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Sample records for previous experimental study

  1. Biosystematic studies on Dactylis L. l. Review of the previous studies. 1.2. Cytology, genetics, experimental studies, and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mizianty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents a review of the previous studies on Dactylis L., dealing with cytology,genetics, experimental studies and evolution. Following cytotypes of Dactylis are distributed mostly in Central Europe: 16 diploids, 7 tetraploids and also 2 hexaploids in North Africa. Some aneuploids and accessory chromosomes were also found in this genus. Data dealing with karyotypes of some taxa, and geographical distribution of cytotypes are also listed. Selected problems concerning crossing within diploids as well as tetraploids and also between diploids and teraploids were presented. Some opinions regarding the evolution in the genus Dactylis were also demonstrated. In all these hypotheses the following diploids are considered to be the oldest: D. smithii Link subsp. smithii, D. g. subsp. aschersoniana (Greabn. Thell. and D. g. subsp. himalayensis Dom.

  2. Self-shielding effects in burnup of Gd used as burnable absorber. Previous studies on its experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Maximo J.; Sbaffoni, Maria M.

    2003-01-01

    Continuing with the domestic 'Burnable Absorbers Research Plan' studies were done to estimate self-shielding effects during Gd 2 O 3 burnup as burnable absorber included in fuel pins of a CAREM geometry. In this way, its burnup was calculated without and with self-shielding. For the second case, were obtained values depending on internal pin radius and the effective one for the homogenized pin. For Gd 157, the burnup corresponding to the first case resulted 52.6 % and of 1.23 % for the effective one. That shows the magnitude of the effects under study. Considering that is necessary to perform one experimental verification, also are presented calculational results for the case to irradiate a pellet containing UO 2 (natural) and 8 wt % of Gd 2 O 3 , as a function of cooling time, that include: measurable isotopes concentrations, expected activities, and photon spectra for conditions able to be compared with bidimensional calculations with self-shielding. The irradiation time was supposed 30 dpp using RA-3 reactor at 10 MW. (author)

  3. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  4. Experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowser, K.E.; Stansbury, P.S.; Poston, J.W.; Deus, S.F.; Chen, W.L.; Roswell, R.L.; Goans, R.E.; Cantrell, J.H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral fluence measurements in an adult phantom are reported. A NaI(Tl) probe was used in various locations within the phantom and pulse-height spectra were obtained for seven beam configurations and three generating potentials. Some typical spectra results are presented. A comparison of calculated dose to experimental measurements is presented

  5. Life-history traits in an evergreen Mediterranean oak respond differentially to previous experimental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rey Benayas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms respond both to current and previous environments, which can have important consequences on population dynamics. However, there is little experimental evidence based on long-term field studies of the effects of previous environments on the performance of individuals. We tested the hypothesis that trees that establish under different environmental conditions perform differently under similar post-establishment conditions. We used the slow-growing, evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia as target species. We analyzed the effects of previous environments, competition effects and tradeoffs among life-history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction. We enhanced seedling establishment for three years by reducing abiotic environmental harshness by means of summer irrigation and artificial shading in 12 experimental plots, while four plots remained as controls. Then these treatments were interrupted for ten years. Seedlings under ameliorated environmental conditions survived and grew faster during early establishment. During the post-management period, previous treatments 1 did not have any effect on survival, 2 experienced a slower above-ground growth, 3 decreased root biomass as indicated from reflectivity of Ground Penetration Radar, 4 increased acorn production mostly through a greater canopy volume and 5 increased acorn production effort. The trees exhibited a combination of effects related to acclimation for coping with abiotic stress and effects of intra-specific competition. In accordance with our hypothesis, tree performance overall depended on previous environmental conditions, and the response was different for different life-history traits. We recommend early management because it increased plot cover, shortened the time to attain sexual maturity and increased the amount of acorn production. Plots such as those assessed in this study may act as sources of propagules in deforested

  6. Experimental dengue virus challenge of human subjects previously vaccinated with live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wellington; Eckels, Kenneth H; Putnak, J Robert; Lyons, Arthur G; Thomas, Stephen J; Vaughn, David W; Gibbons, Robert V; Fernandez, Stefan; Gunther, Vicky J; Mammen, Mammen P; Statler, John D; Innis, Bruce L

    2013-03-01

    Protection against dengue requires immunity against all 4 serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). Experimental challenge may be useful in evaluating vaccine-induced immunity. Ten subjects previously vaccinated with a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) and 4 DENV-naive control subjects were challenged by subcutaneous inoculation of either 10(3) plaque-forming units (PFU) of DENV-1 or 10(5) PFU of DENV-3. Two additional subjects who did not develop DENV-3 neutralizing antibody (NAb) from TDV were revaccinated with 10(4) PFU of live attenuated DENV-3 vaccine to evaluate memory response. All 5 TDV recipients were protected against DENV-1 challenge. Of the 5 TDV recipients challenged with DENV-3, 2 were protected. All DENV-3-challenge subjects who developed viremia also developed elevated liver enzyme levels, and 2 had values that were >10 times greater than normal. Of the 2 subjects revaccinated with DENV-3 vaccine, 1 showed a secondary response to DENV-2, while neither showed such response to DENV-3. All 4 control subjects developed dengue fever from challenge. Protection was associated with presence of NAb, although 1 subject was protected despite a lack of measurable NAb at the time of DENV-1 challenge. Vaccination with TDV induced variable protection against subcutaneous challenge. DENV-3 experimental challenge was associated with transient but marked elevations of transaminases.

  7. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  8. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  9. An Experimental Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of the Learner's Native Culture in EFL Dictionaries: An Experimental Study. 567 strued. Many studies in ... that nativize texts have found that cultural familiarity (i.e. making use of the students' prior cultural ..... edge) when confronted with new information (in this case, when trying to understand the meaning of new ...

  10. Influence of experimental distemper infection on the distribution of lead in dogs previously subacutely intoxicated with lead carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.J.; Marshall, A.J.; McLeod, S.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of experimental canine distemper infection to mobilize body lead deposits has been studied in Beagle dogs previously subacutely intoxicated with lead carbonate. For comparative purposes dogs were included which had either received lead only or distemper only or remained undosed. It was found that in dogs predosed with lead, distemper infection resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in blood and urine; this coincided with the peak body temperatures reached on the third day post infection. It was also found that the lead content of the liver and bone of these dogs was considerably higher than that of dogs receiving lead alone; at the same time bone phosphorus showed a marked decrease while bone calcium values remained similar to undosed controls.

  11. Ignition and Growth Modeling of Detonating LX-04 (85% HMX / 15% VITON) Using New and Previously Obtained Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, Craig

    2017-06-01

    An Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for detonating LX-04 (85% HMX / 15% Viton) was developed using new and previously obtained experimental data on: cylinder test expansion; wave curvature; failure diameter; and laser interferometric copper and tantalum foil free surface velocities and LiF interface particle velocity histories. A reaction product JWL EOS generated by the CHEETAH code compared favorably with the existing, well normalized LX-04 product JWL when both were used with the Ignition and Growth model. Good agreement with all existing experimental data was obtained. Keywords: LX-04, HMX, detonation, Ignition and Growth PACS:82.33.Vx, 82.40.Fp This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Experimental studies o

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohsen Sarafraz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigations on the influences of different contaminants to deionized water have been conducted under the sub-cooled flow boiling heat transfer inside the vertical annulus. Many experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of different operating parameters on the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient in the upward flow of contaminated water under the atmospheric pressure. The experimental apparatus provides the particular conditions to investigate the influence of heat flux (up to 132 kW/m2, flow rate (1.5–3.5 l/min, sub-cooling level (Max. 30 °C, and concentration of contaminants (1–5% by volume. According to the results, with increasing the heat flux and flow rate, the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient and rate of bubble formation significantly increase. Results also demonstrated that adding contaminants to the deionized water causes the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient to be deteriorated. Likewise, sub-cooling level may only influence on the onset of nucleate boiling and heat flux corresponding to beginning of nucleate boiling phenomenon which is called inception heat flux.

  13. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of a previously submitted... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may... the citation is necessary. (b) Study previously submitted by another person. If the applicant is not...

  14. Experimental studies of pneumococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Christian T

    2010-01-01

    This thesis summarizes experimental meningitis research conducted at Statens Serum Institut in collaboration with the Copenhagen HIV programme and the Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance between 2001 and 2007. Previous experimental studies had shown that the host inflammatory response in invasive infections contributed significantly to an extremely poor outcome despite initiation of efficient antimicrobial chemotherapy. Consequently, we aimed to investigate and clarify how the course of disease in pneumococcal meningitis was modulated by local meningeal inflammation and concomitant systemic infection and inflammation. Experimental studies were based on the development of a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis, refined and optimized to closely resemble the human disease, mimicking disease severity, outcome, focal- and global brain injury and brain pathophysiology. These endpoints were evaluated by the development of a clinical score system, definition of outcomes and measurement of hearing loss by otoacoustic emission. The investigation of in-vitro and in-vivo brain pathology with histology and MRI revealed an injury pattern similar to that found clinically. Additionally, MRI enabled the study of parameters closely related to the cerebral pathophysiology of meningitis (brain oedema, blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, focal brain injury and hydrocephalus). Modulation of the inflammatory host response was achieved by initiation of treatment prior to infection: 1) G-CSF treatment increased the peripheral availability of leukocytes, 2) Selectin blocker fucoidin attenuated meningeal leukocyte accumulation and 3) A serotype specific Ab augmented systemic pneumococcal phagocytosis. The studies revealed a dual role of the inflammatory response in pneumococcal meningitis. Whilst focal brain injury appeared to result from local meningeal infectious processes, clinical disease severity and outcome appeared determined by systemic infection. Furthermore systemic

  15. An experimental study

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    Zohreh Zare

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oocyte developmental competence is one of the key factors for determining the success rate of assisted reproductive technique. Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine (LC supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM, on preimplantation embryo development and expression of genes involved in embryo competence derived from oocytes selected with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB test. Materials and Methods: Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs were obtained from NMRI mice ovaries. COCs were stained with BCB and then BCB+ (colored cytoplasm oocytes cultured in IVM medium supplemented with 0.3 or 0.6 mg/ml LC. COCs untreated with LC were used as control. Fertilization rate and blastocyst development rate were determined after in vitro fertilization. In addition, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to measure relative genes expression related with development (Ccnb1, Mos, Ces5, and Dppa2 and apoptosis (Bax and Bcl-xL in oocytes and embryos. Results: Oocytes treated with both LC concentrations showed higher blastocyst development rate compared with untreated oocytes (p<0.01. Moreover, fertilization rate was increased in oocytes treated with 0.6 mg/ml LC (p<0.01. Treatment of oocytes with both LC concentrations increased (p<0.01 the level of Ccnb1 mRNA in MII oocytes. The two-cell stage embryos and blastocysts derived from LC-treated oocytes (0.6 mg/ml showed increased the expression levels of Dppa2 and Bcl-xl mRNA, respectively (p<0.01. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that adding of LC to the IVM medium of BCB+ oocytes can ameliorate reproductive success following in vitro fertilization.

  16. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  17. Tokamak experimental power reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    The principal results of a scoping and project definition study for the Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor are presented. Objectives are discussed; a preliminary conceptual design is described; detailed parametric, survey and sensitivity studies are presented; and research and development requirements are outlined. (U.S.)

  18. Experimental design of a waste glass study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepel, G.F.; Redgate, P.E.; Hrma, P.

    1995-04-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed to support a future high-level waste glass plant at Hanford. A total of 147 glasses, covering a broad region of compositions melting at approximately 1150 degrees C, were tested in five statistically designed experimental phases. This paper focuses on the goals, strategies, and techniques used in designing the five phases. The overall strategy was to investigate glass compositions on the boundary and interior of an experimental region defined by single- component, multiple-component, and property constraints. Statistical optimal experimental design techniques were used to cover various subregions of the experimental region in each phase. Empirical mixture models for glass properties (as functions of glass composition) from previous phases wee used in designing subsequent CVS phases

  19. Experimental infection of one-day-old chicks with Salmonella Serotypes Previously isolated from poultry facilities, wild birds, and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E de Sousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain the high production and export rates achieved by the Brazilian poultry industry, it is necessary to prevent and control certain disease agents, such as Salmonella spp. Using bacterial cultures, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in specimens collected from broiler facilities. Local wild birds were also sampled, as well as the feces of swine housed on the poultry farm. After sample collection, the isolated serotypes were subsequently inoculated into broiler chicks to determine their effects. Positive samples were collected from the following locations in the poultry facilities: poultry litter (S. serotype 4,5,12:R:-; S. Heidelberg; S. Infantis, broiler feces (S. Heidelberg; S. serotype 6,7:R:-; S. serotype 4,5,12:R:-; S. Tennessee, water (S. Glostrup; S. serotype 6,8:d:-;, and lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus found in the litter (S. Tennessee. Among the 36 wild birds captured, S. Heidelberg was isolated from one bird's organs and intestinal contents (Colaptes campestris, and S. Enteritidis was isolated from another bird's intestinal contents (Zenaida auriculata. Salmonella Panama and Salmonella Typhimurium were isolated from swine feces. One-day-old chicks (150 were divided into 10 groups of 15 animals each. Each group was orally inoculated with a previously isolated serotype of Salmonella. Soft stools were observed on the cage floor and around the birds' cloaca between 3 and 12 days post-infection (dpi. The different serotypes of Salmonella used to inoculate the chicks were re-isolated from the spleen, liver, and cecal content samples of the infected birds on 15 and 21 dpi.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN NATURAL CONVECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    The study of thermal and ventilation parameters, obtained in a transient, laminar solar chimney of reduced dimensions, (1 < m <3) m with a square collector (side = 2m) is presented. Experimental measurements has been made to determine the temperature of the absorber and the fluid in the collector, it is shown that at the ...

  1. Identification of multidrug resistance in previously treated tuberculosis patients: a mixed methods study in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, S; Khann, S; Yadav, RP; Mao, ET; Cattamanchi, A; Sam, S; Handley, MA

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug resistance (MDR). In Cambodia, a recent study found that only one-third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results. Objective To quantify the gaps in detecting MDR in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers’ perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions. Design We analyzed case notifications in Cambodia (2004–2012) and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders Results The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces 2010–12, in the context of longer term trends of decreasing relapse and increasing “other” retreatment notifications. Correct classification of patients’ TB treatment history and ensuring specimens from previously-treated patients are collected and reach the laboratory could nearly double the number of detected MDR-TB cases. Identified barriers include patients’ reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty eliciting treatment history, partly due to availability of streptomycin only in hospitals. Facilitators include trained health workers, collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not taking streptomycin, streamlining sputum transportation and promptly reporting results. Conclusion Improved monitoring, supportive supervision, and correctly classifying previously treated patients are essential for improving detection of MDR-TB. PMID:25299861

  2. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (Pcesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  3. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  4. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs

  5. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. Methods: One hundred forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis. PMID:27975009

  6. Study of functional-performance deficits in athletes with previous ankle sprains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Babaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.

  7. Previous treatment influences fingolimod efficacy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: results from an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Eleonora; Guareschi, Angelica; Vitetta, Francesca; Senesi, Caterina; Curti, Erica; Montepietra, Sara; Simone, Anna Maria; Immovilli, Paolo; Caniatti, Luisa; Tola, Maria Rosaria; Pesci, Ilaria; Montanari, Enrico; Sola, Patrizia; Granella, Franco; Motti, Luisa; Ferraro, Diana

    2014-09-01

    Fingolimod (FTY) is licensed as a disease-modifying treatment in highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FTY in a real-life setting and to explore the possible role of clinical and MRI parameters, including previous treatment type, in predicting its efficacy. Clinical and MRI data was collected on 127 patients assigned to treatment with FTY in six multiple sclerosis centers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, between August 2011 and June 2013. During a mean follow-up period of 10 months (range 1-22), we observed a total of 47 relapses in 39 patients (30.7%); new T2 lesions or gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions were present at follow-up MRI in 32/71 patients (45%). Expanded disability status scale (EDSS) at the end of the follow-up period was not different when compared to the baseline EDSS. Serious adverse events occurred in three patients (2.4%). A higher proportion of patients previously treated with natalizumab showed clinical (41%) or MRI activity (54%). Previous treatment with natalizumab increased the risk of a relapse within 30 days (versus immunomodulatory drugs; OR: 4.3; p = 0.011) and at survival analysis (versus remaining patients; HR: 1.9; p = 0.046). Study limitations include a small population sample, a short observation period with variable timing of follow-up MRI and different baseline characteristics of patients previously treated with natalizumab compared to those treated with immunomodulatory drugs. This study confirms the efficacy of FTY in reducing relapse rate in patients previously treated with immunomodulatory drugs, while it seems to be less effective in patients discontinuing natalizumab. Due to the short duration of follow-up it is not possible to evaluate disability progression; however, no difference was observed between the groups.

  8. Three Experimental Studies on Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barirani, Ahmad

    Do entrepreneurs differ from others with regard to their behavioral traits, and can beliefs held by employers about these differences lead to self-employedworkers being stigmatized in the labor market? Although central to the study of entrepreneurship, the literature does not provide a clear answer...... on the premise that reliance on multiple methodological approaches can contribute to the credibility of empirical results, this thesis explores the above questions by resorting to experimental techniques. It first tests the hypothesis of whether entrepreneurs are more action-oriented than other occupational...

  9. Experimental study of neoclassical currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnstorff, M.C.; Prager, S.C.

    1985-05-01

    A detailed experimental study is presented of the bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter currents that are predicted by neoclassical transport theory. In a toroidal octupole, on magnetic surfaces within the separatrix, the observed parallel plasma currents are in excellent quantitative agreement with neoclassical theory with regard to the spatial structure (along a magnetic surface), collisionality dependence and toroidal magnetic field dependence. On magnetic surfaces outside the separatrix, the ion portion of the parallel current is in agreement with neoclassical theory but the electron parallel current is observed to obtain a unidirectional component which deviates from and exceeds the theoretical prediction

  10. Previous infection and the risk of ischaemic stroke in Italy: the IN2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, D; Vidale, S; Aguglia, U; Bassi, P; Cavallini, A; Galati, F; Guidetti, D; Marcello, N; Micieli, G; Pracucci, G; Rasura, M; Siniscalchi, A; Sterzi, R; Toni, D; Inzitari, D

    2015-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in new risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Acute and chronic infections could contribute to different aetiological mechanisms of atherosclerosis that lead to cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that previous infections and Chlamydia pneumoniae in particular increase the risk of ischaemic stroke in the population. This was a prospective case-control study involving 11 Italian stroke units. Controls were age- and sex-matched with cases, represented by patients admitted to hospital for acute ischaemic stroke. For each participant classical vascular risk factors and previous inflammatory and infectious events up to 1 month before were registered. Blood samples were collected to analyse inflammatory markers and titres of antibodies against C. pneumoniae. A total of 1002 participants were included (mean age 69 years) with 749 ischaemic stroke patients. Infections occurred within 1 month previously in 12% of the entire sample with a higher prevalence in the case group (14.4% vs. 3.9%). At multivariate analysis of the seropositivity of IgA antibodies against C. pneumoniae increased the risk of stroke significantly (relative risk 2.121; 95% confidence interval 1.255-3.584) and an early previous infection (up to 7 days before the event) contributed to a rise in probability of acute cerebral ischaemia (relative risk 3.692; 95% confidence interval 1.134-6.875). Early previous infections and persistent chronic infection of C. pneumoniae could contribute to increase the risk of ischaemic stroke significantly, in the elderly especially. © 2014 EAN.

  11. Experimental Design of a Polymeric Solution to Improve the Mobility Ratio in a Reservoir previous implementation of a pilot project of EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cuenca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes experimental formulations of polymeric solutions through lab evaluations with the objective of finding optimum solution concentration to fluid mobility in reservoirs as previous step before implementing a pilot project of enhanced oil recovery. The polymers, firstly, were selected based on the properties from fluids from reservoir. Two types of polymers were used TCC-330 and EOR909 and the experimental tests were: thermal stability, compatibility, adsorption, salinity, and displacement. The design with the best results was with polymer TCC-330 at 1,500 ppm concentration.

  12. Experimental study of snow friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Caroline; Canale, Luca; Siria, Alessandro; Quere, David; Bocquet, Lyderic; Clanet, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    Snow friction results from the interplay of different physical processes: solid friction of granular material, phase change and lubrication, heat transport, capillarity, elasticity and plasticity. The multiple conditions of temperature, humidity and density of the snow result in different regimes of friction. In particular, there is an optimal amount of melted water to lubricate the contact between the ski sole and the snow grains. The thickness of the water layer depends on temperature, speed... A huge variety of waxes have been empirically developed to adapt the amount of water to the conditions of skiing, but remain mysterious. In these study, we investigate experimentally the mechanisms of snow friction at different scales: first, the friction of a ski on snow is measured on a test bench, depending on the snow characteristics and for different waxes. Then microscopic experiments are led in order to understand the friction at the ice crystals scale.

  13. HIV-related neuropsychological impairment in patients with previous substance use: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    García-Torres, Amalia; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza (UNIR); Piñón-Blanco, Adolfo; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can result in cognitive disorders that significantly interfere with the daily activities of HIV patients. These disorders may be worse when there is a history of psychoactive substance use. Our objective is to assess the neuropsychological profile in a group of HIV patients with previous drug use compared to a group of HIV-negative patients with a history of drug use. The study included a total of 28 Spanish adult subjects, of which 14 were HIV-infected and ...

  14. Data from studies of previous radioactive waste disposal in Massachusetts Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, W.R.; Mardis, H.M.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies conducted in Massachusetts Bay during 1981 and 1982. Included are data from: (1) a side scan sonar survey of disposal areas in the Bay that was carried out by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for EPA; (2) Collections of sediment and biota by NOAA for radiochemical analysis by EPA; (3) collections of marketplace seafood samples by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for radioanalysis by both FDA and EPA; and (4) a radiological monitoring survey of LLW disposal areas by EPA to determine whether there should be any concern for public health resulting from previous LLW disposals in the Bay

  15. Cystic echinococcosis in Jordan: A review of causative species, previous studies, serological and radiological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijjawi, Nawal S; Al-Radaideh, Ali M; Rababah, Eman M; Al-Qaoud, Khaled M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E

    2018-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE)/hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease which occur in human and herbivore animals as a result of infection with the larval stage of the taeniid cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.). In human, CE is a serious public health concern in many parts of the world including Jordan. The present review will cover CE causative agent: E. granulosus species/genotypes; life cycle of E. granulosus parasite, all published previous studies on CE in Jordan (humans, intermediate hosts, definitive host) as well as its diagnostic methods in human. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Does the previous diagnosis of arterial hypertension affect one's daily life? Pro-Saude Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo Filho, Gilberto Senechal de; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    In addition to damaging several target organs, arterial hypertension may negatively impact patients' activities of daily living. Biological and behavioral mechanisms underlying such limitations have yet to be clarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether having been previously told of a hypertension diagnosis is associated with the frequency and duration of temporary limitations in activities of daily living, and whether these relationships differ by gender, age, or socioeconomic position. We analyzed sectional data from 2,666 participants (56% women; 55% with high school or lower schooling) at the baseline phase (1999 - 2001) of a longitudinal investigation of university employees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study), asking participants whether they had ever been diagnosed with hypertension by a health professional, if they had been unable to perform any activities of daily living due to a health problem in the previous 2 weeks, and for how many days that had occurred. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted for the overall study population and for age, gender, educational level, and per capita household income strata. Associations between hypertension diagnosis and temporary limitations were not observed in the overall study population and in gender, education and income strata. However, there were higher odds of temporary limitations among participants aged 55 years old or more with hypertension diagnosis (adjusted OR = 9.5; 95%CI 1.5 - 58.6), regardless of blood pressure levels and use of antihypertensive medication. Elderly people may keep an attitude of higher vigilance regarding conditions or events potentially worsening their health status.

  17. Experimental study of virtual impactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, T.J.; Broniarck, C.G.

    1979-01-01

    Virtual impactors are currently being used in a number of instruments to separate an aerosol into different size ranges. The virtual impactor is a variation of the standard impactor in which the impaction surface is replaced by an orifice into which particles can pass and be collected or counted. We have made an experimental study of the collection characteristics of virtual impactors. The parameters varied included: acceleration nozzle-to-collection probe distance, the ratio of the collection probe-to-acceleration nozzle diameters, and the ratio of collection probe-to-inlet flows. Measurements were also made with different collection probe geometries. It was found that it is possible to parameterize much of the data by introduction of the Stokes number and an effective minor flow collection efficiency. One disadvantage of the virtual impactor is that in the transition region particles are collected on the inside walls of the collection probe near the probe tip. The amount that is collected is a sensitive function of the probe geometry

  18. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50...... at follow-up (2 had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 13 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 12 had impaired glucose tolerance). Compared with the control subjects, women with previous GDM had relatively impaired insulin secretion (decreased insulinogenic index and delayed peak insulin...... for subsequent development of overt diabetes (logistic regression analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Women who develop GDM have a relative insulin secretion deficiency, the severity of which is predictive for later development of diabetes. Furthermore, our data indicate that their relatively reduced beta-cell function may...

  19. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulí, Anna; Morillas, Juan D; Rigau, Joaquim; Latorre, Mercedes; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Peña, Elena; Riestra, Sabino; Payá, Artemio; Jover, Rodrigo; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Villanueva, Cristina M; Moreno, Victor; Piqué, Josep M; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Andreu, Montserrat; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Muñoz, Jenifer; Gonzalo, Victoria; Bessa, Xavier; González, Dolors; Clofent, Joan; Cubiella, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1

  20. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  1. Experimental percolation studies of random networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinerman, A.; Weddell, J.

    2017-06-01

    This report establishes an experimental method of studying electrically percolating networks at a higher resolution than previously implemented. This method measures the current across a conductive sheet as a function of time as elliptical pores are cut into the sheet. This is done utilizing a Universal Laser System X2-600 100 W CO2 laser system with a 76 × 46 cm2 field and 394 dpc (dots/cm) resolution. This laser can cut a random system of elliptical pores into a conductive sheet with a potential voltage applied across it and measures the current versus time. This allows for experimental verification of a percolation threshold as a function of the ellipse's aspect ratio (minor/major diameter). We show that as an ellipse's aspect ratio approaches zero, the percolation threshold approaches one. The benefit of this method is that it can experimentally measure the effect of removing small pores, as well as pores with complex geometries, such as an asterisk from a conductive sheet.

  2. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  3. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS ORAL APPLICATION OF DIPHTHERIA ANTIGENIC PREPARATIONS ON RABBIT ALLERGIC REACTION FORMING AFTER SKIN TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babych YeM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s studied an influence of previous oral application of diphtheria antigenic preparations on allergic inflammation forming after skin test. It’s used destroyed by ultrasonic microbe cells C.diphtheriae var. gravis tox+ massachusets, free from destroyed cells by the use of centrifugation supernatant and refined concentrated diphteria toxoid. Experimental rabbits are fed to 3,5 ml of one of antigenic preparations (the total protein dose is 33,6 mg, control ones are fed to saline. In a week all animals were injected intracutaneously 0,2 ml each of corresponding antigenic preparation. The findings testify to decreasing manifestation tendency of rabbit skin reactions on antigenic preparations.

  4. Studies on the immune response of previously infected lambs to vaccination with the radiation attenuated Dictyocaulus filaria vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The immune response of lambs infected with the lungworm, Dictyocaulus filaria to vaccination with the radiation attenuated D.filaria vaccine was studied under experimental conditions. Healthy, un-infected lambs, 4-6 months of age were randomly distributed into three groups. Group one lambs were previously exposed to single or trickle infections of D.filaria before being vaccinated, group two lambs were vaccinated only whereas the group three lambs received neither infection nor were vaccinated. All the lambs were subsequently challanged with normal infective D.filaria larvae. The results of the experiment indicate that the vaccine confers very little or practically no immunity in lambs already exposed to the infection. The significance of these findings in the use of the vaccine for the control of lungworm disease in sheep under field conditions is discussed. (author)

  5. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Overview of experimental studies on vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Yamano, Norihiro; Maruyama, Yu; Kudo, Tamotsu; Sugimoto, Jun

    1994-12-01

    Experimental studies of vapor explosions were overviewed and currently available knowledge was summarized with emphasis on the large scale experiments. Since 1970s, quite a few large scale experiments have been performed, which have included several types such as pin geometry experiments simulating the early stages of severe accidents in nuclear reactors, and melt-coolant interaction experiments with drop/jet geometry or stratified geometry simulating the phenomena expected to take place after a large scale core melt-down. According to previous experimental results, following facts are clarified ; spontaneous explosions are not likely with saturated coolant and/or with high pressures ; the energy conversion ratio in large scale systems is in the range 0.1∼several percents ; if the coolant is sodium generally benign interaction is expected compared with the case of water coolant ; etc. Recently, accompanied with the development of numerical simulation codes for vapor explosions, considerable efforts are devoted into premixing experiments and one dimensional geometry experiments oriented to provide data for the comparison with numerical simulations. (author) 87 refs

  7. Experimental studies of morphology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This contribution is a resume of the approximately eight years of experimental investigation of ion beam-induced modification of metal surfaces. The aim, from the beginning, was to make a detailed series of experiments with well defined controllable parameters in an attempt to establish the mechanism responsible for the production of the topographical features observed so frequently on ion-bombarded surfaces of metals. Typically, for the initial system, 40 keV argon ions directed on to copper, the sputtering yield is fairly constant from normal angle of incidence to about 30 0 , rising fairly smoothly to a maximum at 80 0 , then dropping rapidly to zero at around 82 0 . A very strong grain orientation effect was observed in the early experiments. (Auth.)

  8. Experimental studies on cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    The further development of the chemotherapy of cancer in the experimental and clinical fields necessitates a profound knowledge of its chemical, biochemical and pharmacological fundamentals and the mechanism of physiological and pathological growth processes. The 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft Zytostatika' includes chemists, biochemists, pharmacologists, molecular biologists, physicians and immunologists of various scientific institutes and clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany and in West Berlin. It is their aim to carry out basic research as well as clinical-orientated research in the field of the chemotherapy of cancer. In the 15 years of cooperation, fundamental knowledge was gained, especially in the field of the cytotoxic specificity and cancerotoxic selectivity of alkylating cytostatics. New cytostatics with a greater oncostatic selectivity and an altered spectrum of activity were tested and greater knowledge was won on the molecular-biological prerequisites of a rational drug design. (orig.) [de

  9. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  10. What Shapes the Intention to Study Abroad? An Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Knut; Moog, Petra

    2018-01-01

    In contrast to previous studies, this investigation aims to get deeper insights into the causes of the intention to study abroad by using an experimental approach. Although international experience is often considered as important, many students at German universities do not even consider abroad. Referring to the Theory of Rational Choice (RCT)…

  11. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN NATURAL CONVECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    (collector) is made of a transparent cover (made of glass or plastic or a .... Glass. 1.3. 11.05. 2013. Amir and Hadi, (2015) brought an innovation to the design of a solar tower of 2.6m in height, with a cylindrical collector of 0.92m in height and 0.9m in diameter. ... mass flow to study the friction phenomena inside the chimney ...

  12. Experimental study of urea granulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, U.; Sharif, M.N.; Rabbani, F.; Rauf, A.; Saleem, M.

    2009-01-01

    Urea is a nitrogenous fertilizer available in two commercial forms, prills and granules, in Pakistan. Prills are more common in Pakistan, however, it has some problems associated with it. Those are moisture, biuret contents of urea prills, prill size, hardness of prills, caking of prills and urea dust emission. Due to these problems urea granulation is favoured over prilling. Urea granulation is studied on laboratory scale using pan granulator and effect of different parameters like binders (water and urea solution), quantity of binders, rpm of pan granulator, time of granulation and angle of inclination on granulation yield is studied. Water and urea solutions of different concentrations are used and results reveal that concentration of urea solution is proportional to rate of granulation. A threshold quantity of binder is required for optimum granulation yield. RPM of pan is inversely proportional to rate of granulation. Granulation yield is also proportional to time of granulation however it becomes critical at a certain point. Angle of inclination of pan has no significant effects on granulation yield. (author)

  13. In vitro study of microleakage of fissure sealant with different previous treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Urquía, Morales María C; Brasca, N; Girardi, M; Bonnin, C; Ríos, M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate microleakeage of a sealant after using three different techniques for conditioning the surface to be sealed. Twenty-four caries-free upper and lower premolars were used, which were preserved in distilled water at room temperature. The structural faults were enlarged using a cylindrical conical diamond (ISO 007). Teeth were randomly assigned into three groups of eight. Group I (control) was conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid (Vivadent) for 15 seconds after which the sealant Helioseal F (Vivadent) was applied and cured for 40 seconds. Group II was conditioned in the same way, after which one-step adhesive Te-econom (Vivadent) and the sealant were applied. Group III was conditioned using a self-etching adhesive, Go (SDI), after which the sealant was applied. Adhesive was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions. The samples were thermocycled for 300 cycles between 5 degrees and 55 degreesC and immersed in a 2% methylene blue solution for 48 hs. at standardized temperature of 37 degreesC +/- 1 degree. Then they were rinsed with tap water and ground longitudinally in V-P direction with silica carbide rotatory disks of decreasing grit. The amount of leakage was evaluated under stereoscopic microscope at 40X magnification. The longitudinal penetration of dye into the tooth-sealant interface was scored on a scale of 0 to 3. The results were analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. In Group II, 100% of the samples showed low (50%) or no (50%) leakage. Both the other groups had a higher percentage of specimens with high leakage (scores 2 and 3) (P = 0.000). Group II had the best performance, with significant differences (P = 0.0028) compared to the other experimental groups. Marginal leakage was lowest when the tooth was conditioned with phosphoric acid and subsequent application of an adhesive, prior to sealant.

  14. Experimental studies of neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in physics has been awarded to Takaaki Kajita and Arthur McDonald "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass". Takaaki Kajita of Tokyo University is a Japanese physicist, known for neutrino experiments at the Kamiokande and its successor, Super-Kamiokande. This volume of collected works of Kajita on neutrino oscillations provides a good glimpse into as well as a record of the rise and the role of Asian research in the frontiers of neutrino physics. Japan is now a major force in the study of the 3 families of neutrinos. Much remains to be done to clarify the Dirac vs. Majorana nature of the neutrino, and the cosmological implications of the neutrino. The collected works of Kajita and his Super-Kamiokande group will leave an indelible foot-print in the history of big and better science.

  15. Late preterm birth and previous cesarean section: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseen Iii, Abdool S; Bassil, Kate; Sprague, Ann; Urquia, Marcelo; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2018-02-21

    Late preterm birth (LPB) is increasingly common and associated with higher morbidity and mortality than term birth. Yet, little is known about the influence of previous cesarean section (PCS) and the occurrence of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. We aim to evaluate this association along with the potential mediation by cesarean sections in the current pregnancy. We use population-based birth registry data (2005-2012) to establish a cohort of live born singleton infants born between 34 and 41 gestational weeks to multiparous mothers. PCS was the primary exposure, LPB (34-36 weeks) was the primary outcome, and an unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was the potential mediator. Associations were quantified using propensity weighted multivariable Poisson regression, and mediating associations were explored using the Baron-Kenny approach. The cohort included 481,531 births, 21,893 (4.5%) were LPB, and 119,983 (24.9%) were predated by at least one PCS. Among mothers with at least one PCS, 6307 (5.26%) were LPB. There was increased risk of LPB among women with at least one PCS (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 1.20 (95%CI [1.16, 1.23]). Unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was identified as a strong mediator to this relationship (mediation ratio = 97%). PCS was associated with higher risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. This may be due to an increased risk of subsequent unplanned or emergency preterm cesarean sections. Efforts to minimize index cesarean sections may reduce the risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies.

  16. Combined Teaching Method: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, Iryna V.

    2016-01-01

    The search for the best approach to business education has led educators and researchers to seek many different teaching strategies, ranging from the traditional teaching methods to various experimental approaches such as active learning techniques. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the effects of the traditional and combined…

  17. Radon diffusion coefficients for soils. Previous studies and their application to uranium-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo; Gunji, Yasuyoshi; Iida, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Radon diffusion in soils has been studied over the years by many researchers. The application of such studies to the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon from uranium-bearing wastes disposed in a shallow land site is very important. The present paper surveyed closely relevant studies and elucidated the inherent nature of radon diffusion in terms of the definition of radon diffusion coefficients. Then, basic features of measurement methods for determining radon diffusion coefficients in soils were explained. Furthermore, theoretical aspects of radon diffusion in soils were discussed in terms of microscopic radon diffusion in soils and large-scale radon diffusion through cover soil defects for uranium mill tailings. Finally, in order to apply the radon diffusion studies to uranium-bearing waste disposal in shallow land sites, new challenges were presented: elucidation of radon diffusion in uranium-bearing wastes and cover-soil cracks, and demonstration of the validity of applying only radon diffusion in the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon, which would come through Japanese cover soils for uranium-bearing waste disposal. (author)

  18. A time marker instrument for kinematics movement studies: a development of previous versions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a time marker to study movements in kinematics. It contributes to elaborate a version of time marker which low cost and more efficient in comparison with the marker presented in another work as well as the earlier commercial version.

  19. Examination of virus shedding in semen from vaccinated and from previously infected boars after experimental challenge with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas L.; Nielsen, Jens; Have, Per

    1997-01-01

    to the Danish pig industry. The use of a vaccination-program may be a way to avoid or reduce the problem, This study evaluates the use of two vaccines: One live, attenuated vaccine and one inactivated vaccine, A pronounced reduction in viremia and shedding of virus in semen was demonstrated by use of the live...... vaccine compared to the non-vaccinated control animals. In contrast, no changes in onset, level and duration of viremia and shedding of virus in semen were observed using the inactivated vaccine, Neither viremia nor seminal shedding of virus was detected in previously PRRSV-infected, PRRSV...

  20. Segmental hair analysis after a single dose of zolpidem: comparison with a previous study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaopei; Xiang, Ping; Zhang, Jingshuo; Shi, Yan; Shen, Baohua; Shen, Min

    2013-01-01

    Hair is a useful aid and sometimes even the only matrix in the analytical strategy in drug-facilitated crime (DFC) investigations. In this novel study, segmental hair analysis was performed after a single 10 mg dose of zolpidem was given to 20 Chinese volunteers. Hair was collected 1 month after administration and was analyzed using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Zolpidem concentrations were found to be in the range of 135.0-554.6 pg/mg in the proximal 0-2 cm segments. These results were markedly different from those reported by Villain et al., who used volunteers administered equal doses of zolpidem. The analytical method used, as well as the volunteers' hair color, inter-individual variations such as metabolic capacity, hair growth rate, drug incorporation rates, physical state of the hair, age, gender, body weight, etc. and diffusion from sweat or other secretions are all factors that should be considered when interpreting the DFC results.

  1. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf, Ali; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10 3 MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO 2 eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10 −6 t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10 −6 t SO 2 eq respectively

  2. Effect of Acupressure, Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Women With Pregnancy-Related Anxiety and Previous Depression: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Shunji; Tobe, Chiharu

    2017-01-01

    Background In this preliminary study, we examined the effect of acupressure, acupuncture and moxibustion (oriental treatments) to prevent of the relapse/deterioration of perinatal depression in women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression. Methods and results Between 2014 and 2016, there were 48 women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression who had delivery at ? 22 weeks? gestation in our institute. Of these, oriental treatments were performed in eight and two w...

  3. Hepatic encephalopathy: experimental studies on the pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. de Knegt (Robert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractAims of this thesis: 1. To study, in rabbits, the suitability of experimental acute liver failure and acute hyperammonemia simulating acute liver failure for the study of hepatic encephalopathy and ammonia toxicity. 2. To study glutamate neurotransmission in rabbits with acute liver

  4. Estimating the effect of current, previous and never use of drugs in studies based on prescription registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do not ca...

  5. Experimental radiation carcinogenesis is studies at NIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sado, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    Experimental radiation carcinogenesis studies conducted during the past decade at NIRS are briefly reviewed. They include the following: 1) Age dependency of susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. 2) Radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. 3) Mechanism of fractionated X-irradiation (FX) induced thymic lymphomas. 4) Significance of radiation-induced immunosuppression in radiation carcinogenesis in vivo. 5) Other ongoing studies. (author)

  6. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of delivery after a previous Cesarean section in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, George O; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Onah, Hyacinth E; Egwuatu, Vincent E; Ezugwu, Frank O

    2014-01-01

    Obstetricians in developing countries appear generally reluctant to conduct vaginal delivery in women with a previous Cesarean because of lack of adequate facilities for optimal fetomaternal monitoring. To describe delivery outcomes among women with one previous Cesarean section at a tertiary hospital in Southeast Nigeria. This was a prospective observational study to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes of attempted vaginal birth after Cesarean sections (VBAC) following one previous Cesarean section. Analysis was done with SPSS statistical software version 17.0 for Windows using descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Two thousand six hundred and ten women delivered in the center during the study period, of whom 395 had one previous Cesarean section. A total of 370 women with one previous Cesarean section had nonrecurrent indications, of whom 355 consenting pregnant women with one previous Cesarean section were studied. A majority of the women (320/355, 90.1%) preferred to have vaginal delivery despite the one previous Cesarean section. However, only approximately 54% (190/355) were found suitable for trial of VBAC, out of whom 50% (95/190 had successful VBAC. Ninety-five women (50.0%) had failed attempt at VBAC and were delivered by emergency Cesarean section while 35 women (9.8%) had emergency Cesarean section for other obstetric indications (apart from failed VBAC). There was no case of uterine rupture or neonatal and maternal deaths recorded in any group. Apgar scores of less than 7 in the first minute were significantly more frequent amongst women who had vaginal delivery when compared to those who had elective repeat Cesarean section (P=0.03). Most women who had one previous Cesarean delivery chose to undergo trial of VBAC, although only about half were considered suitable for VBAC. The maternal and fetal outcomes of trial of VBAC in selected women with one previous Cesarean delivery for non-recurrent indications were good

  7. Experimental study on rapid embankment construction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Hideaki; Egawa, Kikuji; Hyodo, Kazuya; Kannoto, Yasuo; Sekimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Kokichi.

    1982-01-01

    In the construction of a thermal or nuclear power plant in a coastal area, shorter embankment construction period has come to be called for recently. This tendency is remarkable where construction period is limited due to meteorological or sea conditions. To meet this requirement, the authors have been conducting basic experimental studies on two methods for the rapid execution of embankment construction, that is, Steel Plate Cellular Bulkhead Embedding Method and Ship Hull Caisson Method. This paper presents an outline of the results of the experimental study on these two methods. (author)

  8. Treatment of osteochondral defects of the talus with a metal resurfacing inlay implant after failed previous surgery: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, C. J. A.; van Eekeren, I. C. M.; Reilingh, M. L.; Sierevelt, I. N.; van Dijk, C. N.

    2013-01-01

    We have evaluated the clinical effectiveness of a metal resurfacing inlay implant for osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome after failed previous surgical treatment. We prospectively studied 20 consecutive patients with a mean age of 38 years (20 to 60), for a mean of three years (2 to 5)

  9. Experimental studies on critical heat flux in support of the advanced fuel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, L.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental studies have been performed to obtain data on critical heat flux (CHF) in CANFLEX bundles. These data have been used to develop the CHF correlation, which is being applied in design analyses of the advanced CANDU fuel. This paper summarizes previous experimental CHF studies that are relevant to design calculations. Some experimental data are shown to illustrate various separate effects on CHF. (author)

  10. Experimental Chagas disease in Balb/c mice previously vaccinated with T. rangeli. II. The innate immune response shows immunological memory: reality or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, B; Marini, V

    2015-03-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a real challenge to the host's immune system, because it requires strong humoral and cellular immune response to remove circulating trypomastigote forms, and to prevent the replication of amastigote forms in tissues, involving many regulator and effector components. This protozoan is responsible for Chagas disease, a major public health problem in Latinamerica. We have developed a model of vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli, a parasite closely related to T. cruzi, but nonpathogenic to humans, which reduces the infectiousness in three different species of animals, mice, dogs and guinea pigs, against challenge with T. cruzi. In a previous work, we demonstrated that mice vaccinated with T. rangeli showed important soluble mediators that stimulate phagocytic activity versus only infected groups. The aim of this work was to study the innate immune response in mice vaccinated or not with T. rangeli. Different population cells and some soluble mediators (cytokines) in peritoneal fluid and plasma in mice vaccinated-infected and only infected with T. cruzi were studied. In the first hours of challenge vaccinated mice showed an increase of macrophages, NK, granulocytes, and regulation of IL6, IFNγ, TNFα and IL10, with an increase of IL12, with respect to only infected mice. Furthermore an increase was observed of Li T, Li B responsible for adaptative response. Finally the findings showed that the innate immune response plays an important role in vaccinated mice for the early elimination of the parasites, complementary with the adaptative immune response, suggesting that vaccination with T. rangeli modulates the innate response, which develops some kind of immunological memory, recognizing shared antigens with T. cruzi. These results could contribute to the knowledge of new mechanisms which would have an important role in the immune response to Chagas disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental study of the natural circulation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, Gaiane; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Torres, Walmir M.; Castro, Alfredo Jose Alvim de; Belchior Junior, Antonio; Rocha, Ricardo Takeshi Vieira da; Damy, Osvaldo Luiz de Almeida; Torres, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the natural circulation in experimental loops and extend the results to nuclear facilities. New generation of compact nuclear power plants use the natural circulation as cooling and residual heat removal systems in case of accidents or shutdown. Lately the interest in this phenomenon, by scientific community, has increased. The experimental loop, described in this paper, was assembled at Escola Politecnica - USP at the Chemical Engineering Department. It is the goal to generate information to help with the understanding of the one and two phase natural circulation phenomena. Some experiments were performed with different levels of heat power and different flow of the cooling water at the secondary circuit. The data generated from these experiments are going to be used to validate some computational thermal hydraulic codes. Experimental results for one and two phase regimes are presented as well as the proposed model to simulate the flow regimes with the RELAP5 code. (author)

  12. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  13. Experimental paracoccidioidomycosis in the mouse. III. Histopathological and immunological findings after intravenous infection in the presence or absence of previous immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Moscardi Bacchi

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty male white Swiss mice aged 4 weeks were inoculated with 5 x 10(5 viable yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (strain 18. Ten of these animals had been previously immunized with particulate P. brasiliensis antigenfor 4 weeks by intradermal injection. The controls consisted of 10 animals that were only immunized and 10 animals submitted to no treatment. The animals were sacrificed 2, 4, 7,11 and 16 weeks later. We studied: 1 the anti-P. brasiliensis delayed hypersensitivity response measured by the footpad test 24 hours prior to sacrifice; 2 the specific antibody production measured by double immunodiffusion in agar gel; 3 the histopathology of lungs, liver, spleen, adrenals and kidneys. We observed that: a the immunized animals developed more intense cell-immune responses than the infected ones; b infection reduced the cell- immune response of the immunized animals; c intravenous infection of mice with P. brasiliensis was characterized by a systemic and progressive granulomatous inflammation. The animals infected after previous immunization showed less extensive lung inflammation, with smaller granulomas and fewer fungi. The results indicate that the present murine model mimics some findings of the human subacute form of paracoccidioidomycosis (systemic disease with depressed cellular immunity and that the extrapulmonary immunization scheme was able to induce a certain degree of protection of the lung from infection with P. brasiliensisCinqüenta camundongos suíços, brancos, com quatro semanas de idade, foram inoculados com 5x10(5 formas leveduriformes, viáveis de Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis (cepa 18. Dez destes animais tinham sido previamente imunizados com antígeno particulado de P. brasiliensis, durante quatro semanas, por injeção intradérmica. Os controles consistiram de 10 animais que foram somente imunizados e 10 inoculados com solução salina estéril. Os animais foram sacrificados após 2, 4, 7, 11 e 16 semanas

  14. Experimental and computational study of thaumasite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtzová, Eva, E-mail: Eva.Scholtzova@savba.sk [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 36 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kucková, Lenka; Kožíšek, Jozef [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Pálková, Helena [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 36 Bratislava (Slovakia); Tunega, Daniel [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 36 Bratislava (Slovakia); Institute for Soil Science, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter-Jordanstrasse 82, A-1190 Wien (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    The structure of thaumasite has been studied experimentally by means of a single crystal X-ray diffraction and FTIR methods, and theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) method. Very good agreement was achieved between calculated and experimental structural parameters. In addition, calculations offered the refinement of the positions of the hydrogen atoms. The detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonds existing in the thaumasite structure has been performed. Several types of hydrogen bonds have been classified. The water molecules coordinating Ca{sup 2+} cation act as proton donors in moderate O-H···O hydrogen bonds formed with CO₃⁻²and SO₄⁻² anions. The multiple O-H···O hydrogen bonds exist among water molecules themselves. Finally, relatively weak hydrogen bonds form water molecules with the OH groups from the coordination sphere of the Si(OH)₆⁻² anion. Further, calculated vibrational spectrum allowed complete assignment of all vibrational modes which are not available from the experimental spectrum that has a complex structure with overlapped bands, especially below 1500 cm⁻¹. Highlights: • The thaumasite structure was studied experimentally and using DFT method. • We used DFT method for the refinement of the positions of hydrogen atoms. • A detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonds was done. • A complete assignment of all bands to particular types of vibrations was done.

  15. Experimental study of structural response to earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, R.W.; Bertero, V.V.; Bouwkamp, J.G.; Popov, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives, methods, and some of the principal results obtained from experimental studies of the behavior of structures subjected to earthquakes are described. Although such investigations are being conducted in many laboratories throughout the world, the information presented deals specifically with projects being carried out at the Earthquake Engineering Research Center (EERC) of the University of California, Berkeley. A primary purpose of these investigations is to obtain detailed information on the inelastic response mechanisms in typical structural systems so that the experimentally observed performance can be compared with computer generated analytical predictions. Only by such comparisons can the mathematical models used in dynamic nonlinear analyses be verified and improved. Two experimental procedures for investigating earthquake structural response are discussed: the earthquake simulator facility which subjects the base of the test structure to acceleration histories similar to those recorded in actual earthquakes, and systems of hydraulic rams which impose specified displacement histories on the test components, equivalent to motions developed in structures subjected to actual'quakes. The general concept and performance of the 20ft square EERC earthquake simulator is described, and the testing of a two story concrete frame building is outlined. Correlation of the experimental results with analytical predictions demonstrates that satisfactory agreement can be obtained only if the mathematical model incorporates a stiffness deterioration mechanism which simulates the cracking and other damage suffered by the structure

  16. Experimental Study on Permeability of Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Honglu; Liu, Rentai; Zheng, Zhuo; Liu, Haojie; Gao, Yan; Liu, Yankai

    2018-01-01

    To study the influencing factors on permeability of pervious concrete, by adding inorganic organic composite materials obtained experimental results show that different aggregate size, aggregate cement ratio of different, different water cement ratio on the permeability performance. The permeability of the concrete was tested by using the self - made permeable device. The experimental results showed that the permeation coefficient of the experiment was obtained and the factors influencing the permeability of the concrete were compared and analyzed. At the same time, the porosity of pervious concrete was measured, the influence of various variables on porosity was studied, and the influence of various factors on the permeability of voids was found. Finally, through comprehensive analysis of a variety of factors, the optimal water cement ratio is 0.28. At this time, the pervious performance of concrete is optimal.

  17. Experimental study on beam for composite CES structural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tomoya

    2017-10-01

    Development study on Concrete Encase Steel (CES) composite structure system has been continuously conducted toward the practical use. CES structure is composed of steel and fiber reinforced concrete. In previous study, it was found that CES structure has good seismic performance from experimental study of columns, beam - column joints, shear walls and a two story two span frame. However, as fundamental study on CES beam could be lacking, it is necessary to understand the structural performance of CES beam. In this study, static loading tests of CES beams were conducted with experimental valuable of steel size, the presence or absence of slab and thickness of slab. And restoring characteristics, failure behavior, deformation behavior, and strength evaluation method of CES beam were investigated. As the results, it was found that CES beam showed stable hysteresis behavior. Furthermore it was found that the flexural strength of the CES beam could be evaluated by superposition strength theory.

  18. Theoretical and experimental studies of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, A.; Ferbel, T.; Melissinos, A.C.; Olsen, S.L.; Slattery, P.; Tipton, P.; Das, A.; Hagen, C.R.; Rajeev, S.G.; Okubo, S.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses: Fixed target experimentation at Fermilab; the D-zero collider experiment at Fermilab; deep inelastic lepton nucleon scattering; non-accelerator experiments and non-linear QED; the AMY experiment at TRISTAN and other activities at KEK; the collider detector at Fermilab; laser switched linac; preparations for experiments at the SSC; search for massive stable particles; and the Advanced Study Institute on techniques and concepts of high energy physics

  19. Experimental Setups for Single Event Effect Studies

    OpenAIRE

    N. H. Medina; V. A. P. Aguiar; N. Added; F. Aguirre; E. L. A. Macchione; S. G. Alberton; M. A. G. Silveira; J. Benfica; F. Vargas; B. Porcher

    2016-01-01

    Experimental setups are being prepared to test and to qualify electronic devices regarding their tolerance to Single Event Effect (SEE). A multiple test setup and a new beam line developed especially for SEE studies at the São Paulo 8 UD Pelletron accelerator were prepared. This accelerator produces proton beams and heavy ion beams up to 107Ag. A Super conducting Linear accelerator, which is under construction, may fulfill all of the European Space Agency requirements to qualify electronic...

  20. Changes in association between previous therapeutic abortion and preterm birth in Scotland, 1980 to 2008: a historical cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Oliver-Williams

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that therapeutic termination of pregnancy (abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent preterm birth. However, the literature is inconsistent, and methods of abortion have changed dramatically over the last 30 years. We hypothesized that the association between previous abortion and the risk of preterm first birth changed in Scotland between 1 January 1980 and 31 December 2008.We studied linked Scottish national databases of births and perinatal deaths. We analysed the risk of preterm birth in relation to the number of previous abortions in 732,719 first births (≥24 wk, adjusting for maternal characteristics. The risk (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] of preterm birth was modelled using logistic regression, and associations were expressed for a one-unit increase in the number of previous abortions. Previous abortion was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (1.12 [1.09-1.16]. When analysed by year of delivery, the association was strongest in 1980-1983 (1.32 [1.21-1.43], progressively declined between 1984 and 1999, and was no longer apparent in 2000-2003 (0.98 [0.91-1.05] or 2004-2008 (1.02 [0.95-1.09]. A statistical test for interaction between previous abortion and year was highly statistically significant (p<0.001. Analysis of data for abortions among nulliparous women in Scotland 1992-2008 demonstrated that the proportion that were surgical without use of cervical pre-treatment decreased from 31% to 0.4%, and that the proportion of medical abortions increased from 18% to 68%.Previous abortion was a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth in Scotland in the 1980s and 1990s, but the association progressively weakened and disappeared altogether by 2000. These changes were paralleled by increasing use of medical abortion and cervical pre-treatment prior to surgical abortion. Although it is plausible that the two trends were related, we could not test this directly as the data on

  1. Previous early antenatal service utilization improves timely booking: cross-sectional study at university of Gondar hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayneh, Tadesse; Adefris, Mulat; Andargie, Gashaw

    2014-01-01

    Early booking of antenatal care (ANC) is regarded as a cornerstone of maternal and neonatal health care. However, existing evidence from developing countries indicate that lots of pregnant woman begin ANC booking lately. Objective. It was aimed to assess timing of ANC booking and associated factors among pregnant women attending ANC clinic at University of Gondar Hospital, 2013. An institution based cross-sectional study design was used to collect data with a face-to-face interview technique. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify associated factors for early ANC visit using SPSS version 20. From total women (N = 369) interviewed, 47.4% were timely booked. Mothers with younger age (AOR = 3.83, 95% CI: 1.89, 10.53), formal education (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03, -7.61), previous early ANC visit (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 2.23, 9.86), and perceived ANC visit per pregnancy of four and greater were significantly associated with early ANC visit. Although late booking is a problem in this study, previous early utilization of ANC visit favors current timely booking. This indicates that the importance of early booking was appropriately addressed from previous visits. Counseling of timely booking during ANC visit should be strengthened. Moreover, empowering through education is also recommended.

  2. Effect of Acupressure, Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Women With Pregnancy-Related Anxiety and Previous Depression: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunji; Tobe, Chiharu

    2017-06-01

    In this preliminary study, we examined the effect of acupressure, acupuncture and moxibustion (oriental treatments) to prevent of the relapse/deterioration of perinatal depression in women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression. Between 2014 and 2016, there were 48 women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression who had delivery at ≥ 22 weeks' gestation in our institute. Of these, oriental treatments were performed in eight and two women (totally 10, 21%) during pregnancy and postpartum, respectively. One of the 10 (10%) who received oriental treatments admitted depressive symptoms during pregnancy or postpartum, while 18 of the rest 38 who did not receive oriental treatments admitted depressive symptoms (47%, P = 0.065). The oriental treatments may be useful for pregnant women who need perinatal mental health care.

  3. [Cervical ripening after previous cesarean section with Foley catheter: A prospective study of 41 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamourdedieu, C; Gnisci, A; Marcelli, M; Heckenroth, H; Gamerre, M; Agostini, A

    2015-05-01

    Effectiveness of cervical ripening with Foley catheter for patients requiring labor induction with a previous cesarean section and unfavorable cervical conditions. Prospective unicentric study conducted between 1 April 2011 and 31 October 2013 on 41 patients with medical indication for labor induction with a Bishop's scorecesarean section. Outcomes evaluated were mode of delivery, Bishop's score variations and maternal or neonatal complications. Cervical ripening was performed in 39 patients and 17 (43.5%) were delivered vaginally. A total of 24/39 (61.5%) patients were put into work and 10/39 (25.6%) came into work immediately after removal of the Foley catheter. The average score improvement Bishop was 2.7±0.6 points. No maternal or fetal complication was reported. Foley catheter is an interesting procedure in patients with previous cesarean section and unfavorable cervical conditions requiring labor induction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental studies of gravitation and feebler forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowsik, R.

    1993-01-01

    The theoretical motivations and the experimental context pertaining to the recent experimental studies of the Weak equivalence Principle and the open-quotes Fifth Forceclose quotes are reviewed briefly. With such a backdrop, the innovative design and the technical details of the several new experiments in this area are presented with a special emphasis on the experiments underway at Gauribidanur, situated on the Deccan Plateau. These experiments jointly rule out the existence of any new forces coupling to baryon or lepton number with a coupling greater than about 10 -4 of gravitation per a.m.u. at ranges of about 0.5m and longer. In a few years the author hopes to test the weak equivalence principle with sensitivity exceeding 10 -13

  5. Experimental study of natural circulation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian, E-mail: wlemos@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LASME/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Simulacao e Metodos Numericos; Faccini, Jose L.H., E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (LTE/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental

    2011-07-01

    This work presents an experimental study about fluid flows behavior in natural circulation, under conditions of single-phase flow. The experiment was performed through experimental thermal-hydraulic circuit built at IEN. This test equipment has performance similar to passive system of residual heat removal present in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (APWR). This experimental study aims to observing and analyzing the natural circulation phenomenon, using this experimental circuit that was dimensioned and built based on concepts of similarity and scale. This philosophy allows the analysis of natural circulation behavior in single-phase flow conditions proportionally to the functioning real conditions of a nuclear reactor. The experiment was performed through procedures to initialization of hydraulic feeding of primary and secondary circuits and electrical energizing of resistors installed inside heater. Power controller has availability to adjust values of electrical power to feeding resistors, in order to portray several conditions of energy decay of nuclear reactor in a steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and monitoring of the evolution of the temperature in various points through thermocouples installed in strategic points along hydraulic circuit. The behavior of the natural circulation phenomenon was monitored by graphical interface on computer screen, showing the temperature evolutions of measuring points and results stored in digital spreadsheets. The results stored in digital spreadsheets allowed the getting of data to graphic construction and discussion about natural circulation phenomenon. Finally, the calculus of Reynolds number allowed the establishment for a correlation of friction in function of geometric scales of length, heights and cross section of tubing, considering a natural circulation flow throughout in the region of hot leg. (author)

  6. Experimental study of natural circulation circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian; Faccini, Jose L.H.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study about fluid flows behavior in natural circulation, under conditions of single-phase flow. The experiment was performed through experimental thermal-hydraulic circuit built at IEN. This test equipment has performance similar to passive system of residual heat removal present in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (APWR). This experimental study aims to observing and analyzing the natural circulation phenomenon, using this experimental circuit that was dimensioned and built based on concepts of similarity and scale. This philosophy allows the analysis of natural circulation behavior in single-phase flow conditions proportionally to the functioning real conditions of a nuclear reactor. The experiment was performed through procedures to initialization of hydraulic feeding of primary and secondary circuits and electrical energizing of resistors installed inside heater. Power controller has availability to adjust values of electrical power to feeding resistors, in order to portray several conditions of energy decay of nuclear reactor in a steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and monitoring of the evolution of the temperature in various points through thermocouples installed in strategic points along hydraulic circuit. The behavior of the natural circulation phenomenon was monitored by graphical interface on computer screen, showing the temperature evolutions of measuring points and results stored in digital spreadsheets. The results stored in digital spreadsheets allowed the getting of data to graphic construction and discussion about natural circulation phenomenon. Finally, the calculus of Reynolds number allowed the establishment for a correlation of friction in function of geometric scales of length, heights and cross section of tubing, considering a natural circulation flow throughout in the region of hot leg. (author)

  7. Experimental study on partial coherence source

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Xue Qing; Yuan Xiao; LiuJingRu; Wang Long Hua; Tang Ying; Huang, Kerson

    2002-01-01

    Partial coherence source is a key part in the laser system using echelon-free introduced spatial incoherence beam smoothing technique. Different kinds of partial coherence sources have been studied experimentally for improving the uniformity of laser intensity distribution. It is found that the source produced by excimer laser scattering on the surface of a teflon plate is ideal. The properties of this kind of source are studied. As a result, the uniformity of source beam intensity distribution, the beam spatial coherence and energy transfer efficiency of the source are obtained

  8. Computational and experimental study of laminar flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smooke, Mitchell [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-05-29

    During the past three years, our research has centered on an investigation of the effects of complex chemistry and detailed transport on the structure and extinction of hydrocarbon flames in coflowing axisymmetric configurations. We have pursued both computational and experimental aspects of the research in parallel on both steady-state and time-dependent systems. The computational work has focused on the application of accurate and efficient numerical methods for the solution of the steady-state and time-dependent boundary value problems describing the various reacting systems. Detailed experimental measurements were performed on axisymmetric coflow flames using two-dimensional imaging techniques. Previously, spontaneous Raman scattering, chemiluminescence, and laser-induced fluorescence were used to measure the temperature, major and minor species profiles. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been used to investigate velocity distributions and for calibration of time-varying flames. Laser-induced incandescence (LII) with an extinction calibration was used to determine soot volume fractions, while soot surface temperatures were measured with three-color optical pyrometry using a color digital camera. A blackbody calibration of the camera allows for determination of soot volume fraction as well, which can be compared with the LII measurements. More recently, we have concentrated on a detailed characterization of soot using a variety of techniques including time-resolved LII (TiRe-LII) for soot primary particles sizes, multi-angle light scattering (MALS) for soot radius of gyration, and spectrally-resolved line of sight attenuation (spec-LOSA). Combining the information from all of these soot measurements can be used to determine the soot optical properties, which are observed to vary significantly depending on spatial location and fuel dilution. Our goal has been to obtain a more fundamental understanding of the important fluid dynamic and chemical interactions in

  9. Experimental studies on mushroom and pollen drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, Adnan; Olgun, Hayati; Ayhan, Teoman [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Trabzon (Turkey)

    1999-07-01

    In this study, drying periods of mushrooms and pollens (for Anzer honey) were investigated. The experiments of mushrooms were carried out under both laboratory and shady- and sunny-atmospheric conditions and those of pollens were conducted in the drying cupboard heated by electric heater and under sunny atmospheric conditions. The temperature of the drying cupboard was regulated at 45degC during the drying experiment of pollen. The mass loss of pollens and the temperature of each shelf including pollens in the drying cupboard were measured. Drying curves of mushrooms and pollens for each experiment and the variation of the mass change ratio, the moisture ratio of pollens and the temperatures in the shelves with drying time were presented, respectively. Furthermore, their equations of drying curves and the average experimental uncertainty ratios were calculated based on the experimental results. It was concluded that mushrooms can be dried in the cupboards by using hot air at 50degC in a time period of 5-6 h, and the dried must be protected in vacuum, and the pollens also must be dried at temperatures between 40 and 45degC in a time period of 2.5-3 h without their losing the colour, flavour, smell and structure. The average experimental uncertainty ratio of mushrooms and pollens during the drying process were calculated to be 22 and 18% respectively. (Author)

  10. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S

    2015-06-23

    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  11. Impact of Infection Dose and Previous Serum Antibodies against the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement Proteins on Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shedding in Calves following Experimental Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Martorelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the main causative agent of haemolytic uremic syndrome. Cattle are the main reservoir of these bacteria, and have been shown to develop immune response to colonization. Our aim was to investigate the faecal shedding pattern of E. coli O157:H7 in calves challenged intragastrically with either 108 or 1010 CFU, as well as the ability of specific preexisting antibodies to reduce shedding of the pathogen. Shedding was analysed by direct counting as well as enrichment of rectoanal mucosal swabs. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear model for repeated measures with and without the inclusion of preexisting antibodies against the carboxy-terminal fraction of intimin-γ (γ-intimin C280 as a covariable. Results suggest that there is a statistical difference in the area under the shedding curves between both doses for 14 as well as 28 days after challenge (p = 0.0069 and 0.0209, resp.. This difference is increased when the prechallenge antibodies are taken into account (p = 0.0056 and 0.0185. We concluded that the bacterial dose influences shedding on calves experimentally challenged and that preexisting antibodies against E. coli O157:H7 γ-intimin C280 could partially reduce faecal excretion.

  12. An experimental study of client-side Spotify peering behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, M.; Strowes, S.; Perkins, C.

    2011-01-01

    Spotify is a popular music-streaming service which has seen widespread use across Europe. While Spotify’s server-side behaviour has previously been studied, little is known about the client-side behaviour. In this paper, we describe an experimental study where we collect packet headers for Spotify traffic over multiple 24-hour time frames at a client host. Two distinct types of behaviour are observed, when tracks are being downloaded, and when the client is only serving requests from other pe...

  13. A new dietary model to study colorectal carcinogenesis: experimental design, food preparation, and experimental findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, P; Liberman, V; Lubin, F; Angel, S; Owen, R; Trostler, N; Shkolnik, T; Kritchevsky, D

    1996-01-01

    Experimental dietary studies of human colorectal carcinogenesis are usually based on the AIN-76A diet, which is dissimilar to human food in source, preparation, and content. The aims of this study were to examine the feasibility of preparing and feeding rats the diet of a specific human population at risk for colorectal neoplasia and to determine whether changes in the colonic morphology and metabolic contents would differ from those resulting from a standard rat diet. The mean daily food intake composition of a previously evaluated adenoma patient case-control study was used for the "human adenoma" (HA) experimental diet. Foods were prepared as for usual human consumption and processed by dehydration to the physical characteristics of an animal diet. Sixty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized and fed ad libitum the HA or the AIN-76A diet. Every eight weeks, eight rats from each group were sacrificed, and the colons and contents were examined. Analysis of the prepared food showed no significant deleterious changes; food intake and weight gain were similar in both groups. Compared with the controls, the colonic contents of rats fed the HA diet contained significantly less calcium, concentrations of neutral sterols, total lipids, and cholic and deoxycholic acids were increased, and there were no colonic histological changes other than significant epithelial hyperproliferation. This initial study demonstrated that the HA diet can be successfully processed for feeding to experimental animals and is acceptable and adequate for growth but induces significant metabolic and hyperproliferative changes in the rat colon. This dietary model may be useful for studies of human food, narrowing the gap between animal experimentation and human nutritional research.

  14. Experimental study of curved guide tubes for pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Baylor, L.R.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Milora, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    The use of curved guide tubes for transporting frozen hydrogen pellets offers great flexibility for pellet injection into plasma devices. While this technique has been previously employed, an increased interest in its applicability has been generated with the recent ASDEX Upgrade experimental data for magnetic high-field side (HFS) pellet injection. In these innovative experiments, the pellet penetration appeared to be significantly deeper than for the standard magnetic low-field side injection scheme, along with corresponding greater fueling efficiencies. Thus, some of the major experimental fusion devices are planning experiments with HFS pellet injection. Because of the complex geometries of experimental fusion devices, installations with multiple curved guide tube sections will be required for HFS pellet injection. To more thoroughly understand and document the capability of curved guide tubes, an experimental study is under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In particular, configurations and pellet parameters applicable for the DIII-D tokamak and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were simulated in laboratory experiments. Initial test results with nominal 2.7- and 10-mm-diam deuterium pellets are presented and discussed

  15. Outcomes of induction of labour in women with previous caesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study using a population database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Stock

    Full Text Available There is evidence that induction of labour (IOL around term reduces perinatal mortality and caesarean delivery rates when compared to expectant management of pregnancy (allowing the pregnancy to continue to await spontaneous labour or definitive indication for delivery. However, it is not clear whether IOL in women with a previous caesarean section confers the same benefits. The aim of this study was to describe outcomes of IOL at 39-41 weeks in women with one previous caesarean delivery and to compare outcomes of IOL or planned caesarean delivery to those of expectant management.We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of singleton births greater than 39 weeks gestation, in women with one previous caesarean delivery, in Scotland, UK 1981-2007 (n = 46,176. Outcomes included mode of delivery, perinatal mortality, neonatal unit admission, postpartum hemorrhage and uterine rupture. 40.1% (2,969/7,401 of women who underwent IOL 39-41 weeks were ultimately delivered by caesarean. When compared to expectant management IOL was associated with lower odds of caesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] after IOL at 39 weeks of 0.81 [95% CI 0.71-0.91]. There was no significant effect on the odds of perinatal mortality but greater odds of neonatal unit admission (AOR after IOL at 39 weeks of 1.29 [95% CI 1.08-1.55]. In contrast, when compared with expectant management, elective repeat caesarean delivery was associated with lower perinatal mortality (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.23 [95% CI 0.07-0.75] and, depending on gestation, the same or lower neonatal unit admission (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.98 [0.90-1.07] at 40 weeks of 1.08 [0.94-1.23] and at 41 weeks of 0.77 [0.60-1.00].A more liberal policy of IOL in women with previous caesarean delivery may reduce repeat caesarean delivery, but increases the risks of neonatal complications.

  16. Phosphorus status of diverse soils in Finland as influenced by long-term P fertilisation I.Native and previously applied P at 24 experimental sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. SAARELA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The native reserves of phosphorus (P in Finnish soils are sizeable but poorly available to plants. The P status has been generally poor, but large rates of P applied since the 1940s have substantially enhanced the supply of P from the soil. As a means of optimising P fertilisation of crops grown in the improved soils and promoting agro-environmental sustainability of agriculture, long-term field experiments were established in 1977-1981 on various soil types around Finland, between the latitudes of 60 and 65 N. The experimental sites (8 Cambisols, 9 Regosols, 6 Histosols, 1 Podsol were moderately acidic (pH w 5.6, range 4.6-6.6 and contained 1.6-31.2% organic C, and (mineral soils 3-74% clay. The concentration of total P was 1.22 (0.66-1.87 g kg -1 , and the inorganic fraction separated with fluoride and hydroxide extractions (Al,Fe-P was 8.2% (4.5-12.4% of oxalate extractable Al+Fe (P saturation index. In mineral topsoil the pool of Al,Fe-P was 850 kg ha -1 , which is 300 kg ha -1 larger than was obtained in the early 1960s and 600 kg ha -1 larger than found in virgin soils. The soil test P value was 13.1 (3.7-60 mg dm -3 by the acid ammonium acetate method, 11.5 (1.6-42 mg dm -3 by a water extraction method (1:60 v/v and 61 (23-131 mg kg -1 with a modified Olsen method. The intensity factor of soil P status has remained at a relatively low level in a major part of the cultivated area.;

  17. Birth outcome in women with previously treated breast cancer--a population-based cohort study from Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Dalberg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on birth outcome and offspring health after the appearance of breast cancer are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse birth outcomes in women previously treated for invasive breast cancer compared with the general population of mothers.Of all 2,870,932 singleton births registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry during 1973-2002, 331 first births following breast cancer surgery--with a mean time to pregnancy of 37 mo (range 7-163--were identified using linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Logistic regression analysis was used. The estimates were adjusted for maternal age, parity, and year of delivery. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to estimate infant health and mortality, delivery complications, the risk of preterm birth, and the rates of instrumental delivery and cesarean section. The large majority of births from women previously treated for breast cancer had no adverse events. However, births by women exposed to breast cancer were associated with an increased risk of delivery complications (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9, cesarean section (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7, very preterm birth (<32 wk (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.0, and low birth weight (<1500 g (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8. A tendency towards an increased risk of malformations among the infants was seen especially in the later time period (1988-2002 (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7.It is reassuring that births overall were without adverse events, but our findings indicate that pregnancies in previously treated breast cancer patients should possibly be regarded as higher risk pregnancies, with consequences for their surveillance and management.

  18. Experimental study of rf pulsed heating

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent, L; Nantista, C; Dolgashev, V; Higashi, Y; Aicheler, M; Tantawi, S; Wuensch, W

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic thermal stresses produced by rf pulsed heating can be the limiting factor on the attainable reliable gradients for room temperature linear accelerators. This is especially true for structures that have complicated features for wakefield damping. These limits could be pushed higher by using special types of copper, copper alloys, or other conducting metals in constructing partial or complete accelerator structures. Here we present an experimental study aimed at determining the potential of these materials for tolerating cyclic thermal fatigue due to rf magnetic fields. A special cavity that has no electric field on the surface was employed in these studies. The cavity shape concentrates the magnetic field on one flat surface where the test material is placed. The materials tested in this study have included oxygen free electronic grade copper, copper zirconium, copper chromium, hot isostatically pressed copper, single crystal copper, electroplated copper, Glidcop (R), copper silver, and silver plated co...

  19. Laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy in pigs - experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando de Oliveira Caldas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluated laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy as treatment of experimental ureteropelvic junction (UPJ obstruction in pigs. Ten male Large White pigs weighting approximately 28.4 (±1.43 kg were used in the current study. The UPJ obstruction was created laparoscopically by double-clipping of the left ureter. After 14 days the animals underwent laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy f The animals were sacrificed for subsequent retrograde pyelography in order to assess the anastomotic patency on the 28th day. The laparoscopic procedure for experimental obstruction of UPJ was successfully performed in all animals, as well as the laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy. There was intestinal iatrogenic injury in one animal. Satisfactory UPJ patency was noted in 75% of the animals. There was no stenosis of the proximal anastomosis between the ureter and the lower pole of the kidney in 37.5%, mild stenosis in 37.5% and severe stenosis in 25% of the animals. The laparoscopic approach for reestablishment he urinary flow by ureterocalicostomy was feasible in the porcine model. The ascending pyelography revealed satisfactory results of the laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy

  20. Experimental study of unsteady thermally stratified flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Jun; Chung, Myung Kyoon

    1985-01-01

    Unsteady thermally stratified flow caused by two-dimensional surface discharge of warm water into a oblong channel was investigated. Experimental study was focused on the rapidly developing thermal diffusion at small Richardson number. The basic objectives were to study the interfacial mixing between a flowing layer of warm water and an underlying body of cold water and to accumulate experimental data to test computational turbulence models. Mean velocity field measurements were carried out by using NMR-CT(Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Computerized Tomography). It detects quantitative flow image of any desired section in any direction of flow in short time. Results show that at small Richardson number warm layer rapidly penetrates into the cold layer because of strong turbulent mixing and instability between the two layers. It is found that the transfer of heat across the interface is more vigorous than that of momentum. It is also proved that the NMR-CT technique is a very valuable tool to measure unsteady three dimensional flow field. (Author)

  1. Vascularized nerve grafts: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzelli, Renato; Capone, Crescenzo; Sgulò, Francesco Giovanni; Mariniello, Giuseppe; Maiuri, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to define an experimental model in order to promote the functional recovery of the nerves using grafts with vascular support (Vascular Nerve Grafts - VNG). The aim of this study is to define, on an experimental model in normal recipient bed, whether the functional recovery with VNG is superior to that obtained non-vascularized graft (NNG). Twenty male rabbits, which underwent dissection of sciatic nerve, were later treated by reinnervation through an autograft. In 10 animals the reconstruction of sciatic nerve was realized with VNG; in 10 control animals the reconstruction of sciatic nerve was realized with NNG. The VNG group showed a better axonal organization and a significantly higher number of regenerated axons in the early phases (after 30 days) than the NNG group, whereas the difference in the axonal number at day 90 was less significant; besides, the axon diameter and the myelin thickness were not significantly improved by VNG group. Our data suggests that the use of VNG leads to a faster regeneration process and a better functional recovery, although the final results are comparable to those of the NNG. VNG improve the quality of the axonal regeneration (axonal diameter and Schwann cells), although the increase in the axonal number is not significant and does not improve the long-term functional outcome.

  2. Experimental studies of the magnetized friction force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, A. V.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Gaalnander, B.; Lofnes, T.; Ziemann, V.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy electron cooling, presently considered as an essential tool for several applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, requires an accurate description of the friction force which ions experience by passing through an electron beam. Present low-energy electron coolers can be used for a detailed study of the friction force. In addition, parameters of a low-energy cooler can be chosen in a manner to reproduce regimes expected in future high-energy operation. Here, we report a set of dedicated experiments in CELSIUS aimed at a detailed study of the magnetized friction force. Some results of the accurate comparison of experimental data with the friction force formulas are presented

  3. Nonlocal Regularized Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques for MRI: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to revitalize researchers' interest in algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART by expanding their capabilities and demonstrating their potential in speeding up the process of MRI acquisition. Using a continuous-to-discrete model, we experimentally study the application of ART into MRI reconstruction which unifies previous nonuniform-fast-Fourier-transform- (NUFFT- based and gridding-based approaches. Under the framework of ART, we advocate the use of nonlocal regularization techniques which are leveraged from our previous research on modeling photographic images. It is experimentally shown that nonlocal regularization ART (NR-ART can often outperform their local counterparts in terms of both subjective and objective qualities of reconstructed images. On one real-world k-space data set, we find that nonlocal regularization can achieve satisfactory reconstruction from as few as one-third of samples. We also address an issue related to image reconstruction from real-world k-space data but overlooked in the open literature: the consistency of reconstructed images across different resolutions. A resolution-consistent extension of NR-ART is developed and shown to effectively suppress the artifacts arising from frequency extrapolation. Both source codes and experimental results of this work are made fully reproducible.

  4. Experimental Studies of quasi-fission reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, B.B.

    1989-01-01

    A large number of recent experimental studies have shown that a substantial fraction of the total reaction cross section in heavy-ion reactions is found in fission-like processes, which do not result from the fission decay of a completely fused system. Following the suggestion of Swiatecki such processes, which represents a complete relaxation of the relative kinetic energy and a substantial amount of net mass transfer between the two fragments, are denoted quasi-fission reactions. They are distinct from compound fission reactions by bypassing the stage of a completely fused system. This typically means that they are associated with short reaction times, which results in several measurable characteristics such as broken forward-backward symmetries, large anisotropies of the angular distributions and increased widths of the fragment mass distributions. The distinction between quasi-fission and deep inelastic reactions is less stringent and has the character of a gradual evolution from one reaction type to the other, as found also as quasi-elastic reaction evolves into deeply inelastic processes as a function of the total kinetic energy loss. In the present paper some of the experimental data characterizing quasi-fission reactions are reviewed and discussed. (author)

  5. Experimental study on low pressure flow instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin; Wu Shaorong; Bo Jinhai; Zhang Youjie

    1997-05-01

    The experiment was performed on the test loop (HRTL-5), which simulates the geometry and system design of the 5 MW reactor. The flow behavior for a wide range of inlet subcooling, in which the flow undergoes from single phase to two phase, is described in a natural circulation system at low pressure (p = 0.1, 0.24 MPa). Several kinds of flow instability, e.g. subcooled boiling instability, subcooled boiling induced flashing instability, pure flashing instability as well as flashing coupled density wave instability and high frequency flow oscillation, are investigated. The mechanism of flashing and flashing concerned flow instability, which has never been studied well in this field, is especially interpreted. The experimental results show that, firstly, for a low pressure natural circulation system the two phase flow is unstable in most of inlet subcooling conditions, the two phase stable flow can only be reached at very low inlet subcooling; secondly, at high inlet subcooling the flow instability is dominated by subcooled boiling in the heated section, and at middle inlet subcooling is dominated by void flashing in the adiabatic long riser; thirdly, in two phase stable flow region the condition for boiling out of the core, namely, single phase flow in the heated section, two phase flow in the riser due to vapor flashing, can be realized. The experimental results are very important for the design and accident analysis of the vessel and swimming pool type natural circulation nuclear heating reactor. (7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.)

  6. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  7. Treatment satisfaction with paliperidone extended-release tablets: open-label study in schizophrenia patients dissatisfied with previous antipsychotic medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang FD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fu De Yang,1 Juan Li,1 Yun Long Tan,1 Wei Ye Liang,1 Rongzhen Zhang,1 Ning Wang,1 Wei Feng,1 Shangli Cai,2 Jian Min Zhuo,2 Li Li Zhang2 1Beijing Hui-Long-Guan Hospital, 2Department of Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Ltd, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in treatment satisfaction after switching to paliperidone extended-release (ER in Chinese schizophrenia patients dissatisfied with their previous antipsychotic treatment.Methods: In this 8-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, prospective study, 1,693 patients dissatisfied with previous antipsychotic medication were enrolled and switched to paliperidone ER tablets (3–12 mg/d based on clinical judgment. The primary efficacy end point was change in Medication Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ score from baseline to week 8. The secondary end points included percentage of patients with MSQ score ≥4, as well as changes in Clinical Global Improvement-Severity (CGI-S and Personal and Social Performance (PSP scores.Results: MSQ scores increased significantly from baseline (mean [standard deviation {SD}]: 2.48 [0.55] to week 8 (5.47 [0.89], P<0.0001; primary end point, full analysis set. The percentage of patients with MSQ score ≥4 was 95.9% at week 8, indicating that most of the patients were satisfied with their treatment. Significant (P<0.0001 improvements from baseline to week 8 were noted in CGI-S score (2.37 [1.20] and PSP score (25.5 [15.0]. A total of 174 (10.28% patients experienced adverse events (AEs. The most common (>10 patients events were extrapyramidal disorder (n=84, 4.96%, poor quality sleep (n=18, 1.06% and akathisia (n=13, 0.77%. The majority of AEs were mild to moderate in severity. No deaths occurred.Conclusion: Treatment satisfaction improved after switching to paliperidone ER from the previous antipsychotic in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Keywords: atypical antipsychotics, open label

  8. Evaluation of questionnaire-based information on previous physical work loads. Stockholm MUSIC 1 Study Group. Musculoskeletal Intervention Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgén, M; Winkel, J; Alfredsson, L; Kilbom, A

    1999-06-01

    The principal aim of the present study was to evaluate questionnaire-based information on past physical work loads (6-year recall). Effects of memory difficulties on reproducibility were evaluated for 82 subjects by comparing previously reported results on current work loads (test-retest procedure) with the same items recalled 6 years later. Validity was assessed by comparing self-reports in 1995, regarding work loads in 1989, with worksite measurements performed in 1989. Six-year reproducibility, calculated as weighted kappa coefficients (k(w)), varied between 0.36 and 0.86, with the highest values for proportion of the workday spent sitting and for perceived general exertion and the lowest values for trunk and neck flexion. The six-year reproducibility results were similar to previously reported test-retest results for these items; this finding indicates that memory difficulties was a minor problem. The validity of the questionnaire responses, expressed as rank correlations (r(s)) between the questionnaire responses and workplace measurements, varied between -0.16 and 0.78. The highest values were obtained for the items sitting and repetitive work, and the lowest and "unacceptable" values were for head rotation and neck flexion. Misclassification of exposure did not appear to be differential with regard to musculoskeletal symptom status, as judged by the calculated risk estimates. The validity of some of these self-administered questionnaire items appears sufficient for a crude assessment of physical work loads in the past in epidemiologic studies of the general population with predominantly low levels of exposure.

  9. Metabolic Desynchronization in Critical Conditions: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Livanov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To conduct an experimental study of the impact of the time of administration of succinic acid preparations on central nervous system (CNS function and gas exchange while simulating metabolic therapy for severe poisoning by ethyl alcohol. The study was performed on 74 male albino rats weighing 140—180 g. Acute severe and very severe intoxication was simulated, by intraabdominally administering 30% ethanol to the rats. Cytoflavin was used to simulate experimental therapy. The rate of gas exchange was estimated by the oxygen uptake determined by the closed chamber method in a Regnault apparatus (Germany. Spontaneous bioelectrical activity was recorded in the frontooccipital lead by the routine procedure. External pain stimulation and rhythmical photostimulation were employed to evaluate cerebral responsiveness. Heterodirectional EEG changes in the «early» and «late» administration of succinate were not followed by the similar alterations of gas exchange: oxygen consumption in both the «early» and «late» administration of succinate remained significantly lower than in the control animals. With the late administration of succinate to the animals with mixed (toxic and hypoxic coma, the so-called discrepancy between the noticeably increased energy production and brutally diminished metabolism occurred. It may be just the pathological mechanism that was the basis for higher mortality in the late succinate administration group. The findings and their analysis make it possible to advance a hypothesis that succinate may cause metabolic desynchronization if activation of metabolic processes takes place under severe tissue respiratory tissue depression. In these cases, there is a severe damage to tissue and chiefly the brain. This manifests itself as EEG epileptiform activity splashes preceding the animals’ death. Therefore, resuscitation aimed at restoring the transport of oxygen and its involvement in tissue energy processes should

  10. Contribution to the experimental study of the hydraulic jump in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to study experimentally the hydraulic jump evolving in a symmetric trapezoidal channel with a positive slope, requires the use of an experimental protocol, and to find experimental relations linking the characteristics of the formed projection. The experimental study investigated the variation of the ...

  11. Electrochemistry of chlorogenic acid: experimental and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namazian, Mansoor [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: namazian@yazduni.ac.ir; Zare, Hamid R. [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-08-10

    Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and rotating disk electrode voltammetry as well as quantum chemical methods, are used for electrochemical study of chlorogenic acid, as an important biological molecule. The standard formal potential, diffusion coefficient, and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of chlorogenic acid in aqueous solution are investigated. Acidic dissociation constant of chlorogenic acid is also obtained. Quantum mechanical calculations on oxidation of chlorogenic acid in aqueous solution, using density functional theory are presented. The change of Gibbs free energy and entropy of oxidation of chlorogenic acid are calculated using thermochemistry calculations. The calculations in aqueous solution are carried out with the use of polarizable continuum solvation method. Theoretical standard electrode potential of chlorogenic acid is achieved to be 0.580 V versus standard calomel electrode (SCE) which is in agreement with the experimental value of 0.617 V obtained experimentally in this work. The difference is consistent with the values we previously reported for other quinone derivatives.

  12. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals

  13. Experimental study of capillary-assisted evaporators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabir, H.M.; ElHag, Y.B.M.; Benhadj-Djilali, R. [Faculty of Engineering, Kingston University, Friars Avenue, London SW15 3DW (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental work aimed at studying the effect of porous layer parameters on the thermal performance of water evaporators. The results show that there are optimum particle sizes that are associated with maximum boiling heat rates and heat transfer coefficients. The results also show that the layer thickness has monotonic effect on the evaporators' performance but its impact is less pronounced compared to that of the particle size. The trends are explained in terms of the contradicting effects that exist within the layer. The research also showed that the effect of the heat load, represented by temperature and velocity of the load air, was negligible. Boiling heat transfer coefficients of up to 5 kW/m{sup 2} C were achieved. (author)

  14. Pulley reconstruction with different materials: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruç, Melike; Ulusoy, M Gürhan; Kankaya, Yüksel; Koçer, Uğur; Serbetçi, Kemal; Hasrc, Nesrin

    2008-08-01

    The digital fibroosseous pulley system is essential for optimum function of the flexor tendons and the continuation of normal hand functions. Different materials have been used for pulley reconstruction in the literature but the ideal material is still controversial. In this study, after the excision of the A2 pulley, pulley reconstructions were performed by using acellular dermal matrix, solvent dehydrated bovine pericardium, fascia lata, and free tendon graft in the rabbit model. The animals were killed at the 8th and 12th weeks and subjected to biomechanical testing. Tendon excursion and work of flexion values were calculated for each digit of the rabbits. As a result, all the reconstructed pulleys were functioning well without a statistically significant difference between the experimental groups. Pulleys reconstructed with acellular dermal matrix and solvent-dehydrated bovine pericardium appear to have the potential to function as effective pulley substitutes.

  15. [Endodontics in horses. An experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, F; Sanromán, F; Llorens, M P

    1990-04-01

    A total of 44 experimental endodontic treatments were performed in incisors of eight horses of different ages. Four different endodontic pastes were used: Cloropercha, AH26 De Trey, Eugenol-Endometasone, and Universal N2. Gutta-percha points were also included in the last two treatments. Access to the pulp cavity of incisors was gained through their vestibular and occlusal faces. Holes drilled in vestibular faces were sealed with composite and those drilled in occlusal faces were sealed with Amalgama. Animals were observed during eighteen months at least after endodontics. Radiographic controls were done just after surgery and before slaughtering. Treated incisors and alveoli were studied histopathologically. During the experiment all animals were in good condition. They ate apparently without trouble, and neither clinical nor radiological signs were present.

  16. Experimental Study of Factors Affecting Soil Erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Gorobets, A. V.; Dobrovolskaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.; Maksimova, I. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of different factors and preparation conditions of monofraction samples from the arable horizon of leached chernozem on soil erodibility and its relationship with soil tensile strength (STS) has been studied. The exposure of samples at 38°C reduces their erodibility by two orders of magnitude. The drying of samples, on the contrary, increases their erodibility. It has been shown that erodibility decreases during the experiment. It has been found that the inoculation of soil with yeast cultures ( Naganishia albida, Lipomyces tetrasporus) reliably increases the STS value in 1.5-1.9 times. The sterile soil is eroded more intensively than the unsterile soil: at 4.9 and 0.3 g/(m2 s), respectively. The drying of soil followed by wetting to the initial water content (30%) has no significant effect on the STS value in almost all experimental treatments.

  17. Experimental study of crossing angle collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Rice, D.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Tigner, M.

    1993-05-01

    The non-linear coupling due to the beam-beam interaction with crossing angle has been studied. The major effect of a small (∼12mrad) crossing angle is to excite 5Q x ±Q s =integer coupling resonance family on large amplitude particles, which results in bad lifetime. On the CESR, a small crossing angle (∼2.4mr) was created at the IP and a reasonable beam-beam tune-shift was achieved. The decay rate of the beam is measured as a function of horizontal tune with and without crossing angle. The theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental measurements have a good agreement. The resonance strength as a function of crossing angle is also measured

  18. Experimental study of crossing angle collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Rice, D.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Tigner, M.

    1993-01-01

    The non-linear coupling due to the beam-beam interaction with crossing angle has been studied. The major effect of a small (∼12mrad) crossing angle is to excite 5Q x ±Q s =integer coupling resonance family on large amplitude particles, which results in bad lifetime. On the CESR, a small crossing angle (∼2.4mr) was created at the IP and a reasonable beam-beam tune-shift was achieved. The decay rate of the beam is measured as a function of horizontal tune with and without crossing angle. The theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental measurements have a good agreement. The resonance strength as a function of crossing angle is also measured

  19. A comprehensive study of oculocutaneous albinism type 1 reveals three previously unidentified alleles on the TYR gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ying; Wei, Ai-Hua; He, Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Lian, Shi; Zhu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a congenital genetic disorder characterized by defects in melanin production. OCA type 1 (OCA1) is the most serious and common type of OCA. This study characterized mutations associated with OCA1 in a series of Chinese patients. We recruited 41 unrelated patients with OCA and 100 healthy subjects from the Chinese Han population. Genomic DNA was extracted from their blood samples. Mutational analysis of tyrosinase (TYR) genes was conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing, specifically to test the 100 control subjects and exclude the possibility of polymorphism. Mutational analysis and bioinformatics study were performed in TYR mutations. Among the 24 (58.5%) patients with OCA1, 21 different TYR mutations were identified, including three previously unidentified alleles (PUAs): one frameshift mutation (c.216delA) and two missense mutations (A241T and N364K). The proband mutation A241T carries three possible mutations in complex OCA. The findings of this study expand current knowledge and data of mutations associated with OCA1 in China and allow us to estimate or explore the mutation spectrum and relative frequencies of the TYR gene in the Chinese population.

  20. Barriers to postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Forough; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Mehrdad, Neda; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    Risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Postpartum glycemic screening is recommended in women with recent GDM. But this screening rate is low and the reasons are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Iranian women with recent GDM on barriers of postpartum screening for diabetes. This qualitative study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interview was used for data collection. 22 women with recent GDM were interviewed. These women gave birth in Tehran hospitals at a minimum of 6 months before interview. The missed screening defined as not attending to laboratory for Fasting Blood Sugar and/or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, 6 week to 6 month after their child birthing. The data was analyzed by content analysis method. Themes and sub-themes that illustrated the barriers to postpartum diabetes screening were: inadequate education (about developing diabetes in the future, implementation of the screening, and glucometer validity in diagnosis of diabetes), perceiving the screening as difficult (feeling comfortable with the glucometer, poor laboratory conditions, issues related to the baby/babies, and financial problems), improper attitudes toward the screening (unwilling to get diagnosed, not giving priority to oneself, having false beliefs) and procrastination (gap to intention and action, self-deception and self-regulation failure). Women with recent GDM reported several barriers for postpartum diabetes screening. This study help to develop the evidence-based interventions for improving this screening rate.

  1. Value and reliability of findings from previous epidemiologic studies in the assessment of radiation-related cancer risks. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Martignoni, K.

    1990-01-01

    The theories put forward here are predominantly based on pooled data from previous studies in a number of cohorts made up by mostly non-average individuals. These studies were carried out by various researchers and differed in procedures and aims. Factors of major importance to the validity and reliability of the conclusions drawn from this study are pointed out. In one chapter some light is thrown on factors known to bear a relation to the incidence of radiation-induced cancer of the breast, even though at present this can only very vaguely be described on a quantitative basis. These factors include fractionated dose regimens, pregnancies and parturitions, menarche, menopause, synergisms as well as secondary cancer of the breast. The available body of evidence suggests that exposure of each of 1 million women to a dose of 10 mGy (rad) can be linked with approx. 3 additional cases of mammary cancer reported on an average per year after the latency period. The fact that there is some statistical scatter around this value is chiefly attributable to age-related causes at the beginning of exposure. Differences in ethnic and cultural characteristics between the populations investigated appeared to be less important here. (orig./MG) [de

  2. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOTLER, MOSHE; DILBAZ, NESRIN; ROSA, FERNANDA; PATERAKIS, PERIKLIS; MILANOVA, VIHRA; SMULEVICH, ANATOLY B.; LAHAYE, MARJOLEIN

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Methods: Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Results: Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0±12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8±5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Conclusion: Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine. PMID:26813484

  3. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Moshe; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Rosa, Fernanda; Paterakis, Periklis; Milanova, Vihra; Smulevich, Anatoly B; Lahaye, Marjolein; Schreiner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥ 20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤ 5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0 ± 12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥ 20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8 ± 5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥ 7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine.

  4. An experimental study of mixed convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, Manuel

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our study is to establish a reliable data base for improving thermal-hydraulic codes, in the field of turbulent flows with buoyancy forces. The flow considered is mixed convection in the Reynolds and Richardson number range: Re=10 3 to 6*10 4 and Ri=10 -4 to 1. Experiments are carried out in an upward turbulent flow between vertical parallel plates at different wall temperatures. Part 1 gives a detailed data base of turbulent mixed flow of free and forced convection. Part II presents the installation and the calibration system intended for probes calibration. Part III describes the measurement technique (constant-temperature probe and cold-wire probe) and the method for measuring the position of the hot-wire anemometer from the wall surface. The measurement accuracy is within 0.001 mm in the present system. Part IV relates the development of a method for near wall measurements. This correction procedure for hot-wire anemometer close to wall has been derived on the basis of a two-dimensional numerical study. The method permits to obtain a quantitative correction of the wall influence on hot-wires and takes into account the velocity profile and the effects the wall material has on the heat loss. Part V presents the experimental data obtained in the channel in forced and mixed convection. Results obtained in the forced convection regime serve as a verification of the measurement technique close to the wall and give the conditions at the entrance of the test section. The effects of the buoyancy force on the mean velocity and temperature profiles are confirmed. The buoyancy strongly affects the flow structure and deforms the distribution of mean velocity. The velocity profiles are asymmetric. The second section of part V gives an approach of analytical wall functions with buoyancy forces, on the basis of the experimental data obtained in the test section. (author) [fr

  5. Experimental study of rf pulsed heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Laurent

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic thermal stresses produced by rf pulsed heating can be the limiting factor on the attainable reliable gradients for room temperature linear accelerators. This is especially true for structures that have complicated features for wakefield damping. These limits could be pushed higher by using special types of copper, copper alloys, or other conducting metals in constructing partial or complete accelerator structures. Here we present an experimental study aimed at determining the potential of these materials for tolerating cyclic thermal fatigue due to rf magnetic fields. A special cavity that has no electric field on the surface was employed in these studies. The cavity shape concentrates the magnetic field on one flat surface where the test material is placed. The materials tested in this study have included oxygen free electronic grade copper, copper zirconium, copper chromium, hot isostatically pressed copper, single crystal copper, electroplated copper, Glidcop®, copper silver, and silver plated copper. The samples were exposed to different machining and heat treatment processes prior to rf processing. Each sample was tested to a peak pulsed heating temperature of approximately 110°C and remained at this temperature for approximately 10×10^{6} rf pulses. In general, the results showed the possibility of pushing the gradient limits due to pulsed heating fatigue by the use of copper zirconium and copper chromium alloys.

  6. Theoretical and experimental studies of elementary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, A.; Ferbel, T.; Melissinos, A.C.; Slattery, P.; Tipton, P.; Das, A.; Hagen, C.R.; Rajeev, S.G.; Okubo, S.; Orr, L.

    1993-01-01

    The various components of the high-energy physics research program at the University of Rochester are presented. (I)Fixed-target experimentation at FNAL includes studies of direct photon production by p and π on H, Be, and Cu, and hybrid mesons and other physics issues in Coulomb excitation at high energies. (II)The status of the GEM (Gammas, Electrons, and Muons) Experiment at the SSC is given. (III)The D-Zero experiment at FNAL is reviewed. (IV)Deep inelastic lepton--nucleon scattering experiments are summarized: electron scattering experiments at SLAC, FNAL neutrino quad triplet runs, FNAL neutrino sign selected experiments, and SDC cosmic ray test and test beam calibration. (V)Studies of nonlinear QED at SLAC concentrated on a study of QED at critical field strength in intense laser--high-energy electron collisions. (VI)Development work on the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) emphasized the CDF silicon vertex detector, the end plug calorimeter, and the SDC tile/fiber calorimetry. (VII)The theoretical physics effort is sketched

  7. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 9: collecting data from quasi-experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloe, Ariel M; Becker, Betsy Jane; Duvendack, Maren; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Shemilt, Ian; Waddington, Hugh

    2017-09-01

    To identify variables that must be coded when synthesizing primary studies that use quasi-experimental designs. All quasi-experimental (QE) designs. When designing a systematic review of QE studies, potential sources of heterogeneity-both theory-based and methodological-must be identified. We outline key components of inclusion criteria for syntheses of quasi-experimental studies. We provide recommendations for coding content-relevant and methodological variables and outlined the distinction between bivariate effect sizes and partial (i.e., adjusted) effect sizes. Designs used and controls used are viewed as of greatest importance. Potential sources of bias and confounding are also addressed. Careful consideration must be given to inclusion criteria and the coding of theoretical and methodological variables during the design phase of a synthesis of quasi-experimental studies. The success of the meta-regression analysis relies on the data available to the meta-analyst. Omission of critical moderator variables (i.e., effect modifiers) will undermine the conclusions of a meta-analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Theoretical and experimental studies on the foundation theoretical and experimental studies on the foundation of mesomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Wu, S.

    1992-06-01

    The report summarizes a closely coupled experimental and theoretical investigation of various stages of Fracture Process: (1) accumulation of 'damage' on submicroscopical and microscopical scales leading to crack initiation; (2) slow (subcritical) crack growth and an evolution of the damage zone; (3) transition to dynamic crack growth and the catastrophic failure. The experimental part of the program is focused on the observation and quantitative characterization of damage preceding and accompanying crack initiation and growth. A special experimental setup for studying the fracture process under variable stress field is reported in Chapter 2. A leading role of crack-damage interaction in fracture process is well documented. A new formalism for solution of crack-microcrack array interaction problem and its successful implementation in the evaluation of crack layer driving forces is presented in Chapter 3. A new model of the process zone, which generalizes the well-known Dagdale-Barenblatt model is presented in Chapter 4. A new measure for material toughness and the prediction of R-curve behavior illustrate the practical application of our model. Experimental examinations of our model under various test conditions are reported in Chapters 4, 5 and 6. The development of the constitutive equations for Crack Layer evolution and their experimental examinations under stress relaxation, fatigue and creep conditions are reported in Chapters 5 and 6. An accelerated test procedure and the formulation of crack layer instability criteria as a substitution for the conventional fracture toughness parameters are also discussed in Chapter 6.

  9. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis Marthoenis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  10. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold David McIntyre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n=13 versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n=15. Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD were: Age  33±4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI 30.0±9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range}, increased by 60 (0–540 mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580 mins/week in the UC group (P=0.234. Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period.

  11. Lipid Peroxidation in Brain Injury (Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yelsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the general mechanisms responsible for the formation and stepwise development of the endogenous intoxication syndrome in the injury. Material and methods. One hundred and thirty animals with experimental brain injury (a blow upon the calvarium delivered by a free weight falling were examined to study the pro- and antioxidant systems, the enzymatic activity in the blood and brain tissue homogenates; the markers of endogenous intoxication, such as medium-weight molecules, were determined. According to the neurological deficit scale developed by A. Ya. Yevtushenko (1989, the animals were divided into 2 groups: 1 those with a good (compensated posttraumatic course and 2 those with a poor (decompensated one. A package of the applied statistical programs «STADIA.6.1/prof» and «STATISTIKA» was employed. Results. Brain injury was used as an example to show how the posttraumatic endogenous intoxication syndrome developed. The latter developed on the cascade principle with the stepwise involvement of the homeostatic systems and with the more aggravated injury. The syndrome is determined by the initiation of processes of lipid peroxidation with the accumulation of its products and by the exhausted spares of antioxidant systems. This leads to hyperenzymemia (the enhanced activity of cathepsin D, acid phosphatase in the brain tissues and blood and to the blood accumulation of toxic substances (medium-weight molecules (toxemia. Key words: posttraumatic endogenous intoxication syndrome, lipid peroxidation, brain injury.

  12. Experimental study of elementary collection efficiency of aerosols by spray: Design of the experimental device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducret, D.; Vendel, J.; Garrec. S.L.

    1995-02-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant containment building, in which pressure and temperature could increase because of a overheating reactor accident, can be achieved by spraying water drops. The spray reduces the pressure and the temperature levels by condensation of steam on cold water drops. The more stringent thermodynamic conditions are a pressure of 5.10{sup 5} Pa (due to steam emission) and a temperature of 413 K. Moreover its energy dissipation function, the spray leads to the washout of fission product particles emitted in the reactor building atmosphere. The present study includes a large program devoted to the evaluation of realistic washout rates. The aim of this work is to develop experiments in order to determine the collection efficiency of aerosols by a single drop. To do this, the experimental device has to be designed with fundamental criteria:-Thermodynamic conditions have to be representative of post-accident atmosphere. Thermodynamic equilibrium has to be attained between the water drops and the gaseous phase. Thermophoretic, diffusiophoretic and mechanical effects have to be studied independently. Operating conditions have to be homogenous and constant during each experiment. This paper presents the design of the experimental device. In practice, the consequences on the design of each of the criteria given previously and the necessity of being representative of the real conditions will be described.

  13. Experimental Study of Gas Hydrate Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandino, O.; Ruffine, L.

    2011-12-01

    Important quantities of methane and other gases are trapped below the seafloor and in the permafrost by an ice-like solid, called gas hydrates or clathrate hydrates. The latter is formed when water is mixing with different gases at high pressures and low temperatures. Due to a their possible use as a source of energy [1] or the problematic related to flow assurance failure in pipelines [2] the understanding of their processes of formation/destabilisation of these structures becomes a goal for many laboratories research as well as industries. In this work we present an experimental study on the stochastic behaviour of hydrate formation from a bulk phase. The method used here for the experiments was to repeat several time the same hydrate formation procedure and to notice the different from one experiment to another. A variable-volume type high-pressure apparatus with two sapphire windows was used. This device, already presented by Ruffine et al.[3], allows us to perform both kinetics and phase equilibrium measurements. Three initial pressure conditions were considered here, 5.0 MPa, 7.5 MPa and 10.0 MPa. Hydrates have been formed, then allowed to dissociate by stepwise heating. The memory effect has also been investigated after complete dissociation. It turned out that, although the thermodynamics conditions of formation and/or destabilization were reproducible. An attempt to determine the influence of pressure on the nucleation induction time will be discussed. References 1. Sum, A. K.; Koh, C. A.; Sloan, E. D., Clathrate Hydrates: From Laboratory Science to Engineering Practice. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2009, 48, 7457-7465. 2. Sloan, E. D., A changing hydrate paradigm-from apprehension to avoidance to risk management. Fluid Phase Equilibria 2005, 228, 67-74. 3. Ruffine, L.; Donval, J. P.; Charlou, J. L.; Cremière, A.; Zehnder, B. H., Experimental study of gas hydrate formation and destabilisation using a novel high-pressure apparatus. Marine

  14. Using a pregnancy decision support program for women choosing birth after a previous caesarean in Japan: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigoe, Ikuyo; Shorten, Allison

    2018-02-01

    Opportunities for women and providers to use decision aids and share decisions about birth after caesarean in practice are currently limited in Japan. This is despite known benefits of decision aids to support value-sensitive healthcare decisions. To explore Japanese women's decision making experiences using a decision aid program for birth choices after caesarean. A mixed methods study was conducted among 33 consenting pregnant women with previous caesarean in five obstetrics institutions located in the western part of Japan. Outcome measures included change in level of decisional conflict, change in knowledge, and preference for birth method. Semi-structured interviews examined women's decision making experiences, and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The participants in the program experienced a statistically significant improvement in knowledge and reduction in decisional conflict about birth after caesarean. Four themes were identified in the qualitative data related to decision making: change in women's knowledge about birth choices, clarifying women's birth preference, feelings about shared decision making, and contrasting feelings after receiving information. This study confirmed potential benefits of using the decision aid program. However, uncertainty about mode of birth continued for some women immediately prior to the birth. This finding emphasized the need to identify additional ways to support women emotionally throughout the process of decision making about birth after caesarean. It was feasible to adapt the decision aid for use in clinical practice. Future research is necessary to examine its effectiveness when implemented in Japanese clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of treatment of a previous ectopic pregnancy on in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Yan, Lei; Liu, Wen; Xu, Xinxin; Li, Miao; Ding, Lingling; Ma, Jinlong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of previous ectopic pregnancies (EP) and different EP treatment methods on in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. University-based reproductive medicine center. Women undergoing 51,268 fresh cycles of IVF-ICSI. In women who had had an EP before the IVF treatment and women who were diagnosed with fallopian disease without an EP (control group), division into three treatment subgroups: subgroup 1, conservative treatment; subgroup 2, salpingostomy; and subgroup 3 salpingectomy. Estimates of IVF-ICSI outcome and ovarian function based on number of antral follicles and rates of implantation, EP, clinical pregnancy, and delivery. For the experimental group and the control group, there were no statistically significant differences in the rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy, or delivery. However, the risk of recurrent EP was statistically significantly higher in the experimental group compared with the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in IVF-ICSI outcomes between the three treatment subgroups in terms of the basic antral follicle number or the dominant antral follicle numbers (>1.0 cm) after surgical treatment of EP. Our results suggest that women with a prior history of EP have a higher recurrence risk of EP after IVF in comparison with women with no history of EP. Previous EP has no effect on the main IVF-ICSI outcomes. For the treatment of EP, salpingostomy and salpingectomy do not statistically significantly affect ovarian function. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Thymic Atrophy: Experimental Studies and Therapeutic Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S; Nandi, D

    2018-01-01

    The thymus is essential for T cell development and maturation. It is extremely sensitive to atrophy, wherein loss in cellularity of the thymus and/or disruption of the thymic architecture occur. This may lead to lower naïve T cell output and limited TCR diversity. Thymic atrophy is often associated with ageing. What is less appreciated is that proper functioning of the thymus is critical for reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with various clinical conditions including infections and transplantation. Therefore, therapeutic interventions which possess thymopoietic potential and lower thymic atrophy are required. These treatments enhance thymic output, which is a vital factor in generating favourable outcomes in clinical conditions. In this review, experimental studies on thymic atrophy in rodents and clinical cases where the thymus atrophies are discussed. In addition, mechanisms leading to thymic atrophy during ageing as well as during various stress conditions are reviewed. Therapies such as zinc supplementation, IL7 administration, leptin treatment, keratinocyte growth factor administration and sex steroid ablation during thymic atrophy involving experiments in animals and various clinical scenarios are reviewed. Interventions that have been used across different scenarios to reduce the extent of thymic atrophy and enhance its output are discussed. This review aims to speculate on the roles of combination therapies, which by acting additively or synergistically may further alleviate thymic atrophy and boost its function, thereby strengthening cellular T cell responses. © 2017 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  17. Experimental study of trimethyl aluminum decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Pan, Yang; Yang, Jiuzhong; Jiang, Zhiming; Fang, Haisheng

    2017-09-01

    Trimethyl aluminum (TMA) is an important precursor used for metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of most Al-containing structures, in particular of nitride structures. The reaction mechanism of TMA with ammonia is neither clear nor certain due to its complexity. Pyrolysis of trimethyl metal is the start of series of reactions, thus significantly affecting the growth. Experimental study of TMA pyrolysis, however, has not yet been conducted in detail. In this paper, a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer is adopted to measure the TMA decomposition from room temperature to 800 °C in a special pyrolysis furnace, activated by soft X-ray from the synchrotron radiation. The results show that generation of methyl, ethane and monomethyl aluminum (MMA) indicates the start of the pyrolysis process. In the low temperature range from 25 °C to 700 °C, the main product is dimethyl aluminum (DMA) from decomposition of TMA. For temperatures larger than 700 °C, the main products are MMA, DMA, methyl and ethane.

  18. Experimental study of finite Larmor radius effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struve, K.W.

    1980-08-01

    Linear Z-pinches in Ar, Kr, Xe, N 2 , and He are experimentally studied in regimes where strong finite Larmor radius effects could provide a significant stabilizing effect. Scaling arguments show that for deuterium such a pinch has an electron line density of order 2 x 10 15 /cm. For higher Z plasmas a higher line density is allowed, the exact value of which depends on the average ion charge. The pinch is formed by puffing gas axially through the cathode towards the anode of an evacuated pinch chamber. When the gas reaches the anode, the pinch bank is fired. The pinch current rises in 2 to 3 μsec to a maximum of 100 to 200 kA. The pinch bank capacitance is 900 μF, and the external inductance is 100 nH. Additionally, the bank is fused to increase dI/dt. The primary diagnostics are a framing camera, a spatially resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and X-ray absorption

  19. Experimental studies of fiber concrete creep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korneeva Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two-stage experimental studies of the strength and deformation characteristics of fibrous concrete reinforced with steel fiber. In the experiments we used steel fiber with bent ends, which practically does not form "hedgehogs", which allows to achieve an even distribution of the fiber by volume. At the first stage, the cube and prismatic strength, deformability at central compression, a number of special characteristics are determined: water absorption, frost resistance, abrasion; the optimal percentage of fiber reinforcement and the maximum size of the coarse aggregate fraction were selected. Fiber reinforcement led to an increase in the strength of concrete at compression by 1,35 times and an increase in the tensile strength at bending by 3,4 times. At the second stage, the creep of fibrous concrete and plain concrete of similar composition at different stress levels was researched. Creep curves are plotted. It is shown that the use of fiber reinforcement leads to a decrease in creep strain by 21 to 30 percent, depending on the stress level.

  20. An experimental study on pedestrian classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munder, S; Gavrila, D M

    2006-11-01

    Detecting people in images is key for several important application domains in computer vision. This paper presents an in-depth experimental study on pedestrian classification; multiple feature-classifier combinations are examined with respect to their ROC performance and efficiency. We investigate global versus local and adaptive versus nonadaptive features, as exemplified by PCA coefficients, Haar wavelets, and local receptive fields (LRFs). In terms of classifiers, we consider the popular Support Vector Machines (SVMs), feed-forward neural networks, and k-nearest neighbor classifier. Experiments are performed on a large data set consisting of 4,000 pedestrian and more than 25,000 nonpedestrian (labeled) images captured in outdoor urban environments. Statistically meaningful results are obtained by analyzing performance variances caused by varying training and test sets. Furthermore, we investigate how classification performance and training sample size are correlated. Sample size is adjusted by increasing the number of manually labeled training data or by employing automatic bootstrapping or cascade techniques. Our experiments show that the novel combination of SVMs with LRF features performs best. A boosted cascade of Haar wavelets can, however, reach quite competitive results, at a fraction of computational cost. The data set used in this paper is made public, establishing a benchmark for this important problem.

  1. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  2. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Experimental study of the pile EL3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    The results of two months' experiments, carried out at low power following the first divergence (4. July 1957) are presented. These experiments dealt with the following points: comparison of experimental and calculated values of the critical size; effects due to the introduction of absorbing materials into the principal experimental facilities, flux distribution measurements especially in these facilities, calibration of safety, control and compensating rods, determination of the average life of the neutrons. (author) [fr

  4. Discovery of previously undetected intellectual disability by psychological assessment: a study of consecutively referred child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, David L; Stokes, John; Buccolo, Martin L; Pappalardo, Stephen; Harvey, Philip D

    2014-07-01

    Intellectual disability is associated with an increased risk of behavioral disturbances and also complicates their treatment. Despite increases in the sophistication of medical detection of early risk for intellectual disability, there is remarkably little data about the detection of intellectual disability in cases referred for psychiatric treatment. In this study, we used a 10-year sample of 23,629 consecutive child and adolescent admissions (ages between 6 and 17) to inpatient psychiatric treatment. Eleven percent (n=2621) of these cases were referred for psychological assessment and were examined with a general measure of intellectual functioning (i.e., WISC-IV). Of these cases, 16% had Full Scale IQs below 70. Of the cases whose therapists then referred them for formal assessment of their adaptive functioning (i.e., ABAS-II) 81% were found to have composite scores below 70 as well. Only one of the cases whose Full Scale IQ was less than 70 had a referral diagnosis of intellectual disability. Cases with previously undetected intellectual disability were found to be significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder and less likely to have a diagnosis of mood disorder than cases with IQs over 70. Disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses did not differ as a function of intellectual performance. These data suggest a high rate of undetected intellectual disability in cases with a psychiatric condition serious enough to require hospitalization and this raises the possibility that many such cases may be misdiagnosed, the basis of their problems may be misconceptualized, and they may be receiving treatments that do not take into account their intellectual level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental studies of octahedral tilting in perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.J.; Kennedy, B.J.; Chakoumakos, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Structures of the perovskite family, ABX 3 , have interested crystallographers over many years, and continue to attract attention on account of their fascinating electrical and magnetic properties, and their significance in the earth sciences. The ideal perovskite (cubic) is a particularly simple structure, but also a demanding one, since aside from the lattice parameter there are no variable parameters in the structure. Consequently, the majority of perovskite structures show departures from the ideal, the most common distortion being the comer-linked tilting of the practically rigid BX 6 octahedral units. Following a group theoretical study in 1997, a number of experimental investigations of octahedral tilting have been undertaken in 1998, and these are reported in this presentation. The studies are of the perovskites, SrZrO 3 , SrHfO 3 , CaTiO 3 , NaTaO 3 and LaGaO 3 . In each case, the crystal structures have been followed at high temperatures, with particular attention being paid to temperature regimes in which only the simplest octahedral tilt (only one tilt axis) pertains. Neutron powder diffraction patterns have been recorded on the medium/high resolution diffractometer installed at beam port HB4 at the High Flux Isotope Reactor, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Crystal structures have been refined by the Rietveld method, and angles of tilt of the oxygen octahedra derived from the atomic position parameters. Each of the first four perovskites listed above transforms from tetragonal (with a single tilt axis) to cubic, and in each case, as far as can be determined from our measurements, the tilt angle in the tetragonal phase decreases continuously towards zero. There are interesting differences, however, in the functional form of this variation. The LaGaO 3 transforms at modest temperature to a rhombohedral phase, also characterised by a single tilt axis, but though the tilt angle decreases slowly with increasing temperature, the sample

  6. Experimental study of acoustic vibration in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Kosuke; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the power uprate of Boiling Water Reactors have been conducted at several existing power plants as a way to improve plant economy. In one of the power uprated plants (117.8% uprates) in the United States, the steam dryer breakages due to fatigue fracture occurred. It is conceivable that the increased steam flow passing through the branches caused a self-induced vibration with the propagation of sound wave into the steam-dome. The resonance among the structure, flow and the pressure fluctuation resulted in the breakages. To understand the basic mechanism of the resonance, previous researches were done by a point measurement of the pressure and by a phase averaged measurement of the flow, while it was difficult to detect the interaction among them by the conventional method. In this study, Dynamic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) System was applied to investigate the effect of sound on natural convection and forced convection. Dynamic PIV system is the newest entrant to the field of fluid flow measurement. Its paramount advantage is the instantaneous global evaluation of conditions over plane extended across the whole velocity field. Also, to evaluate the coupling between the acoustic wave and structure (simulated as tuning fork vibrator in this experiment), in the resonance frequency of tuning fork vibrator, fluid behavior and the motion of tuning fork vibrator are measured simultaneously. (author)

  7. Experimental and computational studies of nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajjha, Ravikanth S.

    The goals of this dissertation were (i) to experimentally investigate the fluid dynamic and heat transfer performance of nanofluids in a circular tube, (ii) to study the influence of temperature and particle volumetric concentration of nanofluids on thermophysical properties, heat transfer and pumping power, (iii) to measure the rheological properties of various nanofluids and (iv) to investigate using a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technique the performance of nanofluids in the flat tube of a radiator. Nanofluids are a new class of fluids prepared by dispersing nanoparticles with average sizes of less than 100 nm in traditional heat transfer fluids such as water, oil, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. In cold regions of the world, the choice of base fluid for heat transfer applications is an ethylene glycol or propylene glycol mixed with water in different proportions. In the present research, a 60% ethylene glycol (EG) or propylene glycol (PG) and 40% water (W) by mass fluid mixture (60:40 EG/W or 60:40 PG/W) was used as a base fluid, which provides freeze protection to a very low level of temperature. Experiments were conducted to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure loss of nanofluids flowing in a circular tube in the fully developed turbulent regime. The experimental measurements were carried out for aluminum oxide (Al2O3), copper oxide (CuO) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles dispersed in 60:40 EG/W base fluid. Experiments revealed that the heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids showed an increase with the particle volumetric concentration. Pressure loss was also observed to increase with the nanoparticle volumetric concentration. New correlations for the Nusselt number and the friction factor were developed. The effects of temperature and particle volumetric concentration on different thermophysical properties (e.g. viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat and density) and subsequently on the Prandtl number

  8. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorder...

  9. Experimental study of UFT with concomitant radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Juichi; Inuyama, Yukio; Fujii, Masato; Takaoka, Tetsuro; Hosoda, Hyonosuke; Kawaura, Mitsuhiro

    1987-01-01

    It has been reported that the combination therapy of 5-FU and radiation is more effective than radiation therapy alone in the treatment of head and neck cancer. This fact probably results from the increased sensitivity of cancer cells to radiation when given in conjunction with administration of 5-FU. UFT is an anticancer agent which is mixture of futraful and uracil in a molar ratio of 1 : 4. UFT showed a higher response rate than 5-FU alone in the treatment of head and neck cancer. 5-FU concentration increases markedly in cancer tissue but remains at a low level in blood. Therefore, the combination of UFT and radiation is expected to show a higher response rate than the combination of 5-FU and radiation, because the efficacy of radiation against cancer tissue is thought to be further enhanced in tissues which contain high concentrations of 5-FU. In order to test the effectiveness of the combination of UFT and radiation, an experimental study was designed by using C57BL mice and YM12 fibrosarcoma. 5-FU and UFT were administered orally for twelve consecutive days and radiation was given for five consecutive days concomitantly. Results obtained are as follows: 1) the combination therapy of 5-FU and radiation was more effective than radiation therapy alone on YM12 fibrosarcoma but it did not reach statistical significance, 2) there was a statistically significant increase in efficacy of the combination therapy of UFT and radiation as opposed to radiation therapy alone or 5-FU plus radiation therapy, 3) no toxic effects were seen in the mice, and 4) the concentration of 5-FU in the tumor tissue was extremely higher in the UFT group than in 5-FU group. This result may explain the higher response to the tumor in the combination of UFT and radiation than in the 5-FU and radiation treatment. (author)

  10. Experimental microangiographic study in normal rabbit liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Gyoo; Park, Jong Yeon; Han, Kook Sang; Moon, Ki Ho; Choi, Chang Ho; Han, Koon Taek; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1994-01-01

    Microangiography is an experimental radiologic technique for evaluation of the morphology and the function of small vessels. The purpose of this study is to introduce a good microangiographic technique and to present the microangiographic appearance of normal hepatic vascular pattern. Five white rabbits weighing 2.5-2.9Kg were objected. Polyethylene catheters were inserted in portal vein and then in IVC. Heparin mixed normal saline (2cc/1000cc) was infused through portal vein and blood was drained to IVC. Barium suspension was infused via the catheter placed in portal vein until the liver surface showed satisfactory finding in barium filling. The liver was removed and this preparation was fixed in 10% formaline for 7 days. After fixation, the liver was sectioned on 1-2mm thickness. The slices were radiographed on high resolution plate using Faxitron. H-E staining of liver tissue was also done. The microbrium was well distributed in all small vessels without filling defect. And we could find the hexagonal shaped classic liver lobule, in which the central vein was located at central portion and portal vein at periphery. The enlargement was showed numerous sinusoids, but there was less dye in the central portion of lobule, but the central vein was well filled by microbarium. The peripheral portion of lobule was well filled with microbarium. So, we could find diamond shaped liver acinus, in which central vein was located at priperal portion and the center of liver acinus was terminal portal vein that growed out from a small portal space. The three acini made the complex acinus and acinar agglomerate was composed of three or four complex acini. It is considered that the liver acinus pattern of Rapparport is more acceptable on microangiography than the classic concept of hepatic lobule

  11. Water-clay interactions. Experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Clay minerals contribute to the chemical composition of soil and sediment groundwaters via surface and dissolution/precipitation reactions. The understanding of those processes is still today fragmentary. In this context, our experimental purpose is to identify the contribution of each reaction in the chemical composition of water in a water/clay System. Kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite are the reference clays. After a fine mineralogical study, the exchange equilibria between K + and H + are characterised. Different exchange sites are identified and the exchange capacities and selectivity coefficients are quantified. Then, mixtures of the three clays are equilibrated with acidic and basic (I≤10 -2 M) solutions at 25 deg. C, 60 deg. C, 80 deg. C, during 320 days. The System evolution is observed by chemical analysis of the solutions and mineralogical analysis by TEM. We show that montmorillonite is unstable compared to the kaolinite/amorphous silica assemblage for solutions of pH<7. Aqueous silica is probably controlled by the kinetics of dissolution of the montmorillonite in moderate pH media. In more acidic solutions, amorphous silica precipitates. Al is under control of 'kaolinite' neo-formations. The use of the selectivity coefficients in a numerical simulation shows that K + concentration depends on exchange reactions. The pH has a more complicated evolution, which is not completely understood. This evolution depends on both exchange equilibria and organic acid occurrence. In this type of experiments, we have demonstrated that the equilibrium equations between smectite and kaolinite are inexact. The problem of the thermodynamic nature of clays remains and is not resolved by these solubility experiments. (author) [fr

  12. Solar pond conception - experimental and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Huseyin [Zonguldak Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey); Halici, Fethi [Sakarya Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Adapazari (Turkey); Binark, A. Korhan [Marmara Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2000-07-01

    A one dimensional transient mathematical model for predicting the thermal performance of the salt gradient solar pond is developed and presented. In this paper, the natural solar ponds and different artificial solar pond systems found in the literature are introduced. Necessary modifications are made on the experimental stand located in Istanbul Technical University, the experimental stand is introduced and natural phenomena produced in the pond by the different solar pond variations under natural conditions are observed. In the theoretical work based on a one dimensional unsteady state heat conduction model with internal heat generation, the energy and mass balance equations for the upper convective zone, the non-convective zone and the lower convective zone, all of which form the solar pond, are written in terms of differential equations. These equations are solved analytically and numerically. The results obtained from the analysis are compared with the experimental results. The temperature and the concentration profiles are separately presented in the figures. (Author)

  13. Experimental and Numerical Study of Damaged Cantilever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, A.; Krawczuk, M.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2000-01-01

    of the results from experimental and numerical tests with hollow section cantileves containing fatigue cracks. Two different finite-element (FE) models have been used to estimate the modal parameters numerically. The first FE model consists of beam elements. The second FE model consists of traditional...... rectangular shell elements and one rectangular shell element with a transverse, internal, open crack. The analytical results from the numerical models are compared with data obtained from experimental tests. The numerical models give good agreements with the experimental data. The beam model takes...... into account only the first mode of the crack evaluation. In the shell model all three modes of the crack growth are taken into account. Nevertheless, the results obtained for both models are satisfactory because the beam is subjected to bending. It can be concluded that it is sufficient to use crack models...

  14. Computatonal and experimental study of laminar flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smooke, M.D.; Long, M.B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research has centered on an investigation of the effects of complex chemistry and detailed transport on the structure and extinction of hydrocarbon flames in counterflow, cylindrical and coflowing axisymmetric configurations. The authors have pursued both computational and experimental aspects of the research in parallel. The computational work has focused on the application of accurate and efficient numerical methods for the solution of the one and two-dimensional nonlinear boundary value problems describing the various reacting systems. Detailed experimental measurements were performed on axisymmetric coflow flames using two-dimensional imaging techniques. In particular, spontaneous Raman scattering and laser induced fluorescence were used to measure the temperature, major and minor species profiles.

  15. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  16. [Experimental study of infectious hepatitis in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asharafova, R A; Tuliaganov, P D; Kasymkhodzhaev, E S

    1976-04-01

    The authors carried out a comparative study of morphological changes in the liver of guinea-pigs in various times following intraperitoneal administration of the serum taken from a patient with infectious hepatitis (1st group), administration of the serum in combination with the urine (2nd group), administration of the serum in combination with the patient's duodenal juice (3rd group), and administration of the serum in combination with a hepatic antigen prepared of the liver of a healthy guinea-pig (4th group). Observations over the behaviour of the animals and morphological investigations showed a high sensitivity of guinea-pigs to virus-containing materials. The reaction was particularly pronounced in animals which were given the serum taken from a patient with infectious hepatitis in combination with a hepatic antigen, and the microscopic picture of the liver almost similar to that of the patient with Botkin's disease. Moreover, in the course of the study it was found possible to re-inoculate the virus obtained from the guinea-pigs subjected to a combined exposure to the serum from a patient with infectious hepatits and hepatic antigen. Comparing the results of the study on guinea-pigs with those obtained previously in the experimental study of viral hepatitis on white rats (1970), the authors have come to the conclusion that guinea-pigs may be used for modelling and experimental investigation of Botkin's disease.

  17. Experimental Study of a Thermoelectric Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Junpeng; Gao, Junling; Chen, Min

    2011-01-01

    . System-level simulation is carried out using a quasi-one-dimensional numerical model that enables direct comparison with experimental results. The results of both experiment and simulation will provide a foundation to improve and optimize complex thermoelectric generation systems....

  18. Experimental methods to study tokamak plasma stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental devices to measure external instability modes with small pick-up coils to detect poloidal magnetic field fluctuations, and internal modes with soft-X-ray detectors are discussed. The characteristics of these devices are calculated for a small tokamak (R 0 = 30 cm, a = 10 cm, I 0 50 KA). (author)

  19. Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

  20. Experimental study of chemotherapy related leukocytopenia treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the positive control drug is G-CSF, respectively fill five kinds of peroal Leucocyte increasing drugs (Qijiao Shengbai Capsule, Weixuening Granule, Compound Zaofan Pill, Berbamine and Leucogen Tablets) in the stomach, the experimental group was divided into normal control group (group A), model group (group B), ...

  1. Economic principles in communication: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.; Rosenkranz, S.; Weitzel, G.U.

    2014-01-01

    This paper experimentally investigates how economic principles affect communication. In a simple sender–receiver game with common interests over payoffs, the sender can send a signal without a pre-given meaning in an infrequent or frequent state of the world. When the signal is costly, several

  2. An experimental study of passive regenerator geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Pryds, Nini

    2011-01-01

    experimental uncertainty associated with magnetocaloric material properties, all regenerators are made of aluminum. The performance of corrugated plates and dimpled plates are compared to traditional flat plate regenerators for a range of cycle times and utilizations. Each regenerator is built using 18...

  3. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-03-02

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorders were assessed using logistic regressions. Obesity was significantly associated with known atopic disorders (adjusted OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.81, 3.22)). The association of obesity with newly diagnosed atopic cases was not as strong as that with known cases, and was not statistically significant (adjusted OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.72)). The similar pattern was observed in different allergic diseases, gender and age stratifications. The association between overweight and atopic diseases were not significant. Obesity is strongly associated with previously diagnosed atopic cases but not so with newly diagnosed atopic cases in Chinese adults. It is likely that people with atopic disorders have a higher risk of developing obesity. Our findings are important for the management of atopic disorders and chronic disease prevention among atopic disease patients.

  4. Radioimmunotherapy with Y-90-epratuzumab in patients with previously treated B-cell lymphoma. A fractionated dose-escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, O.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Tennvall, J.; Hindorf, C.; Olsson, T.; Strand, S.E.; Stenberg, L.; Wingardh, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Fractionated RIT may improve outcome by decreasing heterogeneity in absorbed dose and by increasing therapeutic window. The humanised anti-CD22 antibody, Epratuzumab, (Immunomedics, Inc., Morris Plains, NJ) can be given repeatedly with minimal risk of neutralising Ab (HAHA), making fractionated treatment with 90 Y-labelled epratuzumab possible. Materials and Methods: Patients with previously treated B-cell lymphoma received increasing number (2-4) of weekly infusions of 90 Y-epratuzumab. Patients received either 185 MBq/m 2 per infusion (group A), or, if they had a history of high-dose chemotherapy with stem-cell rescue, 92.5 MBq/m 2 per infusion (group B). The first infusion included 150 MBq of 111 Indium for scintigraphic verification of tumour targeting and dosimetry. 1.5 mg/kg epratuzumab was administered with each infusion. The treatment could be repeated once after 3 m. Results: Of 23 patients, 16 in group A and 6 in group B were evaluable for response. The RR in group A was 62% objective response (OR) and 25% CR/CRu. One patient in group B showed OR. OR was seen in aggressive and indolent lymphoma. Response was also long-lasting and event-free survival of patients showing CR/CRu was 14 to 25+ months. In group A all seven patient, receiving three infusions, showed less than grade 3 platelet and neutrophil toxicity, except for two patients suffering grade 3 neutropenia. Of five patients with 4 weekly infusions there were two patients with dose-limiting haematological toxicity (DLT), both recently treated with high dose cytosar before RIT. With criteria used the maximal tolerated dose was three infusions 185 MBq/m 2 . In group B no patient suffered DLT and one patient exhibited OR. Seven patients were retreated after 3 months with minor toxicity, but improvement in OR in two cases. No patient has developed HAHA. CD22 expression on tumour cells, as assessed by flow cytometry, is available in 18 of 22 patients. In group A, seven of eight patients with

  5. Method to deterministically study photonic nanostructures in different experimental instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husken, B.H.; Woldering, L.A.; Blum, Christian; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Vos, Willem L.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experimental method to recover a single, deterministically fabricated nanostructure in various experimental instruments without the use of artificially fabricated markers, with the aim to study photonic structures. Therefore, a detailed map of the spatial surroundings of the

  6. Model refinement for offshore platforms: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Zongli; Wu, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    Offshore jacket platforms are widely used in offshore oil and gas exploitation. Finite element models of such structures need to have many degrees of freedom (DOFs) to represent the geometrical detail of complex structures, thereby leading to incompatibility in the number of DOFs of experimental models. To bring them both to the same order while ensuring that the essential eigen- properties of the refined model match those of experimental models, an extended model refinement procedure is presented in this paper. Vibration testing of an offshore jacket platform model is performed to validate the applicability of the proposed approach. A full-order finite element model of the platform is established and then tuned to meet the measured modal properties identified from the acceleration signals. Both model reduction and modal expansion methods are investigated, as well as various scenarios of sensor arrangements. Upon completion of the refinement, the updated jacket platform model matches the natural frequencies of the measured model well.

  7. Experimental and numerical study of a printed circuit heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Minghui; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard N.; Shi, Shanbin; Skavdahl, Isaac; Utgikar, Vivek; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic model is developed for transient analysis of the straight-channel PCHE. • Transient scenarios of the straight-channel PCHE subject to helium temperature and mass flow rate variations are numerically investigated. • Steady-state temperature distribution inside the straight-channel PCHE is obtained in calculation. • Experiments are conducted to study the dynamic behavior of the straight-channel PCHE. - Abstract: Printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) are promising to be employed in very-high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTRs) due to their high robustness for high-temperature, high-pressure applications and high compactness. PCHEs typically serve as intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) that isolate the secondary loop from the reactor’s primary system and hence must be sufficiently robust to maintain the system integrity during normal and off-normal conditions. In addition, the performance of the PCHE-type IHX could considerably affect the nuclear power plant overall operation since any transients on the secondary side would be propagated back to the reactor’s primary coolant system via the IHX. It is therefore imperative to understand how the PCHE would dynamically respond to a variety of transients. In the current study, experiments were first conducted to examine the steady-state thermal performance of a reduced-scale straight-channel PCHE. A dynamic model benchmarked in a previous study was then used to predict the steady-state and transient behavior of the PCHE. The steady-state temperature profiles of the working fluids on both the hot and cold sides and in the solid plates of the heat exchanger were obtained, which served as the initial condition for the transient simulations. The detailed dynamic response of the straight-channel PCHE, subject to inlet temperature variations, helium mass flow variations, and combinations of the two, was simulated and analyzed. In addition, two sets of transient tests, one for helium inlet

  8. Experimental studies of Steel Corrugated Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarev Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this particular article is to assess existing calculations of steel corrugated constructions. Steel Corrugated Construction is a perspective type of constructions, which is exhibiting numerous advantages in comparison with one that currently applied in automobile and railroad networks (reinforced concrete water-throughput pipes, reinforced concrete frame bridges. The evaluation of experimental data on models of constructions of this particular type has been carried out in order to improve calculations of Steel Corrugated Constructions.

  9. Experimental studies of coaxial plasma gun current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    In this investigation of a coaxial plasma gun, plasma sheath currents and related behavior are examined. Plasma behavior in the gun affects gun characteristics. Plasma gun applications are determined by the plasma behavior. The AFWL PUFF capacitor bank (72 μF, 29 nH, 120 kV) drives the plasma gun using a deuterium fill gas. The gas breakdown site is isolated from the dielectric/vacuum interface in the AFWL system. Two gas values deliver gas in the system. The first delivers gas from the gun breech and the second optional valve delivers gas to the gun muzzle. Currents and voltages are measured by Rogowski coils, B probes and capacitive voltage probes. A O-D slug model is used to predict the current, inductance, gun voltage and plasma sheath velocity. The slug model assumes the sheath transits the gun with all mass in the sheath. In the snowplow mode, the plasma sheath is thin with a sharp current rise and drop. Our system operated in a transition mode between the snowplow and deflagration modes with early snowplow behavior and late deflagration behavior. Neutrons are produced in a plasma pinch at the gun muzzle, indicating snowplow behavior. The slug theory models overall gun behavior to experimental accuracy. Experimental results are compared to four theories for plasma sheath velocities: the Alfven collisionally limited model, the Rosenbluth model, the Fishbine saturated model and a single particle drift model. Experimental velocities vary from 10 5 to 10 6 m/s. Only the single particle drift and the slug model calculations are of the right magnitude (8 x 10 5 m/s). The Fishbine and the Rosenbluth models predict slower velocities (2 x 10 5 m/s). The Alfven model is not applicable to this system

  10. Experimental study of helicopter fuselage drag

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov, Robert; Zherekov, Vladimir; Pakhov, Vladimir; Mikhailov, Sergey; Garipov, Aleksey; Yakubov, Walter; Barakos, George N.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental data are presented for the parasite drag of various helicopter fuselage components, such as skids, external fuel tanks, and tailplane. The experiments were conducted at the Kazan National Research Technical University (Kazan Aviation Institute) T-1K wind tunnel, investigating four versions of a fuselage similar to the Ansat helicopter. It was found that, for the range of pitch angles −10≤α≤10  deg−10≤α≤10  deg, the skids added 80% to the drag of the bare fuselage, whereas the tai...

  11. Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litmaath, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    After introducing the theoretical framework, which includes DIS, the Quark Parton Model (QPM) and QCD, we describe the implementation of the experiment. The SMC uses a beam of 190 GeV naturally polarized muons, scattering off nucleons in a large cryogenic target containing protons or deuterons that are polarized through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). The target material is located in two cells in a row, with opposite polarizations. Every 5 hours the polarizations of both cells are reversed. The target polarization is measured by an NMR system. The polarization of the beam is measured in a polarimeter, located downstream of the main experimental setup. (orig.)

  12. Experimental Studies of Coaxial Plasma Gun Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    insertion into experimental systems (117-133), fueling for proposed thermonuclear reactors (134-138], breeding fissionable material [139, 140] and...Center Top Level Linear Exponential Yield Current Current Extrap . Extrap . (MA) (MA) Current Current (MA) (MA) 02901 2.8106 0.18 0.05 D3001 1.2x107...Exponential Yield Current Current Extrap . Extrap . (MA) (MA) Current Current (MA) (MA) 30703 1.610 8 1.57 0.64 0.54 0.59 J0706 4.040O 1.46 0.85 0.80 0.82 J

  13. Feasibility study of the AOSTA experimental campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, M.; Blaise, P.; Bethaz, C.; Boccia, F.; Fabrizio, V.; Geslot, B.; Grossi, A.; Gruel, A.

    2016-03-01

    The reduction of the nuclear waste is one of the most important nuclear issues. The high radiotoxicity of the spent fuel is due to plutonium and some minor actinides (MAs) such as neptunium, americium and curium, above all. One way to reduce their hazard is to destroy by fission MAs in appropriate nuclear reactors. To allow the MAs destruction an important effort have been done on the nuclear data due to the poor knowledge in this field. In the framework of one of the NEA Expert Group on Integral Experiments for Minor Actinide Management an analysis of the feasibility of MAs irradiation campaign in the TAPIRO fast research reactor is carried out. This paper provides preliminary results obtained by calculations modelling the irradiation, in different TAPIRO irradiation channels, of some CEA samples coming from the French experimental campaign OSMOSE, loaded with different contents of MAs, in order to access, through particular peak spectrometry, to their capture cross section. On the basis of neutron transport calculation results, obtained by both deterministic and Monte Carlo methods, an estimate of the irradiated samples counting levels from the AOSTA (Activation of OSMOSE Samples in TAPIRO) experimental campaign is provided.

  14. Feasibility study of the AOSTA experimental campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carta M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of the nuclear waste is one of the most important nuclear issues. The high radiotoxicity of the spent fuel is due to plutonium and some minor actinides (MAs such as neptunium, americium and curium, above all. One way to reduce their hazard is to destroy by fission MAs in appropriate nuclear reactors. To allow the MAs destruction an important effort have been done on the nuclear data due to the poor knowledge in this field. In the framework of one of the NEA Expert Group on Integral Experiments for Minor Actinide Management an analysis of the feasibility of MAs irradiation campaign in the TAPIRO fast research reactor is carried out. This paper provides preliminary results obtained by calculations modelling the irradiation, in different TAPIRO irradiation channels, of some CEA samples coming from the French experimental campaign OSMOSE, loaded with different contents of MAs, in order to access, through particular peak spectrometry, to their capture cross section. On the basis of neutron transport calculation results, obtained by both deterministic and Monte Carlo methods, an estimate of the irradiated samples counting levels from the AOSTA (Activation of OSMOSE Samples in TAPIRO experimental campaign is provided.

  15. A comprehensive experimental and modeling study of 2-methylbutanol combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Sungwoo

    2015-05-01

    2-Methylbutanol (2-methyl-1-butanol) is one of several next-generation biofuels that can be used as an alternative fuel or blending component for combustion engines. This paper presents new experimental data for 2-methylbutanol, including ignition delay times in a high-pressure shock tube and premixed laminar flame speeds in a constant volume combustion vessel. Shock tube ignition delay times were measured for 2-methylbutanol/air mixtures at three equivalence ratios, temperatures ranging from 750 to 1250. K, and at nominal pressures near 20 and 40. bar. Laminar flame speed data were obtained using the spherically propagating premixed flame configuration at pressures of 1, 2, and 5. bar. A detailed chemical kinetic model for 2-methylbutanol oxidation was developed including high- and low-temperature chemistry based on previous modeling studies on butanol and pentanol isomers. The proposed model was tested against new and existing experimental data at pressures of 1-40. atm, temperatures of 740-1636. K, equivalence ratios of 0.25-2.0. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were conducted for identifying key reactions at various combustion conditions, and to obtain better understanding of the combustion characteristics of larger alcohols.

  16. Numerical and Experimental Study of Amplitude Modulated Positive Corona Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martín GOMEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrical behavior of a modulated positive corona discharge loudspeaker was studied. A coaxial transducer in air was built using a central copper wire of 75 mm radius (inner electrode and a perforated tube of 11 mm (outer electrode. A high voltage DC supply provided the bias current and a sinusoidal signal was superimposed to measure the discharge admittance. The experimental results could not be matched to previously reported equivalent circuits with fixed components. Using the basic equations that describe the ion motion, a numerical model was proposed. The computed values matched well the experimental data and suggested an equivalent circuit composed of frequency dependent conductance and capacitance. This dependence is closely related to the ion travel time between electrodes (transit time. Simulations carried out at several inter-electrode distances could be synthesized in a single plot where the different results overlap and further emphasize the role of the transit time. This numerical model proved to be an efficient tool to simulate and design modulated corona transducers.

  17. Theoretical and experimental studies of elementary physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodek, A.; Ferbel, T.; Melissinos, A.C.; Olsen, S.; Slattery, P.; Tipton, P.; Das, A.; Hagen, C.R.; Rajeev, S.G.; Okubo, S.

    1992-04-30

    The experimental high energy physics program is directed toward the execution of experiments that probe the basic constituents of matter and the forces between them. These experiments are carried out at national and international accelerator facilities. At the current time, we are primarily concentrating on the following projects: Direct photon production in hadronic reactions (Fermilab E706); Production of hybrid mesons in the nuclear Coulomb field; The D-Zero experiment at the Tevatron collider; Deep inelastic neutrino- and electron-nucleon scattering at FNAL and SLAC; Nonlinear QED at critical field strengths at SLAC; The Experiments at KEK (AMY, 17keV neutrino); The CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider; and SSC-related detector R D on scintillating tile- and diamond-based calorimetry and microstrip tracking detectors.

  18. Theoretical and experimental studies of elementary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, A.; Ferbel, T.; Melissinos, A.C.; Olsen, S.; Slattery, P.; Tipton, P.; Das, A.; Hagen, C.R.; Rajeev, S.G.; Okubo, S.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental high energy physics program is directed toward the execution of experiments that probe the basic constituents of matter and the forces between them. These experiments are carried out at national and international accelerator facilities. At the current time, we are primarily concentrating on the following projects: Direct photon production in hadronic reactions (Fermilab E706); Production of hybrid mesons in the nuclear Coulomb field; The D-Zero experiment at the Tevatron collider; Deep inelastic neutrino- and electron-nucleon scattering at FNAL and SLAC; Nonlinear QED at critical field strengths at SLAC; The Experiments at KEK (AMY, 17keV neutrino); The CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider; and SSC-related detector R ampersand D on scintillating tile- and diamond-based calorimetry and microstrip tracking detectors

  19. Evaluation of a rapid dipstick (Crystal VC for the diagnosis of cholera in Zanzibar and a comparison with previous studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Ley

    Full Text Available The gold standard for the diagnosis of cholera is stool culture, but this requires laboratory facilities and takes at least 24 hours. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT that can be used by minimally trained staff at treatment centers could potentially improve the reporting and management of cholera outbreaks.We evaluated the Crystal VC™ RDT under field conditions in Zanzibar in 2009. Patients presenting to treatment centers with watery diarrhea provided a stool sample for rapid diagnostic testing. Results were compared to stool culture performed in a reference laboratory. We assessed the overall performance of the RDT and evaluated whether previous intake of antibiotics, intravenous fluids, location of testing, and skill level of the technician affected the RDT results.We included stool samples from 624 patients. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivity of the RDT was 93.1% (95%CI: 88.7 to 96.2%, specificity was 49.2% (95%CI: 44.3 to 54.1%, the positive predictive value was 47.0% (95%CI: 42.1 to 52.0% and the negative predictive value was 93.6% (95%CI: 89.6 to 96.5%. The overall false positivity rate was 50.8% (213/419; fieldworkers frequently misread very faint test lines as positive.The observed sensitivity of the Crystal VC RDT evaluated was similar compared to earlier versions, while specificity was poorer. The current version of the RDT could potentially be used as a screening tool in the field. Because of the high proportion of false positive results when field workers test stool specimens, positive results will need to be confirmed with stool culture.

  20. Acting like a physicist: Student approach study to experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karelina

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available National studies of science education have unanimously concluded that preparing our students for the demands of the 21st century workplace is one of the major goals. This paper describes a study of student activities in introductory college physics labs, which were designed to help students acquire abilities that are valuable in the workplace. In these labs [called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE labs], students design their own experiments. Our previous studies have shown that students in these labs acquire scientific abilities such as the ability to design an experiment to solve a problem, the ability to collect and analyze data, the ability to evaluate assumptions and uncertainties, and the ability to communicate. These studies mostly concentrated on analyzing students’ writing, evaluated by specially designed scientific ability rubrics. Recently, we started to study whether the ISLE labs make students not only write like scientists but also engage in discussions and act like scientists while doing the labs. For example, do students plan an experiment, validate assumptions, evaluate results, and revise the experiment if necessary? A brief report of some of our findings that came from monitoring students’ activity during ISLE and nondesign labs was presented in the Physics Education Research Conference Proceedings. We found differences in student behavior and discussions that indicated that ISLE labs do in fact encourage a scientistlike approach to experimental design and promote high-quality discussions. This paper presents a full description of the study.

  1. Molecular simulations and experimental studies of zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloy, Eric C.

    Zeolites are microporous aluminosilicate tetrahedral framework materials that have symmetric cages and channels with open-diameters between 0.2 and 2.0 nm. Zeolites are used extensively in the petrochemical industries for both their microporosity and their catalytic properties. The role of water is paramount to the formation, structure, and stability of these materials. Zeolites frequently have extra-framework cations, and as a result, are important ion-exchange materials. Zeolites also play important roles as molecular sieves and catalysts. For all that is known about zeolites, much remains a mystery. How, for example, can the well established metastability of these structures be explained? What is the role of water with respect to the formation, stabilization, and dynamical properties? This dissertation addresses these questions mainly from a modeling perspective, but also with some experimental work as well. The first discussion addresses a special class of zeolites: pure-silica zeolites. Experimental enthalpy of formation data are combined with molecular modeling to address zeolitic metastability. Molecular modeling is used to calculate internal surface areas, and a linear relationship between formation enthalpy and internal surface areas is clearly established, producing an internal surface energy of approximately 93 mJ/m2. Nitrate bearing sodalite and cancrinite have formed under the caustic chemical conditions of some nuclear waste processing centers in the United States. These phases have fouled expensive process equipment, and are the primary constituents of the resilient heels in the bottom of storage tanks. Molecular modeling, including molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics, and density functional theory, is used to simulate these materials with respect to structure and dynamical properties. Some new, very interesting results are extracted from the simulation of anhydrous Na6[Si6Al 6O24] sodalite---most importantly, the identification of two distinct

  2. Experimental study of asymmetric heart valve prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukicevic, M.; Fortini, S.; Querzoli, G.; Cenedese, A.; Pedrizzetti, G.

    2011-11-01

    The mechanical heart valves (MHVs) are extremely important medical devices, commonly used for diseased heart valves replacement. Despite the long term of use and constant design refinement, the MHVs are very far from ideal and their performance is very diverse from that of the native ones. It has been approved that small variations in geometry of valvular leaflets influence the significant change in the intraventricular vortical flow, known as one of the most important factors for the overall functionality of the heart. We have experimentally examined the home-made heart valve prototypes, exclusively modeled for the mitral valve replacement. The performance and energetic properties of the prototypes have been compared with those in the presence of standard MHVs. The analysis was based on the testing of intraventricular fluid dynamics, usually missing criteria for the quality of the valve performance. It has been shown that the asymmetric prototype, with unequal leaflets and D-shaped orifice produces flow patterns and energetic properties close to those found in the healthy subjects. Thus, the break of symmetry in the standard bi-leaflet MHV prosthesis, at least from the fluid dynamics point of view, is worthwhile to be considered for the design of MHVs for the mitral valve replacement.

  3. Experimental studies on fast reactor upper shuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemercier, G.; Sauvage, M.

    1980-04-01

    Super-Phenix -integrated pool type power reactor- requires large dimension upper shuttings, as compared to Phenix, and development of new solutions had to be undertaken, such as the use of metallic thermal insulations above the liquid sodium. A large number of tests have been fulfilled to adjust these solutions, and their validation for Super-Phenix has lead to the construction of a large mock up (diameter 6m), named 'Gulliver', representative of the upper shuttings, as far as geometrical similitude is concerned. These experiments, covering a lapse of 10700 hours concern essentially: - thermal insulations associated with cooled structures; - thermal problems concerning the crossings in the upper structure for large components, the cover gas, the link between the reactor vessel and the slab; - problems in relation with liquid sodium condensation on the structures. Presently, endurance tests on components are going on. This paper follows the one presented at the first conference, its object being the presentation of the experimental results obtained on Gulliver as well as a description of the envisaged future programs

  4. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  5. Studies in iodine metabolism: 33 year summary, 1948-1979 (as previously submitted) with appendix, 1979-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middlesworth, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of research into iodine metabolism from 1948 to 1982 are summarized. Study areas included the monitoring of iodine 131 from fallout in the thyroid glands of cattle and humans, the biological functions and metabolism of thyroid hormones, and methods to reduce the retention of radioiodine in the thyroid

  6. Economic principles in communication: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaegher, Kris; Rosenkranz, Stephanie; Weitzel, Utz

    2014-12-21

    This paper experimentally investigates how economic principles affect communication. In a simple sender-receiver game with common interests over payoffs, the sender can send a signal without a pre-given meaning in an infrequent or frequent state of the world. When the signal is costly, several theories (focal point theory, the intuitive criterion, evolutionary game theory) predict an efficient separating equilibrium, where the signal is sent in the infrequent state of the world (also referred to as Horn׳s rule). To analyze whether Horn׳s rule applies, and if so, which theory best explains it, we develop and test variants of the sender-receiver game where the theories generate discriminatory hypotheses. In costly signaling variants, our participants follow Horn׳s rule most of the time, in a manner that is best explained by focal point theory. In costless signaling variants, evolutionary game theory best explains our results. Here participants coordinate significantly more (less) often on a separating equilibrium where the signal is sent in the frequent state if they are primed to associate the absence of a signal with the infrequent (frequent) state of the world. We also find indications that a similar priming effect applies to costly signals. Thus, while the frequency with which participants follow Horn׳s rule in costly signaling variants is best explained by Horn׳s rule, the priming effect shows that some of our participants׳ behavior is best explained by evolutionary game theory even when signals are costly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fever-Induced Brugada Syndrome Is More Common Than Previously Suspected: A Cross-Sectional Study from an Endemic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanawong, Pattara; Vutthikraivit, Wasawat; Charoensri, Attawit; Jongraksak, Tanawat; Prombandankul, Awapa; Kanjanahattakij, Napatt; Rungaramsin, Sakda; Wisaratapong, Treechada; Ngarmukos, Tachapong

    2016-03-01

    Brugada syndrome (BrS) is defined as presenting of type-1 Brugada pattern (BrP). BrS can also be induced by fever. This study demonstrated a highest prevalence of fever-induced BrS ever reported. During May 2014, febrile (oral temperature ≥ 38 °C) and nonfebrile patients underwent standard and high leads (V1 and V2 at 2nd intercostal space) electrocardiogram. Risk factor and cardiac symptoms were recorded. Patients with a persistent of type-1 BrP after fever had subsided were excluded. The prevalence of BrS, type-2 BrP and early repolarization pattern (ERP) were demonstrated. A total of 401 patients, 152 febrile, and 249 nonfebrile, were evaluated. BrS was identified in six febrile patients (five males and one female) and two males in nonfebrile patients. The study demonstrated higher prevalence of BrS in febrile group compared to nonfebrile group (4.0% vs 0.8%, respectively, P = 0.037). Among fever-induced BrS patients, three patients (50.0%) experienced cardiac symptoms before and at the time of presentation and two patients (33.3%) had history of first-degree relative sudden death. No ventricular arrhythmia was observed. All of type-1 BrP disappeared after fever had subsided. We found no difference in prevalence of type-2 BrP in febrile and nonfebrile group (2.0% vs 2.8%, respectively, P > 0.05) as well as ERP (3.3% vs 6.4%, respectively, P > 0.05). Our study showed a highest prevalence of fever induced BrS ever reported. A larger study of prevalence, risk stratification, genetic test and management of fever-induced BrS should be done, especially in an endemic area. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Venlafaxine extended release versus conventional antidepressants in the remission of depressive disorders after previous antidepressant failure: ARGOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldomero, E Baca; Ubago, J Giner; Cercós, C Leal; Ruiloba, J Vallejo; Calvo, C García; López, R Prieto

    2005-01-01

    Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may be used as an alternative treatment for depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant. This randomized, open-label, multicenter study compared the effectiveness of the SNRI venlafaxine extended release (VXR) with that of conventional antidepressants (CA) in patients who were referred to an outpatient psychiatric specialty care setting for treatment after failure to tolerate or respond to at least 4 weeks of treatment with a CA in a primary care setting. Patients with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) score > or =17 were randomly assigned to treatment with an alternative CA or VXR. Remission was defined as a score < or =7 on the HAM-D17. Efficacy analyses were carried out on 3,097 patients from the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (1,632 VXR; 1,465 CA). The antidepressants prescribed most frequently in the CA group were paroxetine (21.3%), citalopram (20.1%), sertraline (19.1%), fluoxetine (17.0%), and mirtazapine (7.9%). After 24 weeks of treatment, the VXR group demonstrated a significantly higher remission rate than did the CA group (59.3% VXR; 51.5% CA; P<.0001; odds ratio: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.19-1.58; P<.01). Despite the limitations of the open design, the results of this study suggest that venlafaxine extended release may be more effective than the conventional antidepressants used in this study when treating depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant.

  9. CHRONOVAC VOYAGEUR: A study of the immune response to yellow fever vaccine among infants previously immunized against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Catherine; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Tondeur, Laura; Poirier, Béatrice; Seffer, Valérie; Desprès, Philippe; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2017-10-27

    For administration of multiple live attenuated vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends either simultaneous immunization or period of at least 28days between vaccines, due to a possible reduction in the immune response to either vaccine. The main objective of this study was to compare the immune response to measles (alone or combined with mumps and rubella) and yellow fever vaccines among infants aged 6-24months living in a yellow fever non-endemic country who had receivedmeasles and yellow fever vaccines before travelling to a yellow fever endemic area. A retrospective, multicenter case-control study was carried out in 7 travel clinics in the Paris area from February 1st 2011 to march 31, 2015. Cases were defined as infants immunized with the yellow fever vaccine and with the measles vaccine, either alone or in combination with mumps and rubella vaccine, with a period of 1-27days between each immunization. For each case, two controls were matched based on sex and age: a first control group (control 1) was defined as infants having received the measles vaccine and the yellow fever vaccine simultaneously; a second control group (control 2) was defined as infants who had a period of more than 27days between receiving the measles vaccine and yellow fever vaccine. The primary endpoint of the study was the percentage of infants with protective immunity against yellow fever, measured by the titer of neutralizing antibodies in a venous blood sample. One hundred and thirty-one infants were included in the study (62 cases, 50 infants in control 1 and 19 infants in control 2). Of these, 127 (96%) were shown to have a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies. All 4 infants without a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies were part of control group 1. The measles vaccine, alone or combined with mumps and rubella vaccines, appears to have no influence on humoral immune response to the yellow fever vaccine when administered between 1 and 27

  10. Theoretical & Experimental Studies of Elementary Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Kevin [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2012-10-04

    Abstract High energy physics has been one of the signature research programs at the University of Rochester for over 60 years. The group has made leading contributions to experimental discoveries at accelerators and in cosmic rays and has played major roles in developing the theoretical framework that gives us our ``standard model'' of fundamental interactions today. This award from the Department of Energy funded a major portion of that research for more than 20 years. During this time, highlights of the supported work included the discovery of the top quark at the Fermilab Tevatron, the completion of a broad program of physics measurements that verified the electroweak unified theory, the measurement of three generations of neutrino flavor oscillations, and the first observation of a ``Higgs like'' boson at the Large Hadron Collider. The work has resulted in more than 2000 publications over the period of the grant. The principal investigators supported on this grant have been recognized as leaders in the field of elementary particle physics by their peers through numerous awards and leadership positions. Most notable among them is the APS W.K.H. Panofsky Prize awarded to Arie Bodek in 2004, the J.J. Sakurai Prizes awarded to Susumu Okubo and C. Richard Hagen in 2005 and 2010, respectively, the Wigner medal awarded to Susumu Okubo in 2006, and five principal investigators (Das, Demina, McFarland, Orr, Tipton) who received Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator awards during the period of this grant. The University of Rochester Department of Physics and Astronomy, which houses the research group, provides primary salary support for the faculty and has waived most tuition costs for graduate students during the period of this grant. The group also benefits significantly from technical support and infrastructure available at the University which supports the work. The research work of the group has provided educational opportunities

  11. A genome-wide association study confirms previously reported loci for type 2 diabetes in Han Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association study (GWAS has identified more than 30 loci associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D in Caucasians. However, genomic understanding of T2D in Asians, especially Han Chinese, is still limited. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A two-stage GWAS was performed in Han Chinese from Mainland China. The discovery stage included 793 T2D cases and 806 healthy controls genotyped using Illumina Human 660- and 610-Quad BeadChips; and the replication stage included two independent case-control populations (a total of 4445 T2D cases and 4458 controls genotyped using TaqMan assay. We validated the associations of KCNQ1 (rs163182, p = 2.085×10(-17, OR 1.28 and C2CD4A/B (rs1370176, p = 3.677×10(-4, OR 1.124; rs1436953, p = 7.753×10(-6, OR 1.141; rs7172432, p = 4.001×10(-5, OR 1.134 in Han Chinese. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our study represents the first GWAS of T2D with both discovery and replication sample sets recruited from Han Chinese men and women residing in Mainland China. We confirmed the associations of KCNQ1 and C2CD4A/B with T2D, with the latter for the first time being examined in Han Chinese. Arguably, eight more independent loci were replicated in our GWAS.

  12. Experimental studies on urea degradation in seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajendran, A.; Joseph, T.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    The rate of urea degradation in seawater was studied under various conditions and the kinetics of urea degradation was evaluated. Urea decomposition experiments showed that the rates and quantity of ammonium oxidation were slower in the relatively...

  13. [Experimental study of a gentamycin ointment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, E Z; Vasil'ev, V K; Bykova, M A; Berezina, E K

    1978-03-01

    Technology of 0.1 per cent gentamicin ointment production was developed. The ointment base consisted of vaseline and parafin (95:5). Pharmacokinetics and innocuousness of the gentamicin ointment were studied. It was shown that the ointment provided gentamicin diffusion through the skin utegument during a long period of time. Histological studies showed no local irritating effect of the ointment on the skin in its local use.

  14. Comparative study of a novel application of automated HR HPV assay and stability in a previously untested Preservative media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Mike E; McBride, Simon E; Gomez, Maria P

    2017-12-01

    The suitability and stability of cervical cells in Novaprep media (NHQ) for certain HPV assays is unknown. We evaluated the accuracy of an automated HPV assay (Abbott RealTime HR HPV) for cervical cells prepared in NHQ and NHQ with a pre-treatment to mimic a worst case clinical use, compared to the assay manufacturers media; repeatability and reproducibility of HPV results and the stability of detectable HPV in NHQ over time compared to CE marked liquid based cytology preservatives. Cell lines were used to simulate patient samples. Cells stored in NHQ produced accurate, repeatable and reproducible results. Stability in NHQ was comparable to the best performing LBC, with at least 7 months' stability at 18-25°C, 2-8°C, -20°C and -80°C; and at least 3 months' stability at 40°C. Similar results were obtained for pre-treated NHQ except only 3.5 months' stability at 18-25°C. Cell line samples in all media and concentrations tested were detected appropriately by the assay. Based on this first stage validation analytical study, cervical cells stored in NHQ are suitable for the Realtime HPV assay. There should be no reservations for inclusion of NHQ in any further validation and clinical performance evaluation of this assay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental studies on catalytic hydrogen recombiners for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drinovac, P.

    2006-01-01

    In the course of core melt accidents in nuclear power plants a large amount of hydrogen can be produced and form an explosive or even detonative gas mixture with aerial oxygen in the reactor building. In the containment atmosphere of pressurized water reactors hydrogen combines a phlogistically with the oxygen present to form water vapor even at room temperature. In the past, experimental work conducted at various facilities has contributed little or nothing to an understanding of the operating principles of catalytic recombiners. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to conduct detailed investigations on a section of a recombiner essentially in order to deepen the understanding of reaction kinetics and heat transport processes. The results of the experiments presented in this dissertation form a large data base of measurements which provides an insight into the processes taking place in recombiners. The reaction-kinetic interpretation of the measured data confirms and deepens the diffusion theory - proposed in an earlier study. Thus it is now possible to validate detailed numeric models representing the processes in recombiners. Consequently the present study serves to broaden and corroborate competence in this significant area of reactor technology. In addition, the empirical knowledge thus gained may be used for a critical reassessment of previous numeric model calculations. (orig.)

  16. An experimental study of the bandwagon effect in conspicuous consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Niesiobędzka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The phenomenon of conspicuous consumption is not new. Veblen (1994, 1899 described conspicuous consumption as expensive, luxury consumption, which provides evidence of wealth and status. In post-modern society the primary objects of consumption have become images and experience used by the middle class and the masses to demonstrate uniqueness or similarity with significant others. This paper focuses on the bandwagon effect in conspicuous consumption. In the study the bandwagon effect is treated as increased demand for luxury goods due to their popularity, especially among famous people. Participants and procedure Three studies were carried out. The samples consisted of 60 teenagers, 76 female students and 73 students and postgraduate students. The concept of the aspirational group was induced through the advertisement of a luxury product with reference to famous people and by direct reference to the aspirational group. Three different methods to measure a propensity to conspicuous consumption were applied: the amount of money spent on the luxury product, the size of the luxury brand logo, and the doubling of the luxury brand logo. Results The results show that the activation of the idea of the aspirational group enhances willingness to pay more for a luxury product, to double the luxury brand logo and the preference for a visible luxury brand logo at a tendency level. Conclusions The results experimentally supported the bandwagon effect within luxury conspicuous consumption previously established in correlative studies.

  17. Experimental study of yttrium barium copper oxide superconducting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    667–676. Experimental study of yttrium barium copper oxide ... In the present study, torsional strain dependence of the critical current of the coated conductor is investigated experimentally for different current ramp rates. Again, the .... An empirical formula was proposed and established using a curve fit expressed in eq. (1).

  18. Knowledge of stroke risk factors among primary care patients with previous stroke or TIA: a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strender Lars-Erik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivers of stroke or transient ischaemic attacks (TIA are at risk of new vascular events. Our objective was to study primary health care patients with stroke/TIA regarding their knowledge about risk factors for having a new event of stroke/TIA, possible associations between patient characteristics and patients' knowledge about risk factors, and patients' knowledge about their preventive treatment for stroke/TIA. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 240 patients with stroke/TIA diagnoses, and 182 patients (76% responded. We asked 13 questions about diseases/conditions and lifestyle factors known to be risk factors and four questions regarding other diseases/conditions ("distractors". The patients were also asked whether they considered each disease/condition to be one of their own. Additional questions concerned the patients' social and functional status and their drug use. The t-test was used for continuous variables, chi-square test for categorical variables, and a regression model with variables influencing patient knowledge was created. Results Hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were identified as risk factors by nearly 90% of patients, and atrial fibrillation and diabetes by less than 50%. Few patients considered the distractors as stroke/TIA risk factors (3-6%. Patients with a family history of cardiovascular disease, and patients diagnosed with carotid stenosis, atrial fibrillation or diabetes, knew these were stroke/TIA risk factors to a greater extent than patients without these conditions. Atrial fibrillation or a family history of cardiovascular disease was associated with better knowledge about risk factors, and higher age, cerebral haemorrhage and living alone with poorer knowledge. Only 56% of those taking anticoagulant drugs considered this as intended for prevention, while 48% of those taking platelet aggregation inhibitors thought this was for prevention. Conclusions Knowledge about hypertension

  19. Experimental studies of auroral arc generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suszcynsky, D.M.; Borovsky, J.E.; Thomsen, M.F. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An all-sky video camera system was deployed in Eagle, Alaska at the foot of the magnetic field line that threads geosynchronous satellite 1989-046 as part of a campaign to study correlations of ground-based auroral activity with satellite-based plasma and energetic particle measurements. The overall intent of the project was to study magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling as it relates to the aurora, and, in particular, to look for signatures that may help to identify various auroral generator mechanism(s). During this study, our efforts were primarily directed towards identifying the generator mechanism(s) for pulsating aurora. Our data, though not conclusive, are found to support theories that propose a cyclotron resonance mechanism for the generation of auroral pulsations.

  20. Experimental study of oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, S; Deng, Xiaohong; Tuo, J

    1998-01-01

    of the use of 2-nitropropane as a model for oxidative DNA damage relate particularly to formation of 8-aminoguanine derivatives that may interfere with HPLC-EC assays and have unknown consequences. Other model compounds for induction of oxidative DNA damage, such as ferric nitriloacetate, iron dextran...... studies provide powerful tools to investigate agents inducing and preventing oxidative damage to DNA and its role in carcinogenesis. So far, most animal experiments have concerned 8-oxodG and determination of additional damaged bases should be employed. An ideal animal model for prevention of oxidative......Animal experiments allow the study of oxidative DNA damage in target organs and the elucidation of dose-response relationships of carcinogenic and other harmful chemicals and conditions as well as the study of interactions of several factors. So far the effects of more than 50 different chemical...

  1. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  3. An Experimental Study of the Relationship between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Test. It was predicted that the degree of separation of representational systems is significantly related to field dependence/independence. The results of this preliminary study are interpreted to indicate that the degree of separation of the bilingual's representational systems may be related to his/her degree of psychological ...

  4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE PRODUCTION OF SOLAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Centre de développement des Energies Renouvelables, Alger, Algérie. Received: 01 February 2010 / Accepted: 02 June 2010 / Published online: 30 June 2010. ABSTRACT. Hydrogen is a sustainable fuel option and one of the potential solutions for the current energy and environmental problems. In this study hydrogen is ...

  5. Litigation and audit quality; two experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M. van

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the effect of litigation risk on auditors' willingness to yield to management pressure and to omit audit steps of the audit program in case of budget pressure. The results show that litigation risk has a significant impact on audit quality.

  6. Incisional Hernia: An Experimental and Clinical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van 't Riet (Martijne)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Incisional hernia is one of the most common long-term complications of abdominal surgery. In prospective studies with sufficient follow-up, incidences of incisional hernia after laparotomy up to 20% are reported. Incisional hernia can be defined as an internal

  7. Experimental Study of Flow Through Carotid Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoomi, Faezeh; Mejia-Alvarez, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    There is evidence that traditional endovascular techniques like coiling are not effective for treatment of wide-neck cerebral aneurysms. Flow Diverter Stents (FDS) have emerged as promising devices for treating complex aneurysms since they enable treatment of aneurysms that were considered untreatable before. Recent studies suggest a number of associated risks with FDS, including in-stent thrombosis, perianeurysmal edema, delayed hemorrhage, and perforator occlusions. Chong et al. simulated hemodynamic behavior using patient-specific data. From their study, it is possible to infer that the standard deviation of energy loss could be a good predictor for intervention success. The aim of this study is to investigate the flow in models of cerebral aneurysms before and after FDS insertion using PIV. These models will be based on actual clinical studies and will be fabricated with advanced additive manufacturing techniques. These data will then be used to explore flow parameters that could inform the likelihood of post-intervention aneurysm rupture, and help determine FDS designs that better suit any particular patient before its procedure.

  8. CONTRIBUTION TO THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 déc. 2010 ... This study aims to investigate the threshold-controlled hydraulic jump, moving in channel profile 'U' fully rough for a ... 'LARHYSS, University of Biskra. Key words: Hydraulic jump, channal-shaped in U, stilling basin, channel bottom rough. 1. ..... [7] Hager W. H. J. Hydraulic Engineering. 1989, 115, 667-675.

  9. Experimental Study on Gastric Juice Secretion by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    管理平台

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... reduced (P < 0.05) when acupuncture at zusanli was applied after treatment with cimetidine. Therefore, our study shows that when electroacupuncture at zusanli is applied, the gastric electrical frequency increased and gastric electrical amplitude reduced, while the flux of gastric juice secretion increased.

  10. Experimental study of highly viscous impinging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomon, M.

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this research is to study the behavior of highly viscous gravity-driven jets filling a container. Matters of interest are the formation of voids in the fluid pool during the filling process and the unstable behavior of the fluid in the landing region which manifests itself as an oscillating motion. The working fluids used in this research are intended to simulate the flow behavior of molten glass. Qualitative and quantitative results are obtained in a parametric study. The fraction of voids present in the fluid pool after the filling of the container is measured for different parameter values of viscosity and mass flow rate. Likewise, frequencies of the oscillating jet are measured. Results are inconclusive with regard to a correlation between parameter settings and void fractions. As for frequencies, power law correlations are established

  11. Color transparency in the deuterium: experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutier, E.; Pastor, A.; Russew, Th.; Breton, V.; Mathiot, J.F.; Laget, J.M.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.

    1996-01-01

    The description of exclusive reactions at high momentum transfer relies on the Hard Scattering Picture of Quantum Chromodynamics. Particularly, the electromagnetic interaction with a nucleon at high enough Q 2 is predicted to select small transverse size components of the valence wave function. The evolution of these small components in a nuclear medium is characterized by a reduced interaction significant of the occurrence of color transparency. The present report is a feasibility study of a color transparency experiment in the deuterium in the context of the ELFE/DESY project. It is shown that the availability of such an electron facility allows uniquely to study accurately color transparency and therefore contributes to the understanding of the non-perturbative mechanisms of Quantum Chromodynamics. (authors)

  12. Theoretical and experimental studies of thermolysin inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Wuxiuer, Yimingjiang

    2008-01-01

    Zinc-metalloproteinases play a key role in the biosythesis and metabolism of different bioactive peptides. As a member of zinc-metalloproteinases, thermolysin has served as a model system to study the inhibition mechanism of other metalloproteinases. Inhibitors of thermolysin have considerable potential as therapeutic agents. In the present master thesis, docking calculations were performed and reported for 25 potent non-peptidal thermolysin inhibitors retrieved from literatures. Docking sof...

  13. Experimental studies in non-equilibrium physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, John Robert, Jr.

    This work is a collection of three experiments aimed at studying different facets of non-equilibrium dynamics. Chapter I concerns strongly compressible turbulence, which turns out to be very different from incompressible turbulence. The focus is on the dispersion of contaminants in such a flow. This type of turbulence can be studied, at very low mach number, by measuring the velocity fields of particles that float on a turbulently stirred body of water. It turns out that in the absence of incompressibility, the turbulence causes particles to cluster rather than to disperse. The implications of the observations are far reaching and include the transport of pollutants on the oceans surface, phytoplankton growth, as well as industrial applications. Chapter II deals with the effects of polymer additives on drag reduction and turbulent suppression, a well-known phenomenon that is not yet understood. In an attempt to simplify the problem, the effects of a polymer additive were investigated in a vortex street formed in a flowing soap film. Measurements suggest that an increase in elongational viscosity is responsible for a substantial reduction in periodic velocity fluctuations. This study also helps to illuminate the mechanism responsible for vortex separation in the wake of a bluff body. Chapter III describes an experiment designed to test a theoretical approach aimed at generalizing the classical fluctuation dissipation theorem (FDT). This theorem applies to systems driven only slightly away from thermal equilibrium, whereas ours, a liquid crystal under-going electroconvection, is so strongly driven, that the FDT does not apply. Both theory and experiment focus on the flux in global power fluctuations. Physical limitations did not permit a direct test of the theory, however it was possible to establish several interesting characteristics of the system: the source of the fluctuations is the transient defect structures that are generated when the system is driven hard

  14. Experimental study of a solar still

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, Z. Sari; Aliane, K.; Berrezoug, H. I.

    2016-07-01

    This work concerns the study of a solar distiller. Particular attention is paid to the different operating characteristics such as: temperature, global and internal efficiency, performance and the performance factor during the distillation process. We have also established the overall heat balance in transition. A series of tests was carried out during the summer under the sea water to see the evolution of different parameters of the distiller. The daily output of solar still is 1.8litre / day. All the dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity and pH of the water were measured.

  15. Experimental study of relative, turbulent diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Andersen, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose is to study relative turbulent diffusion under controlled, reproducible conditions in the laboratory in order to estimate the constant C in Richardson-Obukhov's law. We get C #approx# 0.4 -- 0.6. We furthermore measure the distance-neighbourfunction, which is the probability density...... system with two computers each equipped with a frame grabber card. In the search for the best experimentalmethods we have revised the concept of local homogeneity and derived a law for the velocity--acceleration structure function. A second by-product of this effort is a relatively simple derivation...

  16. Experimental study of isovector spin sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre Deur; Peter Bosted; Volker Burkert; Donald Crabb; Kahanawita Dharmawardane; Gail Dodge; Tony Forest; Keith Griffioen; Sebastian Kuhn; Ralph Minehart; Yelena Prok

    2008-01-01

    We present the Bjorken integral extracted from Jefferson Lab experiment EG1b for 0.05 2 . The integral is fit to extract the twist-4 element f 2 p-n which is large and negative. Systematic studies of this higher twist analysis establish its legitimacy at Q 2 around 1 GeV 2 . We also extracted the isovector part of the generalized forward spin polarizability γ 0 . Although this quantity provides a robust test of Chiral Perturbation Theory, our data disagree with the calculations

  17. Experimental and modelling studies of infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes a study of infiltration in the unsaturated soil with the objective of estimating the recharge to a phreatic aquifer. The study area is at the border of the city of Milan (Northern Italy), which draws water for both domestic and industrial purposes from ground water resources located beneath the urban area. The rate of water pumping from the aquifer system has been varying during the XX century, depending upon the number of inhabitants and the development of industrial activities. This caused variations with time of the depth of the water table below the ground surface and in turn some emergencies: the two most prominent episodes correspond to the middle '70s, when the water table in the city centre was about 30 m below the undisturbed natural conditions, and to the last decade, when the water table has raised at a rate of approximately 1 m/year and caused infiltrations in deep constructions (garages and building foundations, the underground railways, etc.). We have developed four ground water flow models at different scales, which share some characteristics: they are based on quasi-3D approximation (horizontal flow in the aquifers and vertical flow in the aquitards), conservative finite-differences schemes for regular grid with square cells in the horizontal plane and are implemented with proprietary computer codes. Among the problems that were studied for the development of these models, I recall some numerical problems, related to the behaviour of the phreatic aquifer under conditions of strong exploitation. Model calibration and validation for ModMil has been performed with a two-stage process, i.e., using some of the available data for model calibration and the remaining data for model validation. The application of geophysical exploration techniques, in particular seismic and geo-electrical prospecting, has been very useful to complete the data and information on the hydro-geological structure obtained from stratigraphic logs

  18. Theoretical and experimental study of thermoacoustic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspet, Richard; Bass, Henry E.; Arnott, W. P.

    1992-12-01

    A three year study of thermoacoustic engines operating as prime movers and refrigerators was completed. The major thrust of this effort was the use and theoretical description of ceramic honeycomb structures as the active element in thermoacoustic engines. An air-filled demonstration prime mover was constructed and demonstrated at Acoustical Society of America and IEE meetings. A helium-filled test prime mover was designed and built an is being employed in studies of the threshold of oscillation as a function of temperature difference and pressure. In addition, acoustically based theories of the thermoacoustic engine have been developed and tested for a parallel plate stack at the Naval Postgraduate School and for a honeycomb stack at the University of Mississippi. Most of this work is described in detail in the attached publications. In this report we will give an overview of the research completed to date and its relationship to work performed at the Naval Postgraduate School and to future work at the University of Mississippi.

  19. Field experimentation in isotope-aided studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.

    1990-01-01

    Isotopic-aided studies involve the application of isotopically labelled fertilizer as tracers for the quantitative and precise determination of the fate of specific nutrient elements in the soil/plant system. The planning of isotopic-aided studies requires a different approach from that followed in the design of normal fertilizer trials because of the cost and supply of isotopically labelled materials, the use of highly specialized equipment and the need for skillful trained staff in the use of isotope techniques both in the field/greenhouse and the laboratory. This report is intended to highlight the main points to be considered while applying those techniques in the field or greenhouse. It has been well established that nuclear techniques are a powerful tool in agricultural research. One should take advantage of the use of such techniques if the following criteria are met: The isotope method is the only way to solve a particular question or to obtain a specific piece of information. There are other methods available for such a purpose but the nuclear method provides a direct and quick means to obtain the needed information resulting in higher economic return

  20. An experimental study of coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dervisoglu, M.; Hortacsu, O. [Bogazici University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-01

    The paper describes 64 experiments carried out on a 2 m diameter gas generator for a ceramics factory to study the effects of air-supply pressure, steam-saturation temperature and generator-gas exit temperature on fuel heating value. Gaseous fuels with heating values ranging from 1100 to 1400 cal/liter were obtained. The heating value of the gas could be raised by up to 27% by maintaining the three process variables close to their optimum values, i.e. air supply pressure 43 cm of H{sub 2}O, steam-saturation temperature of 55{degree}C, and generator gas-exit temperature of 160{degree}C.

  1. Experimental techniques for cement hydration studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Luttge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cement hydration kinetics is a complex problem of dissolution, nucleation and growth that is still not well understood, particularly in a quantitative way. While cement systems are unique in certain aspects they are also comparable to natural mineral systems. Therefore, geochemistry and particularly the study of mineral dissolution and growth may be able to provide insight and methods that can be utilized in cement hydration research. Here, we review mainly what is not known or what is currently used and applied in a problematic way. Examples are the typical Avrami approach, the application of Transition State Theory (TST to overall reaction kinetics and the problem of reactive surface area. Finally, we suggest an integrated approach that combines vertical scanning interferometry (VSI with other sophisticated analytical techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM and theoretical model calculations based on a stochastic treatment.

  2. Experimental study of diffuse auroral precipitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouaia, K.

    1983-01-01

    First chapter is devoted to low energy electron precipitation in the evening sector of the auroral magnetosphere, during quiet and disturbed magnetic periods. Four subjects are studied in detail: the latitude distribution of the varied auroral forms and their relations to external magnetosphere; the time coefficients related to precipitations, the form and the dynamic of the diffuse precipitation equatorial frontier; the precipitation effect on the ionosphere concentration. The last part of the chapter shows that the plasma convection in the magnetosphere, associated to wave-particle interactions near the equatorial accounts for the principal characteristics of the evening sector diffuse electronic precipitations. The second chapter deals with subauroral precipitations of low energy ions, after the magnetospheric substorms, in the high latitude regions of the morning sector [fr

  3. Experimental study on the adiabatic shear bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affouard, J.

    1984-07-01

    Four martensitic steels (Z50CDV5 steel, 28CND8 steel, 35NCDV16 steel and 4340 steel) with different hardness between 190 and 600 Hsub(B) (Brinell hardness), have been studied by means of dynamic compressive tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar. Microscopic observations show that the fracture are associated to the development of adiabatic shear bands (except 4340 steel with 190 Hsub(B) hardness). By means of tests for which the deformation is stopped at predetermined levels, the measurement of shear and hardness inside the band and the matrix indicates the chronology of this phenomenon: first the localization of shear, followed by the formation of adiabatic shear band and ultimatly crack initiation and propagation. These results correlated with few simulations by finite elements have permitted to suggest two mecanisms of deformation leading to the formation of adiabatic shear bands in this specific test [fr

  4. ESP Teaching for Tourism. An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzarna-Tihenea (Gălbează Alina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on those teaching and learning methods and techniques which can improve the practical use of English for work-related purposes, this giving the students the opportunity to develop their language skills by means of attractive, motivating and useful learning activities. The paper aims at providing an in-depth knowledge about ways of studying and applying English for Specific Purposes in the Tourism field, as well as types of activities to be used in the classroom in order to assist learners overcome language difficulties. It is of great importance to emphasize the specific tasks and strategies used while teaching ESP for Tourism classes, strategies that differ from the ones used in a traditional English language classroom. The main purpose of all these ESP methods and approaches is to prepare students for their future jobs so that they can perform effectively in their area of work.

  5. Experimental study of a capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, D.R.; Jones, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    A Z-pinch plasma can be ohmically heated to kilovolt temperatures if instabilities can be prevented and the amount of mass heated is held fixed. The gas embedded laser initiated Z-pinch was an attempt to do this. It was found that the disruptive instabilities did not occur, but that the discharge column accreted mass, probably because of the strong shock which ionizes the embedding gas. In an attempt to overcome this problem a capillary channel has been formed in an insulator so that a solid replaces the embedding gas. The authors have studied the plasma formed by discharging a Marx-water line system through an evacuated 2 cm long 10-25 μm diameter capillary in polyethylene. The Marx-water line system used was a 72 kJ - 600 kV Marx bank which is capable of pulse charging a 1Ω-90 ns water line to 900 kV

  6. Mortar alteration: experimental study and ancient analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassineux, Francois

    1987-01-01

    As the durability of cemented matrices is a matter of great importance in numerous domains, notably for the long term reliability of surface storages of radioactive wastes, the objective of this research thesis is to define mechanisms of evolution of cemented matrices when in contact with diluted aqueous solutions. The author notably studied the influence of the lixiviation mode on the evolution of two mortars having different compositions (pH, CO 2 pressure, system containment, and cement mineralogical nature appear to be the main governing parameters), the alteration (dissolution is the prevailing process in the interaction between cemented matrices and a diluted solution such as rain water), and ancient binders (archaeological binders containing mineral phases such as hydrated calcium silicates or hydro-grossulars). The obtained results lead to the definition of alteration mechanisms in modern cements, and highlight factors governing the durability of these materials when submitted to meteoric alteration [fr

  7. Experimental and clinical studies with intraoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, W.F.; Kinsella, T.; Tepper, J.; Travis, E.L.; Rosenberg, S.A.; Glatstein, E.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of normal tissue tolerance to intraoperative radiotherapy were done upon 65 dogs subjected to laparotomy and 11 million electron volt electron irradiation in doses ranging from zero to 5,000 rads. Results of studies indicated that intact aorta and vena cava tolerate up to 5,000 rads without loss of structural integrity. Ureteral fibrosis and stenosis develop at doses of 3,000 rads or more. Arterial anastomoses heal after doses of 4,500 rads, but fibrosis can lead to occlusion. Intestinal suture lines heal after doses of 4,500 rads. Bile duct fibrosis and stenosis develop at doses of 2,000 rads or more. Biliary-enteric anastomoses fail to heal at any dose level. A clinical trial of intraoperative radiotherapy combined with radical surgery was performed upon 20 patients with advanced malignant tumors which were considered unlikely to be cured by conventional therapies and which included carcinomas of the stomach, carcinomas of the pancreas, carcinomas involving the hilus of the liver, retroperitoneal sarcomas and osteosarcomas of the pelvis. All patients underwent resection of gross tumor, followed by intraoperative irradiation of the tumor bed and regional nodal basins. Some patients received additional postoperative external beam radiotherapy. Treatment mortality for combined operation and radiotherapy occurred in four of 20 patients. Postoperative complications occurred in four of the 16 surviving patients. Local tumor control was achieved in 11 of the 16 surviving patients, with an over-all median follow-up period of 18 months. The clinical trial suggested that intraoperative radiotherapy is a feasible adjunct to resection in locally advanced tumors, that the resulting mortality and morbidity is similar to that expected from operation alone and that local tumor control may be improved

  8. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  9. Experimental study of vortex breakdown in a cylindrical, swirling flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J. L.; Celik, Z. Z.; Cantwell, B. J.; Lopez, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    The stability of a steady, vortical flow in a cylindrical container with one rotating endwall has been experimentally examined to gain insight into the process of vortex breakdowwn. The dynamics of the flow are governed by the Reynolds number (Re) and the aspect ratio of the cylinder. Re is given by Omega R(sup 2)/nu, where Omega is the speed of rotation of the endwall, R is the cylinder radius, and nu is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid filling the cylinder. The aspect ratio is H/R, where H is the height of the cylinder. Numerical simulation studies disagree whether or not the steady breakdown is stable beyond a critical Reynolds number, Re(sub c). Previous experimental researches have considered the steady and unsteady flows near Re(sub c), but have not explored the stability of the steady breakdown structures beyond this value. In this investigation, laser induced fluorescence was utilized to observe both steady and unsteady vortex breakdown at a fixed H/R of 2.5 with Re varying around Re(sub c). When the Re of a steady flow was slowly increased beyond Re(sub c), the breakdown structure remained steady even though unsteadiness was possible. In addition, a number of hysteresis events involving the oscillation periods of the unsteady flow were noted. The results show that both steady and unsteady vortex breakdown occur for a limited range of Re above Re(sub c). Also, with increasing Re, complex flow transformations take place that alter the period at which the unsteady flow oscillates.

  10. Experimental Studies of Electrothermal Plasma Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diab, F.B.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the capillary plasma discharge dynamics and characteristics. The capillary plasma device is a new technology for producing high density plasma after ablating the capillary wall using a pulsed electric power. An Electrothermal Plasma Gun (ETG) is composed of a capillary discharge tube made of Teflon operated with simple RLC circuit. The device called Electrothermal Gun (ETG) which is composed of 4 capacitors (70 μF, 10 kV, 1.28 μH) connected in parallel to a plasma source by means of one high power supply. The gun was operated in open air at discharge energies between 35 J - 3.5 kJ according to charging voltage. The work presented in this thesis covers the following items, 1- Measurements of the basic parameters and characterizations of the pretest results of the electrical circuits and capillary plasma discharge using Rogowski coil, voltage probe and Photomultiplier. 2- Material processing including (physics of the surface modifications, the morphology of the surface by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at different conditions, compositions of the materials by using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Micro hardness test and material particle deposition.

  11. A bioresorbable urethral stent. An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, E; Talja, M; Riihelä, M; Pohjonen, T; Törmälä, P; Alfthan, O

    1993-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the suitability of biodegradable polymers as materials for a urethral stent. A new urethral stent made of biodegradable self-reinforced poly-L-lactide (SR-PLLA) was implanted in 16 male rabbits after urethrotomy. Seven stents of stainless steel served as controls. The dimensions of the two types of stents were identical: length 15 mm, diameter 8.2 mm. The mechanical construction was a helical spiral. The SR-PLLA spiral was sustained with three microspirals, and the whole device was coated with DL-lactide to achieve an active initial tissue reaction and better tissue penetration. The SR-PLLA stent showed more favourable implantation properties than the steel one. Within 6 months all PLLA stents had implanted, and the tissue reaction around the stent material was minimal. The helical spiral of stainless steel induced a remarkable inflammatory reaction due to poor implantation properties. We suggest that biodegradable SR-PLLA is a promising material for a urethral stent to prevent re-stenosis of urethral strictures.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MINIMUM IGNITION TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor WACHTER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this scientific paper is an analysis of the minimum ignition temperature of dust layer and the minimum ignition temperatures of dust clouds. It could be used to identify the threats in industrial production and civil engineering, on which a layer of combustible dust could occure. Research was performed on spent coffee grounds. Tests were performed according to EN 50281-2-1:2002 Methods for determining the minimum ignition temperatures of dust (Method A. Objective of method A is to determine the minimum temperature at which ignition or decomposition of dust occurs during thermal straining on a hot plate at a constant temperature. The highest minimum smouldering and carbonating temperature of spent coffee grounds for 5 mm high layer was determined at the interval from 280 °C to 310 °C during 600 seconds. Method B is used to determine the minimum ignition temperature of a dust cloud. Minimum ignition temperature of studied dust was determined to 470 °C (air pressure – 50 kPa, sample weight 0.3 g.

  13. Injury Based on Its Study in Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mendes-Braz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on the numerous experimental models used to study the complexity of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Although experimental models of hepatic I/R injury represent a compromise between the clinical reality and experimental simplification, the clinical transfer of experimental results is problematic because of anatomical and physiological differences and the inevitable simplification of experimental work. In this review, the strengths and limitations of the various models of hepatic I/R are discussed. Several strategies to protect the liver from I/R injury have been developed in animal models and, some of these, might find their way into clinical practice. We also attempt to highlight the fact that the mechanisms responsible for hepatic I/R injury depend on the experimental model used, and therefore the therapeutic strategies also differ according to the model used. Thus, the choice of model must therefore be adapted to the clinical question being answered.

  14. Markets and morals: an experimental survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Julio J; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another "repugnant" transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A) Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B) Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the "commercialization" of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent) religiosity of the respondent--in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We relate these

  15. Markets and morals: an experimental survey study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J Elias

    Full Text Available Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another "repugnant" transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the "commercialization" of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent religiosity of the respondent--in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We

  16. Experimental study of flow through compressor Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Panchal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work is to study the behaviour of flow at the inlet, within the blade passage and at the exit of a compressor cascade. For this purpose, a cascade with six numbers of aerofoil blades was designed and constructed. The cascade was fitted on the cascade test tunnel. Out of six blades two were instrumented for measuring the pressure distribution on the pressure and suction surface. The blades had a parabolic camber line, with a maximum camber position at 40% of the chord from the leading edge of the blade. The profile of the blade was C4, height of the blade was 160 mm, chord length was 80 mm, camber angle was 45° and stagger angle was 30°. Similarly, the length of the cascade was 300 mm, span was 160 mm, pitch was 60 mm, the actual chord of the cascade was 80 mm, the axial chord of the cascade was 70 mm, the stagger angle of the cascade was 30° and the pitch-chord ratio was 0.75. The data was taken and analyzed at −500% of the axial chord before the cascade, −25% of the axial chord before the leading edge, 25%, 50%, 75% and 150% of the axial chord from the leading edge of the blade. The readings were taken from the cascade wall to the mid span position along the pitch wise direction. The angle of incidence was also changed during the experiment and varied from i=−50°, −30°, −10° to 5°.

  17. Medical waste to energy: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcuri, C; Luciani, F; Piva, P; Bartuli, F N; Ottria, L; Mecheri, B; Licoccia, S

    2013-04-01

    Although waste is traditionally assessed as a pollutant which needs to be reduced or lessened, its management is certainly necessary. Nowadays, biological fuel cells, through the direct conversion of organic matter to electricity using biocatalysts, represent a technology able to produce sustainable energy by means of waste treatment. This study aims to propose a mean to generate energy from blood and saliva, that are common risk-infectious medical waste. Material employed (purchased by Sigma-Aldrich) were: Glucose oxidase (GOx), Nafion perfluorinated resin solution at 5% in a mixture of lower aliphatic alcohols and water, Polyethylene oxide. Stock solutions of D (+) glucose were prepared in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution and stored at 4 °C for at least 24 h before use. Carbon cloth electrode ELAT HT 140 E-W with a platinum loading of 5 gm-2 was purchased by E-Tek. Electrospun Nafion fibers were obtained as follows. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the electrode morphologies. In order to develop an effective immobilization strategy of GOx on the electrode surface, Nafion fibers (a fully fluorinated ion conducting polymer used as a membrane material in enzymatic fuel cells - EFC) were selected as immobilizing polymer matrix. In this work, exploiting the nafion fibers capability of being able to cathalize Gox activity, we have tried to produce an enzymatic fuel cell which could produce energy from the blood and the saliva within medical-dental waste. Medical waste refers to all those materials produced by the interaction among doctor and patient, such as blood and saliva. During our research we will try to complete an EFC prototype able to produce energy from blood and saliva inside the risk-infectious medical waste in order to contribute to the energy requirements of a consulting room.

  18. Markets and Morals: An Experimental Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Julio J.; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another “repugnant” transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A) Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B) Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the “commercialization” of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent) religiosity of the respondent—in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We relate

  19. Theoretical and Experimental Studies in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenzweig, James [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2017-03-08

    . We note also that PBPL graduates remain as close elaborators for the program after leaving UCLA. The UCLA PBPL program is a foremost developer of on-campus facilities, such as the Neptune and Pegasus Laboratories, providing a uniquely strong environment for student-based research. In addition, the PBPL is a strong user of off-campus national lab facilities, such as SLAC FACET and NLCTA, and the BNL ATF. UCLA has also vigorously participated in the development of these facilities. The dual emphases on off- and on-campus opportunities permit the PBPL to address in an agile way a wide selection of cutting-edge research topics. The topics embraced by this proposal illustrate this program aspect well. These include: GV/m dielectric wakefield acceleration/coherent Cerenkov radiation experiments at FACET (E-201) and the ATF; synergistic laser-excited dielectric accelerator and light source development; plasma wakefield (PWFA) experiments on “Trojan horse” ionization injection (FACET E-210), quasi-nonlinear PWFA at BNL and the production at Neptune high transformer ratio plasma wakes; the inauguration of a new type of RF photoinjector termed “hybrid” at UCLA, and application to PWFA; space-charge dominated beam and cathode/near cathode physics; the study of advanced IFEL systems, for very high energy gain and utilization of novel OAM modes; the physcis of inverse Compton scattering (ICS), with applications to e+ production and γγ colliders; electron diffraction; and advanced beam diagnostics using coherent imaging techniques. These subjects are addressed under the leadership of PBPL director Prof. James Rosenzweig in Task A, and Prof. Pietro Musumeci in Task J, which was initiated following his OHEP Outstanding Junior Investigator award.

  20. Experimental studies on caisson-type porous seawalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shutang; Chwang, A. T.

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents experimental studies on the reflection characteristics of caisson-type porous seawalls under designed wave conditions. The results of physical model experiments are plotted and discussed. Comparisons between experimental results and analytical predictions are also made and the agreement is found to be very good.

  1. Experimental studies on an indigenous coconut shell based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental studies are carried out to characterize an indigenous, coconut shell based, activated carbon suitable for storage of natural gas. Properties such as BET surface area, micropore volume, average pore diameter and pore size distribution are obtained by using suitable instruments and techniques. An experimental ...

  2. Attentional bias in snus users: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Aune Mentzoni

    Full Text Available The use of nicotine in the form of "snus" is substantial and increasing in some geographic areas, in particular among young people. It has previously been suggested that addictions may operate through a mechanism of attentional bias, in which stimuli representative of the dependent substance increase in salience, thus increasing the addictive behavior. However, this hypothesis has not been tested for the case of snus. The current experiment used a modified Stroop task and a dot-probe task to investigate whether 40 snus users show an attentional bias towards snus-relevant stimuli, compared to 40 non-snus users. There were no significant differences between the two groups on reaction times or accuracy on either Stroop or dot-probe task, thus failing to show an attentional bias towards snus-relevant stimuli for snus users. This could imply that other mechanisms may contribute to maintenance of snus use than for other addictions. However, this is the first experimental study investigating attentional bias in snus users, and more research is warranted.

  3. Study of TXRF experimental system by Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ana Cristina M.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ/IFADT/DFAT), RJ (Brazil); Conti, Claudio C., E-mail: ccconti@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Total-Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) technique offers unique possibilities to study the concentrations of a wide range of trace elements in various types of samples. Besides that, the TXRF technique is widely used to study the trace elements in biological, medical and environmental samples due to its multielemental character as well as simplicity of sample preparation and quantification methods used. In general the TXRF experimental setup is not simple and might require substantial experimental efforts. On the other hand, in recent years, experimental TXRF portable systems have been developed. It has motivated us to develop our own TXRF portable system. In this work we presented a first step in order to optimize a TXRF experimental setup using Monte Carlo simulation by MCNP code. The results found show that the Monte Carlo simulation method can be used to investigate the development of a TXRF experimental system before its assembly. (author)

  4. Impairment due to alcohol, tetrahydrocannabinol, and benzodiazepines in impaired drivers compared to experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Berg-Hansen, Grim Otto; Øiestad, Åse Marit L; Bachs, Liliana; Mørland, Jørg

    2017-04-03

    In some countries, per se laws for other drugs than alcohol are used to judge drunk and drugged drivers. These blood concentration limits are often derived from experimental studies on traffic relevant behavior of healthy volunteers. Knowledge about how results from experimental studies could be transferred to a real-life setting is missing. The aim of this study was to compare impairment seen in experimental studies to the impairment seen at equivalent concentrations in apprehended drunk and drugged drivers. Results from previously performed meta-analyses of experimental studies regarding impairment from alcohol, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and benzodiazepines were compared to impairment in apprehended drunk and drugged drivers as judged by a clinical test of impairment. Both experimental studies and real-life cases were divided into 4 groups according to increasing blood drug concentration intervals. The percentage of impaired test results in experimental studies was compared to the percentage of impaired subjects among drivers within the same blood drug concentration window. For ethanol, the percentage of impaired drivers (n = 1,223) increased from 59% in the lowest drug concentration group to 95% in the highest drug concentration group, compared to 7 and 72% in the respective groups in experimental studies. For THC, the percentage of impaired drivers (n = 950) increased from 42 to 58%, the corresponding numbers being 11 and 42% for experimental studies. For benzodiazepines, the percentage of impaired drivers (n = 245) increased from 46 to 76%, the corresponding numbers being 16 and 60% for experimental studies. The increased odds ratio for impairment between 2 concentration groups was comparable for experimental studies and impaired drivers. Fewer test results indicated impairment in experimental studies compared to impaired drivers in real life when influenced by similar blood concentrations of either ethanol, THC, or benzodiazepines. In addition, a comparable

  5. Glucagon in intravenous cholangiography - an experimental study on dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toetterman, S.; Santavirta, S.; Antila, H.

    1980-01-01

    The present study reports on the effect of glucagon on the excretion of ioglycamate in experimental intravenous cholangiography on dogs. Glucagon increased the bile flow rate highly significantly (p [de

  6. Experimental Study of Blood Laminar Flow Through a Stented Artery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benard, N

    2001-01-01

    .... That is why, to study the flow disturbances through a stented section, we built an in vitro model reproducing the struts shapes of a marketed endoprothesis, The experimental artery, is composed...

  7. an experimental study on the use of polypropylene waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    PM) asphalt concrete. The specimens ... as poor materials selection and quality, design and construction lapses, climatic ... AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE USE OF POLYPROPYLENE WASTE IN BITUMINOUS MIX. H. S. Otuoze & A. A. ...

  8. Experimental geothermal research facilities study (Phase 0). Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The study comprises Phase 0 of a project for Experimental Geothermal Research Facilities. The study focuses on identification of a representative liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of moderate temperature and salinity, preliminary engineering design of an appropriate energy conversion system, identification of critical technology, and planning for implementation of experimental facilities. The objectives included development of liaison with the industrial sector, to ensure responsiveness to their views in facility requirements and planning, and incorporation of environmental and socioeconomic factors. This Phase 0 report covers problem definition and systems requirements. Facilities will incorporate capability for research in component, system, and materials technology and a nominal 10 MWe experimental, binary cycle, power generating plant.

  9. Experimental Study on the Langlee Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report concerns the experimental study of the 1:20 scale model of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter (WEC) carried out at Aalborg University’s wave basin during the summer of 2010.......This report concerns the experimental study of the 1:20 scale model of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter (WEC) carried out at Aalborg University’s wave basin during the summer of 2010....

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel W; McCann, Kenneth

    2012-08-29

    Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

  11. Rheology of lava flows on Mercury: An analog experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehlke, A.; Whittington, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    We experimentally determined the rheological evolution of three basaltic analog compositions appropriate to Mercury's surface, during cooling, and crystallization. Investigated compositions are an enstatite basalt, and two magnesian basalts representing the compositional end-members of the northern volcanic plains with 0.19 wt % (NVP) and 6.26 wt % Na2O (NVP-Na). The viscosity-strain rate dependence of lava was quantified using concentric cylinder viscometry. We measured the viscosities of the crystal-free liquids from 1600°C down to the first detection of crystals. Liquidus temperatures of the three compositions studied are around 1360°C, and all three compositions are more viscous than Hawaiian basalt at the same temperature. The onset of pseudoplastic behavior was observed at crystal fractions ~0.05 to 0.10, which is consistent with previous studies on mafic lavas. We show that all lavas develop detectable yield strengths at crystal fractions around 0.20, beyond which the two-phase suspensions are better described as Herschel-Bulkley fluids. By analogy with the viscosity-strain rate conditions at which the pahoehoe to `a`a transition occurs in Kilauea basalt, this transition is predicted to occur at ~1260 ± 10°C for the enstatite basalt, at ~1285 ± 20°C for the NVP, and at ~1240 ± 40°C for the NVP-Na lavas. Our results indicate that Mercury lavas are broadly similar to terrestrial ones, which suggests that the extensive smooth lava plains of Mercury could be due to large effusion rates (flood basalts) and not to unusually fluid lavas.

  12. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-07-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  13. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  14. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher le...

  15. An experimental study on superplastic behaviors of magnesium alloy sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Quanlin; Wu Huiying [Beijing Research Inst. of Mechanical and Electrical Technology (China)

    2005-07-01

    An experimental study on superplastic forming behaviors and microstructure characters of commercial magnesium alloy sheet AZ31B is presented in this paper. The main experimental results show that the commercial magnesium alloy AZ31B sheet has superplastic capability. For the received sheet without any pre-processing, the maximum elongation is 295%. The dynamic recrystallization and grain refinement can be found. The superplastic behaviors can be improved by controlling the dynamic recrystallization and grain refinement. Some experimental results of free superplastic bulging are presented in this paper. The results show that influence of temperature on forming capability is much less than the influences of temperature on elongation. (orig.)

  16. Using an experimental model for the study of therapeutic touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daniella Soares; Marta, Ilda Estéfani Ribeiro; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari; de Quadros, Andreza Urba; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos

    2013-02-01

    to verify whether the Paw Edema Model can be used in investigations about the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation by measuring the variables pain, edema and neutrophil migration. this is a pilot and experimental study, involving ten male mice of the same genetic strain and divided into experimental and control group, submitted to the chemical induction of local inflammation in the right back paw. The experimental group received a daily administration of Therapeutic Touch for 15 minutes during three days. the data showed statistically significant differences in the nociceptive threshold and in the paw circumference of the animals from the experimental group on the second day of the experiment. the experiment model involving animals can contribute to study the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation, and adjustments are suggested in the treatment duration, number of sessions and experiment duration.

  17. The false memory syndrome: Experimental studies and comparison to confabulations

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez, M.F.; Fras, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    False memories, or recollections that are factually incorrect but strongly believed, remain a source of confusion for both psychiatrists and neurologists. We propose model for false memories based on recent experimental investigations, particularly when analyzed in comparison to confabulations, which are the equivalent of false memories from neurological disease. Studies using the Deese/Roedinger–McDermott experimental paradigm indicate that false memories are associated with the need for com...

  18. A cross-sectional study of tuberculosis drug resistance among previously treated patients in a tertiary hospital in Accra, Ghana: public health implications of standardized regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Audrey; Kwara, Awewura; Kudzawu, Samuel; Omari, Michael; Otu, Jacob; Gehre, Florian; de Jong, Bouke; Antonio, Martin

    2018-04-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance is a major challenge to the use of standardized regimens for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, especially among previously treated patients. We aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of drug resistance among previously treated patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. This was a cross-sectional survey of mycobacterial isolates from previously treated patients referred to the Chest Clinic Laboratory between October 2010 and October 2013. The Bactec MGIT 960 system for mycobactrerial culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) was used for sputum culture of AFB smear-positive patients with relapse, treatment failure, failure of smear conversion, or default. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics, and frequency and patterns of drug resistance. A total of 112 isolates were studied out of 155 from previously treated patients. Twenty contaminated (12.9%) and 23 non-viable isolates (14.8%) were excluded. Of the 112 studied isolates, 53 (47.3%) were pan-sensitive to all first-line drugs tested Any resistance (mono and poly resistance) to isoniazid was found in 44 isolates (39.3%) and any resistance to streptomycin in 43 (38.4%). Thirty-one (27.7%) were MDR-TB. Eleven (35.5%) out of 31 MDR-TB isolates were pre-XDR. MDR-TB isolates were more likely than non-MDR isolates to have streptomycin and ethambutol resistance. The main findings of this study were the high prevalence of MDR-TB and streptomycin resistance among previously treated TB patients, as well as a high prevalence of pre-XDR-TB among the MDR-TB patients, which suggest that first-line and second-line DST is essential to aid the design of effective regimens for these groups of patients in Ghana.

  19. Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Interactions at High Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulianos, Konstantin [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-07-30

    This is the final report of a program of research on "Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Interactions at High Energies'' of the High Energy Physics (HEP) group of The Rockefeller University. The research was carried out using the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Three faculty members, two research associates, and two postdoctoral associates participated in this project. At CDF, we studied proton-antiproton collisions at an energy of 1.96 TeV. We focused on diffractive interactions, in which the colliding antiproton loses a small fraction of its momentum, typically less than 1%, while the proton is excited into a high mass state retaining its quantum numbers. The study of such collisions provides insight into the nature of the diffractive exchange, conventionally referred to as Pomeron exchange. In studies of W and Z production, we found results that point to a QCD-based interpretation of the diffractive exchange, as predicted in a data-driven phenomenology developed within the Rockefeller HEP group. At CMS, we worked on diffraction, supersymmetry (SUSY), dark matter, large extra dimensions, and statistical applications to data analysis projects. In diffraction, we extended our CDF studies to higher energies working on two fronts: measurement of the single/double diffraction and of the rapidity gap cross sections at 7 TeV, and development of a simulation of diffractive processes along the lines of our successful model used at CDF. Working with the PYTHIA8 Monte Carlo simulation authors, we implemented our model as a PYTHIA8-MBR option in PYTHIA8 and used it in our data analysis. Preliminary results indicate good agreement. We searched for SUSY by measuring parameters in the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) and found results which, combined with other experimental constraints and theoretical considerations, indicate

  20. An experimental study of psychoanalytic theories of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slipp, S; Nissenfeld, S

    1981-10-01

    This study involves an application of a new methodology, subliminal psychodynamic activation, which can be used to experimentally test psychoanalytic "dynamic" propositions. It was found that with a sample of neurotically depressed female patients, there was a significant decrease in depression-related responses following the stimulation of a symbiotic gratification fantasy ("Mommy and I are one"). Subliminal symbiotic stimulation had been shown previously in studies with different populations (schizophrenics, homosexuals, phobics, alcoholics and overeaters) to have similar ameliorative effects. The current results point to the importance of symbiotic dynamics and the relationship dependent on a dominant other, rather than to the retroflexion of aggression in neurotic depression. This is in keeping with the formulations of Arieti (1959), Bemporad (1953), Horowitz (1980), and the senior author (Slipp, 1977). Hypotheses regarding the effects of stimulating fantasies involving success were not supported by the primary data, although secondary data (from correlational analyses) did provide some indirect support for the senior author's hypothesis. The "Autonomous Succeed" message ("Succeed for myself") did not reverse the depressive mood, possibly because autonomy was equated with abandonment. Relatively differentiated depressives tended to respond to the "Exploitative Succeed" ("Succeed for Father or Mother") messages with a decrease in depression, while depressives with a low level of self-object differentiation tended to respond with an increase in depression. For more differentiated depressives, performing for and giving over a part of the self to another is an adaptive style that insures the dependent relationship and bolsters the patient's weak self-image. However, with poorly differentiated depressives, giving over to another raises the threat of total annihilation, since the self is already diminished. These secondary data can be viewed, however, as only

  1. Experimental study of mechanical properties of friction welded AISI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Friction welding is widely used as a mass production method in various industries. In the present study, an experimental set-up was designed in order to achieve friction welding of plastically deformed AISI 1021 steels. In this study, low alloy steel (AISI 1021) was welded under different welding parameters and afterwards ...

  2. Experimental and theoretical study of precast beam-slab construction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Part of the experimental program was dedicated to the study of mix design for the production of suitable hollow concrete beam tiles which bridge the space between the precast beam elements. The second part of the test program included the study of the precast beam element alone in order to investigate the response ...

  3. Infections in orthopaedic surgery : clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogely, Henri Charles

    2000-01-01

    The diagnostic difficulties, variability in outcome and the heterogeinity of the problem of orthopaedic infections stimulated the author to a study of the literature, and several clinical and experimental studies. The diagnosis prosthesis-related infection can only be reached with an acceptable

  4. Experimental studies on the flow through soft tubes and channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    studies were designed to examine whether the compliance of dolphin skins could cause either transition delay, that is, an increase in the Reynolds number for laminar-turbulent transition or a reduction in the turbulence intensities. The first experimental studies on internal flows through conduits bounded by soft walls was.

  5. Experimental studies on an indigenous coconut shell based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satyabrata Sahoo

    studies on material characteristics, adsorption isotherms and kinetics of a coconut shell based activated carbon are presented. It is expected that these results will promote large scale use of the indigenous material that is also environment friendly and inexpensive. 2. Experimental studies. 2.1 Materials used. 2.1a Activated ...

  6. A Small Scale Experimental Study: Using Animations to Learn Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Dag Akbas, Raside; Ozturk, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate whether a difference exists between learning vocabulary via animation and via traditional paper-based method. This small scale study was conducted at Karadeniz Technical University in academic year 2009-2010. Two pre-intermediate classes were randomly selected as the experimental group (n = 17), and control group…

  7. Pharmacological Experimental Study Of The Anti-Depressant Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacological Experimental Study Of The Anti-Depressant Effect Of Total Saikosaponins. Y Liu, C Cao, H Ding. Abstract. Background: Chai Hu has the hepato-protective, choleretic, anti-tussive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, and anti-tumor pharmacological effects. In this study, the ...

  8. Diffusion in liquids a theoretical and experimental study

    CERN Document Server

    Tyrrell, H J V

    1984-01-01

    Diffusion in Liquids: A Theoretical and Experimental Study aims to discuss the principles, applications, and advances in the field of diffusion, thermal diffusion, and thermal conduction in liquid systems. The book covers topics such as the principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics; diffusion in binary and multicompetent systems; and experimental methods of studying diffusion processes in liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as the theoretical interpretations of diffusion coefficients; hydrodynamic and kinetic theories; and diffusion in electrolyte systems. The text is recommen

  9. Analytical and Experimental Study of Residual Stresses in CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chin Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg Grating sensors (FBGs have been utilized in various engineering and photoelectric fields because of their good environment tolerance. In this research, residual stresses of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (CFRP were studied using both experimental and analytical approach. The FBGs were embedded inside middle layers of CFRP to study the formation of residual stress during curing process. Finite element analysis was performed using ABAQUS software to simulate the CFRP curing process. Both experimental and simulation results showed that the residual stress appeared during cooling process and the residual stresses could be released when the CFRP was machined to a different shape.

  10. The impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health: a retrospective study up to 7-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Alessandro; Assenza, Bartolomeo; D'Isidoro, Orlando; Profili, Fabia; Polimeni, Antonella; Vozza, Iole

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health in medium to long-term maintained patients. A retrospective evaluation of partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a regular supportive therapy was performed. Inclusion criteria were: medium to long-term periodontal and implant maintenance (at least 5 years), a minimum of 2 implants placed in each patient, absence of systemic diseases that may affect osseointegration. 30 implants in 15 patients were included in the study. Subjects were divided in smokers or non-smokers and between patients previously affected by periodontal disease and periodontally healthy. Peri-implant and periodontal parameters were assessed (PD,BoP, mPI). Microbiological samples were collected around implant and an adjacent tooth. Real- Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed. In all the three groups no differences in bacterial counts between dental and implant sites were observed. Non smoker, healthy patients: healthy clinical parameters, significant counts of spirochetes in isolated patients. Non smokers with previous periodontal disease: occasional positive BoP values, significant high counts of pathogenic bacteria. Smokers with previous periodontal disease: clinical signs of inflammation including deep pockets and slight bone resorption, significant counts of pathogenic bacteria. Over a follow-up of 5 to 7 years, it is possible to state that the absence of smoking habit and previous periodontal disease positively influences the peri-implant microbiological and clinical conditions in partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a strict regular supportive therapy.

  11. Mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with different insulin secretagogues compared with metformin in type 2 diabetes, with or without a previous myocardial infarction: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Vaag, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Aims The impact of insulin secretagogues (ISs) on long-term major clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We examined mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with all available ISs compared with metformin in a nationwide study. Methods and results All Danish residents >20 years......, initiating single-agent ISs or metformin between 1997 and 2006 were followed for up to 9 years (median 3.3 years) by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and the composite of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cardiovascular mortality...... associated with individual ISs were investigated in patients with or without previous MI by multivariable Cox proportional-hazard analyses including propensity analyses. A total of 107 806 subjects were included, of whom 9607 had previous MI. Compared with metformin, glimepiride (hazard ratios and 95...

  12. Experimental study of radium partitioning between anorthite and melt at 1 atm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S; Burnett, D; Asimow, P; Phinney, D; Hutcheon, I

    2007-03-08

    We present the first experimental radium mineral/melt partitioning data, specifically between anorthite and a CMAS melt at atmospheric pressure. Ion microprobe measurement of coexisting anorthite and glass phases produces a molar D{sub Ra} = 0.040 {+-} 0.006 and D{sub Ra}/D{sub Ba} = 0.23 {+-} 0.05 at 1400 C. Our results indicate that lattice strain partitioning models fit the divalent (Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) partition coefficient data of this study well, supporting previous work on crustal melting and magma chamber dynamics that has relied on such models to approximate radium partitioning behavior in the absence of experimentally determined values.

  13. Experimental and modeling studies of mass transfer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gaining a better understanding of mass transfer problems in encapsulated cell systems and in tissue engineering requires both experimental investigations and mathematical modelling. Specific mass transfer studies are reviewed including oxygen transfer in immobilised animal cell culture systems, modelling of ...

  14. Experimental and analytical studies on pedestrian induced footbridge vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur Valur; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Einarsson, Baldvin

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from experimental study on human-induced vibrations of three lively footbridges in Reykjavik. The project was funded by the Icelandic Public Roads Administration with two main focus areas; validating the FE-models used at the design stage in terms of dynamic...

  15. Premium auctions and risk preferences: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, C.; Hu, A.; Oechssler, J.

    2014-01-01

    In premium auctions, the highest losing bidder receives a reward from the seller. This paper studies the private value English premium auction (EPA) for different risk attitudes of bidders. We explicitly derive the symmetric equilibrium for bidders with CARA utilities and conduct an experimental

  16. An experimental study on effect of process parameters in deep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of various deep drawing process parameters were determined by experimental study with the use of Taguchi fractional factorial design and analysis of variance for AA6111 Aluminum alloy. The optimum process parameters were determined based on their influence on the thickness variation at different regions ...

  17. Simulation and experimental study of thermal performance of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Building concrete roof with vertical cylindrical hole of 0.5 × 0.5 m and array of 3 × 3 filled with phase change material (PCM) was considered for analysis. A detailed thermal analysis was carried by both simulation and experimental study. Results showed that this type of PCM room can decrease the indoor air temperature ...

  18. Numerical and Experimental Study of Friction Loss in Hydrostatic Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Mørk; Hansen, Michael R.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of the losses in a hydrostatic motor principle. The motor is designed so that the structural de ections and lubricating regimes between moving surfaces and, subsequently, the leakage and friction losses, can be controlled during operation...

  19. Syntactic Enhancement and Second Language Literacy: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngmin; Warschauer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study examined how the reading and writing development of sixth-grade L2 students was affected by syntactic enhancement. Visual-syntactic text formatting (VSTF) technology, which visualizes syntactic structures, was used to convert a textbook to the one with syntactic enhancement. The sample (n = 282), which was drawn from a…

  20. SMS as a Learning Tool: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, Mar Gutiérrez-Colon; Torrano, Pere Gallardo; Grova, M. Elisa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to find out the potential of using mobile phones in teaching English as a foreign language (EFL), specifically the use of Short Message Service (SMS) as a support tool in the EFL class. The research questions formulated for this project are the following: (1) Is using SMS messages via a mobile phone an…

  1. Experimental Study on a Rotor for WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Marchalot, Tanguy

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power conversion capabilities of one single rotor of the WEPTOS wave energy converter. The investigation focuses mainly on defining the optimal weight distribution in the rotor in order to improve the hydraulic performance through...

  2. Strategic use of fiscal deficit: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyszler, M.

    2008-01-01

    I extend Sutter’s (2003) experimental study on the strategic use of fiscal deficit by adding a panel structure to his design. The results strengthen Sutter’s conclusions. Panel estimates are strong and with the expected signs. Generally, the results support the political-economic theory applied to

  3. Capillary microreactors for lactic acid extraction: experimental and modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Susanti; Winkelman, Jozef; Schuur, Boelo; Heeres, Hero; Yue, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important biobased chemical and, among others, is used for the production of poly-lactic acid. Down-stream processing using state of the art technology is energy intensive and leads to the formation of large amounts of salts. In this presentation, experimental and modeling studies

  4. Experimental Setup for Studying Guiding of Proton Microbeam

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, G. U. L.; Rajta, I.; Bereczky, R. J.; Tőkési, K.

    2014-01-01

    We present the design and construction of our experimental setup for studying the transmission of proton microbeam through a single, cylindrical shape, macroscopic insulating capillary. The intensity as a function of time, the energy distribution as a function of the transmission and the deflection of the transmitted particles can be measured with the new setup.

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies on a novel helical architecture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci. Vol. 128, No. 12, December 2016, pp. 1895–1904. c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12039-016-1195-9. Experimental and theoretical studies on a novel helical architecture driven by hydrogen and halogen bonding interactions. QING ZHU LIUa, SHAN SHAN WANGa, TENG FEI WANGa, JIAN GUO LINa,∗.

  6. 1,2-Propanediol. Comprehensive experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Nell, Gernot

    2009-01-01

    The standard (p 0 =0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation at the temperature 298.15 K of the liquid 1,2-propanediol was measured using combustion calorimetry. Molar enthalpies of vaporization of isomeric 1,2-propanediols were obtained from the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure measured by the transpiration method. Thermochemical investigations of 1,2-ethanediol and 1,2-propanediol available in the literature were collected and combined with own experimental results. This collection together with the new experimental results reported here has helped to resolve contradictions in the available sublimation enthalpies data and to recommend consistent and reliable set of vaporization and formation enthalpies for both diols under study. Ab initio calculations of gaseous molar enthalpy of formation of 1,2-ethanediol and 1,2-propanediol have been performed using the G3MP2 method and results are in excellent agreement with the selected experimental data.

  7. Treatment Rationale and Design for J-AXEL: A Randomized Phase 3 Study Comparing Nab-Paclitaxel With Docetaxel in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneshima, Yasuto; Morita, Satoshi; Ando, Masahiko; Miura, Satoru; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Abe, Tetsuya; Kato, Terufumi; Kondo, Masashi; Hosomi, Yukio; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kishimoto, Junji; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Okamoto, Isamu

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab) paclitaxel is a promising new therapeutic agent for all histologic types of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We recently performed a phase 2 study of weekly nab-paclitaxel in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC, finding promising activity and acceptable toxicity for this regimen. We have now designed a randomized phase 3 intergroup study (J-AXEL, UMIN000017487) to examine the clinical benefit and safety of nab-paclitaxel compared to docetaxel in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC. Patients are randomized to receive either docetaxel (60 mg/m 2 on day 1 every 3 weeks, control arm) or nab-paclitaxel (100 mg/m 2 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 3 weeks, experimental arm), with each drug being administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The study will evaluate the noninferiority of nab-paclitaxel relative to docetaxel for the primary end point of overall survival. If the primary objective is achieved, this study will provide evidence for a new alternative treatment option for patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction of postoperative pain: a systematic review of predictive experimental pain studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads Utke; Mjöbo, Helena N; Nielsen, Per R

    2010-01-01

    preoperative responses to experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain and demonstrates that the preoperative pain tests may predict 4-54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience depending on the stimulation methods and the test paradigm used. The predictive strength is much higher than...... previously reported for single factor analyses of demographics and psychologic factors. In addition, some of these studies indicate that an increase in preoperative pain sensitivity is associated with a high probability of development of sustained postsurgical pain....

  9. Considerations in Writing About Single-Case Experimental Design Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolasky, Richard L

    2016-12-01

    Single-case experimental design (SCED) studies are particularly useful for examining the processes and outcomes of psychological and behavioral studies. Accurate reporting of SCED studies is critical in explaining the study to the reader and allowing replication. This paper outlines important elements that authors should cover when reporting the results of a SCED study. Authors should provide details on the participant, independent and dependent variables under examination, materials and procedures, and data analysis. Particular emphasis should be placed on justifying the assumptions made and explaining how violations of these assumptions may alter the results of the SCED study.

  10. Risk for high depressive symptoms in diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes: 5-year follow-up results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Icks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the risk for the development of high depressive symptoms in study participants with diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes mellitus compared to those without diabetes in a prospective population-based cohort study in Germany. METHODS: We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of high depressive symptoms in participants without high depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 3,633, 51.4% men, mean age (SD 59.1 (7.6 years, 7.0% diagnosed diabetes, 5.3% previously undetected diabetes from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes was assessed by self-report, medication, and blood glucose. High depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D. We calculated odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval, using multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULT: Cumulative 5-year incidences (95% CI of high depressive symptoms in participants with diagnosed, undetected, and without diabetes were 7.1 (4.2-10.9, 4.1 (1.8-8.0, and 6.5 (5.6-7.4, respectively. The age-sex-adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms was 1.22 (0.74-2.03 in participants with diagnosed compared to those without diabetes, and 1.00 (0.59-1.68 after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, education, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The age-sex adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms in participants with previously undetected diabetes compared to those without diabetes was 0.72; 0.35-1.48; and fully adjusted 0.62; 0.30-1.30. CONCLUSION: We found no significant associations, maybe due to low power. However, our results are in line with a recent meta-analysis suggesting that risk of developing high depressive symptoms in patients with diagnosed diabetes may be moderately higher than in those without diabetes, and that comorbidity may explain in part this association. In participants with previously undetected diabetes, this first longitudinal study indicates that the risk is not

  11. Comparison of time until elective intestinal resection regarding previous anti-tumor necrosis factor exposure: a Brazilian study on patients with Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gustavo Kotze

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF agents seems to reduce surgical rates and delay surgical procedures in prospective trials and population-based studies in the management of Crohn's disease (CD. This study aimed to identify whether preoperative anti-TNF agents influence the time from diagnosis to surgery. Methods: An observational retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients with CD submitted to intestinal resections due to complications or medical therapy failure in a period of 7 years. The patients were allocated into 2 groups according to their previous exposure to anti-TNF agents in the preoperative period. Epidemiological aspects regarding age at diagnosis, smoking, perianal disease, and preoperative conventional therapy were considered. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to outline possible differences between the groups regarding the time to surgery. Results: A total of 123 patients were included (71 and 52 with and without previous exposure to biologics, respectively. The overall time to surgery was 108±6.9 months (maximum, 276 months. The survival estimation revealed no difference in the mean time to intestinal resection between the groups (99.78±10.62 months in the patients without and 114.01±9.07 months in those with previous anti-TNF use (log-rank P=0.35. There was no significant difference in the time to surgery regarding perianal CD (P=0.49, smoking (P=0.63, preoperative azathioprine (P=0.073 and steroid use (P=0.58. Conclusions: The time from diagnosis to surgery was not influenced by the preoperative use of anti-TNF therapy in this cohort of patients.

  12. Infections in orthopaedic surgery : clinical and experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vogely, Henri Charles

    2000-01-01

    The diagnostic difficulties, variability in outcome and the heterogeinity of the problem of orthopaedic infections stimulated the author to a study of the literature, and several clinical and experimental studies. The diagnosis prosthesis-related infection can only be reached with an acceptable degree of certainty by combination of clinical, laboratory and imaging investigations. Fourty-seven patients with a prosthetic hip infection treated in our hospital were retrospectively divided into th...

  13. Experimental Study of Explosion Limits of Refrigerants and Lubricants’ Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Y.Q; Chen, Guangming; Chen, Q

    2012-01-01

    The explosion limits of refrigerants and lubricants’ mixture were studied. The refrigerants like R161, R1234yf and R152a are combustible. Lubricants, to a certain extent, are combustion-supporting. In many actual conditions, lubricants and refrigerants are mixed together. In this paper, a test device which can be run automatically was established according to ASTM E681-09, and the explosive experimental of refrigerants and lubricants’ mixture in some ratio was studied. By altering the proport...

  14. Experimental and Analytical Studies of Solar System Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Donald S.

    2003-01-01

    The cosmochemistry research funded by this grant resulted in the publications given in the attached Publication List. The research focused in three areas: (1) Experimental studies of trace element partitioning. (2) Studies of the minor element chemistry and O isotopic compositions of MgAlO4 spinels from Ca-Al-Rich Inclusions in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, and (3) The abundances and chemical fractionations of Th and U in chondritic meteorites.

  15. Food intake during the previous 24 h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrard François

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24 hours (bottle and spoon feeding, as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI, as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. Methods In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea + dyspnea + cough + expiratory sounds. Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders, breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2 was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. Results 24h FI ≥ 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 ≥ 95% [95% CI, 91–99]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI  Conclusion In practice, the measure of 24 h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study.

  16. Experimental Studies of the Transport Parameters of Warm Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouffani, Khalid [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to establish fundamental properties of matter and energy under extreme physical conditions. Although high energy density physics (HEDP) research spans a wide range of plasma conditions, there is one unifying regime that is of particular importance and complexity: that of warm dense matter, the transitional state between solid state condensed matter and energetic plasmas. Most laboratory experimental conditions, including inertial confinement implosion, fall into this regime. Because all aspects of laboratory-created high-energy-density plasmas transition through the warm dense matter regime, understanding the fundamental properties to determine how matter and energy interact in this regime is an important aspect of major research efforts in HEDP. Improved understanding of warm dense matter would have significant and wide-ranging impact on HEDP science, from helping to explain wire initiation studies on the Sandia Z machine to increasing the predictive power of inertial confinement fusion modeling. The central goal or objective of our proposed research is to experimentally determine the electrical resistivity, temperature, density, and average ionization state of a variety of materials in the warm dense matter regime, without the use of theoretical calculations. Since the lack of an accurate energy of state (EOS) model is primarily due to the lack of experimental data, we propose an experimental study of the transport coefficients of warm dense matter.

  17. Accuracy of preoperative real-time dynamic transvaginal ultrasound sliding sign in prediction of pelvic adhesions in women with previous abdominopelvic surgery: prospective, multicenter, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayachi, A; Bouchahda, R; Derouich, S; Mkaouer, L; Kehila, M; Abouda, H; Channoufi, B; Bouyahia, M; Braham, M; Zhioua, F; Bouchahda, H; Mourali, M

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the role of the transvaginal sonographic (TVS) sliding sign in predicting pelvic adhesions in women with previous abdominopelvic surgery. This was a multicenter, prospective, interventional, double-blind study of patients with a history of abdominopelvic surgery who were undergoing laparoscopy or laparotomy during the 6-month period from March to August 2016 in one of three academic obstetrics and gynecology departments. Prior to surgery, patients were examined by TVS to assess the vesicouterine pouch, uterus, ovaries and pouch of Douglas, using the TVS pelvic sliding sign. Ultrasound findings and medical and surgical data were recorded. We assessed the accuracy of the preoperative TVS sliding sign in the prediction of pelvic adhesions overall and in each compartment separately. During the study period, complete TVS sliding sign and laparoscopic or laparotomic data were available for 107 women. Their mean age was 44.0 (95% CI, 41.6-46.4; range, 20-79) years. Their mean parity was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.7-2.3; range, 0-9) and the mean number of previous abdominal surgical procedures per patient was 1.3 (95% CI, 1.2-1.5; range, 1-4). Adhesions were noted in 27/107 (25.2%) patients. The TVS sliding sign had a sensitivity of 96.3% and specificity of 92.6% in predicting pelvic adhesions. There was a significant relationship between adhesions in each compartment and the TVS sliding sign (P sign is an effective means to detect preoperatively pelvic adhesions in patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery. Use of such a non-invasive and well-tolerated technique could help in the planning of laparoscopy or laparotomy and counseling of these patients. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Performance of Oil Pumping Rings: An Analytical and Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusepi, M. W.; Walowit, J. A.; Pinkus, O.; Holmes, P.

    1986-01-01

    A steady-state design computer program was developed to predict the performance of pumping rings as functions of geometry, applied loading, speed, ring modulus, and fluid viscosity. Additional analyses were developed to predict transient behavior of the ring and the effects of temperature rises occurring in the hydrodynamic film between the ring and shaft. The analysis was initially compared with previous experimental data and then used to design additional rings for further testing. Tests were performed with Rulon, carbon-graphite, and babbit rings. The design analysis was used to size all of the rings and to select the ranges of clearances, thickness, and loading. Although full quantitative agreement was lacking, relative agreement existed in that rings that were predicted to perform well theoretically, generally performed well experimentally. Some causes for discrepanices between theory and experiment are believed to be due to starvation, leakage past the secondary seal at high pressures, and uncertainties in the small clearances and local inlet temperatures to the pumping ring. A separate preliminary analysis was performed for a pumping Leningrader seal. This anlaysis can be used to predict the film thickness and flow rate thr ough the seal as a function of pressure, speed, loading, and geometry.

  19. Experimental studies of tuned particle damper: Design and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Xi, Yanhui; Chen, Tianning; Ma, Zhihao

    2018-01-01

    To better suppress the structural vibration in the micro vibration and harsh environment, a new type of damper, tuned particle damper (TPD), was designed by combining the advantage of classical dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) and particle damper (PD). An equivalent theoretical model was established to describe the dynamic behavior of a cantilever system treated with TPD. By means of a series of sine sweep tests, the dynamic characteristic of TPD under different excitation intensity was explored and the damping performance of TPD was investigated by comparing with classical DVA and PD with the same mass ratio. Experimental results show that with the increasing of excitation intensity TPD shows two different dynamic characteristics successively, i.e., PD-like and DVA-like. TPD shows a wider suppression frequency band than classical DVA and better practicability than PD in the micro vibration environment. Moreover, to characterize the dynamic characteristic of TPD, a simple evaluation of the equivalent dynamic mass and equivalent dynamic damping of the cantilever system treated with TPD was performed by fitting the experimental data to the presented theoretical model. Finally, based on the rheology behaviors of damping particles reported by the previous research results, an approximate phase diagram which shows the motion states of damping particles in TPD was employed to analyze the dynamic characteristic of TPD and several motion states of damping particles in TPD were presented via a high-speed camera.

  20. Experimental study of flame stability in biogas premix system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz G, Carlos A; Amell A Andres; Cardona Luis F

    2008-01-01

    Utilization of new renewable energy sources have had a special interest in last years looking for decrease the dependence of fossil fuels and the environmental impact generated for them. This work studies experimentally the flame stability of a simulated biogas with a volumetric composition of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide. The objective of this study is to obtain information about design and interchangeability of gases in premixed combustion systems that operate with different fuel gases. The critical velocity gradient was the stability criteria used. Utilization of this criteria and the experimental method followed, using a partial premixed burner, stability flame diagram of biogas studied had been obtained. Presence of carbon dioxide has a negative effect in flame stability, decreasing significantly the laminar flame speed and consequently, the stability range of biogas burners because of apparition of blow off.

  1. Experimental and Theoretical Studies in Hydrogen-Bonding Organocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Žabka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chiral thioureas and squaramides are among the most prominent hydrogen-bond bifunctional organocatalysts now extensively used for various transformations, including aldol, Michael, Mannich and Diels-Alder reactions. More importantly, the experimental and computational study of the mode of activation has begun to attract considerable attention. Various experimental, spectroscopic and calculation methods are now frequently used, often as an integrated approach, to establish the reaction mechanism, the mode of activation or explain the stereochemical outcome of the reaction. This article comprises several case studies, sorted according to the method used in their study. The aim of this review is to give the investigators an overview of the methods currently utilized for mechanistic investigations in hydrogen-bonding organocatalysis.

  2. The contribution of previous lameness events and body condition score to the occurrence of lameness in dairy herds: A study of 2 herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Green, L E; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Archer, S C; Huxley, J N

    2018-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that low body condition and previous occurrence of lameness increase the risk of future lameness in dairy cows. To date the population attributable fraction (PAF), which provides an estimate of the contribution that a risk factor makes toward the total number of disease events in a population, has not been explored for lameness using longitudinal data with repeated measures. Estimation of PAF helps to identify control measures that could lead to the largest improvements on-farm. The aim of this study was to use longitudinal data to evaluate the proportion of lameness that could be avoided in 2 separate herds (2 populations) through (1) reduced recurrence of previous lameness events, (2) and moving body condition score (BCS) into more optimal ranges. Data were obtained from 2 UK dairy herds: herd A, a 200-cow herd with 8 yr of data from a total of 724 cows where lameness events were based on weekly locomotion scores (LS; 1 to 5 scale), and herd B, a 600-cow herd with data recorded over 44 mo from a total of 1,040 cows where treatment of clinical cases was used to identify lameness events. The PAF for categories of BCS were estimated using a closed equation appropriate for multiple exposure categories. Simulation models were used to explore theoretical scenarios to reflect changes in BCS and recurrence of previous lameness events in each herd. For herd A, 21.5% of the total risk periods (cow-weeks) contained a lameness event (LS 3, 4, or 5), 96% of which were repeat events and 19% were recorded with BCS events were based on 2 consecutive weeks of LS 4 or 5, 4% of risk periods were recorded as lame, of which 89.5% were repeat events. For herd B, 16.3% of the total risk periods (consecutive 30 d) contained a lameness event (72.6% were repeat events) and 20% were recorded with BCS ≤2 (0 to 120 d previously). The median PAF for all previous lameness was between 79 and 83% in the 2 herds. Between 9 and 21% of lameness events could be attributed

  3. A pilot study of a metronomic chemotherapy regimen with weekly low-dose docetaxel for previously treated non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoi T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Yokoi, Takeshi Tamaki, Toshiki Shimizu, Shosaku NomuraFirst Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi City, Osaka, JapanBackground: Low-dose metronomic (LDM chemotherapy is a novel approach that involves frequent administration of a low dose of chemotherapeutic agent without a long interval.Purpose: The aim of this clinical pilot study was to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of LDM chemotherapy with weekly low-dose docetaxel for previously treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.Patients and methods: The enrolled patients received 15 mg/m2 of docetaxel intravenously on a weekly basis without any interval.Results: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in the study; 20 were men, and seven were women. The median age was 62 years (range: 32–75. Eleven patients were stage IIIB, and 16 were stage IV. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 or 1. There was no severe hematological adverse effect; importantly, there was no neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. The objective response rate was 7.4% and the disease control rate was 51.9%. The median survival time was 16.4 months (95% CI: 5.7–36.4.Conclusion: Our preliminary results indicate that our metronomic regimen was well tolerated and active in patients with previously treated NSCLC. Thus, further investigation of this LDM regimen is warranted.Keywords: optimal biological dose, metronomic chemotherapy, docetaxel

  4. Outcome of secondary high-grade glioma in children previously treated for a malignant condition: A study of the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carret, Anne-Sophie; Tabori, Uri; Crooks, Bruce; Hukin, Juliette; Odame, Isaac; Johnston, Donna L.; Keene, Daniel L.; Freeman, Carolyn; Bouffet, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reports of secondary high-grade glioma (HGG) in survivors of childhood cancer are scarce. The aim of this study was to review the pattern of diagnosis, the treatment, and outcome of secondary pediatric HGG. Patients and methods: We performed a multi-center retrospective study among the 17 paediatric institutions participating in the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium (CPBTC). Results: We report on 18 patients (14 males, 4 females) treated in childhood for a primary cancer, who subsequently developed a HGG as a second malignancy. All patients had previously received radiation therapy +/- chemotherapy for either acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 9) or solid tumour (n = 9). All HGG occurred within the previous radiation fields. At the last follow-up, 17 patients have died and the median survival time is 9.75 months. Conclusion: Although aggressive treatment seems to provide sustained remissions in some patients, the optimal management is still to be defined. Further documentation of such cases is necessary in order to better understand the pathogenesis, the natural history and the prevention of these tumours

  5. Experimental and analytical studies of high heat flux components for fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Masanori

    1993-03-01

    In this report, the experimental and analytical results concerning the development of plasma facing components of ITER are described. With respect to developing high heat removal structures for the divertor plates, an externally-finned swirl tube was developed based on the results of critical heat flux (CHF) experiments on various tube structures. As the result, the burnout heat flux, which also indicates incident CHF, of 41 ± 1 MW/m 2 was achieved in the externally-finned swirl tube. The applicability of existing CHF correlations based on uniform heating conditions was evaluated by comparing the CHF experimental data with the smooth and the externally-finned tubes under one-sided heating condition. As the results, experimentally determined CHF data for straight tube show good agreement, for the externally-finned tube, no existing correlations are available for prediction of the CHF. With respect to the evaluation of the bonds between carbon-based material and heat sink metal, results of brazing tests were compared with the analytical results by three dimensional model with temperature-dependent thermal and mechanical properties. Analytical results showed that residual stresses from brazing can be estimated by the analytical three directional stress values instead of the equivalent stress value applied. In the analytical study on the separatrix sweeping for effectively reducing surface heat fluxes on the divertor plate, thermal response of the divertor plate has been analyzed under ITER relevant heat flux conditions and has been tested. As the result, it has been demonstrated that application of the sweeping technique is very effective for improvement in the power handling capability of the divertor plate and that the divertor mock-up has withstood a large number of additional cyclic heat loads. (J.P.N.) 62 refs

  6. Does using testicular sperm retrieval rather than ejaculated spermatozoa improve reproductive outcomes in couples with previous ART failure and poor ovarian response? A case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, A R; Younes, G; Tannus, S; Son, W Y; Chan, P; Buckett, W

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether testicular-retrieved spermatozoa improve reproductive outcomes compared to fresh ejaculate in women with poor ovarian response and a history of previous ART failure. The study was performed as a retrospective case-control study at a university-based reproductive center in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Eighteen poor-responder patients were matched 3 : 1 with 54 controls. Poor responders were defined as those with ≤3 oocytes retrieved at oocyte pickup. Cases were identified as poor responders, and only those with previous IVF failure(s) as an indication for testicular-retrieved spermatozoa were included. Controls were age and cycle attempt number matched. All patients were included only once. From January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2015, all patients and controls underwent an IVF cycle using ICSI with either testicular spermatozoa or ejaculated spermatozoa, respectively. Outcomes included live birth rate, pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate, oocyte number, and embryo transfer (ET) day. The results showed live birth rates, pregnancy rates, and miscarriage rates were similar. There were fewer day 2 ETs (8.5% vs. 48.6%, p = 0.01) and more day 5 blastocyst transfers (25.0% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.05) in the testicular sperm retrieval group compared to controls and thus an overall suggestion of better embryo quality in the testicular sperm group. Overall, however, the use of testicular sperm retrieval appears to add little. Women with poor ovarian response typically have a poor prognosis with respect to live birth rates, and this is further supported in this study. The suggestion of better embryo quality in the testicular-retrieved sperm group would need to be further assessed in a larger multicentered study. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Experimental study of Coal Pyrolysis 2.: Experimental characterisation of volatile matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugony, F.; Migliavacca, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper considerations about experiments conducted through T G-Ftir are reported, in order to study the gas composition coming from coal pyrolysis. In particular qualitative and semi-qualitative evaluation of hydrocarbon evolution rate, as CH4, C2H4 and C3H6 are reported. It has been observed a strict relation between the evolution rate of the listed compounds, the coal rank and their elementary composition. The reported data constitute a good support to the validation of the predictive models of coal devolatilization. To complete the study two papers will be published in the next months: one containing experimental data from pyrolysis process in a fixed bed reactor and another one concerning the NMR analysis of the produced char. [it

  8. Vitamin D deficiency in medical patients at a central hospital in Malawi: a comparison with TB patients from a previous study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamikani Mastala

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD in adult medical, non-tuberculous (non-TB patients. To investigate associations with VDD. To compare the results with a similar study in TB patients at the same hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample. SETTING: Central hospital in Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-TB patients (n = 157, inpatients and outpatients. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the prevalence of VDD. Potentially causal associations sought included nutritional status, in/outpatient status, HIV status, anti-retroviral therapy (ART and, by comparison with a previous study, a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D (≤75 nmol/L occurred in 47.8% (75/157 of patients, 16.6% (26/157 of whom had VDD (≤50 nmol/L. None had severe VDD (≤25 nmol/L. VDD was found in 22.8% (23/101 of in-patients and 5.4% (3/56 of out-patients. In univariable analysis in-patient status, ART use and low dietary vitamin D were significant predictors of VDD. VDD was less prevalent than in previously studied TB patients in the same hospital (68/161 = 42%. In multivariate analysis of the combined data set from both studies, having TB (OR 3.61, 95%CI 2.02-6.43 and being an in-patient (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.46-5.01 were significant independent predictors of VDD. CONCLUSIONS: About half of adult medical patients without TB have suboptimal vitamin D status, which is more common in in-patients. VDD is much more common in TB patients than non-TB patients, even when other variables are controlled for, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with TB.

  9. Reduced live-birth rates after IVF/ICSI in women with previous unilateral oophorectomy: results of a multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Tekla; Holte, Jan; Olofsson, Jan I; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin; Gudmundsson, Johannes; Nedstrand, Elizabeth; Lood, Mikael; Berglund, Lars; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny

    2018-02-01

    Is there a reduced live-birth rate (LBR) after IVF/ICSI treatment in women with a previous unilateral oophorectomy (UO)? A significantly reduced LBR after IVF/ICSI was found in women with previous UO when compared with women with intact ovaries in this large multicentre cohort, both crudely and after adjustment for age, BMI, fertility centre and calendar period and regardless of whether the analysis was based on transfer of embryos in the fresh cycle only or on cumulative results including transfers using frozen-thawed embryos. Similar pregnancy rates after IVF/ICSI have been previously reported in case-control studies and small cohort studies of women with previous UO versus women without ovarian surgery. In all previous studies multiple embryos were transferred. No study has previously evaluated LBR in a large cohort of women with a history of UO. This research was a multicentre cohort study, including five reproductive medicine centres in Sweden: Carl von Linné Clinic (A), Karolinska University Hospital (B), Uppsala University Hospital (C), Linköping University Hospital (D) and Örebro University Hospital (E). The women underwent IVF/ICSI between January 1999 and November 2015. Single embryo transfer (SET) was performed in approximately 70% of all treatments, without any significant difference between UO exposed women versus controls (68% versus 71%), respectively (P = 0.32), and a maximum of two embryos were transferred in the remaining cases. The dataset included all consecutive treatments and fresh and frozen-thawed cycles. The exposed cohort included 154 women with UO who underwent 301 IVF/ICSI cycles and the unexposed control cohort consisted of 22 693 women who underwent 41 545 IVF/ICSI cycles. Overall, at the five centres (A-E), the exposed cohort underwent 151, 34, 35, 41 and 40 treatments, respectively, and they were compared with controls of the same centre (18 484, 8371, 5575, 4670 and 4445, respectively). The primary outcome was LBR, which was

  10. Lung Morphological Changes in Closed Chest Injury (an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study lung morphological changes in a closed chest injury model in laboratory animals. Material and methods. Experiments were carried out in 30 male albino nonbred rats weighing 350—380 g. Closed chest injury was simulated, by exposing the chest of anesthetized rats to a 300-g metal cylinder falling from a height of 30 cm. The observation periods were 1, 3, 6, and 24 hours. Results. The signs of evident perivenular edema that was uncharas-teristic to acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by other causes are an important peculiarity of lung morphological changes in this experimental model of closed chest injury. Conclusion. The experimental studies clarified the pattern of lung morphological changes in the early period after closed chest injury. Key words: closed chest injury, pulmonary edema.

  11. A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Study for Silver Electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anmin; Ren, Xuefeng; An, Maozhong; Zhang, Jinqiu; Yang, Peixia; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Yongming; Wang, Chong

    2014-01-01

    A novel method combined theoretical and experimental study for environmental friendly silver electroplating was introduced. Quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were employed for predicting the behaviour and function of the complexing agents. Electronic properties, orbital information, and single point energies of the 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH), nicotinic acid (NA), as well as their silver(I)-complexes were provided by quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Adsorption behaviors of the agents on copper and silver surfaces were investigated using MD simulations. Basing on the data of quantum chemical calculations and MD simulations, we believed that DMH and NA could be the promising complexing agents for silver electroplating. The experimental results, including of electrochemical measurement and silver electroplating, further confirmed the above prediction. This efficient and versatile method thus opens a new window to study or design complexing agents for generalized metal electroplating and will vigorously promote the level of this research region.

  12. Experimental study of particulate fouling onto heat exchanger elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasa

    1994-01-01

    An experimental study of particulate fouling onto tubular heat exchanger surfaces was carried out using sodium sulfate particles. An experimental apparatus equipped with an aerosol generator has been used to examine the deposition of small particles under controlled conditions. Two sets of experiments were performed. Firstly, the deposition against time of solid particles onto single heat exchanger tube in cross-flow was studied. The effects of a number variables such as particle size, gas velocity and temperature on the deposition was analysed. Secondly, the deposition for the aerosol particles as they passed through a bank of finned tubes was examined. The deposition patterns on various tubes depended on local conditions (velocity and temperature) within the bank. It was found that the fouling resistance increases as aerosol flow rate decreases. The smaller particles showed higher fouling resistance. (author) [fr

  13. Experimental studies of uncertainties associated with chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, V J; Ellison, S L; Lucking, C L; Burn, M J

    2001-05-25

    The paper describes experiments for the evaluation of uncertainties associated with a number of chromatographic parameters. Studies of the analysis of vitamins by HPLC illustrate the estimation of the uncertainties associated with experimental "input" parameters such as the detector wavelength, column temperature and mobile phase flow-rate. Experimental design techniques, which allow the efficient study a number of parameters simultaneously, are described. Multiple linear regression was used to fit response surfaces to the data. The resulting equations were used in the estimation of the uncertainties. Three approaches to uncertainty calculation were compared--Kragten's spreadsheet, symmetric spreadsheet and algebraic differentiation. In cases where non-linearity in the model was significant, agreement between the uncertainty estimates was poor as the spreadsheet approaches do not include second-order uncertainty terms.

  14. Everolimus Plus Exemestane in Advanced Breast Cancer: Safety Results of the BALLET Study on Patients Previously Treated Without and with Chemotherapy in the Metastatic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generali, Daniele; Montemurro, Filippo; Bordonaro, Roberto; Mafodda, Antonino; Romito, Sante; Michelotti, Andrea; Piovano, Pierluigi; Ionta, Maria Teresa; Bighin, Claudia; Sartori, Donata; Frassoldati, Antonio; Cazzaniga, Marina Elena; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Testore, Franco; Vici, Patrizia; Barone, Carlo Antonio; Schirone, Alessio; Piacentini, Federico; Nolè, Franco; Molino, Annamaria; Latini, Luciano; Simoncini, Edda Lucia; Roila, Fausto; Cognetti, Francesco; Nuzzo, Francesco; Foglietta, Jennifer; Minisini, Alessandro Marco; Goffredo, Francesca; Portera, Giuseppe; Ascione, Gilda; Mariani, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    The BALLET study was an open-label, multicenter, expanded access study designed to allow treatment with everolimus plus exemestane in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer progressed following prior endocrine therapy. A post hoc analysis to evaluate if previous chemotherapy in the metastatic setting affects the safety profile of the combination regimen of everolimus and exemestane was conducted on the Italian subset, as it represented the major part of the patients enrolled (54%). One thousand one hundred and fifty-one Italian patients were included in the present post hoc analysis, which focused on two sets of patients: patients who never received chemotherapy in the metastatic setting (36.1%) and patients who received at least one chemotherapy treatment in the metastatic setting (63.9%). One thousand one hundred and sixteen patients (97.0%) prematurely discontinued the study drug, and the main reasons reported were disease progression (39.1%), local reimbursement of everolimus (31.1%), and adverse events (AEs) (16.1%). The median duration of study treatment exposure was 139.5 days for exemestane and 135.0 days for everolimus. At least one AE was experienced by 92.5% of patients. The incidence of everolimus-related AEs was higher (83.9%) when compared with those that occurred with exemestane (29.1%), and the most commonly reported everolimus-related AE was stomatitis (51.3%). However, no significant difference in terms of safety related to the combination occurred between patients without and with chemotherapy in the metastatic setting. Real-life data of the Italian patients BALLET-related cohort were an adequate setting to state that previous chemotherapy did not affect the safety profile of the combination regimen of everolimus and exemestane. With the advent of new targeted agents for advanced or metastatic breast cancer, multiple lines of therapy may be possible, and components of the combined regimens can overlap from

  15. An experimental study of high contraction ratio, subsonic wind tunnel inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caylor, M. J.; Batill, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    The inlet or contraction section has significant impact on the performance and operating characteristics of any subsonic wind tunnel. Previous experimental studies have been conducted to examine specific aspects of inlet performance and design. This work builds on this earlier experience by performing a comprehensive experimental analysis of a member of a family of high contraction ratio inlets used on indraft type wind tunnels. Quantitative flow field measurements were made using wall static ports, a five-hole pressure probe, and a hot wire anemometry system. Smoke flow visualization techniques were used to examine the inlet flow in a more qualitative manner and to correlate with quantitative measurements. This experimental investigation has provided insight into some of the many problems associated with inlet flows.

  16. Experimental Study on Noise Characteristic of Centrifugal Compressor Surge

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qichao; Zhao, Yuanyang; SHU, Yue; LI, Xiaosa; LI, Liansheng

    2016-01-01

    The centrifugal air compressor test rig is was designed and established. The experimental study was carried out on the surge characteristics of centrifugal compressor including the pressure in the pipe and the noise characteristics under different rotation speed. The tested results showed that both the suction pressure and discharge pressure fluctuation increase under surge condition and the amplitude of discharge pressure fluctuation is significantly higher than that of suction pressure. In ...

  17. Respecifying lab ethnography an ethnomethodological study of experimental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Respecifying Lab Ethnography delivers the first ethnomethodological study of current experimental physics in action, describing the disciplinary orientation of lab work and exploring the discipline in its social order, formal stringency and skilful performance - in situ and in vivo. In bringing together two major strands of ethnomethodological inquiry, reflexive ethnography and video analysis, which have hitherto existed in parallel, Respecifying Lab Ethnography introduces a practice-based video analysis. In doing so, the book recasts conventional distinctions to shed fresh light on methodolog

  18. Experimental study of hydrogen jet ignition and jet extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierman, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    Two phases are described of an experimental study that investigated: (1) the ignition characteristics of hydrogen--sodium jets, (2) the formation of hydrogen in sodium--humid air atmospheres, and (3) the extinguishment characteristics of burning hydrogen--sodium jets. Test conditions were similar to those postulated for highly-improbable breeder reactor core melt-through accidents and included: jet temperature, jet velocity, jet hydrogen concentration, jet sodium concentration, atmospheric oxygen concentration, and atmospheric water vapor concentration

  19. A theoretical and experimental study of microshield circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Nihad I.; Drayton, Rhonda F.; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1993-05-01

    The novel type of monolithic planar transmission line presently studied theoretically and experimentally operates without via-holes or ground-equalizing air bridges; it also radiates less than conventional coplanar waveguides and furnishes a wide range of impedances in virtue of its many design parameters. The space-domain integral equation method is used to analyze several discontinuities of the proposed line. It is shown that the proposed line discontinuities radiate less than the corresponding coplanar waveguide cases.

  20. Experimental study of possible therapy of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willborn, M.

    1981-01-01

    These experimental studies showed that the survival time of rats, irradiated in a whole-body irradiation with 3000 rad 60 Co-gamma, can be positively influenced by the administration of an antibiotic and also by glucocorticoids. Contrary to our expectations, the combined application of the glucocorticoid and the antibiotic did not increase the survival time of the animals with gastrointestinal syndromes compared with the exclusive administration of the antibiotic. The mineral corticoid aldosterone resulted to be ineffective. (orig.) [de

  1. Experimental study of the evaporation of sessile nanoliter liquid drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation of a sessile nanoliter water droplet was investigated experimentally at a temperature difference between the solid substrate and surrounding atmosphere from 30 to 50°C. The studies were performed on the float glass substrate with aluminum nanocoating of optical quality. The research has shown that the specific rate of evaporation (mass loss per unit of the drop surface area increases with the decrease in droplet volume and at the last stage several times exceeds the initial value.

  2. Comparative study of experimental signals for multipactor and breakdown.

    CERN Document Server

    Dehler, Micha; Wuensch, Walter; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Gimeno Martinez, Benito; Kovermann, Jan; Boria, Vicente; Raboso, David

    2012-01-01

    Performance limiting high-power rf phenomenon occur in both transmitter systems in satellites and high-gradient accelerating structures in particle accelerators. In satellites the predominant effect is multipactor while in accelerators it is breakdown. Both communities have studied their respective phenomena extensively and developed particular simulation tools and experimental techniques. A series of experiments to directly compare measurements made under multipactor and breakdown conditions has been initiated with the objective to crosscheck and compare the physics, simulation tools and measurement techniques.

  3. Higher frequency of hamstring injuries in elite track and field athletes who had a previous injury to the ankle - a 17 years observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Bikos, Georgios; Meke, Maria; Vasileios, Korakakis; Valle, Xavier; Lohrer, Heinz; Maffulli, Nicola; Padhiar, Nat

    2018-01-01

    Inversion injury to the ankle and hamstring injuries are common problems in most sports. It is not known whether these injuries constitute a predisposing factor or a precursor of injury or re-injury of these anatomical locations. Therefore, we wished to test the hypothesis that a previous inversion ankle injury exerted a significant effect on the chance of an athlete suffering from a subsequent ipsilateral hamstring injury and vice versa. In an observational cohort study over 17 years (1998-2015), 367 elite track and field athletes, were grouped according to their first traumatic isolated ankle or hamstring injury. Fifty athletes experienced both injuries. The Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests ( p  < 0.05) were performed to test possible associations of ankle and hamstring injury with age, gender, athletics discipline, grade, and type of antecedent injury. Athletes with a preceding ankle injury had a statistically significantly higher chance of experiencing a subsequent hamstring injury compared with athletes who had experienced a hamstring injury as their first traumatic event (x 2  = 4.245, p  = 0.039). The proportion of both ankle and hamstring injury events was not statistically different between female (18%) and male (11%) athletes. Age and grade of injury did not influence the proportion of ankle and/or hamstring injury events. There is a statistically significantly higher frequency of hamstring injuries in elite track and field athletes having experienced a previous ankle ligament injury.

  4. A longitudinal study of relationships between previous academic achievement, emotional intelligence and personality traits with psychological health of medical students during stressful periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Esa, Ab Rahman; Mat Pa, Mohamad Najib; Mey, See Ching; Aziz, Rosniza Abdul; Abdul Rahim, Ahmad Fuad

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that emotional intelligence, previous academic achievement (i.e. cumulative grade point average (GPA)) and personality are associated with success in various occupational settings. This study evaluated the relationships of these variables with psychological health of first year medical students during stressful periods. A 1-year prospective study was done with students accepted into the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Information on emotional intelligence, GPA and personality traits were obtained prior to admission. The validated Universiti Sains Malaysia Emotional Quotient Inventory and Universiti Sains Malaysia Personality Inventory were used to measure emotional intelligence and personality traits, respectively. Stress, anxiety and depression were measured by the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale during the end-of-course (time 1) and final (time 2) examinations. At the less stressful period (time 1), stress level was associated with agreeableness and the final GPA, anxiety level was associated with emotional control and emotional conscientiousness and depression level was associated with the final GPA and extraversion. At the more stressful period (time 2), neuroticism associated with stress level, anxiety level was associated with neuroticism and emotional expression, and depression level was associated with neuroticism. This study found that neuroticism was the strongest associated factor of psychological health of medical students during their most stressful testing period. Various personality traits, emotional intelligence and previous academic performance were associated factors of psychological health during a less stressful period. These data suggest that early identification of medical students who are vulnerable to the stressful environment of medical schools might help them maintain psychological well-being during medical training.

  5. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERINATAL OUTCOME IN WOMEN WITH RECURRENT PREECLAMPSIA TO WOMEN WITH PRE-ECLAMPSIA WHO WERE NORMOTENSIVE DURING THEIR PREVIOUS PREGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Guhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Pre-eclampsia is a systemic syndrome that occurs in 3-5% of the pregnant women and is the leading cause of maternal/neonatal morbidity and mortality. We designed a study to compare perinatal outcome in women with recurrent preeclampsia to women with women with pre-eclampsia who were normotensive during their previous pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Government Medical College, Kozhikode for a period of 1 year from March 2013 to February 2014. We conducted this study in multiparous women who developed pre-eclampsia in index pregnancy (n=110. Among these, women who had pre-eclampsia in previous pregnancies (n=55 were compared to those who remained normotensive during their prior pregnancies (n=55. Maternal and foetal variables were compared. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed to examine the impact of pre-eclampsia on foetal outcome, preterm delivery, IUGR, still births adjusted for confounding variables. RESULTS No statistical significant difference was observed between the 2 groups in terms of age, gravida, parity. Women who experienced recurrent pre-eclampsia were at elevated risk for early onset of pre-eclampsia, deranged laboratory investigations (Hepatic and Renal parameters, Coagulation Profile, higher chances of maternal complications, foetal mortality and morbidity (Statistically significant P <0.05. Foetal loss was higher in women with recurrent pre-eclampsia (14.5% than in women with pre-eclampsia who had normotensive pregnancy history (1.8%. CONCLUSION Women with recurrent pre-eclampsia had a higher rate of perinatal loss compared to women with pre-eclampsia who were normotensive in their prior pregnancies.

  6. Experimental and computational development of a natural breast phantom for dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Luciana B.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental and computational development of a natural breast phantom, anthropomorphic and anthropometric for studies in dosimetry of brachytherapy and teletherapy of breast. The natural breast phantom developed corresponding to fibroadipose breasts of women aged 30 to 50 years, presenting radiographically medium density. The experimental breast phantom was constituted of three tissue-equivalents (TE's): glandular TE, adipose TE and skin TE. These TE's were developed according to chemical composition of human breast and present radiological response to exposure. Completed the construction of experimental breast phantom this was mounted on a thorax phantom previously developed by the research group NRI/UFMG. Then the computational breast phantom was constructed by performing a computed tomography (CT) by axial slices of the chest phantom. Through the images generated by CT a computational model of voxels of the thorax phantom was developed by SISCODES computational program, being the computational breast phantom represented by the same TE's of the experimental breast phantom. The images generated by CT allowed evaluating the radiological equivalence of the tissues. The breast phantom is being used in studies of experimental dosimetry both in brachytherapy as in teletherapy of breast. Dosimetry studies by MCNP-5 code using the computational model of the phantom breast are in progress. (author)

  7. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias in a previously unscreened population--a pooled analysis from three studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Mittal, Srabani; Bhaumik, Suchismita; Mandal, Shyam Sunder; Samaddar, Anusree; Ray, Chinmayi; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Biswas, Jaydip; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2013-04-01

    Population prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) is an important indicator to judge the disease burden in the community, to monitor the performance of cervical cancer screening program and to assess the impact of HPV vaccination program. India being a country without any cervical cancer screening program has no published data on the population prevalence of CIN and only a few large community-based studies to report the high-risk HPV prevalence. The objective of our study was to study HPV and CIN prevalence in a previously unscreened population. We pooled together the results of three research studies originally designed to assess the performance of visual inspection after acetic acid application and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC 2). Nearly 60% of the screened women had colposcopy irrespective of their screening test results. The diagnosis and grading of cervical neoplasias were based on histology. The age standardized prevalence of HPV by HC 2 test was 6.0%. Age-adjusted prevalence of CIN1 and CIN2 was 2.3% and 0.5%, respectively. The age-adjusted prevalence of CIN3 was 0.4% and that of invasive cancer was 0.2%. The prevalence of high-risk HPV was relatively low in the population we studied, which is reflected in the low prevalence of high-grade CIN. The prevalence of CIN3 remained constant across age groups due to absence of screening. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  8. Phase II study of a 3-day schedule with topotecan and cisplatin in patients with previously untreated small cell lung cancer and extensive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, Ulrik Niels; Jensen, Peter Buhl

    2008-01-01

    and cisplatin are needed. The aim of this phase II study was to establish the response rate and response duration in chemo-naive patients with SCLC receiving a 3-day topotecan and cisplatin schedule. METHODS: Simons optimal two-stage design was used. Patients with previously untreated extensive disease SCLC......INTRODUCTION: Treatment with a topoisomerase I inhibitor in combination with a platinum results in superior or equal survival compared with etoposide-based treatment in extensive disease small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Five-day topotecan is inconvenient and therefore shorter schedules of topotecan......, adequate organ functions and performance status less than 3 were eligible. Topotecan (2.0 mg/m, intravenously) was administered on days 1 to 3 with cisplatin (50 mg/m, intravenously) on day 3 every 3 weeks for a total of six cycles. RESULTS: Forty-three patients received 219 cycles of chemotherapy. Median...

  9. Spent Fuel Transportation Package Performance Study - Experimental Design Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, A. M.; Murphy, A. J.; Sprung, J. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Lopez, C.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies of spent nuclear fuel transportation accident risks have been performed since the late seventies that considered shipping container design and performance. Based in part on these studies, NRC has concluded that the level of protection provided by spent nuclear fuel transportation package designs under accident conditions is adequate. [1] Furthermore, actual spent nuclear fuel transport experience showcase a safety record that is exceptional and unparalleled when compared to other hazardous materials transportation shipments. There has never been a known or suspected release of the radioactive contents from an NRC-certified spent nuclear fuel cask as a result of a transportation accident. In 1999 the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a study, the Package Performance Study, to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and spent fuel packages during severe transportation accidents. NRC is not studying or testing its current regulations, a s the rigorous regulatory accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71 are adequate to ensure safe packaging and use. As part of this study, NRC currently plans on using detailed modeling followed by experimental testing to increase public confidence in the safety of spent nuclear fuel shipments. One of the aspects of this confirmatory research study is the commitment to solicit and consider public comment during the scoping phase and experimental design planning phase of this research

  10. An experimental study on the characteristics of electromagnetic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geum Yong; Lim, Seung Cheol; Lee, Kun Jai

    1993-01-01

    The electromagnetic filter has been recognized as a technological replacement for the conventional filtration systems of the nuclear power plant coolant. But, as of now there are neither clear understandings of the phenomena occurring in the electromagnetic filter nor the general theoretical analyses. These facts make the application of the electromagnetic filter to the real systems a little risky, and therfore it has not been commercialized although it shows excellent performances in such situations as the plant abnormality, where the conventional filters usually fail. This experimental study of the low power electromagnetic filter aims at the clarification of the general characteristics under varying operational parameters. Since the detailed characteristics may differ from one electromagnetic filter to another, they are considered secondary. The impurities applied are the highly magnetic magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) and the diamagnetic cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O). The empirical equations are derived from the experimental data by the regressional analyses. They are classified of three types : Efficiencies vs. Time, Efficiencies vs. Load, and Load vs. Time. The characteristics of the electromagnetic filter observed in this experiment agreed well with other related works in many aspects. Especially in this study, some assumptions and discussions including the physical deposition are combined for the explanations of the filter characteristics found in our and other experimental works. (Author)

  11. Numerical and experimental study of an Archimedean Screw Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, G.; Garambois, P.-A.; Dufresne, M.; Terfous, A.; Vazquez, J.; Ghenaim, A.

    2016-11-01

    Finding new, safe and renewable energy is becoming more and more of a priority with global warming. One solution that is gaining popularity is the Archimedean Screw Generator (ASG). This kind of hydroelectric plant allows transforming potential energy of a fluid into mechanical energy and is convenient for low-head hydraulic sites. As it is a new and growing technology, there are few references dealing with their design and performance optimization. The present contribution proposes to investigate experimentally and numerically the ASG performances. The experimental study is performed for various flow conditions and a laboratory scale screw device installed at the fluid mechanics laboratory of the INSA of Strasbourg. The first results show that the screw efficiencies are higher than 80% for various hydraulic conditions. In order to study the structure of 3D turbulent flows and energy losses in a screw, the 3D Navier Stokes equations are solved with the k-w SST turbulence model. The exact geometry of the laboratory-scale screw was used in these simulations. Interestingly, the modeled values of efficiency are in fairly good agreement with experimental results while any friction coefficient is involved.

  12. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Nestor Fonseca [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure. (author)

  13. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor, E-mail: nestorfonseca5@hotmail.co [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure.

  14. Experimental study on active gear mesh vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yuan H.; Shepard, W. Steve, Jr.; Lim, Teik C.; Li, Mingfeng

    2004-07-01

    An internal active vibration control system is developed and verified experimentally to suppress gearbox housing vibrations due to gear transmission error excitation. The approach is based on an active shaft transverse vibration control concept. The system contains a piezoelectric stack actuator for applying control forces to the shaft via a rolling element bearing. A modified filtered-x LMS control algorithm with frequency estimation is developed to generate the appropriate control signals. The experimental results show 5-20 dB reduction in the housing vibration at the first two gear mesh harmonics over a wide gear rotation speed range. However, under certain narrow conditions, vibration amplifications at other locations are observed in the experiments, which might be attributed to the system un-modeled dynamics. In spite of this limitation, the approach developed is fairly promising. Studies are being performed to improve the overall performance of the prototype active control system.

  15. Transvenous pacemaker leads in the dog: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenger, C R; Ilkiw, J E; Nicholson, A I; Malik, R; Matthews, R

    1990-09-01

    Tined transvenous pacing leads were inserted into nine healthy large-breed dogs as part of an experimental study evaluating an implantable defibrillator. The pacing leads were used to induce ventricular fibrillation on the day of insertion, two and four weeks after insertion and then monthly. Despite daily running exercise on and off a leash, the tined leads remained firmly anchored to the right ventricular apex for the full experimental period of up to 12 months. Apart from mechanical endocarditis of the tricuspid valve, and partial penetration of the ventricular wall in one dog, problems associated with the pacing leads were not encountered. The use of tined leads and careful technique may minimise the likelihood of transvenous lead displacement.

  16. An experimental study on anti-electrostatic gauge rulers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Renjie; Dai, Liping; Sun, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The process of oil filling will produce electrostatic phenomena which may cause fire accidents. There were no reports about research on the danger of static electricity generation in the process of gauging operation to date. This paper presents an experiment on charge transferring quantity of gauge rulers, and calculates the charge transferring quantity of an anti-electrostatic gauge ruler and a metal one, respectively. The results indicate that the charge transferring quantity can be more than 0.1 μC for a metal gauge ruler, while it is less than 0.1 μC for an antistatic gauge ruler. Therefore, this experimental research proves that using an anti-electrostatic gauge ruler is safer than using a metal one. This study also provides some theoretical and experimental evidence for making anti-electrostatic gauge rulers.

  17. Analytical modelling and experimental studies of SIS tunnel solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheknane, Ali [Laboratoire de Valorisation des Energies Renouvelables et Environnements Agressifs, Universite Amar Telidji de Laghouat, BP 37G route de Ghardaia, Laghouat (03000) Algerie (Algeria)], E-mail: cheknanali@yahoo.com

    2009-06-07

    This paper presents an experimental and computational study of semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) tunnel solar cells. A transparent and conductive film of thallium trioxide Tl{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been deposited by anodic oxidation onto an n-Si(1 0 0) face to realize the SIS tunnel solar cells based on Si/SiO{sub x}/Tl{sub 2}O{sub 3}. An efficiency of 8.77% has been obtained under an incident power density of 33 mW cm{sup -2} illumination condition. A PSPICE model is implemented. The calculated results show that the theoretical values are in good agreement with experimental data. Moreover, the simulation clearly demonstrates that the performance of the tested device can be significantly improved.

  18. Experimental study of effect of stenosis geometry on flow parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselý Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A stenosis is a narrowing in a tubular organ or structure. In medicine, vessel stenosis poses health risks for people. In this work, experimental investigations of pressure loss coefficient for varying stenosis eccentricity and shape were performed. Five models of different geometry were studied; all models were stenosis of 75 % area reduction. The flow conditions approximate physiological flow. The measuring range of Reynolds number was from 130 to 2730, measured values of pressure loss coefficient were from 12 to 20. The steady experimental results indicated that static pressure loss coefficient is affected by the shape of stenosis, but it was affected more significantly by the eccentricity. Visualization experiments have been performed in Polycarbonate models.

  19. Experimental study of swelling of irradiated solid methane during annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabalin, E.; Fedorov, A.; Kulagin, E.; Kulikov, S.; Melikhov, V.; Shabalin, D.

    2008-01-01

    Solid methane is still widely in use at pulsed neutron sources due to its excellent neutronic performance (IPNS, KENS, Second Target Station at ISIS), notwithstanding poor radiation properties. One of the specific problems is radiolytic hydrogen gas pressure on the walls of a methane chamber during annealing of methane. In this paper results of an experimental study of this phenomenon under fast neutron irradiation with the help of a specially made low temperature irradiation rig at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor are presented. The peak pressure on the wall of the experimental capsule during heating of a sample irradiated at 23-35 K appears to have a maximum of 2.7 MPa at an absorbed dose 20 MGy and then falls down with higher doses. The pressure always reached its peak value at the temperature range 72-79 K. Generally, three phases of methane swelling during heating can be distinguished, each characterized by a proper rate and intensity.

  20. Implant stability during initiation and resolution of experimental periimplantitis: an experimental study in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennerby, Lars; Persson, Leif G; Berglundh, Tord; Wennerberg, Ann; Lindhe, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Histologic studies have demonstrated the possibility to reestablish direct bone-implant contacts after ligature-induced periimplantitis. The influence of the reosseointegration on the stability of implants is not known. The aim of the present investigation was to study bone tissue and associated implant stability alterations that occurred during induction and resolution of periimplantitis using resonance frequency analysis (RFA), radiography, and histology. Three implants with smooth (turned) or roughened (SLA) surfaces were placed in each side of the edentulous mandible of four dogs. Experimental periimplantitis was induced for 3 months. Five weeks later, the animals were treated with antibiotics and surgical therapy and were followed for another 6 months. Periapical radiographs and RFA were used to evaluate marginal bone levels and implant stability throughout the study period. After termination, the tissue-implant interface was evaluated by light microscopy in ground sections. There was a linear relationship between radiographic and RFA findings because continuous loss of marginal bone and a decrease in implant stability were observed for both implant surfaces during the periimplantitis period. Antibiotic treatment and surgical therapy resulted in some reosseointegration, which was more marked for the SLA surface. The resonance frequency values corresponded well to the histometric measurements because reosseointegration resulted in an increase in implant stability. The findings from the present study indicate a linear relationship between marginal bone level and resonance frequency value. It is suggested that the RFA technique is sensitive and may be used to detect even a minor change in the level of bone-implant contact.

  1. Theoretical and experimental study of mixed solvent electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, P.T.; O'Connell, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    In the original proposal to study mixed solvent electrolyte solutions, four major goals were formulated: fundamental modeling of mixed solvent electrolytes using numerically solved integral equation approximation theories; evaluation of intermolecular pair potential models by computer simulation of selected systems for comparison with experiment and the numerical integral equation studies; development of fundamentally based correlations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed solvent electrolyte solutions using analytically solvable statistical mechanical models; and extension of experimental database on mixed solvent electrolytes by performing vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements on selected systems. This paper discusses the progress on these goals

  2. Game theory and experimental games the study of strategic interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Colman, Andrew M

    1982-01-01

    Game Theory and Experimental Games: The Study of Strategic Interaction is a critical survey of the essential ideas of game theory and the findings of empirical research on strategic interaction. Some experiments using lifelike simulations of familiar kinds of strategic interactions are presented, and applications of game theory to the study of voting, the theory of evolution, and moral philosophy are discussed.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an informal definition of game theory and an outline of the types of social situations to which it applies. Games of skill, games of cha

  3. Experimental Study on the WavePiston Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Angelelli, E.

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power performance of the WavePiston wave energy converter. It focuses mainly on evaluating the power generating capabilities of the device and the effect of the following issues: Scaling ratios PTO loading Wave height and wave period...... dependency Oblique incoming waves Distance between plates During the study, the model supplied by the client, WavePiston, has been rigorously tested as all the anticipated tests have been done thoroughly and during all tests, good quality data has been obtained from all the sensors....

  4. Pulsed total dose damage effect experimental study on EPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yinhong; Yao Zhibin; Zhang Fengqi; Guo Hongxia; Zhang Keying; Wang Yuanming; He Baoping

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, memory radiation effect study mainly focus on functionality measurement. Measurable parameters is few in china. According to the present situation, threshold voltage testing method was presented on floating gate EPROM memory. Experimental study of pulsed total dose effect on EPROM threshold voltage was carried out. Damage mechanism was analysed The experiment results showed that memory cell threshold voltage negative shift was caused by pulsed total dose, memory cell threshold voltage shift is basically coincident under steady bias supply and no bias supply. (authors)

  5. [Experimental study on spectra of compressed air microwave plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Xi; Zhang, Gui-Xin; Wang, Qiang; Hou, Ling-Yun

    2013-03-01

    Using a microwave plasma generator, compressed air microwave plasma was excited under 1 - 5 atm pressures. Under different pressures and different incident microwave power, the emission spectra of compressed air microwave plasma were studied with a spectra measuring system. The results show that continuum is significant at atmospheric pressure and the characteristic will be weakened as the pressure increases. The band spectra intensity will be reduced with the falling of the incident microwave power and the band spectra were still significant. The experimental results are valuable to studying the characteristics of compressed air microwave plasma and the generating conditions of NO active groups.

  6. Experimental Study of Axially Tension Cold Formed Steel Channel Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriani, Widya; Lubis, Fadrizal; Angraini, Muthia

    2017-12-01

    Experimental testing is commonly used as one of the steps to determine the cause of the collapse of a building structure. The collapse of structures can be due to low quality materials. Although material samples have passed laboratory tests and the existing technical specifications have been met but there may be undetected defects and known material after failure. In this paper will be presented Experimental Testing of Axially Tension Cold Formed Steel Channel Members to determine the cause of the collapse of a building roof truss x in Pekanbaru. Test of tensile strength material cold formed channel sections was performed to obtain the main characteristics of Cold Formed steel material, namely ultimate tensile strength loads that can be held by members and the yield stress possessed by channel sections used in construction. Analysis of axially tension cold formed steel channel section presents in this paper was conducted through experimental study based on specificationsAnnualBook of ASTM Standards: Metal Test methods and Analitical Procedures, Section 3 (1991). The result of capacity loads experimental test was compared with design based on SNI 03-7971-2013standard of Indonesia for the design of cold formed steel structural members. The results of the yield stress of the material will be seen against the minimum allowable allowable stress range. After the test, the percentace of ultimate axial tension capacity theory has a result that is 16.46% larger than the ultimate axial tension capacity experimental. When compared with the load that must be borne 5.673 kN/m it can be concluded that 2 specimens do not meet. Yield stress of member has fulfilled requirement that wass bigger than 550 MPa. Based on the curve obtained ultimate axial tension capacity theory, results greater than experimental. The greatest voltage value (fu) is achieved under the same conditions as its yield stress. For this specimen with a melting voltage value fy = 571.5068 MPa has fulfilled the

  7. Women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous caesarean section in Taiwan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Wen; Hutchinson, Alison M; Nagle, Cate; Bucknall, Tracey K

    2018-01-17

    Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is an alternative option for women who have had a previous caesarean section (CS); however, uptake is limited because of concern about the risks of uterine rupture. The aim of this study was to explore women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous CS. A qualitative approach was used. The research comprised three stages. Stage I consisted of naturalistic observation at 33-34 weeks' gestation. Stage II involved interviews with pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation. Stage III consisted of interviews with the same women who were interviewed postnatally, 1 month after birth. The research was conducted in a private medical centre in northern Taiwan. Using a purposive sampling, 21 women and 9 obstetricians were recruited. Data collection involved in-depth interviews, observation and field notes. Constant comparative analysis was employed for data analysis. Ensuring the safety of mother and baby was the focus of women's decisions. Women's decisions-making influences included previous birth experience, concern about the risks of vaginal birth, evaluation of mode of birth, current pregnancy situation, information resources and health insurance. In communicating with obstetricians, some women complied with obstetricians' recommendations for repeat caesarean section (RCS) without being informed of alternatives. Others used four step decision-making processes that included searching for information, listening to obstetricians' professional judgement, evaluating alternatives, and making a decision regarding mode of birth. After birth, women reflected on their decisions in three aspects: reflection on birth choices; reflection on factors influencing decisions; and reflection on outcomes of decisions. The health and wellbeing of mother and baby were the major concerns for women. In response to the decision-making influences, women's interactions with obstetricians regarding birth choices

  8. Manipulation of pain catastrophizing: An experimental study of healthy participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel E Bialosky

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Joel E Bialosky1*, Adam T Hirsh2,3, Michael E Robinson2,3, Steven Z George1,3*1Department of Physical Therapy; 2Department of Clinical and Health Psychology; 3Center for Pain Research and Behavioral Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USAAbstract: Pain catastrophizing is associated with the pain experience; however, causation has not been established. Studies which specifically manipulate catastrophizing are necessary to establish causation. The present study enrolled 100 healthy individuals. Participants were randomly assigned to repeat a positive, neutral, or one of three catastrophizing statements during a cold pressor task (CPT. Outcome measures of pain tolerance and pain intensity were recorded. No change was noted in catastrophizing immediately following the CPT (F(1,84 = 0.10, p = 0.75, partial η2 < 0.01 independent of group assignment (F(4,84 = 0.78, p = 0.54, partial η2 = 0.04. Pain tolerance (F(4 = 0.67, p = 0.62, partial η2 = 0.03 and pain intensity (F(4 = 0.73, p = 0.58, partial η2 = 0.03 did not differ by group. This study suggests catastrophizing may be difficult to manipulate through experimental pain procedures and repetition of specific catastrophizing statements was not sufficient to change levels of catastrophizing. Additionally, pain tolerance and pain intensity did not differ by group assignment. This study has implications for future studies attempting to experimentally manipulate pain catastrophizing.Keywords: pain, catastrophizing, experimental, cold pressor task, pain catastrophizing scale

  9. Experimental study of low-titre critical two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seynhaeve, Jean-Marie

    1980-02-01

    This report for engineering graduation addresses the analysis of two-phase critical flows obtained by expansion of a saturated or under-cooled liquid. For a titre greater than 0,1, theoretical studies give a rather good prediction of critical flow rates, whereas in the case of a lower titre, results obtained by published studies display some discrepancies, and the test duct geometry and important unbalances between phases seem to be at the origin of these discrepancies. In order to study these origins of discrepancies, three test campaigns have been performed: on a test duct provided by the CENG, on two long tubes, and on holes. Thus, after a bibliographical study which outlines drawbacks of previous studies, the author proposes a detailed description of experimental installations (creation of critical flows, measurement chain, measurement processing, measurement device calibration, quality and precision). Experimental results are then systematically explored, and differences are explained. The author then addresses the theoretical aspect of the determination of critical flow rates by reviewing calculation models and by comparing their results with experimental results. The validity of each model is thus discussed. The author then proposes a calculation model which can be applied to critical flows developed in holes. This model is notably inspired by experimental conclusions and gives very satisfying practical results

  10. Experimental and theoretical study of Co sorption in clay montmorillonites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Rebaza, A. V.; Montes, M. L.; Taylor, M. A.; Errico, L. A.; Alonso, R. E.

    2018-03-01

    Montmorillonite (MMT) clays are 2:1 layered structures which in natural state may allocate different hydrated cations such as M-nH2O (M = Na, Ca, Fe, etc) in its interlayer space. Depending on the capability for ion sorption, these materials are interesting for environmental remediation. In this work we experimentally study the Co sorption in a natural Na-MMT using UV-visible spectrometry and XRD on semi-oriented samples, and then analyze the sorption ability of this clay by means of ab initio calculation performed on pristine MMT. The structural properties of Na-MMT and Co-adsorbed MMT, and the hyperfine parameters at different atomic sites were analyzed and compared with the experimental ones for the first, and for the case of the hyperfine parameters, presented for the first time for the last. The theoretical predictions based on total energy considerations confirm that Co incorporation replacing Na is energetically favorable. Also, the basal spacing d001 experimentally obtained is well reproduced.

  11. Experimental study of self-leveling behavior in debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bin; Harada, Tetsushi; Hirahara, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji; Yamano, Hidemasa; Suzuki, Tohru; Tobita, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    After a core disruptive accident in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, core debris may settle on locations such as within the core-support structure or in the lower inlet plenum of the reactor vessel as debris beds, as a consequence of rapid quenching and fragmentation of core materials in subcooled sodium. The particle beds that are initially of varying depth have been observed to undergo a process of self-leveling when sodium boiling occurs within the beds. The boiling is believed to provide the driven force with debris needed to overcome resisting forces. Self-leveling ability has much effect on heat-removal capability of debris beds. In the present study, characteristics of self-leveling behaviors were investigated experimentally with simulant materials. Although the decay heat from fuel debris drives the coolant boiling in reactor accident conditions, the present experiments employed depressurization boiling of water to simulate axially increasing void distribution in a debris bed, which consists of solid particles of alumina or lead with different density. The particle size (from 0.5 mm to 6 mm in diameter) and shape (spherical or non-spherical particles) were also taken as experimental parameters. A rough criteria for self-leveling occurrence is proposed and compared with the experimental results. Characteristics of the self-leveling behaviors observed are analyzed and extrapolate to reactor accident conditions. (author)

  12. Experimental studies and modeling of an information embedded power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carullo, Stephen Paul

    This thesis develops a model of an electrical power system, with its inherent embedded communication system, for studying the characteristics of power system measurement errors due to communication delays. This model is referred to as an "information embedded power system" to emphasize the addition of a model of the communication system, that delivers measurements to a control center, to the standard model for the energy balance within the power system. These power system measurements are delivered across an Ethernet computer control network. An experimental platform was created in order to experimentally measure and characterize measurement delay errors (MDEs) in this information embedded power system. Several stochastic system models are developed, which are composed of both the physical infrastructure of the power system as well as the embedded computer network communication infrastructure. Both white noise and colored noise models are used to characterize MDEs. This type of analysis is an extension of traditional observability approaches, which usually only assume deterministic steady-state conditions in the power system and do not consider time delays in delivering measurements. The experimental platform is used to validate the developed model.

  13. Experimental Method For Studying Habitual Behavior In Food Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naziha Kasraoui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the process of habit formation in everyday life a sample of 126 participants students chooses an eating and drinking for three periods weeks. They completed the self-report habit each period and we have recorded their choices. All participants provided sufficient data for analysis and collected experimental data were examined over the study periods 3 weeks. Experimental analysis was used to examine the persistence of habit formation process in the behavior of participants. The game is carried out with 126 students and repeated for three periods. Using experimental laboratory data approach and economic analysis elasticity results show that into the presence of labor income and for 126 students of whom approximately 70 showed that habit formation process is persist in their behaviors along the three periods. The rest 30 of them who dont present habit formation in their behavior for the three periods did not materially affect our conclusion about the assumption of habit formation process. Participants to the game persistently spend too much in early periods they learn rapidly from their own experience to consume the same choice of meals and drinks. Their spending is closely linked to optimal consumption non conditional on earlier spending and they choose the same basket of goods in the future horizon which shows that theres a habit formation in the behaviors of participants.

  14. The Experimental Study Of Effects Of Irradiation On Osseointegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwan Soo; Lee, Sang Rae; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the Co-60 gamma irradiation on the osseointegration. 2.0 mm titanium alloy screw implants were placed in the tibial metaphysics of the rabbits, bilaterally. The mean length of the implants was 6.0 mm. The right tibia was irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy from 6{sup 0C}o teletherapic machine at 5th postoperative day. The experimental group was irradiated tibia. The control group was non-irradiated tibia. To observe the phase of bone formation, the bone labeling by intramuscular injection of 20 mg/Kg of Tetracycline, Calcein, Alizarin red S, was performed. The rabbits were sacrificed on the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th week and the tibia including implants were taken, and then the specimens were examined by the microradiography, light microscopy, and fluorescent microscopy.The obtained results were as follows; 1. There were connective tissue between bone and titanium at 1st week, in both group. Especially, the many empty lacunae without nucleus and obscure cytoplasm in experimental group, were observed. 2. The osteons were observed at 4th week in control group, and at 6th week in experimental group. The bone formation in experimental group was retarded as compared to the control group. 3. In fluorescent microscopy, bone labelling band was observed as linear, arc or concentric shape. Occasionary interrupted labelling band was observed, which is demonstrated bone remodeling. 4. In microradiographic examination, the radiolucent image was found between bone and implant with widening of bone marrow spaces as compared to the control group.

  15. The reaction between iodine and organic coatings under severe PWR accident conditions. An experimental parameter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellmann, S.; Funke, F.; Greger, G.U.; Bleier, A.; Morell, W. [Siemens AG, Power Generation Group, Erlangen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    An extensive experimental parameter study was performed on the deposition and on the resuspension kinetics in the reaction system iodine/organically coated surfaces. Both reactions in the gas phase and in the liquid phase were investigated and kinetic rate constants suitable for modelling were derived. Previous experimental studies on the reaction of iodine with organic coated surfaces were mostly limited to temperatures below 100{sup o}C. Thus, this parameter study aims at filling a gap and providing kinetic data on heterogeneous reactions with organic surfaces in the accident-relevant temperature range of 100-160{sup o}C. Two types of laboratory experiments carried out at Siemens/KWU using coatings representative for German power plants (epoxy-tape paint), namely gas phase tests and liquid phase tests. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs.

  16. Primary infection protects pigs against re-infection with Lawsonia intracellularis in experimental challenge studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal

    2011-01-01

    In two separate trials previous termpigsnext term were experimentally infected with previous termLawsonia intracellularisnext term at 5–6 weeks of age followed by antibiotic treatment and resolution of the previous termprimary infection and then renext term-inoculated at 12–13 weeks of age. A tre...

  17. Two consecutive phase II studies of oxaliplatin (L-OHP) for treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma who were resistant to previous treatment with fluoropyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machover, D; Diaz-Rubio, E; de Gramont, A; Schilf, A; Gastiaburu, J J; Brienza, S; Itzhaki, M; Metzger, G; N'Daw, D; Vignoud, J; Abad, A; Francois, E; Gamelin, E; Marty, M; Sastre, J; Seitz, J F; Ychou, M

    1996-01-01

    Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a platinum complex that possesses activity against human and murine cells in vitro and in vivo, including colorectal carcinoma-derived cell lines, and cells that have been selected for resistance to cisplatin. We report two consecutive phase II trials of L-OHP for treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. Fifty-eight patients were entered in study I, and 51 patients in study II. All of the patients had tumor progression when they were treated, prior to their enrollment, with a fluoropyrimidine-containing regimen. In both trials treatment consisted of L-OHP, 130 mg/m2, by i.v. infusion for two hours; the treatment was repeated every 21 days. Response to therapy: Study I: Fifty-five patients were assessed for response. The response rate was 11% (95% CI, 0.03-0.19). Study II: All 51 patients were assessed for response. The response rate was 10% (95% CI, 0.017-0.18). The overall response rate for the 106 evaluated patients was 10% (95% CI, 0.046-0.16). Times to disease progression in responders were 4, 4, 4.5+, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 6+, 9, and 13 months. The dose-limiting toxic effect was sensory peripheral neuropathy. The incidence of severe peripheral neuropathy grades was: Study I: grade 3, 23% of patients, and grade 4, 8% of patients. Severe neuropathy had a favorable course in all of the patients who had long-term neurologic follow-up. Diarrhea and myeloid impairment were minor. L-OHP produced modest, but definite antitumor activity in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma who were previously resistant to chemotherapy including fluoropyrimidines. Toxicity is within acceptable limits of tolerance at the dose and schedule of oxaliplatin used in this trial.

  18. Experimental fretting-wear studies of steam generator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, N.J.; Chow, A.B.; Weckwerth, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    Flow-induced vibration of steam generator tubes results in fretting-wear damage due to impacting and rubbing of the tubes against their supports. This damage can be predicted by computing tube response to flow-induced excitation forces using analytical techniques, and then relating this response to resultant wear damage using experimentally-derived wear coefficients. Fretting-wear of steam generator materials has been studied experimentally at Chalk River Laboratories for two decades. Tests are conducted in machines that simulate steam generator environmental conditions and tube-to-support dynamic interactions. Different tube and support materials, tube-to-support clearances and tube support geometries have been studied. As well, the effect of environmental conditions, such as temperature, oxygen content, pH and chemistry control additive, have been investigated. Early studies showed that damage was related to contact force as long as other parameters, such as geometry and motion were held constant. Later studies have shown that damage is related to a parameter called work-rate, which combines both contact force and sliding distance. Results of short- and long-term fretting-wear tests for CANDU steam generator materials at realistic environmental conditions are presented. These results demonstrate that work-rate is appropriate correlating parameter for impact-sliding interaction

  19. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991 under a great from the US Department of Energy. Most of these studies have involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions. The work has been carried out both with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and with the cyclotron at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland. Part of the experimental work involves measurements of new data on double-charge-exchange scattering, using facilities at LAMPF which we helped modify, and on pion absorption, using a new detector system at PSI that covers nearly the full solid-angle region which we helped construct. Other work involved preparation for future experiments using polarized nuclear targets and a new high-resolution spectrometer system for detecting π 0 mesons. We also presented several proposals for works to be done in future years, involving studies related to pi-mesonic atoms, fundamental pion-nucleon interactions, studies of the difference between charged and neutral pion interactions with the nucleon, studies of the isospin structure of pion-nucleus interactions, and pion scattering from polarized 3 He targets. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the pion-nucleon interaction, of the pion-nucleus interaction mechanism, and of nuclear structure

  20. An experimental study of an explosively driven flat plate launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Philip; Haroz, Erik; Armstrong, Chris; Perry, Lee; M Division Team

    2017-06-01

    For some upcoming experiments it is desired to impact a large explosive assembly with one or more moderate diameter flat metal plates traveling at high velocity (2-3 km s-1). The time of arrival of these plates will need to carefully controlled and delayed (i.e. the time(s) of arrival known to approximately a microsecond). For this reason, producing a flyer plate from more traditional gun assemblies is not possible. Previous researchers have demonstrated the ability to throw reasonably flat metal flyers from the so-called Forest flyer geometry. The defining characteristics of this design are a carefully controlled reduction in explosive area from a larger explosive plane-wave-lens and booster pad to a smaller flyer plate to improve the planarity of the drive available and an air gap between the explosive booster and the plate to reduce the peak tensile stresses generated in the plate to suppress spalling. This experimental series comprised a number of different design variants and plate and explosive drive materials. The aim was to calibrate a predictive computational modeling capability on this kind of system in preparation for later more radical design ideas best tested in a computer before undertaking the expensive business of construction.

  1. Experimental studies of occupation times in turbulent flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Pécseli, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    as the difference between entrance and exit times of surrounding particles convected through the sphere by the turbulent motions. Simple, and seemingly universal, scaling laws are obtained for the probability density of the occupation times in terms of the basic properties for the turbulent flow and the geometry......The motion of passively convected particles in turbulent flows is studied experimentally in approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows, generated in water by two moving grids. The simultaneous trajectories of many small passively convected, neutrally buoyant, polystyrene particles...

  2. Experimental power reactor dc generator energy storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, F.M.; Smeltzer, G.S.; Myers, E.H.; Kilgore, L.

    1978-01-01

    This study covers the use of dc generators for meeting the Experimental Power Reactor Ohmic Heating Energy Storage Requirements. The dc generators satisfy these requirements which are the same as defined in WFPS-TME-038 which covered the use of ac generators and homopolar generators. The costs of the latter two systems have been revised to eliminate first-of-a-kind factors. The cost figures for dc generators indicate a need to develop larger machines in order to take advantage of the economy-of-scale that the large ac machines have. Each of the systems has its own favorable salient features on which to base a system selection

  3. Experimental study of steam condensation regime map for simplified spargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Yoon, Y. J.; Song, C. H.; Park, C. K.; Kang, H. S.; Jun, H. K.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to produce a condensation regime map for single-hole and 4-hole steam spargers using GIRLS facility. The regime map for a single-hole sparger was derived using parameters such as the frequency and magnitude of the dynamic pressure. For 4-hole sparager, the regime map was derived using the trends of sound and dynamic pressure. Using the single-hole and 4-hole data, a steam jet condensation regime map was suggested with respect to pool temperature and steam mass flux

  4. Experimental and numerical study of spouted bed fluif dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Duarte

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Spouted beds, originally invented in Canada by Mathur and Gishler (1955 as an alternative to fluidized beds for handling coarse particles, are now widely studied in a variety of physical operations, such as drying, coating and granulation. In this work the particle velocity, minimum spouting flow rate and characteristic fluid-dynamic curves of the spouted bed were obtained using a Eulerian granular multiphase model. The computational work was significantly reduced for axisymmetric gas-solid flows. The experimental data obtained in two spouted bed configurations, conical-cylindrical and two-dimensional, were compared with the simulated results, showing good agreement

  5. Experimental study of intensive electron beam scattering in melting channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagura, V.S.; Kurilko, V.I.; Safronov, B.G.

    1988-01-01

    Multiple scattering of an intensive electron beam at 28 keV energy passing through a melting channel in iron targets is experimentally studied. The dependence of scattering on the melting current value is established. The material density in the channel on the basis of the binary collision method is evaluated. It is shown that these density values are of three orders less than the estimations made on the basis of the data on energy losses of electrons in the channel. 6 refs.; 4 figs

  6. Experimental study of non-linear effects on photomultiplier gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vincenzi, M.; Penso, G.; Sciubba, A.; Sposito, A.

    1984-01-01

    The experimental apparatus and the results of a study on the gain variation of photomultipliers at high average anode current are described. This gain variation was found to depend on the secondary emission process on dynodes; the last dynode gives the largest contribution to the overall photomultiplier effect. This contribution has been isolated and measured. The phenomenon may be due to more than one physical effect. The dominant one turns out to depend on the power released on the dynode by the incident electrons. A physical model is discussed which can take into account the observed phenomena. (orig.)

  7. Experimental study of water adsorption on Geysers reservoir rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubo Shang; Horne, Roland N.; Ramey, Henry J., Jr.

    1993-01-28

    Experimental isotherms of water vapor adsorption/desorption on three geothermal reservoir rock samples have been measured at temperatures of 80, 100, 120 and 140°C. Initial surface status of the sample was found to influence the amount of water adsorbed. At low relative pressures, adsorption is the dominant process of water retention onto the rock samples. Adsorption/desorption hysteresis was observed to exist over the whole pressure range at all temperatures. Similar observations were made for all three samples. The results of this study suggest that adsorption is important in storing water in geothermal reservoir rocks not only in itself, but also in inducing capillary condensation.

  8. The priming effect of previous natural pandemic H1N1 infection on the immunogenicity to subsequent 2010-2011 influenza vaccination in children: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Kyeong; Eun, Byung Wook; Kim, Nam Hee; Lim, Jung Sub; Lee, Jun Ah; Kim, Dong Ho

    2016-08-22

    The effect of previous natural pandemic H1N1 (H1N1 pdm09) influenza infection on the immunogenicity to subsequent inactivated influenza vaccination in children has not been well studied. We aimed to evaluate the effect of H1N1 pdm09 natural infection and vaccination on the immunogenicity to subsequent 2010-2011 seasonal inactivated influenza vaccination in children. From October 2010 to May 2011, we conducted an open-label, multi-center study in children aged 6 months -18 years in Korea. We measured antibody titers with a hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months after vaccination with trivalent split or subunit vaccines containing H1N1 pdm, A/H3N2, and B. The subjects were classified into 4 groups depending on the presence of laboratory-confirmed H1N1 pdm09 infection and/or vaccination in the 2009-2010 season; Group I: vaccination (-)/infection(-), Group II: vaccination (-)/infection(+), Group III: vaccination (+)/infection(-), Group IV: vaccination (+)/infection(+). Among the subjects in group I, 47 subjects who had a baseline titer >1:10 were considered to have an asymptomatic infection. They were included into the final group II (n = 80). We defined the new group II as the infection-primed (IP) group and group III as the vaccine-primed (VP) group. Seroconversion rate (57.5 % vs 35.9 %, p = 0.001), seroprotection rate at 6 months after vaccination (70.8 % vs 61.8 %, p = 0.032), and GMT at 1 month after vaccination (129.9 vs 66.5, p = 0.002) were significantly higher in the IP group than in the VP group. In the 9-18 year-old group, seroconversion rate and immunogenicity at 1 and 6 months were significantly higher in the IP group than in the VP group. However in the 1-7 year-old age group, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Previous H1N1 pdm09 infection appears to have positive effects on immunogenicity of subsequent inactivated influenza vaccines against H1N1 pdm09 in older

  9. Radionuclides in fruit systems: A review of experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carini, F.; Green, N.; Spalla, S.

    2006-01-01

    Existing information on processes and parameters analysed in experimental studies on fruits was reviewed at the inception of the activities of the IAEA BIOMASS Fruits Working Group. Additional information on experimental studies, collected during the activities of the Group and not included in the Review, is presented and discussed in this paper. Studies on deposition of 14 CO 2 , CO 35 S and 3 H 2 O in the gas phase to apple, raspberry, strawberry and blackcurrant have filled gaps in knowledge of uptake of gaseous pollutants in fruit plants, quantifying processes of deposition, translocation and carry-over between seasons. Measurements over a period of six years on vine plants contaminated via leaves and soil by dry deposition of 137 Cs and 9 Sr have improved knowledge of the processes of direct deposition to fruit, translocation and carry-over of radionuclides from year to year. Additional information is given on soil to fruit transfer of U, Th and Pb for apple and mandarin grown under intensive agricultural conditions

  10. Hyaluronan in experimental injured/inflamed cartilage: In vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenoso, Angela; D'Ascola, Angela; Scuruchi, Michele; Mandraffino, Giuseppe; Calatroni, Alberto; Saitta, Antonino; Campo, Salvatore; Campo, Giuseppe M

    2018-01-15

    Joint disease is characterized by an imbalance between the synthesis and degradation of articular cartilage and subchondral bone accompanied by capsular fibrosis, osteophyte formation and varying degrees of inflammation of the synovial membrane. Many animal models have been developed to study arthritis and osteoarthritis that enable experimental conditions, diet and environmental risk factors to be carefully controlled. Animal-based studies have demonstrated the positive effects of exogenous HA on the preservation of joint cartilage in different models of arthritis and osteoarthritis. Although many promising effects of exogenous HA have been reported, there remains uncertainty as to its effectiveness in reversing cartilage injury and other manifestations of joint diseases because of difficulties in interpreting and unifying the results of these studies. A review of the literature of the last decade was conducted to report the results and to determine what we have learned from animal models in relation to joint inflammation induced by experimental models and HA treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radionuclides in fruit systems. A review of experimental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, F.; Spalla, S. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Via Emilia Parmense 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Green, N. [NRPB, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    Existing information on processes and parameters analysed in experimental studies on fruits was reviewed at the inception of the activities of the IAEA BIOMASS Fruits Working Group. Additional information on experimental studies, collected during the activities of the Group and not included in the Review, is presented and discussed in this paper. Studies on deposition of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, CO{sup 35}S and {sup 3}H{sub 2}O in the gas phase to apple, raspberry, strawberry and blackcurrant have filled gaps in knowledge of uptake of gaseous pollutants in fruit plants, quantifying processes of deposition, translocation and carry-over between seasons. Measurements over a period of six years on vine plants contaminated via leaves and soil by dry deposition of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr have improved knowledge of the processes of direct deposition to fruit, translocation and carry-over of radionuclides from year to year. Additional information is given on soil to fruit transfer of U, Th and Pb for apple and mandarin grown under intensive agricultural conditions. (author)

  12. Radionuclides in fruit systems: A review of experimental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Via Emilia Parmense 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy)]. E-mail: franca.carini@unicatt.it; Green, N. [NRPB, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Spalla, S. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Via Emilia Parmense 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy)

    2006-04-15

    Existing information on processes and parameters analysed in experimental studies on fruits was reviewed at the inception of the activities of the IAEA BIOMASS Fruits Working Group. Additional information on experimental studies, collected during the activities of the Group and not included in the Review, is presented and discussed in this paper. Studies on deposition of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, CO{sup 35}S and {sup 3}H{sub 2}O in the gas phase to apple, raspberry, strawberry and blackcurrant have filled gaps in knowledge of uptake of gaseous pollutants in fruit plants, quantifying processes of deposition, translocation and carry-over between seasons. Measurements over a period of six years on vine plants contaminated via leaves and soil by dry deposition of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 9}Sr have improved knowledge of the processes of direct deposition to fruit, translocation and carry-over of radionuclides from year to year. Additional information is given on soil to fruit transfer of U, Th and Pb for apple and mandarin grown under intensive agricultural conditions.

  13. Experimental and numerical study of pleated filters clogging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, Pierre-Colin

    2013-01-01

    Pleated filters are widely used in air treatments because of the advantageous effective surface to overall dimension ratio they offer. Their major drawback though resides in their reduced lifetime which still needs to be controlled. Indeed, when clogging, the pressure drop considerably increases, the filtration flow is then no longer maintained which might lead to the deterioration of the media. It is then crucial to characterize the evolution of the pressure drop under operating conditions in order to best design these equipments. Part of our work consisted in studying how the operating conditions influence the geometry of the deposit. To do so, we used Single- Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), a non-destructive imaging technique that keeps intact the particle structuring. The visualization of aerosol deposit at the beginning of the filtration process allows observing preferential particle deposition on the whole height of the pleat. A numerical approach was used to study the permeability of bimodal fibrous media and we experimentally studied the local velocity as well as the biphasic flow inside pleated filter media. Comparison between experiments and simulations allowed us to validate the Geodict code for a wide range of media properties and velocities. Regarding bimodal fibrous media, the fast data acquisition has allowed testing several existing models which resulted in classifying them in a unique way. If the experimental results on the initial deposition in pleated filters are encouraging, those related to beforehand clogging point to several improvements regarding the technique we used. (author) [fr

  14. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE PRODUCTION OF SOLAR HYDROGEN IN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bendaikha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a sustainable fuel option and one of the potential solutions for the current energy and environmental problems. In this study hydrogen is produced using a hydrogen generator with a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM electrolyser. An experimental study is done in the Center of Development of the Renewable Energy, Algiers, Algeria.The experimental device contains essentially a photovoltaic module, a PEM electrolyser, a gasometer and the devices of measures of characteristics of the PEM electrolyser as well as two pyranometers for the horizontal and diffuse global radiance registration. This system in pilots scale is permitted on the one hand, to measured and analyzed the characteristics: of the PEM electrolyser for two different pressures of working (Patm and P=3 bar, on the other hand, to study the volume of hydrogen produces in the time with different sources of electrical power (generator, photovoltaic module, fluorescent lamp, the efficiency for every case is calculated and compared. We present in this paper the variation of the solar hydrogen flow rate produced according to the global radiance and according to the time for a typical day’s of August.

  15. Experimental and theoretical study on the electrospinning nanoporous fibers process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jianghui; Si, Na; Xu, Lan; Tang, Xiaopeng; Song, Yanhua; Sun, Zhaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Porous materials can be prepared by sol–gel method, hydrothermal synthesis method, electrospinning and other methods. In this paper, electrospun porous nanofibers were prepared by adjusting electrospinning parameters. And the properties of obtained porous nanofiber mats were investigated. Theoretical analysis and experiment research were carried out to research mechanical mechanism of electrospun porous nanofibers, and could be used to optimize and control the porous structure. The theoretical analysis results were further verified according to the experimental data. In addition, Bernoulli equation was used to study the electrospinning “splaying” process. We found the ratio of pore width to pore length was varied along with the variation of the internal pressure of the jet, and the internal pressure of the jet increases with the velocity of the charged jet decreases. - Highlights: • Mechanical mechanism of electrospun porous nanofibers process was studied. • A simplifying gas–liquid two-phase flow model was established. • Bernoulli equation was used to study the electrospinning “splaying” process. • The theoretical results were in good agreement with the experimental data. • The electrospinning parameters affected the surface morphology of charged jet.

  16. Experimental study on behavior of GFRP stiffened panels under compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankeri, Pradeep; Ganesh Mahidhar, P. K.; Prakash, S. Suriya; Ramji, M.

    2015-03-01

    Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) materials are extensively used in the aerospace and marine industries because of their high strength and stiffness to weight ratio and excellent corrosion resistance. Stiffened panels are commonly used in aircraft wing and fuselage parts. The present study focuses on the behavior of composite stiffened panels under compressive loading. With the introduction of stiffeners to unstiffened composite plates, the structural stiffness of the panel increases resulting in higher strength and stiffness. Studies in the past have shown that the critical structural failure mode under compressive loading of a stiffened composite panel is by local buckling. The present study attempts to evaluate the mechanical behavior of composite stiffened panels under compression using blade stiffener configuration and in particular on the behavior of the skin- stiffener interface through experimental testing. A novel test fixture is developed for experimental testing of GFRP stiffened panels. A non-contact whole field strain analysis technique called digital image correlation (DIC) is used for capturing the strain and damage mechanisms. Blade stiffeners increased the strength, stiffness and reduced the out-of plane displacement at failure. The failure of both the unstiffened and stiffened panels was through local buckling rather than through material failure. DIC was able to capture the strain localization and buckling failure modes.

  17. Experimental study of Coal Pyrolysis 1.: Review of the experimental information from the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugony, F.; Migliavacca, G.

    2007-01-01

    A brief analysis of some of the main experimental works published in the past decades about coal pyrolysis is here reported. In particular the results of some series of experiments are cited and reported in details, coming from the activity of some important international research teams; they supply a survey wide and complete enough of the different operating and experimental conditions proposed in this field. With the aim of giving a comparison benchmark for the original experimental data published in the companion paper of this series and in order to grant a good support to the validation of the predictive models of coal devolatilization [it

  18. A prospective flexible-dose study of paliperidone palmitate in nonacute but symptomatic patients with schizophrenia previously unsuccessfully treated with oral antipsychotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Andreas; Bergmans, Paul; Cherubin, Pierre; Keim, Sofia; Rancans, Elmars; Bez, Yasin; Parellada, Eduard; Carpiniello, Bernardo; Vidailhet, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of flexible doses of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP) in the subset of nonacute but symptomatic adult patients with schizophrenia previously unsuccessfully treated with oral antipsychotic agents in the PALMFlexS (Paliperidone Palmitate Flexible Dosing in Schizophrenia) study. This was an interventional, single-arm, international, multicenter, unblinded, 6-month study performed in patients with schizophrenia. Patients were categorized according to reasons for switching. In patients switching because of lack of efficacy or for other reasons, primary efficacy outcomes were the proportion achieving treatment response (defined as ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] total score from baseline to last-observation-carried-forward end point) and maintained efficacy (defined as noninferiority in the change in PANSS total score at end point versus baseline [Schuirmann's test]), respectively. A total of 593 patients (intention-to-treat population) were enrolled: 63.1% were male; their mean (SD) age was 38.4 (11.8) years; and 78.6% had paranoid schizophrenia. The main reasons for transition to PP were patient's wish (n = 259 [43.7%]), lack of efficacy (n = 144 [24.3%]), lack of compliance (n = 138 [23.3%]), and lack of tolerability (n = 52 [8.8%]) with the previous oral antipsychotic medication. The recommended PP initiation regimen (150 milligram equivalents [mg eq] day 1 and 100 mg eq day 8) was administered in 93.9% of patients. Mean PANSS total score decreased from 71.5 (14.6) at baseline to 59.7 (18.1) at end point (mean change, -11.7 [15.9]; 95% CI, -13.0 to -10.5; P < 0.0001). Sixty-four percent of patients showed an improvement of ≥20% in PANSS total score, and the percentage of patients rated mildly ill or less in Clinical Global Impression-Severity increased from 31.8% to 63.2%. Mean personal and social performance total score (SD) increased

  19. Safety and tolerability of frovatriptan in the acute treatment of migraine and prevention of menstrual migraine: Results of a new analysis of data from five previously published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, E Anne; Pawsey, Stephen P; Campbell, John C; Hu, Xiaojun

    2010-04-01

    Triptans are a recommended first-line treatment for moderate to severe migraine. Using clinical trial data, we evaluated the safety and tolerability of frovatriptan as acute treatment (AT) and as short-term preventive (STP) therapy for menstrual migraine (MM). Data from 2 Phase III AT trials (AT1: randomized, placebo controlled, 1 attack; AT2: 12-months, noncomparative, open label) and 3 Phase IIIb STP trials in MM (MMP1 and MMP2: randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, 3 perimenstrual periods; MMP3: open label, noncomparative, 12 perimenstrual periods) were analyzed. In AT1, patients treated each attack with frovatriptan 2.5 mg, sumatriptan 100 mg, or placebo. In AT2, they used frovatriptan 2.5 mg. In MMP1 and MMP2, women administered frovatriptan 2.5 mg for 6 days during the perimenstrual period, taking a loading dose of 2 or 4 tablets on day 1, followed by once-daily or BID frovatriptan 2.5 mg, respectively; in MMP3, they used BID frovatriptan 2.5 mg. In AT1, which was previously published in part, group differences in adverse events (AEs) were analyzed using the Fisher exact test, and response rates were compared using logistic regression. Post hoc analyses of sustained pain-free status with no AEs (SNAE) and sustained pain response with no AEs (SPRNAE) were performed using a 2-sample test for equality of proportions without continuity correction. For AT2 and the STP studies, data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results of individual safety analyses for the STP studies were previously reported; the present report includes new results from a pooled analysis of MMP1 and MMP2 and a new analysis of MMP3 in which AEs were coded using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities version 8.0. AT1 included 1206 patients in the safety group; AT2 included 496. In the STP studies, safety data were collected for 1487 women. In AT1 and AT2, 85.6% and 88.3%, respectively, of enrolled patients were women. Overall, AEs were generally mild to moderate (AT

  20. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  1. Experimental study of fast electron propagation in compressed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vauzour, B. [Universite de Bordeaux - CNRS - CEA, Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications (CELIA), Talence (France); Santos, J.J., E-mail: Santos.Joao@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite de Bordeaux - CNRS - CEA, Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications (CELIA), Talence (France); Batani, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Baton, S.D.; Koenig, M. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-Ecole Polytechnique-Univ. Paris VI, Palaiseau (France); Nicolai, Ph. [Universite de Bordeaux - CNRS - CEA, Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications (CELIA), Talence (France); Perez, F. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-Ecole Polytechnique-Univ. Paris VI, Palaiseau (France); Beg, F.N. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Benedetti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Benocci, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Brambrink, E. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-Ecole Polytechnique-Univ. Paris VI, Palaiseau (France); Chawla, S. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Coury, M. [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C. [Universite de Bordeaux - CNRS - CEA, Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications (CELIA), Talence (France); Galimberti, M. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Gizzi, L.A. [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory at INO-CNR, Pisa (Italy); Heathcote, R. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Higginson, D.P. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Honrubia, J.J. [ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2011-10-11

    We report on experimental results of the fast electron transport in compressed plasmas, created by laser-induced shock propagation in both cylindrical and planar geometry. Two experiments were carried out. The first one was based on the compression of a polyimide cylinder filled with foams of three different initial densities ({rho}{sub 0}). X-ray and proton radiographies of the target during the compression coupled with hydrodynamic simulations show that the obtained core densities and temperatures range from 2 to 11 g/cm{sup 3} and from 30 to 120 eV, respectively. By studying the K-shell fluorescence from dopant atoms inside the target and from tracer layers situated at both front and rear side of the target it has been possible to investigate the fast electron propagation. The results show that Cu K{sub {alpha}} yield emitted by the target rear side foil decreases with increasing compression, independently of {rho}{sub 0}. An electron collimation can also be observed for certain experimental conditions where a convergent resistivity gradient interacts with the fast electron beam. The second experiment was performed in a planar geometry with a compressing shock counter-propagative to the fast electron beam. In this case the areal density {rho}z seen by the electrons is constant during the compression in such a way that changes in the fast electron range should be ascribed to collective mechanisms. The study of the K{sub {alpha}} fluorescence, from buried fluorescent layers of different atomic numbers, shows that the electrons with energy <75keV are more affected by resistive losses in compressed compared to non-compressed targets. These two experiments were part of the Experimental Fusion Validation Program of the HiPER project.

  2. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-01-01

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  3. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  4. Experimental and modelling studies of the shape memory properties of amorphous polymer network composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta, J S; Diani, J; Gilormini, P

    2014-01-01

    Shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) have become an important way to leverage improvements in the development of applications featuring shape memory polymers (SMPs). In this study, an amorphous SMP matrix has been filled with different types of reinforcements. An experimental set of results is presented and then compared to three-dimensional (3D) finite-element simulations. Thermomechanical shape memory cycles were performed in uniaxial tension. The fillers effect was studied in stress-free and constrained-strain recoveries. Experimental observations indicate complete shape recovery and put in evidence the increased sensitivity of constrained length stress recoveries to the heating ramp on the tested composites. The simulations reproduced a simplified periodic reinforced composite and used a model for the matrix material that has been previously tested on regular SMPs. The latter combines viscoelasticity at finite strain and time-temperature superposition. The simulations easily allow representation of the recovery properties of a reinforced SMP. (paper)

  5. Immunotoxicology of arc welding fume: Worker and experimental animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Arc welding processes generate complex aerosols composed of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to welding aerosols daily. A health effect of welding that is of concern to the occupational health community is the development of immune system dysfunction. Increased severity, frequency, and duration of upper and lower respiratory tract infections have been reported among welders. Specifically, multiple studies have observed an excess mortality from pneumonia in welders and workers exposed to metal fumes. Although several welder cohort and experimental animal studies investigating the adverse effects of welding fume exposure on immune function have been performed, the potential mechanisms responsible for these effects are limited. The objective of this report was to review both human and animal studies that have examined the effect of welding fume pulmonary exposure on local and systemic immune responses. PMID:22734811

  6. Immunotoxicology of arc welding fume: worker and experimental animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M

    2012-01-01

    Arc welding processes generate complex aerosols composed of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to welding aerosols daily. A health effect of welding that is of concern to the occupational health community is the development of immune system dysfunction. Increased severity, frequency, and duration of upper and lower respiratory tract infections have been reported among welders. Specifically, multiple studies have observed an excess mortality from pneumonia in welders and workers exposed to metal fumes. Although several welder cohort and experimental animal studies investigating the adverse effects of welding fume exposure on immune function have been performed, the potential mechanisms responsible for these effects are limited. The objective of this report was to review both human and animal studies that have examined the effect of welding fume pulmonary exposure on local and systemic immune responses.

  7. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86 FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa; Honda, Tsutomu.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the study on safety for FER(Fusion Experimental Reactor) which has been designed as a next step machine to the JT-60. Though the final purpose of this study is to have an image of design base accident, maximum credible accident and to assess their risk or probability, etc., as FER plant system, the emphasis of this years study is placed on fuel-gas circulation system where the tritium inventory is maximum. This report consists of two chapters. The first chapter of this report summaries the FER system and describes FMEA(Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) and related accident progression sequence for FER plant system as a whole. The second chapter of this report is focused on fuel-gas circulation system including the purification, isotope separation system and storage system. Here, probability of risk is assessed by the probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) procedure based on FMEA, ETA and FTA. (author)

  8. Design of an experimental set up for convective drying: experimental studies at different drying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, V. P. Chandra; Talukdar, Prabal

    2013-01-01

    An experimental setup is designed to investigate the convective drying of moist object experimentally. All the design data, components of setup, materials and specifications are presented. Transient moisture content of a rectangular shaped potato slice (4 × 2 × 2 cm) is measured at different air temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C with an air velocity of 2 m/s. Two different drying rate periods are observed. Results are compared with available results from literature.

  9. Experimental study on embedment effect of foundation, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtomo, Keizo; Toma, Junichi; Hashimoto, Koichi; Hanada, Kazutake; Ueshima, Teruyuki; Yajima, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    In order to make clear the dynamic behavior of a embeded foundation on the quarternary ground experimentally, a series of forced vibration tests and seismic observation on both the small foundation (4 x 4 x 3 m) and the embeded form larger scale foundation of the shaking table (16 x 16 x 7.7 m) were conducted at the same site. The purposes this study are evaluating the dynamic behavior and the characteristics of dynamic stiffness and damping of the larger foundation based on forced vibration tests, and applying them to the dynamic response analysis of variable embedded foundations. In this report, the authors first examine frequency dependent property and its theoretical tendency of dynamic stiffness and damping surrounding table foundation. And then, consider an applicability and point of discussion related with the some theories which influence the embedment effect, in contrast with the experimental datum of the model foundation are past studies on a embedment effect (JPDR, Large-Scale Foundation in Tadotsu). (author)

  10. Experimental study of fast electron propagation in compressed matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauzour, B.; Santos, J. J.; Batani, D.; Baton, S. D.; Koenig, M.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Perez, F.; Beg, F. N.; Benedetti, C.; Benocci, R.; Brambrink, E.; Chawla, S.; Coury, M.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Galimberti, M.; Gizzi, L. A.; Heathcote, R.; Higginson, D. P.; Honrubia, J. J.; Hulin, S.; Jafer, R.; Jarrot, L. C.; Labate, L.; Lancaster, K.; Köster, P.; MacKinnon, A. J.; McKenna, P.; McPhee, A. G.; Nazarov, W.; Pasley, J.; Ramis, R.; Rhee, Y.; Regan, C.; Ribeyre, X.; Richetta, M.; Serres, F.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Schurtz, G.; Sgattoni, A.; Spindloe, C.; Vaisseau, X.; Volpe, L.; Yahia, V.

    2011-10-01

    We report on experimental results of the fast electron transport in compressed plasmas, created by laser-induced shock propagation in both cylindrical and planar geometry. Two experiments were carried out. The first one was based on the compression of a polyimide cylinder filled with foams of three different initial densities ( ρ0). X-ray and proton radiographies of the target during the compression coupled with hydrodynamic simulations show that the obtained core densities and temperatures range from 2 to 11 g/cm 3 and from 30 to 120 eV, respectively. By studying the K-shell fluorescence from dopant atoms inside the target and from tracer layers situated at both front and rear side of the target it has been possible to investigate the fast electron propagation. The results show that Cu Kα yield emitted by the target rear side foil decreases with increasing compression, independently of ρ0. An electron collimation can also be observed for certain experimental conditions where a convergent resistivity gradient interacts with the fast electron beam. The second experiment was performed in a planar geometry with a compressing shock counter-propagative to the fast electron beam. In this case the areal density ρz seen by the electrons is constant during the compression in such a way that changes in the fast electron range should be ascribed to collective mechanisms. The study of the Kα fluorescence, from buried fluorescent layers of different atomic numbers, shows that the electrons with energy HiPER project.

  11. Experimental and numerical studies of rotating drum grate furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basista Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste material from the meat industry can be taken into account as a biofuel. Studies confirm, that calorific value is higher and ash content is lower comparing to some conventional fuels. EU directives regulate details of thermal disposal of the waste material from the meat industry - especially in range of the process temperature and time of the particle presence in area of the combustion zone. The paper describes design of the rotating drum grate stove, dedicated to thermal disposal of the meat wastes as well as solid biomass (pellet, small bricket, wood chips combustion. Device has been developed in frames of cooperation between AGH University of Science and Technology (Krakow, Poland and producer focused on technologies of energy utilization of biomass in distributed generation. Results of measurements of selected operational parameters performed during startup of the furnace have been presented and discussed. Furthermore, numerical model of the combustion process has been developed to complement experimental results in range of the temperature and oxygen distribution in the area of the combustion chamber. ANSYS CFX solver has been applied to perform simulations including rotational domain related with specifics of operation of the device. Results of numerical modelling and experimental studies have been summarized and compared.

  12. Experimental and theoretical study of deformable mirror actuator arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilar, Jan; Bonora, Stefano; Lucianetti, Antonio; Jelinkova, Helena; Mocek, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Deformable mirrors have gained increasing interest in many different fields of application including laser physics, and they are becoming a universal tool for correcting optical aberrations of laser beams especially in large scale laser systems. One of the most common types of deformable mirror is a bimorph design which uses two plates of piezomaterial to which single electrodes are connected. These electrodes form the actuator array and their layout defines the resulting performance of the mirror to some extent. In the end all types of deformable mirrors currently used use an actuator array of some sort. To estimate the significance and effect of different actuator layout and shapes of actuators, an experimental study was performed. Four different commonly used actuator arrays were compared using photo-controlled deformable mirror. Using such device allows to study the effect of actuator layout separately from all other effects, since the device remains the same including all its imperfections. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations and discussion is presented.

  13. Biofouling in forward osmosis systems: An experimental and numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2016-09-20

    This study evaluates with numerical simulations supported by experimental data the impact of biofouling on membrane performance in a cross-flow forward osmosis (FO) system. The two-dimensional numerical model couples liquid flow with solute transport in the FO feed and draw channels, in the FO membrane support layer and in the biofilm developed on one or both sides of the membrane. The developed model was tested against experimental measurements at various osmotic pressure differences and in batch operation without and with the presence of biofilm on the membrane active layer. Numerical studies explored the effect of biofilm properties (thickness, hydraulic permeability and porosity), biofilm membrane surface coverage, and biofilm location on salt external concentration polarization and on the permeation flux. The numerical simulations revealed that (i) when biofouling occurs, external concentration polarization became important, (ii) the biofilm hydraulic permeability and membrane surface coverage have the highest impact on water flux, and (iii) the biofilm formed in the draw channel impacts the process performance more than when formed in the feed channel. The proposed mathematical model helps to understand the impact of biofouling in FO membrane systems and to develop possible strategies to reduce and control biofouling. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  14. Experimental gas-fired pulse-combustion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental studies conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on a gas-fired, water-cooled, Helmholtz-type pulse combustion burner are discussed. In addition to the experimental work, information is presented on the evolution of pulse combustion, the types of pulse combustion burners and their applications, and the types of fuels used. Also included is a survey of other pertinent studies of gas-fired pulse combustion. The burner used in the Argonne research effort was equipped with adjustable air and gas flapper valves and was operated stably over a heat-input range of 30,000 to 200,000 Btu/h. The burner's overall heat transfer in the pulsating mode was 22 to 31% higher than when the unit was operated in the steady mode. Important phenomena discussed include (1) effects on performance produced by inserting a corebustor to change tailpipe diameter, (2) effects observed following addition of an air-inlet decoupling chamber to the unit, and (3) occurrence of carbon monoxide in the exhaust gas.

  15. The false memory syndrome: experimental studies and comparison to confabulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, M F; Fras, I A

    2011-04-01

    False memories, or recollections that are factually incorrect but strongly believed, remain a source of confusion for both psychiatrists and neurologists. We propose model for false memories based on recent experimental investigations, particularly when analyzed in comparison to confabulations, which are the equivalent of false memories from neurological disease. Studies using the Deese/Roedinger-McDermott experimental paradigm indicate that false memories are associated with the need for complete and integrated memories, self-relevancy, imagination and wish fulfillment, familiarity, emotional facilitation, suggestibility, and sexual content. In comparison, confabulations are associated with the same factors except for emotional facilitation, suggestibility, and sexual content. Both false memories and confabulations have an abnormal sense of certainty for their recollections, and neuroanatomical findings implicate decreased activity in the ventromedial frontal lobe in this certainty. In summary, recent studies of false memories in comparison to confabulations support a model of false memories as internally-generated but suggestible and emotionally-facilitated fantasies or impulses, rather than repressed memories of real events. Furthermore, like confabulations, in order for false memories to occur there must be an attenuation of the normal, nonconscious, right frontal "doubt tag" regarding their certainty. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Experimental studies of irradiated and hydrogen implantation damaged reactor steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slugeň, Vladimír, E-mail: vladimir.slugen@stuba.sk; Pecko, Stanislav; Sojak, Stanislav

    2016-01-15

    Radiation degradation of nuclear materials can be experimentally simulated via ion implantation. In our case, German reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels were studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). This unique non-destructive method can be effectively applied for the evaluation of microstructural changes and for the analysis of degradation of reactor steels due to neutron irradiation and proton implantation. Studied specimens of German reactor pressure vessel steels are originally from CARINA/CARISMA program. Eight specimens were measured in as-received state and two specimens were irradiated by neutrons in German experimental reactor VAK (Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl) in the 1980s. One of the specimens which was in as-received and neutron irradiated condition was also used for simulation of neutron damage by hydrogen nuclei implantation. Defects with the size of about 1–2 vacancies with relatively small contribution (with intensity on the level of 20–40 %) were observed in “as-received” steels. A significant increase in the size of the induced defects due to neutron damage was observed in the irradiated specimens resulting in 2–3 vacancies. The size and intensity of defects reached a similar level as in the specimens irradiated in the nuclear reactor due to the implantation of hydrogen ions with energies of 100 keV (up to the depth <500 nm).

  17. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-07

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A real life study of Helicobacter pylori eradication with bismuth quadruple therapy in naïve and previously treated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blas José Gómez-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a quadruple regimen (BMTO of the "3-in-1 capsule" (containing bismuth subcitrate potassium, metronidazole and tetracycline plus omeprazole in naïve and previously treated patients diagnosed with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in the clinical setting in Seville (Spain. Methods: This is a prospective study carried out on consecutive patients with a confirmed H. pylori infection and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. After providing their informed consent, the patients were treated for ten days with a 3-in-1 capsule containing bismuth subcitrate potassium (140 mg, metronidazole (125 mg and tetracycline (125 mg: Pylera®, three capsules four times daily, plus omeprazole (20 or 40 mg twice daily. Eradication of infection was determined by a negative urea breath test at least 28 days after the end of treatment. Results: A total of 58 consecutive patients were enrolled into this study, two of whom withdrew early due to vomiting on days three and five, respectively. In this cohort, 17 patients (29.3% had a prior history of medication to treat H. pylori. In the intent-to-treat population, eradication was achieved in 97.6% (40/41 and 82.4% (14/17 of cases in patients treated with BMTO as a first-line or rescue therapy, respectively. At least one adverse event was reported by 28 (48% patients, mostly mild effects (86%. Conclusion: A ten day treatment with BMTO is an effective and safe strategy to combat confirmed H. pylori infection in patients.

  19. A phase II study of VP-16-ifosfamide-cisplatin combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, In Sook; Park, Young Suk; Kwon, Sung Hee [Hallym Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine] [and others

    2000-12-01

    At present the addition of thoracic irradiation to combination chemotherapy is a standard treatment for limited staged small cell ling cancer. However, there is still controversy about the optimum timing of chest irradiation. We conducted a phase II study of etoposide (VP-16)-ifosfamide-cisplatin (VIP) combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for the patients with previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer in order to assess if the treatment modality could improve the response rate and the toxicity. Forty-four patients with limited small cell lung cancer were treated with etoposide-ifosfamide-cisplatin and concurrent thoracic irradiation. Combination chemotherapy consisted of etoposide 100 mg/m{sup 2} (on day 1-3), ifosfamide 1000 mg/m{sup 2} (on days 1 and 2) and cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} (on day 1). Concurrent thoracic irradiation consisted of a total of 4000 cGy over 4 weeks starting on the first day of the first chemotherapy. All patients who showed a complete response were given prophylactic cranial irradiation for 2.5 weeks. Forty-four of the 49 patients who entered the study from May 1994 to August 1998 were evaluable. The median age was 59 years and 40 patients had a performance status of 0 or 1. The median survival time was 22.5 months. Twenty-eight patients (62%) showed a complete response and 16 (38%) a partial response. Twenty-four patients (54%) developed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia; there was a 9% RTOG score 3 or 4 esophagitis. VIP combination chemotherapy and early concurrent thoracic irradiation for patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer revealed excellent antitumor response with tolerable toxicity. (author)

  20. Experimental and analytical study of the sputtering phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.A.

    1976-03-01

    One form of the sputtering phenomena, the heat-transfer process that occurs when an initially hot vertical surface is cooled by a falling liquid film, was examined from a new experimental approach. The sputtering front is the lowest wetted position on the vertical surface and is characterized by a short region of intense nucleate boiling. The sputtering front progresses downward at nearly a constant rate, the surface below the sputtering front being dry and almost adiabatic. This heat-transfer process is of interest in the analysis of some of the performance aspects of emergency core-cooling systems of light-water reactors. An experimental apparatus was constructed to examine the heat-transfer characteristics of a sputtering front. In the present study, a heat source of sufficient intensity was located immediately below the sputtering front, which prevented its downward progress, thus permitting detailed measurements of steady-state surface temperatures throughout a sputtering front. Experimental evidence showed the sputtering front to correspond to a critical heat-flux (CHF) phenomenon. Data were obtained with water flow rates of 350-1600 lb/sub m//hr-ft and subcoolings of 40-140 0 F on a 3 / 8 -in. solid copper rod at 1 atm. A two-dimensional analytical model was developed to describe a stationary sputtering front where the wet-dry interface corresponds to a CHF phenomena and the dry zone is adiabatic. This model is nonlinear because of the temperature dependence of the heat-transfer coefficient in the wetted region and has yielded good agreement with data. A simplified one-dimensional approximation was developed which adequately describes these data. Finally, by means of a coordinate transformation and additional simplifying assumptions, this analysis was extended to analyze moving sputtering fronts, and reasonably good agreement with reported data was shown

  1. Experimental studies with low transition energy optics in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, H; Bohl, T; Cettour Cave, S; Esteban Muller, J; Cornelis, K; Papaphilippou, Y; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Shaposhnikova, E; Wenninger, J

    2011-01-01

    The optics of the SPS can be tuned to lower transition energy such that the slippage factor at injection is raised by a factor of almost 3. From theory, an increase of the intensity thresholds for transverse mode coupling, longitudinal coupled bunch and longitudinal instabilities due to the loss of Landau damping can be expected. In this paper, experimental studies in the SPS with single bunches of protons with intensities of up to 3.5e11 p/b on the flat bottom and at 450 GeV/c are presented. Longitudinal instabilities were studied with LHC-type beams with 50 ns spacing and injected intensities up to 1.8e11 p/b. The measurements address the increase of intensity thresholds and the achievable transverse emittances in the new low gamma transition optics with respect to the nominal SPS optics. The obtained results are compared with numerical simulations.

  2. Experimental study on a natural circulation driven HPLWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T' Joen, C.; Rohde, M. [Delft Univ. of Tech., Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    The large density change through the core of a supercritical water reactor could be used as the driving force for circulating the coolant. To study such a natural circulation system, a scaled experimental setup was developed using Freon R23. This paper presents the first power-flow measurements for single core heating as well as 3 core heating (HPLWR power distribution) indicating that natural circulation occurs. A numerical model was developed to further study the impact of geometric and system parameters. This model shows good qualitative agreement with the experiment. By further refining the proposed model to include the pressure drop over the heat exchanger, a better quantitative agreement could be obtained. (author)

  3. Effect and interaction study of acetamiprid photodegradation using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassalit, Djilali; Chekir, Nadia; Benhabiles, Ouassila; Mouzaoui, Oussama; Mahidine, Sarah; Merzouk, Nachida Kasbadji; Bentahar, Fatiha; Khalil, Abbas

    2016-10-01

    The methodology of experimental research was carried out using the MODDE 6.0 software to study the acetamiprid photodegradation depending on the operating parameters, such as the initial concentration of acetamiprid, concentration and type of the used catalyst and the initial pH of the medium. The results showed the importance of the pollutant concentration effect on the acetamiprid degradation rate. On the other hand, the amount and type of the used catalyst have a considerable influence on the elimination kinetics of this pollutant. The degradation of acetamiprid as an environmental pesticide pollutant via UV irradiation in the presence of titanium dioxide was assessed and optimized using response surface methodology with a D-optimal design. The acetamiprid degradation ratio was found to be sensitive to the different studied factors. The maximum value of discoloration under the optimum operating conditions was determined to be 99% after 300 min of UV irradiation.

  4. Experimental framework to study tip vortex interactions in multirotor wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Rongnan; Araya, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    We present an experimental study to compare the dynamic characteristics of tip vortices shed from a propeller in a crossflow to similar characteristics of an isolated vortex column generated in a closed system. Our aim is to evaluate the feasibility of using this simple isolated system to study the more complicated three-dimensional vortex interactions inherent to multirotor wakes, where the local unsteadiness generated by one rotor can strongly impact the performance of nearby rotors. Time-resolved particle image velocimetry is used to measure the velocity field of the propeller wake flow in a wind tunnel and the vortex column in a water tank. Specific attention is placed on analyzing the observed vortex core precession in the isolated system and comparing this to characteristic tip-vortex wandering phenomenon.

  5. Experimental study of EHD pseudo-dropwise condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabe, A.; Taketani, T.; Yoshizawa, Y.; Sunada, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in order to realize a higher performance heat pump, an electrohydrodynamical (EHD) condenser utilizing a combination of two kinds of EHD phenomena has been researched. In this study, to maximize the augmentation effect, an experimental study has been carried out to clarify the details of an EHD pseudo-dropwise condensation. The diameter of the drops has decreased with the increase of the electric field. The condensation heat transfer coefficients have increased in proportion to the electric field strength, realizing the maximum local heat transfer coefficients of over 9000 W/m 2 K for CFC113 and over 11000W/m 2 K for HCFC123. Furthermore, the heat transfer coefficients have become the same for the same electric field strength, independent of the surface temperature of the heat transfer plate, if the amount of the falling condensate is the same

  6. Conceptual design study of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FY87FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The design study of Fusion Experimental Reactor(FER) which has been proposed to be the next step fusion device has been conducted by JAERI Reactor System Laboratory since 1982 and by FER design team since 1984. This is the final report of the FER design team program and describes the results obtained in FY1987 (partially in FY1986) activities. The contents of this report consist of the reference design which is based on the guideline in FY1986 by the Subcomitees set up in Nuclear Fusion Council of Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, the Low-Physics-Risk reactor design for achieving physics mission more reliably and the system study of FER design candidates including above two designs. (author)

  7. Experimental Study of the WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Marchalot, Tanguy

    This report presents the results of an experimental study on the power conversion capabilities and structural loads of the WEPTOS wave energy converter. The investigation focuses mainly at identifying the performance of the WEPTOS prototype in a wide range of production wave states...... and at the mooring forces and structural bending moments in extreme wave conditions, in order to estimate the performance and structural loads of larger WEPTOS machines being located at various offshore locations of interest. The following aspects were the main subjects of investigation: Performance of the prototype...... under a constant and linear PTO loading, the opening angle of the device, the effect of alterations to the wave conditions, and mooring forces and structural bending moments in production and extreme wave states. During the study, a highly realistic scale model was supplied by the client, WEPTOS, which...

  8. Experimental Study of the Weptos Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the power performance results of the experimental study of the WEPTOS wave energy converter (WEC). This novel device combines an established and efficient wave energy absorbing mechanism with an adjustable structure that can regulate the amount of incoming wave energy and reduce...... loads in extreme wave conditions. This A-shaped floating structure absorbs the energy in the waves through a multitude of rotors, the shape of which is based on the renowned Salter’s Duck. These rotors pivot around a common axle, one for each leg of the structure, to which the rotors transfer...... the absorbed wave energy and which is connected to a common power take off system (one for each leg). The study investigates the performance of the device in a large range of wave states and estimates the performance in terms of mechanical power available to the power take off system of the WEPTOS WEC for two...

  9. An experimental study of laser supported hydrogen plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzandt, D. M.; Mccay, T. D.; Eskridge, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The rudiments of a rocket thruster which receives its enthalpy from an energy source which is remotely beamed from a laser is described. An experimental study now partially complete is discussed which will eventually provide a detailed understanding of the physics for assessing the feasibility of using hydrogen plasmas for accepting and converting this energy to enthalpy. A plasma ignition scheme which uses a pulsed CO2 laser has been developed and the properties of the ignition spark documented, including breakdown intensities in hydrogen. A complete diagnostic system capable of determining plasma temperature and the plasma absorptivity for subsequent steady state absorption of a high power CO2 laser beam are developed and demonstrative use is discussed for the preliminary case study, a two atmosphere laser supported argon plasma.

  10. Oak Ridge Tokamak experimental power reactor study scoping report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.

    1977-03-01

    This report presents the scoping studies performed as the initial part of the program to produce a conceptual design for a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor (EPR). The EPR as considered in this study is to employ all systems necessary for significant electric power production at continuous high duty cycle operation; it is presently scheduled to be the final technological step before a Demonstration Reactor Plant (Demo). The scoping study tasks begin with an exploration and identification of principal problem areas and then concentrate on consideration and evaluation of alternate design choices for each of the following major systems: Plasma Engineering and Physics, Nuclear, Electromagnetics, Neutral Beam Injection, and Tritium Handling. In addition, consideration has been given to the integration of these systems and requirements arising out of their incorporation into an EPR. One intent of this study is to document the paths explored in search of the appropriate EPR characteristics. To satisfy this intent, the explorations are presented in chart form outlining possible options in key areas with extensive supporting footnotes. An important result of the scoping study has been the development and definition of an EPR reference design to serve as (1) a common focus for the continuing design study and (2) a guide for associated development programs. In addition, the study has identified research and development requirements essential to facilitate the successful conceptual design, construction, and operation of an EPR.

  11. An experimental study on soil-structure interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Akira; Kumagai, Shigeru

    1989-01-01

    The soil-structure interaction effects play an important role in the earthquake response of large scale structures such as nuclear power plants. Recent decades, many experimental and analytical studies have been conducted. Even though sophisticated analytical tools are ready to use, complicated soil-structure interaction problems such as those with a complex geometry can not be solved yet. For such problems a laboratory experiment is a powerful alternative. In the laboratory experiment, a device to absorb the reflected waves is always necessary to be attached on the boundaries of the soil model to simulate the semi-infiniteness of the actual ground. But unfortunately absorbing devices currently available are far from satisfactory. In this paper, a new experimental method is employed for soil-structure interaction problems to simulate the semi-infiniteness of the actual ground. The present method utilizes the characteristics of transient response to an impulse load so that no special treatment on the boundaries of the soil model is required. This technique is applicable to a linear elastic system whose impulse response decreases to a small enough value before observing the reflected waves. (author)

  12. Study of Formulation Variables Influencing Polymeric Microparticles by Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra B. Naik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare diclofenac sodium loaded microparticles by single emulsion [oil-in-water (o/w] solvent evaporation method. The 22 experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the effect of two formulation variables on microspheres properties using the Design-Expert® software and evaluated for their particle size, morphology, and encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. The graphical and mathematical analysis of the design showed that the independent variables were a significant effect on the encapsulation efficiency and drug release of microparticles. The low magnitudes of error and significant values of R2 prove the high prognostic ability of the design. The microspheres showed high encapsulation efficiency with an increase in the amount of polymer and decrease in the amount of PVA in the formulation. The particles were found to be spherical with smooth surface. Prolonged drug release and enhancement of encapsulation efficiency of polymeric microparticles can be successfully obtained with an application of experimental design technique.

  13. Experimental and numerical FSI study of compliant hydrofoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augier, B.; Yan, J.; Korobenko, A.; Czarnowski, J.; Ketterman, G.; Bazilevs, Y.

    2015-06-01

    A propulsion system based on tandem hydrofoils is studied experimentally and numerically. An experimental measurement system is developed to extract hydrodynamic loads on the foils and capture their twisting deformation during operation. The measured data allowed us to assess the efficiency of the propulsion system as a function of travel speed and stroke frequency. The numerical simulation of the propulsion system is also presented and involves 3D, full-scale fluid-structure interaction (FSI) computation of a single (forward) foil. The foil is modeled as a combination of the isogeometric rotation-free Kirchhoff-Love shell and bending-stabilized cable, while the hydrodynamics makes use of the finite-element-based arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian variational multiscale formulation. The large added mass is handled through a quasi-direct FSI coupling technique. The measurement data collected is used in the validation of the FSI simulation, and excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured hydrodynamic loads and foil twisting motion.

  14. Experimental studies on ion mobility in xenon-trimethylamine mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, A. M. F.; Encarnação, P. M. C. C.; Escada, J.; Cortez, A. F. V.; Neves, P. N. B.; Conde, C. A. N.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Santos, F. P.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we present experimental results for ion reduced mobilities (K0) in gaseous trimethylamine, TMA—(CH3)3N, and xenon-TMA mixtures for reduced electric fields E/N between 7.5 and 60 Td and in the pressure range from 0.5 to 10 Torr, at room temperature. Both in the mixtures and in pure TMA only one peak was observed in the time of arrival spectra, which is believed to be due to two TMA ions with similar mass, (CH3)3N+ (59 u) and (CH3)2CH2N+ (58 u), whose mobility is indistinguishable in our experimental system. The possibility of ion cluster formation is also discussed. In pure TMA, for the E/N range investigated, an average value of 0.56 cm2V-1s-1 was obtained for the reduced mobility of TMA ions. For the studied mixtures, it was observed that even a very small amount of gaseous TMA (~0.2%) in xenon leads to the production of the above referred TMA ions or clusters. The reduced mobility value of this ion or ions in Xe-TMA mixtures is higher than the value in pure TMA: around 0.8 cm2V-1s-1 for TMA concentrations from 0.2% to about 10%, decreasing for higher TMA percentages, eventually converging to the reduced mobility value in pure TMA.

  15. Experimental studies on ion mobility in xenon-trimethylamine mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, A.M.F.; Encarnação, P.M.C.C.; Escada, J.; Cortez, A.F.V.; Conde, C.A.N.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Santos, F.P.; Neves, P.N.B.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present experimental results for ion reduced mobilities ( K 0 ) in gaseous trimethylamine, TMA—(CH 3 ) 3 N, and xenon-TMA mixtures for reduced electric fields E / N between 7.5 and 60 Td and in the pressure range from 0.5 to 10 Torr, at room temperature. Both in the mixtures and in pure TMA only one peak was observed in the time of arrival spectra, which is believed to be due to two TMA ions with similar mass, (CH 3 ) 3 N + (59 u) and (CH 3 ) 2 CH 2 N + (58 u), whose mobility is indistinguishable in our experimental system. The possibility of ion cluster formation is also discussed. In pure TMA, for the E / N range investigated, an average value of 0.56 cm 2 V −1 s −1 was obtained for the reduced mobility of TMA ions. For the studied mixtures, it was observed that even a very small amount of gaseous TMA (∼0.2%) in xenon leads to the production of the above referred TMA ions or clusters. The reduced mobility value of this ion or ions in Xe-TMA mixtures is higher than the value in pure TMA: around 0.8 cm 2 V −1 s −1 for TMA concentrations from 0.2% to about 10%, decreasing for higher TMA percentages, eventually converging to the reduced mobility value in pure TMA.

  16. Experimental Vertical Stability Studies for ITER Performance and Design Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, D A; Casper, T A; Eidietis, N; Ferrera, M; Gates, D A; Hutchinson, I H; Jackson, G L; Kolemen, E; Leuer, J A; Lister, J; LoDestro, L L; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Sartori, F; Walker, M L; Welander, A S; Wolfe, S M

    2008-10-13

    Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modeling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses some of the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be very severe. The present work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV, and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analyzed.

  17. Benchmark thermodynamic properties of methylanisoles: Experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel’yanenko, Vladimir N.; Zaitseva, Ksenia V.; Agapito, Filipe; Martinho Simões, José A.; Verevkin, Sergey P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermochemistry of 2-, 3-, and 4-methylanisoles was studied. • Liquid state enthalpies of formation were measured by calorimetry. • Vaporisation enthalpies were derived from by transpiration method. • Ab initio enthalpies of formation are in excellent agreement with experiment. • A new paradigm for obtaining thermochemistry of liquid compounds was suggested. - Abstract: Accurate standard molar enthalpy of formation values in the liquid phase can be obtained by combining high-level quantum chemistry values of gas-phase enthalpies of formation with experimentally determined enthalpies of vaporisation. The procedure is illustrated for 2-, 3-, and 4-methyl-anisoles. Using the W1-F12 and G4 quantum-chemical methods, the gas-phase enthalpies of formation of these compounds at T = 298.15 K were computed. Molar enthalpies of vaporisation for these isomers were measured by the transpiration method. Combining the experimental and the high-level ab initio values, the standard molar enthalpies of formation in the liquid phase for all three isomers were derived and compared with those determined for 2- and 4-methyl-anisoles by using combustion calorimetry

  18. Experimental Study of Interior Temperature Distribution Inside Parked Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Mohammed Ali Aljubury

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperature inside the vehicle cabin is very important to provide comfortable conditions to the car passengers. Temperature inside the cabin will be increased, when the car is left or parked directly under the sunlight. Experimental studies were performed in Baghdad, Iraq (33.3 oN, 44.4 oE to investigate the effects of solar radiation on car cabin components (dashboard, steering wheel, seat, and inside air. The test vehicle was oriented to face south to ensure maximum (thermal sun load on the front windscreen. Six different parking conditions were investigated. A suggested car cover was examined experimentally. The measurements were recorded for clear sky summer days started at 8 A.M. till 5 P.M. Results show that interior air temperature in unshaded parked car reaches 70oC and dashboard temperature can approach 100 oC. While, cardboard car shade inside the car not reduce the air temperature inside it. Suggested car cover with 1 cm part-down side windows reduced temperature of cabin components by 70 % in average compare to the base case.

  19. Dissipation factor of acrylic dielectric elastomer--an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Raj Kumar; Pramanik, Bipul; Patra, Karali; Bhaumik, Shovan; Pandey, Arvind Kumar; Setua, Dipak Kumar

    2014-10-01

    This paper studies the effects of frequency, pre-strain and electrode types on the dielectric property of a commercially available and most widely used acrylic elastomer, VHB 4910. The acrylic VHB film is pre-stretched in biaxial directions with the help of an in-house developed biaxial stretching device. The stretched film has been sandwiched between two card board frames to prepare samples of different pre-stretch values. Three different types of electrodes namely copper tape, silver grease and carbon grease have been pasted on the both sides of prestretched samples. Dissipation factor of pre-stretched and electrode adhered VHB sample has been experimentally determined at different frequency (upto 1 MHz) of input voltage using a LCR meter. Experimental results on the variation of dissipation factor with pre-straining, frequency (low to high) and electrode types are reported. The dissipation factor value is further used to estimate electrical efficiency at different biaxial pre-straining, frequency and electrode types.

  20. Phase I/II study of gefitinib (Iressa(®)) and vorinostat (IVORI) in previously treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Youn; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Geon Kook; Yun, Tak; Lee, Young Joo; Hwang, Kum Hui; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Heung Tae

    2015-03-01

    Vorinostat has been shown to overcome resistance to gefitinib. We performed a phase I/II study combining gefitinib with vorinostat in previously treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was used to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Three dose levels were tested: 250 mg/day gefitinib on days 1-28 and 200, 300 or 400 mg/day vorinostat on days 1-7, and 15-21 out of every 28 days. The primary endpoint was median progression-free survival (PFS). Fifty-two patients were enrolled and treated (43 in phase II). The median age was 59 years, 28 patients were male, 44 had adenocarcinoma, 29 had never smoked, and 36 had undergone one prior treatment. Twenty-two patients exhibited sensitive EGFR mutations. Planned dose escalation was completed without reaching the MTD. The RP2D was 250 mg gefitinib and 400 mg vorinostat. In 43 assessable patients in phase II, the median PFS was 3.2 months; the overall survival (OS) was 19.0 months. There were 16 partial responses and six cases of stable disease. In EGFR-mutant NSCLC, response rate was 77 %, median PFS was 9.1 months, and median OS was 24.1 months. The most common adverse events were anorexia and diarrhea. Treatment with 250 mg gefitinib daily with biweekly 400 mg/day vorinostat was feasible and well tolerated. In an unselected patient population, this combination dose did not improve PFS. However, this combination showed a potential for improving efficacy of gefitinib in EGFR-mutant NSCLC (NCT01027676).

  1. Effect of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease previously untreated or treated with memantine or nootropic agents in Germany: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Tatjana; Ibach, Bernd; Schoenknecht, Peter; Kamleiter, Martin; Silver, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Johannes; Mielke, Ruediger

    2005-05-01

    This open-label, prospective, observational, Post-Marketing Surveillance (PMS) study assessed the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients who had been switched from therapies currently used in Germany to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as memantine and nootropics, due to insufficient efficacy or poor tolerability. A treatment-naive population was included as a comparator. Patients with AD were treated with donepezil and observed for a period of approximately 3 months. A cognitive assessment was made using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the investigators who answered the question 'How did therapy with donepezil influence the QoL of the patient and/or his family over the observation period?' and was graded using three ratings: improved/unchanged/worsened. Adverse events (AEs) were also monitored. A total of 913 patients entered the study (mean +/- SD MMSE score 18.03 +/- 5.34). Efficacy assessments were analyzed for three groups: an overall group of patients who had received any form of prior AD drug therapy (N+ group; n = 709); a subgroup of patients from the N+ group who had received prior memantine therapy only (M+ group; n = 111) and patients who were drug treatment naive (N- group; n = 204). In the evaluable population donepezil improved MMSE scores by 2.21 +/- 3.47 points on average, with similar improvements observed in all three groups. QoL was judged to be improved in at least 70% of patients, again with similar results obtained for all three groups. Donepezil was well tolerated, with 85 of 913 (9.3%) patients reporting AEs. The most common AEs were those typically seen with cholinergic therapies (i.e., diarrhoea, vomiting and nausea). In this observational PMS study, donepezil was shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients who were being insufficiently treated with memantine or nootropic therapy. The magnitude of response was similar to that observed in patients who were previously

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling and Experimental Study on a Single Silica Gel Type B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John White

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of computational fluid dynamics (CFDs in the area of porous media and adsorption cooling system is becoming more practical due to the significant improvement in computer power. The results from previous studies have shown that CFD can be useful tool for predicting the water vapour flow pattern, temperature, heat transfer and flow velocity and adsorption rate. This paper investigates the effect of silica gel granular size on the water adsorption rate using computational fluid dynamics and gravimetric experimental (TGA method.

  3. Experimental study under uniaxial cyclic behavior at room and high temperature of 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Guozheng; Gao Qing; Yang Xianjie; Sun Yafang

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out of the cyclic properties of 316L stainless steel subjected to uniaxial strain and stress at room and high temperature. The effects of cyclic strain amplitude, temperature and their histories on the cyclic deformation behavior of 316L stainless steel are investigated. And, the influences of stress amplitude, mean stress, temperature and their histories on ratcheting are also analyzed. It is shown that either uniaxial cyclic property under cyclic strain or ratcheting under asymmetric uniaxial cyclic stress depends not only on the current temperature and loading state, but also on the previous temperature and loading history. Some significant results are obtained

  4. An Experimental Study to Control Scour at River Confluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuppukondur, A.; Chandra, V.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of present study is finding a method to control sediment erosion at river confluence. The confluences are mixture of two different flows and are common occurrences along the river. River confluences are sites of natural scour phenomenon and also influence reservoir sedimentation. The river confluence is associated with a separation zone, stagnation zone and a mixing layer along which the scour hole is observed. The eroded sediment creates potential problems by depositing at unwanted downstream locations such as barrages, weirs, check dams, reservoirs etc. As per the literature, the storage capacity of major reservoirs in India is going to be reduced nearly half of the storage capacity by 2020. Hence, an experimental study has been conducted on mobile bed (d50=0.28 mm) with a confluence angle of 90o for a discharge ratio (Qr) of 0.5, where, Qr is defined as the ratio between lateral flow discharge (Ql) and main flow discharge (Qm). Circular shape pile models of same diameter are arranged in a systematic manner with constant spacing (5 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm) to change the flow pattern for reducing scour at the confluence. Two types of pile models (8 mm ϕ and 12 mm ϕ) are used to conduct the experiments. The experimental results show that maximum scour depth at confluence is reduced by 60%. In addition, the bed profile modifications are also reported. Keywords: Reservoir sedimentation, River confluence, Mobile bed, Scour, Vanes. References:1. Borghei, S. M., and Sahebari, A. J. (2010). "Local Scour at Open-Channel Junctions", Journal of Hydraulic Research, 48(4), 37 - 41. 2. Kothyari, U. C. (1996). "Methods for Estimation Sediment Yield from Catchments", Proc., Int. Sem. On Civil Engg. Practices in Twenty First Century, Roorkee, India, 1071-1086. 3. Mosley, M. P. (1976) "An Experimental Study of Channel Confluences". The Journal of Geology, 84(55), 532-562. 4. Ouyang, H. T. (2009). "Investigation on the dimensions and shape of a submerged vane for sediment

  5. Study of Photovoltaic Energy Storage by Supercapacitors through Both Experimental and Modelling Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Olivier Logerais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The storage of photovoltaic energy by supercapacitors is studied by using two approaches. An overview on the integration of supercapacitors in solar energy conversion systems is previously provided. First, a realized experimental setup of charge/discharge of supercapacitors fed by a photovoltaic array has been operated with fine data acquisition. The second approach consists in simulating photovoltaic energy storage by supercapacitors with a faithful and accessible model composed of solar irradiance evaluation, equivalent electrical circuit for photovoltaic conversion, and a multibranch circuit for supercapacitor. Both the experimental and calculated results are confronted, and an error of 1% on the stored energy is found with a correction largely within ±10% of the transmission line capacitance according to temperature.

  6. Characterization of the pseudocapsule of soft-tissue sarcomas. An experimental study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitelis, S.; Thomas, R.; Templeton, A.; Schajowicz, F.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of preoperative radiation therapy on the pseudocapsule of experimental rat soft-tissue sarcomas has not been histologically evaluated in a controlled study. The irradiated animal showed marked thickening of the capsular structure surrounding the sarcoma. Everywhere morphologically distinct from the tumor, there was no evidence of tumor invasion into or through this capsular structure. The membrane was consistently thicker and more hyalinized than in the control animals. The nonirradiated animals showed a minimal pseudocapsular structure with a characteristic tumor penetration. Irradiation produced distinct histologic changes in the pseudocapsule. Although assumed on the basis of clinical observations alone, irradiation-induced pseudocapsule has not previously been demonstrated in an experimental model of soft-tissue sarcoma

  7. Multidimensional study of orofacial chronic neuropathic pain: An experimental study in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Daniela Montes-Angeles

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orofacial neuropathic chronic pain (NCP is frequently attributed to lesions caused by orofacial surgeries and dental treatments. There are many experimental models available to study orofacial NCP, however, many are extremely painful for the animal due to the amplitude of the innervated region. A previously proposed mental nerve constriction model, mNC, was used in this project. Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: one group included rats with mNC (n=20, and another rats with sham lesions (n=20. Through the use of the fixed ratio program and the progressive program, a decrease of motivation for a sweet substance, caused by the lesion, was evaluated. The possibility of alterations in cognitive learning and adaptation abilities was also assessed using the go/no-go behavioral task. The mNC group showed low induced and spontaneously evoked pain responses, as well as a decrease in the motivation for sucrose, a sign of anhedonia. This decrease does not depend on taste processing. Finally, although no alterations in the learning-memory process were observed, the mNC group did show alterations when adapting to a new rule.

  8. Arterial scleroproteins in atherosclerosis and hypertension (Experimental studies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurukova, Ts.; Georgiev, P.

    1979-01-01

    The authors studied the neosynthesis of fiber protein (scleroproteins) in the aorta of rats with genetic hypertension and with experimental atherosclerosis following application of 3 H-proline and 3 H-lysine and subsequent determination of radioactivity of the collagen and elastic fractions of the aortic wall. There was a great increase in incorporation of labelled collagen and elastin precursors in the aorta of hypertensive and atherosclerotic animals, in comparison with the control rats - a manifestation of incresed ''de novo'' synthesis of fiber proteins in rats with these arterial diseases. Furthermore, the increased collagenosis dominated over that of elastogenesis. The irregular activation of the biosynthesis of both scleroproteins in hypertensive rats and in rats with atherosclerosis caused remodelling of the macromolecular structure of the arterial wall with predominance of collagen over the remaining hypertension components and progression of atherosclerosis. (author) (author)

  9. Laser-welded ureteral anastomoses: experimental studies with three techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürpinar, T; Gürer, S; Kattan, M W; Wang, L; Griffith, D P

    1996-01-01

    Tissue welding with laser energy is a new technique for reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of laser welding are (a) lack of foreign body reaction, (b) decreased operative time, (c) less tissue manipulation, and (d) effective union of tissues equivalent to sutured anastomoses. We have performed ureteral anastomoses in adult mongrel dogs using a KTP 532 nm laser at an intensity of 1.4 W. Multiple "spot welds" of 1-s duration were utilized in a single layer anastomosis. Laser-welded anastomoses were performed with and without protein solder (33% and 50% human albumin) and were compared to sutured anastomoses. The laser-welded anastomoses required less operative time and provided bursting pressure levels similar to those of traditional sutured anastomoses. There was no advantage or disadvantage to the addition of human albumin as a solder in these experimental studies.

  10. Experimental studies of glued Aluminum-glass joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligaj, B.; Wirwicki, M.; Karolewska, K.; Jasińska, A.

    2018-04-01

    Glued steel-glass or aluminum-glass joints are to be found, among other things, in vehicles (cars, buses, trains, trams) as windscreen assembly pieces for the supporting structure. For the purposes of the experiments, samples were made in which the top beam was made of the AW-2017A aluminum alloy and the bottom beam was made of thermally reinforced soda-lime glass whereas the glued joints were made of one-component polyurethane glue Körapur 175. The tests were performed under four-point bending conditions at monotonic incremental bending moment values on the Instron 5965 durability machine. The experimental study of the durability of glued joints under four-point bending conditions with the monotonic incremental bending moment allows to determine the values of stresses, whose value is related to initiation of damage of the tested joint.

  11. Perceptions of unfairness in price increases: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Feder Mayer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study investigates antecedents and consequences of perceptions of price unfairness in a price increase situation. The proposed theoretical model states that consumer dependence on the service provider as well as the relevance the consumer attributes to the service (for the consumer's life will affect his/her degree of (a unfairness price perception, (b anger, and (c intention to complain and retaliate. The results support all the hypotheses specified in the model. The findings not only indicate that some situations of unfairness price perception lead to stronger emotions and more dramatic reactions from consumers, but also allow us to predict which situations of perceived unfairness offer greater risks and have greater potential for conflict.

  12. An experimental study of the fabrication of polycarbonate optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiao-yang; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Jing-song; Wu, Peng-qin; Zhou, Jing-lun; Fan, Jiang-feng; Yan, Hao-feng

    2008-12-01

    A novel polycarbonate (PC) was introduced to apply in the optical waveguide devices. PC has following distinct merits than common polycarbonate: good processability, high thermal stability up to 293 C° and high optical transparency. Optical properties of absorption behavior and propagation loss were investigated in slab waveguides, and low propagation losses of 0.335 dB/cm (@1550nm) and 0.197 dB/cm @632.8nm) have been achieved by using prismcoupler. Additionally, straight optical waveguide and MMI coupler of ring resonator were fabricated using ultraviolet (UV) cured resin Norland optical adhesive 61 (NOA61) as under or upper cladding layer and polycarbonate as waveguide core-layer material through conventional methods such as spin coating, photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). The process was studied in detail and the experimental results were given.

  13. Numerical simulation and experimental study of explosive projectile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanov, V. V.; Gryaznov, E. F.; Goldenko, N. A.; Sudomoev, A. D.; Feldstein, V. A.

    2017-06-01

    A study of explosive-throwing device (ETD) was undertaken to simulate the hypervelocity impact of space debris fragments (SDF) and meteoroids with spacecrafts. The principle of operation of an ETD is based on the cumulative effect in combination with the cut-off head of the cumulative jet, which enables one to simulate a compact particle, such as a meteoroid or a fragment of space debris. Different design schemes of ETD with different composition explosive charge initiation schemes with notably low speeds of the jet cut-off are explored, and a method to control the particle velocity is proposed. Numerical simulation of device modes and basic technical characteristics of experimental testing are investigated.

  14. Experimental study on a pendulum wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shou-qiang; Ye, Jia-wei; Wang, Dong-jiao; Liang, Fu-lin

    2013-06-01

    Many of the existing wave energy converters (WEC) are of oscillating water column (OWC) and point absorber (PA) types. Fewer references have been published in public on the pendulum type WEC. A series of experimental tests on a bottom-hinged pendulum WEC model are carried out and some results are revealed in the present study. The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed description of the tests. It is found that wave energy conversion efficiency varies with the applied damping and wave conditions. In addition, special attention is given to the effect of the water ballast on the efficiency of the wave energy converter. It is demonstrated that the ballast plays an important role in energy extraction. Better understanding on how the performance of the device is influenced by damping, wave height, wave period and ballast is shown.

  15. Experimental study of plastic responses of pipe elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    Load-deflection responses were determined experimentally for sixteen 152.4-mm (6-in.) (nominal) commercial carbon steel pipe elbows and four 152.4-mm (6-in.) stainless steel elbows. Each specimen was loaded with an external force of sufficient magnitude to produce predominantly plastic response. The influences of bend radius and wall thickness were studied, as well as the effect of internal prssure on load-deflection behavior. Comparisons of results from stainless steel and from carbon steel elbows indicate differences in responses attributable to material differences. The results were interpreted in terms of limit analysis concepts, and collapse loads were determined. Trends given by the collapse loads are identified and discussed

  16. An experimental and modeling study of n-octanol combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the first investigation on the combustion chemistry of n-octanol, a long chain alcohol. Ignition delay times were determined experimentally in a high-pressure shock tube, and stable species concentration profiles were obtained in a jet stirred reactor for a range of initial conditions. A detailed kinetic model was developed to describe the oxidation of n-octanol at both low and high temperatures, and the model shows good agreement with the present dataset. The fuel\\'s combustion characteristics are compared to those of n-alkanes and to short chain alcohols to illustrate the effects of the hydroxyl moiety and the carbon chain length on important combustion properties. Finally, the results are discussed in detail. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  17. Experimental study of the pressure characteristics in the Stirling refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong Ju; Park, Seong Je; Kim, Hyo Bong; Koh, Deuk Yong

    2001-01-01

    The linear compressor have been widely used for pressure wave generation in the Stirling cryocooler and Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler for tactical purpose. The linear compressor has small and compact structure, and long life due to having non-contact sealing mechanism and the pressure drop through regenerator was ver important role in the motion of displacer in the expander of the Stirling cryocooler. In this study, the characteristic of the linear compressor and the pressure drop through regenerator in the expander was experimentally investigated. The results show resonance of the compressor is very important to get maximum performance and the gas spring force in the compression space of the compressor has effect on the characteristic of resonance and the results show the pressure drop through regenerator is very small than operating pressure change

  18. Experimental and theoretical studies of buoyant-thermo capillary flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, E.; Blumenfeld, L.; Soubbaramayer

    1996-01-01

    In the AVLIS process, uranium metal is evaporated using a high power electron gun. We have prior discussed the power balance equation in the electron beam evaporation process and pointed out, among the loss terms, the importance of the power loss due to the convective flow in the molten pool driven by buoyancy and thermo capillarity. An empirical formula has been derived from model experiments with cerium, to estimate the latter power loss and that formula can be used practically in engineering calculations. In order to complete the empirical approach, a more fundamental research program of theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out in Cea-France, with the objective of understanding the basic phenomena (heat transport, flow instabilities, turbulence, etc.) occurring in a convective flow in a liquid layer locally heated on its free surface

  19. Numerical and Experimental Study of Pump Sump Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Liang Chuang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes pump sump flows with various discharges and gate submergence. Investigations using a three-dimensional large eddy simulation model and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter are performed. Flow patterns and velocity profiles in the approaching flow are shown to describe the flow features caused by various discharges and gate submergence. The variation of a large-scale spanwise vortex behind a sluice gate is examined and discussed. The suction effect on approaching flow near the pipe column is examined using numerical modeling. To gain more understanding of the vortices variation, a comparison between time-averaged and instantaneous flow patterns is numerically conducted. Additionally, swirl angle, a widely used index for evaluating pump efficiency, is experimentally and numerically examined under various flow conditions. The results indicate that the pump becomes less efficient with increasing discharge and gate submergence. The fluctuation of the free surface over the pump sump is also discussed.

  20. Experimental study of infrared filaments under different initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirell, Daniel Joseph

    In 1964, four years after the first working laser was constructed, long skinny damage tracks and fluorescence trails were seen inside of certain transparent media that were excited by intense light pulses [1]. What was so remarkable about these features was the narrowness of the spatial profile and their long propagation length in the beam in concert with the very high intensity of the light that would be necessary to produce them. A purely linear model of light propagation through such media was insufficient to explain the results of these experiments and hence a new area of nonlinear optics, latex coined filamentation (to describe the length, slimness, and intensity of the light field), was born. Filament studies begin with a medium that has a nonlinear index of refraction, n¯2, that interacts with an intense beam of light so as to cause it to self-focus. The n¯2 of liquid and solid transparent media is much higher than the n¯ 2 of gases and therefore a much higher intensity of laser source would need to be invented to begin the study of filaments in air. With the advent of the Ti-Sapphire Kerr-lens modelocked laser [2], working in combination with the development of the chirped pulse amplifier system in the mid-1990's, light intensities sufficient to produce filaments in air was realized. Since that time much experimental and theoretical work has been done to better understand some of the additional complexities that arise specifically in the filamentation of light in air using several different wavelengths (UV to IR) and pulsewidths (femto- to pico-seconds). Many theoretical models exist each with a different emphasis on the various physical mechanisms that may produce the features experimentally observed in filaments. The experimental work has sought to give the theoretician better data on some of the properties of filaments such as the: (a) spatial and temporal structure of the beam and of the produced plasma (that arises due to the high intensity light

  1. Tritium system design studies of fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Baiquan; Huang Jinhua

    2003-01-01

    A summary of the tritium system design studies for the engineering outline design of a fusion experimental breeder (FEB-E) is presented. This paper is divided into three sections. In first section, the geometry, loading features and tritium concentrations in liquid lithium of tritium breeding zones of blanket are described. The tritium flow chart corresponding to the tritium fuel cycle system has been constructed, and the inventories in ten subsystems are calculated using SWITRIM code in section 2. Results show that the necessary initial tritium storage to start up FEB-E with fusion power of 143 MW is about 319 g. In final section, the tritium leakage issues under different operation circumstances have been analyzed. It was found that the potential danger of tritium leakage could be resulted from the exhausted gas of the diverter system. It is important to elevate the tritium burnup fraction and reduce the tritium throughput. (authors)

  2. ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] reactor building design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.L.; Blevins, J.D.; Delisle, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is at the midpoint of a two-year conceptual design. The ITER reactor building is a reinforced concrete structure that houses the tokamak and associated equipment and systems and forms a barrier between the tokamak and the external environment. It provides radiation shielding and controls the release of radioactive materials to the environment during both routine operations and accidents. The building protects the tokamak from external events, such as earthquakes or aircraft strikes. The reactor building requirements have been developed from the component designs and the preliminary safety analysis. The equipment requirements, tritium confinement, and biological shielding have been studied. The building design in progress requires continuous iteraction with the component and system designs and with the safety analysis. 8 figs

  3. Phase I study of cisplatin, hyperthermia, and lapatinib in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a previously irradiated area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.V. Meerten (Esther Van); M. Franckena (Martine); E.A.C. Wiemer (Erik); L.V. Doorn (Lena Van); J. Kraan (Jaco); A.M. Westermann (Anneke); S. Sleijfer (Stefan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Patients with recurrent cervical cancer in a previously irradiated area might benefit from cisplatin combined with hyperthermia. Lapatinib inhibits the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2. Overexpression of EGFR and

  4. Phase I study of cisplatin, hyperthermia, and lapatinib in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a previously irradiated area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerten, Esther; Franckena, Martine; Wiemer, Erik; van Doorn, Lena; Kraan, Jaco; Westermann, Anneke; Sleijfer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Patients with recurrent cervical cancer in a previously irradiated area might benefit from cisplatin combined with hyperthermia. Lapatinib inhibits the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2. Overexpression of EGFR and HER2 is frequently seen in

  5. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 8: identifying quasi-experimental studies to inform systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, Julie; Eyers, John; Jones, Andrew M; Shemilt, Ian; Wang, Grace; Johansen, Marit; Fiander, Michelle; Rothstein, Hannah

    2017-09-01

    This article reviews the available evidence and guidance on methods to identify reports of quasi-experimental (QE) studies to inform systematic reviews of health care, public health, international development, education, crime and justice, and social welfare. Research, guidance, and examples of search strategies were identified by searching a range of databases, key guidance documents, selected reviews, conference proceedings, and personal communication. Current practice and research evidence were summarized. Four thousand nine hundred twenty-four records were retrieved by database searches, and additional documents were obtained by other searches. QE studies are challenging to identify efficiently because they have no standardized nomenclature and may be indexed in various ways. Reliable search filters are not available. There is a lack of specific resources devoted to collecting QE studies and little evidence on where best to search. Searches to identify QE studies should search a range of resources and, until indexing improves, use strategies that focus on the topic rather than the study design. Better definitions, better indexing in databases, prospective registers, and reporting guidance are required to improve the retrieval of QE studies and promote systematic reviews of what works based on the evidence from such studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental and analytical study on thermoelectric self cooling of devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Astrain, D.; Rodriguez, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and studies the novel concept of thermoelectric self cooling, which can be introduced as the cooling and temperature control of a device using thermoelectric technology without electricity consumption. For this study, it is designed a device endowed with an internal heat source. Subsequently, a commonly used cooling system is attached to the device and the thermal performance is statistically assessed. Afterwards, it is developed and studied a thermoelectric self cooling system appropriate for the device. Experimental and analytical results show that the thermal resistance between the heat source and the environment reduced by 25-30% when the thermoelectric self cooling system is installed, and indicates the promising applicability of this technology to devices that generate large amounts of heat, such as electrical power converters, transformers and control systems. Likewise, it was statistically proved that the thermoelectric self cooling system leads to significant reductions in the temperature difference between the heat source and the environment, and, what is more, this reduction increases as the heat flow generated by the heat source increases, which makes evident the fact that thermoelectric self cooling systems work as temperature controllers. -- Highlights: → Novel concept of thermoelectric self cooling is presented and studied. → No extra electricity is needed. → Thermal resistance between the heat source and the environment reduces by 25-30%. → Increasing reduction in temperature difference between heat source and environment. → Great applicability to any device that generates heat and must be cooled.

  7. Entrepreneurship Education: An Experimental Study with Information and Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenchun Jim Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been regarded as a new science in the promotion of economic development, which has led to rapid development in entrepreneurship education. The growing number of students enrolled in entrepreneurship programs creates unprecedented challenges on educators. Although multiple teaching and learning activities are adopted in entrepreneurship education, these are mainly carried out using traditional classroom lectures, case studies and group discussions. Nowadays, information & communication technology (ICT is used to enhance the effectiveness of traditional teaching methods and competency training. PowToon is a web-based ICT tool that hat allows teachers and students to quickly and easily create animated presentations. Using quasi-experimental design and qualitative method, this study is to examine whether PowToon is an effective tool for business plan presentation. The study find that the animated presentations attracted more investment than the groups that did not prepare animated videos. It reflects that developed videos which helps entrepreneurial team to better deliver their business ideas to investors in a well-thought out way. In addition, the results of the study show that individuals who generate a business idea did not necessarily significantly influence their investment decisions. Our findings challenge the concept on self-biases evaluations of the economic potential of their own business ideas. Finally, the students were very willing to adopt new ways of delivering their business ideas.

  8. Clinical evaluation of recombinant factor VIII preparation (Kogenate) in previously treated patients with hemophilia A: descriptive meta-analysis of post-marketing study data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, A; Fukutake, K; Takamatsu, J; Shirahata, A

    2006-08-01

    The safety and efficacy of Kogenate, a recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) preparation for the treatment of bleeding episodes, were studied in a 123-patient meta-analysis population of previously treated patients (PTPs), including 15 enrolled in the registration Phase III trial (PTP-I group), 93 from the post-marketing special investigation (PTP-II group), and 15 from short-term special investigations in surgery or tooth extraction (SI group). These patients (82 severe, 31 moderate, 9 mild, and 1 unknown), aged 11 months to 72 years, were enrolled in 28 centers in Japan. Blood samples taken at the baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after the introduction of Kogenate were evaluated for FVIII inhibitor antibodies, antibodies formed against trace proteins derived from the rFVIII production process, and for general changes in laboratory test results. Mean exposure to Kogenate was 1103 days in PTP-I, 86 days in PTP-II, 27 days in patients in surgery, and 2 days in patients with tooth extraction. Assessment of FVIII inhibitor activity was conducted in 115 of the 123 patients by means of the Bethesda assay. Twelve patients were found to have a low titer of FVIII inhibitor (0.5-3.0 BU/mL) prior to any administration of Kogenate, and 103 were inhibitor-negative at the baseline. Among this latter group, 3 patients (2.9%) tested inhibitor-positive, with titers ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 BU/mL, with 4 patients below 1.0 BU/mL. One patient in the 11 PTPs investigated (PTP-I) developed antibodies against baby hamster kidney protein and mouse immunoglobulin G, but these findings were transient and asymptomatic. Hemostasis was achieved (markedly effective or effective) in 3666 of the 3855 bleeding episodes (95.1%) observed in 108 patients. Only 1 infusion was necessary in 3790 (98.3%) of these episodes. These data indicate that Kogenate is safe and very effective for the treatment of bleeding in PTPs with hemophilia A.

  9. Blonanserin - A Novel Antianxiety and Antidepressant Drug? An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ramchandra Prabhakar; Patil, Aditi Nitin

    2016-09-01

    Many psychiatric disorders show signs and symptoms of anxiety and depression. A drug with both, effects and lesser adverse effects is always desired. Blonanserin is a novel drug with postulated effect on anxiety and depression. The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Blonanserin on anxiety and depression in animal models. By using elevated plus maze test and forced swimming test, the antianxiety and antidepressant effects were evaluated. Animal ethics protocols were followed strictly. Total 50 rats (10 rats per group) were used for each test. As a control drug diazepam and imipramine were used in elevated plus maze and forced swimming test respectively. Blonanserin was tested for 3 doses 0.075, 0.2 and 0.8mg. These doses were selected from previous references as well as by extrapolating human doses. This study showed an antianxiety effect of Blonanserin comparable to diazepam, which was statistically significant. Optimal effect was observed with 0.075mg, followed by 0.2 and 0.8mg. It also showed an antidepressant effect which was statistically significant. Optimal effect was observed at 0.2mg dose. The results showed that at a dose range of 0.075 and 0.2mg Blonanserin has potential to exert an adjuvant antianxiety and antidepressant activity in animal models. In order to extrapolate this in patient, longer clinical studies with comparable doses should be planned. The present study underlines potential of Blonanserin as a novel drug for such studies.

  10. Quasi-experimental study on the effectiveness of a flipped classroom for teaching adult health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Esther O; Park, Ji Hyun

    2018-04-01

    The effectiveness of flipped learning as one of the teaching methods of active learning has been left unexamined in nursing majors, compared to the frequent attempts to uncover the effectiveness of it in other disciplines. The purpose of this study was to reveal the effectiveness of flipped learning pedagogy in an adult health nursing course, controlling for other variables. The study applied a quasi-experimental approach, comparing pre- and post-test results in learning outcomes. Included in this analysis were the records of 81 junior nursing major students. The convenience sampling method was used to select the participants. Those in the experimental group were exposed to a flipped classroom experience that was given after the completion of their traditional class. The students' learning outcomes and the level of critical thinking skills were evaluated before and after the intervention of the flipped classroom. After the flipped classroom experience, the scores of the students' achievement in subject topics and critical thinking skills, specifically intellectual integrity and creativity, showed a greater level of increase than those of their controlled counterparts. This remained true even after controlling for previous academic performance and the level of creativity. This study confirmed the effectiveness of the flipped classroom as a measure of active learning by applying a quantitative approach. But, regarding the significance of the initial contribution of flipped learning in the discipline of nursing science, carrying out a more authentic experimental study could justify the impact of flipped learning pedagogy. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  11. Experimental strategies for studying transcription factor-DNA binding specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertz, Marcel; Maerkl, Sebastian J

    2010-12-01

    Specific binding of transcription factors (TFs) determines in a large part the connectivity of gene regulatory networks as well as the quantitative level of gene expression. A multiplicity of both experimental and computational methods is currently used to discover and characterize the underlying TF-DNA interactions. Experimental methods can be further subdivided into in vitro- and in vivo-based approaches, each accenting different aspects of TF-binding events. In this review we summarize the flexibility and performance of a selection of both types of experimental methods. In conclusion, we argue that a serial combination of methods with different throughput and data type constitutes an optimal experimental strategy.

  12. Experimental studies of light emission phenomena in superconducting RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, P.L. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Delayen, J.R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport, News, VA 23606 (United States); Center for Accelerator Science, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, 23529 (United States); Fryberger, D., E-mail: fryberger@slac.stanford.ed [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Goree, W.S. [2G Enterprises, Pacific Grove, CA 93950 (United States); Mammosser, J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport, News, VA 23606 (United States); Szalata, Z.M.; Weisend, J.G. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2009-12-21

    Experimental studies of light emission phenomena in superconducting RF cavities, which we categorize under the general heading of cavity lights, are described. The cavity lights data, which were obtained using a small CCD video camera, were collected in a series of nine experimental runs ranging from approx1/2 to approx2 h in duration. The video data were recorded on a standard VHS tape. As the runs progressed, additional instrumentation was added. For the last three runs a LabVIEW-controlled data acquisition system was included. These runs furnish evidence for several, possibly related, light emission phenomena. The most intriguing of these is what appear to be small luminous objects <=1.5 mm in size, freely moving about in the vacuum space, generally without wall contact, as verified by reflections of the tracks in the cavity walls. In addition, on a number of occasions, these objects were observed to bounce off of the cavity walls. The wall-bounce aspect of most of these events was clearly confirmed by pre-bounce and post-bounce reflections concurrent with the tracks. In one of the later runs, a mode of behavior was observed that was qualitatively different from anything observed in the earlier runs. Perhaps the most perplexing aspect of this new mode was the observation of as many as seven luminous objects arrayed in what might be described as a macromolecular formation, coherently moving about in the interior of the cavity for extended periods of time, evidently without any wall contact. It is suggested that these mobile luminous objects are without explanation within the realm of established physics. Some remarks about more exotic theoretical possibilities are made, and future plans are discussed.

  13. Experimental Studies of Light Emission Phenomena in Superconducting RF Cavitites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, P.L.; /SLAC; Delayen, J.R.; /Jefferson Lab; Fryberger, D.; /SLAC; Goree, W.S.; Mammosser, J.; /Jefferson Lab /SNS Project, Oak Ridge; Szalata, Z.M.; II, J.G.Weisend /SLAC

    2009-08-04

    Experimental studies of light emission phenomena in superconducting RF cavities, which we categorize under the general heading of cavity lights, are described. The cavity lights data, which were obtained using a small CCD video camera, were collected in a series of nine experimental runs ranging from {approx} 1/2 to {approx} 2 h in duration. The video data were recorded on a standard VHS tape. As the runs progressed, additional instrumentation was added. For the last three runs a LabVIEW controlled data acquisition system was included. These runs furnish evidence for several, possibly related, light emission phenomena. The most intriguing of these is what appear to be small luminous objects {le} 1.5 mm in size, freely moving about in the vacuum space, generally without wall contact, as verified by reflections of the tracks in the cavity walls. In addition, on a number of occasions, these objects were observed to bounce off of the cavity walls. The wall-bounce aspect of most of these events was clearly confirmed by pre-bounce and post-bounce reflections concurrent with the tracks. In one of the later runs, a mode of behavior was observed that was qualitatively different from anything observed in the earlier runs. Perhaps the most perplexing aspect of this new mode was the observation of as many as seven luminous objects arrayed in what might be described as a macromolecular formation, coherently moving about in the interior of the cavity for extended periods of time, evidently without any wall contact. It is suggested that these mobile luminous objects are without explanation within the realm of established physics. Some remarks about more exotic theoretical possibilities are made, and future plans are discussed.

  14. Proteomic Studies on Human and Experimental Cerebral Malaria

    KAUST Repository

    Moussa, Ehab

    2012-07-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe neurological complication of malaria infection that results from interrelated pathologies. Despite extensive research efforts, the mechanism of the disease is not completely understood. Clinical studies, postmortem analysis, and animal models have been the main research arenas in CM. In this thesis, shotgun proteomics approach was used to further understand the pathology of human and experimental CM. The mechanism by which CM turns fatal is yet to be identified. A clinical proteomics study was conducted on pooled plasma samples from children with reversible or fatal CM from the Gambia. The results show that depletion of coagulation factors and increased levels of circulating proteasomes are associated with fatal pediatric CM. This data suggests that the ongoing coagulation during CM might be a disseminated intravascular coagulation state that eventually causes depletion of the coagulation factors leading to petechial hemorrhages. In addition, the mechanism(s) by which blood transfusion benefits CM in children was investigated. To that end, the concentration and multimerization pattern of von-willebrand factor, and the concentration of haptoglobin in the plasma of children with CM who received blood transfusions were measured. In addition to clinical studies, experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in mice has been long used as a model for the disease. A shotgun proteomics workflow was optimized to identify the proteomic signature of the brain tissue of mice with ECM.Because of the utmost importance of membrane proteins in the pathology of the disease, sample fractionation and filter aided sample preparation were used to recover them. The proteomic signature of the brains of mice infected with P. berghei ANKA that developed neurological syndrome, mice infected with P. berghei NK56 that developed severe malaria but without neurological signs, and non-infected mice, were compared to identify CM specific proteins. Among the differentially

  15. Experimental study on mechanical properties of aircraft honeycomb sandwich structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebi Mazraehshahi H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical behaviour of sandwich panels under different conditions have been exprimentally studied in this research to increase the knowledge of aircraft sandwich panel structures and facilitate design criteria for aircraft structures. Tests were concentrated on the honeycomb sandwich structures under different loads including flexural, insert shear, flat wise tension and compression loads. Furthermore, effect of core density and face material on mechanical behavior of different samples were investigated and compared with analytical and FEM method. Effects of skin thickness on strength of honycomb sandwhich panels under shear pull out and moments have also been considerd in this study. According to this investigation, insert strength and flexural test under different load conditions is strongly affected by face thickness, but compression and tearoff (falt wise tensile properties of a sandwich panel depends on core material. The study concludes that the correlation between experimental results and the analytical predictions will enable the designer to predict the mechanical behaviour and strength of a sandwich beam; however, applied formula may lead engineers to unreliable results for shear modulus.

  16. Biocompatibility of Plastic Clip in Neurocranium - Experimental Study on Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibegovic, Samir; Dizdarevic, Kemal; Cickusic, Elmir; Katica, Muhamed; Obhodjas, Muamer; Ocus, Muhamed

    2016-01-01

    A potential advantage of the use of the plastic clips in neurosurgery is their property of causing fewer artifacts than titanium clips as assessed by computed tomography and magnetic resonance scans. The biocompatibility of plastic clips was demonstrated in the peritoneal cavity, but their behavior in the neurocranium is not known. Twelve aggressive stray dogs designated for euthanasia were taken for this experimental study. The animals were divided into two groups. In all cases, after anesthesia, a craniotomy was performed, and after opening the dura, a proximal part titanium clip was placed on the isolated superficial Sylvian vein (a permanent Yasargil FT 746 T clip at a 90° angle, while a plastic Hem-o-lok clip ML was placed on another part of the vein). The first group of animals was sacrificed on the 7 th postoperative day and the second group on the 60 th postoperative day. Samples of tissue around the clips were taken for a histopathological evaluation. The plastic clip caused a more intensive tissue reaction than the titanium clip on the 7 th postoperative day, but there was no statistical difference. Even on the 60 th postoperative day there was no significant difference in tissue reaction between the titanium and plastic clips. These preliminary results confirm the possibility for the use of plastic clips in neurosurgery. Before their use in human neurosurgery, further studies are needed to investigate the long-term effects of the presence of plastic clips in the neurocranium, as well as studies of the aneurysmal model.

  17. Experimental study of bubbly flow using image processing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yucheng, E-mail: ycfu@vt.edu; Liu, Yang, E-mail: liu130@vt.edu

    2016-12-15

    This paper presents an experimental study of bubbly flows at relatively high void fractions using an advanced image processing method. Bubble overlapping is a common problem in such flows and the past studies often treat the overlapping bubbles as a whole, which introduces considerable measurement uncertainties. In this study, a hybrid method combining intersection point detection and watershed segmentation is used to separate the overlapping bubbles. In order to reconstruct bubbles from separated segments, a systematic procedure is developed which can preserve more features captured in the raw image compared to the simple ellipse fitting method. The distributions of void fraction, interfacial area concentration, number density and velocity are obtained from the extracted bubble information. High-speed images of air-water bubbly flows are acquired and processed for eight test runs conducted in a 30 mm × 10 mm rectangular channel. The developed image processing scheme can effectively separate overlapping bubbles and the results compare well with the measurements by the gas flow meter and double-sensor conductivity probe. The development of flows in transverse and mainstream directions are analyzed and compared with the prediction made by the one-dimensional interfacial area transport equation (IATE) and the bubble number density transport equation.

  18. Designing Awe in Virtual Reality: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Chirico

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Awe is a little-studied emotion with a great transformative potential. Therefore, the interest toward the study of awe’s underlying mechanisms has been increased. Specifically, researchers have been interested in how to reproduce intense feelings of awe within laboratory conditions. It has been proposed that the use of virtual reality (VR could be an effective way to induce awe in controlled experimental settings, thanks to its ability of providing participants with a sense of “presence,” that is, the subjective feeling of being displaced in another physical or imaginary place. However, the potential of VR as awe-inducing medium has not been fully tested yet. In the present study, we provided an evidence-based design and a validation of four immersive virtual environments (VEs involving 36 participants in a within-subject design. Of these, three VEs were designed to induce awe, whereas the fourth VE was targeted as an emotionally neutral stimulus. Participants self-reported the extent to which they felt awe, general affect and sense of presence related to each environment. As expected, results showed that awe-VEs could induce significantly higher levels of awe and presence as compared to the neutral VE. Furthermore, these VEs induced significantly more positive than negative affect. These findings supported the potential of immersive VR for inducing awe and provide useful indications for the design of awe-inspiring virtual environments.

  19. Theoretical and experimental study of fenofibrate and simvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás Vázquez, Inés; Rodríguez-Núñez, Jesús Rubén; Peña-Caballero, Vicente; Ruvalcaba, Rene Miranda; Aceves-Hernandez, Juan Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Fenofibrate, an oral fibrate lipid lowering agent, and simvastatin, which reduces plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, are active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), currently in the market. We characterized these APIs by thermal analysis and conducted X-ray powder diffraction techniques. Studies should be carried out in the formulation stage before the final composition of a polypill may be established. Thus, it was found in thermochemical studies that both compounds present no chemical interactions in an equimolar mixture of solid samples at room temperature. Theoretical studies were employed to determine possible interactions between fenofibrate and simvastatin. A very weak intramolecular hydrogen bond is formed between the hydroxyl group (O5H5) of the simvastatin with chlorine and carbonyl group (C11O4, C1O2) of the fenofibrate molecule. These weak energy hydrogen bonds have no effect on the chemical stability of the compounds studied. The results were obtained using Density Functional Theory methods; particularly the BPE1BPE and B3LYP functional and 6-31++G** basis set. The values of energy show good approximation when are compared with similar calculations previously reported. Infrared spectra of monomers and dimers were obtained via theoretical calculations.

  20. Effects of epilepsy and selected antiepileptic drugs on risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death in patients with or without previous stroke: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J. B.; Abildstrom, S. Z.; Erdal, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Patients with epilepsy have increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death associated with epilepsy and examined if this risk was modified by treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Methods A cohort consisting of the Danish...... population was followed from January 1997 to December 2006. The risk of MI, stroke, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death associated with epilepsy was estimated by multivariable Cox proportional hazard models stratified for occurrence of previous stroke. AED use was determined at baseline, and risks...... associated with exposure to individual AEDs were examined in patients with epilepsy. Results In patients without previous stroke, AED-treated epilepsy was associated with an increased risk of MI (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; 95%CI, 1.00-1.19), stroke (HR, 2.22; 95%CI, 2.09-2.36), cardiovascular death (HR, 1...

  1. A pilot study of the combination of cyclosporin A and interferon alfacon-1 for the treatment of hepatitis C in previous nonresponder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Scott J; Morrissey, Mary J; Wiley, Thelma E; Layden, Thomas J; Jensen, Donald M

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of interferon and cyclosporine for the treatment of hepatitis C in previous nonresponder patients. Preliminary data indicated that adding the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A to interferon might improve response rates in patients with hepatitis C. Ten previous virologic nonresponders with genotype 1 infection were included. Treatment consisted of interferon alfacon-1, 15 microg/d, and cyclosporine, 100 mg twice daily, for 4 weeks. The dose of interferon alfacon-1 was then decreased to 15 microg three times weekly, and cyclosporine was reduced to 50 mg twice daily. Therapy was continued for 48 weeks unless viremia persisted at week 24. Three of 10 subjects had an on-treatment virologic response, although one had a breakthrough with recurrent viremia during treatment and two relapsed after therapy was completed. On treatment responders had significantly higher trough cyclosporine levels at week 4 compared with nonresponders (P = 0.025). Serum creatinine levels remained stable, and no patient developed diabetes. Triglyceride levels increased during treatment. Cyclosporine was dose reduced in two patients for hypertension. Selected patients with hepatitis C tolerated therapy, including cyclosporine without severe or irreversible toxicity. Despite an association between higher cyclosporine levels and on-treatment response, the combination of cyclosporine and interferon was ineffective in producing a sustained response in previous nonresponder patients.

  2. Experimental study of yttrium barium copper oxide superconducting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Finite element analysis (FEA) of the tape in the experimental configuration with twisting moment being applied on to it has been carried out in COMSOL. The torsional strain calculated analytically as per the experimental configuration matches closely with that of FEA results, which shows that the critical current degradation ...

  3. Experimental and analytical studies of sodium interactions with various concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo-Anttila, A.; Smaardyk, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanistic models of sodium/concrete interactions are described. The SCAM model of interactions with basaltic concrete is being verified by experiments. Modelling of sodium interactions with limestone concrete is still at a preliminary stage but shows promise of being able to predict quantitatively the experimental data. Comparisons with experimental data are presented

  4. Experimental study of fast electron transport in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaisseau, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The framework of this PhD thesis is the inertial confinement fusion for energy production, in the context of the electron fast ignition scheme. The work consists in a characterization of the transport mechanisms of fast electrons, driven by intense laser pulses (10 19 - 10 20 W/cm 2 ) in both cold-solid and warm-dense matter. The first goal was to study the propagation of a fast electron beam, characterized by a current density ≥ 10 11 A/cm 2 , in aluminum targets initially heated close to the Fermi temperature by a counter-propagative planar shock. The planar compression geometry allowed us to discriminate the energy losses due to the resistive mechanisms from collisional ones by comparing solid and compressed targets of the same initial areal densities. We observed for the first time a significant increase of resistive energy losses in heated aluminum samples. The confrontation of the experimental data with the simulations, including a complete characterization of the electron source, of the target compression and of the fast electron transport, allowed us to study the time-evolution of the material resistivity. The estimated resistive electron stopping power in a warm-compressed target is of the same order as the collisional one. We studied the transport of the fast electrons generated in the interaction of a high-contrast laser pulse with a hollow copper cone, buried into a carbon layer, compressed by a counter-propagative planar shock. A X-ray imaging system allowed us to visualize the coupling of the laser pulse with the cone at different moments of the compression. This diagnostic, giving access to the fast electron spatial distribution, showed a fast electron generation in the entire volume of the cone for late times of compression, after shock breakout from the inner cone tip. For earlier times, the interaction at a high-contrast ensured that the source was contained within the cone tip, and the fast electron beam was collimated into the target depth by

  5. A new experimental model to study preneoplastic lesions in achalasia of the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vespúcio Marcelo Vinícius Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Develop an experimental model to study esophageal preneoplastic lesions induced by diethylnitrosamine in rats with achalasia. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control - C (n=8; rats with megaesophagus - B (n=8; rats treated with DEN - D (n=15 and rats with megaesophagus plus DEN - BD (n=15. Megaesophagus can be experimentally obtained in rats by topical application of benzalkonium choride. The morphology and PCNA labeling index of the epithelium were evaluated. RESULTS: The morphometric analysis showed an increase in epithelial thickness in the animals of group BD (2166?1012mm² when compared to the other groups (C = 878?278mm²; B = 1746?144mm² and D = 1691?697mm², mainly due to basal layer hyperplasia, besides an increase in the keratin of the superficial layer. The PCNA labeling index in the basal layer was significantly higher in the group BD (0,695?0,111 when compared to the other groups (C = 0,490?0,132; B = 0,512?0,215 and D = 0,477?0,198. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm in an experimental model the previous observation in humans of increased epithelial cell proliferation during the esophageal carcinogenic process in achalasia and may be useful to further studies on the mechanisms of the esophageal carcinogenesis and the the design of follow-up endoscopic studies for patients with achalasia.

  6. Lateral-torsional buckling of laminated structural glass beams. Experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Pešek, Ondřej; Melcher, Jindřich

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with experimental research of stability behaviour of laminated structural glass beams. The purpose of the research is the evaluation of lateral-torsional buckling resistance and actual behaviour of the beams due to absence of standards for design of glass load-bearing structures. The experimental research follows the previous one focusing on measuring of initial geometrical imperfections of glass members and experimental evaluation of flexural buckling resistance of structura...

  7. The experimental study of sinal wall thickening on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, Yasuhiro; Iinuma, Tositaka; Oyama, Kazuyuki.

    1988-01-01

    In our previous report, we investigated several factors which cause apparent thickening of the walls of maxillary sinus. We confirmed, however, that the major factor for the sinal wall thickening is the artifact of CT. In present study, we report the results obtained by phantom models of isolated maxillary bone and egg shell. As the substance corresponding to the soft tissue density, solutions of CaCl 2 in various concentrations were used. In the maxillary bone studies, the thickness of the anterior sinus wall by CT was larger than the actual value even though only the air was contained. When solutions of CaCl 2 were contained and in touch with the anterior wall, the thickness by CT was larger than that of containing air. In the egg shell studies, the increase in thickness by CT correlated to the increase in percentage of solutions. The above results indicate that the apparent increased thickness of the sinal walls by CT is largely the artifact by CT and is dependent upon the soft tissue density or CT value (X-ray attenuation coefficient) of substances in touch with the sinal walls. In CT images obtained by clinical cases, the increased thickness of the sinal walls, in sinuses filled with soft tissue density, is more apparent than real. (author)

  8. Experimental study on the particles deposition in the sampling duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendel, J.; Charuau, J. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Yvette (France)

    1995-02-01

    A high standard of protection against the harmful effects of radioactive aerosol dissemination requires a measurement, as representative as possible, of their concentration. This measurement depends on the techniques used for aerosol sampling and transfer to the detector, as well as on the location of the latter with respect to the potential sources. The aeraulic design of the apparatus is also an important factor. Once collected the aerosol particles often have to travel through a variably shaped duct to the measurement apparatus. This transport is responsible for losses due to the particles deposition on the walls, leading to a distortion on the concentration measurements and a change in the particle size distribution. To estimate and minimize measurement errors it is important to determine the optimal transport conditions when designing a duct; its diameter and material, the radius of curvature of the bends and the flow conditions must be defined in particular. This paper presents an experimental study in order to determine, for each deposition mechanism, the retained fraction, or the deposition velocity for different flow regimes. This study has pointed out that it exists a favourable flow regime for the particle transport through the sampling ducts (2 500 < Re < 5 000). It has been established, for any particle diameters, equations to predict the aerosol penetration in smooth-walled cylindrical metal ducts.

  9. Experimental study on dynamic behavior of large scale foundation, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, Kazufumi; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Esashi, Yasuyuki; Ueshima, Teruyuki; Nakamura, Hideharu

    1983-01-01

    The large-sized, high performance vibrating table in the Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center is installed on a large-scale concrete foundation of length 90.9 m, width 44.8 m and maximum thickness 21 m, weighing 150,000 tons. Through the experimental study on the behavior of the foundation, which is set on gravel ground, useful information should be obtained on the siting of a nuclear power plant on the Quaternary stratum ground. The objective of research is to grasp the vibration characteristics of the foundation during the vibration of the table to evaluate the interaction between the foundation and the ground, and to evaluate an analytical method for numerically simulating the vibration behavior. In the present study, the vibration behavior of the foundation was clarified by measurement, and in order to predict the vibration behavior, the semi-infinite theory of elasticity was applied. The accuracy of this analytical method was demonstrated by comparison with the measured results. (Mori, K.)

  10. Analytical & Experimental Study of Radio Frequency Cavity Beam Profile Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, Mario D. [Fermilab; Yonehara, Katsuya [Fermilab

    2017-10-22

    The purpose of this analytical and experimental study is multifold: 1) To explore a new, radiation-robust, hadron beam profile monitor for intense neutrino beam applications; 2) To test, demonstrate, and develop a novel gas-filled Radio-Frequency (RF) cavity to use in this monitoring system. Within this context, the first section of the study analyzes the beam distribution across the hadron monitor as well as the ion-production rate inside the RF cavity. Furthermore a more effecient pixel configuration across the hadron monitor is proposed to provide higher sensitivity to changes in beam displacement. Finally, the results of a benchtop test of the tunable quality factor RF cavity will be presented. The proposed hadron monitor configuration consists of a circular array of RF cavities located at a radial distance of 7cm { corresponding to the standard deviation of the beam due to scatering { and a gas-filled RF cavity with a quality factor in the range 400 - 800.

  11. Experimental study on the particles deposition in the sampling duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendel, J.; Charuau, J.

    1995-01-01

    A high standard of protection against the harmful effects of radioactive aerosol dissemination requires a measurement, as representative as possible, of their concentration. This measurement depends on the techniques used for aerosol sampling and transfer to the detector, as well as on the location of the latter with respect to the potential sources. The aeraulic design of the apparatus is also an important factor. Once collected the aerosol particles often have to travel through a variably shaped duct to the measurement apparatus. This transport is responsible for losses due to the particles deposition on the walls, leading to a distortion on the concentration measurements and a change in the particle size distribution. To estimate and minimize measurement errors it is important to determine the optimal transport conditions when designing a duct; its diameter and material, the radius of curvature of the bends and the flow conditions must be defined in particular. This paper presents an experimental study in order to determine, for each deposition mechanism, the retained fraction, or the deposition velocity for different flow regimes. This study has pointed out that it exists a favourable flow regime for the particle transport through the sampling ducts (2 500 < Re < 5 000). It has been established, for any particle diameters, equations to predict the aerosol penetration in smooth-walled cylindrical metal ducts

  12. Mars - Experimental study of albedo changes caused by dust fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, E. N.; Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    A laboratory apparatus was used to simulate the uniform fallout and deposition of particles 1 to 5 microns in diameter in an experimental study on how the spectral and photometric properties of representative Martian areas are affected by fallout of atmospheric dust (smaller than or equalling 60 microns) suspended during dust storms. In this study, measurements are made in the changes in reflectance at optical and near-infrared wavelengths (0.4 to 1.2 micron) caused by deposition of varying amounts of a Mars-analog dust on bright and dark substrates before and after deposition of 6 x 10 to the -5th to 1.5 x 10 to the -3rd g/sq cm of simulated fallout. It is believed that only small amounts of dust particles (approximately 3 x 10 to the -4th g/sq cm) are needed to make significant albedo changes in dark areas of Mars, and that this would rule out uniform dust deposition on the surface of the planet. Data also indicate that other high albedo features like bright crater-related wind streaks may not be areas of significant sediment deposits. Laboratory simulations have permitted estimates of how much the reflectance of an area on Mars would change given a certain amount of dust fallout (g/sq cm) or reflectance data. These simulations may also be useful in tracking the transport and deposition of the dust.

  13. Experimental study on performance of pulsed liquid jet pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weihui; Gao Chuanchang; Qin Haixia

    2010-01-01

    The device performance characteristics of transformer type pulsed liquid pump device were experimentally studied. The effects of the area ratio, work pressure and pulse parameters on the performance of the pulsed liquid jet pump device were performed in the tests. The potency of pulsed jet on improving the performance of the liquid jet pump device was also studied through the comparison with invariable jet pump at the same conditions. The results show that the pulsed jet can significantly improve the performance of transformer type jet pump devices. Area ratio and pulse parameters are the critical factors to the performance of the pulsed liquid jet pump device. The jet pump device performances are significantly improved by reducing the area ratio or by increasing the pulsed frequency. The flux characteristics of the pulsed liquid jet pump device presents the typical negative linear,the potency of pulsed jet in improving the performance of jet pump device with small area ratio can be more significant. The efficiency curve of pulsed liquid jet pump is similar to the parabola. At higher pulsed frequency, the top efficiency point of the pulsed jet pump moves to the higher flow ratio. The high efficiency area of the pulsed jet pump also is widened with the increase of the pulsed frequency. (authors)

  14. Experimental and theoretical study of cascade solar stills in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabrizi, F.F.; Sharak, A.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Due to low annual rainfall, most of Iran is dominated by arid and semi-arid areas. The solar radiation intensity is extremely high in most of the country. The need to produce fresh water from brackish water is considerably high, especially in dry regions. Desalination of brackish water may become a competitive potential water resource to meet potable water demand, and as the price of oil goes higher, using solar energy for water desalinisation becomes more economical. This paper presented a study that involved mathematical modeling of the first solar still in Iran. The cumulative fresh water production and water temperature were calculated as a function of time. The obtained results were verified by one month daily-based experimental data. The paper also provided background information on the Koshk village, situated in the south part of Iran near Badar Abbas city. Various investigations regarding meteorological conditions, economical considerations, and technical and operational appropriateness demonstrated that the cascade solar still is suitable for desalination of brackish water. 100 solar stills were installed at the site to provide potable water for a nearby village. It was concluded that the model could be used to simulate and optimize the effective design parameters in future studies. 6 refs., 7 figs

  15. Experimental studies of hydrogen behavior in ice condenser containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstrom, P.; Tuomisto, H.; Lamberg, T.; Hongisto, O.

    1997-01-01

    A new hydrogen management scheme is being developed for the Loviisa ice condenser containment as a part of a comprehensive severe accident management (SAM) strategy. The scheme relies on containment-wide natural circulations that develop, once the ice condenser doors are forced open as a SAM measure, to produce effective mixing and a slow rise in hydrogen concentrations. Controlled removal of hydrogen from the containment atmosphere, and effective dissipation of the energy in the ice beds are also important elements of the hydrogen management scheme. The VICTORIA experiments in association with scaling and modelling studies are an important basis for the development of the hydrogen management scheme. VICTORIA represents an 1/15th scale model of the Loviisa containment. Numerous experiments have been carried out for studies of the convective flow behavior and hydrogen distribution. This paper focuses on experimental results on the important issues of containment upper compartment mixing behavior and containment behavior in a scenario with depleted ice condensers. (author)

  16. A Perspective on the Experimental Techniques for Studying Lamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Pecorari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lamins are type V intermediate filaments that collectively form a meshwork underneath the inner nuclear membrane, called nuclear lamina. Furthermore, they are also present in the nucleoplasm. Lamins are experiencing a growing interest, since a wide range of diseases are induced by mutations in the gene coding for A-type lamins, globally known as laminopathies. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that lamins are involved in other pathological conditions, like cancer. The role of lamins has been studied from several perspectives, exploiting different techniques and procedures. This multidisciplinary approach has contributed to resolving the unique features of lamins and has provided a thorough insight in their role in living organisms. Yet, there are still many unanswered questions, which constantly generate research in the field. The present work is aimed to review some interesting experimental techniques performed so far to study lamins. Scientists can take advantage of this collection for their novel investigations, being aware of the already pursued and consolidated methodologies. Hopefully, advances in these research directions will provide insights to achieve better diagnostic procedures and effective therapeutic options.

  17. A Perspective on the Experimental Techniques for Studying Lamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorari, Ilaria; Borin, Daniele; Sbaizero, Orfeo

    2017-10-10

    Lamins are type V intermediate filaments that collectively form a meshwork underneath the inner nuclear membrane, called nuclear lamina. Furthermore, they are also present in the nucleoplasm. Lamins are experiencing a growing interest, since a wide range of diseases are induced by mutations in the gene coding for A-type lamins, globally known as laminopathies. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that lamins are involved in other pathological conditions, like cancer. The role of lamins has been studied from several perspectives, exploiting different techniques and procedures. This multidisciplinary approach has contributed to resolving the unique features of lamins and has provided a thorough insight in their role in living organisms. Yet, there are still many unanswered questions, which constantly generate research in the field. The present work is aimed to review some interesting experimental techniques performed so far to study lamins. Scientists can take advantage of this collection for their novel investigations, being aware of the already pursued and consolidated methodologies. Hopefully, advances in these research directions will provide insights to achieve better diagnostic procedures and effective therapeutic options.

  18. Shame, sexual compulsivity, and eroticizing flirtatious others: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrican, Raluca; Burris, Christopher T; Moscovitch, Morris

    2015-01-01

    Clinical observation and correlational studies with nonclinical samples suggest that a linkage between negative affective states (especially shame) and engagement in erotic pursuits typifies sexual compulsivity. The present study tested whether experimental induction of shame leads to increased interest in erotically suggestive targets among more sexually compulsive individuals. A total of 74 age-traditional heterosexual university students first recalled either an emotionally neutral or a shame-inducing personal experience, then completed a nonpredictive gaze-cueing task featuring flirtatious or emotionally neutral faces of the same or opposite sex. They also rated the faces' attractiveness and completed a validated sexual compulsivity scale and two control measures (executive control, sociosexuality). Higher (versus lower) sexual compulsivity predicted weaker gaze-triggered attentional orienting in response to the flirtatious opposite-sex face in the shame (versus neutral) condition, and this was accounted for by (higher) attractiveness ratings of the flirtatious opposite-sex face. Shame thus appears to increase sexualization (i.e., reduces salience of agentic features and increases appeal of physical attributes) of erotically suggestive targets among more sexually compulsive individuals.

  19. Nab: precise experimental study of unpolarized neutron beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocanic, Dinko; Nab Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Nab, a program of experimental study of unpolarized neutron decays at the Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge, TN, aims to determine a, the electron-neutrino correlation with precision of δa / a =10-3 , and b, the Fierz interference term, with uncertainty δb ~= 3 ×10-3 . Neutron beta decay's simple theoretical description in the Standard Model (SM) is overconstrained by the set of available observables, providing opportunities to search for evidence of SM extensions. Planned Nab results will lead to a new precise determination of the ratio λ =GA /GV , and to significant reductions in the allowed limits for both right- and left-handed scalar and tensor currents. Alternatively, the experiment may detect a discrepancy from SM predictions consistent with certain realizations of supersymmetry. An optimized, asymmetric spectrometer has been designed to achieve the narrow proton momentum response function required to meet the physics goals of the experiment. The apparatus is to be used in a follow-up measurement (ABba) of asymmetry observables A and B in polarized neutron decay. Nab is funded, now in the construction stage, with planned beam readiness in 2016. We discuss the experiment's motivation, expected reach, design and method. Nab, a program of experimental study of unpolarized neutron decays at the Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge, TN, aims to determine a, the electron-neutrino correlation with precision of δa / a =10-3 , and b, the Fierz interference term, with uncertainty δb ~= 3 ×10-3 . Neutron beta decay's simple theoretical description in the Standard Model (SM) is overconstrained by the set of available observables, providing opportunities to search for evidence of SM extensions. Planned Nab results will lead to a new precise determination of the ratio λ =GA /GV , and to significant reductions in the allowed limits for both right- and left-handed scalar and tensor currents. Alternatively, the experiment may detect a discrepancy from SM

  20. Drug induced acute kidney injury: an experimental animal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.W.A.; Khan, B.T.; Qazi, R.A.; Ashraf, M.; Waqar, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent of drug induced nephrotoxicity in laboratory animals for determining the role and extent of iatrogenic kidney damage in patients exposed to nephrotoxic drugs in various clinical setups. Study Design: Randomized control trail. Place and Duration of study: Pharmacology department and animal house of Army Medical College from Jan 2011 to Aug 2011. Material and Methods: Thirty six mixed breed rabbits were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into six groups consisting of six rabbits in each. Groups were named A, B, C, D, E and F. Group A was control group. Group B was given 0.9% normal saline. Group C rabbits were given acute nephrotoxic single dose of amphotericin B deoxycholate. Group D received 0.9% normal saline 10ml/kg followed by amphotericin B infusion. Group E was injected acute nephrotoxic regimen of cyclosporine and amphotericin B infusion. Group F received saline loading along with acute nephrotoxic regimen of cyclosporine and amphotericin B infusion. Results: Biochemical and histopathological analysis showed significant kidney injury in rabbits exposed to acute nephrotoxic doses of amphotericin B and cyclosporine. Toxicity was additive when the two drugs were administered simultaneously. Group of rabbits with saline loading had significantly lesser kidney damage. Conclusion: Iatrogenic acute kidney damage is a major cause of morbidity in experimental animals exposed to such nephrotoxic drugs like amphotericin B and cyclosporine, used either alone or in combination. Clinical studies are recommended to assess the extent of iatrogenic renal damage in patients and its economic burden. Efficient and cost effective protective measure may be adopted in clinical setups against such adverse effects. (author)

  1. A basic experimental study on combustion of suspended sodium droplet. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenji

    1999-10-01

    For appropriate understanding and/or prediction of the combustion behavior of sodium, working as liquid coolant in fast breeder reactors, in case of leakage accident, phenomenological analyses of the behavior must be also important along with conventional engineering approach. Following our previous study in the last year, the major objective of this experimental research is to elucidate the effects of the initial temperature and diameter of droplet, and of the air flow velocity on ignition process of a sodium droplet, by exposing a suspended droplet to the air flow at room-temperature. In the experiments, a high-temperature droplet suspended from the end of a fine stainless steel nozzle of the liquid sodium supply system was exposed to an upward air flow, and the ignition and succeeding combustion phenomena were observed by using high-speed color video recording system. In the preliminary study, the effects of lighting and image data processing on obtaining pictures suitable to analyses were investigated with the apparatus used in the previous study. After the experimental apparatus was modified partially in order to expose the unreacted droplet to the air flow more quickly, main experiments were performed in synthetic dry air or oxygen-nitrogen mixture of 21% oxygen. Good quality pictures of the phenomena achieved under good conditions were recorded even for a few cases. The details of the ignition process of a sodium droplet, including the aspects of the surface and light emission, were examined, and the effects of the air flow velocity were discussed. Since number of performed experimental runs was small, the effects of the initial droplet temperature were not examined. (author)

  2. Preliminary experimental study of retrievable nitinol inferior vena cava filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Baojie; Zhai Renyou; Ding Jingran; Dai Dingke

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate, in vitro and in an animal model together with the placement, stability, clot capturing efficacy, retrieval and safety of a new non-invasive retrievable nitinol inferior vena cava filter (RNIVCF) for temporary or permanent use. Methods: RNIVCF were made by wrapping nitinol monofilament wire on a steel mandrill to form a steric configuration. A 5-F Teflon sheath/dilator was taken for placement and retrieval. In vitro clots' trapping was assessed with size of 2.5/3/4-mm-diameter clots. Twenty adult mongrel dogs were used in this study. 2.5-mm-diameter homologous radiopaque clots (2.5-mm-HRC) were injected into IVC until the experimental animals die of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and then to determine the minimum fatal quantity of clots in 8 dogs. RNIVCFs were introduced into the inferior vena cava in 12 dogs. For 10 animals, 10-ml 2.5-mm-HRC were injected below the filter to test its thrombus-trapping efficacy. The retrieval of filter was attempted on the 7th day after placement in two other dogs. Plain films of the abdomen and chest were made to document the effectiveness of the filter. Results: Initial experimental study showed that the RNIVCF functioned as intended. In vitro all 3 and 4-mm-diameter clots injected in the device simulating IVC flow was trapped by the filter. However, 95%-100% 2.5-mm-diameter clots were also captured by it. More than 10-ml 2.5-mm-HRC with once injection into IVC could cause the death of experimental animals due to acute PE in per-experiment. RNIVCF could be easily and successfully placed percutaneously in the inferior vena cava of the dogs through a 5-F sheath. The filter was accurately positioned in the inferior vena cava by moving the retrieval wire. All 13 RNIVCFs were placed in 12 dogs, one of those has double inferior vena cava and two filters were implanted. The filters trapped these 2.5-mm-diameter clots in the iliac veins of 8 dogs and none of them died of acute PE. But the initial two dogs with two

  3. Numerical and experimental studies of droplet-gas flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joesang, Aage Ingebret

    2002-07-01

    This thesis considers droplet-gas flow by the use of numerical methods and experimental verification. A commercial vane separator was studied both numerical and by experiment. In addition some efforts are put into the numerical analysis of cyclones. The experimental part contains detailed measurements of the flow field between a pair of vanes in a vane separator and droplet size measurements. LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry) was used to measure the velocity in two dimensions and corresponding turbulence quantities. The results from the LDA measurements are considered to be of high quality and are compared to numerical results obtained from a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis. The simulation showed good agreement between the numerical and experimental results. Combinations of different turbulence models; the standard k-epsilon model and the Reynold Stress Mode, different schemes; first order and higher order scheme and different near wall treatment of the turbulence; the Law of the wall and the Two-Layer Zonal model were used in the simulations. The Reynold Stress Model together with a higher order scheme performed rather poorly. The recirculation in parts of the separator was overpredicted in this case. For the other cases the overall predictions are satisfactory. PDA (Phase Doppler Anemometry) measurements were used to study the changes in the droplet size distribution through the vane separator. The PDA measurements show that smaller droplets are found at the outlet than present at the inlet. In the literature there exists different mechanisms for explaining the re-entrainment and generation of new droplets. The re-entrainments mechanisms are divided into four groups where droplet-droplet interaction, droplet break-up, splashing of impinging droplet and re-entrainment from the film are defined as the groups of re-entrainment mechanisms. Models for these groups are found in the literature and these models are tested for re-entrainment using the operational

  4. Experimental Study of a Multi Level Overtopping Wave Power Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Hald, Tue; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Results of experimental investigations of a floating wave energy device called Power Pyramid is presented. The Power Pyramid utilizes reservoirs in multiple levels when capturing wave overtopping and converting it into electrical energy. The effect of capturing the overtopping in multiple levels......, compared to only one level, has been evaluated experimentally. From the experimental results, and the performed optimizations based on these, it has been found that the efficiency of a wave power device of the overtopping type can be increased by as much as 76 % by using 5 levels instead of 1. However...

  5. Singlet oxygen reactions with flavonoids. A theoretical-experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Morales

    Full Text Available Detection of singlet oxygen emission, λ(max = 1270 nm, following laser excitation and steady-state methods were employed to measure the total reaction rate constant, k(T, and the reactive reaction rate constant, k(r, for the reaction between singlet oxygen and several flavonoids. Values of k(T determined in deuterated water, ranging from 2.4×10(7 M(-1 s(-1 to 13.4×10(7 M(-1 s(-1, for rutin and morin, respectively, and the values measured for k(r, ranging from 2.8×10(5 M(-1 s(-1 to 65.7×10(5 M(-1 s(-1 for kaempferol and morin, respectively, being epicatechin and catechin chemically unreactive. These results indicate that all the studied flavonoids are good quenchers of singlet oxygen and could be valuable antioxidants in systems under oxidative stress, in particular if a flavonoid-rich diet was previously consumed. Analysis of the dependence of rate constant values with molecular structure in terms of global descriptors and condensed Fukui functions, resulting from electronic structure calculations, supports the formation of a charge transfer exciplex in all studied reactions. The fraction of exciplex giving reaction products evolves through a hydroperoxide and/or an endoperoxide intermediate produced by singlet oxygen attack on the double bond of the ring C of the flavonoid.

  6. Singlet oxygen reactions with flavonoids. A theoretical-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Javier; Günther, Germán; Zanocco, Antonio L; Lemp, Else

    2012-01-01

    Detection of singlet oxygen emission, λ(max) = 1270 nm, following laser excitation and steady-state methods were employed to measure the total reaction rate constant, k(T), and the reactive reaction rate constant, k(r), for the reaction between singlet oxygen and several flavonoids. Values of k(T) determined in deuterated water, ranging from 2.4×10(7) M(-1) s(-1) to 13.4×10(7) M(-1) s(-1), for rutin and morin, respectively, and the values measured for k(r), ranging from 2.8×10(5) M(-1) s(-1) to 65.7×10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for kaempferol and morin, respectively, being epicatechin and catechin chemically unreactive. These results indicate that all the studied flavonoids are good quenchers of singlet oxygen and could be valuable antioxidants in systems under oxidative stress, in particular if a flavonoid-rich diet was previously consumed. Analysis of the dependence of rate constant values with molecular structure in terms of global descriptors and condensed Fukui functions, resulting from electronic structure calculations, supports the formation of a charge transfer exciplex in all studied reactions. The fraction of exciplex giving reaction products evolves through a hydroperoxide and/or an endoperoxide intermediate produced by singlet oxygen attack on the double bond of the ring C of the flavonoid.

  7. Theoretical and experimental study of foaming process with chain extended recycled PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental study of a thermoplastic polymer foaming process is presented. Industrial scraps of PET were used for the production of foamed sheets. The process was performed by making use of a chemical blowing agent (CBA in the extrusion process. Due to the low intrinsic viscosity of the recycled PET, a chain extender was also used in order to increase the molecular weight of the polymer matrix. Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA and Hydrocerol CT 534 were chosen as chain extender and CBA, respectively. The reactive extrusion and foaming were performed in a two step process. Rheological characterization was carried out on PET samples previously treated with PMDA, as well as the morphological study was performed to define the cellular structure of the foams produced. Moreover, in order to predict the morphology of the foam, a non isothermal model was developed by taking into account both mass transfer phenomenon and viscous forces effect. Model results were compared with experimental data obtained analyzing the foamed samples. The model was validated in relation to working conditions, chemical blowing agent percentage and initial rheological properties of recycled polymer. A pretty good agreement between experimental and calculated data was achieved.

  8. Experimental and numerical study of tornado-like vortex formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, M. S.; Verbitskaya, Z. V.; Nikulin, V. V.

    2012-04-01

    Swirling flows of fluids in vortex chambers have been extensively studied because they are widely used in various technical devices [A. K. Gupta, D. G. Lilley, and N. Syred, Swirl Flows (Abacus Press, 1984)]. However, most of these investigations have been devoted to the swirling flows in steady-state regimes, while basic questions concerning the formation of tornado-like vortices remain unanswered. The determination of the laws of vortex formation is also of considerable practical significance, since swirling flows can be used, for example, for the rapid removal of atmospheric contaminations. The laws of tornado-like vortex formation in a closed chamber have been experimentally and numerically studied as dependent on the air volume flow rate and swirl intensity. A physical interpretation of the obtained empirical relationships is proposed. It is established that a flow regime can exist in which the impurity mass transfer along the vortex core is accompanied by mass exchange between the core and surrounding atmosphere. This exchange has the form of spiral formations ejected regularly out of the vortex core. This process takes place under stationary conditions at the chamber input and output, which implies an autooscillatory character of the flow in the system studied. Also it is shown that the time of tornado-like vortex formation weakly depends on the airflow swirl parameter and approximately inversely proportional to the airflow rate. In the case when the vertical and horizontal chamber dimensions are close, this time is approximately equal to the characteristic time of air renewal in the chamber. The established laws and numerical models can be used for evaluating the time of formation of the vortex flows of this type and for the development of theoretical models of the formation of tornado-like vortices.

  9. Sustaining a Global Social Network: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D C; Ferguson, S L

    2017-03-01

    To examine the longer term impact on the social network of participating nurses in the Global Nursing Leadership Institute (GNLI2013) through using differing frequencies of follow-up to assess impact on maintenance of network cohesion. Social network analysis is increasingly been used by nurse researchers, however, studies tend to use single point-in-time descriptive methods. This study utilizes a repeated measures, block group, control-intervention, quasi-experimental design. Twenty-eight nurse leaders, competitively selected through a double-blind peer review process, were allocated to five action learning-based learning groups. Network architecture, measures of cohesion and node degree frequency were all used to assess programme impact. The programme initiated and sustained connections between nurse leaders drawn from a geographically dispersed heterogeneous group. Modest inputs of two to three e-mails over a 6-month period seem sufficient to maintain connectivity as indicated by measures of network density, diameter and path length. Due to the teaching methodology used, the study sample was relatively small and the follow-up data collection took place after a relatively short time. Replication and further cohort data collection would be advantageous. In an era where many policy solutions are being debated and initiated at the global level, action learning leadership development that utilizes new technology follow-up appears to show significant impact and is worthy of wider application. The approach warrants further inquiry and testing as to its longer term effects on nursing's influence on policy formulation and implementation. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  10. Experimental Study Of Fog Water Harvesting By Stainless Steel Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R. Pawar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The collection of fog water is a simple and sustainable technology to get hold of fresh water for various purposes. In areas where a substantial amount of fog can be obtained it is feasible to set up a stainless steel as well as black double layer plastic mesh structure for fog water harvesting. The mesh structure is directly exposed to the weather and the fog containing air is pushed through the active mesh surface by the wind. Afterward fog droplets are deposited on the active mesh area which combines to form superior droplets and run down into a gutter to storage by gravity. Fog water harvesting rates show a discrepancy from site to site. The scope of this experimental work is to review fog collection at SCOE Pune campus and to examine factors of success. This study is to synthesize the understanding of fog water harvesting in the institutional era and to analyze its benefits and boundaries for future development. The rate of fog water harvesting depends on the science of fog physics chemistry and its starring role in the hydrological cycle. This technology runs on zero energy and zeroes pollution level with cost of the benefit. The collected or treated clear water mainly could be used for different purposes as per requirement. For further development this technology public as well as government participation is needed.

  11. An experimental study on vascular changes in renal biopsy injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    An experimental study on the vascular alternations of the kidney following biopsy procedure was carried out in 47 kidneys from 28 rabbits to clarify their nature and frequency by renal arteriography and microangiography together with histopathologic investigation. Renal arteriography and microangiography were performed immediately 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks after percutaneous biopsy and the findings were correlated with histological nature. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Important biopsy injuries verified by renal arteriography and microangiography were arterial spasm, perfusion defect, arteriovenous fistula, injury to vasa rectae and renal tubules, intrarenal and extrarenal extravasation of contrast media, and arterial obstruction, in order of frequency. 2. Arterial spasm observed in majority of the cases were relieved during the period of 2 weeks. 3. Detectability of perfusion detect was 57% and 72% angiography and microangiography, respectively, and this perfusion defect seemed to be mostly caused by renal infraction due to vascular injury, such as arteriovenous fistula, arterial obstruction and other vascular injuries. 4. Arteriovenous fistula was detected in 28% by angiography and 50% by microangiography. Many of the arteriovenous fistulae appeared to be closed spontaneous within a week. Above findings suggest that renal biopsy procedure results in various degree of vascular injuries with their sequential modification, and that microangiography is assumed the most effective approach in analysis of biopsy injuries such as small arteriovenous fistula, perfusion defect, injury to vasa recta and renal tubules, overcoming the limitation of traditional angiography

  12. Design study of toroidal magnets for tokamak experimental power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stekly, Z.J.J.; Lucas, E.J.

    1976-12-01

    This report contains the results of a six-month study of superconducting toroidal field coils for a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor to be built in the late 1980s. The designs are for 8 T and 12 T maximum magnetic field at the superconducting winding. At each field level two main concepts were generated; one in which each of the 16 coils comprising the system has an individual vacuum vessel and the other in which all the coils are contained in a single vacuum vessel. The coils have a D shape and have openings of 11.25 m x 7.5 m for the 8 T coils and 10.2 m x 6.8 m for the 12 T coils. All the designs utilize rectangular cabled conductor made from copper stabilized Niobium Titanium composite which operates at 4.2 K for the 8 T design and at 2.5 K for the 12 T design. Manufacturing procedures, processes and schedule estimates are also discussed

  13. Augmented reality in bone tumour resection: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H S; Park, Y K; Gupta, S; Yoon, C; Han, I; Kim, H-S; Choi, H; Hong, J

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of augmented reality (AR)-based navigation assistance through simulation of bone tumours in a pig femur model. We developed an AR-based navigation system for bone tumour resection, which could be used on a tablet PC. To simulate a bone tumour in the pig femur, a cortical window was made in the diaphysis and bone cement was inserted. A total of 133 pig femurs were used and tumour resection was simulated with AR-assisted resection (164 resection in 82 femurs, half by an orthropaedic oncology expert and half by an orthopaedic resident) and resection with the conventional method (82 resection in 41 femurs). In the conventional group, resection was performed after measuring the distance from the edge of the condyle to the expected resection margin with a ruler as per routine clinical practice. The mean error of 164 resections in 82 femurs in the AR group was 1.71 mm (0 to 6). The mean error of 82 resections in 41 femurs in the conventional resection group was 2.64 mm (0 to 11) (p Augmented reality in bone tumour resection: An experimental study. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:137-143. © 2017 Cho et al.

  14. An experimental study on the radiation hazard of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Tohru

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the tooth extraction after irradiation to the mandible experimentally. The following results were obtained. 1. In a group whose teeth were extracted immediately after irradiation, healing of the extraction wound was delayed. However, severe radiation hazard was not recognized macroscopically. 2. In a group whose teeth were extracted after 2 weeks following irradiation, radiation osteomyelitis was recognized macroscopically. All of these cases showed disturbances of healing of the extraction wound. 3. The early radiographical finding on the mandible, in which the teeth had been extracted after irradiation, was osteoporosis and it was accelerated by infection. 4. Bone resorption caused by osteoclast was observed microscopically in a group whose teeth were extracted after irradiation. Osteoporotic bone resorption was accelerated by infection, and was decreased by subsidings of infection and blood vessel hazard. 5. Sequestration was one of the results of radiation osteomyelitis, which was caused by the disturbance of blood circulation due to periosteum detachment. Sequestrum was caused by invasion of the healthy gingiva. 6. Though healing of the extraction wound was delayed by irradiation, new bone was formed in the alveolar socket if the blood clot occupied the alveolar socket. 7. Radiation hazard of the mandible became more severe when the mandible was accompanied by infection. (J.P.N.)

  15. Experimental studies of plasma wake-field acceleration and focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Cole, B.; Ho, C.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1989-01-01

    More than four years after the initial proposal of the Plasma Wake-field Accelerator (PWFA), it continues to be the object of much investigation, due to the promise of the ultra-high accelerating gradients that can exist in relativistic plasma waves driven in the wake of charged particle beams. These large amplitude plasma wake-fields are of interest in the laboratory, both for the wealth of basic nonlinear plasma wave phenomena which can be studied, as well as for the applications of acceleration of focusing of electrons and positrons in future linear colliders. Plasma wake-field waves are also of importance in nature, due to their possible role in direct cosmic ray acceleration. The purpose of the present work is to review the recent experimental advances made in PWFA research at Argonne National Laboratory, in which many interesting beam and plasma phenomena have been observed. Emphasis is given to discussion of the nonlinear aspects of the PWFA beam-plasma interaction. 29 refs., 13 figs

  16. Experimental study of two-phase natural circulation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley Freitas; Su, Jian, E-mail: wlemos@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio, E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), RIo de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on the behavior of fluid flow in natural circulation under single-and two-phase flow conditions. The natural circulation circuit was designed based on concepts of similarity and scale in proportion to the actual operating conditions of a nuclear reactor. This test equipment has similar performance to the passive system for removal of residual heat presents in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (A PWR). The experiment was carried out by supplying water to primary and secondary circuits, as well as electrical power resistors installed inside the heater. Power controller has available to adjust the values for supply of electrical power resistors, in order to simulate conditions of decay of power from the nuclear reactor in steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and control of the temperature at different points by means of thermocouples installed at several points along the circuit. The behavior of the phenomenon of natural circulation was monitored by a software with graphical interface, showing the evolution of temperature measurement points and the results stored in digital format spreadsheets. Besides, the natural circulation flow rate was measured by a flowmeter installed on the hot leg. A flow visualization technique was used the for identifying vertical flow regimes of two-phase natural circulation. Finally, the Reynolds Number was calculated for the establishment of a friction factor correlation dependent on the scale geometrical length, height and diameter of the pipe. (author)

  17. An experimental study of inferior vena caval stent in canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Wang, Z; Guo, J

    1999-09-01

    To investigate the feasibility of our self made inferior vena cave (IVC) stent. Self-expanding, stainless steel, Z-shaped stents were deployed in the IVC of 14 dogs. They were randomly divided into four groups, four dogs in the first three groups, and 2 in the fourth group. IVC specimens were taken at 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks following stent deployment. No anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy was given. All stents were widely stretched out and so was the vessel lumen. No thrombus was present and the patency was 100% in all groups. The stents were completely covered by neointima 2 weeks after stent deployment. The neointimal thickness varied significantly: the thinnest at 2 weeks, the thickest at 4 weeks and becoming thinner at 8 weeks and stable until 16 weeks. The inflammatory reaction was gradually reduced. Under scanning electronic microscopy, the neointima was covered by a layer of endothelial cells 2 weeks following stenting, which were irregularly shaped and aligned. The cells became slender, spindle-shaped and aligned parallel to the direction of bolld flow 4 weeks afterwards. Experimental study indicated that our self-expanding IVC stent was feasible for clinical application.

  18. Study of experimental validation for combustion analysis of GOTHIC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Yang, S. Y.; Park, K. C.; Jeong, S. H.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, present lumped and subdivided GOTHIC6 code analyses of the premixed hydrogen combustion experiment at the Seoul National University and comparison with the experiment results. The experimental facility has 16367 cc free volume and rectangular shape. And the test was performed with unit equivalence ratio of the hydrogen and air, and with various location of igniter position. Using the lumped and mechanistic combustion model in GOTHIC6 code, the experiments were simulated with the same conditions. In the comparison between experiment and calculated results, the GOTHIC6 prediction of the combustion response does not compare well with the experiment results. In the point of combustion time, the lumped combustion model of GOTHIC6 code does not simulate the physical phenomena of combustion appropriately. In the case of mechanistic combustion model, the combustion time is predicted well, but the induction time of calculation data is longer than the experiment data remarkably. Also, the laminar combustion model of GOTHIC6 has deficiency to simulate combustion phenomena unless control the user defined value appropriately. And the pressure is not a proper variable that characterize the three dimensional effect of combustion

  19. Experimental study on the drying of natural latex medical gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankrachang, Mano; Yongyingsakthavorn, Pisit; Tohsan, Atitaya; Nontakaew, Udomkiat

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study latex film drying at 70 °C using a laboratory drying oven. Two different total solid content (TSC) latex compounds, which 45% TSC and 35% TSC were used. The undried latex films were prepared according to the common procedures used in latex gloves manufacturers, that is, by dry coagulant dipping process. The experimental results such as initial moisture content, the amount of moisture and drying time of latex films in each latex compound formula were determined. After that, the results were projected to calculate on the production capacity expand by 1 million piece/day of natural latex medical gloves. Finally, the rate of moisture entering the latex drying oven and the energy consumption of the drying oven were estimated. The results indicated that when the 35% TSC of latex compound was used. The initial moisture content of latex film was higher than 45% TSC of latex compound about 7%. The drying time of 35% TSC was longer than 45% TSC for 2.5 min and consume more energy about 10%. As a result, the 45% TSC latex compound was the better way to saving energy and managing humidity in the production line. Therefore, it was found to very useful to an approximate design length and size of actual of latex drying oven and the rate of moisture entering the oven as well.

  20. Experimental study of two-phase natural circulation circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Wanderley Freitas; Su, Jian; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on the behavior of fluid flow in natural circulation under single-and two-phase flow conditions. The natural circulation circuit was designed based on concepts of similarity and scale in proportion to the actual operating conditions of a nuclear reactor. This test equipment has similar performance to the passive system for removal of residual heat presents in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (A PWR). The experiment was carried out by supplying water to primary and secondary circuits, as well as electrical power resistors installed inside the heater. Power controller has available to adjust the values for supply of electrical power resistors, in order to simulate conditions of decay of power from the nuclear reactor in steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and control of the temperature at different points by means of thermocouples installed at several points along the circuit. The behavior of the phenomenon of natural circulation was monitored by a software with graphical interface, showing the evolution of temperature measurement points and the results stored in digital format spreadsheets. Besides, the natural circulation flow rate was measured by a flowmeter installed on the hot leg. A flow visualization technique was used the for identifying vertical flow regimes of two-phase natural circulation. Finally, the Reynolds Number was calculated for the establishment of a friction factor correlation dependent on the scale geometrical length, height and diameter of the pipe. (author)