible surgical approaches including exclusion of the aneurysm and bypass grafting, or endoaneurysmorrhaphy and interposition of a prosthetic conduit. The outcomes following the first approach are favorable, but persistent blood flow in the aneurysm sac has been documented in up to one third of patients in the early post-operative setting. Complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms include aneurysm enlargement, local compression symptoms, and sac rupture. Notably infection of a previously excluded and bypassed PAA is rare. This is the third reported case of PAA infection after exclusion and bypass grafting and the first due to Serratia liquefaciens. Methods: Relevant medical data were collected from the hospital database. Results: This case report describes a 54 year old male patient, diagnosed with acute limb ischaemia due to a thrombosed PAA, submitted to emergency surgery with exclusion and venous bypass. A below the knee amputation was necessary 3 months later. Patient follow-up was lost until 7 years following surgical repair, when he was diagnosed with aneurysm sac infection with skin fistulisation. He had recently been diagnosed with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis Child–Pugh Class B. The patient was successfully treated by aneurysm resection, soft tissue debridement and systemic antibiotics. Conclusion: PAA infection is a rare complication after exclusion and bypass procedures but should be considered in any patient with evidence of local or systemic infection. When a PAA infection is diagnosed, aneurysmectomy, local debridement, and intravenous antibiotic therapy are recommended. The “gold standard” method of PAA repair remains controversial. PAA excision or endoaneurysmorrhaphy avoids complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms, but is associated with

  3. Human stool contains a previously unrecognized diversity of novel astroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoyan


    Full Text Available Abstract Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astrovirus MLB1 and astrovirus VA1, were identified in diarrhea patients. In this study, we used consensus astrovirus primers targeting the RNA polymerase to define the diversity of astroviruses present in pediatric patients with diarrhea on two continents. From 416 stool specimens comprising two different cohorts from Vellore, India, 35 samples were positive. These positive samples were analyzed further by either sequencing of the ~400 bp amplicon generated by the consensus PCR or by performing additional RT-PCR specific for individual astroviruses. 19 samples contained the classic human astrovirus serotypes 1-8 while 7 samples were positive for the recently described astrovirus MLB1. Strikingly, from samples that were positive in the consensus PCR screen but negative in the specific PCR assays, five samples contained sequences that were highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Sequence analysis suggested that three novel astroviruses, tentatively named astroviruses VA2, MLB2 and VA3, were present in these five patient specimens (AstV-VA2 in 2 patients, AstV-MLB2 in 2 patients and AstV-VA3 in one patient. Using the same RT-PCR screening strategy, 13 samples out of 466 tested stool specimens collected in St. Louis, USA were positive. Nine samples were positive for the classic human astroviruses. One sample was positive for AstV-VA2, and 3 samples were positive for AstV-MLB2 demonstrating that these two viruses are globally widespread. Collectively, these findings underscore the tremendous diversity of astroviruses present in fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Given that a significant fraction of diarrhea etiologies is currently unknown, it is plausible that these or other yet unrecognized astroviruses may be

  4. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  5. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman


    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  6. Dynamical electrical conductivity of graphene (United States)

    Rani, Luxmi; Singh, Navinder


    For graphene (a Dirac material) it has been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed that DC resistivity is proportional to T 4 when the temperature is much less than Bloch-Grüneisen temperature ({{ \\Theta }\\text{BG}} ) and T-linear in the opposite case (T\\gg {{ \\Theta }\\text{BG}} ). Going beyond this case, we investigate the dynamical electrical conductivity in graphene using the powerful method of the memory function formalism. In the zero frequency regime, we obtain the above mentioned behavior which was previously obtained using the Bloch-Boltzmann kinetic equation. In the finite frequency regime, we obtain several new results: (1) the generalized Drude scattering rate, in the zero temperature limit, shows {ω4} behavior at low frequencies (ω \\ll {{k}\\text{B}}{{ \\Theta }\\text{BG}}/\\hbar ) and saturates at higher frequencies. We also observed the Holstein mechanism, however, with different power laws from that in the case of metals; (2) at higher frequencies, ω \\gg {{k}\\text{B}}{{ \\Theta }\\text{BG}}/\\hbar , and higher temperatures T\\gg {{ \\Theta }\\text{BG}} , we observed that the generalized Drude scattering rate is linear in temperature. In addition, several other results are also obtained. With the experimental advancement of this field, these results should be experimentally tested.

  7. Robust mixed conducting membrane structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention provides a membrane structure, comprising in said order a first electronically conducting layer, an ionically conducting layer, and a second electronically conducting layer, characterized in that the first and second electronically conducting layers are internally short...... circuited. The present invention further provides a method of producing the above membrane structure, comprising the steps of : providing a ionically conducting layer; applying at least one layer of electronically conducting material on each side of said ionically conducting layer; sintering the multilayer...... structure; and impregnating the electronically conducting layers with a catalyst material or catalyst precursor material....

  8. Classification of conductance traces with recurrent neural networks. (United States)

    Lauritzen, Kasper P; Magyarkuti, András; Balogh, Zoltán; Halbritter, András; Solomon, Gemma C


    We present a new automated method for structural classification of the traces obtained in break junction experiments. Using recurrent neural networks trained on the traces of minimal cross-sectional area in molecular dynamics simulations, we successfully separate the traces into two classes: point contact or nanowire. This is done without any assumptions about the expected features of each class. The trained neural network is applied to experimental break junction conductance traces, and it separates the classes as well as the previously used experimental methods. The effect of using partial conductance traces is explored, and we show that the method performs equally well using full or partial traces (as long as the trace just prior to breaking is included). When only the initial part of the trace is included, the results are still better than random chance. Finally, we show that the neural network classification method can be used to classify experimental conductance traces without using simulated results for training, but instead training the network on a few representative experimental traces. This offers a tool to recognize some characteristic motifs of the traces, which can be hard to find by simple data selection algorithms.

  9. Classification of conductance traces with recurrent neural networks (United States)

    Lauritzen, Kasper P.; Magyarkuti, András; Balogh, Zoltán; Halbritter, András; Solomon, Gemma C.


    We present a new automated method for structural classification of the traces obtained in break junction experiments. Using recurrent neural networks trained on the traces of minimal cross-sectional area in molecular dynamics simulations, we successfully separate the traces into two classes: point contact or nanowire. This is done without any assumptions about the expected features of each class. The trained neural network is applied to experimental break junction conductance traces, and it separates the classes as well as the previously used experimental methods. The effect of using partial conductance traces is explored, and we show that the method performs equally well using full or partial traces (as long as the trace just prior to breaking is included). When only the initial part of the trace is included, the results are still better than random chance. Finally, we show that the neural network classification method can be used to classify experimental conductance traces without using simulated results for training, but instead training the network on a few representative experimental traces. This offers a tool to recognize some characteristic motifs of the traces, which can be hard to find by simple data selection algorithms.

  10. Nocturnal Wakefulness as a Previously Unrecognized Risk Factor for Suicide. (United States)

    Perlis, Michael L; Grandner, Michael A; Brown, Gregory K; Basner, Mathias; Chakravorty, Subhajit; Morales, Knashawn H; Gehrman, Philip R; Chaudhary, Ninad S; Thase, Michael E; Dinges, David F


    Suicide is a major public health problem and the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. The identification of modifiable risk factors is essential for reducing the prevalence of suicide. Recently, it has been shown that insomnia and nightmares significantly increase the risk for suicidal ideation, attempted suicide, and death by suicide. While both forms of sleep disturbance may independently confer risk, and potentially be modifiable risk factors, it is also possible that simply being awake at night represents a specific vulnerability for suicide. The present analysis evaluates the frequency of completed suicide per hour while taking into account the percentage of individuals awake at each hour. Archival analyses were conducted estimating the time of fatal injury using the National Violent Death Reporting System for 2003-2010 and the proportion of the American population awake per hour across the 24-hour day using the American Time Use Survey. The mean ± SD incident rate from 06:00-23:59 was 2.2% ± 0.7%, while the mean ± SD incident rate from 00:00-05:59 was 10.3% ± 4.9%. The maximum incident rate was from 02:00-02:59 (16.3%). Hour-by-hour observed values differed from those that would be expected by chance (P < .001), and when 6-hour blocks were examined, the observed frequency at night was 3.6 times higher than would be expected by chance (P < .001). Being awake at night confers greater risk for suicide than being awake at other times of the day, suggesting that disturbances of sleep or circadian neurobiology may potentiate suicide risk. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. Anisotropic Conductivity Tensor Imaging of In Vivo Canine Brain Using DT-MREIT. (United States)

    Jeong, Woo Chul; Sajib, Saurav Z K; Katoch, Nitish; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je


    We present in vivo images of anisotropic electrical conductivity tensor distributions inside canine brains using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (DT-MREIT). The conductivity tensor is represented as a product of an ion mobility tensor and a scale factor of ion concentrations. Incorporating directional mobility information from water diffusion tensors, we developed a stable process to reconstruct anisotropic conductivity tensor images from measured magnetic flux density data using an MRI scanner. Devising a new image reconstruction algorithm, we reconstructed anisotropic conductivity tensor images of two canine brains with a pixel size of 1.25 mm. Though the reconstructed conductivity values matched well in general with those measured by using invasive probing methods, there were some discrepancies as well. The degree of white matter anisotropy was 2 to 4.5, which is smaller than previous findings of 5 to 10. The reconstructed conductivity value of the cerebrospinal fluid was about 1.3 S/m, which is smaller than previous measurements of about 1.8 S/m. Future studies of in vivo imaging experiments with disease models should follow this initial trial to validate clinical significance of DT-MREIT as a new diagnostic imaging modality. Applications in modeling and simulation studies of bioelectromagnetic phenomena including source imaging and electrical stimulation are also promising.

  12. Methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses' experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. The article points out the sensitivity and responsibility ...

  13. Psychiatric Literacy and the Conduct Disorders (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Leno, Virginia Carter


    Past research regarding mental health literacy has indicated that public knowledge is lamentably poor. This study aimed to examine the effect of demographics, experience and personality, as predictors for understanding conduct disorders. An opportunistic sample of 125 participants with a mean age of 24.29 years completed an online questionnaire in…

  14. How to Design and Conduct Self-Directed Learning Experiences (United States)

    Harrison, Roger


    Traditional educational design methods take little account of individual learner's needs and learning processes. Effective design involves overcoming internal forces that oppose the educator's learning goals. Self-directed learning principles and practices work selectively with the learner's own needs and motives, strengthening confidence and…

  15. Women's experiences of a vaginal delivery conducted by a private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the last decade the process of childbirth has undergone many changes in South Africa. Most women currently give birth in the hospital under the supervision of a medical practitioner because they b elong to a medical aidscheme which enables them to consult an obstetrician for their delivery. Due to this fact, a large ...

  16. Volume 10, Issue 11-12© 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag Berlin GmbH, Fed. Rep. of GermanySave Title to My ProfileSet E-Mail Alert Previous Issue | Next Issue > Full Issue Listing-->Volume 10, Issue 11-12, Pages 887-984(November 2001)Original PaperImaging of atomic orbitals with the Atomic Force Microscope - experiments and simulations (United States)

    Giessibl, F. J.; Bielefeldt, H.; Hembacher, S.; Mannhart, J.


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a mechanical profiling technique that allows to image surfaces with atomic resolution. Recent progress in reducing the noise of this technique has led to a resolution level where previously undetectable symmetries of the images of single atoms are observed. These symmetries are related to the nature of the interatomic forces. The Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface is studied by AFM with various tips and AFM images are simulated with chemical and electrostatic model forces. The calculation of images from the tip-sample forces is explained in detail and the implications of the imaging parameters are discussed. Because the structure of the Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface is known very well, the shape of the adatom images is used to determine the tip structure. The observability of atomic orbitals by AFM and scanning tunneling microscopy is discussed.

  17. Measuring oxygen surface exchange kinetics on mixed-conducting composites by electrical conductivity relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Bobing; Wang, Yunlong; Zhu, Zhuoying; Xia, Changrong; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.


    The oxygen release kinetics of mixed-conducting Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6 d–Sm0.2Ce0.8O2 d (SFM–SDC) dualphase composites has been investigated, at 750 C, as a function of the SDC phase volume fraction using electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) under reducing atmospheres, extending our previous work on

  18. Repetition of previously novel melodies sometimes increases both remember and know responses in recognition memory. (United States)

    Gardiner, J M; Kaminska, Z; Dixon, M; Java, R I


    Recognition memory for previously novel melodies was tested in three experiments in which subjects usedremember andknow responses to report experiences of recollection, or of familiarity in the absence of recollection, for each melody they recognized. Some of the melodies were taken from Polish folk songs and presented vocally, but without the words. Others were taken from obscure pieces of classical music, presented as single-line melodies. Prior to the test, the melodies were repeated for varying numbers of study trials. Repetition of the Polish melodies increased both remember and know responses, while repetition of classical melodies increased remember but not know responses. When subjects were instructed to report guesses, guess responses were inversely related to remember and know responses and there were more guesses to lures than to targets. These findings establish that remembering and knowing are fully independent functionally and, by the same token, they provide further evidence against the idea that response exclusivity causes increases in remembering to force decreases in knowing. The findings also suggest that simultaneous increases in remembering and knowing occurred because the Polish melodies came from a genre for which the subjects had relatively little previous experience.

  19. Data from studies of previous radioactive waste disposal in Massachusetts Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, W.R.; Mardis, H.M.


    This report presents the results of studies conducted in Massachusetts Bay during 1981 and 1982. Included are data from: (1) a side scan sonar survey of disposal areas in the Bay that was carried out by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for EPA; (2) Collections of sediment and biota by NOAA for radiochemical analysis by EPA; (3) collections of marketplace seafood samples by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for radioanalysis by both FDA and EPA; and (4) a radiological monitoring survey of LLW disposal areas by EPA to determine whether there should be any concern for public health resulting from previous LLW disposals in the Bay

  20. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis Marthoenis


    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  1. Barriers to postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of women with previous gestational diabetes. (United States)

    Rafii, Forough; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Mehrdad, Neda; Keramat, Afsaneh


    Risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Postpartum glycemic screening is recommended in women with recent GDM. But this screening rate is low and the reasons are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Iranian women with recent GDM on barriers of postpartum screening for diabetes. This qualitative study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interview was used for data collection. 22 women with recent GDM were interviewed. These women gave birth in Tehran hospitals at a minimum of 6 months before interview. The missed screening defined as not attending to laboratory for Fasting Blood Sugar and/or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, 6 week to 6 month after their child birthing. The data was analyzed by content analysis method. Themes and sub-themes that illustrated the barriers to postpartum diabetes screening were: inadequate education (about developing diabetes in the future, implementation of the screening, and glucometer validity in diagnosis of diabetes), perceiving the screening as difficult (feeling comfortable with the glucometer, poor laboratory conditions, issues related to the baby/babies, and financial problems), improper attitudes toward the screening (unwilling to get diagnosed, not giving priority to oneself, having false beliefs) and procrastination (gap to intention and action, self-deception and self-regulation failure). Women with recent GDM reported several barriers for postpartum diabetes screening. This study help to develop the evidence-based interventions for improving this screening rate.

  2. How the risky features of previous selection affect subsequent decision-making: Evidence from behavioral and fMRI measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangheng eDong


    Full Text Available Human decision making is rarely conducted in temporal isolation. It is often biased and affected by environmental variables, particularly prior selections. In this study, we used a task that simulates a real gambling process to explore the effect of the risky features of a previous selection on subsequent decision making. Compared with decision making after an advantageous risk-taking situation (Risk_Adv, that after a disadvantageous risk-taking situation (Risk_Disadv is associated with a longer response time (RT, the time spent in making decisions and higher brain activations in the caudate and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Compared with decisions after Risk_Adv, those after Risk_Disadv in loss trials are associated with higher brain activations in the left superior temporal gyrus and the precuneus. Brain activity and relevant RTs significantly correlated. Overall, people who experience disadvantageous risk-taking selections tend to focus on current decision making and engage cognitive endeavors in value evaluation and in the regulation of their risk-taking behaviors during decision making.

  3. How the risky features of previous selection affect subsequent decision-making: evidence from behavioral and fMRI measures. (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Zhang, Yifen; Xu, Jiaojing; Lin, Xiao; Du, Xiaoxia


    Human decision making is rarely conducted in temporal isolation. It is often biased and affected by environmental variables, particularly prior selections. In this study, we used a task that simulates a real gambling process to explore the effect of the risky features of a previous selection on subsequent decision making. Compared with decision making after an advantageous risk-taking situation (Risk_Adv), that after a disadvantageous risk-taking situation (Risk_Disadv) is associated with a longer response time (RT, the time spent in making decisions) and higher brain activations in the caudate and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Compared with decisions after Risk_Adv, those after Risk_Disadv in loss trials are associated with higher brain activations in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the precuneus. Brain activity and relevant RTs significantly correlated. Overall, people who experience disadvantageous risk-taking selections tend to focus on current decision making and engage cognitive endeavors in value evaluation and in the regulation of their risk-taking behaviors during decision making.

  4. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed (United States)


    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  5. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel


    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE-PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ˜6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE-PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE-PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation.

  6. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel


    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE–PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ∼6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE–PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE–PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation. (paper)

  7. Desafios para a implantação da Educação Integral: análise das experiências desenvolvidas na região sul do Brasil Challenges for the implementation of the Integral Education: analysis of the experiments conducted in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Branco


    Full Text Available Este texto trata da percepção dos gestores municipais, coordenadores pedagógicos e pais de alunos sobre os desafios enfrentados para a implantação da Educação Integral ou do aumento de tempo da jornada escolar em experiências desenvolvidas na região Sul do Brasil: Apucarana, Joinville e Porto Alegre. Essas experiências fazem parte da pesquisa realizada pelas universidades federais: UFMG, UNIRIO, UFPR e UNB, com o objetivo de mapear experiências de jornada escolar ampliada em andamento no Brasil, no ano de 2008 - estudo quantitativo. Em 2009 e 2010 deu-se a continuidade da pesquisa, agora como estudo qualitativo. Na etapa do estudo qualitativo foram selecionadas vinte e uma experiências de todo o Brasil para serem acompanhadas e documentadas in loco. Na região sul foram selecionadas três experiências, uma de cada estado da região sul. Dessa etapa é que foram extraídos os dados coletados em entrevistas com os personagens citados, cujas análises compõem este texto e apontam como principais desafios/dificuldades para a implantação do aumento do tempo da jornada escolar, entre outras, a formação inicial e continuada de professores e a integração de monitores e novos atores na equipe de trabalho escolar. Além dessas aparece, fortemente marcada, no ideário dos entrevistados a concepção de que a Educação Integral é um direito das famílias e não dos alunos, e uma modalidade escolar destinada aos alunos cujas famílias são carentes e não podem atender seus filhos.This text is about the perception of municipal administration, pedagogical coordinators and parents of students about the challenges to introduce the Whole Education or the increasing of time of scholar journey in experiences developed in cities of the south region of Brazil: Apucarana, Joinville and Porto Alegre. These experiences are part of a research made by the federal universities: UFMG, UNIRIO, UFPR and UNB, with the purpose of mapping experiences of

  8. Using a pregnancy decision support program for women choosing birth after a previous caesarean in Japan: A mixed methods study. (United States)

    Torigoe, Ikuyo; Shorten, Allison


    Opportunities for women and providers to use decision aids and share decisions about birth after caesarean in practice are currently limited in Japan. This is despite known benefits of decision aids to support value-sensitive healthcare decisions. To explore Japanese women's decision making experiences using a decision aid program for birth choices after caesarean. A mixed methods study was conducted among 33 consenting pregnant women with previous caesarean in five obstetrics institutions located in the western part of Japan. Outcome measures included change in level of decisional conflict, change in knowledge, and preference for birth method. Semi-structured interviews examined women's decision making experiences, and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The participants in the program experienced a statistically significant improvement in knowledge and reduction in decisional conflict about birth after caesarean. Four themes were identified in the qualitative data related to decision making: change in women's knowledge about birth choices, clarifying women's birth preference, feelings about shared decision making, and contrasting feelings after receiving information. This study confirmed potential benefits of using the decision aid program. However, uncertainty about mode of birth continued for some women immediately prior to the birth. This finding emphasized the need to identify additional ways to support women emotionally throughout the process of decision making about birth after caesarean. It was feasible to adapt the decision aid for use in clinical practice. Future research is necessary to examine its effectiveness when implemented in Japanese clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Urinary tract infections in hospital pediatrics: many previous antibiotherapy and antibiotics resistance, including fluoroquinolones. (United States)

    Garraffo, A; Marguet, C; Checoury, A; Boyer, S; Gardrat, A; Houivet, E; Caron, F


    We studied antibiotic resistance in pediatric UTIs and we evaluated the impact of antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months, very little French data being available for this population. We conducted a multicenter prospective study including children consulting for, or admitted in 2 hospitals. Prior antibiotic exposure was documented from their health record. One hundred and ten patients (73 girls), 11 days to 12 years of age, were included in 10 months. Ninety-six percent presented with pyelonephritis, associated to uropathy for 25%. Escherichia coli was predominant (78%), followed by Proteus spp. and Enterococcus spp. The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli was high and close to that reported for adults with complicated UTIs: amoxicillin 60%, amoxicillin-clavulanate 35%, cefotaxim 5%, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole 26%, nalidixic acid 9%, ciprofloxacin 7%, gentamycin 1%, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin 0%. The antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months involved 62 children (56%) most frequently with β-lactams (89%) for a respiratory tract infection (56%). A clear relationship between exposure and resistance was observed for amoxicillin (71% vs. 46%), first generation (65% vs. 46%) and third generation (9% vs. 3%) cephalosporins, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36% vs. 15%). However, antibiotic exposure could not account alone for the results, as suggested by the 7% of ciprofloxacin resistance, observed without any identified previous treatment. Bacterial species and antibiotic resistance level in children are similar to those reported for adults. Antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months increases the risk of resistance but other factors are involved (previous antibiotic therapies and fecal-oral or mother-to-child transmission). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Outcome of trial of scar in patients with previous caesarean section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, B.; Bashir, R.; Khan, W.


    Medical evidence indicates that 60-80% of women can achieve vaginal delivery after a previous lower segment caesarean section. Proper selection of patients for trial of scar and vigilant monitoring during labour will achieve successful maternal and perinatal outcome. The objective of our study is to establish the fact that vaginal delivery after one caesarean section has a high success rate in patients with previous one caesarean section for non-recurrent cause. Methods: The study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Abbottabad, Gynae-B Unit. All labouring patients, during the study period of five years, with previous one caesarean section and between 37 weeks to 41 weeks of gestation for a non-recurrent cause were included in the study. Data was recorded on special proforma designed for the purpose. Patients who had previous classical caesarean section, more than one caesarean section, and previous caesarean section with severe wound infection, transverse lie and placenta previa in present pregnancy were excluded. Foetal macrosomia (wt>4 kg) and severe IUGR with compromised blood flow on Doppler in present pregnancy were also not considered suitable for the study. Patients who had any absolute contraindication for vaginal delivery were also excluded. Results: There were 12505 deliveries during the study period. Total vaginal deliveries were 8790 and total caesarean sections were 3715. Caesarean section rate was 29.7%. Out of these 8790 patients, 764 patients were given a trial of scar and 535 patients delivered successfully vaginally (70%). Women who presented with spontaneous onset of labour were more likely to deliver vaginally (74.8%) as compared to induction group (27.1%). Conclusion: Trial of vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary caesarean section. (author)

  11. Relating bulk electrical conduction to litho-textural properties and pore-fluid conductivity within porous alluvial aquifers (United States)

    Mele, M.; Giudici, M.; Inzoli, S.; Cavalli, E.; Bersezio, R.


    The estimate of hydraulic conductivity from Direct Current methods represents a powerful tool in aquifer characterization as both electrical and hydraulic conductivities depend on connected pore volumes and connected pore surface areas. A crucial, intermediate stage of this process is the assessment of sediments' textures and lithology from DC electrical conductivity as the electrical response of the aquifers' basic building blocks (i.e., hydrofacies) is controlled by the prevailing process of electrical conduction, electrolytic (σEL; pore-volume dominated) vs. "shale" (σSH; pore-surface dominated), determined by pore-space structure, clay distribution and electrical properties of pore fluids (σW). In this work laboratory experiments were conducted and the results were interpreted through the analysis i) of a volume-averaged, macroscopic litho-textural property of alluvial hydrofacies', the coarse-to-fine ratio (C/F), as a "proxy" of the process of electrical conduction within each samples on the basis of the volume proportion between nonconductive, coarse-grained and conductive, shaly textures and ii) of the surface conduction component, produced in fresh-to-salt water environment by clay materials. 8 hydrofacies' samples were collected with an hand-auger within the outcropping alluvial aquifers of the Quaternary meander river belt of the southernmost Lodi plain (northern Italy), represented by loose gravelly-sands to sands (6 samples), fine and sandy-silty clays (2 samples). As a first step, laboratory measurements of the bulk electrical conductivity (σB) of representative sub-samples, totally saturated with water with different salinity (σW from 125 to 1100 μs/cm), were performed. The experimental apparatus was made up by a series of polycarbonate, cylindrical cells (9cm x 12cm) equipped with external, copper plates as current electrodes and internal, copper squared-grids as potential electrodes. Electrical conductivity of each sample was obtained

  12. A summary of NASA/FAA experiments concerning helicopter IFR airworthiness criteria (United States)

    Lebacqz, J. V.; Chen, R. T. N.; Gerdes, R. M.; Weber, J. M.


    A sequence of ground and flight simulation experiments was conducted to investigate helicopter instrument-flight-rules airworthiness criteria. The first six of these experiments and major results are summarized. Five of the experiments were conducted on large-amplitude motion base simulators. The NASA-Army V/STOLAND UH-1H variable-stability helicopter was used in the flight experiment. Artificial stability and control augmentation, longitudinal and lateral control, and in pitch and roll attitude augmentation were investigated. Previously announced in STAR as N82-23219

  13. DSC and conductivity studies on PVA based proton conducting gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    An attempt has been made in the present work to prepare polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based proton conducting gel electrolytes in ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) solution and characterize ... dependence of ionic conductivity exhibits VTF behaviour. Keywords. Polymer gel electrolytes; ionic conductivity; solvent free polymer ...

  14. Initial results of CyberKnife treatment for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himei, Kengo; Katsui, Kuniaki; Yoshida, Atsushi


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CyberKnife for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer. Thirty-one patients with recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer were treated with a CyberKnife from July 1999 to March 2002 at Okayama Kyokuto Hospital were retrospectively studied. The accumulated dose was 28-80 Gy (median 60 Gy). The interval between CyberKnife treatment and previous radiotherapy was 0.4-429.5 months (median 16.3 months). Primary lesions were nasopharynx: 7, maxillary sinus: 6, tongue: 5, ethmoid sinus: 3, and others: 1. The pathology was squamous cell carcinoma: 25, adenoid cystic carcinoma: 4, and others: 2. Symptoms were pain: 8, and nasal bleeding: 2. The prescribed dose was 15.0-40.3 Gy (median 32.3 Gy) as for the marginal dose. The response rate (complete response (CR)+partial response (PR)) and local control rate (CR+PR+no change (NC)) was 74% and 94% respectively. Pain disappeared for 4 cases, relief was obtained for 4 cases and no change for 2 cases and nasal bleeding disappeared for 2 cases for an improvement of symptoms. An adverse effects were observed as mucositis in 5 cases and neck swelling in one case. Prognosis of recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer was estimated as poor. Our early experience shows that CyberKnife is expected to be feasible treatment for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer, and for the reduction adverse effects and maintenance of useful quality of life (QOL) for patients. (author)

  15. Statistical study of static gasket conductance; Etude statistique de la conductance d'un joint d'etancheite statique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flukiger, F


    This work is motivated by tightness technological problems associated with metallic gasket. The objective is a better understanding of leakage mechanisms, through the development of new computational tools. In this study, the aperture field between two rough surfaces in contact is described by a short correlated isotropic random Gaussian process. The system is studied as a set of independent elementary surfaces. Joint conductances are evaluated from a statistical study on those elementary surfaces. A computational code is developed using a network approach based on lubrication theory estimation of local conductances. The global conductance computation becomes analogous to an electrical problem for which the resistances are distributed on a random network. The network is built from the identification of the aperture field critical points. Maxima are linked through saddle points. Bond conductances are estimated at the aperture field saddle points. First, a purely plastic model of deformations is considered. Near percolation threshold the conductances display a power behaviour. Far from percolation threshold, numerical results are favourably compared with an effective medium approximation. Secondly, we study the impact of elastic deformations. A computational code based on Boussinesq approximation is coupled to the network approach. The results indicate a significant impact of elastic deformations on conductances. Finally, the network approach is adapted to simulate quasi-static drainage thanks to a classical invasion percolation algorithm. A good comparison between previous experiments and numerical predictions is obtained. (author)

  16. Out Come Of Trial Of Scar In Patients With Previous Caesarean Section. (United States)

    Khan, Bushra; Deeba, Farhat; Bashir, Rubina; Khan, Wajiha


    Patients who had one caesarean section were previously not given a trial of scar due to fear of increased morbidity. However, recently there has been a trend to give a trial of labour to patients with a previous caesarean section for a non-recurrent cause. Medical evidence indicates that 60-80% of women can achieve vaginal delivery after a previous lower segment caesarean section. Proper selection of patients for trial of scar and vigilant monitoring during labour will achieve successful maternal and perinatal outcome. The objective of our study is to establish the fact that vaginal delivery after one caesarean section has a high success rate in patients with previous one caesarean section for non-recurrent cause. The study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Abbottabad, Gynae-B Unit. All labouring patients, during the study period of five years, with previous one caesarean section and between 37 weeks to 41 weeks of gestation for a non-recurrent cause were included in the study. Data was recorded on special pro forma designed for the purpose. Patients who had previous classical caesarean section, more than one caesarean section, and previous caesarean section with severe wound infection, transverse lie and placenta previa in present pregnancy were excluded. Foetal macrosomia (wt>4 kg) and severe IUGR with compromised blood flow on Doppler in present pregnancy were also not considered suitable for the study. Patients who had any absolute contraindication for vaginal delivery were also excluded. There were 12505 deliveries during the study period. Total vaginal deliveries were 8790 and total caesarean sections were 3715. Caesarean section rate was 29.7%. Out of these 8790 patients, 764 patients were given a trial of scar and 535 patients delivered successfully vaginally (70%). Women who presented with spontaneous onset of labour were more likely to deliver vaginally (74.8%) as compared to induction group (27.1%). Trial of vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) in selected

  17. Effective electrical and thermal conductivity of multifilament twisted superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechetkin, V.R.


    The effective electrical and thermal conductivity of composite wire with twisted superconducting filaments embedded into normal metal matrix is calculated using the extension of Bruggeman method. The resistive conductivity of superconducting filaments is described in terms of symmetric tensor, whereas the conductivity of a matrix is assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous. The dependence of the resistive electrical conductivity of superconducting filaments on temperature, magnetic field, and current density is implied to be parametric. The resulting effective conductivity tensor proved to be non-diagonal and symmetric. The non-diagonal transverse–longitudinal components of effective electrical conductivity tensor are responsible for the redistribution of current between filaments. In the limits of high and low electrical conductivity of filaments the transverse effective conductivity tends to that of obtained previously by Carr. The effective thermal conductivity of composite wires is non-diagonal and radius-dependent even for the isotropic and homogeneous thermal conductivities of matrix and filaments.

  18. Thermal Conductivity of Coated Paper (United States)

    Kerr, Lei L.; Pan, Yun-Long; Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Wang, Hsin; Peterson, Robert C.


    In this article, a method for measuring the thermal conductivity of paper using a hot disk system is introduced. To the best of our knowledge, few publications are found discussing the thermal conductivity of a coated paper, although it is important to various forms of today’s digital printing where heat is used for imaging, as well as for toner fusing. This motivated an investigation of the thermal conductivity of paper coating. This study demonstrates that the thermal conductivity is affected by the coating mass and the changes in the thermal conductivity affect toner gloss and density. As the coating mass increases, the thermal conductivity increases. Both the toner gloss and density decrease as the thermal conductivity increases. The toner gloss appears to be more sensitive to the changes in the thermal conductivity.

  19. Feasibility and safety of laparoscopic nephrectomy for nonfunctioning kidney in patients with previous renal surgery. (United States)

    Nouralizadeh, Akbar; Azizi, Valiollah; Lashay, Alireza; Amini, Erfan; Ghaed, Mohammad Ali; Ziaee, Seyed Amir Mohsen; Simforoosh, Nasser


    Performing laparoscopic nephrectomy in the setting of previous renal surgery may be challenging and associated with a higher complication rate. We conducted this study to assess the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic nephrectomy among patients with a history of ipsilateral renal surgery. We reviewed the chart of 193 patients who underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy for nonfunctioning kidney between April 2007 and March 2011. The study population was divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised 37 patients with a history of ipsilateral renal surgery, and Group 2 consisted of 156 patients with no history of previous renal surgery. Baseline characteristics and preoperative variables were similar in both groups. Mean operative time, complication rate, and hospital stay were comparable between the two groups. A nonstatistically significant trend toward a higher transfusion rate was noted in Group 1 patients. The operation was converted to open nephrectomy in 1 (2.7%) and 3 (1.9%) patients of Groups 1 and 2, respectively (P=.765). Laparoscopic nephrectomy of the nonfunctioning kidney is a feasible and safe procedure in the setting of previous renal surgery and is not associated with a significant increase in operative time and complication rate compared with patients with no prior ipsilateral renal surgery.

  20. Participation in physical activity: perceptions of women with a previous history of gestational diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Graco, Marnie; Garrard, Jan; Jasper, Andrea E


    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Regular physical activity plays an important role in preventing T2DM. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of physical activity among women with previous GDM, in the context of preventing T2DM. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women with previous GDM who had not been diagnosed with T2DM. Data were analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Women perceived diet to be significantly more important for the prevention of T2DM than physical activity. They underestimated the role of physical activity in preventing diabetes, which may have resulted from the lack of information they received following their pregnancy. Women consistently placed the needs of their families before their own, despite acknowledging their future health risks. The most commonly cited constraints on physical activity participation were lack of time, partner support, and appropriate childcare. They identified a need for 'family-friendly' community-based physical activity programs for mothers, more accessible childcare, and more information about the role of physical activity in diabetes prevention. Awareness of the role of physical activity for the prevention of diabetes was low. Physical activity promotion for women with previous GDM needs to be shaped around the opportunities and constraints identified by this population group.

  1. A pore water conductivity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.A.


    The electrical permittivity and conductivity of the bulk soil are a function of the permittivity and conductivity of the pore water. For soil water contents higher than 0.10 both functions are equal, facilitating in situ conductivity measurements of the pore water. A novel method is described, based

  2. Theoretical approaches to superionic conductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Superionic conductors; theory of ionic conductivity; glasses; composites; polymer electrolytes. ... The theory of conductivity in polymer electrolytes-still in its infancy-involves their complex structure and glass transition behaviour. Preparative and thermal history, composition and crystallinity control ionic conductivity ...

  3. Rapid prototype extruded conductive pathways (United States)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.


    A process of producing electrically conductive pathways within additively manufactured parts and similar parts made by plastic extrusion nozzles. The process allows for a three-dimensional part having both conductive and non-conductive portions and allows for such parts to be manufactured in a single production step.

  4. Ion heat conduction losses in Extrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennfors, E.


    The classical ion heat conduction losses in Extrap discharges are calculated using polynomial magnetic field profiles and compared to the power input. For polynomials matched to magnetic field profiles measured in present experiments, these losses are small. By varying the coefficients of the polynomials, a region is found, where the power input can balance the classical heat conduction losses. Each set of coefficients corresponds to values of the parameters F and Θ used in RFP physics. The region determines a region in an F-Θ diagram, including the usual RFP region but extending to higher values of Θ and βΘ

  5. Achromatic THz absorption of conductive nanofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yin


    Full Text Available According to the theory, an ultrathin conductive film can achromatically dissipate electromagnetic waves with frequency ranging from radio to terahertz. A moderate absorption effect, which gives rise to a maximal absorbance of 50%, can be found if an impedance matching condition is satisfied. We have experimentally demonstrated the frequency-irrelevant, maximal absorption by employing a conductive nanofilm and launching terahertz waves at Brewster angle when the sheet (square resistance of the film meets the impedance matching condition. In the entire terahertz spectral range covered by our experiments, the frequency-independent optical properties were consistent with the theoretical calculations.

  6. The emotional harbinger effect: Poor context memory for cues that previously predicted something arousing (United States)

    Mather, Mara; Knight, Marisa


    A key function of memory is to use past experience to predict when something important might happen next. Indeed, cues that previously predicted arousing events (emotional harbingers) garner more attention than other cues. However, the current series of five experiments demonstrates that people have poorer memory for the context of emotional harbinger cues than of neutral harbinger cues. Participants first learned that some harbinger cues (neutral tones or faces) predicted emotionally arousing pictures and others predicted neutral pictures. Then they studied associations between the harbinger cues and new contextual details. They were worse at remembering associations with emotional harbingers than with neutral harbingers. Memory was impaired not only for the association between emotional harbingers and nearby digits but also for contextual details that overlapped with or were intrinsic to the emotional harbingers. However, new cues that were inherently emotionally arousing did not yield the same memory impairments as the emotional harbingers. Thus, emotional harbinger cues seem to suffer more from proactive interference than do neutral harbinger cues, impairing formation of new associations with cues that previously predicted something arousing. PMID:19102596

  7. Thermal Conductivity of Gas Mixtures in Chemical Equilibrium (United States)

    Brokaw, Richard S.


    The expression for the thermal conductivity of gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium is presented in a simpler and less restrictive form. This new form is shown to be equivalent to the previous equations.

  8. Configurational Model for Conductivity of Stabilized Fluorite Structure Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Finn Willy


    The formalism developed here furnishes means by which ionic configurations, solid solution limits, and conductivity mechanisms in doped fluorite structures can be described. The present model differs markedly from previous models but reproduces qualitatively reality. The analysis reported...

  9. Improvements to previous algorithms to predict gene structure and isoform concentrations using Affymetrix Exon arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramburu Ander


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exon arrays provide a way to measure the expression of different isoforms of genes in an organism. Most of the procedures to deal with these arrays are focused on gene expression or on exon expression. Although the only biological analytes that can be properly assigned a concentration are transcripts, there are very few algorithms that focus on them. The reason is that previously developed summarization methods do not work well if applied to transcripts. In addition, gene structure prediction, i.e., the correspondence between probes and novel isoforms, is a field which is still unexplored. Results We have modified and adapted a previous algorithm to take advantage of the special characteristics of the Affymetrix exon arrays. The structure and concentration of transcripts -some of them possibly unknown- in microarray experiments were predicted using this algorithm. Simulations showed that the suggested modifications improved both specificity (SP and sensitivity (ST of the predictions. The algorithm was also applied to different real datasets showing its effectiveness and the concordance with PCR validated results. Conclusions The proposed algorithm shows a substantial improvement in the performance over the previous version. This improvement is mainly due to the exploitation of the redundancy of the Affymetrix exon arrays. An R-Package of SPACE with the updated algorithms have been developed and is freely available.

  10. Safety and injury profile of conducted electrical weapons used by law enforcement officers against criminal suspects. (United States)

    Bozeman, William P; Hauda, William E; Heck, Joseph J; Graham, Derrel D; Martin, Brian P; Winslow, James E


    Conducted electrical weapons such as the Taser are commonly used by law enforcement agencies. The safety of these weapons has been the subject of scrutiny and controversy; previous controlled studies in animals and healthy humans may not accurately reflect the risks of conducted electrical weapons used in actual conditions. We seek to determine the safety and injury profile of conducted electrical weapons used against criminal suspects in a field setting. This prospective, multicenter, observational trial tracked a consecutive case series of all conducted electrical weapon uses against criminal suspects at 6 US law enforcement agencies. Mandatory review of each conducted electrical weapon use incorporated physician review of police and medical records. Injuries were classified as mild, moderate, or severe according to a priori definitions. The primary outcome was a composite of moderate and severe injuries, termed significant injuries. Conducted electrical weapons were used against 1,201 subjects during 36 months. One thousand one hundred twenty-five subjects (94%) were men; the median age was 30 years (range 13 to 80 years). Mild or no injuries were observed after conducted electrical weapon use in 1,198 subjects (99.75%; 95% confidence interval 99.3% to 99.9%). Of mild injuries, 83% were superficial puncture wounds from conducted electrical weapon probes. Significant injuries occurred in 3 subjects (0.25%; 95% confidence interval 0.07% to 0.7%), including 2 intracranial injuries from falls and 1 case of rhabdomyolysis. Two subjects died in police custody; medical examiners did not find conducted electrical weapon use to be causal or contributory in either case. To our knowledge, these findings represent the first large, independent, multicenter study of conducted electrical weapon injury epidemiology and suggest that more than 99% of subjects do not experience significant injuries after conducted electrical weapon use.

  11. Modeling liver electrical conductivity during hypertonic injection. (United States)

    Castellví, Quim; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moll, Xavier; Berjano, Enrique; Andaluz, Anna; Burdío, Fernando; Bijnens, Bart; Ivorra, Antoni


    Metastases in the liver frequently grow as scattered tumor nodules that neither can be removed by surgical resection nor focally ablated. Previously, we have proposed a novel technique based on irreversible electroporation that may be able to simultaneously treat all nodules in the liver while sparing healthy tissue. The proposed technique requires increasing the electrical conductivity of healthy liver by injecting a hypersaline solution through the portal vein. Aiming to assess the capability of increasing the global conductivity of the liver by means of hypersaline fluids, here, it is presented a mathematical model that estimates the NaCl distribution within the liver and the resulting conductivity change. The model fuses well-established compartmental pharmacokinetic models of the organ with saline injection models used for resuscitation treatments, and it considers changes in sinusoidal blood viscosity because of the hypertonicity of the solution. Here, it is also described a pilot experimental study in pigs in which different volumes of NaCl 20% (from 100 to 200 mL) were injected through the portal vein at different flow rates (from 53 to 171 mL/minute). The in vivo conductivity results fit those obtained by the model, both quantitatively and qualitatively, being able to predict the maximum conductivity with a 14.6% average relative error. The maximum conductivity value was 0.44 second/m, which corresponds to increasing 4 times the mean basal conductivity (0.11 second/m). The results suggest that the presented model is well suited for predicting on liver conductivity changes during hypertonic saline injection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Conductivity in insulators due to implantation of conducting species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prawer, S.; Kalish, R.


    Control of the surface conductivity of insulators can be accomplished by high dose ion implantation of conductive species. The use of C + as the implant species is particularly interesting because C can either form electrically insulating sp 3 bonds or electrically conducting sp 2 bonds. In the present work, fused quartz plates have been irradiated with 100 keV C + ions to doses up to 1 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 at room temperature and at 200 deg C. The ion beam induced conductivity was monitored in-situ and was found to increase by up to 8 orders to magnitude for the ion dose range studied. Xe implantations over a similar range did not induce any changes in the conductivity showing that the increase in conductivity is caused by the presence of the C in the fused quartz matrix and not by damage. The dependence of the conductivity on implantation temperature and on post implantation annealing sheds light on the clustering of the C implants. The temperature dependence of the conductivity for the highest doses employed (1 x 10 17 C + /cm 2 ) can be described very well by lnσ α T. This is considered to be a peculiar dependence which does not comply with any of the standard models for conduction. 9 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  13. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST... (United States)


    ... (previously Precision Helicopters, LLC); Robinson Air Crane, Inc.; San Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins... (Previously Hawkins & Powers Aviation); S.M. &T. Aircraft (Previously Us Helicopter Inc., UNC Helicopters, Inc...

  14. Prediction of the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Powder Insulation (United States)

    Jin, Lingxue; Park, Jiho; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    The powder insulation method is widely used in structural and cryogenic systems such as transportation and storage tanks of cryogenic fluids. The powder insulation layer is constructed by small particle powder with light weight and some residual gas with high porosity. So far, many experiments have been carried out to test the thermal performance of various kinds of powder, including expanded perlite, glass microspheres, expanded polystyrene (EPS). However, it is still difficult to predict the thermal performance of powder insulation by calculation due to the complicated geometries, including various particle shapes, wide powder diameter distribution, and various pore sizes. In this paper, the effective thermal conductivity of powder insulation has been predicted based on an effective thermal conductivity calculationmodel of porous packed beds. The calculation methodology was applied to the insulation system with expanded perlite, glass microspheres and EPS beads at cryogenic temperature and various vacuum pressures. The calculation results were compared with previous experimental data. Moreover, additional tests were carried out at cryogenic temperature in this research. The fitting equations of the deformation factor of the area-contact model are presented for various powders. The calculation results show agood agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Manganese Olivine. Pt. 1. Electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Q.; Wang, Z.C.; Kohlstedt, D.L.


    To investigate the point defect chemistry and the kinetic properties of manganese olivine Mn 2 SiO 4 , electrical conductivity (σ) of single crystals was measured along either the [100] or the [010] direction. The experiments were carried out at temperatures T = 850-1200 C and oxygen fugacities f O 2 = 10 -11 - 10 -2 atm under both Mn oxide (MO) buffered and MnSiO 3 (MS) buffered conditions

  16. Understanding Dieting and Previous Weight Loss Attempts among Overweight and Obese Participants: Insights into My Body Is Fit and Fabulous at Work Program. (United States)

    Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku; Jalil, Rohana Abdul; Wan Ishak, Wan Rosli; Hamid, Noor Fadzlina; Wan Nik, Wan Suriati; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan; Mohd, Nor Haslina; Arifin, Wan Nor; Mohamed, Wan Mohd Izani Wan; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Ismail, Rohaida; Hassim, Tengku Fatimatul Tengku; Aris, Tahir; Wan Muda, Wan Manan


    A qualitative study providing an in-depth exploration of people's view and the increasing burden of overweight and obesity is required. This study aimed to explore the understanding of dieting and previous experiences on weight loss attempts among overweight and obese government employees in Kelantan, Malaysia, prior to recruitment into the intervention program. Thirteen focus group discussions involving 129 participants from a weight-loss intervention program were conducted within the first 1 month of recruitment. These discussions were moderated by two trained researchers in the Malay language and assisted by an interview guide. They were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis was performed, and codes and themes from each discussion were constructed. The participants understood dieting with various meanings, including skipping meals and removing rice from daily diets. They applied numerous methods to lose weight and achieved various outcomes. Health and appearance, social support, and compliance with current trends were the factors motivating these participants to lose weight. Their determination to lose weight was limited by lack of self-control and motivation, experiences of unpleasant effects, influence on weight, and environmental and health factors. Real-life weight loss experiences and perceptions provided relevant insights into current weight loss management strategies. Some of these issues and misunderstandings should be emphasized in weight loss strategies during health promotion.

  17. Social Conduct Scale (SCS: a psychometric investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Tozzi Reppold


    Full Text Available Abstract The social conduct of an individual comprises all the interpersonal behaviors that he or she exhibits in the social contexts he or she is exposed to. The Social Conduct Scale (SCS is a self-report instrument developed to provide researchers and clinicians with information on prosocial, antisocial and oppositional-defiant tendencies of Portuguese-speaking children and adolescents. In the present study, we conducted an analysis of the criterion validity of the SCS by comparing the scores obtained from a large population-based sample (N= 1,172 against an offender (N= 129, a scholar (N= 31, and a clinic-referred (N= 24 sample of adolescents with marked previous conduct problems. As expected, antisocial youths had significantly higher means on antisocial behaviors and lower means on prosocial tendencies when compared to the population-based sample. Overall, findings supported the hypothesized criterion validity of the SCS. The instrument might play a role as a helpful resource for researchers, clinicians and practitioners interested in assessing the social conduct of Brazilian children and adolescents.

  18. The Belle II Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, J


    Set to begin data taking at the end of 2018, the Belle II experiment is the next-generation B-factory experiment hosted at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan. The experiment represents the cumulative effort from the collaboration of experimental and detector physics, computing, and software development. Taking everything learned from the previous Belle experiment, which ran from 1998 to 2010, Belle II aims to probe deeper than ever before into the field of heavy quark physics. By achieving an integrated luminosity of 50 ab−1 and accumulating 50 times more data than the previous experiment across its lifetime, along with a rewritten analysis framework, the Belle II experiment will push the high precision frontier of high energy physics. This paper will give an overview of the key components and development activities that make the Belle II experiment possible.

  19. Complex conductivity of organic-rich shales (United States)

    Woodruff, W. F.; Revil, A.; Torres-Verdin, C.


    components of the formation factor and connectivity (tortuosity) tensors Fij and Tij (affecting the bulk and surface conductivity, respectively) are correlated as Fij=TijΦ. Both conductivity and connectivity tensors share the same eigenvectors; the anisotropy ratio is equivalent in TI media. At high pore water salinity, surface and quadrature conductivity share the same bulk tortuosity; when surface conductivity dominates (low salinity), conductivity is controlled by the surface conductance, and the tortuosity of electrical current along mineral surfaces usually higher than that of the pore water. We developed two distinct SIP measurement protocols to obtain the tensor: (1) azimuthal sampling and inversion of phasor potentials through the full-field solution of the Laplace equation; (2) direct measurement of complex conductivity eigenvalues by polarized, single-component stimulus current. Experiments also include unsaturated and saturated measurements with three brines of known salinity and pH, at log-distributed frequencies ranging 1 mHz to 45 kHz. Both azimuthal spectra and eigenvalue spectra validate the theoretical model and illustrate the effectiveness of the protocols themselves. We obtain the textural tensors and invert key parameters including Archie exponents and CEC, and characterize the relaxation phenomena associated with kerogen content and maturity for multiphase fluid systems.

  20. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi


    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...